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Sample records for por sonda spm

  1. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  2. Coal resources of the Sonda coal field, Sindh Province, Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.E.; Riaz, Khan M.; Ahmed, Khan S.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 4.7 billion t of original coal resources, ranging from lignite A to subbituminous C in rank, are estimated to be present in the Sonda coal field. These resources occur in 10 coal zones in the Bara Formation of Paleocene age. The Bara Formation does not out crop in the area covered by this report. Thin discontinuous coal beds also occur in the Sonhari Member of the Laki Formation, of Paleocene and Eocene age, but they are unimportant as a resource of the Sonda coal field. The coal resource assessment was based on 56 exploratory drill holes that were completed in the Sonda field between April 1986 and February 1988. The Sonda coal field is split into two, roughly equal, areas by the southwestward flowing Indus River, a major barrier to the logistics of communications between the two halves. As a result the two halves, called the Sonda East and Sonda West areas, were evaluated at different times by slightlydifferent techniques; but, because the geology is consistent between the two areas, the results of both evaluations have been summarized in this report. The resource estimates for the Sonda East area, approximately 1,700 million t, were based on the thickest coal bed in each zone at each drill hole. This method gives a conservative estimate of the total amount of coal in the Sonda East area. The resource estimates for the Sonda West area, approximately 3,000 million t, were based on cumulative coal bed thicknesses within each coal zone, resulting in a more liberal estimate. In both cases, minimum parameters for qualifying coal were a thickness of 30 cm or greater and no more than 50% ash; partings thicker than 1 cm were excluded. The three most important coal zones in the Sonda field are the Inayatabad, the Middle Sonda and the Lower Sonda. Together, these three coal zones contain 50% of the total resources. Isopachs were constructed for the thickest coal beds in these three coal zones and indicate large variations in thickness over relatively small

  3. Apertureless SPM method of light detection

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaevskiy, M.; Alekseev, P.; Dontsov, A.; Monakhov, A.; Girard, P.; Arinero, R.; Teissier, R.; Baranov, A.

    2016-06-17

    We demonstrate the effect of infrared (IR) illumination on mechanical resonance frequency of scanning probe microscope (SPM) probe. The analytical estimations permit to relate the observed effect with the SPM-probe heating by IR-radiation. This effect can be used for the SPM mapping of IR-radiation spatial distribution on the emitting surfaces. The proposed method demonstrates high sensitivity to the infrared radiation and lateral resolution in the sub-micron range. It was applied to visualize complex spatial structure of lasing modes on the mirror of whispering-gallery mode GaSb/GaAlAsSb/GaInAsSb laser.

  4. SPM system for semiconductor device applications.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Odaka, Takahiro; Niitsuma, Junichi

    2014-11-01

    Recently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is widely used for development of semiconductor devices. One of the important functions of SPM is high resolution topography, such as shape of the nanoscale devices and surface roughness of the films. Additionally, SPM can measure the electronic structure of the nanoscale-devices. SPM system for thin films was developed to characterize the thin films for device applications.First, SPM system which can be apply short pulses to the sample holder is constructed to evaluate the electronic response of the thin film without using complex patterning on the Si wafer as shown in Fig. 1. Current design rule of the semiconductor devices is around 20 nm. The dimension of the devices are close to the probe radius of conductive SPM probes. The instrument was designed to characterize not only the static properties of nanoscale devices, but also the dynamic electronic properties. Shortest pulses which can be applied to the sample without destroying waveform were less than 50 nS. Time response of the current amplifier is ranging from 50 nS to 200 nS depending on the trans-impedance gains. The conditions (time and dimension) are similar to the active devices on the chip in the circuit. Thus, dynamic electronic properties of the thin films can be tested on a film without fabricating to the nanoscale devices. It is very helpful to optimizing the depositing conditions, such as sputtering parameters, of the thin film for semiconductor devices. For example, the system is used to optimize the film qualities for resistive memories [1].jmicro;63/suppl_1/i13-a/DFU091F1F1DFU091F1Fig. 1.Conductive probe microscopy, which is compatible to the pulse signals ranging to 50nS. The second function of the SPM system is the reproducible roughness measurement. Roughness of the film is also important for optimizing the depositing conditions of the thin film. Virtual reference probe method was developed for removing the variations of the SPM probes [2]. One of

  5. Geotechnical Study of the OAN/SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, B.; Castellanos, V.; Castilla, J. E.; Grijalva, J.; Díaz v., G.; Porres, R.; Garay, F.; Zamarripa, V.

    2003-09-01

    The geotechnical characterization of the San Pedro Mártir (SPM), Baja California site was carried out in 2000 by the Gerencia de Estudios de Ingeniería Civil of the Comisión Federal de Electricidad (GEIC/CFE). The principal aim of the series of geological and geotechnical studies was to characterize the subsoil performance at one of the possible construction sites of a new telescope, which may also provide an idea of the characteristics of other locations at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir (OAN/SPM) Sierra summit. The full report of the GEIC/CFE geotechnical study of the SPM site includes results from the topographic, geological and geophysical surveys carried out. In the present paper a review of the geotechnical study is presented and some of the important results are summarized. The study shows that the subsoil can be classified in three principal horizons or layers (A, B and C). The A-horizon consists of decompressed rock of depth 1.3 to 3.0 m, which has to be removed for the foundations. Layer B consists of fractured rock with an RQD (rock quality designation) between 65%-80%, a thickness of 10-12 m, and a high load bearing capacity. This implies that the required depth excavations for the foundation footings ranges from 2 to 3 m, where an adequate dynamic modulus of elasticity can be reached. Horizon C from 13 to 22 m, the maximum depth explored, consists of rock (gray schist) of massive nature with some granite intrusions that appears slightly fractured, with an RQD above 90%. For the electric grounding instalation the best place is layer B due to its lower resistivity.

  6. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  7. Antiviral effects of Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211 and Bifidobacterium longum SPM1205 and SPM1206 on rotavirus-infected Caco-2 cells and a neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joo Yeon; Lee, Do Kyung; Ha, Nam Joo; Shin, Hea Soon

    2015-11-01

    Rotavirus is worldwide cause of severe gastroenteritis including severe diarrhea and fatal dehydration in infants and young children. There is an available vaccination program for preventing rotavirus infection, but it has limits and restrictions. Probiotics therapy could be an alternative method of antiviral prevention and modulation against rotavirus infection. In this study, we screened the antiviral activity of probiotic bacteria such as 3 Lactobacillus spp. and 14 Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from young Korean. Three of the bacteria, Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211, Bifidobacterium longum SPM1205, and SPM1206, inhibited human strain Wa rotavirus infection in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, these bacterial strains inhibited rotavirus replication in a rotavirus-infected neonatal mouse model. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition, we investigated gene expression of Interferon (IFN)-signaling components and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors. All 3 probiotics increased IFN-α and IFN-β levels compared with the control. Gene expression of IFNsignaling components and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors also increased. Overall, these results indicate that L. ruminis SPM0211, B. longum SPM1205 and 1206 efficiently inhibit rotavirus replication in vitro and in vivo. Especially, the antiviral effect of Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211 is worthy of notice. This is the first report of L. ruminis with antiviral activity. Anti-rotaviral effects of the 3 probiotics are likely due to their modulation of the immune response through promoting type I IFNs, which are key regulators in IFN signaling pathway.

  8. The SPM Kinematic Catalogue of Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. A.; Richer, M.; Riesgo, H.; Steffen, W.; Meaburn, J.; García-Segura, G.; Escalante, K.

    2006-06-01

    We present a progress report on the San Pedro Mártir Kinematic Catalogue of Planetary Nebulae. Both, galactic PNe from the disk, bulge and halo populations, and PNe from galaxies in the local group from a diverse range of metallicities have been observed. Most of the observations have been made with the 2.1-m SPM telescope and the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer (Meaburn et al. 2003, RevMexAA, 39, 185). The data consists of spatially resoved long slit spectra at resolutions of ˜ 10 km s^{-1}. For most galactic targets more than one slit positions has been observed. The interpretation of the 3D structures and outflows derived from the kinematic data is being performed with the aid of SHAPE (see the contributions by Steffen, López, & Escalante, Steffen & López in this symposium). This unique database of high dispersion spectra will allow a firm characterisation of nebular shell properties in relation to progenitors from diverse stellar populations.

  9. Study of user influence in routine SPM data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečas, D.; Klapetek, P.

    2017-03-01

    The quantitative results obtained using scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are influenced not only by instrumentation factors, but also by humans—the SPM users that perform the data processing and the evaluation of statistical characteristics, dimensions and other parameters from the images. We investigate this user influence empirically by performing several experiments in which real humans process SPM data in different settings using the same software, and statistically characterise the results. Two types of experiments are conducted: one in a well-defined laboratory setting where prescribed procedures requiring user input are applied by experienced users to large ensembles of similar data; the other in an open setting in which a large group of SPM users evaluate the same images to obtain specified parameters but without external guidance. The open study in particular brings about results that should be alarming for the SPM community and SPM metrology in particular. We also attempt to derive some guidance for the design of SPM data processing software functions from the results and classify the amount of user input in the data processing functions.

  10. An algorithm Walktrap-SPM for detecting overlapping community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fang; Zhu, Youze; Shi, Yuan; Cai, Jianchao; Chen, Luogeng; Shen, Shaowu

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, based on Walktrap algorithm with the idea of random walk, and by selecting the neighbor communities, introducing improved signed probabilistic mixture (SPM) model and considering the edges within the community as positive links and the edges between the communities as negative links, a novel algorithm Walktrap-SPM for detecting overlapping community is proposed. This algorithm not only can identify the overlapping communities, but also can greatly increase the objectivity and accuracy of the results. In order to verify the accuracy, the performance of this algorithm is tested on several representative real-world networks and a set of computer-generated networks based on LFR benchmark. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm can identify the communities accurately, and it is more suitable for overlapping community detection. Compared with Walktrap, SPM and LMF algorithms, the presented algorithm can acquire higher values of modularity and NMI. Moreover, this new algorithm has faster running time than SPM and LMF algorithms.

  11. Analytical quantitative theory of RF-SPM for nanocarbon electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotkin, Slava V.

    2015-03-01

    Among a variety of Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) tools RF- or microwave-SPM has recommended itself as a versatile characterization tool, recently demonstrated capability to map electronic properties of nanocarbon materials non-destructively and with nanometer resolution. The transparent theory of RF-SPM sensing mechanism is however lacking, mostly limited to numerical or empirical solutions, especially when studying low-dimensional quantum objects, such as nanotubes/nanowires (NT/NW), where the classical description is often invalid. One-dimensional electronic structure of the NT/NW, weak screening of Coulomb interaction and finite e-e compressibility were successfully taken into account to provide an analytic form of its quasi-stationary (due to low RF frequency of the excitation) selfconsistent response. SPM tip response function was, in turn, efficiently analyzed in multipole series, and non-perturbatively diagrammatically summed in the sense of the Random Phase Approximation. Resulting theory shows transparently the physics of RF-SPM sensing mechanism, simultaneously allowing a quantitative analysis of recent RF-SPM data on nanotube electronic devices [E. Seabron, S. MacLaren, X. Xie, SV. Rotkin, JA. Rogers, WL. Wilson, unpublished]. Support by AFOSR (# FA9550-11-1-0185) is acknowledged.

  12. Maize Bronze 1:Dspm Insertion Mutations That Are Not Fully Suppressed by an Active Spm

    PubMed Central

    Bunkers, G.; Nelson-Jr., O. E.; Raboy, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Suppressor-mutator (Spm) family of maize transposable elements consists of autonomous Spm elements and nonautonomous defective Spm (dSpm) elements. One characteristic of this family is that the insertion of dSpm elements into a structural gene often permits some level of structural gene expression in the absence of Spm activity, and this structural gene expression is suppressed in trans by Spm activity. The Spm's subterminal repetitive regions (SRRs) contain several iterations of a 12-bp repeat motif. It had been proposed that binding of an Spm-encoded protein to these repeat motifs blocks structural gene transcriptional readthrough, thus suppressing gene expression. The bz-m13 allele of the bronze 1 locus contains a 2.24-kb dSpm insertion in the second exon of a Bz allele. In the absence of Spm activity, bz-m13 displays substantial Bz expression, and this expression is fully suppressed by Spm. Four intra-dSpm deletion derivatives are described in which this Bz expression is only partially suppressed by Spm. Each of these derivatives retains at least 12 SRR repeat motifs. Thus the presence of these repeat motifs is not sufficient to guarantee complete suppression by Spm. Some other property such as secondary structure or element size must play a role. PMID:8397136

  13. Proper Motion Of Teh Magellanic Clouds Using SPM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    BV photometry for the Southern sky to a limiting magnitude of V ∼ 18. 2. THE SPM PROGRAM The SPM program (Girard et al. 2010) makes use of the Yale...Right ascension limits go from −13.74◦ < α < 118.20◦. The V photometry is derived from the visual fil- tered CCD camera reduced in a standard...fashion using aperture photometry with calibration into Ty- cho2 BV photometry (corrected to the Johnson sys- tem). When no CCD data were available, V

  14. Ultra low-dose CT attenuation correction in PET SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Yang, Ching-Ching; Lee, Jason J. S.; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2010-07-01

    The use of CT images for attenuation correction (CTAC) allows significantly shorter scanning time and a high quality noise-free attenuation map compared with conventional germanium-68 transmission scan because at least 10 4 times greater of photon flux would be generated from a CT scan under standard operating condition. However, this CTAC technique would potentially introduce more radiation risk to the patients owing to the higher radiation exposure from CT scan. Statistic parameters mapping (SPM) is a prominent technique in nuclear medicine community for the analysis of brain imaging data. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of low-dose CT (LDCT) and ultra low-dose CT (UDCT) in PET SPM applications. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was to evaluate of tracer uptake distribution pattern and quantity analysis by using the striatal phantom to initially assess the feasibility of AC for clinical purpose. The second part was to examine the group SPM analysis using the Hoffman brain phantom. The phantom study is to simulate the human brain and to reduce the experimental uncertainty of real subjects. The initial studies show that the results of PET SPM analysis have no significant differences between LDCT and UDCT comparing to the current used default CTAC. Moreover, the dose of the LDCT is lower than that of the default CT by a factor of 9, and UDCT can even yield a 42 times dose reduction. We have demonstrated the SPM results while using LDCT and UDCT for PET AC is comparable to those using default CT setting, suggesting their feasibility in PET SPM applications. In addition, the necessity of UDCT in PET SPM studies to avoid excess radiation dose is also evident since most of the subjects involved are non-cancer patients or children and some normal subjects are even served as a comparison group in the experiment. It is our belief that additional attempts to decrease the radiation dose would be valuable, especially for children and

  15. Optimal geometry for a quartz multipurpose SPM sensor.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We propose a geometry for a piezoelectric SPM sensor that can be used for combined AFM/LFM/STM. The sensor utilises symmetry to provide a lateral mode without the need to excite torsional modes. The symmetry allows normal and lateral motion to be completely isolated, even when introducing large tips to tune the dynamic properties to optimal values.

  16. Assessment of the transition strip effect in the transonic flow over the sounding rocket Sonda III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão Filho, J. B. P.; Reis, M. L. C. C.; Francisco, C. P. F.; Silva, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of normalized pressure distribution are carried out over a 1:8 scale half-model of the Sonda III sounding rocket. The objective is to analyze the effect of the implementation of transition devices on the flow over the vehicle. Measurements show that the presence of the transition devices affect pressure distributions in different Mach numbers around the inter-stage region of Sonda III depending on its location and independently of the turbulent transition method employed. The study of these effects plays a significant role for future developments, since transition phenomena and the modification of the boundary layer behaviour due to the expansion can alter the load distributions and the turbulent structures of the flow. Furthermore, the experimental verification of such phenomena is crucial for the correct implementation of computational fluid dynamics calculations, as they might be able to capture the correct flow behaviour in these regions.

  17. [Transposition of the maize transposable element dSpm in transgenic sugar beets].

    PubMed

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic sugar beet plants carrying maize Spmn/dSpm transposable elements system have been constructed. Heterologous system of maize transposable elements Spm/dSpm was active in transgenic sugar beets that permits transposon-based gene tagging and obtaining of marker-free transgenic sugar beet.

  18. THE SOUTHERN PROPER MOTION PROGRAM. IV. THE SPM4 CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Vieira, Katherine; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I. E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu

    2011-07-15

    We present the fourth installment of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion Catalog, SPM4. The SPM4 contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B, V photometry for over 103 million stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20{sup 0} declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V = 17.5 and is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The proper-motion precision, for well-measured stars, is estimated to be 2-3 mas yr{sup -1}, depending on the type of second-epoch material. At the bright end, proper motions are on the International Celestial Reference System by way of Hipparcos Catalog stars, while the faint end is anchored to the inertial system using external galaxies. Systematic uncertainties in the absolute proper motions are on the order of 1 mas yr{sup -1}.

  19. EEG and MEG Data Analysis in SPM8

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Mattout, Jérémie; Kiebel, Stefan; Phillips, Christophe; Henson, Richard; Kilner, James; Barnes, Gareth; Oostenveld, Robert; Daunizeau, Jean; Flandin, Guillaume; Penny, Will; Friston, Karl

    2011-01-01

    SPM is a free and open source software written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.). In addition to standard M/EEG preprocessing, we presently offer three main analysis tools: (i) statistical analysis of scalp-maps, time-frequency images, and volumetric 3D source reconstruction images based on the general linear model, with correction for multiple comparisons using random field theory; (ii) Bayesian M/EEG source reconstruction, including support for group studies, simultaneous EEG and MEG, and fMRI priors; (iii) dynamic causal modelling (DCM), an approach combining neural modelling with data analysis for which there are several variants dealing with evoked responses, steady state responses (power spectra and cross-spectra), induced responses, and phase coupling. SPM8 is integrated with the FieldTrip toolbox , making it possible for users to combine a variety of standard analysis methods with new schemes implemented in SPM and build custom analysis tools using powerful graphical user interface (GUI) and batching tools. PMID:21437221

  20. Sparse SPM: Group Sparse-dictionary learning in SPM framework for resting-state functional connectivity MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Beom; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Tak, Sungho; Lee, Kangjoo; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Jeong, Yong; Ye, Jong Chul

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies of functional connectivity MR imaging have revealed that the default-mode network activity is disrupted in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is not yet a consensus on the preferred method for resting-state analysis. Because the brain is reported to have complex interconnected networks according to graph theoretical analysis, the independency assumption, as in the popular independent component analysis (ICA) approach, often does not hold. Here, rather than using the independency assumption, we present a new statistical parameter mapping (SPM)-type analysis method based on a sparse graph model where temporal dynamics at each voxel position are described as a sparse combination of global brain dynamics. In particular, a new concept of a spatially adaptive design matrix has been proposed to represent local connectivity that shares the same temporal dynamics. If we further assume that local network structures within a group are similar, the estimation problem of global and local dynamics can be solved using sparse dictionary learning for the concatenated temporal data across subjects. Moreover, under the homoscedasticity variance assumption across subjects and groups that is often used in SPM analysis, the aforementioned individual and group analyses using sparse dictionary learning can be accurately modeled by a mixed-effect model, which also facilitates a standard SPM-type group-level inference using summary statistics. Using an extensive resting fMRI data set obtained from normal, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease patient groups, we demonstrated that the changes in the default mode network extracted by the proposed method are more closely correlated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    One of the most remarkable and exciting achievements in the field of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the last years is the unprecedented sub-molecular resolution of both atomic and electronic structures of single molecules deposited on solid state surfaces. Despite its youth, the technique has already brought many new possibilities to perform different kinds of measurements, which cannot be accomplished by other techniques. This opens new perspectives in advanced characterization of physical and chemical processes and properties of molecular structures on surfaces. Here, we discuss the history and recent progress of the high resolution imaging with a functionalized probe by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We describe the mechanisms responsible for the high-resolution AFM, STM and IETS-STM contrast. The complexity of this technique requires new theoretical approaches, where a relaxation of the functionalized probe is considered. We emphasise the similarities of the mechanism driving high-resolution SPM with other imaging methods. We also summarise briefly significant achievements and progress in different branches. Finally we provide brief perspectives and remaining challenges of the further refinement of these high-resolution methods.

  2. Definition and characterization of an artificial En/Spm-based transposon tagging system in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Cardon, G H; Frey, M; Saedler, H; Gierl, A

    1993-10-01

    A transposon tagging system for heterologous hosts, based on the maize En/Spm transposable element, was developed in transgenic tobacco. In this system, the two En-encoded trans-acting factors necessary for excision are expressed by fusing their cDNAs to the CaMV 35S promoter. The dSpm receptor component is inserted in the 5'-untranslated leader of the bar gene. Germinal revertants can therefore be selected by seed germination on L-PPT-containing medium or by spraying seedlings with the herbicide Basta. Using this bar-based excision reporter construct, an average frequency of germinal excision of 10.1% was estimated for dSpm-S, an En/Spm native internal deletion derivative. Insertion of En-foreign sequences in a receptor, such as a DHFR selectable marker gene in dSpm-DHFR, does not abolish its capacity to transpose. However, dSpm-DHFR has a lower frequency of somatic and germinal excision than dSpm-S. Revertants carrying a transposed dSpm-DHFR element can be selected with methotrexate. Germinal excision is frequently associated with reinsertion but, as in maize, dSpm has a tendency to integrate at chromosomal locations linked to the donor site. Concerning the timing of excision, independent germinal transpositions are often found within a single seed capsule. All activity parameters analysed suggest that transposon tagging with this system in heterologous hosts should be feasible.

  3. Reproducibility of hormone-driven regional grey matter volume changes in women using SPM8 and SPM12.

    PubMed

    De Bondt, Timo; Pullens, Pim; Van Hecke, Wim; Jacquemyn, Yves; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    Aim of this work was to evaluate the reproducibility of hormone driven regional grey matter volume differences in women, and their correlations with premenstrual symptoms, as determined by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). After data quality control, a total of 138 T1-weighted MR images were included in this longitudinal study, and were analyzed as three different subgroups. Women with a natural menstrual cycle were scanned at three time-points: follicular, ovulatory and luteal phase. Two groups of women, using androgenic and anti-androgenic hormonal contraceptives, respectively, were scanned twice: during the pill-free week and during pill intake. Additionally, subjects were asked to complete a "daily rating of severity of problems" questionnaire, to quantify premenstrual symptoms. All data were analyzed using SPM8 and SPM12 with identical parameter settings. In the natural menstrual cycle group, the regional grey matter volume of the insula is larger at ovulation, as compared to the luteal phase. Premenstrual symptoms correlate differently with regional grey matter volumes between women with a natural cycle and hormonal contraceptive users. Changes in hormonal environment can to various extents affect VBM findings in women. We suggest that researchers take these confounding factors into account while applying this technique, to avoid heterogeneity in data acquisition and to safeguard the sensitivity of findings. Additionally, we suggest validating the consistency of results using more than one software package.

  4. An SPM12 extension for multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roura, Eloy; Oliver, Arnau; Cabezas, Mariano; Valverde, Sergi; Pareto, Deborah; Vilanova, Joan C.; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís.; Rovira, Àlex; Lladó, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging is nowadays the hallmark to diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS), characterized by white matter lesions. Several approaches have been recently presented to tackle the lesion segmentation problem, but none of them have been accepted as a standard tool in the daily clinical practice. In this work we present yet another tool able to automatically segment white matter lesions outperforming the current-state-of-the-art approaches. Methods: This work is an extension of Roura et al. [1], where external and platform dependent pre-processing libraries (brain extraction, noise reduction and intensity normalization) were required to achieve an optimal performance. Here we have updated and included all these required pre-processing steps into a single framework (SPM software). Therefore, there is no need of external tools to achieve the desired segmentation results. Besides, we have changed the working space from T1w to FLAIR, reducing interpolation errors produced in the registration process from FLAIR to T1w space. Finally a post-processing constraint based on shape and location has been added to reduce false positive detections. Results: The evaluation of the tool has been done on 24 MS patients. Qualitative and quantitative results are shown with both approaches in terms of lesion detection and segmentation. Conclusion: We have simplified both installation and implementation of the approach, providing a multiplatform tool1 integrated into the SPM software, which relies only on using T1w and FLAIR images. We have reduced with this new version the computation time of the previous approach while maintaining the performance.

  5. A multi-functional MEMS-SPM for quantitative characterization of nano-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Gao, Sai; Brand, Uwe; Hiller, Karla; Wollschläger, Nicole; Zhang, Xianghui

    2017-06-01

    Based upon the micro-fabrication technology, a series of MEMS scanning probe microscopes (MEMS-SPM) have been developed in the national metrology institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig. In comparison with those traditional AFMs, the MEMS-SPM features generally a vertical deflection up to 10 μm with a resolution of 0.2 nm, a non-linearity less than 0.03%, and a testing force up to several hundreds of μN with a force resolution down to 1 nN by means of a capacitive displacement sensing technique. As a result, these MEMS-SPMs can be successfully applied in the field of nanodimensional and nanomechanical metrology. Mechanical design of the MEMS-SPM is reported in this manuscript. Proof-of-principle measurements using a prototype of the MEMS-SPM are detailed in this manuscript, verifying the capabilities of the MEMS-SPM.

  6. Air emissions assessment from offshore oil activities in Sonda de Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Miranda, A; López-Salinas, E

    2005-10-01

    Air emission data from offshore oil platforms, gas and oil processing installations and contribution of marine activities at the Sonda de Campeche, located at the Gulf of Mexico, were compiled and integrated to facilitate the study of long range transport of pollutants into the region. From this important region, roughly 76% of the total Mexican oil and gas production is obtained. It was estimated that the total air emissions of all contaminants are approximately 821,000 tons per year. Hydrocarbons are the largest pollutant emissions with 277,590 tons per year, generated during flaring activities, and SOx in second place with 185,907 tons per year. Marine and aviation activities contribute with less than 2% of total emissions. Mass of pollutants emitted per barrel of petroleum produced calculated in this work, are in the range reported by similar oil companies.

  7. SPM95 sensitivity to size, intensity and asymmetry of brain activation/deactivation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.V.; Volkow, N.D.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-05-01

    Statistical Parametric Mapping (Friston, SPM95), is used widely to ascertain the statistical significance between different brain patterns induced by functional activation, drug, effects or mental illness. Our purpose is to understand the limitations of applying the SPM95 methodology. We used a group of 8 FDG PET (CTI 931) studies from normal resting human subjects and via software we activated or deactivated the same specific pixel patterns (ROIs), across the group and observed if SPM95 performed correctly. A set of 6 experiments was designed with varying ROI intensities, (from +/-2% to +/-100% of original ROI value), varying ROI sizes, (from 76 to 656 mm{sup 2}) and different locations in the brain, (cortical and/or subcortical). In experiments where the selected activation pattern was spatially symmetric SPM95 identified correctly areas of activation for cortical ROIs as small as 76 mm{sup 2} having as low as a 10% activation with p<0.01; larger areas, 656 mm{sup 2} can be correctly identified even down to only 2%. In activation experiments with left/right cortical or anterior/posterior cortical asymmetry, SPM95 reported Type II errors for levels larger than +/-20% activation/deactivation. In experiments with left/right striatum asymmetry larger than +/-20% SPM95 reported Type I Errors. In experiments where the level of asymmetry was changes while keeping one ROI as a control at the same level of activation, SPM95 erroneously reported different p values for its statistical significance. One of the typical Type I Errors is shown in the figure as an ROI along the brain`s edge; this type of error has been previously observed to be caused by residual spatial registration errors that induce false activation signals. We conclude that while the statistical part of SPM95 performs correctly, the spatial registration method used in SPM95 has residual registration errors sensitive to the type of activation pattern.

  8. The application of surgical procedure manager (SPM): first experience with FESS.

    PubMed

    Feige, Katharina; Gollnick, Iris; Schmitz, Pia; Strauss, Gero

    2017-07-07

    In our hypothesis, the newly developed program SPM (surgical procedure manager) will ensure successful standardization and efficiency of the FESS (functional endoscopic sinus surgery) and therefore make a decisive contribution in terms of economization and improvement of intraoperative quality. Between 27th March 2015 and 8th October 2015, data from 259 FESS procedures were collected using the SPM. The study took place at the surgical desk, an operating room in the ACQUA clinic in Leipzig, Germany. 233 FESS (90%) of the total FESS (n = 259, 100%) were conducted entirely with SPM. 26 SPM terminations (10%) of 259 FESS remain, which are classified as actual SPM terminations-when the surgeon intentionally stops the SPM. The maximum time slot decreased clearly from 1 h 39 min (period A) to 1 h 10 min (period B). A time reduction can also be seen with the minimum duration of 13.5 min compared to 11 min. The variability of the time slot also decreases since the standard deviation is reduced by 4.5 min. On the basis of available recordings it can be postulated that the application of SPM is suitable for standardization for FESS. Standardization by means of SPM and minimal development can be recognized over a period of time. The SPM makes it possible to transfer the general advantages of mechanization on a concrete FESS and do not influence the medical processes nor even restrict the medical freedom. The users are still entirely free in the implementation of the respective procedure.

  9. CATAVIÑA: new infrared camera for OAN-SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriarte, Arturo; Cruz-González, Irene; Martínez, Luis A.; Tinoco, Silvio; Lara, Gerardo; Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Bernal, Abel; Angeles, Fernando; Moreno, Arturo; Murillo, Francisco; Langarica, Rosalía; Luna, Esteban; Salas, Luis; Cajero, Vicente

    2006-06-01

    CATAVIÑA is a near-infrared camera system to be operated in conjunction with the existing multi-purpose nearinfrared optical bench "CAMALEON" in OAN-SPM. Observing modes include direct imaging, spectroscopy, Fabry- Perot interferometry and polarimetry. This contribution focuses on the optomechanics and detector controller description of CATAVIÑA, which is planned to start operating later in 2006. The camera consists of an 8 inch LN2 dewar containing a 10 filter carousel, a radiation baffle and the detector circuit board mount. The system is based on a Rockwell 1024x1024 HgCdTe (HAWAII-I) FPA, operating in the 1 to 2.5 micron window. The detector controller/readout system was designed and developed at UNAM Instituto de Astronomia. It is based on five Texas Instruments DSK digital signal processor (DSP) modules. One module generates the detector and ADC-system control, while the remaining four are in charge of the acquisition of each of the detector's quadrants. Each DSP has a built-in expanded memory module in order to store more than one image. The detector read-out and signal driver subsystems are mounted onto the dewar in a "back-pack" fashion, each containing four independent pre-amplifiers, converters and signal drivers, that communicate through fiber optics with their respective DSPs. This system has the possibility of programming the offset input voltage and converter gain. The controller software architecture is based on a client/server model. The client sends commands through the TCP/IP protocol and acquires the image. The server consists of a microcomputer with an embedded Linux operating system, which runs the main program that receives the user commands and interacts with the timing and acquisition DSPs. The observer's interface allows for several readout and image processing modes.

  10. Pressure coefficient evaluation on the surface of the SONDA III model tested in the TTP Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. L. C. C.; Falcao Filho, J. B. P.; Basso, E.; Caldas, V. R.

    2015-02-01

    A test campaign of the Brazilian sounding rocket Sonda III was carried out at the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel, TTP. The aim of the campaign was to investigate aerodynamic phenomena taking place at the connection region of the first and second stages. Shock and expansion waves are expected at this location causing high gradients in airflow properties around the vehicle. Pressure taps located on the surface of a Sonda III half model measure local static pressures. Other measured parameters were freestream static and total pressures of the airflow. Estimated parameters were pressure coefficients and Mach numbers. Uncertainties associated with the estimated parameters were calculated by employing the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method. It was found that both uncertainty evaluation methods resulted in similar values. A Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation code was elaborated to help understand the changes in the flow field properties caused by the disturbances.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SPM 4.0 Catalog (Girard+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, T. M.; van Altena, W. F.; Zacharias, N.; Vieira, K.; Casetti-Dinescu, D. I.; Castillo, D.; Herrera, D.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Monet, D. G.; Lopez, C. E.

    2011-03-01

    The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, and B,V photometry for 103,319,647 stars and galaxies between the south celestial pole and -20 degrees declination. The catalog is roughly complete to V=17.5. It is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double-astrograph at Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina. The first-epoch survey, taken from 1965 to 1979, was entirely photographic. The second-epoch survey is approximately 1/3 photographic (taken from 1988 to 1998) and 2/3 CCD-based (taken from 2004 through 2008). Full details about the creation of the SPM4.0 catalog can be found in the paper, and also in the document "spm4_doc.txt" file which describes the original files, accessible from http://www.astro.yale.edu/astrom/spm4cat/ (2 data files).

  12. Characterization of an Spm-Controlled Bronze-Mutable Allele in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Klein, Anita S.

    1984-01-01

    The association of a receptor (Rs) of the Spm system with a Bz-1 allele has created a two-element Spm-controlled bz-mutable allele (bz-m13) of maize (Zea mays L.). In the absence of Spm, one copy of bz-m13 (bz/bz/bz-m13 ) conditions full anthocyanin production in the aleurone layer of the seed. In the presence of this Spm, bz-m13 produces a unique, coarsely variegated seed phenotype and has a high rate (50–83%) of gametic change to stable bz' or Bz' derivatives. Even one copy of a Bz' derivative allele conditions full anthocyanin production in the aleurone, but the enzyme (UFGT) level of the progenitor Bz-1 allele is not restored in most Bz' derivatives. PMID:17246208

  13. Evaluation of scanning Maxwell-stress microscopy for SPM-based nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagata, J. A.

    1997-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the compatibility, spatial resolution, and sensitivity of scanning Maxwell-stress microscopy (SMM) as an in situ diagnostic technique for SPM oxidation of silicon is presented. These results indicate that SMM will provide us with a more detailed understanding of the reaction mechanism which occurs at the tip - sample junction during SPM oxidation. SMM also appears to be a promising technique for simultaneously investigating dimensional and electrical properties of molecular distributions within highly complex micro-environments such as phase-separated polymer systems. This effort to integrate SPM-based fabrication and diagnostics is discussed in terms of the development of predictive physical models for the optimization of the fabrication process and possible choices of future SPM-based nanodevices.

  14. Test plan/procedure for the SPM-1 shipping container system. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1995-07-01

    The 49 CFR 173.465 Type A packaging tests will verify that SPM-1 will provide adequate protection and pass as a Type A package. Test will determine that the handle of the Pig will not penetrate through the plywood spacer and rupture the shipping container. Test plan/procedure provides planning, pre-test, setup, testing, and post-testing guidelines and procedures for conducting the {open_quotes}Free Drop Test{close_quotes} procedure for the SPM-1 package.

  15. Turbulence control of floc size in suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the river estuary transition zone (RETZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Suzanna; Jago, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying floc properties in relation to physical forcings are key in determining the transfer flux of SPM from the catchment to the coastal ocean. Observations of floc development require high resolution data; in situ optical and acoustic instruments were deployed in the RETZ to obtain SPM and hydrodynamic properties. Results suggest that turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKE) can be correlated to median particle size (D50) and concentration on tidal and lunar time scales. Analysis on a tidal scale indicates terrestrially derived SPM and SPM of a marine origin display different relationships with the local turbulence regime, suggesting the D50 of terrestrially derived SPM is not limited to the eddy length scales of the Kolmogorov microscale. It is essential to improve methods to quantify the role of hydrodynamic processes in controlling SPM properties and thus the fate of the transfer of terrestrially derived organic matter to the coastal ocean.

  16. A FrFT based method for measuring chromatic dispersion and SPM in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aiying; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Xiaoyu

    2017-03-01

    A fractional Fourier transformation based method is proposed to blindly estimate the chromatic dispersion and self phase modulation in optical fibers. The experimental results demonstrate that up to 20,000 ps/nm accumulative chromatic dispersion of a fiber link is measured with the error less than 0.8%. If the chromatic dispersion is compensated by multiplying an opposite chromatic dispersion function in frequency domain, the 1st order chirp parameter caused by SPM in an optical fiber communication system can be measured by fractional Fourier transformation based method, i.e. the accumulative SPM of a fiber link can be quantitatively measured. The results of equalizing chromatic dispersion and self phase modulation in an optical fiber communication system demonstrated that the FrFT based method is promising to blindly monitor and equalize the chromatic dispersion and SPM of the fiber link in an optical network with dynamical routing function.

  17. Anti-proliferative effects of Bifidobacterium adolescentis SPM0212 extract on human colon cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Jung Hyun; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as anti-tumor activity. The aim of the present work was to study the growth inhibition of tumor cells by butanol extract of Bifidobacterium adolescentis isolated from healthy young Koreans. Methods The anti-proliferative activity of B. adolescentis isolates was assessed by XTT assays on three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480). The effects of B. adolescentis SPM0212 butanol extract on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production were tested using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line. Results The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 dose-dependently inhibited the growth of Caco-2, HT-29, and SW480 cells by 70%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, at 200 μg/mL. Additionally, the butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 induced macrophage activation and significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO, which regulate immune modulation and are cytotoxic to tumor cells. Conclusion The butanol extract of B. adolescentis SPM0212 increased activity of the host immune system and may improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer as a biological response modifier. PMID:18950540

  18. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the pipeline end manifold must be closed whenever: (1) A storm warning forecasts weather conditions... vessel is about to depart the SPM because of storm conditions; or (3) The SPM is not scheduled for use...

  19. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the pipeline end manifold must be closed whenever: (1) A storm warning forecasts weather conditions... vessel is about to depart the SPM because of storm conditions; or (3) The SPM is not scheduled for use...

  20. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the pipeline end manifold must be closed whenever: (1) A storm warning forecasts weather conditions... vessel is about to depart the SPM because of storm conditions; or (3) The SPM is not scheduled for use...

  1. 33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the pipeline end manifold must be closed whenever: (1) A storm warning forecasts weather conditions... vessel is about to depart the SPM because of storm conditions; or (3) The SPM is not scheduled for use...

  2. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 18, including spm, Grl-1, Fim-2/c-fms, and Mbp.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Miyawaki, S; Shimizu, A; Ohno, K; Watanabe, T

    1991-02-01

    Restriction endonuclease fragment length variations (RFLV) were detected in mice with DNA probes for myelin basic protein (Mbp), glucocorticoid receptor-1 (Grl-1), and Friend MuLV integration site-2 (Fim-2). RFLV of the Mbp gene were found in SacI restriction patterns, RFLV of the Grl-1 gene were found in EcoRV patterns, and RFLV of the Fim-2 were found in BglII patterns. A three-point backcross was carried out by the backcross mating (C57BL/KsJ-spm/spm x MOL-MIT)F1 males x C57BL/KsJ-spm/spm; spm is an autosomal recessive gene causing sphingomyelinosis. From the results, spm, Grl-1, Fim-2, and Mbp loci were mapped on chromosome 18, and the following order of genes is proposed, with distances between genes in parentheses: centromere--spm--(7.8 cM)--Grl-1--(7.8 cM)--Fim-2--(39.1 cM)--Mbp--telomere. All laboratory strains and two European subspecies (Mus mus domesticus and M. m. brevirostris) carry the Grl-1a, Fim-2a, and Mbpa alleles. In contrast, another wild subspecies from Europe (M. m. musculus) and some Asian subspecies (M. m. molossinus, Chinese mice of wild origin, and M. m. yamashinai) carry the Grl-1b, Fim-2b, and Mbpb alleles. Only castaneus strains carry the intermediate combination of the Grl-1b, Fim-2a, and Mbpb alleles.

  3. SPM4: The Yale/San-Juan Southern Proper Motion survey: 100 million absolute proper motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Altena, W. F.; Girard, T. M.; Casetti, D. I.; Vieira, K.; López, C. E.; Castillo, D.; Monet, D.; Zacharias, N.; Korchagin, V. I.; Platais, I.; Lee, Y. S.; Beers, T. C.; Herrera, D.

    The Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion SPM4 Catalog is the culmi- nation of a highly successful 47-year collaboration between the National University of San Juan (UNSJ) and the Yale Southern Observatory (YSO). The SPM4 Catalog contains absolute proper motions, celestial coordinates, blue and visual passband photometry for 103,319,647 stars and galaxies be- tween the south celestial pole and -20 degrees declination. The Catalog is roughly complete to V=17.5 and the precision of its positions and absolute proper motions is approximately 30 to 150 mas and 2 to 10 mas/yr, respec- tively. It is based on photographic and CCD observations taken with the Yale Southern Observatory's double-astrograph at the Cesco Observatory in El Leoncito, Argentina.

  4. User's manual for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM) with selected parametric examples

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) was developed to provide an accurate source of seasonal energy consumption and cost predictions for the evaluation of heat pump design options. The program uses steady state heat pump performance data obtained from manufacturers' or Computer Simulation Model runs. The SPM was originally developed in two forms - a cooling model for central air conditioners and heat pumps and a heating model for heat pumps. The original models have undergone many modifications, which are described, to improve the accuracy of predictions and to increase flexibility for use in parametric evaluations. Insights are provided into the theory and construction of the major options, and into the use of the available options and output variables. Specific investigations provide examples of the possible applications of the model. (LEW)

  5. Proper-Motion Study of the Magellanic Clouds Using SPM Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    their financial support during her graduate career . She and the other authors are grateful to the NSF and to Yale University for support of the SPM...124, 2639 van Leeuwen, F. (ed.) 2007 .in Astrophysics and Space Science Library, Vol. 350, Hipparcos. The New Reduction of the Raw Data Veron-Cetty...Tucker (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press). 201 Westerlund, B. E. 1997, Cambridge Astrophysics Series, 29 Wilson, R. E. 1915, Proe, Natl Aead. SeL, 1

  6. Quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) for brain disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Seung; Im, In-Chul; Kang, Su-Man; Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kwak, Byung-Joon

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively analyze data from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in patients with brain disorders and to assess its potential utility for analyzing brain function. DTI was obtained by performing 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD), and the data were analyzed using Matlab-based SPM software. The two-sample t-test was used for error analysis of the location of the activated pixels. We compared regions of white matter where the fractional anisotropy (FA) values were low and the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were increased. In the AD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right sub-lobar insula, and right occipital lingual gyrus whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus. In the VD group, the FA values were low in the right superior temporal gyrus, right inferior temporal gyrus, right limbic cingulate gyrus, and right sub-lobar caudate tail whereas the ADCs were significantly increased in the left lateral globus pallidus and left medial globus pallidus. In conclusion by using DTI and SPM analysis, we were able to not only determine the structural state of the regions affected by brain disorders but also quantitatively analyze and assess brain function.

  7. The En/Spm transposable element of Zea mays contains splice sites at the termini generating a novel intron from a dSpm element in the A2 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Menssen, A; Höhmann, S; Martin, W; Schnable, P S; Peterson, P A; Saedler, H; Gierl, A

    1990-01-01

    The A2 locus of Zea mays, identified as one of the genes affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis, was cloned using the transposable elements rcy and dSpm as gene tags. The A2 gene encodes a putative protein of 395 amino acids and is devoid of introns. Two a2-m1 alleles, containing dSpm insertions of different sizes, were characterized. The dSpm element from the original state allele has perfect termini and undergoes frequent transposition. The element from the class II state allele is no longer competent to transpose. It has retained the 13 bp terminal inverted repeat but has lost all subterminal sites at the 5' end, which are recognized by tnpA protein, the most abundant product of the En/Spm transposable element system. The relatively high A2 gene expression of one a2-m1 allele is due to removal of almost all dSpm sequences by splicing. The slightly altered A2 enzyme is still functional as shown by complementation of an a2 mutant with the corresponding cDNA. The 5' and 3' splice sites are constituted by the termini of the dSpm element; it therefore represents a novel intron of the A2 gene. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2170105

  8. SPM and fungal spores in the ambient air of west Korea during the Asian dust (Yellow sand) period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Hwan-Goo; Kim, Jong-Ho

    The relationship between suspended particulate matter (SPM) and fungal spore was investigated in Seosan, a rural county along the west coast of Korea, in the spring of 2000. SPM concentrations in the air were 199.8 μg m -3 in the first Asian dust period (23-24 March), 249.4 μg m -3 in the second Asian dust period (7-9 April) and 98.9 μg m -3 in the non-Asian dust period (12-16 May), respectively. The majority of the total SPM were composed of coarse particles sized about 5 μm during the two Asian dust periods. Four molds genera grown from airborne fungal spores were identified in colonies grown from SPM samples taken during the Asian dust periods. All the genera found, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Basipetospora, are hyphomycetes in the division Deuteromycota. Morphologically, more diversified mycelia of hyphomycetes were grown on the sample captured from 1.1 to 2.1 μm sized SPM than on the other sized samples gathered in the dust periods. On the other hand, no mold was observed on the sample of 1.1-2.1 μm sized SPM in the non-Asian dust period. From these results, it seems evident that several sorts of fine sized fungal spores were suspended in the atmospheric environment of this study area during Asian dust periods.

  9. SPM response to tide and river flow in the hyper-turbid Ems River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterwerp, Johan C.; Vroom, Julia; Wang, Zheng-B.; Krebs, Martin; Hendriks, Erik C. M.; van Maren, Dirk S.; Schrottke, Kerstin; Borgsmüller, Christine; Schöl, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of fine sediments in the hyper-turbid Lower Ems River, with focus on the river's upper reaches, a stretch of about 25 km up-estuary of Terborg. Our analysis is based on long records of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from optical backscatter (OBS) measurements close to the bed at seven stations along the river, records of salinity and water level measurements at these stations, acoustic measurements on the vertical mud structure just up-estuary of Terborg and oxygen profiles in the lower 3 m of the water column close to Leerort and Terborg. Further, we use cross-sectionally averaged velocities computed with a calibrated numerical model. Distinction is made between four timescales, i.e. the semi-diurnal tidal timescale, the spring-neap tidal timescale, a timescale around an isolated peak in river flow (i.e. about 3 weeks) and a seasonal timescale. The data suggest that a pool of fluid/soft mud is present in these upper reaches, from up-estuary of Papenburg to a bit down-estuary of Terborg. Between Terborg and Gandersum, SPM values drop rapidly but remain high at a few gram per litre. The pool of fluid/soft mud is entrained/mobilized at the onset of flood, yielding SPM values of many tens gram per litre. This suspension is transported up-estuary with the flood. Around high water slack, part of the suspension settles, being remixed during ebb, while migrating down-estuary, but likely not much further than Terborg. Around low water slack, a large fraction of the sediment settles, reforming the pool of fluid mud. The rapid entrainment from the fluid mud layer after low water slack is only possible when the peak flood velocity exceeds a critical value of around 1 m/s, i.e. when the stratified water column seems to become internally supercritical. If the peak flood velocity does not reach this critical value, f.i. during neap tide, fluid mud is not entrained up to the OBS sensors. Thus, it is not classical tidal asymmetry, but

  10. Tissue Probability-Based Attenuation Correction for Brain PET/MR by Using SPM8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuho, J.; Linden, J.; Johansson, J.; Tuisku, J.; Tuokkola, T.; Teräs, M.

    2016-10-01

    Bone attenuation remains a methodological challenge in hybrid PET/MR, as bone is hard to visualize via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, novel methods for taking into account bone attenuation in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) are needed. In this study, we propose a tissue-probability based attenuation correction (TPB-AC), which employs the commonly available neurological toolbox SPM8, to derive a subject-specific μ-map by segmentation of T1-weighted MR images. The procedures to derive a μ-map representing soft tissue, air and bone from the New Segment function in SPM8 and MATLAB are described. Visual and quantitative comparisons against CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) data were performed using two μ-values ( 0.135 cm-1 and 0.145 cm-1) for bone. Results show improvement of visual quality and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) images when TPB-AC μ-map is used in PET/MR image reconstruction. Underestimation in PET images was decreased by an average of 5 ±2 percent in the whole brain across all patients. In addition, the method performed well when compared to CTAC, with maximum differences (mean ± standard deviation) of - 3 ±2 percent and 2 ±4 percent in two regions out of 28. Finally, the method is simple and computationally efficient, offering a promising platform for further development. Therefore, a subject-specific MR-based μ-map can be derived only from the tissue probability maps from the New Segment function of SPM8.

  11. Health risks of NO 2, SPM and SO 2 in Delhi (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Jai Shanker; Kumar, Rakesh; Devotta, Sukumar

    There is increasingly growing evidence linking urban air pollution to acute and chronic illnesses amongst all age groups. Therefore, monitoring of ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as well as quantification of the dose inhaled becomes quite important, specially in view of the fact that in many countries, policy decisions for reducing pollutant concentrations are mainly taken on the basis of their health impacts. The dose when gets combined with the likely responses, indicates the ultimate health risk (HR). Thus, as an extension of our earlier studies, HR has been estimated for three pollutants, namely, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) for Delhi City in India. For estimation and analyses, three zones have been considered, namely, residential, industrial and commercial. The total population has been divided into three age classes (infants, children and adults) with different body weights and breathing rates. The exercise takes into account age-specific breathing rates, body weights for different age categories and occupancy factors for different zones. Results indicate that health risks due to air pollution in Delhi are highest for children. For all age categories, health risks due to SO 2 (HR_SO 2) are the lowest. Hence, HR_SO 2 has been taken as the reference with respect to which HR values due to SPM and NO 2 have been compared. Taking into account all the age categories and their occupancy in different zones, average HR values for NO 2 and SPM turn out to be respectively 22.11 and 16.13 times more than that for SO 2. The present study can be useful in generating public awareness as well as in averting and mitigating the health risks.

  12. Extending Inferential Group Analysis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Multivariate GLM Implemented in SPM8

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Fábio S.; Pereira, João M.S.; Duarte, João V.; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although voxel based morphometry studies are still the standard for analyzing brain structure, their dependence on massive univariate inferential methods is a limiting factor. A better understanding of brain pathologies can be achieved by applying inferential multivariate methods, which allow the study of multiple dependent variables, e.g. different imaging modalities of the same subject. Objective: Given the widespread use of SPM software in the brain imaging community, the main aim of this work is the implementation of massive multivariate inferential analysis as a toolbox in this software package. applied to the use of T1 and T2 structural data from diabetic patients and controls. This implementation was compared with the traditional ANCOVA in SPM and a similar multivariate GLM toolbox (MRM). Method: We implemented the new toolbox and tested it by investigating brain alterations on a cohort of twenty-eight type 2 diabetes patients and twenty-six matched healthy controls, using information from both T1 and T2 weighted structural MRI scans, both separately – using standard univariate VBM - and simultaneously, with multivariate analyses. Results: Univariate VBM replicated predominantly bilateral changes in basal ganglia and insular regions in type 2 diabetes patients. On the other hand, multivariate analyses replicated key findings of univariate results, while also revealing the thalami as additional foci of pathology. Conclusion: While the presented algorithm must be further optimized, the proposed toolbox is the first implementation of multivariate statistics in SPM8 as a user-friendly toolbox, which shows great potential and is ready to be validated in other clinical cohorts and modalities. PMID:28761571

  13. Extending Inferential Group Analysis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Multivariate GLM Implemented in SPM8.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio S; Pereira, João M S; Duarte, João V; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Although voxel based morphometry studies are still the standard for analyzing brain structure, their dependence on massive univariate inferential methods is a limiting factor. A better understanding of brain pathologies can be achieved by applying inferential multivariate methods, which allow the study of multiple dependent variables, e.g. different imaging modalities of the same subject. Given the widespread use of SPM software in the brain imaging community, the main aim of this work is the implementation of massive multivariate inferential analysis as a toolbox in this software package. applied to the use of T1 and T2 structural data from diabetic patients and controls. This implementation was compared with the traditional ANCOVA in SPM and a similar multivariate GLM toolbox (MRM). We implemented the new toolbox and tested it by investigating brain alterations on a cohort of twenty-eight type 2 diabetes patients and twenty-six matched healthy controls, using information from both T1 and T2 weighted structural MRI scans, both separately - using standard univariate VBM - and simultaneously, with multivariate analyses. Univariate VBM replicated predominantly bilateral changes in basal ganglia and insular regions in type 2 diabetes patients. On the other hand, multivariate analyses replicated key findings of univariate results, while also revealing the thalami as additional foci of pathology. While the presented algorithm must be further optimized, the proposed toolbox is the first implementation of multivariate statistics in SPM8 as a user-friendly toolbox, which shows great potential and is ready to be validated in other clinical cohorts and modalities.

  14. [Elaboration of the SPM template for the standardization of SPECT images with 123I-Ioflupane].

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, F J; García-Solís, D; Luis-Simón, F J; Marín-Oyaga, V A; Carrillo, F; Mir, P; Vázquez-Albertino, R J

    2013-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a widely used produced for normalization of functional images. This study has aimed to develop a normalization template of (123)I-Ioflupane SPECT-imaging DaTSCAN(®), GE Healthcare), not available in SPM5, and to validate it compared to other quantification methods. In order to write the template we retrospectively selected 26 subjects who had no evidence of nigrostriatal degeneration and whose age distribution was similar to that of the patients in the usual practice of our Department: 2 subjects (7.6%) were < 35 years, 9 between 35-65 years (34.6%) and 15 > 65 years (57.7%). All the studies were normalized with the T1-template available in SPM5 and an average image of the value was obtained for each voxel. For validation we analyzed 60 patients: 30 with idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (iPD) with right involvement (66.83±12.20 years) and 30 with essential tremor patients (ET) (67.27±8.33 years). Specific uptake rates (SUR) of different striatal regions were compared after image normalization with our template and the application of a semiautomated VOIs-map created with Analyze v9.0 ((©)BIR, Mayo Clinic), against two quantification methods: a) manual adjustment of a ROIs-map drawn in Analyze, and b) semi-automated method (HERMES-BRASS) with normalization and implementation of VOIs-map. No statistically significant differences in the iPD/ET discriminatory capacity between the three methods analyzed were observed (p<0,001). The correlation of SUR after normalization with our «template» was higher than that obtained by method b) (R>0,871, p<0,001). This difference was greater in patients with PD. Our study demonstrates the efficacy of our SPM «template» for (123)I-Ioflupane SPECT-imaging, obtained from normalization with «T1-template». Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of the uptake of drugs by individual cells using a scanning proton microprobe (SPM).

    PubMed

    Cholewa, M; Turnbull, I F; Legge, G J; Weigold, H; Marcuccio, S M; Holan, G; Tomlinson, E; Wright, P J

    1996-02-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of micro-PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) for measuring the quantitative uptake of anti-AIDS drugs, containing metal atoms, by individual Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cell line). Hetero-polytungstates, which are assessed to present an activity against the HIV virus, were studied using Vero cells. It was found that unlike other techniques, SPM offers both the sensitivity and the spatial resolution to carry out these programs of investigations. The use of elemental analysis in single cells of cultured cell lines has shown to have distinct advantages over peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  16. Validation of an optimized SPM procedure for FDG-PET in dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Perani, Daniela; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Cerami, Chiara; Gallivanone, Francesca; Fallanca, Federico; Vanoli, Emilia Giovanna; Panzacchi, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio; Pappatà, Sabina; Marcone, Alessandra; Garibotto, Valentina; Castiglioni, Isabella; Magnani, Giuseppe; Cappa, Stefano F.; Gianolli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic accuracy in FDG-PET imaging highly depends on the operating procedures. In this clinical study on dementia, we compared the diagnostic accuracy at a single-subject level of a) Clinical Scenarios, b) Standard FDG Images and c) Statistical Parametrical (SPM) Maps generated via a new optimized SPM procedure. We evaluated the added value of FDG-PET, either Standard FDG Images or SPM Maps, to Clinical Scenarios. In 88 patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's Disease—AD, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration—FTLD, Dementia with Lewy bodies—DLB and Mild Cognitive Impairment—MCI), 9 neuroimaging experts made a forced diagnostic decision on the basis of the evaluation of the three types of information. There was also the possibility of a decision of normality on the FDG-PET images. The clinical diagnosis confirmed at a long-term follow-up was used as the gold standard. SPM Maps showed higher sensitivity and specificity (96% and 84%), and better diagnostic positive (6.8) and negative (0.05) likelihood ratios compared to Clinical Scenarios and Standard FDG Images. SPM Maps increased diagnostic accuracy for differential diagnosis (AD vs. FTD; beta 1.414, p = 0.019). The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.67 for SPM Maps, 0.57 for Clinical Scenarios and 0.50 for Standard FDG Images. In the MCI group, SPM Maps showed the highest predictive prognostic value (mean LOC = 2.46), by identifying either normal brain metabolism (exclusionary role) or hypometabolic patterns typical of different neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25389519

  17. High sensitivity and high resolution element 3D analysis by a combined SIMS–SPM instrument

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Summary Using the recently developed SIMS–SPM prototype, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data was combined with topographical data from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) module for five test structures in order to obtain accurate chemical 3D maps: a polystyrene/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PS/PVP) polymer blend, a nickel-based super-alloy, a titanium carbonitride-based cermet, a reticle test structure and Mg(OH)2 nanoclusters incorporated inside a polymer matrix. The examples illustrate the potential of this combined approach to track and eliminate artefacts related to inhomogeneities of the sputter rates (caused by samples containing various materials, different phases or having a non-flat surface) and inhomogeneities of the secondary ion extraction efficiencies due to local field distortions (caused by topography with high aspect ratios). In this respect, this paper presents the measured relative sputter rates between PVP and PS as well as in between the different phases of the TiCN cermet. PMID:26171285

  18. SPM-Based Investigations of Molecular Events Sparked by Ang II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goolsby, Brandy; Gilgenbach, Karen; Saglik, Harun; Hummert, Henning; Salam, Fathi; Xi, Ning; Wang, Donna; Ayres, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    We will present our recent research on the development and use of a precision robotic scanning probe microscope system for nanomanipulation and site-specific probing of biological specimens. We propose to use cellular and molecular events triggered by angiotensin II, one of the most powerful factors involved in blood pressure regulation, as a model scheme for the development of the scanning probe microscope (SPM) robotic system. The central hypothesis that will be tested is that cellular and molecular events triggered by angiotensin II differ in a segment-specific manner based on particular components expressed in each of the segments in the renal nephron, resulting in distinct functionality of angiotensin II in these segments. Novel sensor-based intelligent processing and control schemes will be incorporated within the SPM robotic system to achieve reliable and precise manipulations to enable the first direct investigations of angiotensin II receptor sub-type function and coupled signaling pathways in different segments of the renal nephron. The research seeks to understand and exploit the interaction forces between the nano

  19. A proteomic approach to the identification of the major virion structural proteins of the marine cyanomyovirus S-PM2.

    PubMed

    Clokie, Martha R J; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Boulanger, Pascale; Slade, Susan E; Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Cane, Matt; Scrivens, James H; Mann, Nicholas H

    2008-06-01

    In this study, an MS-based proteomics approach to characterizing the virion structural proteins of the novel marine 'photosynthetic' phage S-PM2 is presented. The virus infects ecologically important cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus that make a substantial contribution to primary production in the oceans. The S-PM2 genome encodes 236 ORFs, some of which exhibit similarity to known phage virion structural proteins, but the majority (54%) show no detectable homology to known proteins from other organisms. Using public and in-house bioinformatics tools the proteome of S-PM2 was predicted and a database compatible with MS-based search engines was constructed. S-PM2 virion proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, excised, tryptically digested and analysed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The resulting MS data were searched against the database. A parallel control study was undertaken on the well-characterized coliphage T4 in order to assess the sensitivity and efficiency of this approach. In total, 11 of the 15 S-PM2 proteins, predicted to be virion proteins by bioinformatics approaches, were confirmed as such, together with the identification of a further 12 novel structural proteins. In the case of T4, 24 of the 39 known virion structural proteins were identified, including the major tail-fibre proteins. This approach has wide-ranging applicability and can be applied to any novel organism whose genome encodes ORFs with few detectable homologies in the public databases.

  20. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) for alpha-based statistical analyses of multi-muscle EMG time-series.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Pataky, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    Multi-muscle EMG time-series are highly correlated and time dependent yet traditional statistical analysis of scalars from an EMG time-series fails to account for such dependencies. This paper promotes the use of SPM vector-field analysis for the generalised analysis of EMG time-series. We reanalysed a publicly available dataset of Young versus Adult EMG gait data to contrast scalar and SPM vector-field analysis. Independent scalar analyses of EMG data between 35% and 45% stance phase showed no statistical differences between the Young and Adult groups. SPM vector-field analysis did however identify statistical differences within this time period. As scalar analysis failed to consider the multi-muscle and time dependence of the EMG time-series it exhibited Type II error. SPM vector-field analysis on the other hand accounts for both dependencies whilst tightly controlling for Type I and Type II error making it highly applicable to EMG data analysis. Additionally SPM vector-field analysis is generalizable to linear and non-linear parametric and non-parametric statistical models, allowing its use under constraints that are common to electromyography and kinesiology.

  1. Enhancer/Suppressor mutator (En/Spm)-like transposable elements of cassava (Manihot esculenta) are transcriptionally inactive.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, M A; Beeching, J R

    2010-04-13

    Transposable elements contribute to the size, structure, variation, and diversity of the genome and have major effects on gene function. Sequencing projects have revealed the diversity of transposable elements in many organisms and have shown that they constitute a high percentage of the genome. PCR-based techniques using degenerate primers designed from conserved enzyme domains of transposable elements can provide quick and extensive surveys, making study of diversity and abundance and their applications possible in species where full genome sequence data are not yet available. We studied cassava (Manihot esculenta) En/Spm-like transposons (Meens) with regard to genomic distribution, sequence diversity and methylation status. Cassava transposase fragments characteristic of En/Spm-like transposons were isolated, cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that cassava En/Spm-like elements are highly conserved, with overall identity in the range of 68-98%. Southern hybridization supports the presence of multiple copies of En/Spm-like transposons integrated in the genome of all cassava cultivars that we tested. Hybridization patterns of HpaII- and MspI-digested cassava genomic DNA revealed highly methylated sequences. There were no clear differences in hybridization pattern between the cultivars. We did not detect RNA transcripts of Meens by Northern procedures. We examined the possibility of recent transposition activities of the cassava En/Spm-like elements.

  2. Reliability evaluation of I-123 ADAM SPECT imaging using SPM software and AAL ROI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Tsai, Sung-Yi; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Su, Tung-Ping; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    The level of serotonin was regulated by serotonin transporter (SERT), which is a decisive protein in regulation of serotonin neurotransmission system. Many psychiatric disorders and therapies were also related to concentration of cerebral serotonin. I-123 ADAM was the novel radiopharmaceutical to image SERT in brain. The aim of this study was to measure reliability of SERT densities of healthy volunteers by automated anatomical labeling (AAL) method. Furthermore, we also used statistic parametric mapping (SPM) on a voxel by voxel analysis to find difference of cortex between test and retest of I-123 ADAM single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.Twenty-one healthy volunteers were scanned twice with SPECT at 4 h after intravenous administration of 185 MBq of 123I-ADAM. The image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. All images were obtained through filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. Region of interest (ROI) definition was performed based on the AAL brain template in PMOD version 2.95 software package. ROI demarcations were placed on midbrain, pons, striatum, and cerebellum. All images were spatially normalized to the SPECT MNI (Montreal Neurological Institute) templates supplied with SPM2. And each image was transformed into standard stereotactic space, which was matched to the Talairach and Tournoux atlas. Then differences across scans were statistically estimated on a voxel by voxel analysis using paired t-test (population main effect: 2 cond's, 1 scan/cond.), which was applied to compare concentration of SERT between the test and retest cerebral scans.The average of specific uptake ratio (SUR: target/cerebellum-1) of 123I-ADAM binding to SERT in midbrain was 1.78±0.27, pons was 1.21±0.53, and striatum was 0.79±0.13. The cronbach's α of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.92. Besides, there was also no significant statistical finding in cerebral area using SPM2 analysis. This finding might help us

  3. The AE9/AP9/SPM Next Generation Radiation Specification Models - Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Johnston, William Robert; Huston, Stuart; Guild, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    The AE9/AP9/SPM model has now been released to the global satellite design community, with a recent update to version 1.2. We are working on incorporating new data sources, such as AZUR and NASA's Van Allen Probes, while also addressing critiques raised by the science and engineering communities. In particular, we are investigating discrepancies for protons at low altitude and electrons at geostationary altitudes. Finally, we are scoping out architectural improvements to enable features requested by industry: improved stitching between the plasma and radiation models, local time dependence in the plasma model, longitude dependence in the electron radiation model, and solar cycle variation in the low altitude protons. We provide a brief update on the status of the model, discrepancy investigations, and plans for the future.

  4. Results of SPM sun photometer measurements at Mirny Antarctic station (58-60th RAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Prakhov, Aleksander N.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Sakerin, Sergey M.

    2015-11-01

    The SPM portable sun photometer observations in the wavelength range of 0.34-2.14 μm are performed at Mirny Antarctic station since fall 2013. The data obtained are used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The sun photometer intercalibration results and statistical characteristics of interdiurnal and seasonal variations in spectral AOD of the atmosphere are discussed. Estimates of interannual variations in the atmospheric AOD in the region of Mirny station and in the coastal zone of Antarctica are presented. The global background level of AOD of the Antarctic atmosphere is noted to be still about 0.02 at the wavelength of 0.5 μm.

  5. High-precision calibration of a Scanning-Probe Microscope (SPM) for manufacturing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chernoff, D.A.; Lohr, J.D.; Hansen, D.; Lines, M.

    1996-12-31

    For ordinary SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope) work, accuracy of XYZ length measurements of about 5% is acceptable. This is accomplished by periodic calibration checks (and adjustments, if required). Measurement of critical dimensions such as feature width and spacing on integrated circuits of compact discs requires much higher accuracy. For example, the new DVD (digital video disc) standard calls for a mean track pitch of 740 nm with a maximum allowable jitter (range) of 30 nm. To achieve a range of 30 nm, the standard deviation should be 10 nm or less. According to the gage-maker`s rule, the measurement tool should be 4x more precise than the object being measured, so we need a standard deviation of 2.5 nm. This report describes the combined use of a new type of calibration standard and new software to meet these requirements.

  6. Application of SPM and Related Techniques to the Mechanical Properties of Biotool Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöberl, T.; Jäger, I. L.; Lichtenegger, H. C.

    Soon after the introduction of scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) originally developed for imaging purposes, their potential for mechanical analyses at the smallest scales was recognized and soon the method was applied to a variety of materials, including some of biological origin. Experimental techniques range from phase imaging to indentation and scratch testing. This chapter focuses on the use of instrumented indentation and related techniques such as scanning wear testing on biological tool tissues, materials often characterized by a high abrasion resistance. A brief overview of structure and composition of biological materials is given, since these factors are crucial in determining the mechanical properties and a basic understanding of such correlations is indispensable for the interpretation of the results. Furthermore, the influence of sample storage, preparation, and environmental conditions on mechanical tests is discussed, and relevant evaluation methods described. Finally, examples from the literature illustrating the successful application of SPM techniques on biotool tissues (mainly teeth) are presented.

  7. The SpmA/B and DacF proteins of Clostridium perfringens play important roles in spore heat resistance.

    PubMed

    Orsburn, Benjamin; Sucre, Katie; Popham, David L; Melville, Stephen B

    2009-02-01

    Strains of Clostridium perfringens that cause acute food poisoning have been shown to produce spores that are significantly more heat resistant than those of other strains. Previous studies demonstrated that the spore core density and the ratio of spore cortex peptidoglycan relative to the germ cell wall were factors that correlated with the heat resistance of a C. perfringens spore. To further evaluate these relationships, mutant strains of C. perfringens SM101 were constructed with null mutations in dacF, encoding a D,D-carboxypeptidase, and in the spmA-spmB operon, which is involved in spore core dehydration. The dacF mutant was shown to produce less spore cortex peptidoglycan and had a corresponding decrease in spore heat resistance. The spmA-spmB strain produced highly unstable spores with significantly lower core densities and increased heat sensitivity, which were easily destroyed during treatments affecting the spore coat layers. These results support the previous assertion that a threshold core density as well as a high ratio of cortex peptidoglycan relative to the germ cell wall contribute to the formation of a more heat-resistant spore in this species.

  8. Improvement of the Off-Resonance Saturation, an MRI sequence for positive contrast with SPM particles: Theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delangre, S.; Vuong, Q. L.; Po, C.; Gallez, B.; Gossuin, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The SuperParaMagnetic particles (SPM particles) are used as contrast agents in MRI and produce negative contrast with conventional T2 or T2∗-weighted sequences. Unfortunately, the SPM particle detection on images acquired with such sequences is sometimes difficult because negative contrast can be created by artifacts such as air bubbles or calcification. To overcome this problem, new sequences as Off-Resonance Saturation (ORS) were developed to produce positive contrast with SPM particles. This work explores a new way to optimize the contrast generated by the ORS sequence by increasing the number of saturation pulses applied before the imaging sequence. This modified sequence is studied with numerical simulations and experiments on agarose gel phantoms. A theoretical model able to predict the contrast for different values of the sequence parameters is also developed. The results show that the contrast increases with the saturation pulses number with an optimal value of three saturation pulses in order to avoid artifacts and limit the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) effect. The dependence of the contrast on the SPM particle concentration and sequence parameters is comparable to what was observed for the ORS sequence.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of SPM, RPM, SO2 and NOx concentrations in an opencast coal mining area.

    PubMed

    Chaulya, S K

    2004-02-01

    A study for assessment and management of air quality was carried out in the Ib Valley area of the Ib Valley coalfield in Orissa state, India. The 24 h average concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable particulate matter (RPM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) were determined at regular intervals throughout one year at twelve monitoring stations in residential areas and six monitoring stations in mining/industrial areas. The 24 h average SPM and RPM concentrations were 124.6-390.3 microg m(-3) and 25.9-119.9 microg m(-3) in residential areas, and were 146.3-845.2 microg m(-3) and 45.5-290.5 microg m(-3) in industrial areas. During the study period, 24 h and annual average SPM and RPM concentrations exceeded the respective standards set in the Indian national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) protocol as well as USEPA, EU, WHO and World Bank standards at most of the residential and industrial areas. However, concentrations of SO(2)(annual average: 24.6-36.1 microg m(-3) and 24 h average: 17.0-46.3 microg m(-3)) and NO(x)(annual average: 23.6-40.9 microg m(-3) and 24 h average: 18.3-53.6 microg m(-3)) were well within the prescribed limit of the NAAQS and international standards in both residential and industrial areas. The temporal variations of SPM and RPM fitted polynomial trends well and on average in the mining area 31.91% of the SPM was RPM. The linear regression correlation coefficients between SPM and RPM and between NO(x) and SO(2) were 0.94 (+/-0.04) and 0.66 (+/-0.10), respectively. The optimum interpolation technique, kriging, determined that maximal concentrations of SPM and RPM occurred within the mining site. Highest concentrations of particulate matter were observed during the winter season followed by summer, autumn and rainy seasons. An action plan is formulated for effective control of air pollution at source, and mitigative measures should include implementation of green belts around the sensitive

  10. Transient controls on estuarine SPM fluxes: case study in the Dee Estuary, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoudry, Laurent; Williams, Megan; Todd, David

    2017-04-01

    Estuaries are a critical interface between land and coastal ocean across which freshwater, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and consequently terrestrial carbon, nutrients and anthropogenic contaminants are exchanged. Suspended particulate matter is closely linked to estuarine turbidity; it affects water quality and estuarine ecology; and it contributes to overall estuarine sediment budgets. However, predicting the response of estuarine ecosystems to climate change and human interventions remains difficult partly due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of SPM concentrations and fluxes across time scales from intratidal to seasonal and interannual variability. We investigate the dynamics of suspended sediment and suspended particulate matter in a hypertidal estuary with a maximum tidal range in excess of 10 m and tidal currents reaching over 1 m/s: the Dee Estuary. This estuary is located in northwest England and outflows in Liverpool Bay, itself in the eastern Irish Sea. The Dee Estuary is a funnel-shaped, coastal plain estuary, which is about 30 km long with a maximum width of 8.5 km at the mouth, and consists of mixed sediments. We focus on field observations, collected during several campaigns in the channels of the Dee Estuary from 2004 to 2009 using acoustic and optical instrumentation, which provide intratidal measurements of flow velocity and suspended sediment, and thus sediment fluxes, over approximately a month. Measurements in February-March 2008 highlight three distinct hydrodynamic regimes: a current dominant regime at neap tides (14-21 February); a combined wave-current regime at spring tides (21-29 February); and a wave dominant regime at neap tide (1-4 March). While analysis of tidal distortion and dominance predicts weak ebb dominant channels, the observations yield flood dominant sediment transport. The net sediment flux exhibits a two-layer structure - import near the bed, export near the surface - that is consistent with the residual

  11. MEG language lateralization in partial epilepsy using dSPM of auditory event-related fields.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Manoj; Li, Zhimin; Carlson, Chad; Anderson, Christopher T; Stout, Jeffrey; Sabsevitz, David S; Swanson, Sara J; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-01

    Methods employed to determine hemispheric language dominance using magnetoencephalography (MEG) have differed significantly across studies in the choice of language-task, the nature of the physiological response studied, recording hardware, and source modeling methods. Our goal was to determine whether an analysis based on distributed source modeling can replicate the results of prior studies that have used dipole-modeling of event-related fields (ERFs) generated by an auditory word-recognition task to determine language dominance in patients with epilepsy. We analyzed data from 45 adult patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy who performed an auditory word-recognition task during MEG recording and also completed a language fMRI study as part of their evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Source imaging of auditory ERFs was performed using dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM). Language laterality indices (LIs) were calculated for four regions of interest (ROIs) by counting above-threshold activations within a 300-600ms time window after stimulus onset. Language laterality (LL) classifications based on these LIs were compared to the results from fMRI. The most lateralized MEG responses to language stimuli were observed in a parietal region that included the angular and supramarginal gyri (AngSmg). In this region, using a half-maximal threshold, source activations were left dominant in 32 (71%) patients, right dominant in 8 (18%), and symmetric in 5 patients (11%). The best agreement between MEG and fMRI on the ternary classification of regional language dominance into left, right, or symmetric groups was also found at the AngSmg ROI (69%). This was followed by the whole-hemisphere and temporal ROIs (both 62%). The frontal ROI showed the least agreement with fMRI (51%). Gross discordances between MEG and FMRI findings were disproportionately of the type where MEG favored atypical right-hemispheric language in a patient with right-hemispheric seizure origin

  12. VBM with viscous fluid registration of gray matter segments in SPM

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joao M. S.; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Pengas, George; Xiong, Li; Nestor, Peter J.; Williams, Guy B.

    2013-01-01

    Improved registration of gray matter segments in SPM has been achieved with the DARTEL algorithm. Previous work from our group suggested, however, that such improvements may not translate to studies of clinical groups. To address the registration issue in atrophic brains, this paper relaxed the condition of diffeomorphism, central to DARTEL, and made use of a viscous fluid registration model with limited regularization constraints to register the modulated gray matter probability maps to an intra-population template. Quantitative analysis of the registration results after the additional viscous fluid step showed no worsening of co-localization of fiducials compared to DARTEL or unified segmentation methods, and the resulting voxel based morphometry (VBM) analyses were able to better identify atrophic regions and to produce results with fewer apparent false positives. DARTEL showed great sensitivity to atrophy, but the resulting VBM maps presented broad, amorphous regions of significance that are hard to interpret. We propose that the condition of diffeomorphism is not necessary for basic VBM studies in atrophic populations, but also that it has disadvantages that must be taken into consideration before a study. The presented viscous fluid registration method is proposed for VBM studies to enhance sensitivity and localizing power. PMID:23874298

  13. Validation of the new trapped environment AE9/AP9/SPM at low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2014-09-01

    The completion of the international space station (ISS) in 2011 has provided the space research community an ideal proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport codes and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the space transportation system (STS; shuttle) provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code developments by indicating the need for an improved dynamic model of the low Earth orbit (LEO) trapped environment. Additional studies using thermo-luminescent detector (TLD), tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) area monitors, and computer aided design (CAD) model of earlier ISS configurations, confirmed STS observations that, as input, computational dosimetry requires an environmental model with dynamic and directional (anisotropic) behavior, as well as an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) definition of the vehicle attitude and orientation along the orbit of ISS. At LEO, a vehicle encounters exposure from trapped particles and attenuated galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly estimating the amount of exposure acquired. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the solar quiet and active times. At active times, solar energetic particles (SEP) generated by solar flare or coronal mass ejection (CME) also contribute to the exposure at high northern and southern latitudes. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular AE8/AP8, dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular CRRES electron/proton, dating back to 1990s and the recently released AE9/AP9/SPM. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four

  14. Structure Size's Effect on the Performance of the SPM Piezoelectric Microcantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Nan; Liu, An-Ping; Sun, Xiao-Song

    2013-08-01

    For the piezoelectric microcantilever, a device is designed for the IPC-208B type scanning probe microscope. We analyzed the structure size's effect on the piezoelectric cantilever device, and find that the deformation displacement of the cantilever tip depends mainly on the length, while the output voltage of piezoelectric layer depends on the aspect ratio of cantilever itself. We choose the device structure as the length and width dimensions of 200 μm × 40 μm, piezoelectric thickness of 2.0 μm, and electrode layer of 0.2 μm for the experimental analysis. We conclude that the device voltage sensitivity is 0.43 mV/nN, and tip displacement sensitivity up to 4.6 nm/nN, which shows that the output voltage is in the mV-level, is easy to meet the input requirements of testing circuit. The differentiable range can be in nanometer scale, which meets the SPM work requirements, and the device performance is considerable.

  15. VBM with viscous fluid registration of gray matter segments in SPM.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Joao M S; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Pengas, George; Xiong, Li; Nestor, Peter J; Williams, Guy B

    2013-01-01

    Improved registration of gray matter segments in SPM has been achieved with the DARTEL algorithm. Previous work from our group suggested, however, that such improvements may not translate to studies of clinical groups. To address the registration issue in atrophic brains, this paper relaxed the condition of diffeomorphism, central to DARTEL, and made use of a viscous fluid registration model with limited regularization constraints to register the modulated gray matter probability maps to an intra-population template. Quantitative analysis of the registration results after the additional viscous fluid step showed no worsening of co-localization of fiducials compared to DARTEL or unified segmentation methods, and the resulting voxel based morphometry (VBM) analyses were able to better identify atrophic regions and to produce results with fewer apparent false positives. DARTEL showed great sensitivity to atrophy, but the resulting VBM maps presented broad, amorphous regions of significance that are hard to interpret. We propose that the condition of diffeomorphism is not necessary for basic VBM studies in atrophic populations, but also that it has disadvantages that must be taken into consideration before a study. The presented viscous fluid registration method is proposed for VBM studies to enhance sensitivity and localizing power.

  16. Driving electronics for a z-positioner in a new SPM design.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leujen; Kim, Seong Heon; de Lozanne, Alex

    2011-03-01

    We use a modified Pan-type walker as the z coarse approach mechanism in our new SPM design. We developed new electronics for driving and exercising the walker with the main circuit consisting of six 12V relays. Connecting the relays in series produces a timing cascade due to the mechanical delay in each relay. The traditional slow linear ramp has been replaced with the charge and discharge behavior of the RC circuits, where C is the capacitance of the piezolelectric plates. Initial tests with a 6Hz frequency input showed 10 nm step size and a 3 millimeter range. A single 555 timer serves as our frequency generating source. A highly stabilized square wave can be generated in its monostable mode, with the output frequency determined by two external resistors and a capacitor. We also replace the high voltage supply with a voltage quadrupler circuit that is compact and inexpensive, with 64V and 128V DC output in the final configuration. Supported by NSF DMR-0923231.

  17. New Models for Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Specification: AE9, AP9 and SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginet, G. P.; O'Brien, T.; Huston, S. L.; Johnston, W. R.; Guild, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    A new set of models for the flux of particles in the Earth's inner magnetosphere has been developed for use in space system design and other applications that require a climatological specification. Denoted AE9, AP9, and SPM for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma, respectively, the models comprise 30 independent data sets measured by satellite on-board sensors. These data sets have been cleaned, cross-calibrated and statistically combined in a manner to create maps of the particle fluxes together with estimates of uncertainties due to both imperfect measurements and space weather. Furthermore, an auto-regressive time-evolution model constructed from temporal and spatial correlations permits the Monte-Carlo estimation of the time evolution of fluxes and derived quantities, e.g. the median and 95th percentile, along an arbitrary orbit. An overview of the model functionality, architecture, algorithms, data sets and validation will be presented. This work is sponsored by the Department of the Air Force under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  18. Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Lithium Nanopipettes and SPM Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Jonathan; Bharath, Satyaveda; Cullen, William; Reutt-Robey, Janice

    2014-03-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) - terminated SPM cantilever, was utilized to perform nanolithography and surface diffusion measurements on a thin film of vapor-deposited lithium atop a silicon (111) substrate under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In these investigations the MWCNT tip was shown to act as both a lithium nanopipette and a probe for non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) measurements. With the application of appropriate bias conditions, the MWCNT could site-selectively extract (expel) nano-scale amounts of lithium from (to) the sample surface. Depressions, mounds, and spikes were generated on the surface in this way and were azimuthally symmetric about the selected point of pipetting. Following lithium transfer to/from the substrate, the MWCNT pipette-induced features were sequentially imaged with NC-AFM using the MWCNT as the probe. Vacancy pits of ca. 300 nm diameter and 1.5 nm depth were observed to decay on a timescale of hours at room temperature, through diffusion-limited decay processes. A continuum model was utilized to simulate the island decay rates, and the lithium surface diffusion coefficient of D =7.5 (+/-1.3)*10-15 cm2/s was extracted. U.S. Department of Energy Award Number DESC0001160.

  19. Roles of DacB and spm proteins in clostridium perfringens spore resistance to moist heat, chemicals, and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Nahid; Setlow, Barbara; Setlow, Peter; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2008-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens food poisoning is caused mainly by enterotoxigenic type A isolates that typically possess high spore heat resistance. Previous studies have shown that alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble proteins (SASP) play a major role in the resistance of Bacillus subtilis and C. perfringens spores to moist heat, UV radiation, and some chemicals. Additional major factors in B. subtilis spore resistance are the spore's core water content and cortex peptidoglycan (PG) structure, with the latter properties modulated by the spm and dacB gene products and the sporulation temperature. In the current work, we have shown that the spm and dacB genes are expressed only during C. perfringens sporulation and have examined the effects of spm and dacB mutations and sporulation temperature on spore core water content and spore resistance to moist heat, UV radiation, and a number of chemicals. The results of these analyses indicate that for C. perfringens SM101 (i) core water content and, probably, cortex PG structure have little if any role in spore resistance to UV and formaldehyde, presumably because these spores' DNA is saturated with alpha/beta-type SASP; (ii) spore resistance to moist heat and nitrous acid is determined to a large extent by core water content and, probably, cortex structure; (iii) core water content and cortex PG cross-linking play little or no role in spore resistance to hydrogen peroxide; (iv) spore core water content decreases with higher sporulation temperatures, resulting in spores that are more resistant to moist heat; and (v) factors in addition to SpmAB, DacB, and sporulation temperature play roles in determining spore core water content and thus, spore resistance to moist heat.

  20. BredeQuery: Coordinate-Based Meta-analytic Search of Neuroscientific Literature from the SPM Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkowski, Bartłomiej; Szewczyk, Marcin; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Hansen, Lars Kai; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    Large amounts of neuroimaging studies are collected and have chan-ged our view on human brain function. By integrating multiple studies in meta-analysis a more complete picture is emerging. Brain locations are usually reported as coordinates with reference to a specific brain atlas, thus some of the databases offer so-called coordinate-based searching to the users (e.g. Brede, BrainMap). For such search, the publications, which relate to the brain locations represented by the user coordinates, are retrieved. We present BredeQuery - a plugin for the widely used SPM data analytic pipeline. BredeQuery offers a direct link from SPM to the Brede Database coordinate-based search engine. BredeQuery is able to 'grab' brain location coordinates from the SPM windows and enter them as a query for the Brede Database. Moreover, results of the query can be displayed in a MATLAB window and/or exported directly to some popular bibliographic file formats (BibTeX, Reference Manager, etc).

  1. The "careers in solar physics" session of the SPM10 meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, G.; Parenti, S.; Krijger, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    During the SPM10 meeting held in Prague (Czech Republic) on September 9-14, 2002, a half-day 'young session' was organized on the topic of careers in solar physics. Several young researchers and senior scientists were invited to give oral contributions on the current advantages and difficulties attached to the current system for post-doctoral contracts. A scientist from USA also presented the American system for contractors, and an ESA representative presented the official position of ESA regarding funding researchers. From the talks as well as from the long open discussion which followed, it was widely agreed that several typical rules for EU post-doc contracts (their short duration, their mandatory mobility, their age limit and their administrative and financial difficulties) not only lead to serious problems in the private life of postdocs, but essentially can have serious drawbacks on the follow-up of long-term scientific developments, and could quickly result in a dramatic loss of expertise, from the scale of individual institutes to the European scientific community at large. Many participants and most of the young researchers naturally agreed that new longer-term, renewable and stable contracts are necessary. In order to create such types of contracts, several fund raising initiative achieveable by the scientific community were discussed. The development of better public outreach initiatives on the European scale was a possibility which federated most of the participants. The resulting conclusion on this session were transmitted to the new board of the Solar Physics Section of the EAS/SPS.

  2. SpectraCAM SPM: a camera system with high dynamic range for scientific and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, S.; Baiko, D.; Lungu, G.; Pilon, M.; VanGorden, S.

    2005-08-01

    A scientific camera system having high dynamic range designed and manufactured by Thermo Electron for scientific and medical applications is presented. The newly developed CID820 image sensor with preamplifier-per-pixel technology is employed in this camera system. The 4 Mega-pixel imaging sensor has a raw dynamic range of 82dB. Each high-transparent pixel is based on a preamplifier-per-pixel architecture and contains two photogates for non-destructive readout of the photon-generated charge (NDRO). Readout is achieved via parallel row processing with on-chip correlated double sampling (CDS). The imager is capable of true random pixel access with a maximum operating speed of 4MHz. The camera controller consists of a custom camera signal processor (CSP) with an integrated 16-bit A/D converter and a PowerPC-based CPU running a Linux embedded operating system. The imager is cooled to -40C via three-stage cooler to minimize dark current. The camera housing is sealed and is designed to maintain the CID820 imager in the evacuated chamber for at least 5 years. Thermo Electron has also developed custom software and firmware to drive the SpectraCAM SPM camera. Included in this firmware package is the new Extreme DRTM algorithm that is designed to extend the effective dynamic range of the camera by several orders of magnitude up to 32-bit dynamic range. The RACID Exposure graphical user interface image analysis software runs on a standard PC that is connected to the camera via Gigabit Ethernet.

  3. Evaluation of the new radiation belt AE9/AP9/SPM model for a cislunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Walker, Steven A.; Santos Koos, Lindsey M.

    2014-09-01

    this time. From a mission planning point of view, this date is ideal as the predictable GCR exposure will be at a maximum, while the sporadic SEP will be at a minimum. In addition, it is anticipated that by 2020 a vehicle capable of launching a crew of four will be operationally ready. During the LEO-GEO transit, the crew and cargo vehicles will encounter exposure from trapped particles and attenuated GCR, followed by free space exposure due to GCR and SEP during solar active times. Within the trapped field, a challenge arises from properly calculating the amount of exposure acquired. Within this field, in the absence of SEP (i.e. solar quiet times), the vehicles will have to transit through an inner proton belt, an inner and outer electron belts, and an attenuated GCR field. There exist a number of models to define the intensities of the trapped particles during the quiet and active SEP. Among the more established trapped models are the historic and popular electron/proton AE8/AP8 model dating back to the 1980s, the historic and less popular electron/proton CRRES model dating back to 1990s, and the recently released electron/proton/space plasma AE9/AP9/SPM model. The AE9/AP9/SPM model is a major improvement over the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models. This model is derived from numerous measurements acquired over four solar cycles dating back to the 1970s, roughly representing 40 years of data collection. In contrast, the older AE8/AP8 and CRRES models were limited to only a few months of measurements taken during the prior solar minima and maxima. In this work, within the trapped field, along the design trajectory of the crew vehicle, the AE9/AP9/SPM model is evaluated against the older AE8/AP8 model during solar quiet times. The analysis is then extended to the GCR dominated en-route, cislunar L2 space and return trajectories in order to provide cumulative exposure estimates to the crew vehicle for the duration of the entire mission.

  4. Expression of ODC1, SPD, SPM and AZIN1 in the hypothalamus, ovary and uterus during rat estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joseph R D; Jain, Sammit; Banerjee, Arnab

    2017-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate variation in the expression pattern of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1), spermine (SPM), spermidine (SPD) and antizyme inhibitor (AZIN1) in hypothalamus, ovary and uterus during the estrous cycle of rats. Further, to understand any correlation between polyamines and GnRH I expression in hypothalamus; effect of putrescine treatment on GnRH I expression in hypothalamus and progesterone and estradiol levels in serum were investigated. The study also aims in quantifying all the immunohistochemistry images obtained based on pixel counting algorithm to yield the relative pixel count. This algorithm uses a red green blue (RGB) colour thresholding approach to quantify the intensity of the chromogen present. The result of the present study demonstrates almost similar expression pattern of polyamine and polyamine related factors, ODC1, SPD, SPM and AZIN1, with that of hypothalamic GnRH I, all of which mainly localized in the medial preoptic area (MPA) of the hypothalamus, during the proestrus, estrus and diestrus. This suggest that hypothalamic GnRH I expression is under regulation of polyamines. The study showed significant increase in hypothalamic GnRH I expression for both the doses of putrescine treatment to adult female rats. Further, it was shown that in ovary expression pattern of ODC1, SPM, SPD and AZIN1 were similar with that of steroidogenic factor, StAR during the estrous cycle, and putrescine supplementation increased significantly estradiol and progesterone levels in serum, all suggesting ovarian polyamines are involved in regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis. Localization of these factors in the theca and granulosa cells suggest involvement of polyamines in the process of folliculogenesis and luteinization; and ODC1, SPD, SPM and AZIN1 in oocyte further suggests polyamine role in maintenance of oocyte physiology. Finally, in uterus SPM and AZIN1 were localized throughout the estrous cycle, being comparatively more

  5. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Ana P B; Ortiz, Mauro F; Martins, Willames M B S; Morais, Guilherme L; Fehlberg, Lorena C C; Almeida, Luiz G P; Ciapina, Luciane P; Gales, Ana C; Vasconcelos, Ana T R

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the blaSPM-1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes.

  6. fMRat: an extension of SPM for a fully automatic analysis of rodent brain functional magnetic resonance series.

    PubMed

    Chavarrías, Cristina; García-Vázquez, Verónica; Alemán-Gómez, Yasser; Montesinos, Paula; Pascau, Javier; Desco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multi-platform automatic software tool for full processing of fMRI rodent studies. Existing tools require the usage of several different plug-ins, a significant user interaction and/or programming skills. Based on a user-friendly interface, the tool provides statistical parametric brain maps (t and Z) and percentage of signal change for user-provided regions of interest. The tool is coded in MATLAB (MathWorks(®)) and implemented as a plug-in for SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping, the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging). The automatic pipeline loads default parameters that are appropriate for preclinical studies and processes multiple subjects in batch mode (from images in either Nifti or raw Bruker format). In advanced mode, all processing steps can be selected or deselected and executed independently. Processing parameters and workflow were optimized for rat studies and assessed using 460 male-rat fMRI series on which we tested five smoothing kernel sizes and three different hemodynamic models. A smoothing kernel of FWHM = 1.2 mm (four times the voxel size) yielded the highest t values at the somatosensorial primary cortex, and a boxcar response function provided the lowest residual variance after fitting. fMRat offers the features of a thorough SPM-based analysis combined with the functionality of several SPM extensions in a single automatic pipeline with a user-friendly interface. The code and sample images can be downloaded from https://github.com/HGGM-LIM/fmrat .

  7. Intraclonal Genome Stability of the Metallo-β-lactamase SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST277, an Endemic Clone Disseminated in Brazilian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Ana P. B.; Ortiz, Mauro F.; Martins, Willames M. B. S.; Morais, Guilherme L.; Fehlberg, Lorena C. C.; Almeida, Luiz G. P.; Ciapina, Luciane P.; Gales, Ana C.; Vasconcelos, Ana T. R.

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems represent the mainstay therapy for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance has jeopardized the clinical use of this important class of compounds. The production of SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase has been the most common mechanism of carbapenem resistance identified in P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers. Interestingly, a single SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa clone belonging to the ST277 has been widely spread within the Brazilian territory. In the current study, we performed a next-generation sequencing of six SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 isolates. The core genome contains 5899 coding genes relative to the reference strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. A total of 26 genomic islands were detected in these isolates. We identified remarkable elements inside these genomic islands, such as copies of the blaSPM−1 gene conferring resistance to carbapenems and a type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is involved in protection of the chromosome against foreign DNA. In addition, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms causing amino acid changes in antimicrobial resistance and virulence-related genes. Together, these factors could contribute to the marked resistance and persistence of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 clone. A comparison of the SPM-1-producing P. aeruginosa ST277 genomes showed that their core genome has a high level nucleotide similarity and synteny conservation. The variability observed was mainly due to acquisition of genomic islands carrying several antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:27994579

  8. CD19-specific triplebody SPM-1 engages NK and γδ T cells for rapid and efficient lysis of malignant B-lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Christian B.; Braciak, Todd A.; Fenn, Nadja C.; Seidel, Ursula J. E.; Roskopf, Claudia C.; Wildenhain, Sarah; Honegger, Annemarie; Schubert, Ingo A.; Schele, Alexandra; Lämmermann, Kerstin; Fey, Georg H.; Jacob, Uwe; Lang, Peter; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Oduncu, Fuat S.

    2016-01-01

    Triplebodies are antibody-derived recombinant proteins carrying 3 antigen-binding domains in a single polypeptide chain. Triplebody SPM-1 was designed for lysis of CD19-bearing malignant B-lymphoid cells through the engagement of CD16-expressing cytolytic effectors, including NK and γδ T cells. SPM-1 is an optimized version of triplebody ds(19-16-19) and includes humanization, disulfide stabilization and the removal of potentially immunogenic sequences. A three-step chromatographic procedure yielded 1.7 - 5.5 mg of purified, monomeric protein per liter of culture medium. In cytolysis assays with NK cell effectors, SPM-1 mediated potent lysis of cancer-derived B cell lines and primary cells from patients with various B-lymphoid malignancies, which surpassed the ADCC activity of the therapeutic antibody Rituximab. EC50-values ranged from 3 to 86 pM. Finally, in an impedance-based assay, SPM-1 mediated a particularly rapid lysis of CD19-bearing target cells by engaging and activating both primary and expanded human γδ T cells from healthy donors as effectors. These data establish SPM-1 as a useful tool for a kinetic analysis of the cytolytic reactions mediated by γδ T and NK cells and as an agent deserving further development towards clinical use for the treatment of B-lymphoid malignancies. PMID:27825135

  9. Mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopes of SPM and sediment from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: Influence of weathering and anthropogenic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnachandra Rao, V.; Shynu, R.; Singh, Sunil K.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.

    2015-04-01

    Clay minerals and Sr-Nd isotopes of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediment were investigated along transect stations of the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, western India to determine the provenance and role of estuarine processes on their distribution. Kaolinite and illite, followed by minor goethite, gibbsite and chlorite were present in SPM and bottom sediment at all stations, both during monsoon and pre-monsoon. Smectite occurred in traces at river end stations but its contents increased downstream in both estuaries. Smectite contents were much higher in Zuari than in Mandovi estuary. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and ɛNd of SPM were higher than those in hinterland rocks and laterite soils. The Sr ratios were highest at river end stations of both estuaries and decreased sharply seaward. The Sm/Nd ratios of SPM and sediment were close to that of iron ore material flushed into the estuaries. The mean ɛNd of SPM and sediment were similar in both estuaries. It is suggested that the smectite is formed in coastal plains and its distribution downstream is controlled by lithology and drainage basin of rivers. Abundant kaolinite and high Sr ratios reflect chemical weathering and lateritization of source rocks. Sr isotopic ratios along transects are influenced by changes in salinity, organic matter and turbidity. High and near identical ɛNd values along transect stations of both estuaries suggest that the Nd isotopic compositions are influenced by the lateritization of source rocks and anthropogenic contribution of ore material.

  10. Long-term effects of discharges of produced water the marine environment from petroleum-related activities at Sonda de Campeche, Gulf of México.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; González-Macías, C; Salazar-Coria, L; Sánchez-Reyna, G; González-Lozano, C

    2015-11-01

    Produced water from offshore oil platforms is a major source of oil and related chemicals into the sea. The large volume and high salinity of produced water could pose severe environmental impacts upon inadequate disposal. This study is based on direct field sampling of effluents released into the ocean in the years 2003 and 2013 at the Sonda de Campeche located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. Metals and hydrocarbons were characterized in water, sediments, and fish tissues at the discharge site and compared with those obtained at two reference sites. Chemicals that exceeded risk-based concentrations in the discharge included the metals As, Pb, Cd, and Cr, and a variety of compounds polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), including naphthalene, fluorenes, and low molecular weight PAHs. The values of low to high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and carbon preference index indicate that hydrocarbons in sediments of the discharge zone are originated from the produced water and combustion sources. Fish tissues at the discharge zone and reference site are contaminated with PAHs, dominated by 2- and 3-rings; 4-ring accounted for less than 1% of total PAHs (TPAHs) in 2003, but increased to 7% in 2013. Results suggest that, from 2003 to 2013, discharges of produced water have had a non-negligible impact on ecosystems at a regional level, so the possibility of subtle, cumulative effects from operational discharges should not be ignored.

  11. SPM analysis of parametric (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding images: plasma input versus reference tissue parametric methods.

    PubMed

    Schuitemaker, Alie; van Berckel, Bart N M; Kropholler, Marc A; Veltman, Dick J; Scheltens, Philip; Jonker, Cees; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2007-05-01

    (R)-[11C]PK11195 has been used for quantifying cerebral microglial activation in vivo. In previous studies, both plasma input and reference tissue methods have been used, usually in combination with a region of interest (ROI) approach. Definition of ROIs, however, can be labourious and prone to interobserver variation. In addition, results are only obtained for predefined areas and (unexpected) signals in undefined areas may be missed. On the other hand, standard pharmacokinetic models are too sensitive to noise to calculate (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Linearised versions of both plasma input and reference tissue models have been described, and these are more suitable for parametric imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of these plasma input and reference tissue parametric methods on the outcome of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis of (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding. Dynamic (R)-[11C]PK11195 PET scans with arterial blood sampling were performed in 7 younger and 11 elderly healthy subjects. Parametric images of volume of distribution (Vd) and binding potential (BP) were generated using linearised versions of plasma input (Logan) and reference tissue (Reference Parametric Mapping) models. Images were compared at the group level using SPM with a two-sample t-test per voxel, both with and without proportional scaling. Parametric BP images without scaling provided the most sensitive framework for determining differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding between younger and elderly subjects. Vd images could only demonstrate differences in (R)-[11C]PK11195 binding when analysed with proportional scaling due to intersubject variation in K1/k2 (blood-brain barrier transport and non-specific binding).

  12. Presence of high-risk clones of OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii (ST79) and SPM-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ST277) in environmental water samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Turano, Helena; Gomes, Fernando; Medeiros, Micheli; Oliveira, Silvane; Fontes, Lívia C; Sato, Maria I Z; Lincopan, Nilton

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the presence of hospital-associated high-risk lineages of OXA-23-producing ST79 Acinetobacter baumannii and SPM-1-producing ST277 Pseudomonas aeruginosa in urban rivers in Brazil. These findings indicate that urban rivers can act as reservoirs of clinically important multidrug-resistant bacteria, which constitute a potential risk to human and animal health.

  13. Effectiveness and Usability of the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool Quick Tips: Data-Driven Intervention Following the Use of the SPM-Preschool in an Early Childhood, Multiple-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol H.; Henry, Diana A.; Kliner, Ashley Peck; Kyllo, Alissa; Richter, Chelsea Munson; Charley, Jane; Whitcher, Meagan Chapman; Reinke, Katherine Roth; Tysver, Chelsay Horner; Wagner, Lacey; Walworth, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This pre- and posttest multiple-case study examined the effectiveness and usability of the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool Quick Tips (SPM-P QT) by key stakeholders (parents and teachers) for implementing data-driven intervention to address sensory processing challenges. The Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool (SPM-P) was administered as an…

  14. Effectiveness and Usability of the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool Quick Tips: Data-Driven Intervention Following the Use of the SPM-Preschool in an Early Childhood, Multiple-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol H.; Henry, Diana A.; Kliner, Ashley Peck; Kyllo, Alissa; Richter, Chelsea Munson; Charley, Jane; Whitcher, Meagan Chapman; Reinke, Katherine Roth; Tysver, Chelsay Horner; Wagner, Lacey; Walworth, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This pre- and posttest multiple-case study examined the effectiveness and usability of the Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool Quick Tips (SPM-P QT) by key stakeholders (parents and teachers) for implementing data-driven intervention to address sensory processing challenges. The Sensory Processing Measure-Preschool (SPM-P) was administered as an…

  15. Analisys, processing and validation data from eolic stations of SONDA project (National Organization System of Environmental Data) at Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, A. B.; Nogueira, J. M.; Garcia, S. G.; Andrade, E. S.

    2007-05-01

    Asiel Bomfin Jr. LIM/CPTEC/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, S.P., Brazil; Eliana Soares de Andrade; Jorge Luiz Martins Nogueira and Silvia Garcia de Castro. The Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Analysis (CPTEC), a division of INPE, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Several of the INPE´s departments and centers, like the CPTEC, have a variety of valuable datasets, many of them freely available and eolic data from SONDA project are also part of them at Meteorological Instrumental Laboratory (LIM). This paper presents the Analiys, processing and validation method applied to the eolic data in a temporal time of ten minutes, to be used in a PC IBM computer. This method is divided in tree separated programs. The first software called "separa.c" has the capability of divide the ingest data set in mensal files, identified by each station group. The second software called "minuto.c" does a syntactical analysis, verifying and correcting eventual lost data with NAN values. The third one called "validacode.c" generates two principal files, one containing the original data and the other with the codes of each variable for each minute analyzed. These codes is based on BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), but with some differences in their analyzed method. This method followed the Webmet.com, The Meteorological Resource Center. Table 1:Validation Codes Code Meaning 0 Quality check procedure is not avaiable for this level 2 The data is suspect 5 Quality check procedure is avaiable for this level, but not can be done 9 The data is correct Table 2: Validation levels for WIND SPEED: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 25 m/s and 0 m/s 1 Can not vary more than 0,1 m/s for 03 consecutive hours 2 Can not vary more than 0,5 m/s for 12 consecutive hours 3 - Table 3: Validation levels for WIND DRECTION: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 360 and 0

  16. The impact of disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on SPM concentration and fluid mud in and outside the harbor of Zeebrugge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Cardoso, Claudio; Dujardin, Arvid; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Hoestenberghe, Thomas; Vanlede, Joris; Van Poucke, Luc; Velez, Carlos; Martens, Chantal

    2016-11-01

    The amount of sediments to be dredged and disposed depends to a large part on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration. Tidal, meteorological, climatological, and seasonal forcings have an influence on the horizontal and vertical distribution of the SPM in the water column and on the bed and control the inflow of fine-grained sediments towards harbors and navigation channels. About 3 million tons (dry matter) per year of mainly fine-grained sediments is dredged in the port of Zeebrugge and is disposed on a nearby disposal site. The disposed sediments are quickly resuspended and transported away from the site. The hypothesis is that a significant part of the disposed sediments recirculates back to the dredging places and that a relocation of the disposal site to another location at equal distance to the dredging area would reduce this recirculation. In order to validate the hypothesis, a 1-year field study was set up in 2013-2014. During 1 month, the dredged material was disposed at a new site. Variations in SPM concentration were related to tides, storms, seasonal changes, and human impacts. In the high-turbidity Belgian near-shore area, the natural forcings are responsible for the major variability in the SPM concentration signal, while disposal has only a smaller influence. The conclusion from the measurements is that the SPM concentration decreases after relocation of the disposal site but indicate stronger (first half of field experiment) or weaker (second half of field experiment) effects that are, however, supported by the environmental conditions. The results of the field study may have consequences on the management of disposal operations as the effectiveness of the disposal site depends on environmental conditions, which are inherently associated with chaotic behavior.

  17. Dynamic analysis for the global performance of an SPM-feeder-cage system under waves and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, Cristian; Kim, M. H.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the dynamic response of a coupled SPM-feeder-cage system under irregular waves and shear currents is analyzed. A numerical model is developed by using the commercial software OrcaFlex. Hydrodynamics coefficients of the vessel are calculated by using a 3D diffraction/radiation panel program. First- and second-order wave forces are included in the calculations. Morison equation is used to compute the drag force on line elements representing the net. Drag coefficients are determined at every time step in the simulation considering the relative normal velocity between the structural elements and the fluid flow. The dynamic response of the coupled system is analyzed for various environments and net materials. The results of the study show the effects of solidity ratio of the net and vertical positions of the cage on the overall dynamic response of the system, confirming the viability of this type of configuration for future development of offshore aquaculture in deep waters.

  18. Quantification of Global Cerebral Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis from 3T MRI Using SPM: The Role of Misclassification Errors

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Oglio, Elisa; Ceccarelli, Antonia; Glanz, Bonnie I; Healy, Brian C; Tauhid, Shahamat; Arora, Ashish; Saravanan, Nikila; Bruha, Matthew J; Vartanian, Alexander V; Dupuy, Sheena L; Benedict, Ralph HB; Bakshi, Rohit; Neema, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We tested the validity of a freely available segmentation pipeline to measure compartmental brain volumes from 3T MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Our primary focus was methodological to explore the effect of segmentation corrections on the clinical relevance of the output metrics. Methods Three-dimensional T1-weighted images were acquired to compare 61 MS patients to 30 age- and gender-matched normal controls (NC). We also tested the within patient MRI relationship to disability (eg, expanded disability status scale [EDSS] score) and cognition. Statistical parametric mapping v. 8 (SPM8)-derived gray matter (GMF), white matter (WMF), and total brain parenchyma fractions (BPF) were derived before and after correcting errors from T1 hypointense MS lesions and/or ineffective deep GM contouring. Results MS patients had lower GMF and BPF as compared to NC (P<.05). Cognitively impaired patients had lower BPF than cognitively preserved patients (P<.05). BPF was related to EDSS; BPF and GMF were related to disease duration (all P<.05). Errors caused bias in GMFs and WMFs but had no discernable influence on BPFs or any MRI-clinical associations. Conclusions We report the validity of a segmentation pipeline for the detection of MS-related brain atrophy with 3T MRI. Longitudinal studies are warranted to extend these results. PMID:25523616

  19. AE9, AP9 and SPM: New Models for Specifying the Trapped Energetic Particle and Space Plasma Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginet, G. P.; O'Brien, T. P.; Huston, S. L.; Johnston, W. R.; Guild, T. B.; Friedel, R.; Lindstrom, C. D.; Roth, C. J.; Whelan, P.; Quinn, R. A.; Madden, D.; Morley, S.; Su, Yi-Jiun

    2013-11-01

    The radiation belts and plasma in the Earth's magnetosphere pose hazards to satellite systems which restrict design and orbit options with a resultant impact on mission performance and cost. For decades the standard space environment specification used for spacecraft design has been provided by the NASA AE8 and AP8 trapped radiation belt models. There are well-known limitations on their performance, however, and the need for a new trapped radiation and plasma model has been recognized by the engineering community for some time. To address this challenge a new set of models, denoted AE9/AP9/SPM, for energetic electrons, energetic protons and space plasma has been developed. The new models offer significant improvements including more detailed spatial resolution and the quantification of uncertainty due to both space weather and instrument errors. Fundamental to the model design, construction and operation are a number of new data sets and a novel statistical approach which captures first order temporal and spatial correlations allowing for the Monte-Carlo estimation of flux thresholds for user-specified percentile levels (e.g., 50th and 95th) over the course of the mission. An overview of the model architecture, data reduction methods, statistics algorithms, user application and initial validation is presented in this paper.

  20. Silicon photomultiplier (SPM) detection of low-level bioluminescence for the development of deployable whole-cell biosensors: Possibilities and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huaqing; Lopes, Nicholas; Moser, Scott; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters await miniaturized photon counting modules with high sensitivity and robust compatible hardware to fulfill their promise of versatile, on-site biosensor functionality. In this study, we explore the photon counting readout properties of the silicon photomultiplier (SPM) with a thermoelectric cooler and the possibilities of detecting low-level bioluminescent signals. Detection performance was evaluated through a simulated LED light source and the bioluminescence produced by the genetically engineered Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial bioreporter 5RL. Compared with the conventional photomultiplier tube (PMT), the results revealed that the cooled SPM exhibits a wider linear response to inducible substrate concentrations (salicylate) ranging from 250 to 5000 ppb. Although cooling of the SPM lowered dark count rates and improved the minimum detectable signal, and the application of a digital filter enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio, the detection of very low light signals is still limited and remains a challenge in the design of compact photon counting systems. PMID:22305444

  1. Silicon photomultiplier (SPM) detection of low-level bioluminescence for the development of deployable whole-cell biosensors: possibilities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaqing; Lopes, Nicholas; Moser, Scott; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven

    2012-03-15

    Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters await miniaturized photon counting modules with high sensitivity and robust compatible hardware to fulfill their promise of versatile, on-site biosensor functionality. In this study, we explore the photon counting readout properties of the silicon photomultiplier (SPM) with a thermoelectric cooler and the possibilities of detecting low-level bioluminescent signals. Detection performance was evaluated through a simulated LED light source and the bioluminescence produced by the genetically engineered Pseudomonas fluorescens bacterial bioreporter 5RL. Compared with the conventional photomultiplier tube (PMT), the results revealed that the cooled SPM exhibits a wider linear response to inducible substrate concentrations (salicylate) ranging from 250 to 5000 ppb. Although cooling of the SPM lowered dark count rates and improved the minimum detectable signal, and the application of a digital filter enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio, the detection of very low light signals is still limited and remains a challenge in the design of compact photon counting systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved capabilities of the Chinese high-resolution remote sensing satellite GF-1 for monitoring suspended particulate matter (SPM) in inland waters: Radiometric and spatial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Huang, Jue; Feng, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Dominated by high dynamic and small-scale variability, remote sensing of inland or coastal waters is frequently impended by insufficient spatial resolutions from conventional ocean color sensors. With the urgent need and the rapid progress in high-resolution earth observation systems (HR), it is critical to assess the capabilities of HR in inland water monitoring. In this study, the radiometric and spatial performance of the Chinese high-resolution GF-1 Wide Field Imager (WFI) data for water quality monitoring were evaluated in term of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity to suspended particulate matter (SPM) variations and spatial depiction ability. The SNR was statistically estimated from variable moving window method, and the radiometric sensitivity was simulated using the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) under varied surface and atmospheric conditions. Results indicated that both the SNR and the radiometric sensitivity of the GF-1 WFI were enhanced by 3-5 times than its predecessor (Chinese HJ-1 CCD) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and were comparable to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m), which have been extensively applied in inland water environment monitoring. Cross comparisons demonstrated high consistency of the spatial distribution and concentration of SPM maps between GF-1 WFI and Landsat 8 OLI. Furthermore, more than 75% of the spatial variations in high turbid waters were resolved from GF-1 WFI data, whereas the ability dropped to 40% when the spatial resolution was degraded to 250 m (MODIS-like sensors). Overall, GF-1 WFI is extraordinarily promising with an enhanced SNR, an increased spectral sensitivity to SPM variations and an advanced spatial resolution. With the ongoing plans of the successive GF series (2-7), the findings would serve as a reference for forthcoming applications, and are critical

  3. Preparation of RNA from bacteria infected with bacteriophages: a case study from the marine unicellular Synechococcus sp. WH7803 infected by phage S-PM2.

    PubMed

    Shan, Jinyu; Clokie, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages manipulate bacterial gene expression in order to express their own genes or influence bacterial metabolism. Gene expression can be studied using real-time PCR or microarrays. Either technique requires the prior isolation of high quality RNA uncontaminated by the presence of genomic DNA. We outline the considerations necessary when working with bacteriophage infected bacterial cells. We also give an example of a protocol for extraction and quantification of high quality RNA from infected bacterial cells, using the marine cyanobacterium WH7803 and the phage S-PM2 as a case study. This protocol can be modified to extract RNA from the host/bacteriophage of interest.

  4. In vivo evaluation of gray and white matter volume loss in the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy using SPM8 plus DARTEL for VBM.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Yoko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Kouhei; Maikusa, Norihide; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kimiteru; Ota, Miho; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Sato, Noriko

    2013-01-01

    In multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P), several voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have revealed gray matter loss; however, the white matter volume changes have been rarely reported. We investigated the volume changes of white matter as well as gray matter by VBM. A retrospective MRI study was performed in 20 patients with MSA-P and 30 age-matched healthy controls. We applied VBM with statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) plus diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) to explore the regional atrophy of gray and white matter in all of the MSA-P patients, 14 patients with left-side dominant and 6 patients with right-side dominant onset as compared to controls. In all of the MSA-P patients, VBM revealed a significant volume reduction of gray matter in the bilateral putamina, cerebellums and dorsal midbrain. White matter loss was located in bilateral globus pallidi, external capsules extending to the midbrain, right subcortical to precentral area through internal capsule, the pons, bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and left cerebellum. In left-side dominant MSA-P patients, the gray and white matter volume loss was detected predominantly on the right side and vice versa in right-side dominant MSA-P patients. A correlation with disease duration and severity was not detected. VBM using SPM8 plus DARTEL detected significant volume loss not only in the gray but also in the white matter of the area affected by MSA-P.

  5. A conserved genetic module that encodes the major virion components in both the coliphage T4 and the marine cyanophage S-PM2

    PubMed Central

    Hambly, Emma; Tétart, Francoise; Desplats, Carine; Wilson, William H.; Krisch, Henry M.; Mann, Nicholas H.

    2001-01-01

    Sequence analysis of a 10-kb region of the genome of the marine cyanomyovirus S-PM2 reveals a homology to coliphage T4 that extends as a contiguous block from gene (g)18 to g23. The order of the S-PM2 genes in this region is similar to that of T4, but there are insertions and deletions of small ORFs of unknown function. In T4, g18 codes for the tail sheath, g19, the tail tube, g20, the head portal protein, g21, the prohead core protein, g22, a scaffolding protein, and g23, the major capsid protein. Thus, the entire module that determines the structural components of the phage head and contractile tail is conserved between T4 and this cyanophage. The significant differences in the morphology of these phages must reflect the considerable divergence of the amino acid sequence of their homologous virion proteins, which uniformly exceeds 50%. We suggest that their enormous diversity in the sea could be a result of genetic shuffling between disparate phages mediated by such commonly shared modules. These conserved sequences could facilitate genetic exchange by providing partially homologous substrates for recombination between otherwise divergent phage genomes. Such a mechanism would thus expand the pool of phage genes accessible by recombination to all those phages that share common modules. PMID:11553768

  6. [Activity of the corn Spm transposon system in transgenic plants Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz obtained by both direct transfer of DNA to protoplasts and agrobacterial transformation of root explants].

    PubMed

    Sakhno, L A; Sytnik, E S; Cherep, N N; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V; Klimiuk, V I

    2002-01-01

    Transposon mediated insertional mutagenesis is one of the approaches for the unique gene cloning. A wild species of Cruciferae family Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz, which is of interest for practical breeding as a donor of improved plant oil, was an object of the investigation. Plasmid construction used in the experiments included selective NPT II gene, reported GUS gene serving as an excision marker, structural BAR gene located within the dSpm element and Spm transposase. The GUS gene of this plasmid had not his own promoter and became functional only after Spm-transposition. Transformed Orychophragmus violaceus (L.) O.E. Schulz. plants were obtained by direct mesophyll protoplast transformation as well as Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated root explant transformation. Gene transfer and the transposition event were confirmed by the GUS activity and the PCR analysis. Relative transformation efficiency using protoplasts was 5.8%.

  7. A Feedfordward Adaptive Controller to Reduce the Imaging Time of Large-Sized Biological Samples with a SPM-Based Multiprobe Station

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Jorge; Guerrero, Hector; Gonzalez, Laura; Puig-Vidal, Manel

    2012-01-01

    The time required to image large samples is an important limiting factor in SPM-based systems. In multiprobe setups, especially when working with biological samples, this drawback can make impossible to conduct certain experiments. In this work, we present a feedfordward controller based on bang-bang and adaptive controls. The controls are based in the difference between the maximum speeds that can be used for imaging depending on the flatness of the sample zone. Topographic images of Escherichia coli bacteria samples were acquired using the implemented controllers. Results show that to go faster in the flat zones, rather than using a constant scanning speed for the whole image, speeds up the imaging process of large samples by up to a 4× factor. PMID:22368491

  8. Analysis of the local structure around Cr3+ centers in perovskite KMgF3 using both ab initio (DFT) and semi-empirical (SPM) calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emül, Y.; Erbahar, D.; Açıkgöz, M.

    2014-11-01

    The local structure around Cr3+ centers in perovskite KMgF3 crystal have been investigated through the applications of both an ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT), and a semi empirical, superposition model (SPM), analyses. A supercell approach is used for DFT calculations. All the tetragonal (Cr3+-VMg and Cr3+-Li+), trigonal (Cr3+-VK), and CrF5O cluster centers have been considered with various structural models based on the previously suggested experimental inferences. The significant structural changes around the Cr3+ centers induced by Mg2+ or K+ vacancies and the Li substitution at those vacancy sites have been determined and discussed by means of charge distribution. This study provides insight on both the roles of Mg2+ and K+ vacancies and Li+ ion in the local structural properties around Cr3+ centers in KMgF3.

  9. Detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in 12 years of solar VIRGO-SPM data—tests on Kepler observations of 16 Cyg A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Mikkel Nørup; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Handberg, Rasmus; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2014-02-10

    We present the detection of ℓ = 4 and ℓ = 5 modes in power spectra of the Sun, constructed from 12 yr full-disk VIRGO-SPM data sets. A method for enhancing the detectability of these modes in asteroseismic targets is presented and applied to Kepler data of the two solar analogues 16 Cyg A and B. For these targets, we see indications of a signal from ℓ = 4 modes, while nothing is yet seen for ℓ = 5 modes. We further simulate the power spectra of these stars and from this we estimate that it should indeed be possible to see such indications of ℓ = 4 modes at the present length of the data sets. In the simulation process, we briefly look into the apparent misfit between observed and calculated mode visibilities. We predict that firm detections of at least ℓ = 4 should be possible in any case at the end of the Kepler mission. For ℓ = 5, we do not predict any firm detections from Kepler data.

  10. Anomalous scaling of Δ C versus T c in the Fe-based superconductors: the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state model

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Yunkyu; Stewart, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The strong power law behavior of the specific heat jumpmore » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c $$({\\rm{\\Delta }}C/{T}_{{\\rm{c}}}\\sim {T}_{{\\rm{c}}}^{\\alpha },\\alpha \\approx 2)$$, first observed by Bud'ko et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 220516), has been confirmed with several families of the Fe-based superconducting compounds with various dopings. We tested a minimal two band BCS model to understand this anomalous behavior and showed that this non-BCS relation between $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c is a generic property of the multiband superconducting state paired by a dominant interband interaction ($${V}_{\\mathrm{inter}}\\gt {V}_{\\mathrm{intra}}$$) reflecting the relation $$\\frac{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{h}}}}{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{e}}}}\\sim \\sqrt{\\frac{{N}_{{\\rm{e}}}}{{N}_{{\\rm{h}}}}}$$ near T c, as in the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state. We also found that this $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c power law can continuously change from the ideal BNC scaling to a considerable deviation by a moderate variation of the impurity scattering rate $${{\\rm{\\Gamma }}}_{0}$$ (non-pair-breaking). Finally, as a result, our model provides a consistent explanation why the electron-doped Fe-based superconductors follow the ideal BNC scaling very well while the hole-doped systems often show varying degree of deviations.« less

  11. Anomalous scaling of Δ C versus T c in the Fe-based superconductors: the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state model

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Yunkyu; Stewart, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The strong power law behavior of the specific heat jumpmore » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c $$({\\rm{\\Delta }}C/{T}_{{\\rm{c}}}\\sim {T}_{{\\rm{c}}}^{\\alpha },\\alpha \\approx 2)$$, first observed by Bud'ko et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 220516), has been confirmed with several families of the Fe-based superconducting compounds with various dopings. We tested a minimal two band BCS model to understand this anomalous behavior and showed that this non-BCS relation between $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c is a generic property of the multiband superconducting state paired by a dominant interband interaction ($${V}_{\\mathrm{inter}}\\gt {V}_{\\mathrm{intra}}$$) reflecting the relation $$\\frac{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{h}}}}{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{e}}}}\\sim \\sqrt{\\frac{{N}_{{\\rm{e}}}}{{N}_{{\\rm{h}}}}}$$ near T c, as in the $${S}_{\\pm }$$-wave pairing state. We also found that this $${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$$ versus T c power law can continuously change from the ideal BNC scaling to a considerable deviation by a moderate variation of the impurity scattering rate $${{\\rm{\\Gamma }}}_{0}$$ (non-pair-breaking). Finally, as a result, our model provides a consistent explanation why the electron-doped Fe-based superconductors follow the ideal BNC scaling very well while the hole-doped systems often show varying degree of deviations.« less

  12. Utility of SPM8 plus DARTEL (VSRAD) combined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy as adjunct techniques for screening and predicting dementia due to Alzheimer's disease in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Waragai, Masaaki; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Ishii, Ryotaro; Fujii, Chihiro; Tokuda, Takahiko; Arai, Hiroyuki; Ohrui, Takashi; Higuchi, Susumu; Yoshida, Madoka; Igarashi, Kazuei; Moriya, Masaru; Iwai, Naomichi; Uemura, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    We validated the utility of SPM8 plus DARTEL (VSRAD) combined with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) as an adjunct screening technique for dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined the posterior cingulate gyri of 228 subjects using VSRAD and 1H MRS in addition to conventional cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers at baseline. At the 3-year follow-up, the 228 subject were classified as follows: 93 healthy subjects, 42 MCI-non-converters (MCI-NC), 25 MCI-converters to AD (MCI-C), 44 AD, 8 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 5 normal pressure hydrocephalus, and 11 patients with other neurological diseases. Our results demonstrated that subjects with increased medial temporal atrophy (MTA) severity on VSRAD, increased Cho/Cr, MI/Cr ratio, and decreased NAA/Cr and NAA/MI ratio on 1H MRS at baseline were at risk of dementia due to AD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that severity of MTA and the NAA/MI ratio distinguished patients with AD and MCI-C from controls. Furthermore, the 118 subjects without dementia and MTA showing only a decreased NAA/MI ratio at baseline developed to MCI-C, AD, and DLB 3 years later. 1H MRS detected biochemical abnormalities preceding brain atrophy and cognitive decline. VSRAD combined with 1H MRS may be routinely applied to screen for MCI/AD and prodromal AD in clinical practice.

  13. Cross talk between MMP2-Spm-Cer-S1P and ERK1/2 in proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under angiotensin II stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Pramanik, Pijush Kanti; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish the mechanism associated with the proliferation of PASMCs under ANG II stimulation. The results showed that treatment of PASMCs with ANG II induces an increase in cell proliferation and 100 nM was the optimum concentration for maximum increase in proliferation of the cells. Pretreatment of the cells with AT1, but not AT2, receptor antagonist inhibited ANG II induced cell proliferation. Pretreatment with pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and sphingosine kinase (SPHK) prevented ANG II-induced cell proliferation. ANG II has also been shown to induce SMase activity, SPHK phosphorylation and S1P production. In addition, ANG II caused an increase in proMMP-2 expression and activation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase activation. Upon inhibition of MMP-2, SMase activity and S1P level were curbed leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. SPHK was phosphorylated by ERK1/2 during ET-1 stimulation of the cells. ANG II-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and proMMP-2 expression and activation in the cells were abrogated upon inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity. Overall, NADPH oxidase plays an important role in proMMP-2 expression and activation and that MMP-2 mediated SMC proliferation occurs through the involvement of Spm-Cer-S1P signaling axis under ANG II stimulation of PASMCs.

  14. Capability of Paraguaçu estuary (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil) to form oil-SPM aggregates (OSA) and their ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic organisms.

    PubMed

    Rios, Mariana C; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Pereira, Taís S; de Almeida, Marcos; Trindade, Maria Clara L F; Menezes, Leonardo; Caldas, Alex S

    2017-01-15

    For experiments concerning the formation of oil-suspended particulate matter (SPM) aggregates (OSA), oil and sediment samples were collected from Campos Basin and six stations of Paraguaçu estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, respectively. The sediments samples were analyzed for organic matter determined by the EMBRAPA method, nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method, and phosphorus determined by the method described by Aspila. The oil trapped in OSA was extracted following the method described by Moreira. The experiment showed a relationship between the amount of organic matter and OSA formation and consequently the dispersion of the studied oil. On the basis of the buoyancy of OSA and the ecotoxicological effects on pelagic and benthic community, the priority areas for application of remediation techniques are Cachoeira, Maragogipe, and Salinas da Margarida because of the large amount of oil that accumulated at the bottom of the experiment flask (5.85%, 27.95%, and 38,98%; 4.2%, 17.66%, and 32.64%; and 11.82%, 8.07%, and 10.91% respectively).

  15. Hypermetabolism in the left thalamus and right inferior temporal area on positron emission tomography-statistical parametric mapping (PET-SPM) in a patient with Charles Bonnet syndrome resolving after treatment with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Won; Youn, Young Chul; Seok, Ju-Won; Ha, Sam-Yeol; Shin, Hae-Won; Ahan, Suk-Won; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Kwon, Oh-Sang

    2011-08-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterized by the occurrence of complex visual hallucinations in visually impaired patients who understand that what they see is unreal. The pathophysiologic mechanism of CBS is poorly understood. However, hypermetabolism of the thalamocortical pathway as a result of deafferentation was recently proposed as a possible mechanism. A 69-year-old patient with CBS presented with a 5-year history of visual hallucinations after bilateral visual impairment, which had progressed to troublesome images of many unreal people and animals. Positron emission tomography-statistical parametric mapping (PET-SPM) imaging studies initially revealed hypermetabolism in the right inferior temporal area and left thalamus, which disappeared after treatment with valproic acid. This case, using PET-SPM analysis, supports the thalamic hypermetabolism theory of CBS.

  16. [EEG background activity in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type--with special reference to analysis by t-statistic significance probability mapping (SPM) in Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia].

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, T; Hagimoto, H; Saito, T; Endo, K; Ishii, M; Yamaguchi, T; Kajiwara, A; Matsushita, M

    1989-01-01

    EEG power amplitude and power ratio data obtained from 15 (3 men and 12 women) patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 8 (2 men and 6 women) with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) were compared with similar data from 40 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Compared with the healthy controls, both patient groups demonstrated increased EEG background slowing, and it indicated more slower in AD than in SDAT. Moreover, both groups showed characteristic findings respectively on EEG topography and t-statistic significance probability mapping (SPM). The differences between AD and their controls indicated high slowing with reductions in alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2 activity. The SPMs of power ratio in theta and alpha 2 bands showed most prominent significance in the right posterior-temporal region and delta and beta bands did in the frontal region. Severe AD indicated only frontal delta slowing compared to mild AD. The differences between SDAT and their controls indicated only mild slowing in delta and theta bands. The SPM of power amplitude showed occipital slowing, whereas the SPM of power ratio showed the slowing in the frontal region. Judging from both topographic findings, these were considered to denote diffuse slow tendency. In summary, these results presumed that in AD, cortical damages followed by EEG slowing with reductions of alpha 2 and beta bands originated rapidly and thereafter developed subcortical (non-specific area in thalamus) changes with frontal delta activity on SPM. On the other hand, in SDAT, diffuse cortico-subcortical damages with diffuse slowing on EEG topography were caused gradually.

  17. Characterization of low alloy ferritic steel–Ni base alloy dissimilar metal weld interface by SPM techniques, SEM/EDS, TEM/EDS and SVET

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Siyan; Ding, Jie; Ming, Hongliang; Zhang, Zhiming; Wang, Jianqiu

    2015-02-15

    The interface region of welded A508–Alloy 52 M is characterized by scanning probe microscope (SPM) techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning vibrate electrode technique (SVET). The regions along the welded A508–Alloy 52 M interface can be categorized into two types according to their different microstructures. In the type-I interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by the fusion boundary, while in the type-II interface region, A508 and Alloy 52 M are separated by a martensite zone. A508, martensite zone and grain boundaries in Alloy 52 M are ferromagnetic while the Alloy 52 M matrix is paramagnetic. The Volta potentials measured by scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) of A508, martensite zone and Alloy 52 M follow the order: V{sub 52} {sub M} > V{sub A508} > V{sub martensite}. The corrosion behavior of A508–Alloy 52 M interface region is galvanic corrosion, in which Alloy 52 M is cathode while A508 is anode. The martensite dissolves faster than Alloy 52 M, but slower than A508 in the test solution. - Highlights: • The A508–Alloy 52 M interface regions can be categorized into two types. • The chromium depleted region is observed along the Alloy 52 M grain boundary. • The Alloy 52 M grain boundaries which are close to the interface are ferromagnetic. • Martensite zone has lower Volta potential but higher corrosion resistance than A508.

  18. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  19. Mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates after an SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase producing strain subsided in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cacci, Luciana Camila; Chuster, Stephanie Gomes; Martins, Natacha; do Carmo, Pâmella Rodrigues; Girão, Valéria Brígido de Carvalho; Nouér, Simone Aranha; de Freitas, Wania Vasconcelos; de Matos, Juliana Arruda; Magalhães, Ana Cristina de Gouveia; Ferreira, Adriana Lúcia Pires; Picão, Renata Cristina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistance mechanisms are a challenge in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We investigated changes in P. aeruginosa carbapenem-resistance determinants over a time period of eight years after the emergence of São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for P. aeruginosa colonisation and followed for the occurrence of infections from April 2007 to April 2008. The ICU environment was also sampled. Isolates were typed using random amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and E-test, production of carbapenemases by a modified-CarbaNP test and presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes by polymerase chain reaction. Non-carbapenemase resistance mechanisms studied included efflux and AmpC overexpression by PAβN and cloxacillin susceptibility enhancement, respectively, as well as oprD mutations. From 472 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (93 patients) and 17 isolates from the ICU environment, high genotypic diversity and several international clones were observed; one environment isolate belonged to the blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa epidemic genotype. Among isolates from infections, 10 (29%) were carbapenem resistant: none produced carbapenemases, three exhibited all non-carbapenemase mechanisms studied, six presented a combination of two mechanisms, and one exclusively displayed oprD mutations. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa displayed a polyclonal profile after the SPM-1 epidemic genotype declined. This phenomenon is connected with blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa replaced by other carbapenem-resistant pathogens. PMID:27653359

  20. Mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in endemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates after an SPM-1 metallo-β-lactamase producing strain subsided in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cacci, Luciana Camila; Chuster, Stephanie Gomes; Martins, Natacha; Carmo, Pâmella Rodrigues do; Girão, Valéria Brígido de Carvalho; Nouér, Simone Aranha; Freitas, Wania Vasconcelos de; Matos, Juliana Arruda de; Magalhães, Ana Cristina de Gouveia; Ferreira, Adriana Lúcia Pires; Picão, Renata Cristina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2016-09-01

    Carbapenem-resistance mechanisms are a challenge in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. We investigated changes in P. aeruginosa carbapenem-resistance determinants over a time period of eight years after the emergence of São Paulo metallo-β-lactamase in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for P. aeruginosa colonisation and followed for the occurrence of infections from April 2007 to April 2008. The ICU environment was also sampled. Isolates were typed using random amplified polymorphic DNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion and E-test, production of carbapenemases by a modified-CarbaNP test and presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes by polymerase chain reaction. Non-carbapenemase resistance mechanisms studied included efflux and AmpC overexpression by PAβN and cloxacillin susceptibility enhancement, respectively, as well as oprD mutations. From 472 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (93 patients) and 17 isolates from the ICU environment, high genotypic diversity and several international clones were observed; one environment isolate belonged to the blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa epidemic genotype. Among isolates from infections, 10 (29%) were carbapenem resistant: none produced carbapenemases, three exhibited all non-carbapenemase mechanisms studied, six presented a combination of two mechanisms, and one exclusively displayed oprD mutations. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa displayed a polyclonal profile after the SPM-1 epidemic genotype declined. This phenomenon is connected with blaSPM-1 P. aeruginosa replaced by other carbapenem-resistant pathogens.

  1. Molecular detection of metallo-β-lactamase genes, bla IMP-1, bla VIM-2 and bla SPM-1 in imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical specimens in teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moosavian, Mojtaba; Rahimzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    Carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious cause of nosocomial infections. The main purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence rate of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL) genes. 236 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from teaching hospitals of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences during a period of 9 months in 2012. These strains were identified using conventional microbiological tests. The susceptibility of isolates to antibiotics were assessed using disk diffusion test. The IMP-EDTA combination disk phenotypic test was performed for detection of MBL producing strains. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect MBL genes, bla IMP-1, bla VIM-2 and bla SPM-1 in imipenem resistant strains. Out of 236 examined isolates, 122 isolates (51.4%) were resistant to imipenem. The IMP-EDTA combination test showed that among 122 imipenem resistant strains, 110 strains (90%) were phenotipically MBL producers. Additionally, the results of PCR method showed that 2 strains (1.6%) and 67strains (55%) of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates contained bla VIM-2 and bla IMP-1 genes respectively. No SPM-1gene was found in the examined samples. Resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to imipenem due to MBL enzymes is increasing in Ahavaz. Because of clinical significance of this kind of resistance, rapid detection of MBL producing strains and followed by appropriate treatment is necessary to prevent the spreading of these organisms.

  2. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients.

  3. Detection of P. aeruginosa harboring bla CTX-M-2, bla GES-1 and bla GES-5, bla IMP-1 and bla SPM-1 causing infections in Brazilian tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nosocomial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa presenting resistance to beta-lactam drugs are one of the most challenging targets for antimicrobial therapy, leading to substantial increase in mortality rates in hospitals worldwide. In this context, P. aeruginosa harboring acquired mechanisms of resistance, such as production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have the highest clinical impact. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the presence of genes codifying for MBLs and ESBLs among carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa isolated in a Brazilian 720-bed teaching tertiary care hospital. Methods Fifty-six carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains were evaluated for the presence of MBL and ESBL genes. Strains presenting MBL and/or ESBL genes were submitted to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genetic similarity evaluation. Results Despite the carbapenem resistance, genes for MBLs (blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1) were detected in only 26.7% of isolates. Genes encoding ESBLs were detected in 23.2% of isolates. The blaCTX-M-2 was the most prevalent ESBL gene (19.6%), followed by blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 detected in one isolate each. In all isolates presenting MBL phenotype by double-disc synergy test (DDST), the blaSPM-1 or blaIMP-1 genes were detected. In addition, blaIMP-1 was also detected in three isolates which did not display any MBL phenotype. These isolates also presented the blaCTX-M-2 gene. The co-existence of blaCTX-M-2 with blaIMP-1 is presently reported for the first time, as like as co-existence of blaGES-1 with blaIMP-1. Conclusions In this study MBLs production was not the major mechanism of resistance to carbapenems, suggesting the occurrence of multidrug efflux pumps, reduction in porin channels and production of other beta-lactamases. The detection of blaCTX-M-2,blaGES-1 and blaGES-5 reflects the recent emergence of ESBLs among antimicrobial resistant P. aeruginosa and the extraordinary

  4. Anomalous scaling of Δ C versus T c in the Fe-based superconductors: the ${S}_{\\pm }$-wave pairing state model

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Yunkyu; Stewart, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The strong power law behavior of the specific heat jump ${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$ versus T c $({\\rm{\\Delta }}C/{T}_{{\\rm{c}}}\\sim {T}_{{\\rm{c}}}^{\\alpha },\\alpha \\approx 2)$, first observed by Bud'ko et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 220516), has been confirmed with several families of the Fe-based superconducting compounds with various dopings. We tested a minimal two band BCS model to understand this anomalous behavior and showed that this non-BCS relation between ${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$ versus T c is a generic property of the multiband superconducting state paired by a dominant interband interaction (${V}_{\\mathrm{inter}}\\gt {V}_{\\mathrm{intra}}$) reflecting the relation $\\frac{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{h}}}}{{{\\rm{\\Delta }}}_{{\\rm{e}}}}\\sim \\sqrt{\\frac{{N}_{{\\rm{e}}}}{{N}_{{\\rm{h}}}}}$ near T c, as in the ${S}_{\\pm }$-wave pairing state. We also found that this ${\\rm{\\Delta }}C\\;$ versus T c power law can continuously change from the ideal BNC scaling to a considerable deviation by a moderate variation of the impurity scattering rate ${{\\rm{\\Gamma }}}_{0}$ (non-pair-breaking). Finally, as a result, our model provides a consistent explanation why the electron-doped Fe-based superconductors follow the ideal BNC scaling very well while the hole-doped systems often show varying degree of deviations.

  5. Role of Spm-Cer-S1P signalling pathway in MMP-2 mediated U46619-induced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells: protective role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Animesh; Sarkar, Jaganmay; Chakraborti, Tapati; Chakraborti, Sajal

    2015-10-01

    During remodelling of pulmonary artery, marked proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) occurs, which contributes to pulmonary hypertension. Thromboxane A2 (TxA2) has been shown to produce pulmonary hypertension. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the TxA2 mimetic, U46619-induced proliferation of PASMCs. U46619 at a concentration of 10 nM induces maximum proliferation of bovine PASMCs. Both pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of p(38)MAPK, NF-κB and MMP-2 significantly inhibit U46619-induced cell proliferation. EGCG markedly abrogate U46619-induced p(38)MAPK phosphorylation, NF-κB activation, proMMP-2 expression and activation, and also the cell proliferation. U46619 causes an increase in the activation of sphingomyelinase (SMase) and sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and also increase sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) level. U46619 also induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which phosphorylates SPHK leading to an increase in S1P level. Both pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of SMase and SPHK markedly inhibit U46619-induced cell proliferation. Additionally, pharmacological and genetic inhibitors of MMP-2 markedly abrogate U46619-induced SMase activity and S1P level. EGCG markedly inhibit U46619-induced SMase activity, ERK1/2 and SPHK phosphorylation and S1P level in the cells. Overall, Sphingomyeline-Ceramide-Sphingosine-1-phosphate (Spm-Cer-S1P) signalling axis plays an important role in MMP-2 mediated U46619-induced proliferation of PASMCs. Importantly, EGCG inhibits U46619 induced increase in MMP-2 activation by modulating p(38)MAPK-NFκB pathway and subsequently prevents the cell proliferation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  7. Scan speed control for tapping mode SPM

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the imaging speed of a scanning probe microscope in tapping mode, we propose to use a dynamic controller on 'parachuting' regions. Furthermore, we propose to use variable scan speed on 'upward step' regions, with the speed determined by the error signal of the closed-loop control. We offer line traces obtained on a calibration grating with 25-nm step height, using both standard scanning and our scanning method, as experimental evidence. PMID:22333220

  8. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  10. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  11. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  13. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  14. Hydrogen-atom transfer in reactions of organic radicals with [Co(II)(por)]* (por = porphyrinato) and in subsequent addition of [Co(H)(por)] to olefins.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Bas; Dzik, Wojciech I; Li, Shan; Wayland, Bradford B

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for hydrogen-atom transfer from the cyanoisopropyl radical (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) (yielding [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))(CN); por = porphyrinato) and the insertion of vinyl acetate (CH(2)=CHOAc) into the Co-H bond of [Co(H)(por)] (giving [Co(III){CH(OAc)CH(3)}(por)]) were investigated by DFT calculations. The results are compared with experimental data. These reactions are relevant to catalytic chain transfer (CCT) in radical polymerization of olefins mediated by [Co(II)(por)](*), the formation and homolysis of organo-cobalt complexes that mediate living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, and cobalt-mediated hydrogenation of olefins. Hydrogen transfer from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) proceeds via a single transition state that has structural features resembling the products [Co(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. The separated radicals approach to form a close-contact radical pair and then pass through the transition state for hydrogen-atom transfer to form [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. This process provides a very low overall barrier for the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction (DeltaG(double dagger) = +3.8 kcal mol(-1)). The reverse reaction corresponding to the addition of [Co(H)(por)] to CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN has a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +8.9 kcal mol(-1)) as well. Insertion of vinyl acetate into the Co-H bond of [Co(III)(H)(por)] also proceeds over a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +11.4 kcal mol(-1)) hydrogen-transfer step from [Co(III)(H)(por)] to a carbon atom of the alkene to produce a close-contact radical pair. Dissociation of the radical pair, reorientation, and radical-radical coupling to form an organo-cobalt complex are the culminating steps in the net insertion of an olefin into the Co-H bond. The computed energies obtained for the hydrogen-atom transfer reactions from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) and from [Co(H)(por)] to olefins, as well as the organo-cobalt bond homolysis

  15. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  16. CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Gonzales, Irene; Carrasco, Luis; Ruiz, E.; Leija-Salas, Lorenzo; Skrutskie, M.; Meyer, Michael R.; Sotelo, P.; Barbosa, P.; Gutierrez, Leonel; Iriarte, Arturo; Cobos, Francisco J.; Bernal, Abel; Sanchez, Beatriz; Valdez, J.; Arguelles, S.; Conconi, Paolo

    1994-06-01

    The development of the IR camera and spectrograph (CAMILA) is described. It is based on a NICMOS 3 HgCdTe detector developed by Rockwell with a spectral response of 1 to 2.5 micrometers . The initial configuration of the system was recently concluded and consists of the following components: detector cryostat, detector control electronics, low noise preamplifiers, detector-PC interface, operating system and optics. The characterization of the electronics and the science grade chip are presented. The complete optical configuration allows the following modes of operation: direct imaging (12 filter positions), polarimetry and spectroscopy on three dispersion modes (low, medium, and high resolution). Preliminary spectroscopic results at the H band with R equals 1500 are presented. The project is a collaborative effort of groups from IAUNAM and UMASS (Amherst) and will be used mainly at the 2.1-m telescope of San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico).

  17. Framed carbon nanostructures: synthesis and applications in functional SPM tips.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, I S; Fadeev, I V; Zhukov, M V; Dubrovskii, V G; Golubok, A O

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis method to fabricate framed carbon-based nanostructures having highly anisotropic shapes, in particular, the nanofork and nanoscalpel structures which are obtained systematically under optimized growth conditions. A theoretical model is developed to explain the formation of such nanostructures on Si cantilevers and W etched wires exposed to a focused electron beam. We then demonstrate the potentials of these nanostructures as functional tips for scanning probe microscopy. Owing to their anisotropic shapes, such tips can be very useful for nanolithography, nanosurgery of biological objects, and precise manipulation with surface particles. Overall, our method provides a simple and robust way to produce functional scanning probe microscopy tips with variable shapes and enhanced capabilities for different applications compared to standard cantilevers.

  18. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  19. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  20. Design of AN Ultra-High Vacuum Scanned Probe Microscope (spm) and Application of SPM to Ceramic Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudd, Gregory Ian

    Scanned probe microscopies are a class of techniques in which a sharp probe is brought very close to a surface by stable micropositioners. Some interaction between them is sensed and may be used to maintain a setpoint value as the probe is scanned above or along the surface. Examples are scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which senses the current that flows when a small bias is imposed between a sharp metal tip and conductive surface, and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which senses the forces between a sharp tip and a surface. These have proved to be sensitive probes of surface structure and chemistry, resolving atom-to-atom variations on the surface. The construction of an AFM/STM instrument compatible with an ultra-high vacuum environment is described. Atomic resolution is demonstrated in both modes. Investigations of the surface structure of various ceramic materials by STM and AFM are discussed. The adsorption of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) onto graphite is explored. Adsorption is enhanced by exposure to TEOS plasma. The results are observed in STM images. The atomic-scale structure of the surface of two molybdenum bronzes, rm Rb_{0.3 }MoO_3 and rm Na_ {0.9}MoO_6O_{17}, is also observed by STM. The STM tip is used to deliberately modify the bronze surfaces. It appears that the tip penetrates the surface under certain conditions. This is attributed in part to the low-dimensional conductivity of the materials. The use of the AFM to measure interfacial forces between the tip and silicate glasses is described. Using a tungsten tip on 30 mole% alkali glasses in ambient conditions and controlled atmosphere, a soft, reacted layer can be detected. The layer is attributed to reaction with CO _2 and water, occurring in the order Li < Na < K. Spatial variations in the adhesion force are observed on alkali glass surfaces, but not on pure v-silica, fractured in vacuum. This heterogeneity was attributed to the alkali glass structure. Pure v-silica was reacted with octyldimethylchlorosilane to yield a C8 covered surface. Probing of the interfacial forces with a C8 coated tip indicated that surface coverage was not homogeneous.

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(por)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas

    2010-08-11

    The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(por)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(por) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(por) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate.

  4. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development.

  5. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  6. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  7. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  8. La ionosfera lunare studiata per mezzo delle occultazioni della sonda SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, S.; Schillirã², F.; Maccone, C.; Maccaferri, G.; Derosa, C.; Firrone, C. M.

    2007-08-01

    European spacecraft SMART-1 provided an opportunity to investigate the lunar ionosphere. A set of occulations of the Moon ionosphere was obtained between August 29th and September 1st 2006. Radio occulation data in S, X and Ka-band by #2 32-meter IRA-INAF radiotelescopes were gathered. A good model of the lunar ionosphere emerged.

  9. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  10. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  11. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  12. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic POR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239

  13. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  14. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-12-16

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment.

  15. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Han

    2011-07-01

    To construct a fused expression vector of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, express the fusion protein in the prokaryotic system, and obtain a gene recombination protein, for the purpose of preparing the ground for further research on the pathopoiesis and immune protective response of PorB. A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequence of the PorB gene, and the PorB gene was amplified by PCR from the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29403 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-1 to generate pGEX-4T-PorB recombinants. The recombinant plasmid pGEX4T-PorB was transferred into competent cells E. coli BL21. After confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, the recombinant protein was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the PorB gene of 1 047 bp was amplified from Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and highly expressed in E. coli. The prokaryotic expression vector of pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and efficiently expressed in the prokaryotic system, which has provided a basis for further study on the biological activity of the PorB protein, as well as animal immune experiment and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and its application as a mucosal immune vaccine.

  16. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.

  17. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  18. Impact of POR*28 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Hesselink, Dennis A; Bouamar, Rachida; Budde, Klemens; de Fijter, Johannes W; De Meyer, Martine; Mourad, Michel; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2014-02-01

    The P450 oxidoreductase (POR)*28 variant allele has been associated with altered cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activities. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of calcineurin inhibitors and recent data show that POR*28 may explain part of the variability observed in tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the POR*28 allele on Tac and cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressive therapies. Kidney transplant recipients receiving either Tac (n = 184) or CsA (n = 174), participating in a prospective multicenter trial, were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3. CYP3A5 expressers that were carriers of at least 1 POR*28 allele had a 16.9% decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations when compared CYP3A5 expressers that carried the POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.03), indicating an increased CYP3A5 activity for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5, nonexpressers carrying 2 POR*28 alleles, a 24.1% (confidence interval95% = -39.4% to -4.9%; P = 0.02) decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations was observed for Tac, suggesting higher CYP3A4 activity. For CsA, POR*28/*28 patients not expressing CYP3A5 and not carrying the CYP3A4*22 decrease-of-function allele showed 15% lower CsA dose-adjusted predose concentrations (P = 0.01), indicating also increased CYP3A4 activity. In both cohorts (ie, Tac and CsA), the POR*28 allele was neither associated with the incidence of delayed graft function nor with biopsy-proven acute rejection. These results were further confirmed in 2 independent cohorts. Our results show that the POR*28 allele is associated with increased in vivo CYP3A5 activity for Tac in CYP3A5 expressers, whereas POR*28 homozygosity was associated with a significant higher CYP3A4 activity in CYP3A5 nonexpressers for both Tac and CsA.

  19. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  20. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  1. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  2. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  3. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  4. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  5. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  6. Impact of POR*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2013-03-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The POR*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the POR*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4. To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3. In patients expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with POR*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, POR*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, POR*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism. Our data show that the POR*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.

  7. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  8. Hexacoordinate oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH3)(O2) react with NO to form only the nitrato analogs Fe(Por)(NH3)(η1-ONO2), even at ~100 K.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2010-12-07

    The oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH(3))(O(2)), prepared by sequential reactions of O(2) ((18)O(2)) and NH(3) with thin porous layers of Fe(II)(Por), react with NO ((15)NO) at 80-100 K to form only the low-spin nitrato complexes Fe(Por)(NH(3))(η(1)-ONO(2)), thus implying that peroxynitrite intermediates, if formed, must undergo very facile isomerization to the nitrato analog.

  9. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  10. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.

  11. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  12. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  13. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  14. Towards solar activity maximum 24 as seen by GOLF and VIRGO/SPM instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, R. A.; Salabert, D.; Mathur, S.; Régulo, C.; Ballot, J.; Davies, G. R.; Jiménez, A.; Simoniello, R.

    2013-06-01

    All p-mode parameters vary with time as a response to the changes induced by the cyclic behavior of solar magnetic activity. After the unusual long solar-activity minimum between cycles 23 and 24 -where the p-mode parameters have shown a different behavior than the surface magnetic proxies- we analyze the temporal variation of low-degree p-mode parameters measured by GOLF (in velocity) and VIRGO (in intensity) Sun-as-a-star instruments on board SoHO. We compare our results with other activity proxies.

  15. SPM Study and Growth Mechanism of Graphene Directly CVD-Grown on h-BN Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Jae; Kim, Minwoo; Wu, Qinke; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Sungjoo; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    We present our Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)/Spectroscopy (STS) and Kelvin Probe Force Microscope (KPFM) study for graphene directly CVD-grown on h-BN film. High resolution STM image shows perfect honeycomb lattice structure of graphene on top surface and Moiré pattern indicating the structural interference patter with the underlying h-BN crystal. Non-disturbed electronic structure of graphene on h-BN film is also confirmed by spatially-resolved STS measurements, which show very sharp and symmetric V shape with a Dirac point at Fermi level. To confirm the graphene growth mechanism on h-BN film/Cu foil, careful Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) measurements were performed on different thickness of h-BN film on a SiO2 substrate to unveil the catalytic origin of graphene growth on h-BN/Cu. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (Grant Numbers: 2009-0083540, 2011-0030046, 2012R1A1A2020089 and 2012R1A1A1041416).

  16. Nanoelectrical probing with multiprobe SPM Systems compatible with scanning electron microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Ignatov, Andrey; Taha, Hesham; Zhinoviev, Oleg; Komissar, Anatoly; Krol, Alexander; Lewis, David

    2011-03-01

    A scanning electron microscope compatible platform that permits multiprobe atomic force microscopy based nanoelectrical characterization will be described. To achieve such multiple parameter nanocharacterization with scanning electron microscope compatibility involves a number of innovations both in instrument and probe design. This presentation will focus on how these advances were achieved and the results obtained with such instrumentation on electrical nano-characterization and electrical nano-manipulation. The advances include: 1. Specialized scanners; 2. An ultrasensitive feedback mechanism based on tuning forks with no optical feedback interference that can induce carriers in semiconductor devices; and 3. Unique probes compatible with multiprobe geometries in which the probe tips can be brought into physical contact with one another. Experiments will be described with such systems that will include multiprobe electrical measurements with metal and glass coated coaxial nanowires of platinum. This combination of scanning electron microscopes integrated with multiprobe instrumentation allows for important applications not available today in the field of semiconductor processing technology.

  17. PROPER-MOTION STUDY OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS USING SPM MATERIAL

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, Katherine; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F.; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Korchagin, Vladimir I.; Herrera, David E-mail: terry.girard@yale.ed

    2010-12-15

    Absolute proper motions are determined for stars and galaxies to V = 17.5 over a 450 deg{sup 2} area that encloses both Magellanic Clouds. The proper motions are based on photographic and CCD observations of the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion program, which span a baseline of 40 years. Multiple, local relative proper-motion measures are combined in an overlap solution using photometrically selected Galactic disk stars to define a global relative system that is then transformed to absolute using external galaxies and Hipparcos stars to tie into the ICRS. The resulting catalog of 1.4 million objects is used to derive the mean absolute proper motions of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC); ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub LMC} = (1.89, + 0.39) {+-} (0.27, 0.27) masyr{sup -1} and ({mu}{sub {alpha}}cos {delta}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC} = (0.98, - 1.01) {+-} (0.30, 0.29) masyr{sup -1}. These mean motions are based on best-measured samples of 3822 LMC stars and 964 SMC stars. A dominant portion (0.25 mas yr{sup -1}) of the formal errors is due to the estimated uncertainty in the inertial system of the Hipparcos Catalog stars used to anchor the bright end of our proper motion measures. A more precise determination can be made for the proper motion of the SMC relative to the LMC; ({mu}{sub {alpha}cos {delta}}, {mu}{sub {delta}}){sub SMC-LMC} = (-0.91, - 1.49) {+-} (0.16, 0.15) masyr{sup -1}. This differential value is combined with measurements of the proper motion of the LMC taken from the literature to produce new absolute proper-motion determinations for the SMC, as well as an estimate of the total velocity difference of the two clouds to within {+-}54 km s{sup -1}. The absolute proper-motion results are consistent with the Clouds' orbits being marginally bound to the Milky Way, albeit on an elongated orbit. The inferred relative velocity between the Clouds places them near their binding energy limit and, thus, no definitive conclusion can be made as to whether or not the Clouds are bound to one another.

  18. AE9/AP9/SPM Radiation Environment Model: User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    calculation results . Dose calculation results are also available. The GUI program ‘testAe9Ap9Gui.exe’ provides a graphical user interface to specify an...automatically generated according to the user’s selections in the interface. Basic 2D plots of the model results may also be produced. In addition to this...interface for producing mission statistics Aggregates results of many MC scenarios (flux, fluence, mean, percentiles) Provides access to orbit

  19. AE9/AP9/SPM Model Application Programming Interface, Version 1.00.000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-18

    propagator, a SatEph implementation and a Kepler +J2 only propagator. Clients of this class can choose which to use... Kepler -J2 orbit propagator Parameters: none Return values: none void useSGP4ImprovedMode...values: none void setOrbitType ( const string& strOrbit ) Usage: Sets the type of orbit to compute for the Kepler /J2 propagator. Valid values are

  20. SPM Investigation of superhard carbon prepared from C{sub 60} fullerene

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanien, A.; Tokumoto, M.; Kozlov, M. E.

    1999-09-30

    A very hard and conducting form of carbon was obtained from C{sub 60} fullerene at moderately high pressure (2.6-3GPa) and temperature (700C). The hardness of the material is more than 4000 kg/mm{sup 2}. Its electrical conductivity is about 100 S/cm and is weakly dependent on temperature. A comparative {sup 13}C NMR study shows no explicit evidence for the presence of diamond like sp{sup 3}-character. So far, it has been of great difficulties to correlate between the atomic structure and these remarkable physical properties, as X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show lack of long-range crystalline order. In this report we shall present structure and property analysis measured by STM and STS techniques. High-resolution topographic images reveal the mesoscopic structure in which spherical metallic nano-clusters of size up to 6 nm, are covalently interlinked. The atomic structure of the nanoclusters contains pentagon rings, which in turn introduces a curvature in the graphene lattice. The presence of pentagon rings suggests that the bonding carry non-planer sp{sup 2}-character which might be correlated with the observed significant hardness.

  1. Influence of Group on Individual Subject Maps in SPM Voxel Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Andrew M.; Evans, Eli; Moore, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a widely utilized neuroimaging technique for spatially normalizing brain structural MRI (sMRI) onto a common template. The DARTEL technique of VBM takes into account the spatial intensity distribution of sMRIs to construct a study specific group template. The group template is then used to create final individual normalized tissue maps (FINTM) for each subject in the group. In this study, we investigate the effect of group on FINTM, i.e., we evaluate the variability of a constant subject's FINTM when other subjects in the group are iteratively changed. We examine this variability under the following scenarios: (1) when the demographics of the iterative groups are similar, (2) when the average age of the iterative groups is increased, and (3) when the number of subjects with a brain disorder (here we use subjects with autism) is increased. Our results show that when subject demographics of the group remains similar the mean standard deviation (SD) of FINTM gray matter (GM) of the constant subject was around 0.01. As the average age of the group is increased, mean SD of GM increased to around 0.03 and at certain brain locations variability was as high as 0.23. A similar increase in variability was observed when the number of autism subjects in the group was increased where mean SD was around 0.02. Further, we find that autism vs. control GM differences are in the range of −0.05 to +0.05 for more than 97% of the voxels and note that the magnitude of the differences are comparable to GM variability. Finally, we report that opting not to modulate during normalization or increasing the size of the smoothing kernel can decrease FINTM variability but at the loss of subject-specific features. Based on the findings of this study, we outline precautions that should be considered by investigators to reduce the impact of group on FINTM and thereby derive more meaningful group differences when comparing two cohorts of subjects. PMID:27994534

  2. Influence of Group on Individual Subject Maps in SPM Voxel Based Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Michael, Andrew M; Evans, Eli; Moore, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a widely utilized neuroimaging technique for spatially normalizing brain structural MRI (sMRI) onto a common template. The DARTEL technique of VBM takes into account the spatial intensity distribution of sMRIs to construct a study specific group template. The group template is then used to create final individual normalized tissue maps (FINTM) for each subject in the group. In this study, we investigate the effect of group on FINTM, i.e., we evaluate the variability of a constant subject's FINTM when other subjects in the group are iteratively changed. We examine this variability under the following scenarios: (1) when the demographics of the iterative groups are similar, (2) when the average age of the iterative groups is increased, and (3) when the number of subjects with a brain disorder (here we use subjects with autism) is increased. Our results show that when subject demographics of the group remains similar the mean standard deviation (SD) of FINTM gray matter (GM) of the constant subject was around 0.01. As the average age of the group is increased, mean SD of GM increased to around 0.03 and at certain brain locations variability was as high as 0.23. A similar increase in variability was observed when the number of autism subjects in the group was increased where mean SD was around 0.02. Further, we find that autism vs. control GM differences are in the range of -0.05 to +0.05 for more than 97% of the voxels and note that the magnitude of the differences are comparable to GM variability. Finally, we report that opting not to modulate during normalization or increasing the size of the smoothing kernel can decrease FINTM variability but at the loss of subject-specific features. Based on the findings of this study, we outline precautions that should be considered by investigators to reduce the impact of group on FINTM and thereby derive more meaningful group differences when comparing two cohorts of subjects.

  3. Program listing for heat-pump seasonal-performance model (SPM). [CNHSPM

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The computer program CNHSPM is listed which predicts heat pump seasonal energy consumption (including defrost, cyclic degradation, and supplementary heat) using steady state rating point performance and binned weather data. (LEW)

  4. Recent developments of DMI's operational system: Coupled Ecosystem-Circulation-and SPM model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murawski, Jens; Tian, Tian; Dobrynin, Mikhail

    2010-05-01

    ECOOP is a pan- European project with 72 partners from 29 countries around the Baltic Sea, the North Sea, the Iberia-Biscay-Ireland region, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. The project aims at the development and the integration of the different coastal and regional observation and forecasting systems. The Danish Meteorological Institute DMI coordinates the project and is responsible for the Baltic Sea regional forecasting System. Over the project period, the Baltic Sea system was developed from a purely hydro dynamical model (version V1), running operationally since summer 2009, to a coupled model platform (version V2), including model components for the simulation of suspended particles, data assimilation and ecosystem variables. The ECOOP V2 model is currently tested and validated, and will replace the V1 version soon. The coupled biogeochemical- and circulation model runs operationally since November 2009. The daily forecasts are presented at DMI's homepage http:/ocean.dmi.dk. The presentation includes a short description of the ECOOP forecasting system, discusses the model results and shows the outcome of the model validation.

  5. Fabrication and transport property of artificial structure of CNTs using SPM nano-manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maejima, K.; Kida, M.; Yaguchi, Y.; Sudo, K.; Kawamura, T.; Morimoto, T.; Aoki, N.; Ochiai, Y.

    2007-04-01

    We have established a novel manipulation technique using a glass-micro capillary under a high-resolution CCD microscope so far. Two isolated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are settled to form a well-aligned cross structure. Recently, we have tried to develop a fine manipulation system using a scanning probe microscope with a silicon cantilever. Therefore, thinner high-quality MWNTs (˜10 nm in diameter) can be utilized in this system. At the junction, we have observed weak localization and Fano-like-effect, zero bias anomaly whose traces were visible even at room temperature with thick MWNTs (˜100 nm in diameter). On the other hand, with thinner high-quality MWNTs (˜10 nm in diameter), we have observed also anomalous I-V characteristic and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak-like magneto-oscillations at low temperature in the nano-space transport.

  6. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  7. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  8. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  9. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  10. Delayed diagnosis of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Koika, Vasiliki; Armeni, Anastasia K; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2016-04-01

    A 36-year old man, operated on for cryptorchidism at the age of 8 years, was referred to the Outpatient Clinic of Reproductive Endocrinology for investigation of infertility. Clinical examination revealed ambiguous genitalia: penis 4-5 cm, testicular volume 2-3 ml, hypospadias, hypertrophic foreskin and scrotum bifida. Mild hypertension was confirmed. No skeletal malformations were detected. Hormonal and electrolytic determinations as well as semen analysis were conducted. PCR of the coding regions of 17-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17) and of P450 oxidoreductase (POR) genes was also performed. Normal levels of electrolytes, low levels of androgens, high levels of gonadotropins and 17-hydroxyprogesterone as well as azoospermia were detected. Karyotype was shown to be 46,XY. Both hCG and ACTH stimulation significantly increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone with no increase in androgens. The diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450c17 and P450c21 deficiency due to mutations in the POR gene. Sequencing of the POR gene revealed: one deletion in exon 12 (Del 1696_1698delGTC >del531Valine) and one missense mutation in exon 7 (A259G) as well as two polymorphisms: rs1057868 (C/T A503V) and rs1057870 (G/A S572S) in exons 12 and 13, respectively. No nucleotide changes were detected in the 8 exons of P450c17. Molecular findings were consistent with the diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. Despite this severe deficiency, skeletal malformations simulating Antley-Bixler syndrome, which usually characterize the most severe forms, were not confirmed. This discrepancy could be attributed to the differential impact of a POR variant on each one of the P450 enzymes.

  11. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  12. A Lack of Significant Effect of POR*28 Allelic Variant on Tacrolimus Exposure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Vuillemin, Xavier; Etienne, Isabelle; Buchler, Mathias; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Choukroun, Gabriel; Colosio, Charlotte; Thierry, Antoine; Vigneau, Cécile; Moulin, Bruno; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Heng, Anne-Elizabeth; Subra, Jean-Francois; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie Anne; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    POR*28 is a recently newly described allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), which might be associated with an increased metabolic activity of P450 cytochromes (CYP) 3A5 and 3A4. Consequently, carriers of at least 1 allele of this polymorphism could require increased calcineurin inhibitors doses to reach the target residual concentrations (C0). The objective of this study was to test whether the allelic variant of POR, which is associated with an increased metabolic activity of CYP3A, impacts tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. We tested this hypothesis in a population of 229 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) from a large, multicenter, prospective and randomized study. We have analyzed the association between POR*28 genotype and the proportion of individuals reaching the target Tac residual concentration (Tac C0) 10 days after transplantation. We have also measured the association between POR*28 and the Tac C0, and adjusted Tac C0 (Tac C0/Tac dose) over time using generalized mixed linear models. Ten days after transplantation, there was no difference of frequencies of KTR within the target range of Tac C0 (C0 10-15 ng/mL) according to the POR*28 genotype (P = 0.8). The mean Tac C0 at day 10 in the POR*1/*1 group was 15.3 ± 9.7 ng/mL compared with 15.7 ± 7.8 ng/mL in the POR*1/*28 group and 14.2 ± 6.8 ng/mL, in the POR*28/*28 group, P = 0.8. The adjusted Tac C0 was not associated with POR*28 genotype over time (random effects model, P = 0.9). When restricted to KTR expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 genotype did not impact the proportion of individuals within the Tac C0 target range neither the adjusted Tac C0 (random effects model, P = 0.1). POR*28 does not significantly influence Tac pharmacokinetic parameters in a large cohort of KTR. This study does not confirm recent findings indicating that POR*28 carriers require more Tac to reach target C0.

  13. P450 oxidoreductase *28 (POR*28) and tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gijsen, Violette M G J; van Schaik, Ron H N; Soldin, Offie P; Soldin, Steven J; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2014-04-01

    Both age and CYP3A5 genotype are important determinants of tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In a recent study in adults, POR*28 was associated with increased dosing requirements early after transplant of CYP3A5-expressing kidney transplant recipients. The authors aimed to evaluate the additional contribution of POR*28 to early tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Retrospective data of 43 pediatric kidney transplant recipients up to 14 days posttransplant were evaluated on tacrolimus dose and tacrolimus predose blood concentrations. Recipient POR*28 and CYP3A5 genotype were determined. CYP3A5 expressers carrying at least 1 POR*28 allele had on average 18.3% lower tacrolimus predose concentrations and 20.2% lower concentration/dose ratios compared with CYP3A5 expressers with POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, tacrolimus disposition did not significantly differ between POR genotypes. In this small cohort of pediatric kidney transplant recipients, POR*28 genotype seems to explain part of the variability found in tacrolimus disposition, in addition to age and CYP3A5 genotype. This finding should be validated in a larger population, and it would be worthwhile to evaluate the clinical impact of this genotype.

  14. Two NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase (POR) Isoforms Play Distinct Roles in Environmental Adaptation in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Kim, Suk-Hwan; Song, Giha; Kim, Dami; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2017-12-01

    NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. To investigate whether the function of OsPORA can complement that of OsPORB, we constitutively overexpressed OsPORA in fgl mutant. In the 35S:OsPORA/fgl (termed OPAO) transgenic plants, the necrotic lesions of the mutant disappeared and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and proteins, as well as plastid structure, were recovered in developing leaves under natural long days in the paddy field and under short days in an artificially controlled growth room. Under constant light conditions, however, total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in the developing leaves of OPAO plants were lower than those of wild type. Moreover, the OPAO plants exhibited mild defects in mature leaves beginning at the early reproductive stage in the paddy field. The physiological function of OsPORB in response to constant light or during reproductive growth cannot be completely replaced by constitutive activity of OsPORA, although the biochemical functions of OsPORA and OsPORB are redundant. Therefore, we suggest that the two OsPORs have differentiated over the course of evolution, playing distinct roles in the adaptation of rice to the environment.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of POR, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of POR for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population.

  16. Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Guise, Christopher P; Wilson, William R

    2013-12-27

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

  17. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  18. Comparison of Serologic and Genetic porB-Based Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Consequences for Future Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Unemo, Magnus; Olcén, Per; Albert, Jan; Fredlund, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Due to temporal changes in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, a precise characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study genetic heterogeneity in the porB genes of N. gonorrhoeae was examined, and serovar determination was compared to porB gene sequencing. Among 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, phylogenetic analysis of the entire porB alleles (924 to 993 bp) identified 87 unique sequences. By analyzing only the four to six most heterogeneous porB gene regions (174 to 363 bp), 86 out of these 87 genetic variants were identified. Consequently, analysis of shorter highly variable regions of the porB gene generates high-level discriminatory ability as well as fast, objective, reproducible, and portable data for epidemiological characterization of N. gonorrhoeae. Regarding putative antigenic epitopes of PorB for Genetic Systems monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), some of the previous findings were confirmed, but new findings were also observed. For several of the MAbs, however, the precise amino acid residues of PorB critical for single-MAb reactivity were difficult to identify. In addition, repeated serovar determination of 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates revealed discrepancies for 34 isolates, mostly due to nonreproducible reactivity with single MAbs. Thus, the prospects of a genetic typing system with congruent translation of the serovar determination seem to be limited. In conclusion, analysis of short highly variable regions of the porB gene could form the basis for a fast molecular epidemiological tool for the examination of emergence and transmission of N. gonorrhoeae strains within the community. PMID:12958238

  19. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  20. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  1. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  2. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-05-01

    CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe(3+) and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe(3+) or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) or addition of 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). 5-ALA and Fe(3+) increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression.

  3. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  4. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  5. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  6. Interaction of nitrogen bases with iron-porphyrin nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Gulyan, Gurgen M; Ford, Peter C

    2007-08-20

    The reactions of the nitrogen Lewis bases (B) 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm), pyridine (Py), and NH3 as gases with sublimed layers containing the 5-coordinate nitrito iron(III)-porphyrinato complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1) are described (Por = meso-tetraphenyl-porphyrinato or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions). In situ FTIR and optical spectra are used to characterize the formation of the 6-coordinate nitro complexes formed by the reaction of 1 with B = 1-MeIm, Py, or NH3. These represent the first examples of 6-coordinate amino-nitro complexes with sterically unprotected iron-porphyrins. The interaction of ammonia with Fe(Por)(ONO) at 140 K initially led to the nitrito species Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-ONO), and this species isomerized to the nitro complexes Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-NO2) upon warming to 180 K. When the latter were warmed to room temperature under intense pumping, the initial nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) were restored. Assignments of vibrational frequencies for the coordinated nitro group in 6-coordinate iron-porphyrin complexes are given and confirmed using 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide to identify characteristic infrared bands. For M(Por)(B)(NO2) complexes (M = Fe or Co), an inverse correlation between the net charge transfer from the axial ligand B to the nitro group and the value of Deltanu = nua(NO2) - nus(NO2) is proposed. These observations are discussed in the context of growing interest in potential physiological roles of nitrite ion reactions with ferro- and ferri-heme proteins.

  7. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  8. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  9. Impact of PPARA and POR polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Malinowski, Damian; Dziewanowski, Krzysztof; Droździk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify genetic markers of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity within genes encoding for regulatory elements. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of polymorphism of PPARA and POR genes on tacrolimus (TAC) dose-adjusted trough concentration and risk of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). A total of 241 White kidney transplant patients were genotyped for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs1057868 (*28) in POR, rs4253728:G>A, and rs4823613:A>G in PPARA. No significant genotype-dependent differences in TAC dose-adjusted trough concentration were observed for either POR or PPARA variants. No significant differences in the incidence of NODAT were observed between patients stratified by PPARA and POR genotypes. The frequency of NODAT among PPARA rs4253728 AA homozygotes (42%) was higher compared with heterozygotes (22%) and GG homozygotes (19%), but the difference was not significant. Testing TAC-medicated renal transplant recipients for POR and PPARA variants seems to have limited clinical application.

  10. POR*28 SNP is associated with lipid response to atorvastatin in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Drogari, Euridiki; Ragia, Georgia; Mollaki, Vasiliki; Elens, Laure; Van Schaik, Ron H N; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G

    2014-12-01

    In children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) pharmacotherapy with statins is the cornerstone in the current regimen to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and premature coronary heart disease risk. There is, however, a great interindividual variation in response to therapy, partially attributed to genetic factors. The polymorphic enzyme POR transfers electrons from NADPH to CYP450 enzymes including CYP3A, which metabolize atorvastatin. POR*28 polymorphism is associated with increased CYP3A enzyme activity. We analyzed the association of POR*28 allele with response to atorvastatin. One hundred and five FH children and adolescents treated with atorvastatin at doses 10-40 mg were included in the study. Total cholesterol (TChol) and LDLc were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. POR*28 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay. CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G genotypes were also determined with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP methods. POR*28 carriers had significantly lower percent mean reduction of TChol (33.1% in *1/*1, 29.8% in *1/*28 and 25.9% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.045) and of LDLc (43.9% in *1/*1, 40.9% in *1/*28 and 30.8% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.013). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors, POR*28 genotypes, additionally to baseline cholesterol level, accounted for an estimated 8.3% and 7.3% of overall variability in % TChol and LDLc reduction (β: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.73-6.37; p = 0.001 and β: 5.08; 95% CI: 1.62-8.54; p = 0.004, respectively). CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G polymorphisms were not associated with lipid reductions and did not modify the effect of POR*28 on atorvastatin response. In children with FH, carriage of POR*28 allele is associated with reduced effect of atorvastatin on TChol and LDLc and therefore identifies FH children that may require higher atorvastatin doses to achieve full therapeutic benefits. Additional studies in

  11. Interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and lipid lowering response with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kan-kan; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-09-01

    The polymorphic enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme s, which metabolize atorvastatin. This suggests that variations in the CYP3A5 and POR genes may influence the response to statins. We aimed to investigate the association and interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by PCR with direct sequencing analysis for 179 hyperlipidaemic patients treated with atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after treatment. For the 179 patients (including 100 males), the variant allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 were 73.75 and 41.62 %, respectively. Among all patients, no significant association was found between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily for 4 weeks. Homozygotes for the POR*28 T allele showed a significantly lower mean concentration of LDL-C than homozygotes for the POR*28 C allele (POR*28 TT vs POR*28 CC: 2.46 ± 0.37 vs 2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P = 0.019) after treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg daily for 4 weeks. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, CYP3A5 non-expressors who were POR*28 wild-type homozygotes showed significantly higher mean TC and LDL-C levels than those who were POR*28 variant homozygotes, both at baseline (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 7.30 ± 0.73 vs 6.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L, P = 0.026; LDL-C: 3.88 ± 0.70 vs 3.47 ± 0.46 mmol/L, P = 0.009) and after atorvastatin treatment (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 6.03 ± 0.64 vs 5.69 ± 0.34 mmol/L, P = 0

  12. [Control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites with the program Recicla por tu bienestar in Merida, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.

  13. Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados por el Radiofisico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez

    Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, por lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta por medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC

  14. Mujeres felices por ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2003-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality among Latino women. Several behavioral factors such as early detection and dietary practices could help decrease morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this population. Unfortunately, there are few data regarding the efficacy of health-related interventions for young Latino women. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables is a randomized intervention project designed to assess breast cancer risk reduction behavior among Latino women ages 20-40 years. The primary objectives of the project were to determine whether an 8-month integrated dietary/breast health intervention could lead to a greater reduction in dietary fat, increase in dietary fiber, increase in the frequency and proficiency of breast self examination (BSE), and reduction in anxiety related to BSE compared to controls. Herein we describe the overall design of the project and present baseline characteristics of the 256 randomized women. Our results suggest that the average daily intake of dietary fat (percentage of total energy) was slightly below 30% (percentage of total energy) among the women randomized. While over half of these women reported that they practice BSE, and few reported anxiety related to BSE, less than 27% of women were proficient in the recommended BSE technique. There are few data on the dietary and breast health behaviors of young low-acculturated Latino women. This study documents the feasibility of recruiting, randomizing, and obtaining both baseline dietary and breast health data on this unique and underserved population.

  15. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  16. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  17. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  18. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  19. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  20. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-06-30

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer.

  1. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  2. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs.

  3. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  4. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  5. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  6. Thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin island (Republic of Tuva, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, Daria; Motenko, Rimma; Buldovich, Sergey; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Prosuncov, Kirill

    2010-05-01

    We investigated current permafrost state, thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin Island (Tere-Hol Lake, south-east part of Tuva republic, Russia). Rocks of the island are represented by dispersing grounds in permafrost state. The architectural monument Por-Bajin fortress (the middle of the VIII century) located at the island can be destructed due to thawing of frozen rocks resulted by water level rising in the surrounding Por-Bajin lake. Seasonally thawed layer on the island varies from 1.1 to 1.8 meters based on drilling observations from 13 drill holes the. Measured in the field the thermal conductivity indicates the low values in seasonally thawed layer (from 0.14 to 0.19 Wm-1K-1). Twenty most typical for the studied area frozen handsamples were collected from several holes in the depth interval from 1.5 to 10.15 meters. The humidity of sampled specimens varies from 13 to 270 percents and density varies from 1.21 to 2.17 g/cm3. Investigations of grain-size composition, thermal properties and liquid phase composition were undertaken using laboratory methods. The grain-size composition of Por-Bajin grounds varies from clays to gritstones and gravelites with clay-silt matrix. Phase composition of water in the frozen grounds was studied by contact and cryoscopic methods. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter). Based on obtained data computer model allowed to forecast the evolution of permafrost at the island and predict the destiny of Por-Bajin monument. This work was supported by grant from President of the Russian Federation NSh - 4078.2008.5

  7. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  8. The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua workers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua (spa) workers. We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP. For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR. Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  9. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    PubMed

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  10. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  11. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  13. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  14. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  15. Generation of sub-100 fs pulses from mode-locked Nd,Y:SrF2 laser with enhancing SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Wei, Long; Tian, Wenlong; Liu, Jiaxing; Wang, Zhaohua; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun; Wei, Zhiyi

    2016-05-01

    A mode-locked laser using Nd,Y:SrF2 crystal as the gain medium is presented in this letter. By special design of the cavity for enhancing the self-phase modulation effect, femtosecond mode-locking with 97 fs pulse duration and 13.2 nm spectral width centered at 1061 nm is obtained at a repetition rate of 96 MHz. The average output power is 102 mW under 925 mW pump power, corresponding to the optical-to-optical efficiency of 11%. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first sub-100 fs pulses generated from a mode-locked Nd doped crystal laser.

  16. Investigation of Specificity of Mechanical Properties of Hard Materials on Nanoscale with Use of SPM- Nanohardness Tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lvova, N. A.; Blank, V. D.; Gogolinskiy, K. V.; Kulibaba, V. F.

    2007-04-01

    Specifisities of deformation on nanoscale of hard brittle materials with the hardness exceeding 10 GP by means of scanning probe microscope - nanohardness tester "NanoScan" are investigated. It is found, that pile-up is forming at scratching of sample surface with use of diamond indenter. Heigh of this pile-up depends on hardness and elastic modulus of the material. Definition of the contact area without taking into account height of pile-up leads to an overestimation of hardness values. At scratching of silicon carbide surface a transition from plastic flow to fracture is found out. The results received allowed to estimate fracture toughness KIC for silicon carbide.

  17. Spectrally-Presaturated Modulation (SPM): An efficient fat suppression technique for STEAM-based cardiac imaging sequences.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Ahmed S; Ibrahim, El-Sayed H; Osman, Nael F

    2017-04-01

    Stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) is a key pulse sequences in MRI in general, and in cardiac imaging in particular. Fat suppression is an important feature in cardiac imaging to improve visualization and eliminate off-resonance and chemical-shift artifacts. Nevertheless, fat suppression comes at the expense of reduced temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient fat suppression method (Spectrally-Presaturated Modulation) for STEAM-based sequences to enable imaging with high temporal-resolution, high SNR, and no increase in scan time. The developed method is based on saturating the fat magnetization prior to applying STEAM modulation; therefore, only the water-content of the tissues is modulated by the sequence, resulting in fat-suppressed images without the need to run the fat suppression module during image acquisition. The potential significance of the proposed method is presented in two STEAM-based cardiac MRI applications: complementary spatial-modulation of magnetization (CSPAMM), and black-blood cine imaging. Phantom and in vivo experiments are conducted to evaluate the developed technique and compare it to the commonly implemented chemical-shift selective (CHESS) and water-excitation using spectral-spatial selective pulses (SSSP) fat suppression techniques. The results from the phantom and in vivo experiments show superior performance of the proposed method compared to the CHESS and SSSP techniques in terms of temporal resolution and SNR. In conclusion, the developed fat suppression technique results in enhanced image quality of STEAM-based images, especially in cardiac applications, where high temporal-resolution is imperative for accurate measurement of functional parameters and improved performance of image analysis algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SPM characterization of next generation solar cells under light irradiation: Optoelectronic study from nano to macroscopic scale.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Solar cells (SCs) that contain elaborate nanostructures, such as quantum dots and quantum wells, have been rigorously investigated as a way to harvest a wide range of the solar spectrum [1]. However, the energy conversion efficiency of those SCs still remains low. For the further improvement of the device performance, a much deeper understanding of the role of nanostructures in the photovoltaic conversion process is essential to gain the effective design criteria. To achieve this, local electronic properties including electrical potential, energy states, and charge distribution around the excitation centers have to be characterized under light irradiation since they govern the behavior of excited carriers. These properties have so far been indirectly deduced from macroscopic characterization such as current-voltage (I-V) measurement; however, it is not sufficient to clarify rather complicated roles of the nanostructures [2]. Thus, a direct measurement of those properties with high spatial resolution is required to understand the detailed mechanisms of the photovoltaic conversion process. To this end, we have been developing a platform for performing scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) working under light irradiation conditions.Here, we outline the characterization of a multiple quantum well (QW) SC based on III-V compounds that is expected to be a potential candidate of intermediate band type SC. First, we show the electrical potential measurements along the p-i-n junction of the SC using KPFM in air. Measurements were performed in open and short circuit configurations under light irradiation conditions [Fig.1]. We demonstrate that the dependence of the open circuit voltage on the intensity of light can be successfully measured by careful interpretation of the KPFM data. Second, we introduce some examples of the atomic scale characterization of the multiple QW using ultrahigh vacuum STM including the atomic arrangement, electronic states, and band profile. Also, charge accumulation at the QW is discussed based on the topographic measurement under light irradiation.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i12/DFU042F1F1DFU042F1Fig. 1.(a) Schematic illustration of measurement system of KPFM in air. (b) Effect of light irradiation on potential profile in open circuit configuration.

  19. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  20. [Impact of surface temperature and salinity on the recruiting of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum (Decapoda: Penaeidae), in Sonda de Campeche, Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Mauricio; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco; Lluch-Belda, Daniel

    2006-12-01

    We studied the long term effects of two environmental variables, salinity and surface temperature, on the pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) population in the southern Gulf of Mexico, considering the relationship between recruiting and the concurrent shrimp stock depletion of the last two decades. Our data were collected from 1969 to 1991. Recruitment has been clearly declining, particularly in the 1970s, with an accentuated drop since the 1980s. Sea surface temperatures have steadily risen, particularly since 1972. The temperature difference between the mid 1970s and the late 1980s is 0.5 degree C. Salinity decreased throughout the period. From a long term perspective, recruitment is negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with salinity. The effects of temperature and salinity are statistically significant, explaining 52 % and 55 % of the variation in recruitment, respectively.

  1. Polymorphisms of POR, SULT2A1 and HSD11B1 in children with premature adrenarche.

    PubMed

    Utriainen, Pauliina; Laakso, Saila; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2012-09-01

    Premature adrenarche (PA) refers to an earlier than normal increase in adrenocortical androgen production. The pathogenesis of PA remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms at P450 oxidoreductase (POR), steroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1), or 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) genes could contribute to the polygenic pathogenesis of PA. We performed a case-control study on the polymorphisms rs1057868 at POR, rs182420 at SULT2A1, and rs12086634 at HSD11B1. The study cohort comprised 73 prepubertal children with PA (defined by clinical signs) and 97 age- and gender-matched healthy controls from a Finnish Caucasian population. Genotype distributions and clinical and metabolic phenotypes were determined. The genotype distributions of the polymorphisms were similar between the study groups. No variant was associated with alterations in serum adrenal steroid concentrations. The minor C variant at SULT2A1 was associated with higher serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (T/T, n=64 vs T/C&C/C, n=33; mean 94 vs 116 nmol/L; P=.001) and a trend for lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/dehydroepiandrosterone ratios in the controls (P=.06), and with higher plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the PA subjects (T/T, n=42 vs T/C&C/C, n=31; 4.0 vs 4.6 mmol/L; P<.001). The minor G variant at HSD11B1 was associated with lower plasma triglyceride concentration in the controls (T/T, n=65 vs T/G&G/G, n=32; 0.61 vs 0.49 mmol/L; P=.013). Common polymorphisms at POR, SULT2A1 or HSD11B1 were not associated with PA in a Finnish Caucasian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  3. The POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-Xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-Ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Hong-Bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-Xi; Li, Jia-Li

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868-rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  4. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis porA gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis porA gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial.

  5. Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

  6. Monitoring shifts in the conformation equilibrium of the membrane protein cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) in nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-10-05

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm(2) patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction.

  7. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  8. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Pan, Li Qiang; Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  9. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  10. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  11. The genetic polymorphisms of POR*28 and CYP3A5*3 significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shuai-Bing; Xue, Ling; Ding, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Hua; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the influence of the polymorphism of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as well as other relevant genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1) on individual variability of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and perform population pharmacokinetic analysis of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations and clinical details were retrospectively collected from 83 renal recipients. CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, and ABCB1 C3435T were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 were genotyped by sequencing method. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM program. The significant influences of CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and POR*28 polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations (C0/D) were observed in 83 renal recipients. Subgroup analysis showed that POR*28 polymorphisms significantly decreased tacrolimus C0/D by 1.50 - 1.84-fold (p < 0.05) in patients who were CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1 carriers, n = 46), while similar results could not be obtained from CYP3A5 non-expressers (CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers, n = 37). Additionally, population pharmacokinetic analysis identified that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was the only covariant for the apparent clearance of tacrolimus (CL/F). The study demonstrated that the POR*28 C>T mutation could decrease the C0/D of tacrolimus in renal recipients who were CYP3A5 expressers. The population pharmacokinetic model showed that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was associated with the CL/F of tacrolimus which might provide references for personalized use of tacrolimus in clinic.

  12. Reactions of nitrogen oxides with the five-coordinate Fe(III)(porphyrin) nitrito intermediate Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Hakobyan, Manya E; Patterson, James C; Iretskii, Alexei; Ford, Peter C

    2007-03-28

    Detailed experimental studies are described for reactions of several nitrogen oxides with iron porphyrin models for heme/NxOy systems. It is shown by FTIR and optical spectroscopy and by isotope labeling experiments that reaction of small increments of NO2 with sublimed thin layers of the iron(II) complex Fe(Por) (Por = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TPP, or meso-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, TTP) leads to formation of the 5-coordinate nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1), which are fairly stable but very slowly decompose under vacuum giving mostly the corresponding nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(NO). Further reaction of 1 with new NO2 increments leads to formation of the nitrato complex Fe(Por)(eta2-O2NO) (2). The interaction of NO with 1 at low temperature involves ligand addition to give the nitrito-nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO)(NO) (3); however, these isomerize to the nitro-nitrosyl analogs Fe(Por)(eta1-NO2)(NO) (4) upon warming. Experiments with labeled nitrogen oxides argue for an intramolecular isomerization ("flipping") mechanism rather than one involving dissociation and rebinding of NO2. The Fe(III) centers in the 6-coordinate species 3 and 4 are low spin in contrast to 1, which appears to be high-spin, although DFT computations of the porphinato models Fe(P)(nitrite) suggest that the doublet nitro species and the quartet and sextet nitrito complexes are all relatively close in energy. The nitro-nitrosyl complex 4 is stable under an NO atmosphere but decomposes under intense pumping to give a mixture of the ferrous nitrosyl complex Fe(Por)(NO) and the ferric nitrito complex Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) indicating the competitive dissociation of NO and NO2. Hence, loss of NO from 4 is accompanied with nitro --> nitrito isomerization consistent with 1 being the more stable of the 5-coordinate NO2 complexes of iron porphyrins.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  14. Most but not all laboratories can detect the recently emerged Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA mutants - results from the QCMD 2013 N. gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme.

    PubMed

    Luijt, D; Di Lorenzo, C; van Loon, A M; Unemo, M

    2014-02-27

    We describe the results of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 Neisseria gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme that included an N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis porA gene which causes false-negative results in molecular diagnostic assays targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Enhanced awareness of the international transmission of such gonococcal strains is needed to avoid false-negative results in both in-house and commercial molecular diagnostic assays used in laboratories worldwide, but particularly in Europe.

  15. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  16. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  17. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  18. Avidity maturation following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine in UK infants.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Emma; Borrow, Ray; Goldblatt, David; Balmer, Paul; Dawson, Maureen; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth; Cartwright, Keith

    2002-06-07

    To date, there are no data assessing the utility of avidity indices as a surrogate marker for the induction of immunological memory following meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccination. We studied infants who had been immunized with three doses of a recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine at ages 2-4 months, together with a fourth dose at age 12-18 months. A control group had received a single dose of the same vaccine at age 12-18 months. As previously reported, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titres increased after each of the first three doses, with a significant increase observed from 6 months post third dose to 1 month post fourth dose. The geometric mean avidity indices (GMAI), against strain H44/76 OMVs, increased from 1 month post first dose to 1 month post third dose. Significant increases in GMAI were observed at 6 months post third dose and again following the fourth dose. At 32-42 months of age, though the SBA titres had returned to post first dose levels, the GMAI remained elevated. No increase in avidity was observed in the control group. Antibody avidity indices are useful laboratory markers for the priming of immunological memory following vaccination with meningococcal serogroup B OMV vaccines.

  19. Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil

    2006-02-15

    The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

  20. Examination of P-OR bridging bond orders in phosphate monoesters using (18)O isotope shifts in 31P NMR.

    PubMed

    Sorensen-Stowell, Kerensa; Hengge, Alvan C

    2005-06-10

    Evidence indicates that phosphate monoesters undergo hydrolysis by a loose transition state with extensive bond fission to the leaving group. It has been proposed that part of the high dependence of the rate on the leaving group pKa (betalg = -1.23) arises from weaker ester bonds in the reactants as the pKa of the leaving group decreases, on the basis of X-ray structures and calculations. In contrast, IR and Raman studies suggest that the leaving group has little effect on the length of the P-OR bridging bond in solution. To gather additional data on this issue, we have used (18)O isotopic shifts in 31P NMR to monitor the bond order of P-O bonds in a range of phosphate esters with different leaving groups. Using this technique, we have been able to evaluate whether significant changes are observed in the P-O bond orders for the bridging and nonbridging positions of methyl, ethyl, phenethyl, propargyl, phenyl, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate using [(16)O(18)O] labeled species in deuterium oxide. The results indicate that the bridging and nonbridging bond orders to phosphorus in phosphate monoesters are not significantly altered by differences in the pKa of the leaving group or by the counterion of the phosphate ester dianion.

  1. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  2. Interaction between variants in the CYP2C9 and POR genes and the risk of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia: A GoDARTS Study.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Donnelly, Louise A; Leese, Graham; Palmer, Colin N A; Pearson, Ewan R

    2017-06-28

    Data on the association of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms with sulfonylurea (SU)-induced hypoglycaemia (SH) are inconsistent. Recent studies showed that variants in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene could affect CYP2C9 activity. In this study, we explored the effects of POR*28 and combined CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes on SH and the efficacy of SU treatment in type 2 diabetes. A total of 1770 patients were included in the analysis of SU efficacy, assessed as the combined outcome of the HbA1c reduction and the prescribed SU daily dose. Sixty-nine patients with severe SH were compared with 311 control patients. The number of CYP2C9 deficient alleles was associated with nearly three-fold higher odds of hypoglycaemia (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.30-6.09; P = .009) and better response to SU treatment (β, -0.218; SE, 0.074; P = .003) only in patients carrying the POR*1/*1 genotype. Our results indicate that interaction between CYP2C9 and POR genes may be an important determinant of efficacy and severe adverse effects of SU treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  4. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  5. Recombinant PorA, the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni, provides heterologous protection in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anjum; Raghupathy, Raj; Albert, M John

    2010-11-01

    Immunity against Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing diarrhea, is largely serotype specific. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni, PorA, is a common antigen with the potential to provide broad protection. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused to PorA prepared from Campylobacter jejuni C31 (O:6,7) (GST-PorA) combined with a modified heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant and later orally challenged with C31 strain or three heterologous strains: 48 (O:19), 75 (O:3), and 111 (O:1,44). Protection from colonization with the challenge organism was studied by fecal screening daily for 9 days. Serum and intestinal lavage fluid antibodies against the vaccine and Sarkosyl-purified MOMP from C31 were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The vaccine produced robust antibody responses against both antigens in serum and secretion. Since strain C31 was a poor colonizer, homologous protection could not be studied. The protective efficacies of heterologous strains were 43% (for strain 48, P < 0.001), 29% (for strain 75, P < 0.005), and 42% (for strain 111, P < 0.001) for the 9-day period compared to control mice given phosphate-buffered saline. Thus, PorA provided appreciable protection against colonization with heterologous serotypes.

  6. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  7. The influence of CYP3A, PPARA, and POR genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ingrid; Bremer, Sara; Midtvedt, Karsten; Mohebi, Beata; Dahl, Miriam; Bergan, Stein; Åsberg, Anders; Christensen, Hege

    2014-06-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine (CsA) are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Several studies have demonstrated an association between the CYP3A5 genotype and Tac dose requirements. Recently, CYP3A4, PPARA, and POR gene variants have been shown to influence CYP3A metabolism. The present study investigated potential associations between CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*22, PPARA c.209- 1003G>A and c.208+3819A>G, and POR*28 alleles and dose-adjusted concentrations (C/D) of Tac and CsA in 177 renal transplant patients early post-transplant. All patients (n=177) were genotyped for CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, PPARA c.209-1003G>A, and PPARA c.208+3819A>G using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting curve analysis with allelespecific hybridization probes or PCR restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods. Drug concentrations and administered doses were retrospectively collected from patient charts at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway. One steady-state concentration was collected for each patient. We confirmed a significant impact of the CYP3A5*3 allele on Tac exposure. Patients with POR*28 and PPARA variant alleles demonstrated 15 % lower (P=0.04) and 19 % higher (P=0.01) Tac C0/D respectively. CsA C2/D was 53 % higher among CYP3A4*22 carriers (P=0.03). The results support the use of pre-transplant CYP3A5 genotyping to improve initial dosing of Tac, and suggest that Tac dosing may be further individualized by additional POR and PPARA genotyping. Furthermore, initial CsA dosing may be improved by pre-transplant CYP3A4*22 determination.

  8. Compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in POR gene: Antley-bixler syndrome phenotype in three sibling fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tzetis, Maria; Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Sofocleous, Christalena; Kosma, Konstantina; Mitrakos, Anastasios; Tzannatos, Christina; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sofia

    2016-07-01

    Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is an exceptionally rare craniosynostosis syndrome that can be accompanied by disordered steroidogenesis, and is mainly caused by mutations in the POR gene, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Here we report the prenatal and postmortem findings of three sibling fetuses with ABS as a result of compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in the POR gene. Prenatal ultrasound and postmortem examination were performed in three sibling fetuses with termination of pregnancy at 22, 23, and 17 weeks of gestation, respectively. Molecular analysis of fetus 2 and 3 included (a) bidirectional sequencing of exon 8 of the POR gene after amplification of the specific locus by polymerase chain reaction, to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and (b) high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) positive single nucleotide polymorphism array CGH (aCGH) analysis to detect copy number variants (CNVs), copy neutral areas of loss of heterozygosity and uniparental disomy. The diagnosis of ABS was suggested by the postmortem examination findings. The combination of the POR gene molecular analysis and aCGH revealed a compound heterozygous genotype of a maternal SNV (p.A287P) and a paternal CNV (NC_000007.13:g.(?_75608488)_(75615534_?)del). To the best of our knowledge, these sibling fetuses add to the few reported cases of ABS, caused by a combination of a SNV and a CNV in the POR gene. The detailed description of the pathologic and radiographic findings of second trimester fetuses affected with ABS adds novel knowledge concerning the early ABS phenotype, in lack of previous relevant reports. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:536-541, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  10. Results of Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2004-10-01

    Data are limited on the efficacy of health-focused interventions for young, low-acculturated Latino women. Because breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality in this population, combined interventions that address both early detection and dietary patterns could help reduce both morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this underserved population. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables was randomized intervention study designed to assess the efficacy of an 8-month combined dietary and breast health intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake as well as to increase the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination (BSE) and reduce anxiety related to BSE among Latinas. Blocked randomization in blocks of 6 was used to randomize 256 20- to 40-year-old Latinas to the intervention (n = 127) or control group (n = 129). The intervention group attended an 8-month multicomponent education program designed specifically for low-acculturated Latinas. The control group received mailed health education material on a schedule comparable to the intervention. A total of 195 women (76.2%) completed both the baseline and 8-month follow-up interviews. The intervention and control groups were similar on baseline sociodemographic characteristics. At the 8-month follow up, the intervention group reported lower dietary fat (P < .001) and higher fiber intake (p = .06); a higher proportion reported practicing BSE at the recommended interval (p < .001) and showed improved BSE proficiency (p < .001) compared to the control group. BSE-related anxiety was low for both groups at baseline, and no difference in reduction was observed. This project provides a successful model for achieving dietary change and improving breast health behavior in young, low-acculturated Latinas.

  11. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  12. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  13. IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants' sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Sadler, F; Borrow, R; Dawson, M; Fox, A; Cartwright, K

    2001-08-14

    The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The PorA outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different PorA OMPs (each representing a different serosubtype) has been evaluated in phase II trials with encouraging results. Little is known about the IgG subclass response to the various antigens contained within this vaccine. These responses are important due to the different half-lives and complement fixing abilities of these antibodies. In this study, immunoblotting was undertaken with infants' sera following either three or four doses of vaccine, and OMVs from six isogenic meningococcal strains differing only in their PorA serosubtype. Following either three or four doses of the vaccine, IgG(3) and IgG(1) subclass antibodies were induced to all six of the isogenic strains, although sera collected after four doses of vaccine showed stronger antibody levels. IgG(3) was found in more sera than IgG(1). For both sets of sera, the two isogenic strains expressing P1.5,2 and P1.5(c),10 induced stronger IgG subclass antibody responses than the other four meningococcal strains. The recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine stimulates both IgG(1) and IgG(3) subclass antibodies, the subclasses that are most effective in activating the complement system.

  14. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  15. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  16. [Optimization of tri-expression of human CYP3A4 with POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhangming; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Yingchun; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions of tri-expression of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells. The Sf 9 cells expressing CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 were cultured in shaker flasks. The optimized conditions, including the temperature and rotation speed, the culture volume, the amount of surfactant and the culture time were studied. The expressed products in microsomes were used to metabolize the testosterone and their metabolic activity was determined. When the temperature and rotation speed of the shaker were 27 degree and 90 r/min, the cell density and culture volume were 5X105 cells/ml and 80-120 ml per 250 ml shaker flasks, respectively. When Pluronic F-68 was 0.1% and the culture time was 72 h, the condition was most suitable for culture of Sf 9 cells and expression of targeted proteins. When the ratio of the volume of three added viruses was 1:1:1, the expression condition was optimal, under which the Km, Vmax, and CLint for testosterone metabolism were 119.6 μmol/L,0.52 μmol/(min*g protein) and 4.34 ml/(min*g protein), respectively. The conditions of tri-expressing of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 have been optimized in the study and the product CYP3A4 is obtained with higher metabolic activity.

  17. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  18. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  19. CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 genetic variants influence the required dose of tacrolimus in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lesche, Dorothea; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg; Setoud, Raschid; Oberhänsli, Markus; Carrel, Thierry; Fiedler, Georg M; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Mohacsi, Paul; Sistonen, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    After heart transplantation (HTx), the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of immunosuppressive drugs represents a major therapeutic challenge due to the narrow therapeutic window between over-immunosuppression causing toxicity and under-immunosuppression leading to graft rejection. Although genetic polymorphisms have been shown to influence pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressants, data in the context of HTx are scarce. We thus assessed the role of genetic variation in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, POR, NR1I2, and ABCB1 acting jointly in immunosuppressive drug pathways in tacrolimus (TAC) and ciclosporin (CSA) dose requirement in HTx recipients. Associations between 7 functional genetic variants and blood dose-adjusted trough (C0) concentrations of TAC and CSA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after HTx were evaluated in cohorts of 52 and 45 patients, respectively. Compared with CYP3A5 nonexpressors (*3/*3 genotype), CYP3A5 expressors (*1/*3 or *1/*1 genotype) required around 2.2- to 2.6-fold higher daily TAC doses to reach the targeted C0 concentration at all studied time points (P ≤ 0.003). Additionally, the POR*28 variant carriers showed higher dose-adjusted TAC-C0 concentrations at all time points resulting in significant differences at 3 (P = 0.025) and 6 months (P = 0.047) after HTx. No significant associations were observed between the genetic variants and the CSA dose requirement. The CYP3A5*3 variant has a major influence on the required TAC dose in HTx recipients, whereas the POR*28 may additionally contribute to the observed variability. These results support the importance of genetic markers in TAC dose optimization after HTx.

  20. Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, POR, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2013-12-01

    According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (POR) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the POR. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, POR, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency caused by R457H mutation in POR gene in Chinese: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-03-14

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare disease exhibiting a variety of clinical manifestations. It can be difficult to differentiate with other diseases such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). Nearly 100 cases of PORD have been reported worldwide. However, the genetic characters and clinical management are still unclear, especially in China. In this study, we report a 27-year-old female Chinese patient who first presented with amenorrhea and recurrence of large ovary cyst. She was misdiagnosed with PCOS and non-classical 21-OHD due to ovary cysts and elevated 17-hydroxy-progesterone. The patient's complaining of a mild difficulty of bending the metacarpophalangeal joints reminded us to consider PORD, which usually presents with skeletal deformities and sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of PORD was confirmed by genetic analyses, which showed the patient harboring a homozygous missense mutation in the POR gene (R457H) and her parents carrying the heterozygous mutation. The patient was treated with low-dose corticosteroids and estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy, and her ovarian cyst gradually reduced with regular menstruation in the follow-up. Moreover, the clinical and genetic characteristics of 104 previously reported PORD cases were also summarized and analyzed. PORD is a very rare disease which can be easily misdiagnosed in mild cases. Clinicians should keep in mind of this disease in patients with sexual dysfunction, especially combined with special skeletal deformities. Our data could provide a consciously understanding of this disease for clinic practicers. Low-dose corticosteroids combined with estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy will be effective in PORD patients with recurrence of large ovary cyst. The fact that the reported PORD patients in China carrying an identical variant R457H in POR gene also give us a viewpoint that R457H mutation in POR gene maybe

  2. 10.7 Gb/s electronic predistortion transmitter using commercial FPGAs and D/A converters implementing real-time DSP for chromatic dispersion and SPM compensation.

    PubMed

    Waegemans, Robert; Herbst, Stefan; Holbein, Ludwig; Watts, Philip; Bayvel, Polina; Fürst, Cornelius; Killey, Robert I

    2009-05-11

    We present an experimental demonstration of simultaneous chromatic dispersion and self-phase modulation compensation at 10.7 Gb/s using real-time electronic digital signal processing. This was achieved using a pre-distorting transmitter based on commercially available field programmable gate arrays and 21.4 GS/s, 6-bit resolution digital-to-analog converters. The digital signal processing employed look-up tables stored in RAM. This resulted in the achievement of a BER of 10(-6) at an OSNR of 16 dB after transmission over a 450 km link of uncompensated standard single mode fiber with + 4 dBm launch power.

  3. Controlling the influence of SPM in fiber-based chirped-pulse amplification systems by using an actively shaped parabolic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Damian N; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-12-10

    We report on the experimental demonstration of the control of the influence of nonlinearity in fiber-based chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) using active spectral amplitude shaping. By applying a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, the influence of the spectral profile on the recompressed pulse quality is experimentally revealed. The parabolic spectrum is experimentally determined to be very suitable for CPA-systems in which nonlinearity is present. The corresponding nonlinear phase contribution can be efficiently compensated by a conventional grating compressor. In a proof-of-principle experiment using an Yb-doped fiber- CPA-system, control at a B-integral as high as 16 rad is demonstrated. The method allows significant performance improvement of fiber-based chirpedpulse amplification.

  4. A Correlation of Raman and Single and Multiple Layer Graphene Conductivity As Detected With A Cryogenic Multiprobe AFM With On-line Raman, NSOM and Other SPM Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Zinoviev, Oleg; Komissar, Anatoly; Maayan, Eran; Lewis, David

    2015-03-01

    It is a challenge to study 2D materials, such as Graphene, MoS2, WeSe2, etc. at temperatures down to 10°K when considering the wide variety of physical phenomena that must be applied for a full picture of the functionality of these materials. This involves questions of structure, nanometric photoconductivity, electrical properties, thermal properties, near-field optical in the apertured & scattering modes, Kelvin probe, and Raman. These phenomena are common not only to 2D materials but also to carbon nanotubes and related nanomaterials. This presentation will describe the instrumental development of such a multiprobe cryogenic system that allows for state of the art on-line optical measurements and will also include a review of the probe developments that permit such multifunctional multiprobe operation with on-line full optical access. This system has a completely free optical axis from above and below not obscured by electrical or other probes that have been developed for multiprobe operation. This permits on-line Raman and Tip Enhanced NanoRaman Scattering. With such a system we have investigated graphene and HfO2 using multiprobe electrical, Kelvin probe, NSOM and on-line Raman. The results have yielded new insights into chemical changes correlated to electrical conductivity.

  5. Field estimates of floc dynamics and settling velocities in a tidal creek with significant along-channel gradients in velocity and SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, C.; Cox, T.; van Engeland, T.; van Oevelen, D.; van Belzen, J.; van de Koppel, J.; Soetaert, K.; Bouma, T. J.; Meire, P.; Temmerman, S.

    2017-10-01

    A short-term intensive measurement campaign focused on flow, turbulence, suspended particle concentration, floc dynamics and settling velocities were carried out in a brackish intertidal creek draining into the main channel of the Scheldt estuary. We compare in situ estimates of settling velocities between a laser diffraction (LISST) and an acoustic Doppler technique (ADV) at 20 and 40 cm above bottom (cmab). The temporal variation in settling velocity estimated were compared over one tidal cycle, with a maximum flood velocity of 0.46 m s-1, a maximum horizontal ebb velocity of 0.35 m s-1 and a maximum water depth at high water slack of 2.41 m. Results suggest that flocculation processes play an important role in controlling sediment transport processes in the measured intertidal creek. During high-water slack, particles flocculated to sizes up to 190 μm, whereas at maximum flood and maximum ebb tidal stage floc sizes only reached up to 55 μm and 71 μm respectively. These large differences indicate that flocculation processes are mainly governed by turbulence-induced shear rate. In this study, we specifically recognize the importance of along-channel gradients that places constraints on the application of the acoustic Doppler technique due to conflicts with the underlying assumptions. Along-channel gradients were assessed by additional measurements at a second location and scaling arguments which could be used as an indication whether the Reynolds-flux method is applicable. We further show the potential impact of along-channel advection of flocs out of equilibrium with local hydrodynamics influencing overall floc sizes.

  6. Characterization of structure and properties of thin film crystals and ferroelectric BiFeO3: A coupled TEM, SPM, and optical probe approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokisaari, Jacob Ragnar

    Correlating advanced microscopy methods including transmission electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and optical spectroscopy on the same materials and even the same specimens allows complimentary measurements to be obtained, revealing new details about structure-property relationships measured on a nanometer scale. Combining measurements not only corroborates the information obtained from any particular method, but also compensates for deficiencies of any single technique. An array of microscopy techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were applied to address scientific and engineering questions concerning the structure and properties of domain patterns in BiFeO3 ferroelectric thin films and to examine novel TiO2(B) thin films suitable for Li-ion battery applications. In BiFeO3, application of these combined techniques allowed a relationship between epitaxial strain and domain width to be established, two cases of strained films with unique domain structures to be identified, transformation of domain structures from all 109° to mixed to all 71° based on differing film thicknesses of 100 and 200 nm to be observed, and to identify growth-induced defects that control domain structure over very long range, 100 nm or more, compared to many studies. In TiO2(B) films, a combination of advanced microscopy and first principals calculations were applied with Raman spectroscopy to produce a definitive reference for further investigation of the crystallinity, structure, composition, and properties of TiO2(B) materials with Raman spectroscopy. Finally to extend these studies of nanostructures and allow direct measurement of electronic and optical properties, the design, development, and construction of proof-of-concept prototypes of specimen rods for in-situ transmission electron microcopy combining electrical probe, scanning tunneling measurements, and optical excitation and spectroscopy is discussed.

  7. Evaluating methods of correcting for multiple comparisons implemented in SPM12 in social neuroscience fMRI studies: an example from moral psychology.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyemin; Glenn, Andrea L

    2017-05-15

    In fMRI research, the goal of correcting for multiple comparisons is to identify areas of activity that reflect true effects, and thus would be expected to replicate in future studies. Finding an appropriate balance between trying to minimize false positives (Type I error) while not being too stringent and omitting true effects (Type II error) can be challenging. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of these types of errors may differ for different areas of study. In many areas of social neuroscience that involve complex processes and considerable individual differences, such as the study of moral judgment, effects are typically smaller and statistical power weaker, leading to the suggestion that less stringent corrections that allow for more sensitivity may be beneficial and also result in more false positives. Using moral judgment fMRI data, we evaluated four commonly used methods for multiple comparison correction implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 by examining which method produced the most precise overlap with results from a meta-analysis of relevant studies and with results from nonparametric permutation analyses. We found that voxelwise thresholding with familywise error correction based on Random Field Theory provides a more precise overlap (i.e., without omitting too few regions or encompassing too many additional regions) than either clusterwise thresholding, Bonferroni correction, or false discovery rate correction methods.

  8. Randomized trial comparing protracted infusion of 5-fluorouracil with weekly doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with a monthly bolus FAC regimen in metastatic breast carcinoma (SPM90).

    PubMed Central

    Pierga, J. Y.; Jouve, M.; Asselain, B.; Livartowski, A.; Beuzeboc, P.; Diéras, V.; Scholl, S.; Dorval, T.; Palangié, T.; Garcia-Giralt, E.; Pouillart, P.

    1998-01-01

    Infusional 5-fluorouracil in advanced breast cancer has been associated with improved clinical response rates when compared with conventional bolus therapy. As a first line of chemotherapy in proven metastatic breast carcinoma, 258 women were randomly assigned to receive FAC consisting of 5-fluorouracil (F) 600 mg m(-2) intravenously (i.v.) over 1 h on days 1, 2 and 3, doxorubicin (A) 50 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on day 1 and cyclophosphamide (C), 400 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on days 1, 2 and 3 or 'FULON' consisting of 5-fluorouracil 250 mg m(-2) day(-1) continuously infused from day 1 to day 22, doxorubicin 15 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 and cyclophosphamide 300 mg m(-2) i.v. bolus on days 1, 8, 15 and 22. Chemotherapy courses were administered 4-weekly for the bolus regimen and 6-weekly for FULON. Pretreatment characteristics were identical between the two groups. Response rates were 54% in the FAC arm and 53% in the FULON arm. Time to progression was 14 months in the FAC arm and 12 months in the FULON arm. Differences were not statistically significant. Median overall survival duration for all patients was 22 months. Haematological toxicity was more severe in the bolus-treated group (P = 0.05), as were nausea and vomiting (P < or = 0.01). We conclude that the two regimens appeared equally effective but have different toxicities. PMID:9652764

  9. Preclinical safety and immunogenicity evaluation of a nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Kaaijk, Patricia; van Straaten, Ineke; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Boot, Elmieke P J; Levels, Lonneke M A R; van Dijken, Harry H; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M

    2013-02-04

    An improved nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine was developed with intrinsic adjuvating activity due to presence of less-toxic (lpxL1) LPS. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of this next-generation NonaMen vaccine were evaluated following repeated vaccination in rabbits and mice. A repeated-dose toxicology study was performed in rabbits. Immunogenicity of next-generation NonaMen was evaluated by determining the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against meningococcal serogroup B strains containing several PorA subtypes. Release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), by the human monocytic cell line (MM6) was measured to estimate pyrogenic activity. No toxicologically relevant findings were noted in vaccinated rabbits receiving plain next-generation NonaMen. In agreement, next-generation NonaMen induced reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, released by human monocyte cell line. In both rabbits and mice, next-generation NonaMen induced high SBA titers against all tested MenB strains regardless of whether or not aluminium phosphate adjuvant is used. The data suggest that next-generation NonaMen is a safe vaccine with the potential to develop a broadly protective immune response and encourage the start of the first clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  11. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  12. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  13. Effect of CYP3A4*22, POR*28, and PPARA rs4253728 on sirolimus in vitro metabolism and trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Coste, Sandra; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have identified new candidate polymorphisms in the genes related to CYP3A activity or calcineurin inhibitor dose requirements in kidney transplant recipients. These genes and polymorphisms are CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4) (rs35599367-C>T; *22); POR [P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase] (rs1057868-C>T; *28); and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) (rs4253728-G>A). We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on sirolimus (SRL) in vitro hepatic metabolism, SRL trough concentrations (C0), and SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. The clinical study included 113 stable kidney transplant patients switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to SRL (SRL C0 measured at 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter). We investigated SRL metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes derived from individual donors (n = 31). Microsomes and patients were genotyped by use of Taqman® allelic discrimination assays. The effects of polymorphisms and covariates were studied using multilinear regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models or logistic regressions. In vitro, the CYP3A4*22 allele resulted in approximately 20% lower metabolic rates of SRL (P = 0.0411). No significant association was found between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, or PPARA genotypes and SRL dose, C0, or C0/dose in kidney transplant patients. POR*28 was associated with a minor but significant decrease in SRL log-transformed C0 [CT/TT vs CC, β = -0.15 (0.05); P = 0.0197] but this did not have any impact on the dose administered, which limited the relevance of the finding. After adjustment for nongenetic covariates and correction for false discovery finding, none of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested showed significant association with SRL adverse events. These recently described polymorphisms do not seem to substantially influence the pharmacokinetics of SRL or the occurrence of SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients.

  14. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-03-01

    The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking.

  15. Effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1 C3435T on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yan, Liang; Cao, Hui-Min; Wei, Lu-Man; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2015-09-01

    Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker that is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, significant individual variances in the disposition of nifedipine have been reported, and genetic factors are considered to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1-C3435T, and POR*28 genetic polymorphisms on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. 45 healthy Chinese volunteers enrolled in this study received a single oral dose of 90 mg nifedipine after providing written informed consent. Volunteers were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1-C3435T. The blood concentrations of nifedipine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. There were significant differences of AUC00-∞ and AUC0-48h in the different CYP3A5*3 genotype groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The CYP3A5*3 GG group and POR*28 CT/TT group were found to have lower AUC00-∞ and Cmax compared with the POR*28 CC group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the POR*28 CT/TT group was found to have longer t1/2 but lower Cmax than the CYP3A4*1G GG group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.002, respectively) as well as the CYP3A4*1G GG and the CYP3A5*3 GG group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared with the POR*28 CC group. No significant associations were found between CYP3A4*1G/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Both CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms are found to be associated with the difference in disposition of nifedipine; POR*28 is considered to have an impact on CYP3A4 activity.

  16. Unique combined penA/mtrR/porB mutations and NG-MAST strain types associated with ceftriaxone and cefixime MIC increases in a 'susceptible' Neisseria gonorrhoeae population.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S D; Starnino, S; Horsman, G B; Levett, P N; Dillon, J R

    2014-06-01

    To determine which mutations in penA, mtrR and porB are implicated in increasing minimum MICs of ceftriaxone and cefixime in a susceptible gonococcal population and to ascertain associations with gonococcal strain types (STs). One hundred and forty-six Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates formed two extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility groups: group 1 isolates with cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.0005-0.016 mg/L; and group 2 isolates with cefixime MICs of 0.03-0.125 mg/L (n = 24) and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.03-0.06 mg/L (n = 23). Mutation patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2; penA), multiple transfer resistance repressor (MtrR; mtrR) and porin B (PorB; porB) were ascertained by DNA sequence and bioinformatic analysis. STs were determined using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Most isolates carried PBP2 mutation pattern IX (D345a, F504L, A510V, A516G and P551L; 50/146, 34.2%), a G45D substitution in MtrR (37.7%) and a wild-type (WT) sequence for PorB (43.2%). Group 2 gonococcal isolates were significantly associated with: penA pattern IX; dual mutations in the promoter (A-) and DNA dimerization domain (H105Y) of MtrR; and G120K;A121D substitutions in PorB. There were 50 combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation patterns, with corresponding patterns I/WT/WT and IX/G45D/G120K;A121D predominating. Gonococci susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime were significantly associated with NG-MAST ST 25 (33/36; 92%) and the combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation pattern I/WT/WT. No combined mutation pattern or specific ST was associated with elevated ceftriaxone MICs. NG-MAST ST 3654 was significantly associated with the pattern IX/G45D/G120K;A121D and cefixime group 2 isolates. Specific single or combined mutation patterns in penA, mtrR and porB and specific STs were associated with differences in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  17. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  18. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  19. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  20. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  1. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance.

    PubMed

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-07-01

    A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h(-1) with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  3. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, β-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655

  4. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  5. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  6. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  7. Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang; Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1-3, days 6-8 and days 12-14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C 0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C 0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C 0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C 0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  8. Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change: La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres as an Expert on Colombian Abortion Law.

    PubMed

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina

    2017-06-01

    In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa's strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a "pedagogical effect" insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa's choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge.

  9. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  10. The P450 oxidoreductase (POR) rs2868177 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6*6 polymorphisms contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Chen; Liu, Fang-Qun; Yang, Li; Cheng, Lin; Dai, Hai-Ying; Tao, Ran; Cao, Shi-Peng; Wang, Di; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene were correlated with interindividual variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 activity. Thirty-six healthy volunteers who tested CYP2B6 and POR polymorphisms were enrolled in the study. CYP2B6 activity was measured by bupropion hydroxylation with LC/MS/MS. The ratio of hydroxybupropion versus bupropion (AUC_hyd/AUC_bup) in terms of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was used to represent the CYP2B6 activity. The volunteers carrying CYP2B6*1/*1 showed a significantly higher mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than those CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 variants (15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 9.25 ± 1.92, P = 0.008 and 15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 8.21 ± 1.74, P = 0.006, respectively). POR rs2868177 (6593 A > G) AA homozygotes showed a significantly lower mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than that of POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes or GG homozygotes (8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 12.15 ± 2.97, P = 0.005 and 8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 17.59 ± 3.25, P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes and GG homozygotes showed a significantly increased mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup than AA homozygotes in the CYP2B6*1/*1 and CYP2B6*6 carriers (16.40 ± 2.01 vs. 12.40 ± 1.45, P = 0.006 and 10.65 ± 1.47 vs. 6.54 ± 1.25, P = 0.004, respectively). Meanwhile, a strong correlation between the genetic variations (POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6) and AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup was found (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup among different POR *28 genotypes (P > 0.05). POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6 variants contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity, which may affect the disposition and interaction of other CYP2B6 substrate drugs.

  11. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  12. Combined effects of CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 single nucleotide polymorphisms on early concentration-controlled tacrolimus exposure in de-novo renal recipients.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Dirk R J; de Loor, Henriette; Naesens, Maarten; Coopmans, Tamara; de Jonge, Hylke

    2014-12-01

    In a cohort of 298 de-novo renal recipients treated with a standard tacrolimus loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg, the combined effects of the CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 genotypes on early tacrolimus exposure (C0), dose requirements, and achievement of the therapeutic target, C0, were examined. The incidence of clinical events (e.g. acute rejection, diabetes mellitus) was compared between genotypes. Fast metabolizers (CYP3A5*1/POR*28T carriers) had two-fold to three-fold higher tacrolimus dose requirements compared with slow metabolizers (CYP3A5*3/*3/CYP3A4*22 carriers) and needed significantly more time to achieve the target tacrolimus C0 of a minimum 10 ng/ml (3.3±1.7 vs. 1.34±0.75 days; P<0.0001). No differences in acute rejection incidence and time to first rejection were observed. Slow metabolizers more frequently had tacrolimus C0 above the target range early after transplantation (70 vs. 13% on day 3); however, this did not translate into a higher incidence of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus or graft dysfunction. Multivariate analyses identified the CYP3A5*1/POR*28/CYP3A4*22 genotype combination as the single strongest determinant of tacrolimus dose requirements throughout the first year, explaining between 24-40% of its variability, whereas recipient age, hematocrit, and delayed graft function were additional nongenetic determinants of tacrolimus dose. Combining the CYP3A5*1, POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 genotypes allows partial differentiation of early tacrolimus dose requirements and the time to reach therapeutic target concentrations after transplantation, but without obvious clinical implications. Larger prospective studies need to address the clinical relevance of early combined genotype-based tacrolimus dosing in de-novo renal recipients.

  13. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  14. The second iteration of the Systems Prioritization Method: A systems prioritization and decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Volume 2, Summary of technical input and model implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Prindle, N.H.; Mendenhall, F.T.; Trauth, K.; Boak, D.M.; Beyeler, W.; Hora, S.; Rudeen, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) is a decision-aiding tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SPM provides an analytical basis for supporting programmatic decisions for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to meet selected portions of the applicable US EPA long-term performance regulations. The first iteration of SPM (SPM-1), the prototype for SPM< was completed in 1994. It served as a benchmark and a test bed for developing the tools needed for the second iteration of SPM (SPM-2). SPM-2, completed in 1995, is intended for programmatic decision making. This is Volume II of the three-volume final report of the second iteration of the SPM. It describes the technical input and model implementation for SPM-2, and presents the SPM-2 technical baseline and the activities, activity outcomes, outcome probabilities, and the input parameters for SPM-2 analysis.

  15. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  16. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  17. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  18. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  19. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  20. [Incidence and risk factors associated with nosocomial infection in pediatric heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Duarte-Raya, Fidencia; Baeza-Zarco, Fabiola Janet

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: las infecciones nosocomiales son responsables de una elevada tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el paciente pediátrico sometido a cirugía cardiaca. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de las infecciones nosocomiales. Métodos: estudio clínico descriptivo, prospectivo, en un hospital de tercer nivel durante un año. Se calculó: la tasa de incidencia, incidencia acumulada y por dispositivos utilizados. Se aplicó el programa EPIDAT 2004 versión 3.1 OPS para la obtención de Chi cuadrada con corrección de Yates para obtener p con una confianza del 95 %, alfa de 0.05 con un grado de libertad, se estimó odds ratio (OR). Se llevó a cabo la identificación de microorganismos, su sensibilidad y resistencia a los antibióticos. Resultados: se calcularon las tasas de: incidencia, incidencia acumulada, mortalidad, letalidad de infectados de y no infectados. Las neumonías con el 44.4 %, asociada a ventilación mecánica 74 %, sonda nasogástrica 100 %. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados: Acinetobacter baumanni, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis y Pseudomonas aeruginosa con elevada resistencia a los antibióticos. Conclusiones: los pacientes pediátricos sometidos a cardiocirugía tienen riesgo elevado de infección, los de cardiopatías cianógenas tienen 5 veces más el riesgo. Se observa una asociación estadística significativa con infección el uso de sonda nasogástrica y cánula orotraqueal, el riesgo aumenta a mayor estancia hospitalaria. Los pacientes infectados tienen 4 veces más el riesgo de muerte.

  1. Evaluating Por Nuestra Salud: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brenda; Gonzales, Gustavo; Kernan, William

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study evaluated the impact of a culturally consistent diabetes educational program, led by a Latino pastor, on Latino community diabetes knowledge levels. Latino adults were recruited from two churches serving Latino populations, one identified as intervention, the other as nonintervention. Both churches received the American Diabetes Association's booklets on diabetes education, "Four Steps to Control Your Diabetes for Life." The intervention group also received weekly reviews of the booklet's information from the church pastor, who was educated about diabetes by a Latino family nurse practitioner. Pre- and postintervention levels of diabetes knowledge were measured using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire. Mean changes in the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ-24) survey from pretest to posttest indicated a significant increase in knowledge in both groups. Only the grades for the participants from the pastor-led group, however, moved from failure in knowledge to high levels of passing. One hundred percent of intervention group participants reported having read the literature. This pilot study supports the feasibility of a local Latino pastor, as a culturally consistent diabetes educator, to increase Latino parishioner's knowledge of diabetes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  3. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray

    2009-11-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.

  4. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  6. Unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorin 2: identification of the [FeIV=O Por•]+ and [FeIV=O Por](Tyr38•) intermediates and their role(s) in substrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul; Berry, Robert E; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hongjun; Walker, F Ann; Ivancich, Anabella

    2010-10-19

    We have identified a novel enzymatic reaction for nitrophorin 2 (NP2), a heme protein previously characterized as a nitric oxide carrier in the saliva of the Rhodnius prolixus insect. NP2 exhibited levels of peroxidase activity comparable to those of the bifunctional peroxidases (KatGs), despite their heme pocket structural differences (heme ruffling, Tyr38 and Tyr85 in hydrogen bonding interactions with the propionates in NP2). The intermediates of the peroxidase-like reaction of NP2 were identified by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and electronic absorption spectroscopies. The EPR spectrum consistent with an [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was detected at pH <7. At pH ≥ 7, the change from a strong to a weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction for the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was accompanied by the subsequent formation of an [Fe(IV)=O Por](Tyr•) intermediate. Tyr38 was shown to be the unique naturally occurring radical site in NP2. The Y38F mutant stabilized the radical on the tyrosine in hydrogen-bonding interaction with the other heme propionate (Tyr85). Kinetic studies using stopped-flow electronic absorption spectrophotometry revealed that the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species reacts with histamine and norepinephrine in a peroxidase-like manner. Our findings demonstrate that NP2 has pH-dependent dual function: at the acidic pH of the insect saliva the protein behaves as a NO carrier, and, if exposed to the higher pH of the tissues and capillaries of the host, NP2 is able to bind histamine or it can efficiently inactivate norepinephrine through a peroxidase-like reaction, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, the unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of NP2 is concluded to be a key biological function.

  7. Proposed Methodology for Performance Prediction and Monitoring for an Acknowledged Systems of Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    SMM ), Concept of Operations (CONOPS), and usage rate variance analyses are all considered in the SPM calculation. The SPM tool will be reviewed and...usage rates. The System Maturity Model ( SMM ), Concept of Operations (CONOPS), and usage rate variance analyses are all considered in the SPM...The System Maturity Model ( SMM ), Concept of Operations (CONOPS), and usage rate variance analyses are all considered in the SPM calculation. The SPM

  8. PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Luengo, Luis Miguel; Álvarez, Julia; Burgos, Rosa; Cuerda, Cristina; Matía, Pilar; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Ángel; Gonzalo, Montserrat; Calleja, Alicia; Campos, Cristina; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio; Irles, José Antonio; Leyes, Pere; Sánchez, Rebeca; De Luis Román, Daniel; Cardona, Daniel; Santacruz, Nieves; Suárez, José Pablo; Ballesta, Carmen; Salas, Jordi; Penacho, María Ángeles; Gardez, Carmen; Martínez, María José; Cánovas, Bárbara; Moreno, José Manuel; Del Olmo, Dolores; Carabaña, Fátima; Virgili, Nuria; Higuera, Isabel; Mauri, Silvia; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Miserachs, Nuria; Ponce, Miguel Ángel; García, Yaiza; Morán, Jesús M; Apezetxea, Antxón; Tejera, Cristina; Calañas, Alfonso; Cantón, Ana; Díaz, Patricia; Nadya-Senpe, Grupo

    2017-02-01

    Objetivo: exponer los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del año 2014 y 2015 del Grupo NADYA-SENPE.Métodos: se recopilaron los pacientes introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero al 31 de diciembre de 2014 y la mismas fechas de 2015, y se procedió al análisis descriptivo y analítico de los datos.Resultados: en el año 2014, se registraron 3.749 pacientes y en 2015, 4.202; la prevalencia fue de 80,58 pacientes/millón de habitantes en el año 2014 y de 90,51 en 2015. Por sexos, hubo un 49,9% de mujeres en 2014 y un 50,3% en 2015. La edad media fue de 73 años (IIQ 59-83) en ambos años. Finalizaron 684 episodios de NED en 2014 y 631 en 2015, la causa principal fue el fallecimiento en el 54,9% y 50,4% de los casos, respectivamente. Los portadores de sonda nasogástrica presentan una edad media superior a los pacientes con cualquier otra vía (p < 0,001). Se registraron 67 pacientes pediátricos en 2014 (56,7% niñas) y 77 en 2015 (55,8% niñas). La vía principal de administración fue la gastrostomía en el 52,0% de los casos de 2014 y sonda nasogástrica en el 50,8% de los casos de 2015. La causa principal de finalización de la nutrición fue el fallecimiento (57,1% en 2014 y 38,5% en 2015). Se observó que los niños más pequeños eran los que se alimentaban preferentemente por SNG (p 0,004 vs.0,002).Tanto en pacientes pediátricos como en adultos el diagnóstico principal que motivó la necesidad de NED fue la enfermedad neurológica que cursa con afagia o disfagia severa.Conclusiones: se ha incrementado el número de pacientes del registro, así como el número de centros participantes y el número medio de pacientes comunicados por cada centro respecto a años anteriores, sin que se hayan modificado sustancialmente las características de los pacientes, salvo mayor duración de los episodios.

  9. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  10. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  11. Energy expenditure in children with cerebral palsy and moderate / severe malnutrition during nutritional recovery.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Andrea A; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Ibarra-Gutierrez, Ana I; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Analizar el gasto energético total (GET) y gasto energético basal (GEB) en niños con parálisis cerebral infantil (PCI) y desnutrición moderada o grave durante la recuperación nutricia. Métodos: En un estudio de intervención, se incluyeron trece sujetos con PCI (10 mujeres y 3 hombres, con una edad promedio de 9a11m±2a3m), pertenecían al nivel V del Sistema de Clasificación de la Función Motora Gruesa y desnutrición moderada o grave. Ocho fueron alimentados por sonda nasogástrica y cinco por gastrostomía. Se compararon con 57 participantes sanos (31 mujeres y 26 varones con una edad promedio de 8a7m±10m). Se realizaron mediciones antropométricas, de composición corporal y de gasto energético mediante el análisis de impedancia bio-eléctrica (IBE) y calorimetría indirecta (CI) en ambos grupos. Resultados: El GET y GEB fueron mayores en los niños sanos que en los niños con parálisis cerebral en kcal/d y kcal/cm/d, pero fueron menores en kcal/kg/día (p.

  12. Sweet potatoes as a basic component in developing a medium for the cultivation of lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Saeed A; Shahbazi, Aboghasem; Awaisheh, Saddam S; Shah, Nagendra P; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2013-01-01

    A sweet potato medium (SPM) was formed with extract from baked sweet potatoes supplemented with 0, 4, or 8 g/L of each nitrogen source (beef extract, yeast extract, and proteose peptone #3) to form SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3 respectively. Lactobacilli MRS was used as control medium. Ten Lactobacillus strains containing an average of 2.34 ± 0.29 log CFU/mL were inoculated individually into batches of MRS, SPM1, SPM2, and SPM3. The growth patterns for the tested Lactobacillus strains growing in SPM2 and SPM3 were found to be similar to that in MRS. The average final population after 24 h of incubation in MRS, SPM2, and SPM3 reached 10.41 ± 0.35, 10.59 ± 0.27, and 10.72 ± 0.19 log CFU/mL respectively. SPM2 and SPM3 maintained higher pH values throughout the incubation period than MRS. These findings indicate that SPM2 can be a suitable medium for the growth of Lactobacillus and can provide an alternative at low-cost.

  13. Scanning probe microscopy in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, King Lun; Yao, Nan

    2004-09-01

    This review discusses the recent progress in the application of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in catalysis. SPM proves to be an invaluable technique for imaging catalytic surfaces and interfaces. Most SPM research is related to the structural and morphological transformation associated with catalyst preparation and use. Real-time SPM observation of surface dynamics including adsorption, diffusion and reaction, provides invaluable insights to the mechanism of catalysis. SPM is also used to shape and manipulate surfaces and surface processes. Fabrication of nanostructured catalysts, direct manipulation of adsorbed atoms and molecules and tip-mediated reactions are some examples of new SPM approach in catalyst research.

  14. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  15. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  16. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  17. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  18. 33 CFR 150.405 - How must a cargo transfer system be tested and inspected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reinforcement. (d) Each submarine hose used in cargo transfer operations in an SPM-CTS must have been removed... transfer operations, each submarine hose in an SPM-CTS must be visually examined in place as described...

  19. Multifrequency tympanometry in infants.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Tamyne Ferreira Duarte; Macedo, Camila de Cássia; Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: O uso de uma única frequência na timpanometria não é sensível na detecção de todos os casos de alteração na orelha média, dificultando o diagnóstico preciso.Objetivo: Caracterização das medidas de imitância acústica de lactentes utilizando três tipos de sonda. Estudo prospectivo.Método: Foram avaliados 54 lactentes, com idade entre zero e três meses. Os critérios de inclusão foram ausência de infecções de vias aéreas, presença de emissões otoacústicas evocadas transientes, ausência de indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. Foi realizada entrevista audiológica, inspeção visual do meato acústico externo e medidas de imitância acústica nas frequências de 226Hz, 678Hz e 1000Hz. Foram coletados os registros timpanométricos de efeito de oclusão, curva e pressão de pico timpanométrico, volume equivalente do meato acústico externo e pico compensado da admitância acústica estática.Resultados: Os resultados indicaram presença de efeito de oclusão (2,88% em 226Hz, 4,81% em 678Hz e 3,85% em 1000Hz); predomínio de curva em pico único (65,35% em 226Hz, 81,82% em 678Hz e 77,00% em 1000Hz); pressão de pico variando de -150 a 180daPa; aumento do volume equivalente do meato acústico externo com aumento da frequência da sonda (0,64ml em 226Hz, 1,63mmho em 678Hz e 2,59mmho em 1000Hz); aumento do pico compensado da admitância acústica estática (0,51ml em 226Hz, 0,55mmho em 678Hz e 1,20mmho em 1000Hz). Foram classificados como normais 93,06% dos timpanogramas com 226Hz, 80,81% em 678Hz e 82,00% em 1000Hz.Conclusão: Por meio destas avaliações e resultados foi possível caracterizar as medidas de imitância acústica dos lactentes.

  20. [Gastrocolic fistula as a complication of percutaneous feeding gastrostomy, description of three cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Varo, Ignacio; Gros Herguido, Noelia; Parejo Campos, Juana; Tatay Domínguez, Dolores; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Socas Macías, María; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: La gastrostomía percutánea es el procedimiento de elección para proporcionar acceso enteral en pacientes que requieren soporte nutricional por esta vía a largo plazo, relegando a la gastrostomía quirúrgica. Material y métodos: Presentamos tres pacientes con indicación de gastrostomía percutánea para soporte nutricional. En dos casos se realizó la gastrostomía mediante endoscopia y en otro mediante radiología intervencionista. Resultados: Durante la realización de las gastrostomías no se detectaron incidencias clínicas, pero al intentar recambio de las sondas de gastrostomía, se evidenció la presencia de fístula gastrocólica que, ocasionaba imposibilidad del recambio en un caso, o cuadro de dolor abdominal y diarrea en los otros dos casos. Discusión: Pese a ser una técnica segura, la gastrostomía percutánea debe realizarse con una correcta selección de los pacientes para minimizar posibles complicaciones que puedan acontecer, como fístula gastrocólica, recomendando en casos dudosos la realización de prueba de imagen tipo TC (tomografía computerizada).

  1. [Amyotrophyc lateral sclerosis; gastrointestinal complications in home enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Puerta, R; Yuste Ossorio, E; Narbona Galdó, S; Pérez Izquierdo, N; Peñas Maldonado, L

    2013-11-01

    Objetivos: Analizar las complicaciones relacionadas con el soporte nutricional enteral en los pacientes con esclerosis lateral amiotrófica que forman parte de nuestro programa de ventilación mecánica domiciliaria, haciendo especial hincapié en las gastrointestinales. Método: Estudio retrospectivo de tipo descriptivo de enfermos que se incluyeron en nuestro Programa de Ventilación Mecánica Domiciliaria (PVMD) dirigido por médicos intensivistas, mediante la revisión sistemática de historias clínicas (procedentes de una base de datos de Microsoft Access), durante los años 2004-2011. Resultados: Entre los años 2004-2011 se siguieron 73 pacientes con diagnostico de Esclerosis lateral amiotrófica: 34 de ellos (46,6%) rechazaron el aporte nutricional a través de gastrostomía o de sonda nasogástrica, mientras que 39 (53,4%) aceptaron su colocación. De los 39 pacientes en los que se inició la NED: 20 eran mujeres mujeres (51,3%). La edad media de los pacienes fue de 60,6 + 13,4 años (IC 95% 56,4-64,8). Los diagnósticos al ingreso en el PVMD fueron: ELA, 21 casos (53,8%), y ELA con afectación bulbar, 18 (43,1%). Se alimentaron a través de GEP 34 pacientes (87,2%), con gastrostomía quirúrgica 3 (7,7%) y mediante sonda nasogástrica 3 (7,7%). La gastrostomía percutánea endoscópica se realizó tras la inclusión de los pacientes en el programa, con una media días de 222,7 + 356,6 (IC 95% 110,8-334,7). En pacientes con ELA la media fue de 271,4 + 449,5 días (IC 95% 130,3-412,1), con ELA y afectación bulbar de 126,4 + 131,3 días (IC 95% 90-172,6). El recambio de sonda fue de 7,3 + 4,8 meses (IC 95% 4-10,6). La nutrición enteral tuvo una duración media de 578,6 + 872,9 días (IC 95% 304,7-852,6). Se hallaron complicaciones en 35 pacientes (89,7%), y solamente en 4, no se encontró ninguna (10,3%). Ver tabla 2. El estreñimiento se manifestó, después del inicio de la NE, en 30 pacientes (76,9%); sin embargo, ya existía previamente en 18 de ellos

  2. The combination of scanning electron and scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sapozhnikov, I. D.; Gorbenko, O. M. Felshtyn, M. L.; Golubok, A. O.

    2016-06-17

    We suggest the SPM module to combine SEM and SPM methods for studying surfaces. The module is based on the original mechanical moving and scanning system. The examples of studies of the steel surface microstructure in both SEM and SPM modes are presented.

  3. Remotely sensed seasonality in the spatial distribution of sea-surface suspended particulate matter in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleveld, Marieke A.; Pasterkamp, Reinold; van der Woerd, Hendrik J.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2008-10-01

    An algorithm is presented for estimating near-surface SPM concentrations in the turbid Case 2 waters of the southern North Sea. The single band algorithm, named POWERS, was derived by parameterising Gordon's approximation of the radiative transfer model with measurements of Belgian and Dutch inherent optical properties. The algorithm was used to calculate near-surface SPM concentration from 491 SeaWiFS datasets for 2001. It was shown to be a robust algorithm for estimating SPM in the southern North Sea. Regression of annual geometric mean SPM concentration derived from remote sensing (SPM rs), against in situ (SPM is) data from 19 Dutch monitoring stations was highly significant with an r2 of 0.87. Further comparison and statistical testing against independent datasets for 2000 confirmed the consistency of this relationship. Moreover, time series of SPM rs concentrations derived from the POWERS algorithm, were shown to follow the same temporal trends as individual SPM is data recorded during 2001. Composites of annual, winter and summer SPM rs for 2001 highlight the three dominant water masses in the southern North Sea, as well as their winter-fall and spring-summer variability. The results indicate that wind induced wave action and mixing cause high surface SPM signals in winter in regions where the water column becomes well mixed, whereas in summer stratification leads to a lower SPM surface signal. The presented algorithm gives accurate near-surface SPM concentrations and could easily be adapted for other water masses and seas.

  4. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  5. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  6. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  7. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  8. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  9. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use.

  10. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  11. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping in Python.

    PubMed

    Pataky, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is a topological methodology for detecting field changes in smooth n-dimensional continua. Many classes of biomechanical data are smooth and contained within discrete bounds and as such are well suited to SPM analyses. The current paper accompanies release of 'SPM1D', a free and open-source Python package for conducting SPM analyses on a set of registered 1D curves. Three example applications are presented: (i) kinematics, (ii) ground reaction forces and (iii) contact pressure distribution in probabilistic finite element modelling. In addition to offering a high-level interface to a variety of common statistical tests like t tests, regression and ANOVA, SPM1D also emphasises fundamental concepts of SPM theory through stand-alone example scripts. Source code and documentation are available at: www.tpataky.net/spm1d/.

  12. Versatile scanned probe microscope: technical and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiburin, Vil B.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-03-01

    In our biophysical laboratory a new scanned probe microscope (SPM) for technical and biological application has been developed. The SPM allows to investigate sample surface by means of three different near field microscopes: scanning tunneling microscope, atomic force microscope and near field scanning optical microscope. The SPM is very rigid and can be operated in ordinary laboratory without any vibration isolation. The scanning area of the microscope is about 10 X 10 micrometers . Different technical and biological applications of the SPM are demonstrated. Results of the SPM investigations of different carbon, metal and dielectric films are described. The SPM comparison study of electrical breakdown and the conduction bistable switching effect in thin dielectric films of oxides and fluorides of some rare earth metals has been discussed. Some biological applications of the SPM viz. visualization of different bacteria (E.Coli, plague, cholera, staphylococcus), bacteria thin sections, macromolecules (plague proteins) and plague phage has been described.

  13. Utilization of composted sugar industry waste (pressmud) to improve properties of sodic soil for rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rashi; Chandra, R; Kumar, Narendra; Tyagi, A K

    2005-07-01

    Sulphitation pressmud (SPM) and its composts were prepared by heap, pit, NADEP and vermicomposting methods and their effects were compared with soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient uptake by rice in a sodic soil under pot conditions. Application of 15 t ha(-1) SPM and its different composts significantly increased the plant height and dry matter accumulation at different intervals, grain and straw yields and N, P and K uptake by the crop over the control. NADEP compost of SPM alone recorded the maximum and significant plant height by 8.5 to 19.3% and plant dry matter by 14.6 to 32.8% over the raw SPM at different intervals. NADEP composts of SPM alone and SPM + rice straw were also found to be superior than raw SPM by recording 34.8 and 27.8% more grain yield respectively. The SPM composts prepared by NADEP and SPM by vermicomposting methods significantly accumulated higher N and K in rice grains and straw, while NADEP compost of SPM and SPM + rice straw recorded more P in grains and straw than raw SPM. Application of SPM and its composts reduced the pH, EC and bulk density of the soil after rice harvesting, though the reductions were not significant in comparison to the control. However, these treatments increased the soil organic C by 33.33 to 69.0%, available N by 41.4 to 74.8%, available P by 47.1 to 97.8%, available K by 11.8 to 59.2% and available S by 10.3 to 90.7% over the control. NADEP composts, in general, were found to be superior than the raw SPM and other composts in residual soil nutrient content after rice crop.

  14. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression.

    PubMed

    Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D

    2011-02-04

    This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Daniela; Bustos, Edson; Sánchez, Andrés; Barja, Salesa

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la rehabilitación de la alimentación por vía oral (RVO) es compleja en pacientes que han recibido nutrición enteral (NE) prolongada. Objetivo: describir este proceso en niños con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas y sonda nasoenteral (SNE) o gastrostomía (GT).Pacientes y métodos: estudio retrospectivo con revisión de registros clínicos de niños con NE mayor a dos meses, ingresados entre 2005 y 2014 al Hospital Josefina Martínez.Resultados: Se incluyeron 116 pacientes, con mediana de edad 10 meses (Rango: 3 a 101), 56% hombres. Diagnóstico: 34,5% Daño pulmonar crónico postinfeccioso (DPC), 29,3% Insuficiencia respiratoria por enfermedad neuromuscular, 19% Displasia broncopulmonar y 17,2% enfermedad de la vía aérea. Con traqueostomía: 82,8%. Eran usuarios de GT 89,7% y de SNG 10,3%, instaladas con mediana de edad 6 meses (0 a 74), por ingesta insuficiente (6,6%) o trastorno de deglución (92,4%). Del grupo total, 36,2% (42/116) tenía indicación de RVO, los cuales habían recibido NE durante 12,2 meses (2 a 41); de estos 50% (21/42) logró alimentarse exclusivamente por vía oral (91% SNG y 35,4% GT, Chi2 p = 0,023), 14% parcialmente y 36% no lo logró. El tiempo para lograr la vía oral exclusiva fue de 9,75 meses (0,5 a 47), sin diferencia por edad, sexo, vía de acceso, duración NE ni presencia de enfermedad neurológica.Conclusión: en pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas graves y NE prolongada, la RVO es un proceso lento pero posible: 64% lo logra de modo completo o parcial.

  16. PubMed

    Cabeza de Vaca Pedrosa, María José; Aguilar Diosdado, Manuel; Vizcaya Rojas, Miguel Ángel; Novalbos Ruiz, José Pedro; Lorenzo Peñuelas, Antonio; Valero Cabeza de Vaca, José Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Introducción: la declaración de voluntades anticipadas (DVA) es un documento que contiene las preferencias sobre los cuidados y tratamientos sanitarios que se desea recibir cuando no se tenga capacidad para expresarlos.Objetivo: estudiar el contenido de las DVA inscritas en la sede del Registro de Voluntades Anticipadas del Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, respecto al soporte nutricional especializado (SNE) e hidratación en el periodo de noviembre 2013 a diciembre 2015.Método: estudio transversal realizado sobre el contenido de las DVA inscritas en el modelo del Decreto 59/2012. Se estudian 9 variables de relevancia relacionadas con el SNE e hidratación en las DVA.Resultados: se analizan 414 DVA de las que el 60% corresponden a mujeres. La edad media de los declarantes es 55,2 años. El 41,7% inscribieron su DVA por automotivación. El 84,78% no desea recibir nutrición parenteral, el 91,06% rechaza la alimentación mediante tubo de gastrostomía y el 89,37% no desea recibir la sonda nasogástrica. La hidratación es rechazada por el 71,26%. Las tres posibles opciones de SNE dependen significativamente de la edad del declarante (p < 0,001) pero no así la hidratación. Ambos, SNE e hidratación, sí se asociaron significativamente con los motivos para inscribir las voluntades anticipadas (p < 0,001).Conclusiones: la edad es el principal factor que condiciona la opción de aceptación o rechazo de SNE. Por el contrario, la elección de la hidratación no está condicionada por la edad. Los motivos por los que se inscriben los otorgantes son otro determinante en la elección de si desean recibir o no SNE e hidratación.

  17. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  18. Seasonal pasture myopathy/atypical myopathy in North America associated with ingestion of hypoglycin A within seeds of the box elder tree.

    PubMed

    Valberg, S J; Sponseller, B T; Hegeman, A D; Earing, J; Bender, J B; Martinson, K L; Patterson, S E; Sweetman, L

    2013-07-01

    We hypothesised that seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM), which closely resembles atypical myopathy (AM), was caused by ingestion of a seed-bearing plant abundant in autumn pastures. To identify a common seed-bearing plant among autumn pastures of horses with SPM, and to determine whether the toxic amino acid hypoglycin A was present in the seeds and whether hypoglycin metabolites were present in SPM horse serum or urine. Twelve SPM cases, 11 SPM pastures and 23 control farms were visited to identify a plant common to all SPM farms in autumn. A common seed was analysed for amino acid composition (n = 7/7) by GC-MS and its toxic metabolite (n = 4/4) identified in conjugated form in serum [tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)] and urine [gas chromatography (GC) MS]. Serum acylcarnitines and urine organic acid profiles (n = 7) were determined for SPM horses. Seeds from box elder trees (Acer negundo) were present on all SPM and 61% of control pastures. Hypoglycin A, known to cause acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD), was found in box elder seeds. Serum acylcarnitines and urine organic acid profiles in SPM horses were typical for MADD. The hypoglycin A metabolite methylenecyclopropylacetic acid (MCPA), known to be toxic in other species, was found in conjugated form in SPM horse serum and urine. Horses with SPM had longer turn-out, more overgrazed pastures, and less supplemental feeding than control horses. For the first time, SPM has been linked to a toxin in seeds abundant on autumn pastures whose identified metabolite, MCPA, is known to cause acquired MADD, the pathological mechanism behind SPM and AM. Further research is required to determine the lethal dose of hypoglycin A in horses, as well as factors that affect annual seed burden and hypoglycin A content in Acer species in North America and Europe. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  19. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  20. Nutrient dynamics and decomposition rates during composting of sulphitation pressmud by different methods.

    PubMed

    Chandra, R; Kumar, Narendra; Tyagi, A K

    2007-07-01

    Decomposition rates and nutrient contents of sulphitation pressmud (SPM), either alone or by mixing with cow dung and rice straw, under the aerobic (heap and NADEP), anaerobic (pit) and vermicomposting methods were compared. Loss in Organic C and C/N ratios of the decomposing materials indicated the heap and NADEP methods faster for the composting of SPM alone and SPM + cow dung and vermicomposting method for SPM + rice straw registering significant reductions in Organic C ranging from 45.0 to 61.0% from the respective decomposing materials at termination time (119 days). The heap and NADEP methods recorded C/N ratio of SPM alone as low as 11 and 12 and SPM + cow dung as 12.0 and 13.9 at termination stage. Vermicomposting method brought the C/N ratio of SPM + rice straw to 16.4 as compared to 18.6 to 29.8 with the other methods. Irrespective of the composting methods, CO2 evolution from the decomposing materials was higher in early period (up to 28 days). Among methods, NADEP and heap methods recorded more CO2 evolution in early period while vermicomposting method showed more CO2 evolution at the later intervals in comparison to the other methods. Nutrient content in the decomposing materials at different intervals depended on their initial contents. Total N in the composts were statistically comparable, however, the composts of SPM alone recorded relatively more N than SPM + cow dung and SPM + rice-straw prepared by the respective methods. Total P and K contents of the composts increased with time irrespective of the composting methods. Composts of SPM alone recorded significantly more total P than SPM + cow dung and SPM + rice straw at 62, 91 and 119 days while SPM + rice straw recorded more total K than the composts of other materials. Total P in the composts did not differ with the composting methods, but total K in composts of SPM alone was relatively more with heap and NADEP methods, in SPM + cow dung with pit method and in SPM + rice straw by vermicomposting

  1. Superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads toward food safety insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    In this work, superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads (SPM-NIBs) based on conjugation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with specific antibodies have been developed toward food safety insurance. The resultant SPM-NIBs exhibits excellent colloidal stability and reversible magnetic response. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is a main foodborne pathogenes from contaminated seafood, can be separated specifically and efficiently by the resultant SPM-NIBs. The results of bacteria separation demonstrate that the SPM-NIBs have a higher specific activity and sensitivity toward V. parahaemolyticus. About 80 % of V. parahaemolyticus cells can be captured when the concentration of the broth reaches 103 CFU/mL. Thus, the SPM-NIBs can effectively enhance the efficiency for target bacteria inspections by shortening the period of culture time. This work holds the promise of development of general technique to prepare effective SPM-NIBs toward food safety inspections and other bio-related applications for target analyte separation and collection.

  2. [THE CASE OF ENTERAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT TUBE IN COLOMBIA: INSTITUTIONAL COORDINATION PROBLEMS].

    PubMed

    Pinzón-Espitia, Olga Lucia; Chicaiza-Becerra, Liliana; Garcia-Molina, Mario; González-Rodríguez, Javier Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: el presente artículo estudia el caso de la prescripción del soporte nutricional enteral por sonda en Colombia, analizada desde el marco del Sistema de Seguridad Social en Salud, y lo explica como resultado de un problema de coordinación institucional. Para ello se identifican el papel y los incentivos de los distintos agentes y se muestra cómo la interacción de los mismos desincentiva el uso de la nutrición enteral, en casos en los que esta es necesaria, con su correspondiente efecto clínico para el paciente y el aumento de costes para el sistema. Métodos: análisis de los efectos que puede tener en la práctica clínica el problema de la coordinación institucional de los entes reguladores del país. Analiza su origen y los incentivos e intereses de los distintos agentes involucrados, previa síntesis de la revisión bibliográfica pertinente. Se realizó la búsqueda en las siguientes bases de datos: PubMed, Medline, ScienceDirect y Embase. Conclusiones: la situación actual del soporte nutricional enteral en Colombia es un equilibrio subóptimo, resultado de un problema de coordinación institucional que solo puede ser resuelto cuando los agentes miren más allá de sus incentivos locales, ya que el soporte nutricional es un componente fundamental de la atención hospitalaria y se constituye en un medio para lograr el objetivo de la salud de la población atendida.

  3. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  4. [Phenotypic variability of the 1q21.1 microdeletion syndrome in members of the same family: relevance of detection of neuropsychiatric disorders for diagnosis of genetic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Natera-De Benito, Daniel; Vidal-Esteban, Arantxa; Sanchez-Del Pozo, Jaime; Moreno-Garcia, Marta; Suela-Rubio, Javier; Cruz-Rojo, Jaime; Rivero-Martin, María José

    2015-12-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de microdelecion 1q21.1 esta causado por una delecion recurrente de aproximadamente 800 kb que incluye al menos siete genes y se asocia a un fenotipo variable. Esta variacion en el numero de copias patogenica puede aparecer de novo o ser heredada de uno de los progenitores. La presencia de trastornos psiquiatricos se ha descrito en muchos de los casos publicados, pero se desconoce su prevalencia exacta. Objetivo. Exponer la variabilidad fenotipica de los individuos que presentan una microdelecion 1q21.1. Casos clinicos. Se incluyen cuatro individuos portadores de una delecion de 1,74 Mb en 1q21.1, todos miembros de la misma familia. El estudio genetico del caso indice se llevo a cabo mediante array de hibridacion genomica comparada, y el del resto de familiares mediante hibridacion in situ fluorescente, con una sonda especifica para la region delecionada. Los individuos presentan un fenotipo heterogeneo, y es comun a todos ellos la presencia de alteraciones psiquiatricas o del comportamiento, con un claro predominio de la presencia de trastornos relacionados con las dificultades para el control de impulsos en sus diferentes subtipos. Conclusiones. El sindrome de microdelecion 1q21.1 es fenotipicamente heterogeneo, incluso entre los miembros de una misma familia. Destaca la presencia de alteraciones psiquiatricas o del comportamiento como rasgo comun en todos los pacientes que presentamos. Existen formas paucisintomaticas en las que el individuo portador de la delecion presenta exclusivamente alteraciones psiquiatricas.

  5. Spermine alleviates drought stress in white clover with different resistance by influencing carbohydrate metabolism and dehydrins synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhou; Jing, Wen; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Xin Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin Kai; Yan, Yan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyse whether ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied spermine (Spm) was related to carbohydrate metabolism, dehydrins accumulation and the transcription of genes encoding dehydrins in two white clovers (drought-susceptible cv. 'Ladino' and drought-resistant cv. 'Haifa') under controlled drying conditions for 10 days. The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars. Exogenous Spm led to accumulation of more water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), sucrose, fructose and sorbitol in both cultivars under drought stress, and also significantly elevated glucose content in leaves of drought-resistant cv. 'Haifa', but had no effect on drought-susceptible cv. 'Ladino'. Accordingly, the key enzyme activities of sucrose and sorbitol metabolism changed along with the application of Spm under drought stress. Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought. In addition, the improved accumulation of dehydrins induced by exogenous Spm coincided with three genes expression which was responsible for dehydrins synthesis. But Spm-induced transcript level of dehydrin genes increased earlier in cv. 'Ladino' than that in cv. 'Haifa'. Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis. There are differences between drought-susceptible and -resistant white clover cultivars related to Spm regulation of WSC metabolism and dehydrins expression.

  6. Radioprotection of Human Cell Nuclear DNA by Polyamines: Radiosensitivity of Chromatin is Influenced by Tightly Bound Spermine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Newton, Gerald L.; Olive, Peggy L.; Fahey, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The polyamines putrescine (PUT) and spermine (SPM) were examined for their ability to protect human cell Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the formation of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As observed previously, under conditions where polyamines were shown to be almost completely absent, association with nuclear matrix protein into a nucleoid, and organization into chromatin structure, protected DNA from induction of DSBs by factors of 4.5 and 95, respectively. At concentrations below 1 mM, PUT or SPM provided equivalent levels of protection to deproteinized nuclear DNA, consistent with their capacity to scavenge radiation-induced radicals. At constant ionic strength, 5 mM SPM protected deproteinized DNA and nucleoid DNA and DNA in nuclear chromatin by factors of 100 and 26, respectively. At 5 mM, SPM provided 15 times greater protection of deproteinized DNA than did PUT. Under physiologically relevant conditions, 5 mM SPM protected DNA in the intact nucleus from the induction of DSBs by a factor of 2 relative to DNA in the absence of SPM. Studies of SPM binding during cellular fractionation revealed that a significant fraction of the cellular SPM is tightly bound in the nucleus but can be removed by extended washing. Thus the association of SPM with nuclear chromatin appears to be a significant contributor to the resistance of the cell's DNA to the induction of DSBs.

  7. Effect of feeding sugarcane press mud on carcass traits and meat quality characteristics of lambs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjan; Saha, Subodh Kumar; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To explore the possibilities of feeding unconventional agro-industrial byproduct for livestock production. Sugarcane press-mud (SPM), is a byproduct derived from sugarcane industry, which is rich in protein as well as minerals. The effects of dietary inclusion of SPM at different levels on the carcass characteristics of lambs were evaluated. Materials and Methods: SPM was incorporated in concentrate mixture at different levels 0% (SP0 - concentrate mixture without SPM [Control diet]), 10% (SP10 - concentrate mixture containing 10% SPM) and 20% (SP20 - concentrate mixture containing 20% SPM). The concentrate mixtures were fed along with wheat straw for 180 days. At the end of the experimental period, six lambs per group were slaughtered to evaluate carcass and meat quality characteristics. Results: No significant difference was observed in dressing percentage on pre-slaughter weight or empty body weight basis of lambs fed different levels of SPM incorporated diets. Likewise carcass weight, carcass length, and wholesale cuts appeared to have similar values among groups. The yield of visceral organs, chemical composition, and sensory attributes were not statistically affected by inclusion of SPM in the diets except juiciness of control group meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than treatment group (SP20). Conclusion: The SPM can be incorporated in the diet of lambs up to the level of 20% without affecting the carcass characteristics of lambs. PMID:27065649

  8. Radioprotection of Human Cell Nuclear DNA by Polyamines: Radiosensitivity of Chromatin is Influenced by Tightly Bound Spermine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Newton, Gerald L.; Olive, Peggy L.; Fahey, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    The polyamines putrescine (PUT) and spermine (SPM) were examined for their ability to protect human cell Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the formation of radiation-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). As observed previously, under conditions where polyamines were shown to be almost completely absent, association with nuclear matrix protein into a nucleoid, and organization into chromatin structure, protected DNA from induction of DSBs by factors of 4.5 and 95, respectively. At concentrations below 1 mM, PUT or SPM provided equivalent levels of protection to deproteinized nuclear DNA, consistent with their capacity to scavenge radiation-induced radicals. At constant ionic strength, 5 mM SPM protected deproteinized DNA and nucleoid DNA and DNA in nuclear chromatin by factors of 100 and 26, respectively. At 5 mM, SPM provided 15 times greater protection of deproteinized DNA than did PUT. Under physiologically relevant conditions, 5 mM SPM protected DNA in the intact nucleus from the induction of DSBs by a factor of 2 relative to DNA in the absence of SPM. Studies of SPM binding during cellular fractionation revealed that a significant fraction of the cellular SPM is tightly bound in the nucleus but can be removed by extended washing. Thus the association of SPM with nuclear chromatin appears to be a significant contributor to the resistance of the cell's DNA to the induction of DSBs.

  9. Impact of suspended particulate matter on egg production of the estuarine copepod, Eurytemora affinis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Stéphane; Castel, Jacques; Irigoien, Xabier

    1999-10-01

    Egg production rate and gut pigment content of Eurytemora affinis were measured in the Gironde, Westerschelde and Elbe estuaries. These represent various conditions with respect to suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration. Egg production rate varied as a function of temperature and was strongly affected by high SPM concentration. Specific gut pigment content (Gsp) and specific pigment ingestion also clearly decreased when SPM concentration increased, suggesting that SPM concentration could influence egg production rate through a vegetal prey uptake limitation and that E. affinis either gained an energetic advantage by vegetal prey ingestion or needed vegetal prey in order to obtain a minimum amount of specific component required for egg production.

  10. Exogenous polyamines elicit herbivore-induced volatiles in lima bean leaves: involvement of calcium, H2O2 and Jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Rika; Bertea, Cinzia M; Foti, Maria; Narayana, Ravishankar; Arimura, Gen-Ichiro; Muroi, Atsushi; Horiuchi, Jun-Ichiro; Nishioka, Takaaki; Maffei, Massimo E; Takabayashi, Junji

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the role of polyamines (PAs) in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves on the production of herbivorous mite (Tetranychus urticae)-induced plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. To do this, we focused on the effects of the exogenous PAs [cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine (Spm)] on the production of volatiles, H(2)O(2) and jasmonic acid (JA) and the levels of defensive genes, cytosolic calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested PAs, Spm was the most active in inducing the production of volatile terpenoids known to be induced by T. urticae. An increase in JA levels was also found after Spm treatment, indicating that Spm induces the biosynthesis of JA, which has been shown elsewhere to regulate the production of some volatile terpenoids. Further, treatment with JA and Spm together resulted in greater volatile emission than that with JA alone. In a Y-tube olfactometer, leaves treated with Spm + JA attracted more predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) than those treated with JA alone. After treatment with Spm + JA, no effects were found on the enzyme activity of polyamine oxidase and copper amine oxidase. However, induction of calcium influx and ROS production, and increased enzyme activities and gene expression for NADPH oxidase complex, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were found after treatment with Spm + JA. These results indicate that Spm plays an important role in the production of T. urticae-induced lima bean leaf volatiles.

  11. Control theory for scanning probe microscopy revisited.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We derive a theoretical model for studying SPM feedback in the context of control theory. Previous models presented in the literature that apply standard models for proportional-integral-derivative controllers predict a highly unstable feedback environment. This model uses features specific to the SPM implementation of the proportional-integral controller to give realistic feedback behaviour. As such the stability of SPM feedback for a wide range of feedback gains can be understood. Further consideration of mechanical responses of the SPM system gives insight into the causes of exciting mechanical resonances of the scanner during feedback operation.

  12. Scanned probe microscope for biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiburin, Vil B.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Shcherbakov, Anatolyi A.; Malakhaeva, Alina N.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Yuri P.

    1997-12-01

    In our biophysical laboratory has been developed a new scanned probe microscope (SPM) for biological application. The SPM allows to investigate a biological samples' surface by means of three different near field microscopes: scanning tunneling microscope (STM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The SPM is very rigid and can be operated in ordinary laboratory without any vibration isolation. The scanning area of the microscope is about 10 by 10 micrometers. Some different biological objects were visualized by means of the SPM viz. bacteria (E. Coli, plague, cholera, staphylococcus), macromolecules (DNA, plague proteins) and phage (T2).

  13. Evaluation of the educational technology "Caring for dependent people" by family caregivers in changes and transfers of patients and tube feeding.

    PubMed

    Landeiro, Maria José Lumini; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Martins, Teresa Vieira

    2016-08-18

    no domicílio. Os dados foram colhidos por questionário sociodemográfico de satisfação e avaliação de conhecimentos sobre como alimentar por sonda nasogástrica, posicionar e transferir a pessoa dependente. A avaliação nos dois grupos teve dois momentos: inicial, no internamento e um mês após alta hospitalar. registou-se no grupo experimental um ganho maior de conhecimentos relacionado com a utilização da tecnologia educacional. No grupo controle os conhecimentos não variaram nos dois momentos de avaliação. esses resultados corroboraram na melhoria das tecnologias educacionais interativas e na capacitação dos familiares cuidadores para cuidar de pessoas dependentes. Essa tecnologia atendeu satisfatoriamente as necessidades de qualidade técnica e de aprendizagem dos cuidadores, sendo considerada fácil e estimulante. evaluar las contribuciones de la tecnología educativa interactiva "Cuidar de personas dependientes" en el desarrollo de conocimiento de los familiares cuidadores de personas dependientes en el contexto domiciliario y la satisfacción en su uso. estudio cuasi-experimental, no aleatorizado, de tipo antes-después, con una muestra de 65 familiares cuidadores, de dos servicios de Medicina de un hospital en Oporto, Portugal. El grupo control consistió en 33 familiares cuidadores y el grupo experimental en 32, identificados por muestreo consecutivo. El grupo experimental tuvo acceso a la tecnología de la educación en el hogar. Los datos fueron recolectados por cuestionario sociodemográfico de satisfacción y evaluación de los conocimientos sobre cómo alimentar por sonda nasogástrica, posicionar y transferir a la persona dependiente. La evaluación en ambos grupos tuvo dos etapas: inicial, durante la hospitalización y un mes después del alta. se registraron en el grupo experimental aumentos del conocimiento relacionado con el uso de la tecnología educativa. En el grupo control el conocimiento no difirió en los dos puntos en el

  14. Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric

    2015-02-01

    The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observations, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of "heavy and fast" settling particles significantly increases relative to the "light and slow" ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predictions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.

  15. Using Landsat 8 data to estimate suspended particulate matter in the Yellow River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhongfeng; Xiao, Cong; Perrie, William; Sun, Deyong; Wang, Shengqiang; Shen, Hui; Yang, Dezhou; He, Yijun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and its variations in estuary regions are key to promoting carbon, oxygen, and nutrient cycling in coastal regions and nearby seas. This study presents SPM estimations for the Yellow River estuary from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (L8/OLI) data from 2013 to 2016. L8/OLI-measured remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) was cross-validated with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements, and SPM concentrations calculated from the tuned retrieval model were validated with in situ observations. The validation shows that L8/OLI can provide reasonably Rrs, which can be used to quantify SPM distributions and variations in the Yellow River estuary. Three year averaged SPM maps show that highly turbid waters are mostly found in an ovate area surrounding the mouth of the Yellow River. The corresponding area proportion is less than 30%, with SPM concentrations greater than 100 g m-3. High variations of SPM distributions are consistent with high SPM concentrations, and vice versa. Significant difference is observed between dry and wet seasons. Higher SPM in the dry season is observed both in range and intensity compared to those of the wet season. Furthermore, multiyear averaged SPM distributions with high concentrations are mainly attributable to currents. Significant seasonal variations are mainly controlled by sediment resuspension processes driven by wind-wave forces. Due to human interventions, seasonal variability in river runoff and sediment discharge from the Yellow River has decreased in recent years. Accordingly, seasonal variability in SPM distributions in the Yellow River estuary due to sediment discharge has decreased.

  16. Molecular Umbrellas: a Novel Class of Candidate Topical Microbicides To Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Mesquita, Pedro M. M.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Jing, Bingwen; Shende, Vikas; Guzman, Esmeralda; Heald, Taylor; Keller, Marla J.; Regen, Steven L.; Shattock, Robin J.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular umbrella compounds may function as novel topical microbicides to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. In a preliminary structure-activity investigation, one umbrella compound, designated Spm8CHAS, was identified which inhibited both HIV and HSV infections with no cellular toxicity. The objectives of the current studies were to define its spectrum of antiviral activity, characterize its mechanism of action, and explore the possibility of combining Spm8CHAS with HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Spm8CHAS inhibited infections by laboratory and clinical R5 and X4 clade B and clade C HIV strains in cell culture. Ectocervical tissue explants exposed to HIV-1BaL in the presence of Spm8CHAS were completely protected (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 13.6 μg/ml), and transfer of virus to target T cells via migratory cells was abolished (IC50, 3.8 μg/ml). Spm8CHAS inhibited HSV-2 infection of epithelial cells 10,000-fold if present throughout the infection. Notably, adding Spm8CHAS to cultures following HSV entry significantly reduced viral infection, indicating that the drug also acts postentry. Subsequent studies indicated that Spm8CHAS blocks cell-to-cell spread of HSV. Confocal microscopy using a fluorescently labeled analog of Spm8CHAS demonstrated that this conjugate crosses the plasma cell membrane and is transported to the nucleus. Combinations of Spm8CHAS with UC-781 or 9-[R-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl] adenine monohydrate in vitro exhibited additive anti-HIV activity with preserved anti-HSV activity. The abilities of Spm8CHAS to inhibit primary isolates of HIV, block HSV infection postentry, and cross cell membranes support the development of a combination microbicide containing Spm8CHAS with an HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitor to prevent both HIV and HSV infections by multiple mechanisms. PMID:17494078

  17. Evaluation of the Karras spermdensimeter in relation to the Neubauer counting chamber for sperm concentration measurement in boar semen.

    PubMed

    Vianna, W L; Bruno, D G; Namindome, A; de Campos Rosseto, A C; Barnabé, R C; de Sant' Anna Moretti, A

    2007-10-01

    The correct measurement of spermatic concentration in boar semen is one of the basic tasks routinely performed at the Swine Artificial Insemination Center (CIAS). This article explains two experiments whose objectives were: Experiment 1: This trial had two objectives: (1) to evaluate the precision of the spermdensimeter (SPM) with relation to the Neubauer count chamber (CN) which is considered the standard technique in the field and (2) to correct the scale on the SPM table. Experiment 2: This trial also had two objectives: (1) to evaluate the time and repetitions required in the SPM and (2) to compare the SPM adjusted table produced in Expt 1 with the SPM standard table. The methods in Expt 1 were used to measure total spermatic concentration in 141 boar ejaculates. The average spermatic concentrations (10(6) spermatozoids/ml) and average dose number were 229.1 and 22.6 for CN, and 283.6 and 28.0 for SPM. These results indicate that the SPM has a tendency to overestimate spermatic concentration with relation to the CN. The SPM produced a smaller coefficient of variation and needed lesser examination time than the CN (p < 0.05). The SPM adjusted table created in Expt 1 produced similar results as the SPM and CN standard tables (2.96 billion live spermatozoids/dose vs 2.36 billion live spermatozoids/dose). Incorporation and evaluation of supplemental data from other CIAS regarding the use of the SPM adjusted table in the field entitled 'Adjusted Table for Karras Spermdensimeter LPS-FMVZ-USP' would be valuable to prove its efficiency.

  18. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  19. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  20. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  1. HIGHER POLYAMINES RESTORE AND INVIGORATE METABOLIC MEMORY IN RIPENING FRUIT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous, biogenic amines that have been implicated in diverse cellular functions in most living organisms. Ever since spermine (Spm) phosphate crystals were isolated over three centuries ago, scientists have kept busy in unraveling the mystery behind biological roles of Spm a...

  2. Prevalence and Outcomes of Head and Neck versus Non-Head and Neck Second Primary Malignancies in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Database

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Andrew C.; Rosko, Andrew J.; Chinn, Steven B.; Prince, Mark E.; Sun, Gordon H.; Spector, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are at risk for second primary malignancies (SPMs). The prevalence, distribution and survival of head and neck versus non-head and neck SPMs are not fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to quantify the rate of second primary malignancies in patients with HNSCC. Methods Population-based cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Prevalence and location of SPM, and survival data were analyzed. Results There were 58,363 HNSCC patients, and the prevalence of HNSCC and non-HNSCC SPMs was 3.0% (1,746) and 8.8% (5,109), respectively. Overall survival (OS) was higher in patients with a HNSCC SPM compared to non-HNSCC SPM (p<0.001), with no difference in disease-specific survival(DSS). Patients with SPM in the lung and esophagus had worse OS (p<0.001), and patients with SPM in the prostate and breast had better OS(p<0.001). Conclusion In HNSCC patients who develop SPM, nearly 75% are non-HNSCC SPM. Patients with non-HNSCC SPMs have lower OS. Future clinical practice guidelines should take the risks and locations of SPM development into consideration for screening. PMID:26910465

  3. Visualizing Confidence Bands for Semiparametrically Estimated Nonlinear Relations among Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pek, Jolynn; Chalmers, R. Philip; Kok, Bethany E.; Losardo, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation mixture models (SEMMs), when applied as a semiparametric model (SPM), can adequately recover potentially nonlinear latent relationships without their specification. This SPM is useful for exploratory analysis when the form of the latent regression is unknown. The purpose of this article is to help users familiar with structural…

  4. Experimental Evaluation of a Serious Game for Teaching Software Process Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaves, Rafael Oliveira; von Wangenheim, Christiane Gresse; Furtado, Julio Cezar Costa; Oliveira, Sandro Ronaldo Bezerra; Santos, Alex; Favero, Eloi Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Software process modeling (SPM) is an important area of software engineering because it provides a basis for managing, automating, and supporting software process improvement (SPI). Teaching SPM is a challenging task, mainly because it lays great emphasis on theory and offers few practical exercises. Furthermore, as yet few teaching approaches…

  5. Visualizing Confidence Bands for Semiparametrically Estimated Nonlinear Relations among Latent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pek, Jolynn; Chalmers, R. Philip; Kok, Bethany E.; Losardo, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation mixture models (SEMMs), when applied as a semiparametric model (SPM), can adequately recover potentially nonlinear latent relationships without their specification. This SPM is useful for exploratory analysis when the form of the latent regression is unknown. The purpose of this article is to help users familiar with structural…

  6. The distribution of veterinary antibiotics in the river system in a livestock-producing region and interactions between different phases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xuelian; Wang, Jing; Gao, Shiying

    2016-08-01

    The occurrence of six common antibiotics in the surface water, sediment, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Jiyun River, a typical river in the livestock-producing region in Beijing, northern China, was investigated. The results revealed that the antibiotics were widely distributed in the studied area. The aqueous samples were contaminated by the antibiotics, and the target antibiotics presented in highest levels were sulfonamides, with maximum concentrations of 230 and 385 ng/L for sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Oxytetracyline, one of the tetracylines, was the most frequently detected compound in the particulate phase with maximum concentration of 121 and 130 ng/g in the sediment and SPM, respectively. The total antibiotic concentration in the water was higher in the tributary than that in the main river, demonstrating that the tributaries were discharging antibiotics into the main river. In addition, the partition coefficients of sediment-water (Kp(S)) and the SPM-water (Kp(SPM)) were calculated. Overall, the Kp(S) decreases with an increase in the contents of SPM. In terms of the interaction between SPM and water, linear relationship between logarithm of Kp(SPM) (log Kp(SPM)) and the logarithm of molecular weight (log MW) was obtained, suggesting that large and heavy molecules are more likely to be attracted to suspended particulates, eventually leading to their enrichments in bed sediments.

  7. A 168 bp derivative of Suppressor-mutator/Enhancer is responsible for the maize o2-23 mutation.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, M J; Schmidt, R J

    1993-01-01

    From a directed transposon tagging of the maize Opaque-2 gene (O2), we have isolated a stable mutant o2 allele, o2-23. Cloning and molecular analysis of the allele revealed a 168 nucleotide insertion in the third exon of o2. The sequence of this small insertion indicated identity with the 5' and 3' ends of the 8.3 kb Suppressor-mutator/Enhancer (Spm/En) transposable element. This represents the smallest deletion derivative of Spm (dSpm) thus far characterized in maize. Genetic crosses of plants homozygous for o2-23 with plants homozygous for both an o2 null allele (o2-R) and an autonomous Spm produce stable opaque seed having no apparent sectors of vitreous endosperm. DNA fragments of the size expected if the dSpm were to excise were not detectable by Southern analysis, suggesting that this element is unable to transpose. Northern analysis detected an o2-23 mRNA that was much more abundant in o2-23 seeds lacking Spm than in o2-23 seeds containing Spm, consistent with the idea that Spm transacting functions can suppress the accumulation of the o2-23 transcript.

  8. Effect of Feeding Schedule on Fractionated Particulate Matter Distribution in Rooster House

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  9. Compiling for Novel Scratch Pad Memory based Multicore Architectures for Extreme Scale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, Aviral

    2016-02-05

    The objective of this proposal is to develop tools and techniques (in the compiler) to manage data of a task and communication among tasks on the scratch pad memory (SPM) of the core, so that any application (a set of tasks) can be executed efficiently on an SPM based manycore architecture.

  10. Creative Reasoning across Developmental Levels: Convergence and Divergence in Problem Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2012-01-01

    We recently proposed the Creative Reasoning Test (CRT), a test for reasoning in ill-defined problem spaces. The test asks children who first performed the Standard Progressive Matrices test (SPM) to next generate an SPM-style test item themselves. The item is scored based on different aspects of its complexity. Here we introduce a method to…

  11. Flight Model Discharge System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Itterconnection wiring diagram for the ESA ............................... 34 3-13 Typical gain versus total count curve for CEM...42 3-16 Calibration curve for energy bin 12 of the ion ESA ....................... 43 3-17 Flight ESA S/N001...Calibration curves for SPM S/N001 ......................................... 67 4-11 Calibration curves for SPM S/N002

  12. A novel design of a scanning probe microscope integrated with an ultramicrotome for serial block-face nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anton E.; Agapov, Igor I.; Agapova, Olga I.; Oleinikov, Vladimir A.; Mezin, Alexey V.; Molinari, Michael; Nabiev, Igor; Mochalov, Konstantin E.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new concept of a combined scanning probe microscope (SPM)/ultramicrotome apparatus. It enables "slice-and-view" scanning probe nanotomography measurements and 3D reconstruction of the bulk sample nanostructure from series of SPM images after consecutive ultrathin sections. The sample is fixed on a flat XYZ scanning piezostage mounted on the ultramicrotome arm. The SPM measuring head with a cantilever tip and a laser-photodiode tip detection system approaches the sample for SPM measurements of the block-face surface immediately after the ultramicrotome sectioning is performed. The SPM head is moved along guides that are also fixed on the ultramicrotome arm. Thereby, relative dysfunctional displacements of the tip, the sample, and the ultramicrotome knife are minimized. The design of the SPM head enables open frontal optical access to the sample block-face adapted for high-resolution optical lenses for correlative SPM/optical microscopy applications. The new system can be used in a wide range of applications for the study of 3D nanostructures of biological objects, biomaterials, polymer nanocomposites, and nanohybrid materials in various SPM and optical microscopy measuring modes.

  13. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine

    Treesearch

    Autar K. Mattoo; Subhash C. Minocha; Rakesh Minocha; Avtar K. Handa

    2010-01-01

    Distribution of biogenic amines--the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm)--differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracellular levels are tightly regulated, which have made it difficult to...

  14. Trends and the effect of management on macronutrients in fractionated particulate matter in rooster house

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  15. Spread of Metallo-β-lactamases: screening reveals the presence of aBLASPM-1 gene in hospital sewage in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fuentefria, Daiane Bopp; Ferreira, Alessandra Einsfeld; Gräf, Tiago; Corção, Gertrudes

    2009-01-01

    Of 396 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from hospital sewage, the blaSPM-1 gene was confirmed in nine. This is the first report of environmental P. aeruginosa strains carrying the blaSPM-1 gene in Brazil. The carbapenem resistance, already disseminated among clinical isolates, has been detected among environmental isolates. PMID:24031322

  16. How Well Can Young People with Asperger's Disorder Recognize Threat and Learn about Affect in Faces?: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Ruffman, Ted; Fujita, Chikako; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2010-01-01

    The abilities to identify threat and learn about affect in facial photographs were compared between a non-autistic university student group (NUS), a matched Asperger's group (MAS) on the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and an unmatched Asperger's group (UAS) who scored lower on the SPM. Participants were given pairs of faces and asked which…

  17. Surface suspended particulate matter concentration in the Taiwan Strait during summer and winter monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jason C. S.; Chou, Tzu-Yin; Yu, Hao-Cheng; Chen, Peihung; Vanhellemont, Quinten; Fettweis, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The Taiwan Strait (TS), situated between Taiwan and China, is shallow, relatively turbid, and characterized by strong tidal currents and winter and summer monsoon seasons. The aim of this study was to use images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Aqua satellite to investigate how local sediment sources in addition to the seasonality in wind, oceanographic currents, and waves influence the suspended particulate matter (SPM) dynamics in the TS. In winter, northeast (NE) winds drive the China Coastal Current southward. Cold water with a high SPM concentration is transported southward into the Strait. After the highest SPM concentration reaches its peak in December and January, the winds weaken and the SPM concentration decreases. During summer, winds are less strong and SPM concentration is lower. Although typhoons typically occur in summer, they generate only a weak signal in the surface SPM concentration data from MODIS because of the low number of cloud-free images during these periods. Typhoons result in a short-term increase in the SPM concentration but do not strongly influence the seasonal values in the satellite-derived SPM concentration maps.

  18. Dysgenic Fertility, Intelligence and Family Size in Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shahomee, Alsedig Abdalgadr; Lynn, Richard; Abdalla, Saleh El-ghmary

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to a sample of 592 16 year old school students in Libya. There was a small negative correlation of -0.14 between SPM scores and the number of siblings, indicating only marginal dysgenic fertility. Supplementary material giving the data is given online. (Contains 1 table.)

  19. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  20. Dysgenic Fertility, Intelligence and Family Size in Libya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shahomee, Alsedig Abdalgadr; Lynn, Richard; Abdalla, Saleh El-ghmary

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to a sample of 592 16 year old school students in Libya. There was a small negative correlation of -0.14 between SPM scores and the number of siblings, indicating only marginal dysgenic fertility. Supplementary material giving the data is given online. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  2. Revealing the Effects of Missense Mutations Causing Snyder-Robinson Syndrome on the Stability and Dimerization of Spermine Synthase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yunhui; Norris, Joy; Schwartz, Charles; Alexov, Emil

    2016-01-08

    Missense mutations in spermine synthase (SpmSyn) protein have been shown to cause the Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS). Depending on the location within the structure of SpmSyn and type of amino acid substitution, different mechanisms resulting in SRS were proposed. Here we focus on naturally occurring amino acid substitutions causing SRS, which are situated away from the active center of SpmSyn and thus are not directly involved in the catalysis. Two of the mutations, M35R and P112L, are reported for the first time in this study. It is demonstrated, both experimentally and computationally, that for such mutations the major effect resulting in dysfunctional SpmSyn is the destabilization of the protein. In vitro experiments indicated either no presence or very little amount of the mutant SpmSyn in patient cells. In silico modeling predicted that all studied mutations in this work destabilize SpmSyn and some of them abolish homo-dimer formation. Since dimerization and structural stability are equally important for the wild type function of SpmSyn, it is proposed that the SRS caused by mutations occurring in the N-domain of SpmSyn is a result of dysfunctional mutant proteins being partially unfolded and degraded by the proteomic machinery of the cell or being unable to form a homo-dimer.

  3. Inorganic PM in poultry house using rice hull bedding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  4. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: Transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distribution of biogenic amines – the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm) - differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracel...

  5. Creative Reasoning across Developmental Levels: Convergence and Divergence in Problem Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsveld, Saskia; Lachmann, Thomas; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2012-01-01

    We recently proposed the Creative Reasoning Test (CRT), a test for reasoning in ill-defined problem spaces. The test asks children who first performed the Standard Progressive Matrices test (SPM) to next generate an SPM-style test item themselves. The item is scored based on different aspects of its complexity. Here we introduce a method to…

  6. Sensory Processing Measure-HK Chinese Version: Psychometric Properties and Pattern of Response across Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cynthia Y. Y.; Chung, Jenny C. C.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Li-Tsang, Cecilia W. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Sensory Processing Measure-Hong Kong Chinese version (SPM-HKC), and to study the pattern of behavioral response of children towards sensory events across home and school settings. The two major forms of the SPM, Home Form and Main Classroom Form, were translated into Chinese in this…

  7. How Well Can Young People with Asperger's Disorder Recognize Threat and Learn about Affect in Faces?: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Motohide; Ruffman, Ted; Fujita, Chikako; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2010-01-01

    The abilities to identify threat and learn about affect in facial photographs were compared between a non-autistic university student group (NUS), a matched Asperger's group (MAS) on the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), and an unmatched Asperger's group (UAS) who scored lower on the SPM. Participants were given pairs of faces and asked which…

  8. PubMed

    Ferrer Gómez, Mercedes; Sánchez Romera, Juan Francisco; García Zafra, María Victoria; Cuenca Sánchez, José Ramón; Hernández Cascales, Ana Belén; Aranda García, Ana; Rausell Rausell, Víctor José; Hernández Martínez, Antonio Miguel

    2017-06-05

    Introducción: el escenario de la nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) en Murcia, antes de 2010, estaba caracterizado por la gran variabilidad en la consideración del paciente subsidiario de dicha prestación, así como por el elevado consumo respecto a otras comunidades autónomas.Objetivos: desarrollar y describir la implementación de una vía clínica de asistencia al paciente subsidiario de NED y analizar el perfil de los pacientes y las características del soporte nutricional.Método: puesta en marcha de la vía clínica en el Área I de salud del Servicio Murciano de Salud (SMS). Diseño observacional y ambispectivo. Análisis de las muestras de NED de adultos del Área I en los años 2010 (NED1) y 2013-14 (NED2), con 345 y 457 casos, respectivamente.Resultados: instrucción nº 4/2012 de 12 de julio, Dirección de Gerencia del SMS, que generaliza la vía clínica a todas las áreas de salud. Aunque la patología más prevalente en ambas muestras fue la neurológica, seguida de la oncológica y la digestiva, hubo diferencias significativas en la distribución. La NED1 presentó un alto porcentaje de casos de pacientes no subsidiarios de prestación. En ambas muestras, la vía más frecuente de administración fue la oral, pero con una tendencia inversa en sonda nasogástrica (SNG) y gastrostomía en NED2, donde las fórmulas específicas también se redujeron.Conclusiones: los perfiles de la NED antes y después de la implantación de la vía clínica difieren significativamente en la patología de base, la vía de administración y el tipo de fórmula utilizada. La vía clínica ha facilitado la racionalización de la prescripción de esta prestación sanitaria.

  9. [The relationship of nutritional status, body and mandibular bone mineral density, tooth loss and fracture risk (FRAX) in pre-and postmenopausal women with periodontitis].

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Barreiro, de Los Angeles; Dávalos-Vázquez, Karla Fabiola; Jiménez-Méndez, Carolina; Jiménez-Mendoza, Daniel; Olivarez-Padrón, Luis Ángel; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Durante la menopausia existe aumento de peso y disminución de densidad mineral ósea (DMO) el cual se ha relacionado con enfermedad periodontal (incidencia entre 5 a 30%), de ahí que sea indispensable evaluar factores de riesgo relacionados con antropometría y DMO. Objetivo: Evaluar la relación entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC), complexión esquelética, circunferencia de cintura, pérdida dentaria, riesgo de fractura, DMO de columna, cadera, fémur y mandíbula en mujeres pre y postmenopáusicas con periodontitis. Sujetos y metodología: Se estudiaron 60 mujeres de 35-60 años, se estudiaron 4 grupos (n = 15): Grupo control: mujeres premenopáuscas sin periodontitis, Grupo experimental 1: mujeres premenopáusicas con periodontitis, Grupo experimental 2: mujeres postmenopáusicas sin periodontitis y Grupo experimental 3: mujeres postmenopáusicas con periodontitis. La periodontitis fue diagnosticada con sonda periodontal digital computarizada, la DMO de mandíbula por radiografía digital con conversión de rayos X, el número de dientes por radiografía panorámica digital. Se obtuvo: el IMC, la complexión esquelética, circunferencia de cintura, riesgo de fractura mediante el cuestionario FRAX. Resultados: Las variables con correlaciones negativas a periodontitis: peso, IMC y DMO mandibular con riesgo de fractura (P < 0,05). El grupo con diferencias (ANOVA) fue el GE3: con mayor edad y con menor: talla, DMO mandibular y número de piezas dentarias (P < 0,05). Conclusión: La periodontitis con presencia de menopausia se relaciona con mayor edad, menor talla, DMO mandibular baja y menor número de piezas dentarias. Con mayor riesgo de fractura en mujeres: con bajo peso e IMC y DMO mandibular.

  10. [INTESTINAL FAILURE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS: EXPERIENCE AND MANAGEMENT BY A MULTIDISCIPLINARY GROUP].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Villa, Adriana; Martínez Volkmar, María Isabel; Valencia Quintero, Andrés Felipe; Montoya Delgado, Diana Catalina; Henao Roldan, Catherine; Ruiz Navas, Patricia; García Loboguerrero, Fanny; Contreras Ramírez, Mónica María

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: instituciones con grupos de atención multidisciplinario han demostrado mejoras en los resultados del paciente con falla intestinal. La atención multidisciplinario permite un enfoque integral y fortalece la comunicación entre las familias y el equipo de salud. Objetivo: describir el manejo multidisciplinario y los resultados obtenidos en pacientes pediátricos con falla intestinal. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo en pacientes de 18 años o menos con falla intestinal y necesidad de Nutrición Parenteral Total (NPT). Se emplearon frecuencias simples y porcentajes para las variables cualitativas, y para las cuantitativas se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión. Resultados: fueron evaluados 33 pacientes con una mediana de seguimiento de 281 días. La mediana de duración de la NPT fue de 68 días y el promedio de infecciones asociadas al catéter fue de 2,26 por paciente. En 31 pacientes se brindó alimentación vía oral o enteral, realizada en el 61,3% de los casos a través de sonda e infusión continua. Como tratamiento concomitante el 72,7% de los niños recibieron ácido ursodesoxicólico, el 67,7% colestiramina, el 57,6% loperamida, el 48,5% antibióticos y el 36,4% probióticos. Las familias de 24 pacientes fueron intervenidas por trabajo social. La autonomía intestinal se logró en el 69,7% de los casos, el 72,7% de ellos presentaron una mejora en el puntaje z de peso y tuvieron una albúmina final significativamente mayor a la inicial (valor p: 0,012). Conclusiones: el manejo de los pacientes con falla intestinal constituye un reto para las instituciones de salud y hace necesaria la atención con base en un protocolo estandarizado y un grupo multidisciplinario.

  11. Home enteral nutrition in Spain; NADYA registry 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Matía Martín, P; Luengo Pérez, L M; Cuerda Compes, C; Burgos Peláez, R; Alvarez Hernández, J; Calleja Fernández, A; Pérez de la Cruz, A; Gómez Candela, C; Leyes García, P; Laborda González, L; Martínez Olmos, M A; Campos Martín, C; Suárez Llanos, J P; Penacho Lázaro, M A; Gonzalo Marín, M; Salas Salvadó, J; Irles Rocamora, J A; Cánovas Gaillemin, B; Carrero Caballero, M C; Moreno Villares, J M; Garde Orbaiz, C; Miserachs Aranda, N; Del Olmo García, M D; Apezetxea Celaya, A; Mauri, S

    2014-06-01

    Objetivos: Describir los resultados del registro de nutrición enteral domiciliaria (NED) del grupo NADYASENPE de los años 2011 y 12. Material y métodos: Se recopilaron los datos introducidos en el registro desde el 1 de enero de 2011 al 31 de diciembre de 2012. Resultados: Hubo 3021 pacientes en el registro durante el periodo, procedentes de 29 hospitales, lo que da una prevalencia de 65,39 casos por millón de habitantes. 97.95% fueron adultos, 51,4% varones. La edad media fue 67,64 ± 19,1 años y la mediana 72 años para los adultos y 7 meses para los niños. La duración media de la NED fue 351 días y para el 97,5% fue el primer episodio con NED. La mayoría de pacientes tenían NED por una enfermedad neurológica (57,8%). La vía de acceso fue sonda nasogástrica para el 43,5% y gastrostomía para el 33,5%. La mayoría de pacientes tuvieron un nivel de actividad física limitado y, respecto a la autonomía, 54,8% necesitaba ayuda total. La fórmula de nutrición se suministró desde las oficinas de farmacia para el 73,8% y los fungibles, cuando fueron necesarios, desde los hospitales para el 53,8%. La NED se suspendió en 1.031 pacientes (34,1%) durante el periodo de estudio, 56,6% debido a fallecimiento y 22,2% debido a recuperación de la vía oral. Conclusiones: Los datos del registro NADYA-SENPE deben ser interpretados con precaución ya que se trata de un registro voluntario. A pesar del cambio de metodología del registro en 2010, las tendencias en NED se han mantenido, salvo la importancia cuantitativa de la vía oral.

  12. Modeling the effects of near-surface plumes of suspended particulate matter on remote-sensing reflectance of coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Stramski, Dariusz; He, Ming-Xia

    2013-01-20

    A radiative transfer model was applied to examine the effects of vertically stratified inherent optical properties of the water column associated with near-surface plumes of suspended particulate matter on spectral remote-sensing reflectance, R(rs)(λ), of coastal marine environments. The simulations for nonuniform ocean consisting of two layers with different concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) are compared with simulations for a reference homogeneous ocean whose SPM is identical to the surface SPM of the two-layer cases. The near-surface plumes of particles are shown to exert significant influence on R(rs)(λ). The sensitivity of R(rs)(λ) to vertical profile of SPM is dependent on the optical beam attenuation coefficient within the top layer, c(1)(λ), thickness of the top layer, z(1), and the ratio of SPM in the underlying layer to that in the top layer, SPM(2)/SPM(1), as well as the wavelength of light, λ. We defined a dimensionless spectral parameter, P(λ)=c(1)(λ)×z(1)×(SPM(2)/SPM(1)), to quantify and examine the effects of these characteristics of the two-layer profile of SPM on the magnitude and spectral shape of R(rs)(λ). In general, the difference of R(rs)(λ) between the two-layer and uniform ocean decreases to zero with an increase in P(λ). For the interpretation of ocean color measurements of water column influenced by near-surface plumes of particles, another dimensionless parameter P'(λ) was introduced, which is a product of terms representing homogenous ocean and a change caused by the two-layer structure of SPM. Based on the analysis of this parameter, we found that for the two-layer ocean there is a good relationship between R(rs)(λ) in the red and near-infrared spectral regions and the parameters describing the SPM(z) profile, i.e., SPM(1), SPM(2), and z(1).

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented.

  14. In vivo MRI of single-wall carbon nanohorns through magnetite nanoparticle attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Jin; Yudasaka, Masako; Imai, Hideto; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Isobe, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Eiichi; Iijima, Sumio

    2006-03-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetite (SPM) is used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thus, the SPM-attachment to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) will enable to visualize motional behaviors of CNTs in the living body through MRI. We found that the strong attachment of the SPM nanoparticles (ca. 6 nm size) to one type of CNTs, single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs), could be achieved through a deposition of iron acetate clusters on SWNHs in ethanol at room temperature, followed by heat-treatment in Ar. In vivo MRI visualized that the SWNHs attached with the SPM nanoparticles accumulated in several organs of mice when injected into mice via tail veins. This simple method for the SPM-attaching on CNTs would facilitate the toxicity assessment of CNTs and the applications of CNTs in bioscience and biotechnology.

  15. Metal-contaminated resuspended sediment particles are a minor metal-uptake route for the Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata)--A mesocosm study, Sydney Harbour estuary, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Birch, G F; Simpson, S L

    2016-03-15

    Resuspension of surficial sediments is considered a key process influencing bioaccumulation of metals in filter-feeders in the contaminated Sydney Harbour estuary (Australia). However, previous investigations were unable to establish a significant relationship between metals in sediments or suspended particulate matter (SPM) and oyster tissue concentrations. This study used a 60-d laboratory mesocosm experiment to expose Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, to a natural range of SPM concentrations with different SPM-metal concentrations. Dissolved metal concentrations were low and the availability of algae provided as food was constant for all treatments. Tissue metal concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn increased significantly, however, no relationship was determined between tissue metal concentrations in the oyster and either SPM or SPM-metal concentrations. The results indicated that exposure to resuspended contaminated sediment particles contributed little to the observed metal uptake. Dissolved or algae food sources appear to be more important for metal accumulation in these oysters.

  16. Concentration of biologically active polyamines in meat and liver of sheep and lambs after slaughter and their changes in mutton during storage and cooking.

    PubMed

    Dadáková, Eva; Pelikánová, Tamara; Kalač, Pavel

    2011-02-01

    Putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) concentrations using a UPLC method, in chilled mutton, lamb and livers 24 h after slaughter were determined. PUT concentrations were quantifiable only in some samples. Mean SPD concentrations were 4-6, 13.5 and 16.8 mg kg-1 in the meats, sheep and lamb livers, respectively. The respective SPM concentrations were 17-25, 128 and 79 mg kg-1. SPD and SPM losses of about one fifth and half of the initial level, respectively, were apparent in mutton loins stored at -18°C for 6 months. Significant losses of SPD and SPM were found in mutton loins stored aerobically, vacuum-packaged or in a modified atmosphere at +2°C. Boiling and stewing of mutton legs caused SPD and SPM losses of about 40% and roasting of about 60% of the initial content.

  17. Global standardization of scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Itoh, Hiroshi; Ichimura, Shingo; Kurosawa, Tomizo

    2007-02-01

    Recent efforts to achieve global standardization of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) including noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), especially through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and related research, are surveyed. Since the unification of terminology for SPM is a prerequisite for standardization, it should have the first priority, followed by the unification of data management and treatment, which will enable access to and processing of SPM data collected by different types of instrument. Among the various SPM analytical methods, the dimensional metrology of SPM is regarded to be the first priority for standardization. This requires solving two basic problems: calibrating the x, y, and z coordinate axes with traceability to the SI unit of length, and eliminating the morphological artefacts caused by the shape of the probe tip. Pre-standardization efforts on restoring distorted images and characterizing the tip shape during use are discussed.

  18. Survival for patients with single and multiple primary melanomas in the GEM study

    PubMed Central

    Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Goumas, Chris; Thomas, Nancy E.; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Marrett, Loraine D.; Groben, Pamela A.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little is known about survival after a diagnosis of a second or higher order (multiple) primary melanoma. We aimed to determine whether survival after diagnosis was better in patients with multiple primary melanomas (MPM) than with single primary melanomas (SPM), as suggested in a recent study. Design Survival analysis with median follow-up of 7.6 years (range 0.4-10.6). Setting The Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study enrolled incident cases of melanoma notified to population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Italy and the USA. MPM were ascertained over a longer period than SPM. Participants 2372 patients with SPM and 1206 with MPM. Main outcome measures Melanoma-specific fatality hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) associated with clinical and pathologic characteristics of SPM, MPM and both together in Cox regression models. Results Thickness was the main determinant of fatality (HR for >4mm=7.68, 95% CI 4.46 to 13.23); other independent predictors were ulceration, mitoses and scalp location. After adjustment for these other predictors, there was little difference in fatality between MPM and SPM (HR for MPM relative to SPM=1.24, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.69; P = .18). Thicker SPM, however, had higher fatality (HR for >4mm=13.56, 95% CI 6.47-28.40) than thicker MPM (HR for >4mm=2.93, 95% CI 1.17-7.30). Conclusion While overall fatalities from SPM and MPM were similar, relative fatality for thick SPM was greater than for thick MPM. This finding may offer support for a difference in outcome between patients with SPM and MPM that is worth further exploration. PMID:23784017

  19. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of spermine-induced cadmium stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Rahman, Motiar; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    The role of exogenous spermine (0.25 mM Spm, a type of polyamine (PA) in reducing Cd uptake and alleviating Cd toxicity (containing 1 and 1.5 mM CdCl2 in the growing media) effects was studied in the mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) plant. Exogenously applied Spm reduced Cd content, accumulation, and translocation in different plant parts. Increasing phytochelatin content, exogenous Spm reduced Cd accumulation and translocation. Spm application reduced the Cd-induced oxidative damage which was reflected from the reduction of H2O2 content, O2(•-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and lipid peroxidation level and also reflected from the reduction of spots of H2O2 and O2(•-) from mung bean leaves (compared to control treatment). Spm pretreatment increased non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, AsA, and glutathione, GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) which reduced oxidative stress. The cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal (MG) is also reduced by exogenous Spm because it enhanced glyoxalase system enzymes and components. Through osmoregulation, Spm maintained a better water status of Cd-affected mung bean seedlings. Spm prevented the chl damage and increased its content. Exogenous Spm also modulated the endogenous free PAs level which might have the roles in improving physiological processes including antioxidant capacity, osmoregulation, and Cd and MG detoxification capacity. The overall Spm-induced tolerance of mung bean seedlings to Cd toxicity was reflected through improved growth of mung bean seedlings.

  20. How does sampling frequency control accuracy of fluvial suspended particulate matter flux estimates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coynel, A.; Hurtrez, J. E.; Schäfer, J.; Etcheber, H.; Blanc, G.

    2003-04-01

    Climatic change and anthropogenic actions greatly affect the environment: impacts of these factors on erosion and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) transport have been studied in different watersheds of southwest France with heterogeneous flood characteristics, vegetal cover and land use. The influence of sampling frequency on annual SPM flux estimates was analysed in two contrasted watersheds: the Garonne basin, a large plain river system (55 000 km^2), and the Nivelle basin, a small Pyrenean mountainous river system (238 km^2). Data banks derived from long-term high resolution sampling in both basins allowed to determine seasonal variations of the relation between water discharge and SPM concentrations during individual floods. High resolution diagrams of SPM concentrations versus discharge show clockwise and anti-clockwise hysteresis loops that were attributed to different sediment sources. Annual SPM fluxes were calculated for the Garonne River (La Réole) in 1994-1998, and for the Nivelle River (Saint Pée-sur-Nivelle) in 1996 by addition of daily fluxes and 30-minute fluxes, respectively. The annual SPM fluxes derived from the most complete dataset derived are considered as reference fluxes. Then, different fixed period strategies (e.g. monthly, semi-monthly, weekly, daily) corresponding to lower sampling frequencies were simulated by randomly extracting individual SPM. and water discharge data from the data base. For each simulation, the reduced dataset was used to estimate maximum and minimum annual SPM fluxes in order to determine the confidence level generated for a given sampling strategy. To obtain a reliable estimate of the SPM flux with less than 20 % error, the minimum sampling frequency is every three days for the Garonne River, whereas for the Nivelle River the minimum sampling frequency for reliable SPM flux estimation is every six hours. This difference in minimum sampling frequency between the two watersheds appears to depend rather on flow

  1. Specialised pro-resolving mediators of inflammation in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barden, Anne E; Moghaddami, Mahin; Mas, Emilie; Phillips, Michael; Cleland, Leslie G; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-04-01

    Specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPM) are derived from n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3FA). They promote resolution of inflammation and may contribute to the beneficial effects of n-3FA in patients with arthritis. This study compared SPM in knee effusions and plasma of patients with arthritis taking n-3FA, and plasma of healthy volunteers taking n-3FA. Thirty six patients taking n-3FA undergoing arthrocentesis for an inflammatory knee effusion and 36 healthy volunteers who had taken n-3FA (2.4g/day) for 4 weeks were studied. SPM in synovial fluid and plasma were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry included 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE), the precursor of the E-series SPM (RvE1, RvE2, RvE3, 18R-RvE3), and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA), the precursor of the D-series SPM (RvD1, 17R-RvD1, RvD2). Other SPM included protectin D1 (PD1), 10S,17S-dihydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (10,17S-DHDHA), maresin-1 (MaR-1) and 14-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14-HDHA) derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). E- and D-series SPM and the precursors 18-HEPE and 17-HDHA were present in synovial fluid and plasma of the patients with inflammatory arthritis. Plasma SPM were negatively related to erythrocyte sedimentation rate in arthritis patients (P<0.01) and synovial fluid RvE2 was negatively associated with pain score (P=0.02). Conversion from 18-HEPE and 17-HDHA to E- and D-series SPM was greater in synovial fluid (P<0.01). Most plasma SPM in arthritis patients were elevated (P<0.05) compared with healthy volunteers, and conversion to E- and D-series SPM was greater (P<0.01). SPM are present in chronic knee effusions and although the levels are lower than in plasma, the association between synovial fluid RvE2 and reduced pain scores suggests that synthesis of SPM at the site of inflammation is a relevant mechanism by which n-3FA alleviate the symptoms of arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  3. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  4. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  5. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  6. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  7. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  8. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  9. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  10. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  11. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  12. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  13. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  14. Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity (PorGrow) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Ciok, J; Dolna, A; Oltarzewski, M

    2007-05-01

    To explore the perspectives of stakeholders towards a range of policy options to respond to obesity in Poland, a multi-criteria mapping method was used. During structured interviews, stakeholders were invited to appraise policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. They also provided relative weightings to their criteria, generating overall rankings of the policy options in relation to each other. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria deemed most important. There was most consensus in favour of options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at modifying the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity, modifying the supply and demand for food products, and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. There was broad consensus that to reverse the rising trend in the incidence of obesity, it will be necessary to implement a portfolio of measures, but options related to behaviour change through education are most highly regarded. It will also be necessary to invest in improved surveillance and monitoring of Polish dietary practices, levels of physical activity and obesity in terms of data on height, weight and body mass indexes.

  15. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  16. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  17. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  18. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  19. Mexico Visto Por Sus Ninos (Mexico as Seen by Her Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    "Mexico as Seen by Her Children," a book authored by Mexican children, and the educational project built around it is an example of bicultural cooperation between the Mexican and United States governments. (CJ)

  20. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  1. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  2. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  3. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  4. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  5. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  6. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  7. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  8. Intoxicação experimental por Niedenzuella stannea (Malpighiaceae) em ovinos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Niedenzuella stannea a sodium monofluoroacetate-containing plant cause of sudden death in cattle in southern Mato Grosso State. This study describes the toxicity and clinical and pathological findings of experimental poisoning by N. stannea in sheep. Fruits, mature leaves and young leaves of the pla...

  9. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  10. Por Nuestros Ojos: understanding social determinants of health through the eyes of youth.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Johanna Claire; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Williams, Lacey; Smith, Heather A; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J; Dulin, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social determinants underlying health disparities benefits from a mixed-methods, participatory research approach. Photovoice was used in a research project seeking to identify and validate existing data and models used to address socio-spatial determinants of health in at-risk neighborhoods. High-risk neighborhoods were identified using geospatial models of pre-identified social determinants of health. Students living within these neighborhoods were trained in Photovoice, and asked to take pictures of elements that influence their neighborhood's health and to create narratives explaining the photographs. Students took 300 photographs showing elements that they perceived affected community health. Negative factors included poor pedestrian access, inadequate property maintenance, pollution, and evidence of gangs, criminal activity, and vagrancy. Positive features included public service infrastructure and outdoor recreation. Photovoice data confirmed and contextualized the geospatial models while building community awareness and capacity. Photovoice can be a useful research tool for building community capacity and validating quantitative data describing social determinants of health.

  11. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  12. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  13. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  14. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  15. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  16. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  17. Pharmaceutical interventions in medications prescribed for administration via enteral tubes in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carolina Justus Buhrer; Plodek, Caroline Koga; Soares, Franciny Kossemba; Andrade, Rayza Assis de; Teleginski, Fernanda; Rocha, Maria Dagmar da

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the impact of guidelines regarding errors in medications prescribed for administration through enteral tubes. quantitative study, in three phases, undertaken in internal medicine, neurology and an intensive care unit in a general teaching hospital. In Phase 1, the following was undertaken: a protocol for dilution and unit-dose repackaging and administration for 294 medications via enteral tubes; a decision flowchart; operational-standard procedures for dilution and unit-dose repackaging of oral pharmaceutical forms and for administration of medications through enteral tubes. In phase 2, errors in 872 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 293 prescriptions for patients receiving inpatient treatment between March and June, were investigated. This was followed by training of the teams in relation to the guidelines established. In Phase 3, pharmaceutical errors and interventions in 945 medications prescribed through enteral tubes, in 292 prescriptions of patients receiving inpatient treatment between August and September, were investigated prospectively. The data collected, in a structured questionnaire, were compiled in the Microsoft Office Excel(r) program, and frequencies were calculated. 786 errors were observed, 63.9% (502) in Phase 2, and 36.1% (284) in Phase 3. In Phase 3, a reduction was ascertained in the frequency of prescription of medications delivered via enteral tubes, medications which were contraindicated, and those for which information was not available. guidelines and pharmaceutical interventions were determined in the prevention of errors involving medications delivered through enteral tubes. analisar o impacto de diretrizes sobre erros em medicamentos prescritos para administração via sondas enterais. estudo quantitativo, em três fases, realizado em clínica médica, neurologia e unidade de terapia intensiva de hospital geral universitário. Na Fase 1 elaborou-se: protocolo de diluição, unitarização - transformação e

  18. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  19. In-phase oscillation of global regulons is orchestrated by a pole-specific organizer

    PubMed Central

    Janakiraman, Balaganesh; Mignolet, Johann; Narayanan, Sharath; Viollier, Patrick H.

    2016-01-01

    Cell fate determination in the asymmetric bacterium Caulobacter crescentus (Caulobacter) is triggered by the localization of the developmental regulator SpmX to the old (stalked) cell pole during the G1→S transition. Although SpmX is required to localize and activate the cell fate-determining kinase DivJ at the stalked pole in Caulobacter, in cousins such as Asticcacaulis, SpmX directs organelle (stalk) positioning and possibly other functions. We define the conserved σ54-dependent transcriptional activator TacA as a global regulator in Caulobacter whose activation by phosphorylation is indirectly down-regulated by SpmX. Using a combination of forward genetics and cytological screening, we uncover a previously uncharacterized and polarized component (SpmY) of the TacA phosphorylation control system, and we show that SpmY function and localization are conserved. Thus, SpmX organizes a site-specific, ancestral, and multifunctional regulatory hub integrating the in-phase oscillation of two global transcriptional regulators, CtrA (the master cell cycle transcriptional regulator A) and TacA, that perform important cell cycle functions. PMID:27791133

  20. Shelf sediment dispersal during the dry season, Princess Charlotte Bay, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahl, Lauren E.; Marsden, M. A. H.

    1987-10-01

    Princess Charlotte Bay, located on the northern Great Barrier Reef, is an environment of terrigenous and carbonate deposition. The dynamics on this shelf are controlled by the Great Barrier Reef at the edge of the shelf, and the mid-shelf, shore-normal reefs. This study examines the dynamics during the dry season, with six time-series records from instrumented tripod deployments and numerous hydrographic stations. The shallow nearshore waters and the estuaries prove to be the sites where most active sediment resuspension and transport takes place. Sediment resuspension is effected primarily by waves in the nearshore, and channeling of tidal currents in the estuaries. Bedload transport did not occur during this study, mainly because current velocities were too low. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport in the bay is governed by tides and winds. Strong tidal flow imparts a strong offshore component to the transport, and strong southeast winds impart an alongshore component that transports SPM out of the bay to the northwest. Rattlesnake Channel, east of Princess Charlotte Bay, is another route by which SPM leaves the bay. Flow through this channel is predominantly tidal, with ebb waters (leaving Princess Charlotte Bay) carrying higher SPM concentrations than flood waters. SPM flux in the nearshore was an order of magnitude higher than at offshore stations, with highest fluxes generally occurring at times of sustained southeast winds. Transect data show that SPM drops to average bay values in water 11 m deep, indicating most SPM is transported in nearshore waters.

  1. In-phase oscillation of global regulons is orchestrated by a pole-specific organizer.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Balaganesh; Mignolet, Johann; Narayanan, Sharath; Viollier, Patrick H; Radhakrishnan, Sunish Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Cell fate determination in the asymmetric bacterium Caulobacter crescentus (Caulobacter) is triggered by the localization of the developmental regulator SpmX to the old (stalked) cell pole during the G1→S transition. Although SpmX is required to localize and activate the cell fate-determining kinase DivJ at the stalked pole in Caulobacter, in cousins such as Asticcacaulis, SpmX directs organelle (stalk) positioning and possibly other functions. We define the conserved σ(54)-dependent transcriptional activator TacA as a global regulator in Caulobacter whose activation by phosphorylation is indirectly down-regulated by SpmX. Using a combination of forward genetics and cytological screening, we uncover a previously uncharacterized and polarized component (SpmY) of the TacA phosphorylation control system, and we show that SpmY function and localization are conserved. Thus, SpmX organizes a site-specific, ancestral, and multifunctional regulatory hub integrating the in-phase oscillation of two global transcriptional regulators, CtrA (the master cell cycle transcriptional regulator A) and TacA, that perform important cell cycle functions.

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Meningoencephalitis after Transsphenoidal Surgery: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Nobuyuki; FUKUHARA, Noriaki; FUKUI, Takahito; YAMAGUCHI-OKADA, Mitsuo; NISHIOKA, Hiroshi; YAMADA, Shozo

    2014-01-01

    We report three extremely rare cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningoencephalitis (SPM) after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). Between 2004 and 2010, we experienced three cases of severe SPM after surgery out of 1,965 patients undergoing TSS (0.15%). The three cases included a 4-year-old boy with a large cystic craniopharyngioma, a 40-year-old man with a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, and a 55-year-old man with acromegaly. The similarity among these SPM patients was that severe clinical events occurred suddenly 1–2 months postoperatively without any history of sinusitis or pneumonia. Despite intensive care these patients notably had residual neurological sequelae. In no case was rhinorrhea associated with SPM. It should be noted that SPM was not detected from bacterial cultures of the sphenoidal sinus mucous membranes (BCSM) obtained during TSS in two of the patients examined. Severe postoperative SPM can occur suddenly without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage within 2 months after surgery and requires emergency treatment. Reduced resistance to infection may play a role in the occurrence of SPM in our three patients. Our study indicates that BCSM is not useful for predicting postoperative meningitis. PMID:24418784

  3. Statistical process management: An essential element of quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. R.

    Successful quality improvement requires a balanced program involving the three elements that control quality: organization, people and technology. The focus of the SPC/SPM User's Group is to advance the technology component of Total Quality by networking within the Group and by providing an outreach within Westinghouse to foster the appropriate use of statistic techniques to achieve Total Quality. SPM encompasses the disciplines by which a process is measured against its intrinsic design capability, in the face of measurement noise and other obscuring variability. SPM tools facilitate decisions about the process that generated the data. SPM deals typically with manufacturing processes, but with some flexibility of definition and technique it accommodates many administrative processes as well. The techniques of SPM are those of Statistical Process Control, Statistical Quality Control, Measurement Control, and Experimental Design. In addition, techniques such as job and task analysis, and concurrent engineering are important elements of systematic planning and analysis that are needed early in the design process to ensure success. The SPC/SPM User's Group is endeavoring to achieve its objectives by sharing successes that have occurred within the member's own Westinghouse department as well as within other US and foreign industry. In addition, failures are reviewed to establish lessons learned in order to improve future applications. In broader terms, the Group is interested in making SPM the accepted way of doing business within Westinghouse.

  4. Heterotrophic bacterial production and extracellular enzymatic activity in sinking particulate matter in the western North Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Namiha; Fukuda, Hideki; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroaki; Suzumura, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Heterotrophic activities on sinking particulate matter (SPM) play an important role in SPM fluxes in the ocean. To demonstrate regional differences in heterotrophic activities on SPM, we measured heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) in seawater (HBPSW) and SPM (HBPSPM) as well as potential extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) in SPM on a transect along 155°E in the western North Pacific Ocean in the subarctic (44°N), the Kuroshio Extension area (35°N), and the subtropical gyre (20°N). Depth-integrated HBPSW from the surface to 500 m was comparable between the locations, whereas HBPSPM at 44°N was substantially lower than at the other sites. We found the highest particulate organic carbon (POC) export flux and export efficiency to bathypelagic depths, and the lowest water temperatures, at 44°N. We found significant correlations between leucine aminopeptidase (LAPase) activity, β-glucosidase (BGase) activity, POC flux and particulate organic nitrogen flux. LAPase activity was two orders of magnitude higher than BGase activity, with a BGase:LAPase activity ratio of 0.027. There were no significant correlations between HBP and EEA in SPM except for lipase, and lipase activity was significantly correlated with temperature. We propose that hydrographic conditions are an important factor controlling heterotrophic bacterial activity and export efficiency of organic carbon to the deep ocean, as are the sources and abundance of SPM produced in the euphotic zone via primary production. PMID:23109933

  5. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu; Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Wegmann, Urs; Maier, Urs; Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel

    2012-06-15

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 {mu}m in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program 'SARINA,' which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  6. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu; Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Wegmann, Urs; Maier, Urs; Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 μm in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program "SARINA," which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  7. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu; Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Wegmann, Urs; Maier, Urs; Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 μm in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program "SARINA," which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  8. Joint sparse coding based spatial pyramid matching for classification of color medical image.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Li, Yi; Zhu, Jie; Sun, Haojie; Cai, Yin

    2015-04-01

    Although color medical images are important in clinical practice, they are usually converted to grayscale for further processing in pattern recognition, resulting in loss of rich color information. The sparse coding based linear spatial pyramid matching (ScSPM) and its variants are popular for grayscale image classification, but cannot extract color information. In this paper, we propose a joint sparse coding based SPM (JScSPM) method for the classification of color medical images. A joint dictionary can represent both the color information in each color channel and the correlation between channels. Consequently, the joint sparse codes calculated from a joint dictionary can carry color information, and therefore this method can easily transform a feature descriptor originally designed for grayscale images to a color descriptor. A color hepatocellular carcinoma histological image dataset was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed JScSPM algorithm. Experimental results show that JScSPM provides significant improvements as compared with the majority voting based ScSPM and the original ScSPM for color medical image classification.

  9. Single-step purification of recombinant proteins using elastin-like peptide-mediated inverse transition cycling and self-processing module from Neisseria meningitides FrpC.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Wu, Qian; Xu, Bi; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Xia, Xiao-Li; Sun, Huai-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Purification of recombinant proteins is a major task and challenge in biotechnology and medicine. In this paper we report a novel single-step recombinant protein purification system which was based on elastin-like peptide (ELP)-mediated reversible phase transition and FrpC self-processing module (SPM)-mediated cleavage. After construction of a SPM-ELP fusion expression vector, we cloned the coding sequence for green fluorescent protein (GFP), the Fc portion of porcine IgG (pFc) or human β defensin 3 (HBD3) into the vector, transformed the construct into Escherichia coli, and induced the fusion protein expression with IPTG. The target-SPM-ELP fusion proteins GFP-SPM-ELP, Fc-SPM-ELP and HBD3-SPM-ELP were expressed in a soluble form and efficiently purified from the clarified cell extracts by two rounds of inverse transition cycling (ITC). Under the optimized conditions, the SPM-mediated cleavage efficiencies for the three fusion proteins ranged from 92% to 93%. After an additional round of ITC, the target proteins GFP, pFc and HBD3 were recovered with purities ranging from 90% to 100% and yields ranging from 1.1 to 36mg/L in shake flasks. The endotoxin levels in all of the three target proteins were <0.03EU/mg. The three target proteins were functionally active with the expected molecular weights. These experimental results confirmed the high specificity and efficiency of SPM-mediated cleavage, and suggested the applicability of SPM-ELP fusion system for purification of recombinant proteins.

  10. Spermine Alleviates Drought Stress in White Clover with Different Resistance by Influencing Carbohydrate Metabolism and Dehydrins Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhou; Jing, Wen; Peng, Yan; Zhang, Xin Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin Kai; Yan, Yan-hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyse whether ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied spermine (Spm) was related to carbohydrate metabolism, dehydrins accumulation and the transcription of genes encoding dehydrins in two white clovers (drought-susceptible cv. ‘Ladino’ and drought-resistant cv. ‘Haifa’) under controlled drying conditions for 10 days. The results show that the application of Spm effectively alleviates negative effects caused by drought stress in both cultivars. Exogenous Spm led to accumulation of more water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), sucrose, fructose and sorbitol in both cultivars under drought stress, and also significantly elevated glucose content in leaves of drought-resistant cv. ‘Haifa’, but had no effect on drought-susceptible cv. ‘Ladino’. Accordingly, the key enzyme activities of sucrose and sorbitol metabolism changed along with the application of Spm under drought stress. Spm induced a significant increase in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, but decrease in sucrose synthetase (SS) activity when two cultivars were subjected to drought. In addition, the improved accumulation of dehydrins induced by exogenous Spm coincided with three genes expression which was responsible for dehydrins synthesis. But Spm-induced transcript level of dehydrin genes increased earlier in cv. ‘Ladino’ than that in cv. ‘Haifa’. Thus, these results suggest that ameliorating drought stress through exogenously applied Spm may be associated with increased carbohydrate accumulation and dehydrins synthesis. There are differences between drought-susceptible and -resistant white clover cultivars related to Spm regulation of WSC metabolism and dehydrins expression. PMID:25835290

  11. Association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism with risk of second primary malignancy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fanglin; Sturgis, Erich M; Chen, Xingming; Zafereo, Mark E.; Wei, Qingyi; Li, Guojun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND p53 plays a critical role in cellular anti-cancer mechanisms, and has been correlated with second primary malignancy (SPM) development. A common polymorphism in codon 72 of the p53 results in an amino acid substitution and could influence p53 function. We hypothesized that p53 codon 72 polymorphism may be associated with risk of SPMs and SPM-free survival among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). METHODS A total of 1,271 patients, who were diagnosed with incident SCCHN between May 1995 and January 2007, were genotyped and followed for SPM development. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare SPM-free survival and SPM risk between the different genotype groups. RESULTS We found a significantly reduced SPM-free survival for patients with variant Pro72 allele compared with patients with Arg 72 homozygous genotype (Log-rank test, p = 0.005). Compared to SCCHN patients with the p53 72Arg/Arg genotype, there was a significantly greater risk of SPM associated with the p53 72Arg/Pro genotype (HR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.17–2.61) and the combined p53 72Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro (HR, 1.58, 95%CI, 1.07–2.34). Furthermore, stratification analyses showed that the risk of SPM associated with p53 variant genotypes (Arg/Pro + Pro/Pro) was more pronounced in several subgroups. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that p53 codon 72 polymorphism could be a risk marker for genetic susceptibility to SPM of patients with primary SCCHN. PMID:20225330

  12. p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism and risk of second primary malignancy after index squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fanglin; Sturgis, Erich M; Zafereo, Mark E; Liu, Z; Wang, L-E; Wei, Qingyi; Li, Guojun

    2009-01-01

    P73 plays an important role in modulating cell-cycle control, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting cell growth. A novel non-coding p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 exon 2 polymorphism was associated with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We hypothesized that p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism modulates risk of second primary malignancies (SPM) in patients after index SCCHN. We followed a cohort of 1,384 patients diagnosed with incident SCCHN between May 1995 and January 2007 for SPM development. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare SPM-free survival and SPM risk between the different genotype groups. Our results showed that patients carrying the p73 variant AT allele were less likely to develop SPM compared to the patients with p73 GC/GC genotype (Log-rank test, P = 0.013). Compared to the p73 GC/GC genotype, there was a significantly reduced risk of SPM associated with the p73 GC/AT genotype (HR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.40-0.93) and the combined p73 GC/AT+AT/AT genotypes (HR, 0.59, 95% CI, 0.39-0.89), but a non-significantly reduced risk for p73 AT/AT genotype (HR, 0.44, 95% CI, 0.14-1.41). The p73 AT allele was significantly associated with risk of SPM in an allele dose-response manner (P = 0.011 for trend). The risk of SPM associated with p73 variant genotypes (GC/AT+AT/AT) was more pronounced in several subgroups (e.g., older patients, men, minorities, ever smokers and ever drinkers). Our results support that this p73 polymorphism may be a marker for risk of SPM among patients with an incident SCCHN. PMID:19585505

  13. Distribution of arsenic between the particulate and aqueous phases in surface water from three freshwater lakes in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fen; Geng, Di; Wei, Chaoyang; Ji, Hongbing; Xu, Hai

    2016-04-01

    Total arsenic (As) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of lacustrine ecosystems has been extensively documented, but knowledge on the distribution of As between the particle and aqueous phases in freshwater lakes remains largely unknown. The present study employed a rapid method to determine the total and dissolved As and As in SPM at sites covering the entire areas of three large shallow lakes in China, e.g., Taihu, Chaohu, and Dianchi, to obtain a "representative" mean value of the As concentration in various phases. The average concentrations of total and dissolved As were below 6.0 and 3.3 μg/L, respectively. Arsenic in SPM was much higher than that in waters, as ranging from 24.7 to 516 μg/g. Lake Taihu exhibited extensive seasonal variation both in total and dissolved As, while little difference was observed in SPM concentration, with an average value of 54.2 and 49.3 mg/L in winter and summer, respectively. Among the algae in the three lakes, Cyanophyta dominated in both cell abundance and biomass. Algae mass occupied significant parts of SPM, especially in Dianchi; the proportions of algae in the SPM fractions were measured as 10.4 and 7.1 % in Taihu in winter and summer, 4.5 % in Chaohu, and 53.3 % in Dianchi, both in summer season. The total As in SPM had a significant positive relationship with total As in water and a high distribution coefficient (Kd) between SPM and dissolved fraction of As at all three lakes. The high proportions of Algae, especially Cyanophyta in the composition of SPM in the three large shallow lakes, might play an important role in affecting the As distribution between the aqueous and particulate phases in aquatic ecosystem.

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF HOME ENTERAL NUTRITION (HEN) IN POLAND DURING FIVE YEARS AFTER IMPLEMENTATION: A MULTICENTRE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Klek, Stanislaw; Pawlowska, Dorota; Dziwiszek, Grzegorz; Komon, Henryk; Compala, Piotr; Nawojski, Mariusz

    2015-07-01

    Antecedentes: el inicio con nutrición enteral (HEN) es la mejor opción para los pacientes crónicos sin capacidad de tragar, pero con el tracto digestivo intacto. A pesar del aumento en el uso de la alimentación por sonda enteral domiciliaria (HETF), hay poca información publicada sobre los tipos de pacientes que reciben nutrición enteral domiciliaria. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar la evolución de HETF. Material y métodos: el estudio observacional multicéntrico retrospectivo se realizó mediante cuestionarios que se distribuyeron entre los mayores centros HEN polacos. El estudio abarcó a todos los pacientes tratados entre enero de 2007 y enero de 2014. Resultados: en total fueron evaluados 196 pacientes adultos en 2008 (M: 104 F: 92, edad media 58,1 [41-75]) y 2.842 en 2013 (M: 1541, F: 1.301, con una edad media de 61,4 rango: 1-91). El número de pacientes aumentó significativamente entre 2008 y 2013 (p < 0,05), al pasar de 196 hasta 2.842 (y 1.716 en el momento del estudio). La enfermedad primaria predominante fue la neurología en ambos períodos de tiempo, pero el perfil cambia de neurovascular a neurodegenerativa (p > 0,05). La gastrostomía endoscópica percutánea fue el acceso GI más frecuentes (> 60%), su uso y el uso de gastrostomías aumentó significativamente desde 2008 (p < 0,05). Aunque el reembolso de HETF comenzó en 2007, los centros de HEN expresaron dudas sobre las reglas poco claras para la calificación para HEN y su uso. Conclusiones: HETF es un procedimiento seguro, bien tolerado y rentable. El perfil de los pacientes y las técnicas puede variar al principio, pero se vuelve similar a otros países HETF relativamente pronto. El número de pacientes crece rápidamente, y ese hecho sugiere que la prevalencia de HETF es similar en todos los países.

  15. Predicting survival of endoscopic gastrostomy candidates using the underlying disease, serum cholesterol, albumin and transferrin levels.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jorge; Adriana Santos, Carla; Brito, José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La Gastrostomia Endoscópica Percutánea (PEG) es una técnica de elección para la nutrición enteral de largo plazo, pero en pacientes con una perspectiva de vida menor que tres semanas debe evitarse la gastrostomia e utilizarse la sonda nasogástrica. Existen pocos estudios que tengan en cuenta factores de pronóstico y pocos intentos de crear un modelo predictivo de supervivencia de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Crear un modelo predictivo de la sobrevida de los candidatos a PEG, utilizando la enfermedad de base, los niveles de colesterol, albúmina y transferrina. Métodos: Los datos han sido recogidos de los registros clínicos de adultos sometidos a PEG entre 1999 y 2011. Los que han sobrevivido menos de 3 semanas se han considerado como sin supervivencia adecuada (short survivors); los que han sobrevivido más de 3 semanas se consideraran como teniendo sobrevivencia adecuada (adequate survivors). Se utilizó un modelo estadístico de regresión para clasificar pacientes futuros en cada uno de los grupos definidos anteriormente. Resultados: De este análisis estadístico resultó una ecuación que permite obtener un valor de P, para determinar la probabilidad de futuros casos. En el futuro se puede predecir que pacientes con un valor de P ≥0,88 tendrán 64,7% de probabilidades de supervivencia adecuada; los pacientes con un valor de P < 0,88 tendrán 70,3% de probabilidades de supervivencia no adecuada. Conclusiones: Cuando la evaluación clínica por si sola no es suficiente para predecir un pronóstico fiable, esta ecuación debe ser incluida en la evaluación de los pacientes candidatos a gastrostomia, para evitar gastrostomías inútiles.

  16. Bioelectromechanical Imaging by Scanning Probe Microscopy: Galvani's Experiment at the Nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Rodriguez, Brian J; Shin, Junsoo; Jesse, Stephen; Grichko, V.; Thundat, Thomas George; Baddorf, Arthur P; Gruverman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery in the late 18th century of electrically induced mechanical response in muscle tissue, coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena has been shown to be a near-universal feature of biological systems. Here, we employ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to measure the sub-Angstrom mechanical response of a biological system induced by an electric bias applied to a conductive SPM tip. Visualization of the spiral shape and orientation of protein fibrils with 5 nm spatial resolution in a human tooth and chitin molecular bundle orientation in a butterfly wing is demonstrated. In particular, the applicability of SPM-based techniques for the determination of molecular orientation is discussed.

  17. Ionic Referencing in Surface Plasmon Microscopy: Visualization of the Difference in Surface Properties of Patterned Monomolecular Layers.

    PubMed

    Nizamov, Shavkat; Scherbahn, Vitali; Mirsky, Vladimir M

    2017-04-04

    An approach for visualization of patterned monomolecular layers in surface plasmon microscopy (SPM) is suggested. The development of hidden image in SPM is achieved by referencing of images obtained in the presence of electrolytes with a high molar refraction of either anions or cations. A formation of diffuse layer near the charged surface areas leads to the redistribution of ions. The ratio of SPM images allows one to visualize this redistribution and to distinguish surface areas with different properties. The approach is unobtrusive and robust; it can be used with most surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging instruments.

  18. Automatization of nanotomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, C.; Röper, S.; Scherdel, S.; Bernstein, A.; Rehse, N.; Magerle, R.

    2007-05-01

    An approach for automated nanotomography, a layer-by-layer imaging technique based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM), is presented. Stepwise etching and imaging is done in situ in a liquid cell of an SPM. The flow of etching and rinsing solutions after each etching step is controlled with solenoid valves which allow for an automated measuring protocol. The thermal drift and the drift of the piezo scanner is corrected by applying offsets calculated from the cross correlation coefficients between successive images. As an example, we have imaged human bone with ˜10nm resolution using tapping mode SPM and successive etching with hydrochloric acid.

  19. Monolithically Integrated, Mechanically Resilient Carbon-Based Probes for Scanning Probe Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Jennings, Andrew T.; Greer, Julia R.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is an important tool for performing measurements at the nanoscale in imaging bacteria or proteins in biology, as well as in the electronics industry. An essential element of SPM is a sharp, stable tip that possesses a small radius of curvature to enhance spatial resolution. Existing techniques for forming such tips are not ideal. High-aspect-ratio, monolithically integrated, as-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been formed that show promise for SPM applications by overcoming the limitations present in wet chemical and separate substrate etching processes.

  20. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Associated with Sex

    PubMed Central

    Flatman, Sam; Morrison, Edwin; Elahi, Maqsood

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) associated with sex. A 22-year-old lesbian with a history of asthma, cigarette and illicit drug smoking was diagnosed with a SPM after developing chest pain and dyspnoea in the context of performing oral sex. The main finding was subcutaneous emphysema involving the neck. SPM is an important differential diagnosis for chest pain in young people. It is a benign condition and diagnosis mainly limited to chest X-ray with increased incidence in asthmatics, smokers and drug addicts. PMID:22470723

  1. The importance of parent material information derived from globally available small scale legacy data for soil mapping at medium scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, U.; Bock, M.; Günther, A.; Willer, J.; Pickert, E.; Asch, K.; Baritz, R.

    2012-04-01

    Up to now, harmonized global soil information is solely available from the FAO-Unesco Soil map of the world at 1:5M scale (FAO-Unesco 1974-1981). However, for monitoring global environmental changes and sustainable land resource management, higher resolution soil maps are urgently needed. At the global scale, the soil forming factors climate, soil parent material (SPM) and topography can be considered the most important parameters for spatial prediction of soil associations and their properties. While topographic and climatic information is available at high spatial resolutions, SPM information can only be derived from small-scale geological maps or soil maps. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of commonly available SPM data derived from small scale soil and geological maps for soil mapping at the 1:250k scale. The study was conducted for a test site in Southern Saxony, Germany, 140*85 km wide, representing diverse soil landscapes. Additionally, SPM maps were derived from a reclassification of the geological overview map of Germany at 1:1M scale, and the European Soil database. The proposed SPM classification, developed in the framework of the EU-FP7 eSOTER project, is based on the degree of SPM consolidation, its geochemical character, and the major bedrock types. In addition, SPM-related surface processes are characterized since SPM is defined here as the original lithological material before the onset of weathering and soil formation processes. To assess the potential of SPM data for the spatial delineation of soil associations, random forest-based predictions of soils and its properties were carried out using relief attributes from digital elevation model data. Model runs were performed (i) with and (ii) without spatial information on SPM properties. The outputs were compared with independent soil information of model validation areas. Training and validation point data was selected from a comprehensive dataset representing more than 14

  2. Suspended particulate composition: evolution along a river linear and influence of regime flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Meur, Mathieu; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bauer, Allan; Gley, Renaud; Migot, Sylvie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Villièras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Suspended Particulate Matters are recognized to play a crucial role in the transport and fate of chemicals like trace metal elements. The affinity of trace metals with natural SPM is influenced by (i) the nature of metal (ii) physical-chemical conditions of the water column (iii) SPM physical characteristics (grain size, surface area) (iiii) SPM chemical characteristics (elemental composition, mineralogy, organic composition). Some authors observed that the SPM composition was the predominant factor controlling the affinity of trace metals with natural SPM. One purpose of this work is to follow the physical and chemical characteristics of SPM along the river linear in order to better understand the affinity between SPM and heavy metals. One other purpose is to study the influence of regime flow on SPM physical and chemical composition in order to detect any variation of SPM composition with regime flow. SPM were sampled along Moselle river (North East of France) following an urbanization gradient. Two tributaries were also sampled, the Madon river which drains an agricultural catchment and the Fensch stream which flows through an ancient steel-making basin. SPM were sampled several times during high flow and low flow. Particulate matter was extracted on field using continuous flow field centrifuge. Frozen-dried samples were then characterized in terms of size distribution, elemental composition (ICP - AES, ICP - MS), mineralogy (XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM), surface properties (gas adsorption techniques) and organic composition (Py-GC-MS and GC-MS). Grain size distribution evidenced the presence of coarser particles during high flow but no difference in the grain size distribution could be evidenced between the different stations. The grain size distribution of collected SPM appeared globally identical, although the increase of conductivity due to the junction of Meurthe river . In terms of composition, major element contents in SPM are characterized by the predominance of

  3. Seric ion level and its relationship with the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome in young women.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Larissa Almenara Silva; de Azeredo, Vilma Blondet; Eloy Chaves Barbosa, Diane; Augusta de Sá, Solange

    2013-11-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el nivel de iones séricos y su relación con el síndrome premenstrual (PMS) Los síntomas en las mujeres jóvenes. Método: Noventa y tres voluntarios fueron monitoreados durante tres meses. La evaluación del estado nutricional se basa en el índice de masa corporal. Tres "mapas de síntomas diarios" se utilizaron para investigar la frecuencia de los síntomas de SPM. La evaluación bioquímica se realizó en el primer mes de la fase lútea. Los niveles de sodio, de potasio, de calcio, de magnesio se determinaron por métodos colorimétricos. La concentración de hemoglobina y hematocrito se determinaron por métodos convencionales. Resultados: Los síntomas como la ansiedad (1,13, 0,81, 0,66), edema (0,99, 0,51, 0,22 e), depresión (0,58, 0,36, 0,20) y la mastalgia (0,56; 0,35; 0,09) fueron los más evidentes en el ciclo menstrual de lútea y la fase folicular. Un pequeño número de voluntarios presentó hipocalemia (1,4%), hiponatremia (4,22%) y la hipernatremia (7,04%). Sin embargo, el mayor número de los voluntarios presentó menor nivel de calcio (83,09%). La frecuencia de las mujeres anémicas fue alta (24%). Se encontraron asociaciones significativas (P.

  4. Feasibility of voxel-based statistical analysis method for myocardial PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Yu, A.; Kim, Jin Su; Paik, Chang H.; Kim, Kyeong Min; Moo Lim, Sang

    2014-09-01

    Although statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis is widely used in neuroimaging studies, to our best knowledge, there was no application to myocardial PET data analysis. In this study, we developed the voxel based statistical analysis method for myocardial PET which provides statistical comparison results between groups in image space. PET Emission data of normal and myocardial infarction rats were acquired For the SPM analysis, a rat heart template was created. In addition, individual PET data was spatially normalized and smoothed. Two sample t-tests were performed to identify the myocardial infarct region. This developed SPM method was compared with conventional ROI methods. Myocardial glucose metabolism was decreased in the lateral wall of the left ventricle. In the result of ROI analysis, the mean value of the lateral wall was 29% decreased. The newly developed SPM method for myocardial PET could provide quantitative information in myocardial PET study.

  5. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  6. Mechanism of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in Streptococcus thermophilus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) group antibiotics in the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) is documented but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. MIC values for erythromycin (Erm), azithromycin (Azm), tylosin (Tyl), spiramycin (Spm), pristinamyci...

  7. The Stochastic Parcel Model: A deterministic parameterization of stochastically entraining convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romps, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Convective entrainment is a process that is poorly represented in existing convective parameterizations. By many estimates, convective entrainment is the leading source of error in global climate models. As a potential remedy, an Eulerian implementation of the Stochastic Parcel Model (SPM) is presented here as a convective parameterization that treats entrainment in a physically realistic and computationally efficient way. Drawing on evidence that convecting clouds comprise air parcels subject to Poisson-process entrainment events, the SPM calculates the deterministic limit of an infinite number of such parcels. For computational efficiency, the SPM groups parcels at each height by their purity, which is a measure of their total entrainment up to that height. This reduces the calculation of convective fluxes to a sequence of matrix multiplications. The SPM is implemented in a single-column model and compared with a large-eddy simulation of deep convection.

  8. High reliability linear drive device for artificial hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jinghua; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liu, Guohai; Shen, Yue; Wang, Fangqun

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a new high reliability linear drive device, termed as stator-permanent-magnet tubular oscillating actuator (SPM-TOA), is proposed for artificial hearts (AHs). The key is to incorporate the concept of two independent phases into this linear AH device, hence achieving high reliability operation. The fault-tolerant teeth are employed to provide the desired decoupling phases in magnetic circuit. Also, as the magnets and the coils are located in the stator, the proposed SPM-TOA takes the definite advantages of robust mover and direct-drive capability. By using the time-stepping finite element method, the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed SPM-TOA are analyzed, including magnetic field distributions, flux linkages, back- electromotive forces (back-EMFs) self- and mutual inductances, as well as cogging and thrust forces. The results confirm that the proposed SPM-TOA meets the dimension, weight, and force requirements of the AH drive device.

  9. The Resolution Code of Acute Inflammation: Novel Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators in Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.; Chiang, Nan; Dalli, Jesmond

    2015-01-01

    Studies into the mechanisms in resolution of self-limited inflammation and acute reperfusion injury have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) including lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that are each temporally produced by resolving-exudates with distinct actions for return to homeostasis. SPM evoke potent anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms as well as enhance microbial clearance. While born in inflammation-resolution, SPM are conserved structures with functions discovered in microbial defense, pain, organ protection and tissue regeneration, wound healing, cancer, reproduction, and neurobiology-cognition. This review covers these SPM mechanisms and other new omega-3 PUFA pathways that open their path for functions in resolution physiology. PMID:25857211

  10. The second iteration of the Systems Prioritization Method: A systems prioritization and decision-aiding tool for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Volume 1, Synopsis of method and results

    SciTech Connect

    Prindle, N.H.; Mendenhall, F.T.; Boak, D.M.

    1996-05-01

    In March 1994, the US Department of Energy Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) embarked on an effort to design and implement a performance- based decision-aiding tool to provide an analytical basis for planning, prioritizing, and selecting programmatic options for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This tool, called Systems Prioritization Method (SPM) defines the most viable combinations of scientific investigations, engineered alternatives (EAs), and waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for supporting the final WIPP compliance application. The scope of SPM is restricted to selected portions of applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) long-term performance regulations. SPM calculates the probabilities of certain sets of activities demonstrating compliance with various regulations. SPM provides results in the form of a decision matrix to identify cost-effective programmatic paths with a high probability of successfully demonstrating compliance.

  11. THE INTEGRATED USE OF COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY, SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY, AND VIRTUAL REALITY TO PREDICT THE CHEMICAL REACTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade three new techniques scanning probe microscopy (SPM), virtual reality (YR) and computational chemistry ave emerged with the combined capability of a priori predicting the chemically reactivity of environmental surfaces. Computational chemistry provides the cap...

  12. Seasonal Assessment of Biomass and Fatty Acid Productivity by Tetraselmis sp. in the Ocean Using Semi-Permeable Membrane Photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-06-28

    A green microalga, Tetraselmis sp., was cultivated in the coastal seawater of Young-Heung Island using semi-permeable membrane photobioreactors (SPM-PBRs) in different seasons. The microalgae in the SPM-PBRs were able to grow on nutrients diffused into the PBRs from the surrounding seawater through SPMs. The biomass productivity varied depending on the ion permeabilities of the SPMs and environmental conditions, whereas the quality and quantity of fatty acids were constant. The temperature of seawater had a greater influence than solar radiation did on productivity of Tetraselmis sp. in SPM-PBRs. SPM-PBRs could provide technologies for concurrent algal biomass and fatty acids production, and eutrophication reduction in the ocean.

  13. Estimation of suspended particulate matter concentration in the Mississippi Sound using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Danielle

    The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound increases the turbidity of coastal waters. The concentration of suspended particulates is an important parameter in the analysis of coastal water quality factors. The spatiotemporal resolution associated with satellite sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended particulate concentrations. Accordingly, the presented research evaluated the validity of published algorithms that relate