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Sample records for por tityus pusillus

  1. Lipase activity of Mucor pusillus.

    PubMed

    Somkuti, G A; Babel, F J

    1968-04-01

    Two strains of Mucor pusillus were examined for their ability to synthesize lipase in a complex medium used in the production of milk-clotting protease. Lipase activity of both strains reached maximal after 6 days of incubation under submerged conditions at 35 C. Lipase secreted into the medium hydrolyzed butterfat and vegetable lipids, as well as selected synthetic triglycerides. About 50% of lipase activity was destroyed after a 45-min heat treatment at 58 C.

  2. Tityus: a forgotten myth of liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tiniakos, Dina G; Kandilis, Apostolos; Geller, Stephen A

    2010-08-01

    The ancient Greek myth of Tityus is related to liver regeneration in the same way as the well known myth of Prometheus is. Depictions of the punishment of Prometheus are frequently used by lecturers on liver regeneration; however, Tityus remains unknown despite the fact that he received the same punishment and his myth could also be used as a paradigm for the organ's extraordinary ability to regenerate. Nevertheless, there is no convincing evidence that ancient Greeks had any specific knowledge about liver regeneration, a concept introduced in the early 19th century. We describe and analyze the myth of Tityus and compare it to the myth of Prometheus. We also explore artistic and literary links and summarize recent scientific data on the mechanisms of liver regeneration. Finally, we highlight links of the legend of Tityus with other sciences.

  3. Nosocomial infection by Rhizomucor pusillus in a clinical haematology unit.

    PubMed

    del Palacio Hernanz, A; Fereres, J; Larregla Garraus, S; Rodriguez-Noriega, A; Sanz Sanz, F

    1983-03-01

    Three patients suffering from acute leukaemia were treated with cytotoxic agents and broad-spectrum antibiotics and received blood transfusion and nasal packing for severe epistaxis. All developed necrosis of nasal and facial tissues, with facial swelling an oedema; two biopsies showed typical phycomycete mycelium, and Rhizomucor pusillus was grown from one biopsy. Air and surfaces in the unit and the air intake and ducting were all heavily colonized by Rh. pusillus and other phycomycetes. It is suggested that Rh. pusillus spores from the air invaded the tissues in the conditions promoted by the nasal packing in these patients with impaired defences.

  4. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous keratopathy was not identified antemortem.An ophthalmological evaluation was performed when the fur seal was approximately 6 months of age, but due to the diffuse corneal edema, intraocular structures could not be easily evaluated. An underlying infectious etiology was suspected; therefore,appropriate diagnostics were pursued, but did not identify a cause. Initial improvement was noted, but the fur seal then became blind and eventually became very painful.Due to decreased quality of life and aggressive behavior, the fur seal was euthanized.Histopathological diagnoses were persistent tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with bilateral hypermature resorbed cataracts and retinal detachments with rosette formation.

  5. Toxic peptides and genes encoding toxin gamma of the Brazilian scorpions Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus.

    PubMed

    Becerril, B; Corona, M; Coronas, F I; Zamudio, F; Calderon-Aranda, E S; Fletcher, P L; Martin, B M; Possani, L D

    1996-02-01

    Seven toxic peptides from the venom of Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus was isolated and sequenced, five of them to completion. The most abundant peptide from each of these two species of scorpion was 95% identical with that of toxin gamma from the venom of Tityus serrulatus. They were consequently named gamma-b and gamma-st respectively. The genes encoding these new gamma-like peptides were cloned and sequenced by utilizing oligonucleotides synthesized according to known cDNA sequences of toxin gamma, and amplified by PCR on templates of DNA purified from both T. bahiensis and T. stigmurus. They contain an intron of approx. 470 bp. Possible mechanisms of processing and expressing these peptides are discussed, in view of the fact that glycine is the first residue of the N-terminal sequence of T. stigmurus, whereas lysine is the residue at position 1 of toxin gamma from T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis. In addition, chemical characterization of the less abundant toxic peptides showed the presence of at least four distinct families of peptides in all three species of the genus Tityus studied. There is a large degree of similarity among peptides from different venoms of the same family. By using specific horse and rabbit antisera, the venoms of T. bahiensis, T. serrulatus and T. stigmurus were compared. They showed an extended degree of cross-reactivity. Thus these three species of scorpion have similar toxic components, the genes of which are similarly organized, processed and expressed.

  6. Toxic peptides and genes encoding toxin gamma of the Brazilian scorpions Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus.

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, B; Corona, M; Coronas, F I; Zamudio, F; Calderon-Aranda, E S; Fletcher, P L; Martin, B M; Possani, L D

    1996-01-01

    Seven toxic peptides from the venom of Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus was isolated and sequenced, five of them to completion. The most abundant peptide from each of these two species of scorpion was 95% identical with that of toxin gamma from the venom of Tityus serrulatus. They were consequently named gamma-b and gamma-st respectively. The genes encoding these new gamma-like peptides were cloned and sequenced by utilizing oligonucleotides synthesized according to known cDNA sequences of toxin gamma, and amplified by PCR on templates of DNA purified from both T. bahiensis and T. stigmurus. They contain an intron of approx. 470 bp. Possible mechanisms of processing and expressing these peptides are discussed, in view of the fact that glycine is the first residue of the N-terminal sequence of T. stigmurus, whereas lysine is the residue at position 1 of toxin gamma from T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis. In addition, chemical characterization of the less abundant toxic peptides showed the presence of at least four distinct families of peptides in all three species of the genus Tityus studied. There is a large degree of similarity among peptides from different venoms of the same family. By using specific horse and rabbit antisera, the venoms of T. bahiensis, T. serrulatus and T. stigmurus were compared. They showed an extended degree of cross-reactivity. Thus these three species of scorpion have similar toxic components, the genes of which are similarly organized, processed and expressed. PMID:8611151

  7. The mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus Harker defies common osmoregulatory assumptions

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Carolyn G.

    2017-01-01

    Osmoregulation is a key physiological function, critical for homeostasis. The basic physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are thought to be well established. However, through a series of experiments exposing the freshwater mayfly nymph Austrophlebioides pusillus (Ephemeroptera) to increasing salinities, we present research that challenges the extent of current understanding of the relationship between osmoregulation and mortality. A. pusillus had modelled 96 h LC10, LC50 and LC99 of 2.4, 4.8 and 10 g l−1 added synthetic marine salt (SMS), respectively. They were strong osmoregulators. At aquarium water osmolality of 256 ± 3.12 mmol kg−1 (±s.e.; equivalent to 10 g l−1 added SMS), the haemolymph osmolality of A. pusillus was a much higher 401 ± 4.18 mmol kg−1 (±s.e.). The osmoregulatory capacity of A. pusillus did not break down, even at the salinity corresponding to their LC99, thus their mortality at this concentration is due to factors other than increased internal osmotic pressure. No freshwater invertebrate has been previously reported as suffering mortality from rises in salinity that are well below the iso-osmotic point. Recently, studies have reported reduced abundance/richness of Ephemeroptera with slightly elevated salinity. Given that salinization is an increasing global threat to freshwaters, there is an urgent need for studies into the osmophysiology of the Ephemeroptera to determine if their loss at locations with slightly elevated salinity is a direct result of external salinity or other, possibly physiological, causes. PMID:28280549

  8. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Tityus pachyurus and Tityus obscurus Novel Putative Na+-Channel Scorpion Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Vargas, Jimmy A.; Mourão, Caroline B. F.; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Possani, Lourival D.; Schwartz, Elisabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Colombia and Brazil are affected by severe cases of scorpionism. In Colombia the most dangerous accidents are caused by Tityus pachyurus that is widely distributed around this country. In the Brazilian Amazonian region scorpion stings are a common event caused by Tityus obscurus. The main objective of this work was to perform the molecular cloning of the putative Na+-channel scorpion toxins (NaScTxs) from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus venom glands and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other known NaScTxs from Tityus species. Methodology/Principal Findings cDNA libraries from venom glands of these two species were constructed and five nucleotide sequences from T. pachyurus were identified as putative modulators of Na+-channels, and were named Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, Tpa7 and Tpa8; the latter being the first anti-insect excitatory β-class NaScTx in Tityus scorpion venom to be described. Fifteen sequences from T. obscurus were identified as putative NaScTxs, among which three had been previously described, and the others were named To4 to To15. The peptides Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, To6, To7, To9, To10 and To14 are closely related to the α-class NaScTxs, whereas Tpa7, Tpa8, To4, To8, To12 and To15 sequences are more related to the β-class NaScTxs. To5 is possibly an arthropod specific toxin. To11 and To13 share sequence similarities with both α and β NaScTxs. By means of phylogenetic analysis using the Maximum Parsimony method and the known NaScTxs from Tityus species, these toxins were clustered into 14 distinct groups. Conclusions/Significance This communication describes new putative NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus and their phylogenetic analysis. The results indicate clear geographic separation between scorpions of Tityus genus inhabiting the Amazonian and Mountain Andes regions and those distributed over the Southern of the Amazonian rainforest. Based on the consensus sequences for the different clusters, a new nomenclature for the Na

  9. Electrophysiological Characterization of the Antarease Metalloprotease from Tityus serrulatus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Zornetta, Irene; Scorzeto, Michele; Mendes Dos Reis, Pablo Victor; De Lima, Maria E.; Montecucco, Cesare; Megighian, Aram; Rossetto, Ornella

    2017-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest venomous living organisms and the family Buthidae is the largest and most medically relevant one. Scorpion venoms include many toxic peptides, but recently, a metalloprotease from Tityus serrulatus called antarease was reported to be capable of cleaving VAMP2, a protein involved in the neuroparalytic syndromes of tetanus and botulism. We have produced antarease and an inactive metalloprotease mutant in a recombinant form and analyzed their enzymatic activity on recombinant VAMP2 in vitro and on mammalian and insect neuromuscular junction. The purified recombinant antarease paralyzed the neuromuscular junctions of mice and of Drosophila melanogaster whilst the mutant was inactive. We were unable to demonstrate any cleavage of VAMP2 under conditions which leads to VAMP proteolysis by botulinum neurotoxin type B. Antarease caused a reduced release probability, mainly due to defects upstream of the synaptic vesicles fusion process. Paired pulse experiments indicate that antarease might proteolytically inactivate a voltage-gated calcium channel. PMID:28264432

  10. Clinical consequences of Tityus bahiensis and Tityus serrulatus scorpion stings in the region of Campinas, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bucaretchi, Fábio; Fernandes, Luciane C R; Fernandes, Carla B; Branco, Maíra M; Prado, Camila C; Vieira, Ronan J; De Capitani, Eduardo M; Hyslop, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Scorpion stings account for most envenomations by venomous animals in Brazil. A retrospective study (1994-2011) of the clinical consequences of Tityus scorpion stings in 1327 patients treated at a university hospital in Campinas, southeastern Brazil, is reported. The clinical classification, based on outcome, was: dry sting (no envenoming), class I (only local manifestations), class II (systemic manifestations), class III (life-threatening manifestations, such as shock and/or cardiac failure requiring inotropic/vasopressor agents, and/or respiratory failure), and fatal. The median patient age was 27 years (interquartile interval = 15-42 years). Scorpions were brought for identification in 47.2% of cases (Tityus bahiensis 27.7%; Tityus serrulatus 19.5%). Sting severity was classified and each accounted for the following percentage of cases: dry stings - 3.4%, class I - 79.6%, class II - 15.1%, class III - 1.8% and fatal - 0.1%. Pain was the primary local manifestation (95.5%). Systemic manifestations such as vomiting, agitation, sweating, dyspnea, bradycardia, tachycardia, tachypnea, somnolence/lethargy, cutaneous paleness, hypothermia and hypotension were detected in class II or class III + fatal groups, but were significantly more frequent in the latter group. Class III and fatal cases occurred only in children <15 years old, with scorpions being identified in 13/25 cases (T. serrulatus, n = 12; T. bahiensis, n = 1). Laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, elevations in serum total CK, CK-MB and troponin T, bicarbonate consumption and an increase in base deficit and blood lactate), electrocardiographic changes (ST segment) and echocardiographic alterations (ventricular ejected fraction <54%) were frequently detected in class III patients. Seventeen patients developed pulmonary edema, 16 had cardiac failure and seven had cardiogenic shock. These results indicate that most scorpion stings involved only local manifestations

  11. Mercury concentrations in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus from SE Australian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bacher, G.J.

    1985-10-01

    Marine carnivores such as seals and sea lions occupy an important position in the upper trophic level of the marine food web and this, together with their longevity, makes these marine mammals useful indicators of mercury accumulation in the marine environment. Little information exists on mercury concentrations in marine mammals from the southern hemisphere. This paper reports total mercury concentrations in the tissues of the Australian Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus from southeastern Australian waters.

  12. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    previas a la captura y, en consecuencia, ha incrementado significativamente la productividad estacional de las parejas reproductivas. Ese mejora en productividad, a su vez, ha resultado en que el número de Vireo belli pusillus se incrementara 8 veces. La abundancia de Empidonax trailli extimus en cambio, ha variado poco, e incluso en algunos sitios, se ha reducido a pesar del control de los Molothrus. Aunque aparentemente el control de Molothrus fue exitoso por los resultados obtenidos a corto plazo, el control de los Molothrus posee consecuencias potencialmente negativas para la recuperación a largo plazo de las especies en peligro. De la forma en que es actualmente aplicado, el control de los Molothrus carece de criterios biológicos predeterminados que permitan dejar de aplicarlo. Esto implica que las especies que se quiera proteger dependan eternamente de la intervención humana. El hecho de que que el manejo de las especies en peligro se base en la dependencia prolongada en el control de los Molothrus podría distraer la atención sobre la identificación y el manejo de otros factores que limitan dichas poblaciones-en particular, la disponibilidad de hábitat. Basándonos en nuestro análisis de estos programas a largo plazo, sugerimos que el control de Molothrus quede reservado para las crisis de manejo de corto plazo. Cuando fuera apropiado, es de esperar que dicho manejo sea reemplazado por prácticas enfatizadas hacia la restauración y el mantenimiento de los procesos naturales de los cuales esas especies en realidad dependen.

  13. Successful acquisition of an olfactory discrimination paradigm by South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Svelander, Madeleine; Amundin, Mats

    2008-03-18

    The present study demonstrates that South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, can successfully be trained to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Using a task based on a food-rewarded two-choice discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli the animals acquired the basic operant conditioning paradigm within 480 to 880 stimulus contacts. Moreover, the fur seals could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli, were capable of distinguishing between fish- and non-fish odors as well as between two fish odors, and were able to remember the reward value of previously learned odor stimuli even after 2- and 15-week breaks. The precision and consistency of the fur seals' performance in tests of discrimination ability and memory demonstrate the suitability of this paradigm for assessing olfactory function in this pinniped. An across-species comparison of several measures of olfactory learning capabilities such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks shows that A. pusillus is similar in performance to non-human primates, but inferior to rodents such as mice and rats. The results support the assumption that fur seals may use olfactory cues for social communication and food selection and that the sense of smell may play an hitherto underestimated role in the control of their behavior.

  14. Enzymatic properties of venoms from Brazilian scorpions of Tityus genus and the neutralisation potential of therapeutical antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Emerson J; Portaro, Fernanda C V; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre K; Carvalho, Daniela Cajado; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Tambourgi, Denise V

    2013-07-01

    Tityus scorpion stings are an important public health problem in Brazil, where the incidence of such stings exceeds the incidence of the health problems caused by other venomous animals, including snakes. In this study, we have analysed specific enzymatic activities of the venom from the Brazilian scorpions of Tityus genus, i.e., Tityus serrulatus, Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus. The data presented here revealed that Tityus spp. venoms exhibited significant hyaluronidase activity but no phospholipase activity. All the venom samples exhibited the ability to hydrolyse Abz-FLRRV-EDDnp and dynorphin 1-13 substrates. These activities were inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline but not by PMSF, indicating the presence of metalloproteinases in the Tityus spp. venoms. The venom peptidase activity on Abz-FLRRV-EDDnp and on dynorphin 1-13 was partially inhibited by therapeutic Brazilian anti-scorpion and anti-arachnidic antivenoms. Dynorphin 1-13 (YGGFLRRIRPKLK) contains two scissile bonds between the residues Leu-Arg and Arg-Arg that are susceptible to cleavage by the Tityus venom metallopeptidase(s). Their cleavage releases leu-enkephalin, an important bioactive peptide. The detection of metalloproteinase(s) with specificity for both dynorphin 1-13 degradation and leu-enkephalin releasing can be important for the mechanistic understanding of hypotension and bradycardia induction in cases of scorpion stings, whereas hyaluronidases might contribute to the diffusion of the toxins present in these venoms. Furthermore, the limited inhibition of the toxic enzymatic activities by commercial antivenoms illustrates the necessity of improvements in current antivenom preparation.

  15. Variation in the fatty acid composition of blubber in Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) and the implications for dietary interpretation.

    PubMed

    Arnould, J P Y; Nelson, M M; Nichols, P D; Oosthuizen, W H

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the fatty acid (FA) composition of blubber is a valuable tool in interpreting the diet of marine mammals. This technique is based on the principle that particular FA present in prey can be incorporated largely untransformed into predator adipose tissue stores, thereby providing biochemical signatures with which to identify prey species. Several studies of phocid seals and cetaceans have documented vertical stratification in the FA composition of blubber such that inferences about diet may vary greatly depending on the layer of the blubber that is analysed. It is not known whether blubber in otariid seals (fur seals and sea lions) also displays vertical stratification in FA composition. Furthermore, it is not known whether the FA composition of blubber is uniform in these species. In the present study, the vertical and regional variation in FA composition of blubber was investigated in seven adult female Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus). The proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was greater in the outer (43.6+/-1.3%) than inner portion (40.9+/-1.2%; t(20)=5.59, P<0.001) whereas the proportions were greater in the inner than outer portions for saturated fatty acids (23.6+/-0.5% and 21.9+/-0.6%, respectively, t(20) = 5.31, P<0.001) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 35.5+/-0.7% and 34.5+/-0.7%, respectively, t(20) = 3.81, P < 0.001). There was an inverse relationship between MUFA and PUFA in the blubber, independent of sampling location. In addition, with the exception of the inner portion from non-lactating females, blubber from the mammary area had the highest proportions of 18:1omega9c and total MUFA, followed by blubber from the rump and neck, suggesting that the deposition and mobilisation of blubber lipids may not be uniform around the body in otariid seals. These results support the need for blubber tissue to be sampled from the same site on animals, and to the full depth of the blubber layer, to minimise variation in

  16. Coping with Heat: Function of The Natal Coat of Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) Pups in Maintaining Core Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life. PMID:23951287

  17. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  18. Conditions influencing the synthesis of acid protease by Mucor pusillus Lindt.

    PubMed

    Somkuti, G A; Babel, F J

    1967-11-01

    Protease synthesis by Mucor pusillus Lindt, in a wheat bran medium under submerged conditions, was influenced by substrate concentration, initial pH of the medium, and temperature of incubation. A 4% wheat bran (dry weight) concentration was satisfactory for enzyme production. The initial pH of the medium had a substantial effect on enzyme synthesis; adjustment of the enzyme production medium to pH 5.0 prior to sterilization was desirable. Incubation at 35 C resulted in the best enzyme yields. Under optimal conditions of enzyme production, maximal activity was detected after 5 days of incubation. The enrichment of the medium with glucose increased the yield of mycelia but lowered the amount of enzyme produced.

  19. Production of saccharogenic and dextrinogenic amylases by Rhizomucor pusillus A 13.36.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tony M; Attili-Angeli, Derlene; Carvalho, Ana Flavia Azeved; Da Silva, Roberto; Boscolo, Mauricio; Gomes, Eleni

    2005-12-01

    A newly-isolated thermophilic strain of the zygomycete fungus Rhizomucor pusillus 13.36 produced highly active dextrinogenic and saccharogenic enzymes. Cassava pulp was a good alternative substrate for amylase production. Dextrinogenic and saccharogenic amylases exhibited optimum activities at a pH of 4.0-4.5 and 5.0 respectively and at a temperature of 75 degrees C. The enzymes were highly thermostable, with no detectable loss of saccharogenic or dextrinogenic activity after 1 h and 6 h at 60 degrees C, respectively. The saccharogenic activity was inhibited by Ca(2+) while the dextrinogenic was indifferent to this ion. Both activities were inhibited by Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) Hydrolysis of soluble starch by the crude enzyme yielded 66% glucose, 19.5% maltose, 7.7% maltotriose and 6.6% oligosaccharides.

  20. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    PubMed

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo.

  1. Variations in the morphology of Rhizomucor pusillus in granulomatous lesions of a Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Suzuta, Fumiko; Kimura, Kumiko; Urakawa, Ryo; Kusuda, Yukio; Tanaka, Shogo; Hanafusa, Yasuko; Haritani, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    This report presents a new case of mucormycosis encountered in penguin characterized by morphological variation of hyphae and presence of sporangia with numerous sporangiospores. A 4.5-year-old Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) died after exhibiting anorexia, poor nutritional condition and dyspnea. Multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions. Histopathologically, hyphae of various sizes were seen in the lungs, air sac and nodular lesions. Myriad sporangiospores and several sporangia were observed in/around the bronchi or parabronchi. The very narrow and short hyphae in the nodules were not consistent with the characteristics of Mucorales. However, for most hyphae, including those in the nodules, sporangiospores and sporangia, immunohistochemistry revealed Mucorales-positive reactions. In addition, these fungi were identified as Rhizomucor pusillus by gene analysis.

  2. The Scorpion Toxin Tf2 from Tityus fasciolatus Promotes Nav1.3 Opening.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Thalita S; Bosmans, Frank; Rego, Solange C; Mourão, Caroline B F; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2015-01-01

    We identified Tf2, the first β-scorpion toxin from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus. Tf2 is identical to Tb2-II found in Tityus bahiensis. We found that Tf2 selectively activates human (h)Nav1.3, a neuronal voltage-gated sodium (Nav) subtype implicated in epilepsy and nociception. Tf2 shifts hNav1.3 activation voltage to more negative values, thereby opening the channel at resting membrane potentials. Seven other tested mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.1-1.2; Nav1.4-1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes are insensitive upon application of 1 μM Tf2. Therefore, the identification of Tf2 represents a unique addition to the repertoire of animal toxins that can be used to investigate Nav channel function.

  3. The Scorpion Toxin Tf2 from Tityus fasciolatus Promotes Nav1.3 Opening

    PubMed Central

    Camargos, Thalita S.; Bosmans, Frank; Rego, Solange C.; Mourão, Caroline B. F.; Schwartz, Elisabeth F.

    2015-01-01

    We identified Tf2, the first β-scorpion toxin from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus. Tf2 is identical to Tb2-II found in Tityus bahiensis. We found that Tf2 selectively activates human (h)Nav1.3, a neuronal voltage-gated sodium (Nav) subtype implicated in epilepsy and nociception. Tf2 shifts hNav1.3 activation voltage to more negative values, thereby opening the channel at resting membrane potentials. Seven other tested mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.1-1.2; Nav1.4-1.8) expressed in Xenopus oocytes are insensitive upon application of 1 μM Tf2. Therefore, the identification of Tf2 represents a unique addition to the repertoire of animal toxins that can be used to investigate Nav channel function. PMID:26083731

  4. Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom injected to dams during pregnancy affects some cytokines of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana L C; Frare, Eduardo O; Paulo, Maria E F V; Dorce, Valquiria A C; Nencioni, Ana L A

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high incidence of scorpion stings in Brazil, pregnant women are among the possible victims. Cytokines are important during the pregnancy, and scorpion venoms can change their release. We evaluated the levels of some cytokines in the fetuses after the treatment of pregnant rats with the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom. The concentration of some of them is altered and can be responsible for the effects previously observed on innate reflexes, and the physical and behavioral development of the offspring.

  5. Variation in the resting frequency of Rhinolophus pusillus in Mainland China: Effect of climate and implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tinglei; Metzner, Walter; You, Yuyan; Liu, Sen; Lu, Guanjun; Li, Shi; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This study describes variation patterns in the constant frequency of echolocation calls emitted at rest and when not flying (“resting frequency” RF) of the least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pusillus, on a broad geographical scale and in response to local climatic variables. Significant differences in RF were observed among populations throughout the species range in Mainland China, and this variation was positively and significantly related to climate conditions, especially environmental humidity, but the variability was only weakly associated with geographical distance. Sex dimorphism in the RF of R. pusillus may imply that female and male might keep their frequencies within a narrow range for sex recognition. Moreover, bats adjusted resting frequency to humidity, which may imply partitioning diet by prey size or the influence of rainfall noise. The results indicate that bats adjust echolocation call frequency to adapt to environmental conditions. Therefore, environmental selection shape the diversity of echolocation call structure of R. pusillus in geographically separated populations, and conservation efforts should focus on changes in local climate and effects of environmental noise. PMID:20968390

  6. Variation in the resting frequency of Rhinolophus pusillus in Mainland China: effect of climate and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tinglei; Metzner, Walter; You, Yuyan; Liu, Sen; Lu, Guanjun; Li, Shi; Wang, Lei; Feng, Jiang

    2010-10-01

    This study describes variation patterns in the constant frequency of echolocation calls emitted at rest and when not flying ("resting frequency" RF) of the least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pusillus, on a broad geographical scale and in response to local climatic variables. Significant differences in RF were observed among populations throughout the species range in Mainland China, and this variation was positively and significantly related to climate conditions, especially environmental humidity, but the variability was only weakly associated with geographical distance. Sex dimorphism in the RF of R. pusillus may imply that female and male might keep their frequencies within a narrow range for sex recognition. Moreover, bats adjusted resting frequency to humidity, which may imply partitioning diet by prey size or the influence of rainfall noise. The results indicate that bats adjust echolocation call frequency to adapt to environmental conditions. Therefore, environmental selection shape the diversity of echolocation call structure of R. pusillus in geographically separated populations, and conservation efforts should focus on changes in local climate and effects of environmental noise.

  7. Molecular systematics of the neotropical scorpion genus Tityus (Buthidae): the historical biogeography and venom antigenic diversity of toxic Venezuelan species.

    PubMed

    Borges, Adolfo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Herrera, Nimiadina; Alfonzo, Marcelo J; Sanjur, Oris I

    2010-01-01

    We provide a mitochondrial DNA-based phylogenetic hypothesis for 21 Tityus species collected in Venezuela, Trinidad, Brazil and Panama, including 12 taxa known to be toxic to humans. Our phylogenetic reconstruction is based on 850 nucleotides of the combined cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA genes for most species, and centered on Venezuelan scorpions owing to the detailed taxonomic and biogeographic information available for Tityus in this region. The principal phylogenetic result was the strong support for mtDNA clades representing geographical groupings associated with the Perijá mountain range, the Mérida Andes, or the central and eastern coastal ranges in Venezuela, suggesting that vicariance has been a potent force in the diversification of local scorpions. Venezuelan Tityus species have been organized by González-Sponga into three artificial morphological groups, "androcottoides", "discrepans", and "nematochirus", based on the array of ventral carinae in metasomal segments II-IV. We also incorporated a fourth morphological group ("Tityus clathratus"), recently documented in Venezuela. Our results do not support the clustering of the species in the "androcottoides" and "discrepans" morphological groups, which include the majority of taxa of medical importance, but provided support for the "nematochirus" species group. T. clathratus was found to cluster with the Brazilian T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis. Divergence times of most clades are consistent with major events in the geological history of northern Venezuela and suggest that many Venezuelan Tityus species formed in the late Miocene and the Pliocene. In turn, we used the Tityus mtDNA phylogeny to determine the potential utility of phylogenetic systematics to predict Tityus venom antigenic reactivity by testing the recognition of T. nororientalis, T. discrepans, T. zulianus, T. perijanensis, and T. clathratus venoms by anti-T. discrepans horse antibodies. Cross-reactivity was significantly

  8. Electrophysiological characterization, solubilization and purification of the Tityus gamma toxin receptor associated with the gating component of the Na+ channel from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Barhanin, J; Pauron, D; Lombet, A; Norman, R I; Vijverberg, H P; Giglio, J R; Lazdunski, M

    1983-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies with neuroblastoma cells have shown that toxin gamma from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus is a new toxin specific for the gating system of the Na+ channel. The procedure which solubilizes the tetrodotoxin receptor from rat brain also solubilizes the Tityus gamma toxin receptor. Binding experiments on the solubilized receptor with a radioiodinated derivative of Tityus gamma toxin have shown: (i) that the TiTx gamma-receptor complex is very stable with a dissociation constant of 8.6 X 10(-12) M and a very slow dissociation (T 1/2 = 15 h); (ii) that the toxin recognizes a class of sites with a 1:1 stoichiometry with those for tetrodotoxin (Bmax = 1.3 pmol/mg protein). The radioiodinated Tityus gamma-receptor complex has been substantially purified by ion-exchange chromatography, lectin affinity chromatography and sucrose gradient sedimentation. A ratio of one Tityus gamma toxin binding site per tetrodotoxin binding site was found throughout the purification. The purified material exhibited a sedimentation coefficient of 10.4S and had an apparent mol. wt. of 270 000 on SDS-gel electrophoresis. No other polypeptide chains were demonstrated to be associated with this large protein in the Tityus gamma receptor. The main conclusion is that the tetrodotoxin binding site associated with the selectivity filter of the Na+ channel and the Tityus gamma toxin binding site associated with the gating component are probably carried by the same polypeptide chain. Images Fig. 4. PMID:6315420

  9. Age-related differences revealed in Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart C; Chalker, Andrea; Dewar, Meagan L; Arnould, John P Y

    2013-11-01

    The gut microbiota of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was examined at different age classes using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The FISH results indicated that in the fur seal groups, the predominant phyla are Firmicutes (22.14-67.33%) followed by Bacteroidetes (3.11-15.45%) and then Actinobacteria (1.4-5.9%) consistent with other mammals. Phylum Proteobacteria had an initial abundance of 1.8% in the 2-month-old pups, but < 1% of bacterial numbers for the other fur seal age groups. Significant differences did occur in the abundance of Clostridia, Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria between 2 months pups and 9 months pups and adult fur seals. Results from the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing supported the FISH data and identified significant differences in the composition of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria at all ages. Class Clostridia in phylum Firmicutes dominates the microbiota of the 2 months and 9 months seal pups, whilst class Bacilli dominates the 6 months pups. In addition, a high level of dissimilarity was observed between all age classes. This study provides novel insight into the gut microbiota of Australian fur seals at different age classes.

  10. Olfactory discrimination ability of South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) for enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Amundin, Mats; Laska, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Using a food-rewarded two-choice instrumental conditioning paradigm we assessed the ability of South African fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus, to discriminate between 12 enantiomeric odor pairs. The results demonstrate that the fur seals as a group were able to discriminate between the optical isomers of carvone, dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveol, menthol, limonene oxide, α-pinene, fenchone (all p < 0.01), and β-citronellol (p < 0.05), whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of limonene, isopulegol, rose oxide, and camphor (all p > 0.05). An analysis of odor structure-activity relationships suggests that a combination of molecular structural properties rather than a single molecular feature may be responsible for the discriminability of enantiomeric odor pairs. A comparison between the discrimination performance of the fur seals and that of other species tested previously on the same set of enantiomers (or subsets thereof) suggests that the olfactory discrimination capabilities of this marine mammal are surprisingly well developed and not generally inferior to that of terrestrial mammals such as human subjects and non-human primates. Further, comparisons suggest that neither the relative nor the absolute size of the olfactory bulbs appear to be reliable predictors of between-species differences in olfactory discrimination capabilities. Taken together, the results of the present study support the notion that the sense of smell may play an important and hitherto underestimated role in regulating the behavior of fur seals.

  11. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R.

    2015-01-01

    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways. PMID:25946412

  12. Neutralizing Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora Extracts against Inflammation Caused by Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom. PMID:25013776

  13. Serum production against Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom using cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles as immunoadjuvant.

    PubMed

    Rocha Soares, Karla S; Cardozo Fonseca, José L; Oliveira Bitencourt, Mariana A; Santos, Kátia S C R; Silva, Arnóbio A; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F

    2012-12-15

    Several species of scorpions are known to cause accidents which can lead to death, most of them belonging to the genus Tityus. Tityus serrulatus is considered the most dangerous scorpion in South America. In Brazil, T. serrulatus is responsible for serious accidents, including deaths, which occur mainly with children and elderly people. Anti-scorpion sera are routinely produced by various institutions, and suitable technologies have been investigated for encapsulation and release recombinant or native proteins capable of inducing antibody production. In this context, biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, such as chitosan, have been employed for this purpose. This study aimed to obtain a protein release system for the peptides or proteins from T. serrulatus, based on cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles (CN) in order to generate a new model of immunization in animals, and consequently a potentially novel polyclonal serum, namely an anti-T. serrulatus venom. CN were successfully obtained by ionic gelation using the polyanion tripolyphosphate (TPP), which demonstrated a suitable particle size of about 200 nm, with maximum encapsulation efficiency (100%) and enhanced antigen-specific antibody titers of 72%. The serum production data revealed that CN were equipotent to aluminum hydroxide, the traditional adjuvant for immunization. This study demonstrates that chitosan nanoparticles are a promising and safe system for peptide/protein delivery for T. serrulatus scorpion.

  14. The transcriptome recipe for the venom cocktail of Tityus bahiensis scorpion.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ursula Castro; Candido, Denise Maria; Dorce, Valquíria Abrão Coronado; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles

    2015-03-01

    Scorpion venom is a mixture of peptides, including antimicrobial, bradykinin-potentiating and anionic peptides and small to medium proteins, such as ion channel toxins, metalloproteinases and phospholipases that together cause severe clinical manifestation. Tityus bahiensis is the second most medically important scorpion species in Brazil and it is widely distributed in the country with the exception of the North Region. Here we sequenced and analyzed the transcripts from the venom glands of T. bahiensis, aiming at identifying and annotating venom gland expressed genes. A total of 116,027 long reads were generated by pyrosequencing and assembled in 2891 isotigs. An annotation process identified transcripts by similarity to known toxins, revealing that putative venom components represent 7.4% of gene expression. The major toxins identified are potassium and sodium channel toxins, whereas metalloproteinases showed an unexpected high abundance. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced metalloproteinases from T. bahiensis and other scorpions revealed a pattern of ancient and intraspecific gene expansions. Other venom molecules identified include antimicrobial, anionic and bradykinin-potentiating peptides, besides several putative new venom components. This report provides the first attempt to massively identify the venom components of this species and constitutes one of the few transcriptomic efforts on the genus Tityus.

  15. A multiscale analysis of nest predation on Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo Bellii Pusillus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kus, Barbara E.; Peterson, Bonnie L.; Deutschman, Douglas H.

    2008-01-01

    We examined variables influencing nest predation on the endangered Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) at three spatial scales to determine what nest-site, habitat, or landscape characteristics affect the likelihood of nest predation and to determine the spatial distribution of predation risk and the variables influencing it. We used MARK to calculate daily survival rates of Least Bell's Vireo nests and applied an information-theoretic approach to evaluate support for logistic regression models of the effect of habitat variables on predation risk. Analysis of data for 195 nests collected during 1999 and 2000 at the San Luis Rey River and Pilgrim Creek in southern California revealed no effect of fine-scale factors, including nest height, supporting plant species, and three measures of nest concealment, on the likelihood of predation. At the intermediate scale, distances to the riparian-habitat edge and to internal gaps in the canopy were unrelated to nest survival. Surrounding land-use type was a poor predictor of predation risk, with the exception of proximity to golf course–park habitat and wetland. Nests within 400 m of golf course–park were only 20% as likely to avoid predation as nests >400 m from this habitat, and nests near wetland were more than twice as likely to survive as nests distant from wetland. Spatially, predation appeared to be random throughout the site, with localized clustering evident in the vicinity of golf course–park and wetland. Our results suggest that the landscape may be the most appropriate scale at which to manage nest predation in this system.

  16. Tityus serrulatus venom contains two classes of toxins. Tityus gamma toxin is a new tool with a very high affinity for studying the Na+ channel.

    PubMed

    Barhanin, J; Giglio, J R; Léopold, P; Schmid, A; Sampaio, S V; Lazdunski, M

    1982-11-10

    The interaction of TiTx gamma, the major toxin in the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus, with its receptor in excitable membranes was studied with the use of 125I-TiTx gamma. This derivative retains biological activity, and its specific binding to both brain synaptosomes and electroplaque membranes from Electrophorus electricus is characterized by a dissociation constant equal to that of the native toxin-receptor complex, about 2 to 5 pM. This very high affinity results mainly from a very slow rate of dissociation, equivalent to a half-life longer than 10 h at 4 degrees C. There is a 1:1 stoichiometry between TiTx gamma binding and tetrodotoxin binding to the membranes, but neither tetrodotoxin nor any of 7 other neurotoxins that are representative of 4 different classes of effectors of the Na+ channel interfere with TiTx gamma binding. Similarly, local anesthetics and other molecules that affect other types of ionic channels or neurotransmitter receptors have no effect on TiTx gamma binding. However, toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus does compete with TiTx gamma, though its affinity for the receptor is much lower. Since the Centruroides toxin II is known to affect Na+ channel function, these two scorpion toxins must be put into a fifth class of Na+ channel effectors.

  17. Scorpion toxins from Centruroides noxius and Tityus serrulatus. Primary structures and sequence comparison by metric analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Possani, L D; Martin, B M; Svendsen, I; Rode, G S; Erickson, B W

    1985-01-01

    The complete primary structures of toxin II-14 from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann and toxin gamma from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus Lutz and Mello have been determined. Cleavage of toxin gamma after Met-6 with CNBr produced the 55-residue peptide 7-61, which maintained the four disulphide bonds but was not toxic to mice at a dose 3 times the lethal dose of native toxin gamma. Pairwise comparison by metric analysis of segment 1-50 of toxin gamma and the corresponding segments from two other South American scorpion toxins, five North American scorpion toxins, nine North African scorpion toxins and one Central Asian scorpion toxin showed that the three Brazilian toxins are intermediate between the North American and North African toxins. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the South American and African continents were joined by a land connection in the distant past. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4052021

  18. [des-Arg(1)]-Proctolin: A novel NEP-like enzyme inhibitor identified in Tityus serrulatus venom.

    PubMed

    Duzzi, Bruno; Cajado-Carvalho, Daniela; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre Kazuo; Kodama, Roberto Tadashi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Fioramonte, Mariana; Tambourgi, Denise Vilarinho; Portaro, Fernanda Vieira; Rioli, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    The scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom comprises a complex mixture of molecules that paralyzes and kills preys, especially insects. However, venom components also interact with molecules in humans, causing clinic envenomation. This cross-interaction may result from homologous molecular targets in mammalians and insects, such as (NEP)-like enzymes. In face of these similarities, we searched for peptides in Tityus serrulatus venom using human NEP as a screening tool. We found a NEP-inhibiting peptide with the primary sequence YLPT, which is very similar to that of the insect neuropeptide proctolin (RYLPT). Thus, we named the new peptide [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin. Comparative NEP activity assays using natural substrates demonstrated that [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin has high specificity for NEP and better inhibitory activity than proctolin. To test the initial hypothesis that molecular homologies allow Tityus serrulatus venom to act on both mammal and insect targets, we investigated the presence of a NEP-like in cockroaches, the main scorpion prey, that could be likewise inhibited by [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin. Indeed, we detected a possible NEP-like in a homogenate of cockroach heads whose activity was blocked by thiorphan and also by [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin. Western blot analysis using a human NEP monoclonal antibody suggested a NEP-like enzyme in the homogenate of cockroach heads. Our study describes for the first time a proctolin-like peptide, named [des-Arg(1)]-proctolin, isolated from Tityus serrulatus venom. The tetrapeptide inhibits human NEP activity and a NEP-like activity in a cockroach head homogenate, thus it may play a role in human envenomation as well as in the paralysis and death of scorpion preys.

  19. Effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and the involvement of NANC nitrergic nerve fibres

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Cleber E; Bento, Antonio C; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo A B; Teixeira, Simone A; von Eickestedt, Vera; Muscará, Marcelo N; Arantes, Eliane C; Giglio, Jose R; Antunes, Edson; de Nucci, Gilberto

    1998-01-01

    The effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its toxin components on the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum was investigated by use of a bioassay cascade. Tityus serrulatus venom (3–100 μg), acetylcholine (ACh; 0.3–30 nmol) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; 0.5–10 nmol) dose-dependently relaxed rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum preparations precontracted with noradrenaline (3 μM). The selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3,-alquinoxalin-1-one] (ODQ; 30 μM) increased the basal tone of the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and abolished the relaxations induced by the agents mentioned above. Methylene blue (30 μM) also inhibited the relaxations induced by Tityus serrulatus venom but, in contrast to ODQ, the inhibition was irreversible. The non-selective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors NΩ-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 μM) and NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine (L-NIO; 30 μM) also increased the tone of the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and markedly reduced both ACh- and Tityus serrulatus venom-induced relaxations without affecting those evoked by GTN. The inhibitory effect was reversed by infusion of L-arginine (300 μM), but not D-arginine (300 μM). The neuronal NOS inhibitor 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM, 100 μM) did not affect either the tone of the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum or the relaxations induced by ACh, bradykinin (Bk), Tityus serrulatus venom and GTN. TRIM was approximately 1,000 times less potent than L-NAME in inhibiting rabbit cerebellar NOS in vitro, as measured by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to [3H]-L-citrulline. The protease inhibitor aprotinin (Trasylol; 10 μg ml−1) and the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (D-Arg-[Hyp3,Thi5,D-Tic7, Oic8]-BK; 50 nM) did not affect the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum relaxations induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. The ATP-dependent K+ channel antagonist glibenclamide (10 μM) and the Ca2+-activated

  20. Molecular analysis of NAD⁺-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase from the zygomycetous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus and reversal of the coenzyme preference.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki-Yashiki, Shino; Komeda, Hidenobu; Hoshino, Kazuhiro; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The zygomycetous fungus Rhizomucor pusillus NBRC 4578 is able to ferment not only d-glucose but also d-xylose into ethanol. Xylitol dehydrogenase from R. pusillus NBRC 4578 (RpXDH), which catalyzes the second step of d-xylose metabolism, was purified, and its enzymatic properties were characterized. The purified RpXDH preferred NAD(+) as its coenzyme and showed substrate specificity for xylitol, d-sorbitol, and ribitol. cDNA cloning of xyl2 gene encoding RpXDH revealed that the gene included a coding sequence of 1,092 bp with a molecular mass of 39,185 kDa. Expression of the xyl2 in R. pusillus NBRC 4578 was induced by d-xylose, and the expression levels were increased with accumulation of xylitol. The xyl2 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and coenzyme preference of the recombinant RpXDH was reversed from NAD(+) to NADP(+) in the double mutant D205A/I206R by site-directed mutagenesis.

  1. Toxicity of crude and detoxified Tityus serrulatus venom in anti-venom-producing sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Marina G.; Duarte, Clara G.; Oliveira, Maira S.; Castro, Karen L. P.; Teixeira, Maílson S.; Reis, Lílian P. G.; Zambrano, José A.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Michel, Ana Flávia R. M.; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Specific anti-venom used to treat scorpion envenomation is usually obtained from horses after hyperimmunization with crude scorpion venom. However, immunized animals often become ill because of the toxic effects of the immunogens used. This study was conducted to evaluate the toxic and immunogenic activities of crude and detoxified Tityus serrulatus (Ts) venom in sheep during the production of anti-scorpionic anti-venom. Sheep were categorized into three groups: G1, control, immunized with buffer only; G2, immunized with crude Ts venom; and G3, immunized with glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom. All animals were subjected to clinical exams and supplementary tests. G2 sheep showed mild clinical changes, but the other groups tolerated the immunization program well. Specific antibodies generated in animals immunized with either Ts crude venom or glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom recognized the crude Ts venom in both assays. To evaluate the lethality neutralization potential of the produced sera, individual serum samples were pre-incubated with Ts crude venom, then subcutaneously injected into mice. Efficient immune protection of 56.3% and 43.8% against Ts crude venom was observed in G2 and G3, respectively. Overall, the results of this study support the use of sheep and glutaraldehyde-detoxified Ts venom for alternative production of specific anti-venom. PMID:27297422

  2. Differences in venom toxicity and antigenicity between females and males Tityus nororientalis (Buthidae) scorpions

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Borges, Adolfo; Vásquez-Suárez, Aleikar; Op den Camp, Huub JM; Chadee-Burgos, Rosa I; Romero-Bellorín, Mirna; Espinoza, Jorge; De Sousa-Insana, Leonardo; Pino-García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Venom from male and female specimens of the medically important Venezuelan scorpion Tityus nororientalis have been compared. Males showed a significantly higher venom yield (2.39mg/individual) compared to female scorpions (0.98mg/individual). Female venom was significantly more toxic than that of males, with a median lethal dose (LD50) in C57BL/6 mice of 9.46 μg venom protein/gm body weight [95% confidence interval (8.91-9.94)] whereas LD50 for males was 13.36(12.58-14.03) μg/gm. Mass spectral analyses by MALDI-TOF revealed differences in venom composition between males and females. From a clinical standpoint, the time course of toxicity course indicated a tendency, in the case of the female venom, to elicit the earlier occurrence of severe signs such as sialorrhea, dyspnea (bradypnea/apnea) and exophthalmus particularly in the late toxicity phase. Female venom was significantly less efficient than male venom to inhibit the binding of anti-T. discrepans antibodies to immobilized T. discrepans venom in ELISA assays, suggesting sex-related differences in the bioactive surfaces of T. nororientalis toxins. These results indicate that males and females of T. nororientalis produce venoms with different composition and activity which may have epidemiological implications. PMID:21544184

  3. Tityus gamma toxin, a high affinity effector of the Na+ channel in muscle, with a selectivity for channels in the surface membrane.

    PubMed

    Barhanin, J; Ildefonse, M; Rougier, O; Sampaio, S V; Giglio, J R; Lazdunski, M

    1984-01-01

    Toxin gamma from the venom of Tityus serrulatus scorpion produces a partial block of the surface Na+ channel in frog muscle. This block occurs with no change in the voltage-dependence or in the kinetics of the remaining surface Na+ current. The partial blockade of Na+ channel activity occurs with no change in tubular Na+ currents nor in twitch tension. The maximum effect of the toxin is attained at concentrations as low as 3 X 10(-10) M. Hyperpolarization to potentials more negative than the resting potential (E = -90 mV) reduces or abolishes the effect of the toxin. Radioiodinated toxin gamma binds to frog muscle membranes with a very high affinity corresponding to a dissociation constant of about 1 X 10(-11) M. Data obtained with both rabbit and frog muscle indicate that toxin gamma is specific for Na+ channels in surface membranes. Toxin gamma does not seem to bind to Na+ channels in T-tubule membranes. The biochemical data are in good agreement with electrophysiological studies and data on contraction. There is one Tityus gamma toxin binding site per tetrodotoxin binding site in surface membranes. Competition experiments have confirmed that Tityus gamma toxin binds to a new toxin receptor site on the Na+ channel structure. This site is the same that the toxin II from Centruroides suffusus binding site, but this toxin has 100 times less affinity for the Na+ channel than Tityus gamma toxin.

  4. General characterization of Tityus fasciolatus scorpion venom. Molecular identification of toxins and localization of linear B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, T M; Guimarães-Okamoto, P T C; Machado-de-Avila, R A; Oliveira, D; Melo, M M; Lobato, Z I; Kalapothakis, E; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-06-01

    This communication describes the general characteristics of the venom from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus fasciolatus, which is an endemic species found in the central Brazil (States of Goiás and Minas Gerais), being responsible for sting accidents in this area. The soluble venom obtained from this scorpion is toxic to mice being the LD50 is 2.984 mg/kg (subcutaneally). SDS-PAGE of the soluble venom resulted in 10 fractions ranged in size from 6 to 10-80 kDa. Sheep were employed for anti-T. fasciolatus venom serum production. Western blotting analysis showed that most of these venom proteins are immunogenic. T. fasciolatus anti-venom revealed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from Tityus serrulatus. Using known primers for T. serrulatus toxins, we have identified three toxins sequences from T. fasciolatus venom. Linear epitopes of these toxins were localized and fifty-five overlapping pentadecapeptides covering complete amino acid sequence of the three toxins were synthesized in cellulose membrane (spot-synthesis technique). The epitopes were located on the 3D structures and some important residues for structure/function were identified.

  5. Purification of binding protein for Tityus gamma toxin identified with the gating component of the voltage-sensitive Na+ channel.

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R I; Schmid, A; Lombet, A; Barhanin, J; Lazdunski, M

    1983-01-01

    The gating component associated with the voltage-sensitive Na+ channel from electroplax membranes of Electrophorus electricus has been purified by using toxin gamma from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus serrulatus. The toxin-binding site was efficiently solubilized with Lubrol PX, resulting in an extract of high initial specific activity. Purification was achieved by adsorption of the toxin-binding component to DEAE-Sephadex A-25 followed by desorption at high ionic strength and chromatography on either wheat germ agglutinin-Ultrogel or Sepharose 6B. Maximal final specific activities were at least 42% of the specific activity expected for a pure toxin-binding component. The purified material exhibited a Stokes radius of 85 A, and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated a single polypeptide component of Mr 270,000. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin binding activity and Tityus gamma toxin binding activity copurified, suggesting that the selectivity filter and the gating component of the Na+ channel are carried by the same polypeptide chain. Images PMID:6306665

  6. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    PubMed

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms.

  7. Insights into the Hypertensive Effects of Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: Purification of an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Like Peptidase

    PubMed Central

    Cajado-Carvalho, Daniela; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre Kazuo; Duzzi, Bruno; Iwai, Leo Kei; de Oliveira, Úrsula Castro; Junqueira de Azevedo, Inácio de Loiola Meirelles; Kodama, Roberto Tadashi; Portaro, Fernanda Vieira

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases of envenomation by scorpions has grown significantly in Brazil since 2007, with the most severe cases being caused by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Although envenomed patients mostly suffer neurotoxic manifestations, other symptoms, such as hypertension, cannot be exclusively attributed to neurotoxins. Omics analyses have detected plentiful amounts of metalloproteases in T. serrulatus venom. However, the roles played by these enzymes in envenomation are still unclear. Endeavoring to investigate the functions of scorpion venom proteases, we describe here for the first time an Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme-like peptidase (ACE-like) purified from T. serrulatus venom. The crude venom cleaved natural and fluorescent substrates and these activities were inhibited by captopril. Regarding the serum neutralization, the scorpion antivenom was more effective at blocking the ACE-like activity than arachnid antivenom, although neither completely inhibited the venom cleavage action, even at higher doses. ACE-like was purified from the venom after three chromatographic steps and its identity was confirmed by mass spectrometric and transcriptomic analyses. Bioinformatics analysis showed homology between the ACE-like transcript sequences from Tityus spp. and human testis ACE. These findings advance our understanding of T. serrulatus venom components and may improve treatment of envenomation victims, as ACE-like may contribute to envenomation symptoms, especially the resulting hypertension. PMID:27886129

  8. Effect of age on body distribution of Tityustoxin from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Elzíria A; Moraes, Márcio F D; Cardoso, Valbert N; Moraes-Santos, Tasso

    2003-06-06

    Previous research from our Laboratory has shown a greater susceptibility of young animals, when compared to adults, to envenomation by tityustoxin (TsTX), one of the main toxins from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom. Our hypothesis is that a differential body distribution of TsTX among adult and young animals could account for the worse prognosis of scorpion envenomation in infants. Thus, TsTX labeled with technetium-99m was injected (6 microg, subcutaneous) in adult (150-160 day-old) and young (21-22 day-old) male rats. Groups of animals were sacrificed at different times after TsTX injection (0.08, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 hours) under Urethane anesthesia (140 mg/100 g, i.p.). The brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen and thyroid were excised and blood collected. Young rats presented a shorter latency toxin concentration peak in all studied organs except for the liver and the kidney, when compared to adults. The ratio between the area under the curve of the toxin concentration in each organ and that in blood (Kp) indicates higher accumulation in the organs of young animals mainly for brain, liver and heart. These observations suggest a faster toxin distribution in the organs of young rats. The higher uptake of TsTX in the brain is suggestive of a greater permeability for the toxin along the blood-brain barrier of young rats. In conclusion, the higher uptake in heart, together with data from the brain, may help to elucidate the clinical manifestations frequently observed in children under scorpion envenomation.

  9. Localization of epitopes in the toxins of Tityus serrulatus scorpions and neutralizing potential of therapeutic antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Maria, W S; Velarde, D T; Alvarenga, L M; Nguyen, C; Villard, S; Granier, C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2005-08-01

    Overlapping pentadecapeptides covering the complete amino acid sequence of TsII, TsVII and TsIV toxins from the venom of scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Ts), were prepared by use of the Spot method of multiple peptide synthesis. Horse anti-Ts antisera for therapeutic use were tested for their binding to peptides. All nine antisera tested showed reactivity with several peptides from the three toxins. Three antigenic regions, one in the very N-terminal, the second in the central part and the other in the C-terminal part of the three toxins were frequently, but not constantly recognized, with an intensity that seemed to be related to the neutralizing potency of the tested antivenom. Thus the corresponding peptides (residues 1-15 and 48-62 of TsII; residues 1-15, 16-30 and 48-62 of TsIV and residues 1-15 and 47-61 of TsVII) were synthesized, coupled to KLH and used as antigens to coat the microtitration plates to determine any relationship between their ELISA reactivity with therapeutic horse antivenoms and the neutralizing potential of these antivenoms. The mixture of the N-terminal peptide of TsII, of the N-terminal TsVII peptide and of the C-terminal of TsIV was found to give a linear relationship with the neutralizing titer of horse serum of low neutralizing potency (< or =1 mg/ml). However, high neutralizing antivenoms did not show the expected response in peptide ELISA. This observation is discussed in the context of the occurrence of continuous and discontinuous epitopes on toxins.

  10. Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Use Raptorial Biting and Suction Feeding When Targeting Prey in Different Foraging Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Evans, Alistair R.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging. PMID:25390347

  11. Dive characteristics can predict foraging success in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) as validated by animal-borne video

    PubMed Central

    Volpov, Beth L.; Rosen, David A. S.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Lourie, Holly J.; Dorville, Nicole; Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Semmens, Jayson; Hindell, Mark A.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dive characteristics and dive shape are often used to infer foraging success in pinnipeds. However, these inferences have not been directly validated in the field with video, and it remains unclear if this method can be applied to benthic foraging animals. This study assessed the ability of dive characteristics from time-depth recorders (TDR) to predict attempted prey capture events (APC) that were directly observed on animal-borne video in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, n=11). The most parsimonious model predicting the probability of a dive with ≥1 APC on video included only descent rate as a predictor variable. The majority (94%) of the 389 total APC were successful, and the majority of the dives (68%) contained at least one successful APC. The best model predicting these successful dives included descent rate as a predictor. Comparisons of the TDR model predictions to video yielded a maximum accuracy of 77.5% in classifying dives as either APC or non-APC or 77.1% in classifying dives as successful verses unsuccessful. Foraging intensity, measured as either total APC per dive or total successful APC per dive, was best predicted by bottom duration and ascent rate. The accuracy in predicting total APC per dive varied based on the number of APC per dive with maximum accuracy occurring at 1 APC for both total (54%) and only successful APC (52%). Results from this study linking verified foraging dives to dive characteristics potentially opens the door to decades of historical TDR datasets across several otariid species. PMID:26873950

  12. Biochemical Characterization, Thermal Stability, and Partial Sequence of a Novel Exo-Polygalacturonase from the Thermophilic Fungus Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 Obtained by Submerged Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Lucas Vinícius; Desagiacomo, Carla; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes; Damasio, André Ricardo de Lima; Lima, Aline Margarete Furuyama; Gomes, Eleni; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the production of an exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) by Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 in submerged cultivation (SmC) in a shaker at 45°C for 96 h. A single pectinase was found and purified in order to analyze its thermal stability, by salt precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The pectinase has an estimated Mw of approximately 43.5-47 kDa and optimum pH of 4.0 but is stable in pH ranging from 3.5 to 9.5 and has an optimum temperature of 61°C. It presents thermal stability between 30 and 60°C, has 70% activation in the presence of Ca(2+), and was tested using citrus pectin with a degree of methyl esterification (DE) of 26%. Ea(d) for irreversible denaturation was 125.5 kJ/mol with positive variations of entropy and enthalpy for that and ΔG(d) values were around 50 kJ/mol. The hydrolysis of polygalacturonate was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis which displayed a pattern of sequential hydrolysis (exo). The partial identification of the primary sequence was done by MS MALDI-TOF and a comparison with data banks showed the highest identity of the sequenced fragments of exo-PG from R. pusillus with an exo-pectinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Pectin hydrolysis showed a sigmoidal curve for the Michaelis-Menten plot.

  13. Structural characterization of a novel peptide with antimicrobial activity from the venom gland of the scorpion Tityus stigmurus: Stigmurin.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Edinara Targino; Estrela, Andréia Bergamo; Santos, Elizabeth Cristina Gomes; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Torres, Taffarel Melo; Carvalho, Enéas; Lima, João Paulo Matos Santos; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antonio; Barbosa, Euzébio Guimarães; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    A new antimicrobial peptide, herein named Stigmurin, was selected based on a transcriptomic analysis of the Brazilian yellow scorpion Tityus stigmurus venom gland, an underexplored source for toxic peptides with possible biotechnological applications. Stigmurin was investigated in silico, by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and in vitro. The CD spectra suggested that this peptide interacts with membranes, changing its conformation in the presence of an amphipathic environment, with predominance of random coil and beta-sheet structures. Stigmurin exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 8.7 to 69.5μM. It was also showed that Stigmurin is toxic against SiHa and Vero E6 cell lines. The results suggest that Stigmurin can be considered a potential anti-infective drug.

  14. Biochemical Characterization, Thermal Stability, and Partial Sequence of a Novel Exo-Polygalacturonase from the Thermophilic Fungus Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 Obtained by Submerged Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Lucas Vinícius; Desagiacomo, Carla; Damasio, André Ricardo de Lima; Lima, Aline Margarete Furuyama; Gomes, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the production of an exo-polygalacturonase (exo-PG) by Rhizomucor pusillus A13.36 in submerged cultivation (SmC) in a shaker at 45°C for 96 h. A single pectinase was found and purified in order to analyze its thermal stability, by salt precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The pectinase has an estimated Mw of approximately 43.5–47 kDa and optimum pH of 4.0 but is stable in pH ranging from 3.5 to 9.5 and has an optimum temperature of 61°C. It presents thermal stability between 30 and 60°C, has 70% activation in the presence of Ca2+, and was tested using citrus pectin with a degree of methyl esterification (DE) of 26%. Ea(d) for irreversible denaturation was 125.5 kJ/mol with positive variations of entropy and enthalpy for that and ΔG(d) values were around 50 kJ/mol. The hydrolysis of polygalacturonate was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis which displayed a pattern of sequential hydrolysis (exo). The partial identification of the primary sequence was done by MS MALDI-TOF and a comparison with data banks showed the highest identity of the sequenced fragments of exo-PG from R. pusillus with an exo-pectinase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Pectin hydrolysis showed a sigmoidal curve for the Michaelis-Menten plot. PMID:28025649

  15. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  16. Homology modeling, vasorelaxant and bradykinin-potentiating activities of a novel hypotensin found in the scorpion venom from Tityus stigmurus.

    PubMed

    Machado, Richele J A; Junior, Leônidas G M; Monteiro, Norberto K V; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio A; Portaro, Fernanda C V; Barbosa, Euzébio G; Braga, Valdir A; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F

    2015-07-01

    In a recent work by our group involving a transcriptomics approach applied to the venom glands from Tityus stigmurus we identified a new family of peptides called Hypotensins (TSTI0006C) (Almeida et al., 2012). The cluster TSTI0006C was analyzed in the main 25 amino acid residues and named T. stigmurus Hypotensin (TistH), showing a molecular mass of 2.7 kDa, an absence of cysteines and the presence of two C-terminal proline residues, which are a bradykinin-potentiating peptide (BPP) signature. Here, we describe the homology modeling of the three-dimensional structure of TistH. In addition, we evaluated the cardiovascular effects elicited by TistH in normotensive rats. Firstly, TistH showed no cytotoxic effect on horse erythrocyte. Furthermore, in normotensive rats TistH was able to potentiate the hypotensive action of bradykinin (BK) and induced a vasorelaxant effect in mesenteric artery rings by endothelium-dependent release of nitric oxide (NO) and demonstrated independent inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Our data can contribute to a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of TistH and suggest its potential use in cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Role of lysine and tryptophan residues in the biological activity of toxin VII (Ts gamma) from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus.

    PubMed

    Hassani, O; Mansuelle, P; Cestèle, S; Bourdeaux, M; Rochat, H; Sampieri, F

    1999-02-01

    Toxin VII (TsVII), also known as Ts gamma, is the most potent neurotoxin in the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus. It has been purified to homogeneity using a new fast and efficient method. Chemical modification of TsVII with the tryptophan-specific reagent o-nitrophenylsulfenyl chloride yielded three modified derivatives (residues Trp39, Trp50 and Trp54). Acetylation of TsVII mostly generated the monoacetylated Lys12 derivative. No side reactions were detected, as indicated by endoproteinase Lys-C peptide mapping, Edman degradation and electrospray mass spectrometry. Circular dichroism and fluorimetric measurements showed that none of the chemical modifications altered the overall structure of the derivatives. The acetylation of Lys12 or the sulfenylation of Trp39 or Trp54 led to a loss of both toxicity in mice and apparent binding affinity for rat brain and cockroach synaptosomal preparations. Sulfenylation of Trp50, however, moderately affected the toxicity of TsVII in mice and had almost no effect on its binding properties. A 3-dimensional model of TsVII was constructed by homology modeling. It suggests that the most reactive residues (Lys12 and Trp39 and Trp54) are all important in the functional disruption of neuronal sodium channels by TsVII, and are close to each other in the hydrophobic conserved region.

  18. Electrophysiological Characterization of Ts6 and Ts7, K+ Channel Toxins Isolated through an Improved Tityus serrulatus Venom Purification Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Cerni, Felipe A.; Pucca, Manuela B.; Peigneur, Steve; Cremonez, Caroline M.; Bordon, Karla C. F.; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane C.

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the species responsible for most of the scorpion related accidents. Among the Ts toxins, the neurotoxins with action on potassium channels (α-KTx) present high interest, due to their effect in the envenoming process and the ion channel specificity they display. The α-KTx toxins family is the most relevant because its toxins can be used as therapeutic tools for specific target cells. The improved isolation method provided toxins with high resolution, obtaining pure Ts6 and Ts7 in two chromatographic steps. The effects of Ts6 and Ts7 toxins were evaluated in 14 different types of potassium channels using the voltage-clamp technique with two-microelectrodes. Ts6 toxin shows high affinity for Kv1.2, Kv1.3 and Shaker IR, blocking these channels in low concentrations. Moreover, Ts6 blocks the Kv1.3 channel in picomolar concentrations with an IC50 of 0.55 nM and therefore could be of valuable assistance to further designing immunosuppressive therapeutics. Ts7 toxin blocks multiple subtypes channels, showing low selectivity among the channels analyzed. This work also stands out in its attempt to elucidate the residues important for interacting with each channel and, in the near future, to model a desired drug. PMID:24590385

  19. Sex-Linked Chromosome Heterozygosity in Males of Tityus confluens (Buthidae): A Clue about the Presence of Sex Chromosomes in Scorpions.

    PubMed

    Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mola, Liliana María

    2016-01-01

    Scorpions of the genus Tityus show holokinetic chromosomes, achiasmatic male meiosis and an absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, like all Buthidae. In this work, we analysed the meiotic behaviour and chromosome rearrangements of a population of the scorpion Tityus confluens, characterising the cytotypes of males, females and embryos with different cytogenetic techniques. This revealed that all the females were structural homozygotes, while all the males were structural heterozygotes for different chromosome rearrangements. Four different cytotypes were described in males, which differed in chromosome number (2n = 5 and 2n = 6) and meiotic multivalent configurations (chains of four, five and six chromosomes). Based on a detailed mitotic and meiotic analysis, we propose a sequence of chromosome rearrangements that could give rise to each cytotype and in which fusions have played a major role. Based on the comparison of males, females and a brood of embryos, we also propose that the presence of multivalents in males and homologous pairs in females could be associated with the presence of cryptic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. We propose that the ancestral karyotype of this species could have had homomorphic XY/XX (male/female) sex chromosomes and a fusion could have occurred between the Y chromosome and an autosome.

  20. Sex-Linked Chromosome Heterozygosity in Males of Tityus confluens (Buthidae): A Clue about the Presence of Sex Chromosomes in Scorpions

    PubMed Central

    Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mola, Liliana María

    2016-01-01

    Scorpions of the genus Tityus show holokinetic chromosomes, achiasmatic male meiosis and an absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, like all Buthidae. In this work, we analysed the meiotic behaviour and chromosome rearrangements of a population of the scorpion Tityus confluens, characterising the cytotypes of males, females and embryos with different cytogenetic techniques. This revealed that all the females were structural homozygotes, while all the males were structural heterozygotes for different chromosome rearrangements. Four different cytotypes were described in males, which differed in chromosome number (2n = 5 and 2n = 6) and meiotic multivalent configurations (chains of four, five and six chromosomes). Based on a detailed mitotic and meiotic analysis, we propose a sequence of chromosome rearrangements that could give rise to each cytotype and in which fusions have played a major role. Based on the comparison of males, females and a brood of embryos, we also propose that the presence of multivalents in males and homologous pairs in females could be associated with the presence of cryptic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. We propose that the ancestral karyotype of this species could have had homomorphic XY/XX (male/female) sex chromosomes and a fusion could have occurred between the Y chromosome and an autosome. PMID:27783630

  1. Stigmurin and TsAP-2 from Tityus stigmurus scorpion venom: Assessment of structure and therapeutic potential in experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Daniele-Silva, Alessandra; Machado, Richele J A; Monteiro, Norberto K V; Estrela, Andréia B; Santos, Elizabeth C G; Carvalho, Eneas; Araújo Júnior, Raimundo F; Melo-Silveira, Raniere F; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre O; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio A; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F

    2016-10-01

    Microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics is a public health problem worldwide, motivating the search for new therapeutic alternatives in varied natural sources. Cationic peptides without disulfide bridges from scorpions have been targeted in this context, mainly due to their multifunctional action and the limited ability of microorganisms to develop resistance against them. The present study was focused on Stigmurin and TsAP-2, cationic peptides found in the transcriptome of the venom gland from the scorpion Tityus stigmurus. The aims were: to assess the secondary structure of TsAP-2 and the structural stability of both peptides by circular dichroism; to evaluate their antiproliferative effect, and antimicrobial activities in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo; and to investigate their therapeutic potential in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis. Stigmurin and TsAP-2 secondary structures responded similarly to environment polarity changes, and were stable to temperature and pH variation. Both peptides showed antiproliferative effect on tumor cells. TsAP-2 showed lower cytotoxicity to normal cells, and had a mitogenic activity on murine macrophages. Stigmurin demonstrated bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity, depending on the microorganism, whereas TsAP-2 had bactericidal action upon different bacterial strains analyzed. Both peptides were able to reduce leukocyte migration, TNF-α levels and microorganism load in the peritoneal cavity after induction of experimental sepsis, decreasing inflammation in the lung and cecum of septic animals. TsAP-2 also reduced the release of nitric oxide in the peritoneal cavity. Taken together, these data suggest that Stigmurin and TsAP-2 are structurally stable molecules and are efficient in the control of the infectious focus in polymicrobial sepsis, with potential use as a prototype for the rational design of novel therapeutic agents.

  2. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Volpov, Beth L.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Battaile, Brian C.; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application. PMID:26107647

  3. Structure-Based Design of Mucor pusillus Pepsin for the Improved Ratio of Clotting Activity/Proteolytic Activity in Cheese Manufacture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai; Li, Zhuolin; Luo, Quan; Li, Tiezhu; Wang, Tuoyi

    2015-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies have determined the intermolecular interactions between Mucor pusillus pepsin (MPP) and the key domain of κ-casein, with the aim to understand the mechanism of milk clotting in the specific hydrolysis of κ-casein by MPP for cheese making. Here, we combined the docking model with site-directed mutagenesis to further investigate the functional roles of amino acid residues in the active site of MPP. T218S replacement caused a low thermostability and moderate increase in the clotting activity. Mutations of three amino acid residues, T218A and T218S in S2 region and L287G in S4 region, led to a significant decrease in proteolytic activity. For T218S and L287G, an increase in the ratio of clotting activity to proteolytic activity (C/P) was observed, in particular 3.34-fold increase was found for T218S mutants. Structural analysis of the binding mode of MPP and chymosin splitting domain (CSD) of κ-casein indicated that T218S plays a critical role in forming a hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl group of Ser(104) around the MPP-sensitive Phe(105)-Met(106) peptide bond of κ- casein and L287G is partially responsible for CSD accommodation in a suitable hydrophobic environment. These data suggested that T218S mutant could serve as a promising milk coagulant that contributes to an optimal flavor development in mature cheese.

  4. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    PubMed

    Volpov, Beth L; Hoskins, Andrew J; Battaile, Brian C; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application.

  5. Characterization of TistH, a multifunctional peptide from the scorpion Tityus stigmurus: Structure, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Machado, Richele J A; Estrela, Andréia B; Nascimento, Ana K L; Melo, Menilla M A; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Lima, Edeltrurdes O; Rocha, Hugo A O; Carvalho, Eneas; Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bioactive peptides in animal venoms has been targeted in scientific research for assessing biological activities, as well as mechanisms of action. A recent study by our group observed hypotensive action of TistH (Tityus stigmurus Hypotensin), a peptide deduced from the transcriptome of T. stigmurus venom gland. The present study aims to analyze TistH structure properties and to evaluate its toxicity on normal and tumor cells, its in vitro antimicrobial activity, as well as its inflammatory effect. Circular dichroism analyses of TistH showed a general predominance of α-helix conformation in TFE (20-70%) and structural stability to pH variations. TistH was not cytotoxic to normal cell lines (3T3, RAW and HEK), and also not to cancer cell lines (HeLa, B16, 786-0, SiHa and HepG2). The peptide did not present inflammatory activity up to 6 h after administered subcutaneously to Swiss mice. It was observed that concentrations of 4-1024 μg/mL of TistH produced no inhibition against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis e Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of antifungal assays showed a moderate activity of TistH against Candida albicans strain LM-108 and the filamentous fungus Trichophyton rubrum LM-640, with growth inhibition at a concentration of 1024 μg/mL. In contrast, the peptide presented a greater activity (MIC 128 μg/mL) against C. albicans LM-106, Candida tropicalis ATCC 13308 and Aspergillus flavus strains LM-247 and LM-26, fungi that cause oral and vaginal infections, candidiasis and respiratory allergies, respectively. The present data contribute to a better understanding of TistH and its possible use as a bioactive compound. This multifunctional peptide is capable of acting as anti-hypertensive, as well as to inhibit the growth of fungal strains, having low toxicity, which suggests its safety for using as a pharmacological agent.

  6. Effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its toxin TsTX-V on neurotransmitter uptake in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchini, Alessandra L.; Vasconcelos, Flavio; Giglio, Jose Roberto; Arantes, Eliane Candiani . E-mail: ecabraga@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-12-01

    Scorpion neurotoxins targeting the Na{sub v} channel can be classified into two classes: {alpha}- and {beta}-neurotoxins and are reported as highly active in mammalian brain. In this work, we evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (Ts venom) and its {alpha}-neurotoxin TsTX-V on {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine (DA) and glutamate (Glu) uptake in isolated rat brain synaptosomes. TsTX-V was isolated from Ts venom by ion exchange chromatography followed by reverse-phase (C18) high-performance liquid chromatography. Neither Ts venom nor TsTX-V was able to affect {sup 3}H-Glu uptake. On the other hand, Ts venom (0.13 {mu}g/mg) significantly inhibited both {sup 3}H-GABA and {sup 3}H-DA uptake ({approx} 50%). TsTX-V showed IC{sub 5} values of 9.37 {mu}M and 22.2 {mu}M for the inhibition of {sup 3}H-GABA and {sup 3}H-DA uptake, respectively. These effects were abolished by pre-treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 {mu}M), indicating the involvement of voltage-gated Na{sup +} channels in this process. In the absence of Ca{sup 2+}, and at low Ts venom concentrations, the reduction of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake was not as marked as in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. TsTX-V did not reduce {sup 3}H-GABA uptake in COS-7 cells expressing the GABA transporters GAT-1 and GAT-3, suggesting that this toxin indirectly reduces the transport. The reduced {sup 3}H-GABA uptake by synaptosomes might be due to rapid cell depolarization as revealed by confocal microscopy of C6 glioma cells. Thus, TsTX-V causes a reduction of {sup 3}H-GABA and {sup 3}H-DA uptake in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner, not directly affecting GABA transporters, but, in consequence of depolarization, involving voltage-gated Na{sup +} channels.

  7. Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.

    PubMed

    Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel García; Eulenberger, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds.

  8. A novel toxin from the venom of the scorpion Tityus trivittatus, is the first member of a new alpha-KTX subfamily.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Yousra; Coronas, Fredy V; de Roodt, Adolfo R; Possani, Lourival D; Tytgat, Jan

    2006-01-23

    The first example of a new sub-family of toxins (alpha-KTx20.1) from the scorpion Tityus trivittatus was purified, sequenced and characterized physiologically. It has 29 amino acid residues, three disulfide bridges assumed to adopt the cysteine-stabilized alpha/beta scaffold with a pI value of 8.98. The sequence identities with all the other known alpha-KTx are less than 40%. Its effects were verified using seven different cloned K(+) channels (vertebrate Kv1.1-1.5, Shaker IR and hERG) expressed in Xenopus leavis oocytes. The toxin-induced effects show large differences among the different K(+) channels and a preference towards Kv1.3 (EC50=7.9+/-1.4 nM).

  9. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  10. Biochemical, Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Digestion in the Scorpion Tityus serrulatus: Insights into Function and Evolution of Digestion in an Ancient Arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Fuzita, Felipe J.; Pinkse, Martijn W. H.; Patane, José S. L.; Juliano, Maria A.; Verhaert, Peter D. E. M.; Lopes, Adriana R.

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  11. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    PubMed

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  12. Morphometric and molecular characterization of the species of Uncinaria Frölich, 1789 (Nematoda) parasitic in the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber), with notes on hookworms in three other pinniped hosts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Paul; Lynch, Michael; Hu, Min; Arnould, John P Y; Norman, Richard; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-05-01

    This study presents morphological and molecular data on hookworms from the Australian fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Schreber) currently identified in Australian waters as Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Additional specimens from the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Péron) and the New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri (Lesson) from Australia, and the Southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus) from Antarctica, were included. Using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hookworms from A. p. doriferus, N. cinerea and A. forsteri were found to be genetically similar but distinct from Uncinaria spp. found in M. leonina from Antarctica, as well as from Zalophus californianus (Lesson) and Callorhinus ursinus (Linnaeus) from California. Few morphological differences were detected between these taxa.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis on geographically distant parthenogenetic populations of Tityus trivittatus Kraepelin, 1898 (Scorpiones, Buthidae): karyotype, constitutive heterochromatin and rDNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro Ojanguren; Martí, Dardo Andrea; Mola, Liliana María

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tityus trivittatus Kraepelin, 1898 is the most medically important scorpion species of Argentina, and parthenogenetic populations are present in the major cities of this country. We performed a detailed cytogenetic analysis of specimens of three synanthropic parthenogenetic populations, all distant about 900 km from each other, using Ag-NOR, C-banding, DAPI/CMA3 staining and FISH with autologous 28S rDNA probes. The karyotype of females and embryos from the three populations showed 2n=6, with two large and four middle-sized holokinetic chromosomes. Constitutive heterochromatin was found in terminal and interstitial location and its pattern allowed the identification of three chromosome pairs. NORs were found on the terminal heterochromatic region of one pair of middle-sized chromosomes. The use of fluorochromes to characterize heterochromatin showed the absence of GC-rich heterochromatin and a low and variable number of AT-rich heterochromatic regions. We propose that a possible explanation for the lack of karyotypic variation between these geographically distant populations could be a recent colonization of urban areas by human means of synanthropic specimens from a single lineage of northeastern Argentina. PMID:25147621

  14. Molecular approaches for structural characterization of a new potassium channel blocker from Tityus stigmurus venom: cDNA cloning, homology modeling, dynamic simulations and docking.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego Dantas; Torres, Taffarel Melo; Barbosa, Euzébio Guimarães; Lima, João Paulo Matos Santos; de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus

    2013-01-04

    Potassium channels are involved in the maintenance of resting membrane potential, control of cardiac and neuronal excitability, neurotransmitters release, muscle contractility and hormone secretion. The Tityus stigmurus scorpion is widely distributed in Northeastern Brazil and known to cause severe human envenomations, inducing pain, hypoesthesia, edema, erythema, paresthesia, headaches and vomiting. Most potassium channel blocking peptides that have been purified from scorpion venoms contain 30-40 amino acids with three or four disulfide bridges. These peptides belong to α-KTx subfamily. On the other hand, the β-KTx subfamily is poorly characterized, though it is very representative in some scorpion venoms. A transcriptomic approach of T.stigmurus scorpions developed by our group revealed the repertoire of possible molecules present in the venom, including many toxins of the β-KTx subfamily. One of the ESTs found, named TSTI0003C has a cDNA sequence of 538 bp codifying a mature protein with 47 amino acid residues, corresponding to 5299 Da. This β-KTx peptide is a new member of the BmTXKβ-related toxins, and was here named TstKMK. The three-dimensional structure of this potassium channel toxin of the T. stigmurus scorpion was obtained by computational modeling and refined by molecular dynamic simulations. Furthermore, we have made docking simulations using a Shaker kV-1.2 potassium channel from rats as receptor model and proposed which amino acid residues and interactions could be involved in its blockade.

  15. Biochemical and physiological characterization of a new Na(+)-channel specific peptide from the venom of the Argentinean scorpion Tityus trivittatus.

    PubMed

    Coronas, Fredy I V; Diego-García, Elia; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; de Roodt, Adolfo R; Possani, Lourival D

    2015-06-01

    A new peptide with 61 amino acids cross-linked by 4 disulfide bridges, with molecular weight of 6938.12Da, and an amidated C-terminal amino acid residue was purified and characterized. The primary structure was obtained by direct Edman degradation and sequencing its gene. The peptide is lethal to mammals and was shown to be similar (95% identity) to toxin Ts1 (gamma toxin) from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus; it was named Tt1g (from T. trivittatus toxin 1 gamma-like). Tt1g was assayed on several sub-types of Na(+)-channels showing displacement of the currents to more negative voltages, being the hNav1.3 the most affected channel. This toxin displays characteristics typical to the β-type sodium scorpion toxins. Lethality tests and physiological assays indicate that this peptide is probably the most important toxic component of this species of scorpion, known for causing human fatalities in the South American continent.

  16. Revealing the Function and the Structural Model of Ts4: Insights into the “Non-Toxic” Toxin from Tityus serrulatus Venom

    PubMed Central

    Pucca, Manuela B.; Cerni, Felipe A.; Peigneur, Steve; Bordon, Karla C. F.; Tytgat, Jan; Arantes, Eliane C.

    2015-01-01

    The toxin, previously described as a “non-toxic” toxin, was isolated from the scorpion venom of Tityus serrulatus (Ts), responsible for the most severe and the highest number of accidents in Brazil. In this study, the subtype specificity and selectivity of Ts4 was investigated using six mammalian Nav channels (Nav1.2→Nav1.6 and Nav1.8) and two insect Nav channels (DmNav1 and BgNav). The electrophysiological assays showed that Ts4 specifically inhibited the fast inactivation of Nav1.6 channels, the most abundant sodium channel expressed in the adult central nervous system, and can no longer be classified as a “non-toxic peptide”. Based on the results, we could classify the Ts4 as a classical α-toxin. The Ts4 3D-structural model was built based on the solved X-ray Ts1 3D-structure, the major toxin from Ts venom with which it shares high sequence identity (65.57%). The Ts4 model revealed a flattened triangular shape constituted by three-stranded antiparallel β-sheet and one α-helix stabilized by four disulfide bonds. The absence of a Lys in the first amino acid residue of the N-terminal of Ts4 is probably the main responsible for its low toxicity. Other key amino acid residues important to the toxicity of α- and β-toxins are discussed here. PMID:26153865

  17. Evidence for a role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in the lung oedema induced by Tityus serrulatus venom in rats.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcus V M; Souza, Danielle G; de A Castro, Maria Salete; Cunha-Melo, José R; Teixeira, Mauro M

    2002-03-01

    In the most severe cases of human envenoming by Tityus serrulatus, pulmonary oedema is a frequent finding and can be the cause of death. We have previously demonstrated a role for neuropeptides acting on tachykinin NK(1) receptors in the development of lung oedema following i.v. injection of T. serrulatus venom (TsV) in experimental animals. The present work was designed to investigate whether capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons were a potential source of NK(1)-acting neuropeptides. To this end, sensory nerves were depleted of neuropeptides by neonatal treatment of rats with capsaicin. The effectiveness of this strategy at depleting sensory nerves was demonstrated by the inhibition of the neuropeptide-dependent response to intraplantar injection of formalin. Pulmonary oedema, as assessed by the levels of extravasation of Evans blue dye in the bronchoalveolar lavage and in the left lung, was markedly inhibited in capsaicin-treated animals. In contrast, capsaicin treatment failed to alter the increase in arterial blood pressure or the lethality following i.v. injection of TsV. Our results demonstrate an important role for capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in the cascade of events leading to lung injury following the i.v. administration of TsV.

  18. Another record of significant regional variation in toxicity of Tityus serrulatus venom in Brazil: a step towards understanding the possible role of sodium channel modulators.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fagner Neves; Mortari, Márcia Renata; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Guerrero-Vargas, Jimmy Alexander; Santos, Daniel M; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Schwartz, Elisabeth F

    2013-10-01

    The scorpion Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most severe accidents that have been registered in Brazil, mainly in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), being the lung edema (LE), the main cause of death in these accidents. Although an increased in the number of accidents caused to this species in Federal District (Distrito Federal - DF), it seems that this particular species is not responsible for severe scorpionism cases in this region. Given this observation, we tested the toxicity in mice and compared the ability of T. serrulatus venom from DF (Ts-DF) and Minas Gerais State (Ts-MG) to induce LE in rats. The LD50 of Ts-DF venom was 51.6 μg/mouse, almost twice (1.98) higher than that obtained for Ts-MG venom. The ability of venom (0.5 mg/kg) to induce LE in rats was determined by the wet weight differences between treated and untreated lungs, by pulmonary morphological analyses and by pulmonary vascular permeability (PVP) using the Evans blue protocol. Significant differences in the wet weight of lungs and changes in PVP were found in Ts-MG venom treated rats when compared to rats treated with Ts-DF venom or untreated rats (p < 0.001), but no differences occurred when comparing rats treated with Ts-DF venom and untreated rats (p < 0.05). These results were confirmed by evaluation of pulmonary morphology. Comparison of chromatographic profiles obtained from these venoms (Ts-DF and Ts-MG) using the fractal dimension (D) analysis and the molecular mass fingerprint of the chromatographic fractions showed a higher number of components between 35 and 40% acetonitrile in Ts-MG venom than in Ts-DF venom, indicating a higher diversity of sodium channel modulators in that venom.

  19. Antibacterial activity of six novel peptides from Tityus discrepans scorpion venom. A fluorescent probe study of microbial membrane Na+ permeability changes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Patricia; D'Suze, Gina; Salazar, Víctor; Sevcik, Carlos; Shannon, John D; Sherman, Nicholas E; Fox, Jay W

    2009-11-01

    Six novel peptides (named bactridines) were isolated from Tityus discrepans scorpion venom. From mass spectrometry molecular masses were 6916, 7362, 7226, 7011, 7101 and 7173 Da (bactridines 1-6). Bactridines 1 and 2 were sequenced by Edman degradation. The sequences and in silico analysis, indicated that they are positively charged polypeptides comprised of 61 and 64 amino acids (AA), respectively, bactridine 1 and bactridine 2 containing 4 disulfide bridges. Bactridine 1 was only toxic to cockroaches and crabs, and bactridine 2-6 were only toxic to mice. Bactridine 1 has a 78% sequence identity with ardiscretin. Ardisctretin is an insect specific sodium toxin which also produces a small depolarization and induces repetitive firing in squid axons resembling those of DDT [1,10(pchlorobenzyl) 2-trichloretane] in its ability to slow down action potential, to induce repetitive firing. Measured as the minimal inhibitory concentration, bactridines had high antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Complete bacterial growth inhibition occurred at concentrations from 20 to 80 microM depending on the bacteria and peptide tested. Effects on membrane Na(+) permeability induced by bactridines were observed on Yersinia enterocolitica loaded with 1 microM CoroNa Red. CoroNa Red fluorescence leakage from bacteria was observed after exposure to 0.3 microM of any bactridine tested, indicating that they modified Na(+) membrane permeability. This effect was blocked by 10 microM amiloride and by 25 microM mibefradil drugs that affect Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels respectively. We found no evidence of changes of K(+) or Ca(2+) concentrations neither inside nor outside the bacteria in experiments using the fluorescent dyes Fluo 4AM (10 microM) and PBFI (20 microM).

  20. Two peptides, TsAP-1 and TsAP-2, from the venom of the Brazilian yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus: evaluation of their antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Chengbang; Du, Qiang; Wei, Ran; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2013-09-01

    Here we report two novel 17-mer amidated linear peptides (TsAP-1 and TsAP-2) whose structures were deduced from cDNAs cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library of the Brazilian yellow scorpion, Tityus serrulatus. Both mature peptides were structurally-characterised following their location in chromatographic fractions of venom and synthetic replicates of each were subjected to a range of biological assays. The peptides were each active against model test micro-organisms but with different potencies. TsAP-1 was of low potency against all three test organisms (MICs 120-160 μM), whereas TsAP-2 was of high potency against the Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 5 μM) and the yeast, Candida albicans (10 μM). Haemolytic activity of TsAP-1 was low (4% at 160 μM) and in contrast, that of TsAP-2 was considerably higher (18% at 20 μM). Substitution of four neutral amino acid residues with Lys residues in each peptide had dramatic effects on their antimicrobial potencies and haemolytic activities, particularly those of TsAP-1. The MICs of the enhanced cationic analogue (TsAP-S1) were 2.5 μM for S. aureus/C. albicans and 5 μM for E. coli but with an associated large increase in haemolytic activity (30% at 5 μM). The same Lys residue substitutions in TsAP-2 produced a dramatic effect on its MIC for E. coli lowering this from >320 μM to 5 μM. TsAP-1 was ineffective against three of the five human cancer cell lines tested while TsAP-2 inhibited the growth of all five. Lys residue substitution of both peptides enhanced their potency against all five cell lines with TsAp-S2 being the most potent with IC50 values ranging between 0.83 and 2.0 μM. TsAP-1 and TsAP-2 are novel scorpion venom peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial and anticancer cell activities the potencies of which can be significantly enhanced by increasing their cationicity.

  1. Amino acid sequence of TsTX-V, an alpha-toxin from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom, and its effect on K+ permeability of beta-cells from isolated rat islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, S; Toyama, M H; Arantes, E C; Giglio, J R; da Silva, C A; Carneiro, E M; Gonçalves, A A; Oliveira, B

    1995-04-13

    Highly purified Tityustoxin V (TsTX-V), an alpha-toxin isolated from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus, was obtained by ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose-52. It was shown to be homogeneous by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, N-terminal sequencing (first 39 residues) of the reduced and alkylated protein and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate and tricine. Following enzymatic digestion, the complete amino acid sequence (64 residues) was determined. The sequence showed higher homology with the toxins from the venoms of the North African than with those of the North and South American scorpions. Using the rate of 86Rb+ release from depolarized rat pancreatic beta-cells as a measure of K+ permeability changes, TsTX-V (5.6 micrograms/ml) was found to increase by 2.0-2.4-fold the rate of marker outflow in the presence of 8.3 mM glucose. This effect was persistent and slowly reversible, showing similarity to that induced by 100 microM veratridine, an agent that increases the open period of Na+ channels, delaying their inactivation. It is suggested that, by extending the depolarized period, TsTX-V indirectly affects beta-cell voltage-dependent K+ channels, thus increasing K+ permeability.

  2. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  3. Brightness discrimination in the South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus).

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, C; Dehnhardt, G

    2013-05-24

    Underwater, the contrast between object and background is much larger reduced with increasing distance between object and observer than in air. For marine predators, such as pinnipeds, it would therefore be advantageous to possess a high sensitivity for brightness differences, since this would increase the distance at which prey can be detected visually. Few studies have examined the brightness discrimination thresholds of pinnipeds. Two studies with phocid seals have confirmed low brightness discrimination thresholds in pinnipeds whereas the threshold obtained for the South African fur seal seems to be twice as high as that of the phocids. However, the experiments with the South African fur seal have been conducted under inadequate conditions which likely resulted in an underestimation of the brightness discrimination ability of this species. The study at hand reinvestigated the brightness discrimination threshold of the South African fur seal under well controlled conditions. In a two alternative forced choice task, one fur seal was trained to indicate the position of the brighter of two gray discs presented on a black background on a monitor. The thresholds were determined for 11 standard intensities each tested against 8 lower comparison intensities. It was found that the fur seal was able to perceive brightness differences of 8-10%, which is better than the phocid species tested so far. For low standard intensities, however, the threshold increased which could to be due to a relative slow dark adaptation rate of the fur seal. The results are discussed in terms of the relevance of visual information for pinnipeds during foraging dives and are directly compared to the results obtained for the harbor seal which has been tested under the same conditions as the fur seal in a previous study.

  4. Gross and microscopic visceral anatomy of the male Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae), with reference to organ size and growth

    PubMed Central

    STEWARDSON, CAROLYN L.; HEMSLEY, SUSAN; MEYER, MIKE A.; CANFIELD, PAUL J.; MAINDONALD, JOHN H.

    1999-01-01

    The gross and microscopic anatomy of the Cape fur seal heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, intestine and kidneys (n = 31 seals) is described. Absolute and relative size of organs from 30 male seals are presented, with histological examination conducted on 7 animals. The relationship between log body weight, log organ weight and age was investigated using linear regression. Twenty five animals were of known age, while 6 were aged from counts of incremental lines observed in the dentine of tooth sections. For the range of ages represented in this study, body weight changes were accurately described by the exponential growth equation, weight = wort, with body weight increasing by 23% per annum until at least 9–10 y of age. Organ weight increased at a rate of between 25% and 33% per annum until at least 9–10 y of age, with the exception of the intestines, where exponential increase appeared to have ceased by about 7 y. The relationship between body weight and organ weight was investigated using logarithmic transformations of the allometric equation, y = axb, where the exponent b is 1 if organ weight is proportional to body weight. Most organs increased in proportion to the body. However, the heart, liver and spleen had exponents b > 1, suggesting that these organs increased at a faster rate than the body. The basic anatomical features of the viscera were similar to those of other pinnipeds, with some exceptions, including the arrangement of the multilobed lung and liver. Apart from the large liver and kidneys, relative size of the organs did not differ greatly from similar sized terrestrial carnivores. The histological features of the organs were generally consistent with those previously described for this species and other otariids. The heart, as in other pinnipeds, was unlike that of cetacea in not having unusually thick endocardium or prominent Purkinje cells. Notable histological features of the lungs included prominent fibrous septa, prominent smooth muscle bundles, cartilage extending to the level of the alveolar sacs and ample lymphoid tissue. The spleen had a thick capsule, well developed trabeculae and plentiful plasma cells. Abundant parietal cells were present in the fundic glands and lymphoid follicles were present in the gastric lamina propria, particularly in the pyloric region. Small intestinal villi were very long but this could have resulted from underlying chronic inflammation. Lymphoid follicles were prominent in the colon. The kidney reniculi each had a complete cortex, medulla and calyx, but a sportaperi medullaris musculosa was not identified. PMID:10529060

  5. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  6. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  7. Temporal Allocation of Foraging Effort in Female Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving) with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s) but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500–1600 m·h−1) and a reduction in postdive duration (111–90 s). This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs) or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (<2.9 d), effort remained steady at 55% of time diving, whereas, on long trips (>2.9 d) effort increased up to 2–3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips) between 4–5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability) working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species. PMID:24244511

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in the Australian fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus

    SciTech Connect

    Smillie, R.H.; Waid, J.S.

    1987-08-01

    Seals occupy a high trophic level in the marine ecosystem and have large reserves of subcutaneous fats. It is, therefore, not surprising that they accumulate high concentration of lipophilic substances such as organochlorine pesticides. Seal tissue concentration of pesticides are considered by some workers to be a good indication of local environmental loads. The Australian fur seals at Seal Rocks occupy a breading colony from which they can range into Bass Strait, Westernport Bay and Port Phillip Bay. It is, therefore, reasonable that results obtained for local seals should provide an indication of pesticides and PCBs in local squid and schooling fish. Previous results indicate that biota in Port Phillip Bay and Bass Strait, adjacent to the colony are exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. The authors have determined PCB and pesticide levels in local seals.

  9. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it.

  10. The endocrine pancreas of the Cape fur seal, Arctocephalus pusillus (Schreber, 1776): an immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, C P; Van Aswegen, G

    1997-09-01

    The indirect peroxidase method was employed to study the endocrine pancreas of the Cape fur seal. Immunoreactivity to insulin was confined to the cores of the islets and the insulin cells were more abundant than the other endocrine cell types, which occurred mainly in the mantles of the islets. Of these, glucagon cells were the most numerous, followed by somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells. The latter were observed in the mantles of the islets and scattered in the exocrine tissue of the duodenal lobe. The marked variation in the shape and the distribution of the endocrine cells in the mantles of the islets seen in the pancreas of the seal, seems to be typical of carnivorous species like the cat and dog.

  11. Terrestrial apnoeas and the development of cardiac control in Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) pups.

    PubMed

    Deacon, N L; Arnould, J P Y

    2009-04-01

    The development of cardiac control in association with terrestrial respiration patterns was examined throughout the period of maternal dependence in Australian fur seal pups. Resting eupnoic heart rate and respiration rate were significantly correlated (r (2) = 0.49) and both decreased with age (P < 0.05 in both cases). From an early age (1 month), pups displayed terrestrial apnoeas (18.1 +/- 0.5 s) accompanied by substantial bradycardia (127 beats min(-1), a 13% decrease from eupnoic HR). Terrestrial apnoea duration increased significantly with age reaching a mean of 41 s just prior to weaning, slightly lower than the mean dive duration (52 s) previously recorded for pups of the same age. Correspondingly, mean apnoic heart rate decreased with age to 74 beats min(-1) just prior to weaning, representing a 25% decrease on eupnoic heart rate. Importantly, concomitant with the decrease in mean apnoic heart rate with age, an increase in the control of bradycardia was evident with the variability in instantaneous apnoic heart decreasing such that older pups were able to maintain a low steady heart rate for the duration of the apnoea. The changes seen in these parameters are similar to those reported during postnatal development in elephant seals (Mirounga spp.) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), and are considered indicative of the development of cardiac control. These findings suggest a common strategy for the development of bradycardia control in both otariid and phocid seals.

  12. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  13. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  14. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  15. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  16. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  17. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  18. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  19. Spatio-temporal microhabitat use by two co-occurring species of scorpions in Atlantic rainforest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lira, André F A; Souza, Adriano M; Silva Filho, Arthur A C; Albuquerque, Cleide M R

    2013-06-01

    With the increasing devastation of the tropical rain forest, there is a critical need to understand how animal forest communities are structured and how habitat degradation will affect these communities. We conducted a field survey to investigate the microhabitat preferences of two co-occurring species of scorpions (Tityus pusillus and Ananteris mauryi) in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest, as well as their abundance and their ecological niche, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Behavioural aspects related to the use of the environment and the proportions of juveniles and adults are also described. The occurrence of intra- and interspecific coexistence was assessed by active search. In addition, pitfall catches were used to assess the structure of the population in the dry and rainy seasons. The differential patterns of spatial distribution in the litter layers provided evidence of partial niche partitioning between the two coexisting scorpion species depending on age and climatic conditions. Abundance, foraging behaviour and age structure (juveniles and adults) were seasonally influenced. We conclude that the diverse and subtle behaviours involved in interaction and habitat use may facilitate species coexistence. Resource partitioning and refuge sharing on a temporal and/or spatial scale, as well as predation pressure, may drive the dynamics and spatial distribution of scorpion species in the rain forest environment.

  20. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  1. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  2. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  3. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  4. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  5. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  6. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  7. Effect of acid secretion blockade on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Melo, Júnio Rios; de Araújo, Gnana Keith Marques; da Luz, Magda Maria Profeta; da Conceição, Sérgio Alexandre; Lisboa, Felipe Assis; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Cunha-Melo, José Renan

    2006-10-01

    Scorpion venom (TX) promotes gastric acid and pepsin secretion leading to acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), when injected in animals. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of acid gastric secretion blockers over the incidence of TX-induced AGML in vivo. To verify this model, we used male albino rats, fasted 18-20 h (n=122) and anaesthetized with urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p.). Their trachea and left femoral vein were both cannulated; the first to avoid airway obstructions during scorpion intoxication and the second for administration of saline, TX and acid blockers. Following the surgical procedure, the animals were divided in 10 groups of at least 10 animals each. Control groups were injected with NaCl 0.9% 1 ml/kg (n=10) or TX 375 microg/kg (n=32). Test groups (n=10, each) received atropine 5 mg/kg, cimetidine 10mg/kg, ranitidine 2.5mg/kg, ranitidine 5mg/kg, omeprazol 1 mg/kg, omeprazol 4 mg/kg, octreotide 80 and octreotide 100 microg/kg 10 min before the TX was injected. After 1h of intoxication, the stomach was resected for macroscopic study and the gastric secretion was collected for volume, pH and acid output assessment. We observed that all blockers were able to completely or partially prevent the TX-induced acid secretion as well as the AGML (p<0.05). Our data suggest the TX-induced AGML can be prevented by different class of acid blockers injected before the intoxication.

  8. Characterizing Tityus discrepans scorpion venom from a fractal perspective: Venom complexity, effects of captivity, sexual dimorphism, differences among species.

    PubMed

    D'Suze, Gina; Sandoval, Moisés; Sevcik, Carlos

    2015-12-15

    A characteristic of venom elution patterns, shared with many other complex systems, is that many their features cannot be properly described with statistical or euclidean concepts. The understanding of such systems became possible with Mandelbrot's fractal analysis. Venom elution patterns were produced using the reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with 1 mg of venom. One reason for the lack of quantitative analyses of the sources of venom variability is parametrizing the venom chromatograms' complexity. We quantize this complexity by means of an algorithm which estimates the contortedness (Q) of a waveform. Fractal analysis was used to compare venoms and to measure inter- and intra-specific venom variability. We studied variations in venom complexity derived from gender, seasonal and environmental factors, duration of captivity in the laboratory, technique used to milk venom.

  9. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  10. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  11. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  12. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  13. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  14. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  15. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  16. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  17. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  18. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  19. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  20. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  1. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  2. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  3. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  4. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  5. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  6. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  7. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  8. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  9. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  11. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  12. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  13. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  14. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  15. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  16. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  17. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  19. New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Francisco; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Córdova-Tabares, Víctor; Francke, Oscar F.; Piedra-Jiménez, Dulce; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Luna-Castro, Bibiano

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as ‘Tityus clathratus’ and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber. PMID:26244974

  20. New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Francisco; Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel; González-Santillán, Edmundo; Córdova-Tabares, Víctor; Francke, Oscar F; Piedra-Jiménez, Dulce; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio; Luna-Castro, Bibiano

    2015-01-01

    A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

  1. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  2. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  3. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  4. 21 CFR 173.150 - Milk-clotting enzymes, microbial.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; species, parasitica. (2) Bacillus cereus classified as follows: Class, Schizomycetes; order, Eubacteriales; family, Bacillaceae; genus, Bacillus; species, cereus (Frankland and Frankland). (3) Mucor pusillus...

  5. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  6. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  7. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  8. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  9. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  10. Location of 45S Ribosomal Genes in Mitotic and Meiotic Chromosomes of Buthid Scorpions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Viviane Fagundes; Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa; Cella, Doralice Maria; Schneider, Marielle Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Buthid scorpions exhibit a high variability in diploid number within genera and even within species. Cytogenetically, Buthidae differs from other families of Scorpiones based on its low diploid numbers, holocentric chromosomes, and complex chromosomal chains, which form during meiosis. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of the 45S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes in the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of seven buthid species belonging to the genera Rhopalurus and Tityus with the ultimate goal of elucidating the chromosome organization in these scorpions. The chromosome number ranged from 2n=6 to 2n=28. Despite the high variance in diploid number, all species examined carried their 45S rDNA sites in the terminal region of exactly two chromosomes. Analyses of meiotic cells revealed 45S rDNA clusters in the chromosomal chains of Rhopalurus agamemnon, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, and Tityus martinpaechi, or in bivalent-like configuration in Rhopalurus rochai, Tityus bahiensis, Tityus confluens, Tityus fasciolatus, and Tityus paraguayensis. In the species examined, the 45S rDNA sites colocalized with constitutive heterochromatin regions. In light of the high chromosome variability and maintenance of number and terminal position of 45S rDNA sites in buthids, the heterochromatin may act to conserve the integrity of the ribosomal genes.

  11. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  12. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  13. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  14. Structural model of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 and molecular docking of Tc1 toxin from Tityus cambridgei to KcsA and Kv1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Lin, Jin-Chung

    2003-11-01

    In this study, structural model of the pore loop region of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 was constructed based on the crystallographic structure of KcsA. Subsequently, molecular docking experiments of Tc1 towards KcsA as well as Kv1.1 were performed. Tc1 forms the most stable complexes with these two channels when the side chain of K14 occupies the first K + binding site. Tc1 binds preferentially towards Kv1.1 than KcsA due to the stronger electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, surface complementarity of the outer vestibules of the channel to the Tc1 spatial conformations also plays an important role in stabilizing these Tc1/channel complexes.

  15. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  16. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  17. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  18. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  19. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  20. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  1. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  2. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  3. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  4. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  5. Review of Hyperimerus (Pteromalidae: Asaphinae) in North America, with redescription of Hyperimerus corvus (Girault)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    North American species Hyperimerus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reviewed. Hyperimerus corvus Girault is redescribed, a lectotype designated, and the male is described for the first time. Hyperimerus pusillus (Walker) is also briefly redescribed and range extension is proposed. Notes on extralimit...

  6. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  7. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  8. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  9. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  10. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  12. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  13. Dated phylogenetic studies of the southernmost American buthids (Scorpiones; Buthidae).

    PubMed

    Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A; Adilardi, Renzo S; Mattoni, Camilo I; Ramírez, Martín J; Ceccarelli, F Sara

    2017-05-01

    A dated molecular phylogeny of the southernmost American species of the family Buthidae, based on two nuclear and two mitochondrial genes, is presented. Based on this study, analyzed species of the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are neither sister to the remaining species of the genus Tityus, nor are they closely related to the New World microbuthids with decreasing neobothriotaxy. Analyzed species of the subgenus Tityus do not form a monophyletic group. Based on ancestral area estimation analyses, known geoclimatic events of the region and comparisons to the diversification processes of other epigean groups from the area, a generalized hypothesis about the patterns of historical colonization processes of the family Buthidae in southern South America is presented. Furthermore, for the first time, a Paleogene-African ingression route for the colonization of America by the family Buthidae is proposed as a plausible hypothesis.

  14. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  15. Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Haiti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    puertoricensis P. humanus capitis Rhipicephalus sanguineus Pthirus pubis Bugs : Cimex hemipterus Scorpions: Tityus crassimanus C. lectularius Triatoma...DSN 850- 2271/3191 or commercial (614) 238-2271/3191. For personal protection equipment ( bed nets, head nets, etc.): contact the Defense Personnel

  16. Antigenic cross-reactivity between sixteen venoms from scorpions belonging to six genera.

    PubMed

    D'Suze, G; Moncada, S; González, C; Sevcik, C; Alagón, A

    2007-01-01

    Venoms of 15 scorpion species from Venezuela and one from Brazil were compared in their antigenic cross-reactivity with specific F(ab')2 against Tityus discrepans (Td-antibodies), using the method of King and collaborators (1). Our results show that Tityus venoms cross-reactivity (shared epitopes) with the venoms of other species within the genus tended to be less for a greater distance between the habitat of the species. A nonparametric linear regression of free Td-antibody binding to T. discrepans venom immobilized to a solid phase in the presence of other Tityus venoms versus distance showed binding = a + b x log10 (distance) where: median (95% confidence interval) for a = 0.92 (7.43, 9.80) and b = 17.20 (4.15, 22.57) binding/log10(Km); Spearman rS = 0.783 with associated P = 0.006. Our results show that toxins from different Tityus species, targeting mammalian Na+ and K+ channels, are antigenically very similar. Venoms from species from other genera such as Centruroides, Broteas, Diplocentrus, Chactas, and Rhopalurus did not cross-react with Td-antibodies.

  17. 78 FR 55287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... vireo (Vireo belli pusillus); take (survey by pursuit) the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas... requests an amendment to a permit to take (survey by pursuit) the Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas... checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino) and Delhi Sands flower-loving fly (Rhaphiomidas...

  18. Environmental Factors Influencing Blooms of a Neurotoxic Stigonematalan Cyanobacterium Responsible for Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara sp, Utricularia spp., Nymphaea odorata, Potamogeton spp, Bacopa caroliniana, Vallisneria americana, Nelumbo lutea). Using a...Nymphaea odorata * 18.33 0.00 40.01 Potamogeton illinoensis 18.64 9.98 27.30 Potamogeton pusillus 18.67 0.00 55.51 Bacopa caroliniana 19.00 11.14

  19. Decolorization of bleach plant effluent by mucoralean and white-rot fungi in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    PubMed

    Driessel, B V; Christov, L

    2001-01-01

    Bleach plant effluents from the pulp and paper industry generated during bleaching with chlorine-containing chemicals are highly colored and also partly toxic due to the presence of chloro-organics, hence the need for pretreatment prior to discharge. In a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor effluent decolorization was studied using Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot fungus and Rhizomucor pusillus strain RM7, a mucoralean fungus. Decolorization by both fungi was directly proportional to initial color intensities. It was found that the extent of decolorization was not adversely affected by color intensity, except at the lowest level tested. It was shown that decolorization of 53 to 73% could be attained using a hydraulic retention time of 23 h. With R. pusillus, 55% of AOX were removed compared to 40% by C. versicolor. Fungal treatment with both R. pusillus and C. versicolor rendered the effluent essentially nontoxic. Addition of glucose to decolorization media stimulated color removal by C. versicolor, but not with R. pusillus. Ligninolytic enzymes (manganese peroxidase and laccase) were only detected in effluent treated by C. versicolor. It seems that there are definite differences in the decoloring mechanisms between the white-rot fungus (adsorption + biodegradation) and the mucoralean fungus (adsorption). This aspect needs to be investigated in greater detail to verify the mode responsible for the decolorization activity in both types of fungi.

  20. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  1. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  2. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  3. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  4. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  5. Moving pieces in a taxonomic puzzle: venom 2D-LC/MS and data clustering analyses to infer phylogenetic relationships in some scorpions from the Buthidae family (Scorpiones).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Danielle G; Rates, Breno; Santos, Daniel M; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Dutra, Alexandre A A; Biondi, Ilka; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie France; De Lima, Maria Elena; Pimenta, Adriano M C

    2006-05-01

    The Buthidae is the most clinically important scorpion family, with over 500 species distributed worldwide. Taxonomical positions and phylogenetic relationships concerning the representative genera and species of this family have been mostly inferred based upon comparisons between morphological characters. Yet, some authors have performed such inferences by comparing some structural properties of a few selected molecules found in the venoms from these scorpions. Here, we propose a novel methodology pipeline designed to address these issues. We have analyzed the whole venoms from some species that exemplify peculiar cases in the Buthidae family (Tityus stigmurus, Tityus serrulatus, Tityus bahiensis, Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus and Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus), by means of a proteomic approach using a 2D-LC/MS technique. The molecules found in these venoms were clustered according to their physicochemical properties (molecular mass and hydrophobicity), by using the machine learning-based Weka software. The clusters assessment, along with the number of molecules found in a given cluster for each scorpion, which assigns for the venom and structural family complexities, respectively, was used to generate a phenetic correlation tree for positioning these species. Our results were in accordance with the classical taxonomy viewpoint, which places T. serrulatus and T. stigmurus as very close species, T. bahiensis as a less related species in the Tityus genus and L. q. quinquestriatus and L. q. hebraeus with small differences within the same species (L. quinquestriatus). Therefore, we believe that this is a well-suited method to determine venom complexities that reflect the scorpions' evolutionary history, which can be crucial to reconstruct their phylogeny through the molecular evolution of their venoms.

  6. New species and distribution records of selenopid spiders of the genus Hovops Benoit in Madagascar (Araneae, Selenopidae).

    PubMed

    Artigas, Sandra Mónica Rodriguez; Corronca, Jose Antonio

    2014-03-24

    Hovops Benoit is a heterogeneous genus of selenopid spiders that was prior to this study represented by seven species that are endemic to Madagascar. Here, we describe four new species: H. antakarana sp. n. (♀), H. ikongo sp. n. (♀), H. menabe sp. n. (♀), and H. vezo sp. n. (♀). A map of the new species is provided as well as new records on two of the known species H. pusillus (Simon, 1897) and H. legrasi (Simon, 1887).

  7. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  8. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  9. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  10. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  11. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  12. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  13. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  14. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  15. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  16. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  17. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  18. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  19. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  20. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  1. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  2. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  3. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  4. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  5. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  6. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  7. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  8. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  9. Molecular size of different neurotoxin receptors on the voltage-sensitive Na+ channel.

    PubMed

    Barhanin, J; Schmid, A; Lombet, A; Wheeler, K P; Lazdunski, M; Ellory, J C

    1983-01-25

    Measurements were made of the molecular sizes of two distinct receptors on the Na+ channel in rat brain synaptosomes that are specific for different neurotoxins. Radiation inactivation of the binding of radiolabeled derivatives of the toxins was consistent with Mr = 260,000 for the tetrodotoxin receptor and Mr = 266,000 for the receptor specific for two scorpion toxins, toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus and toxin gamma from Tityus serrulatus serrulatus. Covalent cross-linking of the latter to its receptor similarly indicated Mr = 270,000. It seems most likely that these two distinct receptors reside on the same molecule.

  10. Cardiac autonomic denervation and functional response to neurotoxins during acute experimental Chagas' disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A L; Fontoura, B F; Freire-Maia, L; Chiari, E; Machado, C R; Teixeira, M M; Camargos, E R

    2001-06-20

    Severe cardiac autonomic denervation occurs in the acute Chagas' disease in rats. The present study aims at verifying whether this denervation was accompanied by impairment of heart function. Scorpionic (Tityus serrulatus) crude venom was used for neurotransmitter release in isolated hearts (Langendorff's preparation). In control hearts, the venom induced significant bradycardia followed by tachycardia. In infected animals, despite the severe (sympathetic) or moderate (parasympathetic) cardiac denervation, the venom provoked similar bradycardia but the tachycardia was higher. The hearts of infected animals beat at significantly lower rate. Atropine prevented this lower rate. Our results demonstrated sympathetic dysfunction during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rats, the parasympathetic function being spared.

  11. Seasonal dynamics of ixodid ticks on wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus (Leporidae) from Central Spain.

    PubMed

    González, J; Valcárcel, F; Pérez-Sánchez, J L; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-11-01

    Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease and Myxomatosis caused a decline in the rabbit population in the second half of the last century. Despite some recovery, the risk of vector-borne disease is present and thus the importance of controlling vector populations. In the current study, we describe the ixodid tick fauna in wild rabbit in a natural reserve in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) during the course of two 3-year periods (2007-2009 and 2012-2014). Of all the ticks collected on average 72.5 % were larvae, 24.4 % nymphs and 3.1 % adults, although the percentage varied monthly. Seven tick species were identified: Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch (Parasitic indicator [PI] = number of ticks per examined rabbit = 96.47), Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado (PI = 47.37), Haemaphysalis hispanica Gil Collado (PI = 12.15), Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado (PI = 0.65), R. bursa Canestrini and Fanzago (PI = 0.18), R. sanguineus Latreille (PI = 0.11), Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer (PI = 0.01). In spring and summer, most abundant were larvae of H. lusitanicum, followed by immature stages of R. pusillus and Ha. hispanica. In autumn, the main tick species were nymphs of I. ventalloi whereas in winter adults of Ha. hispanica were more numerous. Rhipicephalus pusillus was present all year long, although not always in high percentage. PI of other species (R. bursa, R. sanguineus and D. marginatus) were too low to be representative. The seasonal dynamics of ticks on wild rabbit defined in this study could be useful to design species-specific control strategies.

  12. Sunrise nest attendance and aggression by least Bell's vireos fail to deter cowbird parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Bryan L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2004-01-01

    We video-recorded three, natural, brood-parasitism events by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) at nests of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus). All instances occurred near dawn, during both egg-laying and incubation stages of the nesting cycle. In each case, an adult vireo was on the nest when the female cowbird arrived. Both members of each parasitized pair vigorously attacked the intruding cowbird, but in no encounter did a pair of vireos successfully defend its nest from parasitism. Thus, Least Bell's Vireos in our study were unable to prevent a female cowbird from parasitizing their nests once the cowbird had reached the nest.

  13. New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin

    2014-02-25

    New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

  14. Frequent vocalizing is negatively associated with brood parasitism in a host of the brown-headed cowbird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steckler, Sonya E.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2012-01-01

    Brood parasitism by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) can substantially affect host species' reproductive success. The "host-activity" hypothesis suggests that parasites eavesdrop on conspicuous behaviors to locate and parasitize hosts, and several studies of cowbird hosts support this hypothesis. In contrast, a recent study of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) reported a negative association between the host's vocalization rate near the nest and brood parasitism. This contradictory pattern is intriguing because Bell's Vireo is a common cowbird host and vocalizes near and on its nests. We tested a key assumption of the host-activity hypothesis in a different subspecies (V. b. arizonae) to determine whether the contradictory pattern reported in V. b. pusillus is an anomaly or could be generalized to other subspecies. Unparasitized vireos vocalized more frequently than parasitized birds, confirming that the pattern in Bell's Vireos is the opposite of that reported for other cowbird hosts. Nesting stage played a role: unparasitized birds vocalized more than parasitized birds only during the nest-building and incubation stages. Given that vocalization rate and other behaviors change through the breeding season, future tests of the host-activity hypothesis should control for nesting stage. Moreover, future efforts to identify the underlying cause for the association between vocalization rate and probability of parasitism should consider the possibility of reciprocal causal relationships between them. We propose five additional hypotheses to explain why in Bell's Vireo the pattern between these two traits is opposite of what has been reported in other birds.

  15. Identification of Hybrids in Potamogeton: Incongruence between Plastid and ITS Regions Solved by a Novel Barcoding Marker PHYB

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Tian-lei; Guo, You-hao; Liu, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Potamogeton is one of the most difficult groups to clarify in aquatic plants, which has an extensive range of interspecific morphological and ecological diversity. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is prevalent for phylogenetic analysis in plants. However, most researches demonstrate that ITS has a high percentage of homoplasy in phylogenetic datasets. In this study, eighteen materials were collected in Potamogeton from China and incongruence was shown between the rbcL and ITS phylogenies. To solve the discrepancy, we employed a novel barcode PHYB to improve resolution and accuracy of the phylogenetic relationships. The PHYB phylogeny successfully resolved the incongruence between the rbcL and ITS phylogenies. In addition, six hybrids were confirmed using PHYB, including P. compressus × P. pusillus, P. octandrus × P. oxyphyllus, P. gramineus × P. lucens, P. distinctus × P. natans, P. distinctus × P. wrightii, and S. pectinata × S. amblyophylla. Whereas, only one hybrid was identified (P. compressus × P. pusillus) by ITS, indicating that ITS homoplasy was present in Potamogeton and ITS was completely homogenized to one parental lineage. Thus, ITS might have limited utility for phylogenetic relationships in Potamogeton. It is recommended that a three-locus combination of chloroplast DNA gene, ITS and PHYB is potential to effectively reveal more robust phylogenetic relationships and species identification. PMID:27855191

  16. An investigation of the genus Mesacanthus (Chordata: Acanthodii) from the Orcadian Basin and Midland Valley areas of Northern and Central Scotland using traditional morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Baron, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Mesacanthus is a common and speciose genus of acanthodian fish from Lower Old Red Sandstone and Middle Old Red Sandstone assemblages (representing the Lower Devonian and Middle Devonian respectively) and is well represented in many palaeoichthyology collections in the UK. Based upon descriptions given during the 19th century, specimens of the genus Mesacanthus from the Orcadian Basin and Midland Valley areas of Northern and Central Scotland have historically been referred to a number of different species; of these, the most frequently discussed in the literature are M. mitchelli, M. peachi and M. pusillus. In order to test the validity of these three species, traditional morphometric analyses were carried out on over 100 specimens of Mesacanthus, from both the Lower Devonian and the Middle Devonian, that cover the full range of known localities for these taxa in Northern and Central Scotland. Based upon morphological and morphometric comparisons, this investigation has found that at least two species of Mesacanthus are valid (M. mitchelli and M. pusillus) as specimens from the Lower Devonian and Middle Devonian have been shown to differ significantly in a number of important ways. However, no evidence has been found for the validity of the second and distinct Middle Devonian species, M. peachi.

  17. Developmental and Phylogenetic Characteristics of Stellantchasmus falcatus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Sripalwit, Pralongyut; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Chontananarth, Thapana; Anuntalabhochai, Somboon; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the infection status, worm development, and phylogenetic characteristics of the intestinal trematode, Stellantchasmus falcatus. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected only in the half-beak (Dermogenus pusillus) out of the 4 fish species examined. Their prevalence was 90.0%, and the intensity of infection was 919 metacercariae on average. Worms were recovered from 33 (97.1%) of 34 chicks that were experimentally infected with 200 S. falcatus metacercariae each, and the average recovery rate was 43.0%. The body size and inner organs of S. falcatus quickly increased in the experimental chicks over days 1-2 post-infection (PI). In addition, ITS2 sequence data of this parasite were analyzed to examine the phylogenetic relationships with other trematodes using the UPGMA method. The results indicated that the ITS2 sequence data recorded from trematodes in the family Heterophyidae appeared to be monophyletic. This study concluded that D. pusillus serves as a compatible second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Thailand and that S. falcatus can develop rapidly in the experimental chicks. Data collected from this study can help to close the gap in knowledge regarding the epidemiology, biology, and phylogenetic characteristics of S. falcatus in Thailand. PMID:25925179

  18. Characterization of thermophilic fungal community associated with pile fermentation of Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ruijuan; Fang, Wenjun; Yan, Liang; Lu, Jun; Sheng, Jun; Lv, Jie

    2016-06-16

    This study aimed to characterize the thermophilic fungi in pile-fermentation process of Pu-erh tea. Physicochemical analyses showed that the high temperature and low pH provided optimal conditions for propagation of fungi. A number of fungi, including Blastobotrys adeninivorans, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Rasamsonia emersonii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rasamsonia byssochlamydoides, Rasamsonia cylindrospora, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium graminearum were isolated as thermophilic fungi under combination of high temperature and acid culture conditions from Pu-erh tea pile-fermentation. The fungal communities were analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Results revealed that those fungi are closely related to Debaryomyces hansenii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, A. tubingensis, R. emersonii, R. pusillus, A. fumigatus and A. niger, and the last four presented as dominant species in the pile process. These four preponderant thermophilic fungi reached the order of magnitude of 10(7), 10(7), 10(7) and 10(6)copies/g dry tea, respectively, measured by real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The results indicate that the thermophilic fungi play an important role in Pu-erh tea pile fermentation.

  19. Mucormycosis Caused by Unusual Mucormycetes, Non-Rhizopus, -Mucor, and -Lichtheimia Species

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marisa Z. R.; Lewis, Russell E.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Rhizopus, Mucor, and Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia) species are the most common members of the order Mucorales that cause mucormycosis, accounting for 70 to 80% of all cases. In contrast, Cunninghamella, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Rhizomucor, Cokeromyces, Actinomucor, and Syncephalastrum species individually are responsible for fewer than 1 to 5% of reported cases of mucormycosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis of, treatment of, and prognosis for unusual Mucormycetes infections (non-Rhizopus, -Mucor, and -Lichtheimia species). The infections caused by these less frequent members of the order Mucorales frequently differ in their epidemiology, geographic distribution, and disease manifestations. Cunninghamella bertholletiae and Rhizomucor pusillus affect primarily immunocompromised hosts, mostly resulting from spore inhalation, causing pulmonary and disseminated infections with high mortality rates. R. pusillus infections are nosocomial or health care related in a large proportion of cases. While Apophysomyces elegans and Saksenaea vasiformis are occasionally responsible for infections in immunocompromised individuals, most cases are encountered in immunocompetent individuals as a result of trauma, leading to soft tissue infections with relatively low mortality rates. Increased knowledge of the epidemiology and clinical presentations of these unusual Mucormycetes infections may improve early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21482731

  20. Protease Production by Different Thermophilic Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchione, Mariana M.; Merheb, Carolina W.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    A comparative study was carried out to evaluate protease production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) by nine different thermophilic fungi — Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe, Thermomyces lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus flavus 1.2, Aspergillus sp. 13.33, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, Rhizomucor pusillus 13.36 and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37 — using substrates containing proteins to induce enzyme secretion. Soybean extract (soybean milk), soybean flour, milk powder, rice, and wheat bran were tested. The most satisfactory results were obtained when using wheat bran in SSF. The fungi that stood out in SSF were T. lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37, and those in SmF were T. aurantiacus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, and 13.37. In both fermentation systems, A. flavus 1.2 and R. pusillus 13.36 presented the lowest levels of proteolytic activity.

  1. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  2. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  3. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  4. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  5. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  6. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  7. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  8. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  9. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  10. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  11. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  12. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  13. Scorpion sting epidemiology in Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela: geographic distribution.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, L; Bonoli, S; Quiroga, M; Parrilla, P

    1996-01-01

    Scorpion stings were surveyed in the Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela, aiming to extend the information on these poisonous accidents by characterizing their geographic distribution. From 1980 to 1990, 184 cases of scorpion stings were recorded with an incidence rate of 38.6 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. The locality of San Fernando presented the highest incidence (68.3/1000) of poisonous accidents. The highest percentages of severe cases were recorded in the towns of Arenas (27%), San Lorenzo (21%), and Cocollar (19%), which are located at the foot of the Turimiquire Mountains. This region is a dispersion area of scorpions of the Tityus genus. Our results show that this region of the State of Sucre is endemic for scorpion stings which are an important public health problem.

  14. Scorpion poisoning in the Acosta and Caripe Counties of Monagas State, Venezuela. part 1: characterization of some epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    De Sousa L; Parrilla; Tillero; Valdiviezo; Ledezma; Jorquera; Quiroga

    1997-01-01

    Scorpion poisoning was surveyed in Acosta and Caripe counties, located in the Turimiquire subregion of Monagas State, Venezuela, aiming to expand information on stings by characterizing some epidemiological aspects. From 1987 to 1993, 298 cases of scorpion stings were recorded in Acosta and Caripe counties. Acosta had 212 cases, with an annual incidence rate of 18.3 (cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and a period median incidence rate of 128 . The scorpion poisoning index is 4.18 times greater in Acosta than in Caripe, confirming the former as a hyperendemic zone for this type of injury, with a phenomenon of cyclical temporal fluctuations and an upward trend. This area is infested with scorpions of the genus Tityus. Our results show that the region surveyed in Monagas State is endemic for scorpion stings, posing a major public health problem.

  15. Approaches to the treatment of scorpion envenoming.

    PubMed

    Freire-Maia, L; Campos, J A; Amaral, C F

    1994-09-01

    A total of 3866 patients stung by Tityus serrulatus scorpion was admitted to Hospital João XXIII, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, over a 16-year period (an average of 241 cases per year). Of these, 73% were adults and 27% were children aged less than 14 years. The moderate or benign cases were treated with symptomatic measures and/or i.v. antivenom, whereas 168 severely envenomed children were treated in the Intensive Care Unit. Lung oedema was unilateral in several cases, with the presence of air bronchograms and a peripheral distribution, suggesting that a noncardiogenic factor is also involved in the genesis of lung oedema. The treatment consisted of symptomatic measures, support of vital functions and i.v. antivenom. The mortality was 1% among children and 0.28% for the total number of patients.

  16. High chromosome variability and the presence of multivalent associations in buthid scorpions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Viviane Fagundes; Cella, Doralice Maria; Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa; Candido, Denise Maria; Schneider, Marielle Cristina

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of 11 Buthidae scorpion species, belonging to three genera (Ananteris, Rhopalurus and Tityus), to obtain detailed knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying the intraspecific and/or interspecific diversity of chromosome number and the origin of the complex chromosome associations observed during meiosis. The chromosomes of all species did not exhibit a localised centromere region and presented synaptic and achiasmatic behaviour during meiosis I. Spermatogonial and/or oogonial metaphase cells of these buthids showed diploid numbers range from 2n = 6 to 2n = 28. In most species, multivalent chromosome associations were observed in pachytene and postpachytene nuclei. Moreover, intraspecific variability associated with the presence or absence of chromosome chains and the number of chromosomes in the complex meiotic configurations was observed in some species of these three genera. Silver-impregnated cells revealed that the number and location of nucleolar organiser regions (NORs) remained unchanged despite extensive chromosome variation; notably, two NORs located on the terminal or subterminal chromosome regions were commonly observed for all species. C-banded and fluorochrome-stained cells showed that species with conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin exhibited the lowest rate of chromosomal rearrangement. Based on the investigation of mitotic and meiotic cells, we determined that the intraspecific variability occurred as a consequence of fission/fusion-type chromosomal rearrangements in Ananteris and Tityus species and reciprocal translocation in Rhopalurus species. Furthermore, we verified that individuals presenting the same diploid number differ in structural chromosome organisation, giving rise to intraspecific differences of chromosome association in meiotic cells (bivalent-like elements or chromosome chains).

  17. [Disseminated mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients: A disease that also exists].

    PubMed

    Pozo Laderas, Juan Carlos; Pontes Moreno, Antonio; Pozo Salido, Carmen; Robles Arista, Juan Carlos; Linares Sicilia, María José

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is usually an acute angioinvasive infections, which leads to non-suppurative necrosis and significant tissue damage. It represents 1.6% of all the invasive fungal infections and predominates in immunosuppressed patients with risk factors. Incidence has been significantly increased even in immunocompetent patients. Due to finding a case of disseminated mucormycosis caused by Rhizomucor pusillus in a young immunocompetent patient, a systematic review was carried out of reported cases in PubMed of mucormycosis in immunocompetent adults according to the main anatomic locations, and especially in disseminated cases. A review of the main risk factors and pathogenicity, clinical manifestations, techniques of early diagnosis, current treatment options, and prognosis is presented. Taxonomy and classification of the genus Mucor has also been reviewed.

  18. First record of interspecific breeding of Least Bell's Vireo and White-eyed Vireo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blundell, Melissa A.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    We provide the first known documentation of a male Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) breeding with a female White-eyed Vireo (V. griseus) and the first report of a White-eyed Vireo breeding in California at the San Luis Rey River, Oceanside, San Diego County. We discovered the pair building a nest on 12 May 2010. The female laid four eggs, and the pair successfully raised and fledged four nestlings. We collected DNA samples from each nestling and the female during the nestling stage and banded them with a numbered federal leg band for future identification. We obtained detailed nest measurements after fledging and monitored the territory for further nesting attempts. No additional nesting attempts were detected.

  19. Ecology of the mosquito larvae in urban environments of Cairo Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Sherif E; Kenawy, Mohamed A; Abdel-Rahman, Hashim A; Gad, Adel M; Hamed, Adel F

    2012-04-01

    Mosquitoes were surveyed over one year period in two localities in Cairo representing different levels of urban planning: El-Muqattam (planned) and Abu-Seir (unplanned). Culex pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pusillus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Anopheles multicolor were the collected species at both sites. Mosquitoes were more common in Abu-Seir than in El-Muqattam, with larvae of the filaria vector Cx. pipiens accounting for 81% and 52% of recorded individuals at these sites, respectively. Five types of the potential breeding habitats were detected of which, the cesspits (El-Muqattam) and drainage canals (Abu-Seir) were the most common while springs in El-Muqattam and drainage canals in Abu-Seir were the most productive types. Both Cx. pipiens and Cx. perexiguus bred year round with peaks of abundance coinciding with higher temperatures.

  20. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosa-Kazemi, SH; Vatandoost, H; Nikookar, H; Fathian, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs. Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007. Results: The collected species included: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province), Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22808369

  1. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the

  2. Release of developmental constraints on tetrad shape is confirmed in inaperturate pollen of Potamogeton

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Elaine Lopes Pereira; Bona, Cleusa; de Chiara Moço, Maria Cecília; Coan, Alessandra Ike

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Microsporogenesis in monocots is often characterized by successive cytokinesis with centrifugal cell plate formation. Pollen grains in monocots are predominantly monosulcate, but variation occurs, including the lack of apertures. The aperture pattern can be determined by microsporogenesis features such as the tetrad shape and the last sites of callose deposition among the microspores. Potamogeton belongs to the early divergent Potamogetonaceae and possesses inaperturate pollen, a type of pollen for which it has been suggested that there is a release of the constraint on tetrad shape. This study aimed to investigate the microsporogenesis and the ultrastructure of pollen wall in species of Potamogeton in order to better understand the relationship between microsporogenesis features and the inaperturate condition. Methods The microsporogenesis was investigated using both light and epifluorescence microscopy. The ultrastructure of the pollen grain was studied using transmission electron microscopy. Key Results The cytokinesis is successive and formation of the intersporal callose wall is achieved by centrifugal cell plates, as a one-step process. The microspore tetrads were tetragonal, decussate, T-shaped and linear, except in P. pusillus, which showed less variation. This species also showed a callose ring in the microsporocyte, and some rhomboidal tetrads. In the mature pollen, the thickening observed in a broad area of the intine was here interpreted as an artefact. Conclusions The data support the view that there is a correlation between the inaperturate pollen production and the release of constraint on tetrad shape. However, in P. pusillus the tetrad shape may be constrained by a callose ring. It is also suggested that the lack of apertures in the pollen of Potamogeton may be due to the lack of specific sites on which callose deposition is completed. Moreover, inaperturate pollen of Potamogeton would be better classified as omniaperturate

  3. Physiological properties of the gut lumen of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea): adaptive to digesting lignocellulose?

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Martin; Brune, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Since any given trait of an organism is considered to represent either an adaptation to the environment or a phylogenetic constraint, most physiological gut characteristics should be adaptive in terms of optimizing digestion and utilization of the respective food source. Among the Crustacea, the taxon Oniscidea (Isopoda) is the only suborder that includes, and essentially consists of, species inhabiting terrestrial environments, feeding on food sources different from those of most other Crustacea (i.e., terrestrial leaf litter). Microelectrodes were used to assay physiological characteristics of the gut lumen from representatives of four families of terrestrial isopods: Trichoniscus pusillus (Trichoniscidae), Oniscus asellus (Oniscidae), Porcellio scaber (Porcellionidae), and Trachelipus rathkii (Trachelipodidae). Microsensor measurements of oxygen pressure (Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes) revealed that O2-consuming processes inside the gut lumen created steep radial oxygen gradients. Although all guts were oxic in the periphery, the radial center of the posterior hindgut was micro-oxic or even anoxic in the adults of the larger species. The entire gut lumen of all examined species was strongly oxidizing (Pt microelectrodes; apparent redox potential, Eh: +600-700 mV). Such conditions would allow for the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, with both oxidative and fermentative activities contributing to digestion. Although bacterial O2 consumption was also observed in the midgut glands (hepatopancreas), they remained entirely oxic, probably owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio and high oxygen fluxes across the hepatopancreatic epithelium into the gland lumen. Measurements with pH microelectrodes (LIX-type) showed a slight pH gradient from acidic conditions in the anterior hindgut to neutral conditions in the posterior hindgut of O. asellus, P. scaber and T. rathkii. By contrast, the pH in the hindgut lumen of T. pusillus was almost

  4. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  5. First Detection of TR46/Y121F/T289A and TR34/L98H Alterations in Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Azole-Naive Patients in Denmark despite Negative Findings in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Astvad, K. M. T.; Jensen, R. H.; Hassan, T. M.; Mathiasen, E. G.; Thomsen, G. M.; Pedersen, U. G.; Christensen, M.; Hilberg, O.

    2014-01-01

    Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus harboring the TR34/L98H or TR46/Y121F/T289A alterations is increasingly found in Europe and Asia. Here, we present the first clinical cases of TR46/Y121/T289A and three cases of TR34/L98H outside the cystic fibrosis (CF) population in Denmark and the results of environmental surveys. Four patients (2012 to 2014) with 11 A. fumigatus and 4 Rhizomucor pusillus isolates and 239 soil samples (spring 2010 and autumn 2013, respectively) with a total of 113 A. fumigatus isolates were examined. Aspergillus isolates were screened for azole resistance using azole-containing agar. Confirmatory susceptibility testing was done using the EUCAST microbroth dilution EDEF 9.1 reference method. For relevant A. fumigatus isolates, CYP51A sequencing and microsatellite genotyping were performed. Three patients harbored TR34/L98H isolates. Two were azole naive at the time of acquisition and two were coinfected with wild-type A. fumigatus or R. pusillus isolates, complicating and delaying diagnosis. The TR46/Y121F/T289A strain was isolated in 2014 from a lung transplant patient. Genotyping indicated that susceptible and resistant Aspergillus isolates were unrelated and that no transmission between patients occurred. Azole resistance was not detected in any of the 113 soil isolates. TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A alterations appear to be emerging in the clinical setting in Denmark and now involve azole-naive patients. Two recent soil-sampling surveys in Denmark were unable to indicate any increased prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus in the environment. These findings further support the demand for real-time susceptibility testing of all clinically relevant isolates and for studies investigating the seasonal variation and ecological niches for azole-resistant environmental A. fumigatus. PMID:24936595

  6. Comparative phylogeography of African fruit bats (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) provide new insights into the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, 2014-2016.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Nesi, Nicolas; Marin, Julie; Kadjo, Blaise; Pourrut, Xavier; Leroy, Éric; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Musaba Akawa, Prescott; Ngoagouni, Carine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Ruedi, Manuel; Tshikung, Didier; Pongombo Shongo, Célestin; Bonillo, Céline

    Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae. Our phylogenetic results confirm the existence of four independent lineages of African fruit bats: the genera Eidolon and Rousettus, and the tribes Epomophorini and Scotonycterini, and indicate that the three species suspected to represent ZEBOV reservoir hosts (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, and Myonycteris torquata) belong to an African clade that diversified rapidly around 8-7 Mya. To test for phylogeographic structure and for recent gene flow from Central to West Africa, we analysed the nucleotide variation of 675 cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences, representing eight fruit bat species collected in 48 geographic localities. Within Epomophorina, our mitochondrial data do not support the monophyly of two genera (Epomops and Epomophorus) and four species (Epomophorus gambianus, Epomops franqueti, Epomops buettikoferi, and Micropteropus pusillus). In Epomops, however, we found two geographic haplogroups corresponding to the Congo Basin and Upper Guinea forests, respectively. By contrast, we found no genetic differentiation between Central and West African populations for all species known to make seasonal movements, Eidolon helvum, E. gambianus, H. monstrosus, M. pusillus, Nanonycteris veldkampii, and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our results suggest that only three fruit bat species were able to disperse directly ZEBOV from the Congo Basin to Upper Guinea: E. helvum, H. monstrosus, and R. aegyptiacus.

  7. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  8. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  9. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  10. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  11. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  12. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  13. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  14. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  15. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  16. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  17. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  18. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  19. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  20. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  1. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  2. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  3. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  4. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  5. Modeling of spatial distribution for scorpions of medical importance in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brites-Neto, José; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this work, we aimed to develop maps of modeling geographic distribution correlating to environmental suitability for the two species of scorpions of medical importance at São Paulo State and to develop spatial configuration parameters for epidemiological surveillance of these species of venomous animals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 54 georeferenced points for Tityus serrulatus and 86 points for Tityus bahiensis and eight environmental indicators, were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions) version 3.3.3k using 70% of data for training (n=38 to T. serrulatus and n=60 to T. bahiensis) and 30% to test the models (n=16 for T. serrulatus and n=26 for T. bahiensis). The logistic threshold used to cut models in converting the continuous probability model into a binary model was the “maximum test sensitivity plus specificity,” provided by Maxent, with results of 0.4143 to T. serrulatus and of 0.3401 to T. bahiensis. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC), using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution maps were produced using the “ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop” software. Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC=0.7698±0.0533, omission error=0.2467 and p<0.001 for T. serrulatus and AUC=0.8205±0.0390, omission error=0.1917 and p<0.001 for T. bahiensis) and the resultant maps showed a high environmental suitability in the north, central, and southeast of the state, confirming the increasing spread of these species. The environmental variables that mostly contributed to the scorpions species distribution model were rain precipitation (28.9%) and tree cover (28.2%) for the T. serrulatus and temperature (45.8%) and thermal amplitude (12.6%) for the T. bahiensis. Conclusion: The distribution model of these species of medical importance scorpions in São Paulo State revealed a higher

  6. [Distribution of findings of scorpions in Buenos Aires city in the period 2001-2012 and their sanitary implications].

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Lanari, Laura C; Scarlato, Eduardo; Damin, Carlos; de Titto, Ernesto H; de Roodt, Adolfo R

    2016-02-01

    Scorpion stings and their associated mortality increased in the last years in Argentina, with a cumulative record of 73,617 cases and 30 deaths during the period 2001-2012, occurring almost all the deaths in pediatric patients. However, deaths due to severe envenoming by scorpion stings have not been recorded in Buenos Aires city and suburban regions, although the presence of scorpions in this city has been increasingly reported. We studied the temporal and geographical distribution of Tityus trivittatus findings in Buenos Aires city from the database of the Research and Development Area from the National Institute for Production of Biologics of the National Ministry of Health during the period 10/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 in order to correlate these findings with the distribution of health centers in the city. In this period 385 consults with identification of scorpions were recorded. Annual records showed a growing trend. Georeferenced data showed that findings appeared to increase in the surroundings of metro and train stations, mainly at the east of the city with expansion to the west. Although Toxicology services are geographically related to the zones with higher density of finding of scorpions, the accessibility to the centers with antivenom may hinder its application in the recommended time; some measures to avoid possible delays in the application of the treatment are suggested.

  7. Molecular docking of the scorpion toxin Tc1 to the structural model of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 from human Homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsuan-Liang; Lin, Jin-Chung

    2004-04-01

    In this study, structural model of the pore loop region of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 from human Homo sapiens was constructed based on the crystallographic structure of KcsA by structural homology. The pore loop region of Kv1.1 exhibits similar folds as that of KcsA. The structural feature of the selectivity filter of Kv1.1 is nearly identical to that of KcsA, whereas most of the structural variations occur in the turret as well as in the inner and outer helices. Molecular docking experiments of the scorpion toxin Tc1 from Tityus cambridgei to the outer vestibule of KcsA as well as Kv1.1 were subsequently performed with various initial Tc1 orientations. Tc1 was found to form the most stable complexes with these two K+ channels when the side chain of Lys14 occupies the pore of the selectivity filter through electrostatic interaction. Tc1 binds preferentially towards Kv1.1 than KcsA due to stronger hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions formed between the toxin and the selectivity filter and outer vestibule of Kv1.1. Furthermore, surface complementarity of the outer vestibules of the channels to the Tc1 spatial conformations also plays an important role in stabilizing both the Tc1/KcsA and Tc1/Kv1.1 complexes.

  8. Opposing roles of LTB4 and PGE2 in regulating the inflammasome-dependent scorpion venom-induced mortality

    PubMed Central

    Zoccal, Karina F.; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Hori, Juliana I.; Paula-Silva, Francisco W. G.; Arantes, Eliane C.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.

    2016-01-01

    Tityus serrulatus sting causes thousands of deaths annually worldwide. T. serrulatus-envenomed victims exhibit local or systemic reaction that culminates in pulmonary oedema, potentially leading to death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T. serrulatus venom (TsV) activity remain unknown. Here we show that TsV triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation via K+ efflux. Mechanistically, TsV triggers lung-resident cells to release PGE2, which induces IL-1β production via E prostanoid receptor 2/4-cAMP-PKA-NFκB-dependent mechanisms. IL-1β/IL-1R actions account for oedema and neutrophil recruitment to the lungs, leading to TsV-induced mortality. Inflammasome activation triggers LTB4 production and further PGE2 via IL-1β/IL-1R signalling. Activation of LTB4-BLT1/2 pathway decreases cAMP generation, controlling TsV-induced inflammation. Exogenous administration confirms LTB4 anti-inflammatory activity and abrogates TsV-induced mortality. These results suggest that the balance between LTB4 and PGE2 determines the amount of IL-1β inflammasome-dependent release and the outcome of envenomation. We suggest COX1/2 inhibition as an effective therapeutic intervention for scorpion envenomation. PMID:26907476

  9. Structural and Functional Elucidation of Peptide Ts11 Shows Evidence of a Novel Subfamily of Scorpion Venom Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Cremonez, Caroline M.; Maiti, Mohitosh; Peigneur, Steve; Cassoli, Juliana Silva; Dutra, Alexandre A. A.; Waelkens, Etienne; Lescrinier, Eveline; Herdewijn, Piet; de Lima, Maria Elena; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Arantes, Eliane C.; Tytgat, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To date, several families of peptide toxins specifically interacting with ion channels in scorpion venom have been described. One of these families comprise peptide toxins (called KTxs), known to modulate potassium channels. Thus far, 202 KTxs have been reported, belonging to several subfamilies of KTxs (called α, β, γ, κ, δ, and λ-KTxs). Here we report on a previously described orphan toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom, named Ts11. We carried out an in-depth structure-function analysis combining 3D structure elucidation of Ts11 and electrophysiological characterization of the toxin. The Ts11 structure is highlighted by an Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) type scaffold, completely devoid of the classical secondary structure elements (α-helix and/or β-strand). This has, to the best of our knowledge, never been described before for scorpion toxins and therefore represents a novel, 6th type of structural fold for these scorpion peptides. On the basis of their preferred interaction with voltage-gated K channels, as compared to all the other targets tested, it can be postulated that Ts11 is the first member of a new subfamily, designated as ε-KTx. PMID:27706049

  10. Lung compliance, plasma electrolyte levels and acid-base balance are affected by scorpion envenomation in anesthetized rats under mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Marcus V; Caramez, Maria Paula R; Abreu, Elnara Marcia N N; Dolnikoff, Marisa; Omar, Erick D; Velasco, Irineu T; Cunha-Melo, José R

    2004-05-01

    To determine the effects of Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin on lung compliance and resistance, ionic equilibrium and acid-base balance over time in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rats, we measured air flow, tracheal and esophageal pressure. Lung volume was obtained by electronic integration of airflow signal. Arterial blood samples were collected through a catheter at baseline (before) and 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after scorpion toxin injection for arterial blood gases, bicarbonate, and alkali reserve levels as well as for, sodium, potassium, magnesium, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, and osmolality analysis. Injection of the gamma fraction of the T. serrulatus scorpion venom in rats under mechanical ventilatory support leads to a continuous decrease in lung compliance secondary to pulmonary edema, but no change in airway resistance. The changes in arterial blood gases characterizing metabolic acidosis were accompanied by an increase in arterial lactate and glucose values, suggesting a scorpion toxin-induced lactic acidosis, in association with poor tissue perfusion (hypotension and low cardiac output). Moreover, scorpion toxin injection resulted in hyperosmolality, hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia and an increase in hematocrit. The experiments have shown a clinically relevant animal model to study severe scorpion envenoming and may help to better understand the scorpion envenoming syndrome.

  11. Monoclonal immunotoxin acting on the Na/sup +/ channel, with properties similar to those of a scorpion toxin

    SciTech Connect

    Barhanin, J.; Meiri, H.; Romey, G.; Pauron, D.; Lazdunski, M.

    1985-03-01

    The authors describe the properties of a monoclonal antibody against the Na/sup +/ channel. The antibody, 72.38, competitively inhibited the binding of an /sup 125/I-labeled toxin from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus (/sup 125/I-TiTX..gamma..) to Na/sup +/ channels of rat brain membranes. The inhibition of /sup 125/I-TiTX..gamma.. binding also was observed with the solubilized Na/sup +/ channel from rat brain membranes. Antibody 72.38 antagonized /sup 125/I-TiTX..gamma.. binding to Na/sup +/ channels from different animal species (fish, avian, and mammalian) and from different tissues (electroplax, brain, heart, and muscle). Moreover, 72.38 has been used for immunofluorescence labeling of Na/sup +/ channels in rat sciatic nodes of Ranvier and cultured dorsal root ganglion cells. Electrophysiological experiments on rat muscle cells fully confirmed the similarity between TiTX..gamma.. and 72.38 seen in binding experiments. TiTX..gamma.. and 72.38 are without effect on the ion selectivity of the Na/sup +/ channel, but they both drastically change the voltage-dependence of activation and inactivation of the Na/sup +/ channel.

  12. [Toxicological and immunological aspects of scorpion venom (Tytius pachyurus): neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Barona, Jacqueline; Otero, Rafael; Núñez, Vitelbina

    2004-03-01

    The toxicity and immunochemical properties of Tityus pachyurus Pocock scorpion venom was characterized, as well as the neutralization capacity against it by three anti-scorpion antivenoms (Alacramyn, Instituto Bioclón, México; Suero antiescorpiónico, Instituto Butantán, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Suero antiescorpiónico, Centro de Biotecnología, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela). The venom yield, obtained by manual milking, 680+/-20 microg venom, a 50% lethal dose in mice was 4.8 microg/kg (90 microg for an 18-20 g mouse). The most common symptoms of venom poisoning in mice were sialorrhea, respiratory distress, profuse sweating, ataxia, behavior alterations (restlessness, somnolence) and hyperglycemia at 3 and 24 hours after subcutaneous venom injection (0.5 LD50). The neutralizing capacity of Bioclón (México City) and Butantán (Sao Paulo) antivenoms (for a 50% effective dose) was 330 and 292 microg venom/ml antivenom, respectively. The Biotecnología (Caracas) antivenom did not neutralize the lethal effect of venom. By electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was demonstrated that the venom contains proteins from less than 14 kd to 97 kd. The Western blots indicated immunological reactivity of the three antivenoms with most of venom components, including proteins of low molecular mass (<14 kd). The results allow to conclude that T. pachyurus venom is neutralized efficiently by anti-scorpion antivenoms produced in México and Brasil.

  13. Conformational flexibility of a scorpion toxin active on mammals and insects: a circular dichroism study.

    PubMed

    Loret, E P; Sampieri, F; Roussel, A; Granier, C; Rochat, H

    1990-01-01

    Three scorpion toxins have been analyzed by circular dichroism in water and in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) solutions. These toxins were chosen because they are representative of three kinds of pharmacological activities: (1) toxin AaH IT2, an antiinsect toxin purified from the venom of Androctonus australis Hector, which is able to bind to insect nervous system preparation, (2) toxin Css II, from the venom of Centruroides suffusus suffusus, which is a beta-type antimammal toxin capable of binding to mammal nervous system preparation, and (3) the toxin Ts VII from the venom of Tityus serrulatus, which is able to bind to both types of nervous systems. In order to minimize bias, CD data were analyzed by a predictive algorithm to assess secondary structure content. Among the three molecules, Ts VII presented the most unordered secondary structure in water, but it gained in ordered forms when solubilized in TFE. These results indicated that the Ts VII backbone is the most flexible, which might result in a more pronounced tendency for this toxin molecule to undergo conformational changes. This is consistent with the fact that it competes with both antiinsect and beta-type antimammal toxins for the binding to the sodium channel.

  14. New Tricks of an Old Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Saucedo, Alma Leticia; Flores-Solis, David; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; Ramírez-Cordero, Belén; Hernández-López, Rogelio; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Navarro, Roxana Noriega; García-Valdés, Jesús; Coronas-Valderrama, Fredy; de Roodt, Adolfo; Brieba, Luis G.; Possani, Lourival Domingos; del Río-Portilla, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion venoms are a rich source of K+ channel-blocking peptides. For the most part, they are structurally related small disulfide-rich proteins containing a conserved pattern of six cysteines that is assumed to dictate their common three-dimensional folding. In the conventional pattern, two disulfide bridges connect an α-helical segment to the C-terminal strand of a double- or triple-stranded β-sheet, conforming a cystine-stabilized α/β scaffold (CSα/β). Here we show that two K+ channel-blocking peptides from Tityus scorpions conserve the cysteine spacing of common scorpion venom peptides but display an unconventional disulfide pattern, accompanied by a complete rearrangement of the secondary structure topology into a CS helix-loop-helix fold. Sequence and structural comparisons of the peptides adopting this novel fold suggest that it would be a new elaboration of the widespread CSα/β scaffold, thus revealing an unexpected structural versatility of these small disulfide-rich proteins. Acknowledgment of such versatility is important to understand how venom structural complexity emerged on a limited number of molecular scaffolds. PMID:22238341

  15. Organization and behavior of the synaptonemal complex during achiasmatic meiosis of four buthid scorpions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marielle C; Mattos, Viviane F; Carvalho, Leonardo S; Cella, Doralice M

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cells of 4 buthid scorpions, Rhopalurus agamemnon (2n = 28), R. rochai (2n = 28), Tityus bahiensis (2n = 6), and T. fasciolatus (2n = 14), which show different types of chromosomal configurations in meiosis I, were subjected to cellular microspreading in order to (1) obtain knowledge about the organization and behavior of the synaptonemal complex (SC), and (2) acquire data about the mechanisms responsible for inter- and intraindividual chromosomal variation within Buthidae. Ultrastructural analysis of microspread nuclei revealed SCs with a well-preserved structure until late substages of prophase I, but did not detect kinetochore plates and recombination nodules. Pachytene cells of R. agamemnon, R. rochai and T. bahiensis exhibited single and unsynapsed axes continuous with totally synapsed SCs, indicating the occurrence of heterozygous chromosomal rearrangements. Although chromosome chains were not observed in T. fasciolatus, the presence of gaps and interlocks points out that this species also carries heterozygous rearrangements, involving a small chromosome segment. Especially in R. rochai, the cellular microspreading analysis was useful to clarify the origin of inter- and intraindividual variation in the number of bivalent-like elements and in the number of chromosomes involved in multivalent associations. It was found that more chromosomes were involved in rearrangements than previously established through investigations using light microscopy alone.

  16. A checklist of the scorpions of Ecuador (Arachnida: Scorpiones), with notes on the distribution and medical significance of some species.

    PubMed

    Brito, Gabriel; Borges, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Ecuador harbors one of the most diverse Neotropical scorpion faunas, hereby updated to 47 species contained within eight genera and five families, which inhabits the "Costa" (n = 17), "Sierra" (n = 34), "Oriente" (n = 16) and "Insular" (n = 2) biogeographical regions, corresponding to the western coastal, Andean, Amazonian, and the Galápagos archipelago regions, respectively. The genus Tityus Koch, in the family Buthidae, responsible for severe/fatal accidents elsewhere in northern South America and the Amazonia, is represented in Ecuador by 16 species, including T. asthenes, which has caused fatalities in Colombia and Panama, and now in the Ecuadorian provinces of Morona Santiago and Sucumbíos. Underestimation of the medical significance of scorpion envenoming in Ecuador arises from the fact that Centruroides margaritatus (Gervais) (family Buthidae) and Teuthraustes atramentarius Simon (family Chactidae), whose venoms show low toxicity towards vertebrates, frequently envenom humans in the highly populated Guayas and Pichincha provinces. This work also updates the local scorpion faunal endemicity (74.5 %) and its geographical distribution, and reviews available medical/biochemical information on each species in the light of the increasing problem of scorpionism in the country. A proposal is hereby put forward to classify the Ecuadorian scorpions based on their potential medical importance.

  17. General biochemical and immunological characteristics of the venom from Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus.

    PubMed

    Costal-Oliveira, F; Duarte, C G; Machado de Avila, R A; Melo, M M; Bordon, K C F; Arantes, E C; Paredes, N C; Tintaya, B; Bonilla, C; Bonilla, R E; Suarez, W S; Yarleque, A; Fernandez, J M; Kalapothakis, E; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    This communication describes the general biochemical properties and some immunological characteristics of the venom from the Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus, which is the most medically relevant species in Peru. The soluble venom of this scorpion is toxic to mice, the LD₅₀ determined was 0.1 mg/kg and 21.55 mg/kg when the venom was injected intracranial or intraperitoneally, respectively. The soluble venom displayed proteolytic, hyaluronidasic, phospholipasic and cardiotoxic activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom resulted in the separation of 20 fractions. Two peptides with phospholipasic activity were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF). Anti-H. lunatus venom sera were produced in rabbits. Western blotting analysis showed that most of the protein content of this venom is immunogenic. H. lunatus anti-venom displayed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from the new World-scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Centruroides sculpturatus venoms; however, a weaker reactivity was observed against the venom antigens from the old World-scorpion Androctonus australis Hector.

  18. New Coleoptera records for New Brunswick, Canada: Kateretidae, Nitidulidae, Cerylonidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, and Latridiidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report 20 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna in New Brunswick, Canada, five of which are new records for the Maritime provinces, including one species that is new for Canada. One species of Kateretidae, Kateretes pusillus (Thunberg) is newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Stelidota octomaculata (Say), Phenolia grossa (Fabricius), andCryptarcha strigatula Parsons of the family Nitidulidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick; the latter species is new to the Maritime provinces. Two species of Cerylonidae, Philothermus glabriculus LeConte and Cerylon unicolor (Ziegler), are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Philothermus glabriculus is new for the Maritime provinces. Two species of Endomychidae, Hadromychus chandleri Bousquet and Leschen and Danae testacea (Ziegler) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Three species of Coccinelidae, Stethorus punctum punctum (LeConte), Naemia seriata seriata Melsheimer, and Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) are added to the provincial list. Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) is a species new to the Maritime provinces. Nine species of Latridiidae, Cartodere nodifer (Westwood), Dienerella ruficollis (Marsham), Enicmus aterrimus Motschulsky, Enicmus fictus Fall, Encimus histrio Jay and Tomlin, Lathridius minutus (Linnaeus), Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer, Corticaria elongata (Gyllenhal), and Corticarina longipennis (LeConte) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Stephostehus productus is newly recorded from Canada. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species. PMID:22539894

  19. Natural trace element enrichment in fishes from a volcanic and tectonically active region (Azores archipelago)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Caetano, Miguel; Giacomello, Eva; Anes, Bárbara; Menezes, Gui M.

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts, in general, are thought to support high biodiversity and special biological communities. They have been targeted by commercial fishing for demersal and pelagic fish species due to the occurrence of large aggregations in mid- and deep-water. Specimens of Phycis phycis, Helicolenus dactylopterus, Pontinus kuhlii, Beryx splendens, Beryx decadactylus, Etmopterus pusillus, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Deania profundorum, Scomber colias and Trachurus picturatus were collected at the Condor seamount and on the slopes of Faial and Pico islands of Azores archipelago. Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb were determined in muscle and liver of each individual. Values of the 11 trace elements in the two tissues of the benthopelagic and benthic specimens, from the two surveyed areas, presented a significant inter-specific variation. In general, levels were lower in muscle than in liver, and negative relations between weight and Co, Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb concentrations in muscle and liver of three species were found. Pagellus bogaraveo, S. colias and T. picturatus presented enhanced elemental concentrations in liver, particularly of Cd. The extremely high storage of this potentially toxic element suggests a response to high uptake of Cd and the existence of an additional natural source of Cd to the environment.

  20. COINFECTION OF CALIFORNIA SEA LION ADENOVIRUS 1 AND A NOVEL POLYOMAVIRUS IN A HAWAIIAN MONK SEAL (NEOMONACHUS SCHAUINSLANDI).

    PubMed

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Doescher, Bethany; Kinsel, Michael; Lednicky, John; Loeb, Julia; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-06-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species. Here, we present a clinical case of a 26-yr-old male Hawaiian monk seal (HMS) kept in an aquarium with a history of intermittent anorexia and evidence of renal disease. Histologic examination revealed eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in the liver. Conventional nested PCR protocols were used to test for viruses, and it tested positive for adenovirus and polyomavirus, and negative for herpesvirus. The adenovirus partial polymerase gene is 100% homologous to that of California sea lion adenovirus 1 (CSLAdV-1). CSLAdV-1 causes viral hepatitis in CSL, and has recently been reported in different species of otariids in an aquarium in Japan ( Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus pusillus ) and a sequence from Spain has been submitted in NCBI as Otaria flavescens adenovirus-1. The polyomavirus in this animal is a novel virus, and is the first polyomavirus discovered in Hawaiian monk seals. This new virus is designated Hawaiian monk seal polyomavirus (HMSPyV-1), and is 83% homologous to California sea lion Polyomavirus-1 (CSLPyV-1). This is the first report of viral coinfection in a HMS and clinical significance in this case remains unclear but may be associated with advanced age.

  1. An outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

    PubMed

    Inoshima, Yasuo; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kasamatsu, Masahiko

    2013-08-30

    An outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis at a Japanese aquarium involved 3 otariids: a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) and a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). In a span of about a week in February 2012, 3 otariids showed diarrhea and were acutely low-spirited; subsequently, all three animals died within a period of 3 days. Markedly increased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities were observed. Necrotic hepatitis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in liver hepatocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were observed in the South American sea lion on histological examination. Otarine adenovirus DNA was detected from the livers of all three animals by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the sequences showed that all were identical. These results suggest that a single otarine adenovirus strain may have been the etiological agent of this outbreak of fatal fulminant hepatitis among the different otariid species, and it may be a lethal threat to wild and captive otariids. This is the first evidence of an outbreak of lethal adenovirus infection among different otariid species.

  2. COI barcode based species-specific primers for identification of five species of stored-product pests from genus Cryptolestes (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae).

    PubMed

    Varadínová, Z; Wang, Y J; Kučerová, Z; Stejskal, V; Opit, G; Cao, Y; Li, F J; Li, Z H

    2015-04-01

    Flat grain beetles of the genus Cryptolestes (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) are one of the economically most important stored-product pests which feed on many kinds of agricultural products, especially grains. Nine of more than 40 described Cryptolestes species are recognized as stored-product pests and two of the pest species have a cosmopolitan distribution. Given the rapid growth in global trade of food products, ecological barriers to the spread of pests are easily overcome. Therefore, development of reliable systems for routine quarantine inspection and early infestation detection is vital. In the present study, we established a new rapid and accurate cytochrome c oxidase subunit I-based system for molecular identification of five common stored-product Cryptolestes species, namely, Cryptolestes capensis, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Cryptolestes pusilloides, Cryptolestes pusillus and Cryptolestes turcicus. Five species-specific primer pairs for traditional uniplex polymerase chain reaction assay are described and their specificity and sensitivity for the identification process is evaluated using larval samples of 12 different populations from three continents (Asia, Europe and North America).

  3. Impact of physical and chemical characteristics of breeding sites on mosquito larval abundance at Ismailia Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, Iman Mohamed

    2013-08-01

    The distribution and monthly abundance of mosquito larvae in released water, drainage canals and sewage water tanks in Ismailia governorate were investigated. The results obtained indicated the presence of five culicine (Culex. pipiens, Cx. pusillus, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. theleri and Ochlerotatus. caspius) and two anopheline (Anopheles. multicolor and An. pharoensis) mosquito species. Significantly higher larval density was recorded in sewage water (n= 5534; 46.08%) as compared with released water (n = 2903; 24.17%) and drainage water (n= 3573; 29.75%). Culex pipiens was the most dominant mosquito species in the three habitats. The effects of environmental parameters including pH, biological and chemical oxygen demands, day time water temperature, plant growth, salinity, total organic matter and concentrations of heavy metals on larval population density were investigated. The positive correlations observed between heavy metals concentrations in the three habitats suggested relative uniformity of the sources of metal pollutants. Culex pipiens larvae demonstrated high tolerance to elevated levels of heavy metals in sewage water and compensatory effects of high nutrient levels generally associated with sewage or domestic waste. High densities of culicine larvae were accompanied by low density of anopheline larvae. This was attributed to water chemistry & competitive interactions.

  4. The distribution of Elongation Factor-1 Alpha (EF-1alpha), Elongation Factor-Like (EFL), and a non-canonical genetic code in the ulvophyceae: discrete genetic characters support a consistent phylogenetic framework.

    PubMed

    Gile, Gillian H; Novis, Philip M; Cragg, David S; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The systematics of the green algal class Ulvophyceae have been difficult to resolve with ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we investigated relationships among ulvophycean orders by determining the distribution of two discrete genetic characters previously identified only in the order Dasycladales. First, Acetabularia acetabulum uses the core translation GTPase Elongation Factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) while most Chlorophyta instead possess the related GTPase Elongation Factor-Like (EFL). Second, the nuclear genomes of dasycladaleans A. acetabulum and Batophora oerstedii use a rare non-canonical genetic code in which the canonical termination codons TAA and TAG instead encode glutamine. Representatives of Ulvales and Ulotrichales were found to encode EFL, while Caulerpales, Dasycladales, Siphonocladales, and Ignatius tetrasporus were found to encode EF-1alpha, in congruence with the two major lineages previously proposed for the Ulvophyceae. The EF-1alpha of I. tetrasporus supports its relationship with Caulerpales/Dasycladales/Siphonocladales, in agreement with ultrastructural evidence, but contrary to certain small subunit rRNA analyses that place it with Ulvales/Ulotrichales. The same non-canonical genetic code previously described in A. acetabulum was observed in EF-1alpha sequences from Parvocaulis pusillus (Dasycladales), Chaetomorpha coliformis, and Cladophora cf. crinalis (Siphonocladales), whereas Caulerpales use the universal code. This supports a sister relationship between Siphonocladales and Dasycladales and further refines our understanding of ulvophycean phylogeny.

  5. New Curculionoidea records from New Brunswick, Canada with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Anderson, Robert S.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents 27 new records of Curculionoidea for the province of New Brunswick, Canada, including three species new to Canada, and 12 adventive species, as follows: Eusphryrus walshii LeConte, Choragus harrisii LeConte (newly recorded for Canada), Choragus zimmermanni LeConte (newly recorded for Canada) (Anthribidae); Cimberis pallipennis (Blatchley) (Nemonychidae); Nanophyes marmoratus marmoratus (Goeze) (Brentidae); Procas lecontei Bedel (Brachyceridae); Anthonomus pusillus LeConte (newly recorded for Canada), Anthonomus (Cnemocyllus) pictus Blatchley, Archarius salicivorus (Paykull), Dorytomus hirtus LeConte, Ellescus bipunctatus (Linnaeus), Mecinus janthinus (Germar), Myrmex chevrolatii (Horn), Madarellus undulatus (Say), Microplontus campestris (Gyllenhal), Pelenomus waltoni (Boheman), Rhinoncus bruchoides (Herbst), Rhinoncus perpendicularis (Reich), Cossonus impressifrons Boheman, Cossonus pacificus Van Dyke, Rhyncolus knowltoni (Thatcher), Eubulus bisignatus (Say), Polydrusus cervinus (Linnaeus), Magdalis piceae Buchanan, Procryphalus mucronatus (LeConte), Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff), and Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford). Recent name changes in the genus Rhinoncus are applied to species known from New Brunswick. In addition, Orchestes alni (Linnaeus) is newly recorded from Nova Scotia. PMID:27110173

  6. Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, R T; Kendra, P E; Mankin, R W; McGovern, J E

    2000-10-01

    Stored-product insects are a perennial problem in retail stores, where they damage and contaminate susceptible merchandise such as food products and animal feed. Historically, pest management in these stores has relied heavily on chemical insecticides, but environmental and health issues have dictated use of safer methods, and these require better monitoring. A monitoring procedure that employs an array of moth and beetle traps combined with spatial (contour) analysis of trap catch was tested in three department stores and two pet stores. The rate of capture increased with the level of infestation but was essentially constant over 4- to 5-d trapping periods. Contour analysis effectively located foci of infestation and reflected population changes produced by applications of the insect growth regulator (S)-hydroprene. The most abundant insects were Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr). The results indicate that contour analysis of trap counts provides a useful monitoring tool for management of storage pests in retail stores. It identifies trouble spots and permits selection, timing, and precision targeting of control measures to achieve maximum pest suppression with minimum pesticide risk. It permits managers and pest control operators to visualize pest problems over an entire store, to monitor changes over time, and to evaluate the effectiveness of control intervention. The contour maps themselves, along with records of control applications and stock rotation, provide permanent documentation of pest problems and the effectiveness of pest management procedures.

  7. Survey for least bell's vireo in riparian habitat on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1988-01-01

    The least bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) was listed in 1986 as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Because of the possibility of the species existing on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), this survey was conducted to determine if they exist, and if so to prepare a distribution map of the species on the base. Major riparian areas were surveyed on foot for 17 days in April, May, and July 1987. No least bell's vireo were sighted; based on past studies, it is unlikely that there is a significant population on VAFB. There are, however, at least 13 other species of special concern that inhabit VAFB riparian woodlands. Most of these species have declined along the south coast of Santa Barbara County, and many have declined in much of the southern half of California. Riparian areas on VAFB are an important environmental resource for the southern half of California; many of these areas, however, show signs of degradation.

  8. Molecular Markers for Identification of Stellantchasmus falcatus and a Phylogenic Study using the HAT-RAPD Method

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawad, Pheravut

    2010-01-01

    Stellantchasmus falcatus is a minute intestinal fluke in the family Heterophyidae. Metacercariae, the infective stage, were reported in a marine fish, mullet Liza subviridis, and a fresh water fish, Dermogenus pusillus, in Thailand. Adults were found in chicks, rats, cats, and humans. Morphological studies were done for comparing Stellantchasmus sp. worms found in 2 different fish hosts; their shapes and organ arrangements were very similar except for the prepharynx length. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare their DNA fingerprints using the HAT-RAPD method for both types of Stellantchasmus and several other related species. Ten arbitrarily selected primers (OPA-04, OPA-09, OPN-02, OPN-03, OPN-09, OPN-12, OPP-11, OPR-15, OPX-13, and OPAD-01) were used. It was found that OPA-09, OPN-03, and OPAD-01 were able to generate S. falcatus specific fragments in mullets which consisted of 200, 760, and 280 bp, respectively. In addition, the results of morphologic, DNA fingerprinting, and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the fresh water and marine specimens of Stellantchamus may be different species. PMID:21234232

  9. Fungal isolates from a Pu-erh type tea fermentation and their ability to convert tea polyphenols to theabrownins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2015-04-01

    The natural microbiota involved in the fermentation influence the quality and taste of fully postfermented teas such as China's Pu-erh tea. Ten microbial isolates representing 6 species were recovered from a solid-state fermentation of a Pu-erh type tea. The isolates were Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus marvanovae, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizomucor tauricus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida mogii. With the exception of A. marvanovae and C. mogii, all these microorganisms have been previously reported in solid-state fermentations of native Pu-erh tea. The ability of the isolates for converting the tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins in infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves in a submerged fermentation process was subsequently investigated. All isolates except C. mogii TISTR 5938 effectively produced theabrownins in a 4-d fermentation in shake flasks at 40 °C, 250 rpm. A. tubingensis TISTR 3646, A. tubingensis TISTR 3647, A. marvanovae TISTR 3648, and A. fumigatus TISTR 3654 produced theabrownins at particularly high levels of 6.5, 12.4, 11.1, and 8.4 g/L, respectively.

  10. Serial monitoring of Mucorales DNA load in serum samples of a patient with disseminated mucormycosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Yaguchi, Takashi; Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Saito, Shoji; Noda, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Honda, Takayuki; Koike, Kenichi

    2014-08-01

    Mucormycosis is a fatal complication in immunocompromised patients, and is additionally difficult to diagnose due to the lack of useful serum biomarkers. Using a quantitative PCR approach, we retrospectively analyzed Mucorales DNA load in sera collected serially from a 3-year-old patient with chronic granulomatous disease, who died of multi-organ failure probably due to dissemination of Rhizomucor pusillus, which was detected from necropsy specimens. Mucorales DNA load was below the detection limit on days 9, 2, and 4 after unrelated bone marrow transplantation. Rhizomucor DNA was first detected on day 14 (1.6 × 10(3) copies/mL), and subsequently fluctuated between 1.3 × 10(3) and 37.2 × 10(3) copies/mL until day 43. Rhizomucor achieved a peak value of 940.0 × 10(3) copies/mL on day 48 the day before death. The detection or fluctuation of Rhizomucor DNA appeared to be associated with corticosteroid dosages or C-reactive protein levels. This specific, noninvasive, and highly quantitative assay may be useful for the early diagnosis of mucormycosis and prediction of disease progression.

  11. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in ticks from southeastern Spain natural parks.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Francisco J

    2008-08-01

    During an 8-years study, we collected from vegetation or domestic and wild mammals 1246 ticks (624 males, 511 females and 111 nymphs) belonging to 13 species in Jaen province (Andalusia) and we analyzed these ticks by PCR and sequencing for the presence of rickettsiae. Specific rickettsiae DNA was detected in 243 (19.5%) of the ticks tested. Sequence analysis of amplicons of gltA, ompA and ompB genes revealed that Ixodes ricinus were infected with R. monacensis, including strain IRS3, and R. helvetica (prevalences of 27.0% and 2.7%, respectively), while in I. ventalloi we found only this last species (12.5%). Moreover, Dermacentor marginatus presents R. slovaca (24.7%) and R. raoultii (59.9%). In Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks (Rh. sanguineus, Rh. turanicus and Rh. pusillus) only R. massiliae (15.2%) was found. Haemaphysalis punctata and Ha. sulcata were infected with a Rickettsia sp. near R. hoogstraalii (prevalence of 3.1% and 16.1%, respectively). In addition, Ha. punctata appeared infected with R. monacensis-like Rickettsia (1.0%) and R. raoultii (9.3%). None of I. hexagonus, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Hyalomma sp., Ha. hispanica or Rh. bursa studied ticks contained rickettsiae.

  12. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation.

  13. Molecular Identification of Zygomycetes from Culture and Experimentally Infected Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Patrick; Bretagne, Stéphane; Gantier, Jean-Charles; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Lortholary, Olivier; Dromer, Françoise; Dannaoui, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging infection associated with a high mortality rate. Identification of the causative agents remains difficult and time-consuming by standard mycological procedures. In this study, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing was validated as a reliable technique for identification of Zygomycetes to the species level. Furthermore, species identification directly from infected tissues was evaluated in experimentally infected mice. Fifty-four Zygomycetes strains belonging to 16 species, including the most common pathogenic species of Rhizopus spp., Absidia spp., Mucor spp., and Rhizomucor spp., were used to assess intra- and interspecies variability. Ribosomal DNA including the complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was amplified with fungal universal primers, sequenced, and compared. Overall, for a given species, sequence similarities between isolates were >98%. In contrast, ITS sequences were very different between species, allowing an accurate identification of Zygomycetes to the species level in most cases. Six species (Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Mucor circinelloides, and Mucor indicus) were also used to induce disseminated mucormycosis in mice and to demonstrate that DNA extraction, amplification of fungal DNA, sequencing, and molecular identification were possible directly from frozen tissues. PMID:16455881

  14. Phytoplankton blooms on the western shelf of Tasmania: evidence of a highly productive ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, J.

    2014-09-01

    Analyses of >10 years of satellite-derived ocean-color data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the west Tasmanian shelf. A closer event-based analysis indicates that the nutrient supply for this system has two different dynamical origins: (a) wind-driven coastal upwelling and (b) river plumes. During austral summer months, the west Tasmanian shelf forms a previously unknown upwelling center of the "Great South Australian Coastal Upwelling System", presumably injecting nutrient-rich water into western Bass Strait. Surprisingly, river discharges render the study region productive during other seasons of the year, except when nutrient-poor water of the South Australian Current reaches the region. Overall, the west Tasmanian shelf is more phytoplankton-productive than the long-known coastal upwelling along the Bonney Coast. The existence of phytoplankton blooms during the off-upwelling-season may explain the wintertime spawing aggregations of the blue grenadier (Macruronus novaezelandiae) and the associated regionally high abundance of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus).

  15. Long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a meso-Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Tercero Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-05-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) are very valuable in trophy-hunting but also contribute to the preservation of natural areas. They are affected by many parasites and pathogens, including hard ticks that are not only important parasites themselves but can also act as vectors and/or reservoirs of pathogens. Tick phenology is complex insofar as population dynamics depend on environmental conditions, vegetation, host availability and their own intrinsic characteristic. Ticks were collected monthly from January 2007 to December 2014 from red deer on a natural reserve located in a meso-Mediterranean environment in Central Spain. A total of 8978 specimens of ixodid ticks were recovered with a mean Parasitization Index of 65.06 ticks/deer. Red deer were infected the whole year round with a summer-spring pattern and two secondary peaks in February and October. The main species was Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch followed by Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer and Ixodes ricinus L. Hyalomma lusitanicum has a complex life cycle in which several generations initiate their cycle at different times throughout the year, most probably lasting more than 1 year. We also describe the ability of nymphs to feed on large ungulates even though their habitual host is wild rabbit.

  16. Recent patents on microbial proteases for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Blasco, Lucía; Rodríguez-Rama, José Luis; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Miguel, Trinidad de; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the general characteristics of exo and endopeptidases of microbial origin currently used in the milk industry. It also includes recent patents developed either to potentiate the enzymatic activity or to improve the resulting milk derivatives. The main application of these proteases is in the cheese-making industry. Although this industry preferentially uses animal rennets, and in particular genetically engineered chymosins, it also utilizes milk coagulants of microbial origin. Enzymes derived from Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizomucor pusillus and Cryphonectria parasitica are currently used to replace the conventional milk-clotting enzymes. In addition, the dairy industry uses microbial endo and exoproteases for relatively new applications, such as debittering and flavor generation in cheese, accelerated cheese ripening, manufacture of protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties, and production of enzyme-modified cheeses. Lactic acid bacteria play an essential role in these processes, hence these bacteria and the proteases they produce are currently being investigated by the dairy industry and are the subject of many of their patent applications.

  17. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA.

  18. Australian marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 6. Genera Calvarium Pic, Papuacyphon Zwick, and Ypsiloncyphon Klausnitzer.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Peter

    2014-07-31

    The genus Calvarium Pic, 1918 is for the first time recorded from Australia. Six new Australian species are named and described. Calvarium australiense n. sp. and C. superbum n. sp. from the Northern Territory are typical representatives of the genus. A new subgenus, Calvariellum n. subgen., is proposed for four species from NE Queensland which share general body structure with other Calvarium species but have different, less derived male genitalia: Calvarium (Calvariellum) bellendenker n. sp., C. (Calvariellum) cochlearifer n. sp., C. (Calvariellum) hamifer n. sp., and C. (Calvariellum) lancifer n. sp. Papuacyphon darwini n. sp. is described from SW Australia. The genus was previously known only from Papua New Guinea. Species Group 3 of the genus Ypsiloncyphon Klausnitzer, 2009 is first recorded from Australia. It is endemic to the Australasian region. The Australian species Y. angustus n. sp., Y. brevis n. sp., Y. katherinae n. sp., Y. longus n. sp., Y. pusillus n. sp., Y. velatus n. sp., and Y. virgulifer n. sp. are described, the New Guinean species Y. micans (Klausnitzer, 1973) (= Cyphon paramicans Klausnitzer, 1973, n. syn.), Y. mutilatus n. sp., Y. ruficollis n. sp., and Y. rugosus n. sp. are described or redescribed from types, respectively. Three Australian species known only in the female sex are described under informal designations.

  19. Fungal survival during anaerobic digestion of organic household waste.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, Anna; Schnürer, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste yields energy rich biogas and retains nutrients (N, P, K, S, etc.) in a stabilised residue. For the residue to be used as a soil fertiliser, it must be free from pollutants and harmful microorganisms. Fungal survival during sanitation and anaerobic treatment of source-separated organic household waste and during aerobic storage of the residue obtained was investigated. Decimal reduction times were determined for inoculated fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizomucor pusillus, Thermoascus crustaceus and Thermomyces lanuginosus). Several different fungal species were found after waste sanitation treatment (70 degrees C, 1 h), with Aspergillus species dominating in non-inoculated waste. Anaerobic waste degradation decreased the diversity of fungal species for processes run at both 37 and 55 degrees C, but not total fungal colony forming units. Fungi surviving the mesophilic anaerobic digestion were mainly thermotolerant Talaromyces and Paecilomyces species. T. crustaceus and T. lanuginosus were the only inoculated fungi to survive the thermophilic anaerobic degradation process. Aerobic storage of both types of anaerobic residues for one month significantly decreased fungal counts.

  20. Identification of fungal pathogens in a patient with acute myelogenic leukemia using a pathogen detection array technology

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sagarika; Peck, Kristen N.; Feldman, Michael D.; Schuster, Mindy G.; Alwine, James C.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasive zygomycosis in immunocompromised patients results in a high mortality rate, and early identification is crucial to optimize therapy and to reduce morbidity. However, diagnosing specific species of zygomycetes fungi possess challenge in the clinical laboratories. A need for a rapid and sensitive diagnostic tool for early recognition of a zygomycetes fungus in clinical samples to the species level will lead to prompt and accurate therapy and the PathoChip provides one such platform. We utilized a pathogen array technology referred to as PathoChip, comprised of oligonucleotide probes that can detect all the sequenced viruses as well as known pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites and family-specific conserved probes, thus providing a means for detecting previously uncharacterized members of a family. We rapidly identified a zygomycetous fungus, Rhizomucor pusillus, an otherwise challenge for the clinical laboratories, predominantly in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. This report highlights the value of PathoChip as a diagnostic tool to identify micro-organisms to the species level, especially for those difficult to identify in most clinical laboratories. It will also help clinicians to obtain a critical snapshot of the infection profile of a patient to plan treatment strategies. PMID:26619325

  1. Factors influencing the incidence of cowbird parasitism of least Bell's vireos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, B.L.; Kus, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    Least Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) is a federally endangered subspecies of Bell's vireo subject to high levels of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Brood parasitism greatly reduces the reproductive success of the vireo. We examined the relationship of vegetation structure surrounding nests and of activity near the nest to the incidence of brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds of least Bell's vireos. We examined vegetation structure at 3 spatial scales: microhabitat (0-1 m from a nest), mesohabitat (1-11.3 m from a nest), and macrohabitat (greater than 11.3 m from a nest). Nests with high microhabitat cover and mesohabitat cover within 5 m of the nest had a lower incidence of parasitism than those with low cover at these scales. Unparasitized nests had fewer trees greater than 8-cm diameter at breast height (dbh) within 11.3 m, and they had less canopy cover within 5 m than parasitized nests. Cowbirds parasitized nests farther from the edge of the riparian habitat more often than nests near the edge. Activity near the nest did not differ significantly between parasitized and unparasitized nests. We suggest that microhabitat cover is the most important habitat feature influencing the incidence of brood parasitism of least Bell's vireos, and we conclude that cover near the nest reduces the chance that a cowbird will observe nesting activity. We suggest that habitat management for improved breeding success of least Bell's vireos focus on increasing the density of understory vegetation.

  2. Management by assertion: beavers and songbirds at Lake Skinner (Riverside County, California).

    PubMed

    Longcore, Travis; Rich, Catherine; Müller-Schwarze, Dietland

    2007-04-01

    Management of ecological reserve lands should rely on the best available science to achieve the goal of biodiversity conservation. "Adaptive Resource Management" is the current template to ensure that management decisions are reasoned and that decisions increase understanding of the system being managed. In systems with little human disturbance, certain management decisions are clear; steps to protect native species usually include the removal of invasive species. In highly modified systems, however, appropriate management steps to conserve biodiversity are not as readily evident. Managers must, more than ever, rely upon the development and testing of hypotheses to make rational management decisions. We present a case study of modern reserve management wherein beavers (Castor canadensis) were suspected of destroying habitat for endangered songbirds (least Bell's vireo, Vireo bellii pusillus, and southwestern willow flycatcher, Empidonax traillii extimus) and for promoting the invasion of an exotic plant (tamarisk, Tamarix spp.) at an artificial reservoir in southern California. This case study documents the consequences of failing to follow the process of Adaptive Resource Management. Managers made decisions that were unsupported by the scientific literature, and actions taken were likely counterproductive. The opportunity to increase knowledge of the ecosystem was lost. Uninformed management decisions, essentially "management by assertion," undermine the long-term prospects for biodiversity conservation.

  3. The sight of an adult brood parasite near the nest is an insufficient cue for a honeyguide host to reject foreign eggs

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Wenfei; Horrocks, Nicholas P C; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2015-01-01

    Hosts of brood-parasitic birds typically evolve anti-parasitism defences, including mobbing of parasitic intruders at the nest and the ability to recognize and reject foreign eggs from their clutches. The Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator is a virulent brood parasite that punctures host eggs and kills host young, and accordingly, a common host, the Little Bee-eater Merops pusillus frequently rejects entire clutches that have been parasitized. We predicted that given the high costs of accidentally rejecting an entire clutch, and that the experimental addition of a foreign egg is insufficient to induce this defence, Bee-eaters require the sight of an adult parasite near the nest as an additional cue for parasitism before they reject a clutch. We found that many Little Bee-eater parents mobbed Greater Honeyguide dummies while ignoring barbet control dummies, showing that they recognized them as a threat. Surprisingly, however, neither a dummy Honeyguide nor the presence of a foreign egg, either separately or in combination, was sufficient to stimulate egg rejection. PMID:26300559

  4. Fitness consequences of nest desertion in an endangered host, the least Bell's vireo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kus, Barbara E.

    2002-01-01

    Recent analyses of the impact of cowbird parasitism on host productivity suggest that while parasitism reduces productivity on a per-nest basis, the ability of pairs to desert parasitized nests and renest allows them to achieve productivity comparable to that of unparasitized pairs. This has implications for the management of several endangered species that are highly vulnerable to parasitism and consequently the target of cowbird control programs. I calculated seasonal nesting effort (number of nests per pair) and productivity of 568 pairs of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) monitored over 11 years at the San Luis Rey River in San Diego County, California (where cowbird trapping has reduced, but not eliminated, parasitism), assigning pairs to one of three groups: (1) deserters, (2) rescued (parasitized pairs with nests “rescued” from probable failure by the removal of cowbird eggs), and (3) unparasitized. Parasitized pairs attempted significantly more nests per season than did unparasitized pairs, with deserters producing more nests than rescued pairs. However, productivity of deserting pairs was significantly lower than that of both rescued and unparasitized pairs, largely because subsequent nests of deserting pairs were also parasitized. Seasonal productivity of rescued and unparasitized pairs was comparable, indicating that in this species, reduction of cowbird impacts through nest manipulation to remove cowbird eggs is effective. Desertion by Least Bell's Vireos does not appear to be an adequate natural defense against parasitism, suggesting the need for continued cowbird control while vireo populations are re-established.

  5. [Effect of collect time on communities of epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in areas of Eucalyptus cloeziana and cerrado].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Antônio A; Bispo, Pitágoras C; Zanzini, Antônio C

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of collect time (day and night) on ant fauna attracted to baits in areas of Eucalyptus cloeziana (Myrtaceae) and cerrado. The ants were collected in Fazenda Boa Vista, Mannesmann Fi - El Florestal Ltda, Paineiras, Minas Gerais State. Eigthteen sample units were collected: 12 in E. cloezina and six in cerrado. Each sample unit consisted of three plots (25 x 35 m each). The plot consisted of 34 baits distributed in a grid pattern at 5 m intervals. The sampling was carried out in the diurnal and nocturnal period. The results obtained revealed that both type of vegetation (cerrado x Eucalyptus) and the collect time (day x night) had a significative influence on the epigaeic ant fauna. The ordination (DCA) indicated that collect time effect was more important to fauna structuration than the vegetation effect. Brachymyrmex sp.1, Brachymyrmex sp.2, Camponotus crassus Mayr, Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius), Cephalotes pusillus (Klug) and Ectatomma brunneum Smith were indicator species of nocturnal period, and Camponotus renggeri-Emery, Camponotus atriceps (Smith), Camponotus melanoticus Emery and Paratrechina sp.1 were indicators of nocturnal period.

  6. Rapid detection and identification of mucormycetes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates by use of high-resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Lengerova, Martina; Racil, Zdenek; Hrncirova, Kristyna; Kocmanova, Iva; Volfova, Pavlina; Ricna, Dita; Bejdak, Petr; Moulis, Mojmir; Pavlovsky, Zdenek; Weinbergerova, Barbora; Toskova, Martina; Mayer, Jiri

    2014-08-01

    Rapid differential diagnostics of pulmonary infiltrates suspected of invasive fungal disease in an immunocompromised host and early initiation of effective antifungal therapy are crucial for patient outcomes. There are no serological tests available to detect mucormycetes; therefore, PCR-based methods are highly suitable. We validated our previously published PCR followed by high-resolution melt analysis (PCR/HRMA) to detect Rhizopus spp., Rhizomucor pusillus, Lichtheimia corymbifera, and Mucor spp. in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from immunocompromised patients who were at risk of invasive fungal disease. All PCR/HRMA-positive samples were retested using novel real-time quantitative PCR (RQ PCR) assays specific to the species identified. In total, between January 2009 and December 2012 we analyzed 99 BAL samples from 86 patients with pulmonary abnormalities using PCR/HRMA. Ninety (91%) BAL samples were negative, and 9 (9%) samples were positive. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR/HRMA were 100% and 93%, respectively. By combining the positive results of PCR/HRMA with positive RQ PCR results, the specificity was raised to 98%. PCR/HRMA, due to its high negative predictive value (99%), represents a fast and reliable tool for routine BAL sample screening for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients for the four most clinically important mucormycetes.

  7. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jian-wei; Luo, Li-Mei; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Qin, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Ye-Lei; Zheng, Xue-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107) bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species. PMID:28081122

  8. Brevity is prevalent in bat short-range communication.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bo; Jiang, Tinglei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Lin, Aiqing; Wei, Xuewen; Feng, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    Animal communication follows many coding schemes. Less is known about the coding strategy for signal length and rates of use in animal vocal communication. A generalized brevity (negative relation between signal length and frequency of use) is innovatively explored but remains controversial in animal vocal communication. We tested brevity for short-range social and distress sounds from four echolocating bats: adult black-bearded tomb bat Taphozous melanopogon, Mexican free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis, adult greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and adult least horseshoe bat Rhinolophus pusillus. There was a negative association between duration and number of social but not distress calls emitted. The most frequently emitted social calls were brief, while most distress calls were long. Brevity or lengthiness was consistently selected in vocal communications for each species. Echolocating bats seem to have convergent coding strategy for communication calls. The results provide the evidence of efficient coding in bat social vocalizations, and lay the basis of future researches on the convergence for neural control on bats' communication calls.

  9. Further contributions to the staphylinid fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, and the USA, with descriptions of two new Proteinus species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Davies, Anthony E.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper treats the discovery of new species and new records of Staphylinidae from the subfamilies Omaliinae, Proteininae, Tachyporinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Pseudopsinae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae for the province of New Brunswick and other provinces of Canada, and the USA. We report here two species new to science, three new North American records, nine new Canadian records, two new USA records, and 50 new provincial records. The following are the species new to science: Proteinus hughesi Webster & Davies, sp. n. and Proteinus sweeneyi Webster & Klimaszewski, sp. n. (Proteininae). Sepedophilus immaculatus (Stephens) and Carpelimus erichsoni (Sharp), Carpelimus mundus (Sharp) are newly recorded from North America. New Canadian records are as follows: Carpelimus difficilis (Casey), Carpelimus gracilis (Mannerheim), Carpelimus lacustris (Notman), Carpelimus probus (Casey), Carpelimus pusillus (Gravenhorst), Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky), Carpelimus spretus (Casey), Carpelimus weissi (Notman) (Oxytelinae), and Edaphus lederi Eppelsheim (Euaesthetinae). This is the first record of the genus Edaphus for Canada. Bledius basalis LeConte and Carpelimus obesus (Kiesenwetter) (Oxytelinae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick. Proteinus acadiensis Klimaszewski and Proteinus pseudothomasi Klimaszewski are newly recorded from the USA and several provinces of Canada. Habitat data from New Brunswick are provided for most of the species treated in this contribution. PMID:27110167

  10. Further contributions to the staphylinid fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, and the USA, with descriptions of two new Proteinus species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Webster, Reginald P; Davies, Anthony E; Klimaszewski, Jan; Bourdon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This paper treats the discovery of new species and new records of Staphylinidae from the subfamilies Omaliinae, Proteininae, Tachyporinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Pseudopsinae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae for the province of New Brunswick and other provinces of Canada, and the USA. We report here two species new to science, three new North American records, nine new Canadian records, two new USA records, and 50 new provincial records. The following are the species new to science: Proteinus hughesi Webster & Davies, sp. n. and Proteinus sweeneyi Webster & Klimaszewski, sp. n. (Proteininae). Sepedophilus immaculatus (Stephens) and Carpelimus erichsoni (Sharp), Carpelimus mundus (Sharp) are newly recorded from North America. New Canadian records are as follows: Carpelimus difficilis (Casey), Carpelimus gracilis (Mannerheim), Carpelimus lacustris (Notman), Carpelimus probus (Casey), Carpelimus pusillus (Gravenhorst), Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky), Carpelimus spretus (Casey), Carpelimus weissi (Notman) (Oxytelinae), and Edaphus lederi Eppelsheim (Euaesthetinae). This is the first record of the genus Edaphus for Canada. Bledius basalis LeConte and Carpelimus obesus (Kiesenwetter) (Oxytelinae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick. Proteinus acadiensis Klimaszewski and Proteinus pseudothomasi Klimaszewski are newly recorded from the USA and several provinces of Canada. Habitat data from New Brunswick are provided for most of the species treated in this contribution.

  11. Determining nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo through point counts, tracking stations, and video photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Bonnie L.; Kus, Barbara E.; Deutschman, Douglas H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared three methods to determine nest predators of the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) in San Diego County, California, during spring and summer 2000. Point counts and tracking stations were used to identify potential predators and video photography to document actual nest predators. Parental behavior at depredated nests was compared to that at successful nests to determine whether activity (frequency of trips to and from the nest) and singing vs. non-singing on the nest affected nest predation. Yellow-breasted Chats (Icteria virens) were the most abundant potential avian predator, followed by Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica). Coyotes (Canis latrans) were abundant, with smaller mammalian predators occurring in low abundance. Cameras documented a 48% predation rate with scrub-jays as the major nest predators (67%), but Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, 17%), gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus, 8%) and Argentine ants (Linepithema humile, 8%) were also confirmed predators. Identification of potential predators from tracking stations and point counts demonstrated only moderate correspondence with actual nest predators. Parental behavior at the nest prior to depredation was not related to nest outcome.

  12. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Cherel, Y.; Guinet, C.; Arnould, J. P. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R2/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills. PMID:27493771

  13. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  14. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  15. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  16. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  17. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  18. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  19. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  20. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  1. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  2. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  3. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  4. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  5. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  6. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the…

  7. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  8. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  9. Characterizing the biological and biochemical profile of six different scorpion venoms from the Buthidae and Scorpionidae family.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Gómez, Sebastian; Gomez-Rave, Lyz; Vargas-Muñoz, Leidy Johana; van der Meijden, Arie

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize six different scorpion venoms using biological and biochemical methods, including a preliminary MS/MS and a post-translational modifications analysis. Despite the diversity of scorpion species of medical importance in Africa and Colombia, the venoms of these arachnids have been poorly studied in these two regions. We report the biochemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic profile, internal peptide sequences with a post-translational modification report, and a preliminary antitumor activity of five different scorpions of the Buthidae family, Androctonus amoreuxi, Babycurus jacksoni, Grosphus grandidieri, Hottentotta gentili and Tityus fuhrmanni, and one of the Scorpionidae family Pandinus imperator. No L-amino oxidase activity was detected in the evaluated venoms. Proteolytic activity using azocasein was detected only in G. grandidieri and P. imperator, indicating the possible presence of metalloproteinases in these two venoms. Proteolytic activity using NOBA was detected in all venoms indicating the possible presence of serine-proteinases. Phospholipase A2 activity was detected in the venoms of P. imperator, G. grandidieri, H. gentili and A. amoreuxi, with P. imperator venom being the most active. All venoms analyzed contained defensin-like proteins, alpha toxins, metalloproteinases, neuropeptides, DBP affecting ion channels, DBP with antimicrobial activity, among others. Venoms from P. imperator, G. grandidieri and T. fuhrmanni showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic activity over MCF-7 cells. Only two isolated RP-HPLC fractions from P. imperator and T. fuhrmanni showed cytotoxic activity over MCF-7. No cytotoxic activity was found in the venoms from A. amoreuxi, B. jacksoni, and H. gentili.

  10. Dipyrone metabolite 4-MAA induces hypothermia and inhibits PGE2-dependent and -independent fever while 4-AA only blocks PGE2-dependent fever

    PubMed Central

    Malvar, David do C; Aguiar, Fernando A; Vaz, Artur de L L; Assis, Débora C R; de Melo, Miriam C C; Jabor, Valquíria A P; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Clososki, Giuliano C; de Souza, Glória E P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The antipyretic and hypothermic prodrug dipyrone prevents PGE2-dependent and -independent fever induced by LPS from Escherichia coli and Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv) respectively. We aimed to identify the dipyrone metabolites responsible for the antipyretic and hypothermic effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Male Wistar rats were treated i.p. with indomethacin (2 mg·kg−1), dipyrone, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA), 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA) (60–360 mg·kg−1), 4-formylaminoantipyrine, 4-acethylaminoantipyrine (120–360 mg·kg−1) or vehicle 30 min before i.p. injection of LPS (50 μg·kg−1), Tsv (150 μg·kg−1) or saline. Rectal temperatures were measured by tele-thermometry and dipyrone metabolite concentrations determined in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus by LC-MS/MS. PGE2 concentrations were determined in the CSF and hypothalamus by elisa. KEY RESULTS In contrast to LPS, Tsv-induced fever was not followed by increased PGE2 in the CSF or hypothalamus. The antipyretic time-course of 4-MAA and 4-AA on LPS-induced fever overlapped with the period of the highest concentrations of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the hypothalamus, CSF and plasma. These metabolites reduced LPS-induced fever and the PGE2 increase in the plasma, CSF and hypothalamus. Only 4-MAA inhibited Tsv-induced fever. The higher doses of dipyrone and 4-MAA also induced hypothermia. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of 4-MAA and 4-AA in the CSF and hypothalamus was associated with PGE2 synthesis inhibition and a decrease in LPS-induced fever. 4-MAA was also shown to be an antipyretic metabolite for PGE2-independent fever induced by Tsv suggesting that it is responsible for the additional antipyretic mechanism of dipyrone. Moreover, 4-MAA is the hypothermic metabolite of dipyrone. PMID:24712707

  11. New insights on arthropod toxins that potentiate erectile function.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kenia P; Torres, Fernanda S; Borges, Marcia H; Matavel, Alessandra; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria E

    2013-07-01

    The use of natural substances for the treatment of diseases or injuries is an ancient practice of many cultures. According to folklore, natural aphrodisiacs may help to raise libido and increase desire. The supposed aphrodisiacs mainly include a plethora of preparations of plants, among other substances. However, the real boundary between myth and reality has not been established yet in most cases and such boundaries must be drawn by scientific methods. A growing interest of the scientific community has been focused on animal venoms, especially those from arthropods, i.e. spiders and scorpions, which cause priapism, a prolonged and painful erection. This review highlights the studies that have been performed with venoms and toxins from arthropods known to cause priapism, among other toxic symptoms, pointing out some pharmacological approaches for better understanding this effect. To date, the venom of some spiders, mainly Phoneutria nigriventer, and scorpions, such as the yellow South American scorpion Tityus serrulatus, among others, have been known to cause priapism. Since erectile dysfunction (ED) is a growing health problem in the world, more common in patients with vascular diseases as diabetes and hypertension, the use of animal venoms and toxins as pharmacological tools could not only shed light to the mechanisms involved in erectile function, but also represent a possible model for new drugs to treat ED. Unfortunately, attempts to correlate the structure of those priapism-related toxins were unfruitful. Such difficulties lie firstly on the poor data concerning purified priapism-related toxins, instead of whole venoms and/or semi-purified fractions, and secondly, on the scarce available primary sequences and structural data, mainly from spider toxins. It has been shown that all these toxins modify the sodium (Na(+)) channel activity, mostly slowing down its inactivation current. Improving the knowledge on the tertiary structure of these toxins could provide

  12. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes.

    PubMed

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo; Heinemann, Stefan H

    2012-04-01

    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which Na(V) channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed Na(V)1.4 and Na(V)1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of Na(V)1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of Na(V)1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of Na(V)1.4 and Na(V)1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in Na(V)1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in Na(V)1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the Na(V)1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to Na(V) channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage-sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2.

  13. Selected scorpion toxin exposures induce cytokine release in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Corzo, Gerardo; Espino-Solis, Gerardo Pavel

    2017-03-01

    A cytokine screening on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with selected scorpion toxins (ScTx's) was performed in order to evaluate their effect on human immune cells. The ScTx's chosen for this report were three typical buthid scorpion venom peptides, one with lethal effects on mammals Centruroides suffussus suffusus toxin II (CssII), another, with lethal effects on insects and crustaceans Centruroides noxius toxin 5 (Cn5), and one more without lethal effects Tityus discrepans toxin (Discrepin). A Luminex multiplex analysis was performed in order to determine the amounts chemokines and cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12-p40, IL-13, interferon alpha (IFN-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α, and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) secreted from human PBMCs exposed to these toxins. Although, the ScTx Cn5 is not lethal for mammals, it was able to induce the secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, IL-10 and IP-10 in comparison to the lethal CssII, which was able to induce only IP-10 secretion. Discrepin also was able to induce only IP-10. Interestingly, only low amounts of interferons α and β were induced in the presence of the ScTx's assayed. In a synergic experiment, the combination of Discrepin and Cn5 displayed considerable reverse effects on induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, but they had a slight synergic effect on IP-10 cytokine production in comparison with the single effect obtained with the Cn5 alone. Thus, the results obtained suggest that the profile of secreted cytokines promoted by ScTx Cn5 is highly related with a cytokine storm event, and also it suggests that the mammalian lethal neurotoxins are not solely responsible of the scorpion envenomation symptomatology.

  14. Regulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover in brain synaptoneurosomes: stimulatory effects of agents that enhance influx of sodium ions.

    PubMed Central

    Gusovsky, F; Hollingsworth, E B; Daly, J W

    1986-01-01

    Norepinephrine and carbamoylcholine stimulate accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates from [3H]inositol-labeled guinea pig cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes through interaction with alpha 1-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors, respectively. In addition to such agonist, a variety of natural products that affect voltage-dependent sodium channels can markedly stimulate accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. These include alkaloids that activate sodium channels, such as batrachotoxin, veratridine, and aconitine; peptide toxins that alter activation or slow inactivation of sodium channels, such as various scorpion toxins from Leiurus, Centruroides, and Tityus species; and agents that cause repetitive firing of sodium channel-dependent action potentials, such as pyrethroids and pumiliotoxin B. Ouabain, and agent that will increase accumulation of internal sodium by inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase, also stimulates formation of [3H]inositol phosphates, as does monensin, a sodium ionophore. Tetrodotoxin and saxitoxin, specific blockers of voltage-dependent sodium channels, prevent or reduce the stimulatory effects of sodium channel agents and ouabain on phosphatidylinositol turnover, while having lesser or no effect, respectively, on receptor-mediated or monensin-mediated stimulation. Removal of extracellular sodium ions markedly reduces stimulatory effects of sodium channel agents, while removal of extracellular calcium ions with EGTA blocks both receptor-mediated and sodium channel agent-mediated phosphatidylinositol turnover. The results provide evidence for a hitherto unsuspected messenger role for sodium ions in excitable tissue, whereby neuronal activity and the resultant influx of sodium will cause activation of phospholipase systems involved in hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols, thereby generating two second messengers, the inositol phosphates, which mobilize calcium from internal stores, and the diacylglycerols, which activate protein kinase C. PMID:2422664

  15. Specific binding of toxin II from Centruroides suffusus suffusus to the sodium channel in electroplaque membranes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K P; Barhanin, J; Lazdunski, M

    1982-10-26

    The binding of toxin II from the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus (CssII) to electroplaque membranes from Electrophorus electricus was studied with the use of a radiolabeled derivative of the toxin ([125I]CssII). Specific binding of the latter to the membranes required the protonation of a group, either in the membrane or in the toxin itself, with an apparent pKa value of 7.5 and also the presence of a certain minimum concentration of ions, though there was no requirement for a specific ion. At 20 degrees C and pH 6 the second-order rate constant for formation of the [125I]CssII-membrane complex was about 5 X 10(6) M-1 s-1, while the first-order constant for its dissociation was about 2 X 10(-3) s-1. Under equilibrium conditions specific binding of [125I]CssII was a simple saturable function of [125I]CssII concentration, characterized by a dissociation constant of 0.4-0.7 nM and a maximum capacity of 0.9-2.4 pmol of toxin/mg of membrane protein. The latter value was the same as the number of membrane sites that could specifically bind a radiolabeled derivative of tetrodotoxin. Unlabeled CssII displaced bound [125I]CssII with an apparent dissociation constant of about 1 nM. None of 19 other neurotoxins or local anaesthetics known to interact with Na+ channels in excitable cells affected [125I]CssII binding, but it was completely inhibited by toxin gamma from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus serrulatus. These findings suggest that the Na+ channel possesses a distinct class of binding sites to which these two scorpion toxins bind with high affinities. On the other hand, no CssII receptor was detected in crab axonal membranes, indicating that it is not a characteristic feature of all Na+ channels.

  16. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes

    PubMed Central

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which NaV channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of NaV1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of NaV1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in NaV1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in NaV1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the NaV1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to NaV channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage–sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2. PMID:22450487

  17. The role of dorsomedial hypotalamus ionotropic glutamate receptors in the hypertensive and tachycardic responses evoked by Tityustoxin intracerebroventricular injection.

    PubMed

    Silva, F C; Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Machado, Natalia Lima; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; de Menezes, R C; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Chianca, Deoclécio Alves

    2015-03-01

    The scorpion envenoming syndrome is an important worldwide public health problem due to its high incidence and potential severity of symptoms. Some studies address the high sensitivity of the central nervous system to this toxin action. It is known that cardiorespiratory manifestations involve the activation of the autonomic nervous system. However, the origin of this modulation remains unclear. Considering the important participation of the dorsomedial hypotalamus (DMH) in the cardiovascular responses during emergencial situations, the aim of this work is to investigate the involvement of the DMH on cardiovascular responses induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Tityustoxin (TsTX, a α-type toxin extracted from the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom). Urethane-anaesthetized male Wistar rats (n=30) were treated with PBS, muscimol or ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, bilaterally in DMH and later, with an icv injection of TsTX, or treated only with PBS in both regions. TsTX evoked a marked increase in mean arterial pressure and heart rate in all control rats. Interestingly, injection of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, did not change the pressor and tachycardic responses evoked by TsTX. Remarkably, the injection ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists in DMH abolished the pressor and the tachycardic response evoked by TsTX. Our data suggest that the central circuit recruited by TsTX, whose activation results in an array of physiological and behavioral alterations, depend on the activation of DMH ionotropic glutamate receptors. Moreover, our data provide new insights on the central mechanisms involved in the development of symptoms in the severe scorpion envenomation syndrome.

  18. Brainstem structures are primarily affected in an experimental model of severe scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Cash, Diana; Drumond, Luciana Estefani; de Souza E Rezende, Gustavo Henrique; Massensini, André Ricardo; Williams, Steve Charles Rees; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Mesquita, Michel Bernanos Soares

    2014-01-01

    Severe scorpion envenoming (SSE) is more frequent in children and is characterized by systemic dysfunctions with a mortality rate of up to 9%. Recent evidence shows that the central nervous system (CNS) plays a key role in triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE. The age-dependent role of the CNS in SSE lethality may be summarized in 3 hypotheses: (1) the shown increased blood brain barrier permeability of infants to the toxins would especially and primarily compromise neurovegetative control areas, (2) the neurons within these areas have high affinity to the toxins, and (3) the neurovascular interaction is such that SSE metabolically compromises proper function of toxin-targeted areas. A pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to evaluate localized hemodynamic changes in relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) for 30 min after the injection of TsTX, the most lethal toxin from the venom of the Tityus serrulatus scorpion. The brainstem showed significant rCBV reduction 1 min after TsTX administration, whereas rostral brain areas had delayed increase in rCBV (confirmed by laser Doppler measurements of cortical cerebral blood flow). Moreover, metabolic activity by 14C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography showed the highest relative increase at the brainstem. To test whether TsTX has high affinity to brainstem neurons, the lateral ventricle was injected with Alexa Fluor 568 TsTX. Although some neurons showed intense fluorescence, the labeling pattern suggests that specific neurons were targeted. Altogether, these results suggest that brainstem areas involved in neurovegetative control are most likely within the primary structures triggering the cascade of symptoms present in SSE.

  19. Tityustoxin-K(alpha) blockade of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Aldo Rogelis A; Arantes, Eliane C; Monje, Francisco; Stuhmer, Walter; Varanda, Wamberto Antonio

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the action of TsTX-Kα on cloned Kv1.3 channels of the Shaker subfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels, using the voltage–clamp technique. Highly purified TsTX-Kα was obtained from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus using a new purification protocol. Our results show that TsTX-Kα blocks Kv1.3 with high affinity in two expression systems. TsTX-Kα blockade of Kv1.3 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes was found to be completely reversible and to exhibit a pH dependence. The KD was 3.9 nM at pH 7.5, 9.5 nM at pH 7.0 and 94.5 nM at pH 6.5. The blocking properties of TsTX-Kα in a mammalian cell line (L929), stably transfected to express Kv1.3, were studied using the patch–clamp technique. In this preparation, the toxin had a KD of 19.8 nM at pH 7.4. TsTX-Kα was found to affect neither the voltage-dependence of activation, nor the activation and deactivation time constants. The block appeared to be independent of the transmembrane voltage and the toxin did not interfere with the C-type inactivation process. Taken as a whole, our findings indicate that TsTX-Kα acts as a simple blocker of Kv1.3 channels. It is concluded that this toxin is a useful tool for probing not only the physiological roles of Kv1.2, but also those mediated by Kv1.3 channels. PMID:12871837

  20. In Vitro Activity of Isavuconazole and Comparators against Clinical Isolates of the Mucorales Order

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Meletiadis, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (≤0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (≤0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (≤0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (≤0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for

  1. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  2. Cestodes from deep-water squaliform sharks in the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caira, Janine N.; Pickering, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The majority of our knowledge on marine tapeworms (cestodes) is limited to taxa that are relatively easy to obtain (i.e., those that parasitize shallower-water species). The invitation to participate in a deep-water research survey off the Condor seamount in the Azores offered the opportunity to gain information regarding parasites of the less often studied sharks of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zone. All tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) found parasitizing the spiral intestine of squaliform shark species (Elasmobranchii: Squaliformes) encountered as part of this survey, as well as some additional Azorean sampling from previous years obtained from local fishermen are reported. In total, 112 shark specimens of 12 species of squaliform sharks representing 4 different families from depths ranging between 400 and 1290 m were examined. Cestodes were found in the spiral intestines from 11 of the 12 squaliform species examined: Deania calcea, D. cf. profundorum, D. profundorum, Etmopterus princeps, E. pusillus, E. spinax, Centroscyllium fabricii, Centroscymnus coelolepis, C. cryptacanthus, C. crepidater, and Dalatias licha. No cestodes were found in the spiral intestines of Centrophorus squamosus. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed several potentially novel trypanorhynch and biloculated tetraphyllidean species. Aporhynchid and gilquiniid trypanorhynchs dominated the adult cestode fauna of Etmopterus and Deania host species, respectively, while larval phyllobothriids were found across several host genera, including, Deania, Centroscyllium, and Centroscymnus. These results corroborate previous findings that deep-water cestode faunas are relatively depauperate and consist primarily of trypanorhynchs of the families Gilquiniidae and Aporhynchidae and larval tetraphyllideans. A subset of specimens of most cestode species was preserved in ethanol for future molecular analysis to allow more definitive determinations of the identification of the

  3. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, John P. Y.; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A.; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development. PMID:26132329

  4. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cherel, Yves; Knox, Travis C.; Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus), which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (< 220 km) to the breeding colony. Accordingly, both genders exhibited similar plasma and red cell δ13C values. However, males exhibited greater δ13C intra-individual variation along the length of their whisker than females. This suggests that males exploited a greater diversity of foraging habitats throughout the year than their female counterparts, which are restricted in their foraging grounds by the need to regularly return to the breeding colony to suckle their pup. The degree of dietary sexual segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats), the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values, suggesting they

  5. PCR screening of tick-borne agents in sensitive conservation areas, Southeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Melo, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Antunes, Sandra; Duarte, Luís Raposo; Ferrolho, Joana; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Patrícia Tavares; Domingos, Ana; Santos, Ana Sofia

    2017-02-01

    The Southeast region of Portugal, particularly the Guadiana valley, is currently the reintroduction territory of Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx), one of the most endangered felids in the world that is only found in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last century, populations have declined, placing L. pardinus at extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and relying on reintroduction projects. Among the aspects taken into account in the establishment of new populations is the sanitary status of the selected habitats, especially concerning infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens (TBPs). This study presents the results of TBPs survey on ticks collected at sensitive conservation areas of Southeast Portugal. From 2012 to 2014, 231 ticks obtained from vegetation, sympatric domestic and wild animals were submitted for analysis. The presence of Babesia spp., Cytauxzoon spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, among other Anaplasmataceae, and Coxiella burnetii were investigated by PCR. Six tick species were recorded, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 13/5.6%), Hyalomma lusitanicum (n = 175/75.8%), Ixodes ricinus (n = 4/1.7%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 7/3.0%), R. pusillus (n = 21/9.1%) and R. sanguineus sensu lato (n = 11/4.8%). The molecular screening confirmed the presence of two tick-borne pathogens, C. burnetii (N = 34) and Anaplasma platys (N = 1), and one tick-endosymbiont, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii (N = 45). The results obtained provide new information on the circulation of ticks and TBPs with potential veterinary importance in Iberian lynx habitat.

  6. Ectoparasites of the endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Márquez, F J; Viota, M; López-Bao, J V; Paz Martín-Mateo, M

    2007-09-01

    Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Doñana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Pérez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other

  7. Large serological survey showing cocirculation of Ebola and Marburg viruses in Gabonese bat populations, and a high seroprevalence of both viruses in Rousettus aegyptiacus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Ebola and Marburg viruses cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Recently, bats of multiple species have been identified as possible natural hosts of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) in Gabon and Republic of Congo, and also of marburgvirus (MARV) in Gabon and Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods We tested 2147 bats belonging to at least nine species sampled between 2003 and 2008 in three regions of Gabon and in the Ebola epidemic region of north Congo for IgG antibodies specific for ZEBOV and MARV. Results Overall, IgG antibodies to ZEBOV and MARV were found in 4% and 1% of bats, respectively. ZEBOV-specific antibodies were found in six bat species (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, Myonycteris torquata, Micropteropus pusillus, Mops condylurus and Rousettus aegyptiacus), while MARV-specific antibodies were only found in Rousettus aegyptiacus and Hypsignathus monstrosus. The prevalence of MARV-specific IgG was significantly higher in R. aegyptiacus members captured inside caves than elsewhere. No significant difference in prevalence was found according to age or gender. A higher prevalence of ZEBOV-specific IgG was found in pregnant females than in non pregnant females. Conclusion These findings confirm that ZEBOV and MARV co-circulate in Gabon, the only country where bats infected by each virus have been found. IgG antibodies to both viruses were detected only in Rousettus aegyptiacus, suggesting that this bat species may be involved in the natural cycle of both Marburg and Ebola viruses. The presence of MARV in Gabon indicates a potential risk for a first human outbreak. Disease surveillance should be enhanced in areas near caves. PMID:19785757

  8. Trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean based on stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, M.; Olivar, M. P.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Molí, B.; Bernal, A.; Sweeting, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    Mesopelagic fishes play an important role in the transfer of organic material in the photic zone to depth although the trophodynamic partitioning amongst co-existing and presumably competing species is unclear. This study employs combined carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) of the 18 most abundant western Mediterranean mesopelagic fishes to explore niche partitioning in this group. Sampling was conducted along the water column from the shelf and slope grounds of the Balearic Islands in two contrasting periods (late autumn and summer). Trophodynamics were explored at assemblage level and at inter- and intra-species resolutions respectively using Bayesian diet mixing models and size specific behaviour respectively. Seasonal δ13C differences in near basal particulate organic matter (POM) and zooplankton fractions were almost directly replicated in higher fauna suggesting strong isotopic coupling between mesopelagic fishes and planktonic production. Despite reliance on similar basal production, species were segregated by trophic position with a graduation from 2.9 for the small Gonostomatidae Cyclothone braueri to 4.0 for the Myctophidae Lobianchia dofleini. Mixing model data reflected basic trophic position estimates with higher contributions of small fish and zooplankton/POM in higher and lower trophic level species respectively. Species could be categorized as showing preference for i) mesozooplankton/POM as for C. braueri, (in the lower TrL), ii) euphausiids and fish prey as for L. dofleini and the near bottom Lampanyctus crocodilus (in the upper TrL) and iii) mesozooplankton/euphausiids as Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lampanyctus pusillus or the migrating L. crocodilus. There was little evidence of size based inter-population trophodynamics, with size-isotope trends explained by co-varying lipid content.

  9. Coding the echinoid skeleton - a quasimetric description of complex taphonomic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, Tobias; Nebelsick, James

    2016-04-01

    Taphonomic pathways determine the contribution of organisms remains to the fossil record. Skeletons which experience strong taphonomic processes can either be filtered out before they become fossilized or are highly affected and thus potentially bias paleontological analyses. The echinoid test is a multi-element skeleton and features a variety of micro- and macrostructural surface characters such as tubercles, ambulacral pores, genital pores and variations in stereom morphology. Although all characters are exposed to the environment, stereom differentiation as well as the spatial character distribution on the test can result in a range of taphonomic alteration grades on a single specimen. The present study is based on 1052 test of the minute clypeasteroid echinoid Echinocyamus pusillus from the Mediterranean Sea and is analyzed for fragmentation, encrustation as well as the abrasion of tubercles, stereom surface as well as genital- and ambulacral pores. The use of character coding including both taphonomic grades as well as spatial distributions of specific characters on the test results in a quasimetric and numerical description of taphonomic abrasion grades. These values can be handled as interval-scaled data thus enabling bi- and multivariate statistical analysis. Results show that the Mediterranean Echinocyamus tests are generally well preserved; abrasion values are low, fragmentation and encrustation is rare. A comparison of the surface characters shows that abrasion grades of the tubercles are higher than that of the surface stereom or pore margins. Exposed tubercles show significantly higher abrasion grades than sheltered tubercles of the peristomal area. Analysis also indicate that abrasion values increase significantly with increasing encrustation levels, which can be due to the fact that incrusting organisms cross plate boundaries and thus strengthen the structural integrity of the echinoid tests.

  10. The effects of leaf roughness, surface free energy and work of adhesion on leaf water drop adhesion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Li, Yangyang; Wang, Yanhui

    2014-01-01

    The adhesion of water droplets to leaves is important in controlling rainfall interception, and affects a variety of hydrological processes. Leaf water drop adhesion (hereinafter, adhesion) depends not only on droplet formulation and parameters but also on the physical (leaf roughness) and physico-chemical (surface free energy, its components, and work-of-adhesion) properties of the leaf surface. We selected 60 plant species from Shaanxi Province, NW China, as experimental materials with the goal of gaining insight into leaf physical and physico-chemical properties in relation to the adhesion of water droplets on leaves. Adhesion covered a wide range of area, from 4.09 to 88.87 g/m(2) on adaxial surfaces and 0.72 to 93.35 g/m(2) on abaxial surfaces. Distinct patterns of adhesion were observed among species, between adaxial and abaxial surfaces, and between leaves with wax films and wax crystals. Adhesion decreased as leaf roughness increased (r =  -0.615, p = 0.000), but there were some outliers, such as Salix psammophila and Populus simonii with low roughness and low adhesion, and the abaxial surface of Hyoscyamus pusillus and the adaxial surface of Vitex negundo with high roughness and high adhesion. Meanwhile, adhesion was positively correlated with surface free energy (r = 0.535, p = 0.000), its dispersive component (r = 0.526, p = 0.000), and work of adhesion for water (r = 0.698, p = 0.000). However, a significant power correlation was observed between adhesion and the polar component of surface free energy (p = 0.000). These results indicated that leaf roughness, surface free energy, its components, and work-of-adhesion for water played important roles in hydrological characteristics, especially work-of-adhesion for water.

  11. Above- and below-ground vertebrate herbivory may each favour a different subordinate species in an aquatic plant community.

    PubMed

    Hidding, Bert; Nolet, Bart A; de Boer, Thijs; de Vries, Peter P; Klaassen, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    At least two distinct trade-offs are thought to facilitate higher diversity in productive plant communities under herbivory. Higher investment in defence and enhanced colonization potential may both correlate with decreased competitive ability in plants. Herbivory may thus promote coexistence of plant species exhibiting divergent life history strategies. How different seasonally tied herbivore assemblages simultaneously affect plant community composition and diversity is, however, largely unknown. Two contrasting types of herbivory can be distinguished in the aquatic vegetation of the shallow lake Lauwersmeer. In summer, predominantly above-ground tissues are eaten, whereas in winter, waterfowl forage on below-ground plant propagules. In a 4-year exclosure study we experimentally separated above-ground herbivory by waterfowl and large fish in summer from below-ground herbivory by Bewick's swans in winter. We measured the individual and combined effects of both herbivory periods on the composition of the three-species aquatic plant community. Herbivory effect sizes varied considerably from year to year. In 2 years herbivore exclusion in summer reinforced dominance of Potamogeton pectinatus with a concomitant decrease in Potamogeton pusillus, whereas no strong, unequivocal effect was observed in the other 2 years. Winter exclusion, on the other hand, had a negative effect on Zannichellia palustris, but the effect size differed considerably between years. We suggest that the colonization ability of Z. palustris may have enabled this species to be more abundant after reduction of P. pectinatus tuber densities by swans. Evenness decreased due to herbivore exclusion in summer. We conclude that seasonally tied above- and below-ground herbivory may each stimulate different components of a macrophyte community as they each favoured a different subordinate plant species.

  12. Temperature shifts for extraction and purification of zygomycetes chitosan with dilute sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Akram; Edebo, Lars; Niklasson, Claes; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-08-13

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8-10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%.

  13. A prospective study of mucormycosis in north India: experience from a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Bala, Kiran; Chander, Jagdish; Handa, Uma; Punia, Rajpal Singh; Attri, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging angioinvasive infection caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the Order Mucorales and class of Mucormycetes. We conducted a prospective study of 38 patients who were diagnosed as having mucormycosis in a tertiary care hospital during January 2010 to June 2011. The cases were analyzed regarding the site of involvement, underlying disease and species of fungi isolated, antifungal susceptibility pattern of the isolates, and outcome of therapy. The mean age of the patients was 40.43 years, with 72% male. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis (61.5%) was the most common presentation followed by cutaneous manifestations (31%), gastrointestinal symptoms (5%), and pulmonary (2.5%). Diabetes mellitus (56%) was the significant risk factor in rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation (OR = 7.55, P = 0.001). Among 23 culture isolates, Rhizopus arrhizus (37.5%) was the most common, followed by Apophysomyces variabilis (29.2%), Lichtheimia ramosa (16.7%), Rhizopus microsporus (4.2%), Rhizomucor pusillus (4.2%), and Apophysomyces elegans (4.2%). Rhizopus arrhizus was most commonly isolated from rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis and Apophysomyces species were generally obtained from cutaneous mucormycosis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility showed that 16 isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B (MIC less than 1 μg/ml), while in contrast, all isolates were found to be resistant to voriconazole (MIC- 0.25 to >8), fluconazole (MIC > 32), flucytosine (MIC > 32). Treatment regimens included antifungal therapy, reversal of underlying predisposing risk factors, and surgical debridement. Combination of surgery and medical treatment with amphotericin B was significantly better (OR = 0.2, P < 0.04) than amphotericin B alone (61.5% vs. 10.3% patient survival). The awareness of fungal diseases amongst clinicians is required to decrease the fatal outcome of disease.

  14. Biochronological implications of the Arvicolidae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Lower Pleistocene hominid-bearing level of Trinchera Dolina 6 (TD6, Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Bescós, G; Laplana, C; Canudo, J I

    1999-01-01

    Level TD6 of the Trinchera Dolina Section in the railway cutting of the Sierre de Atapuerca (Trinchera del Ferrocarril) has yielded a rich small mammal assemblage (26 species) in association with fossil human remains of Homo antecessor. The arvicolids of TD6 are identified as: Mimomys savini, Microtus seseae, Stenocranius gregaloides, Terricola arvalidens, Iberomys huescarensis, Allophaiomys chalinei, and Pliomys episcopalis. The rodent association also includes large rodents (i.e., Castor fiber, Marmota sp., and Hystrix refossa) and the small Allocricetus sp., Eliomys helleri, Micromys minutus, and Apodemus aff. flavicollis. The small vertebrate remains also include Insectivora (Beremendia fissidens, Sorex sp, Neomys sp., Crocidura sp., Galemys sp., Talpa sp., Erinaceus sp.), Chiroptera (Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis sp., Rhinolophus sp.), and Lagomorpha (Oryctolagus sp., Lepus sp.), as well as lizards, birds and amphibians. The H. antecessor remains are derived from a 15 cm thick layer at the top of TD6 (TD6-T36-43), where A. chalinei, H. refossa and Marmota sp. do not occur. The paleomagnetic Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is found in the overlying level TD7 of the Gran Dolina Section. On the basis of the arvicolids, TD6 can be referred to the Biharian biochron. The Matuyama/Brunhes boundary is fixed in the late Biharian (Microtus-Mimomys rodent Superzone). The species M. savini (without M. pusillus), as well as the evolutionary stage of Microtus s.l., are characteristic of the Late Biharian. The evolutionary level of the species M. savini, T. arvalidens, S. gregaloides indicates that TD6 is older than West Runton (type Cromerian). In the Trinchera Dolina Section we are able to calibrate, for the first time, the evolutionary level of important biochronological markers with magnetostratigraphy. We propose that a radiation of Microtus s.l., along with the first appearance of primitive S. gregaloides, T. arvalidens and Iberomys, took place just before the Matuyama

  15. A review of heavy metal and organochlorine levels in marine mammals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kemper, C; Gibbs, P; Obendorf, D; Marvanek, S; Lenghaus, C

    1994-09-16

    Study of toxic contaminants in marine mammal specimens collected around Australia is currently uncoordinated and piecemeal. Most states collect samples but there is little or no financial support for their analysis. This study combines data, published or unpublished, from 13 sources. Heavy metals have been analysed in about 676 specimens; over 400 were for mercury levels in P. macrocephalus taken at a whaling station. The remaining samples were mostly from toothed whales, a few baleen whales (< 20), pinnipeds (41) and dugongs (49). The most consistently analysed metals were lead, mercury and cadmium. Liver and kidney lead levels ranged from < 1-3 ppm; levels in bone were 0-418 ppm, with most less than 10 ppm. Mercury levels in a large sample of P. macrocephalus muscle were < 12.2 ppm. Mercury levels in the small number of samples from other species were 0.51-143 ppm (kidney), 1.52-479 ppm (liver) and < 0.1-36 ppm (muscle). Cadmium levels in liver (0-52 ppm) and kidney (0-106 ppm) were extremely variable. Levels greater than 10 ppm were recorded in many species and were especially high in Hydrurga leptonyx, Dugong dugon, Mesoplodon layardii and Pseudorca crassidens. Adult Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the inshore gulfs of South Australia had considerably higher levels of cadmium compared with other regions. Information on organochlorine levels is sparse (approximately 39 specimens) and suggest low levels when compared to other parts of the world. Total DDT was highest (28.4 ppm) in a neonatal Orcinus orca. Some high levels of DDT were recorded in Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus. PCBs ranged from < 0.05 to 3.87 ppm. A comprehensive pathological assessment of marine mammals is needed in order to evaluate the effects of toxic contaminants.

  16. Morphological and genetic diversity of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato from the New and Old Worlds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The taxonomic status of the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu stricto), which has long been regarded as the most widespread tick worldwide and a vector of many pathogens to dogs and humans, is currently under dispute. Methods We conducted a comprehensive morphological and genetic study of 278 representative specimens, which belonged to different species (i.e., Rhipicephalus bursa, R. guilhoni, R. microplus, R. muhsamae, R. pusillus, R. sanguineus sensu lato, and R. turanicus) collected from Europe, Asia, Americas, and Oceania. After detailed morphological examination, ticks were molecularly processed for the analysis of partial mitochondrial (16S rDNA, 12S rDNA, and cox1) gene sequences. Results In addition to R. sanguineus s.l. and R. turanicus, three different operational taxonomic units (namely, R. sp. I, R. sp. II, and R. sp. III) were found on dogs. These operational taxonomical units were morphologically and genetically different from R. sanguineus s.l. and R. turanicus. Ticks identified as R. sanguineus s.l., which corresponds to the so-called “tropical species” (=northern lineage), were found in all continents and genetically it represents a sister group of R. guilhoni. R. turanicus was found on a wide range of hosts in Italy and also on dogs in Greece. Conclusions The tropical species and the temperate species (=southern lineage) are paraphyletic groups. The occurrence of R. turanicus in the Mediterranean region is confirmed. A consensual re-description of R. sanguineus s.s. and R. turanicus will be necessary to solve the taxonomic problems within the so-called R. sanguineus group. PMID:23880226

  17. Monitoring avian productivity and survivorship (MAPS) 5-year summary, Naval Outlying Landing Field, Imperial Beach, southwestern San Diego County, California, 2009-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynn, Suellen; Madden, Melanie C.; Houston, Alexandra; Kus, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    During 2009–13, a Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) banding station was operated at the Naval Outlying Landing Field (NOLF), Imperial Beach, in southwestern San Diego County, California. The station was established as part of a long-term monitoring program of Neotropical migratory bird populations on NOLF and helps Naval Base Coronado (NOLF is a component) meet the goals and objectives of Department of Defense Partners in Flight program and the Birds and Migratory Birds Management Strategies of the Naval Base Coronado Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan. During 2009–13, captures averaged 644 ±155 per year. Fifty-seven species were captured, of which 44 are Neotropical migratory species and 33 breed at the MAPS station. Twenty-two sensitive species were detected, including Least Bell’s Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). Local population trends varied among species and years, as did annual productivity (number of young per adult). We found no significant relationship between productivity and the observed population size in the subsequent year for any species, nor did we find an association between productivity and precipitation for the current bio-year. Similarly, survivorship varied across species and years, and there was no obvious relationship between adult survivorship and observed population size for any species except Wrentit (Chamaea fasciata), for which the relationship was positive. Adult survivorship was unrelated to precipitation at the MAPS station. Additional years of data will be required to generate sample sizes adequate for more rigorous analyses of survivorship and productivity as predictors of population growth.

  18. Taphonomic pathways and environmental differentiation based on the clypeasteroid echinoid Echinocyamus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, Tobias; Nebelsick, James

    2015-04-01

    Taphonomic pathways that dictate the preservation of skeletal components differ along environmental gradients. Understanding preservation potentials within different habitats are key factors in reconstructing paleoenvironments. Actualistic studies allow for direct correlation of taphonomic features with environmental parameters serving as models for fossil analogies. This study concentrates on a single genus of clypeasteroid echinoids thus alleviating the influence of differential skeletal architectures on taphonomic pathways. The goal of this study is to gain detailed information on the alteration and preservation of recent examples and their variations with respect to environmental conditions with the goal of applying this knowledge to fossil populations. Numerous tests of the minute clypeasteroid echinoid Echinocyamus pusillus were collected from the Island of Giglio (Mediterranean Sea) from various depths and environments. The tests were analyzed for taphonomic alteration including the abrasion of the (1) tubercles, (2) stereom and (3) genital and ambulacral pores. The preservation of the (4) ambitus and the (5) test were also analyzes as well as the degree of (5) encrustation and (6) fragmentation. When drillholes of predatory gastropods were present, these were analyzed for the (7) drillhole outline and (8) cross-section. These features were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively and subjected to statistical analysis. Results indicate that most tests show a rather good preservation with individuals from sheltered areas featuring a low grade of tubercle and stereom abrasion. Pores are mostly not affected and the encrustation rate is low. Areas with higher wave activities yield individuals which features higher abrasion grades. Pores are more often affected than in sheltered areas, while the encrustation rate is significantly lower. Drillholes are generally robust to abrasion, since almost all drillhole outlines and the concave cross-sections are well

  19. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  20. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  1. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  2. Selection and processing of the spatial enhanced multispectral Landsat TM images - comparison between the results from merged and source data. (Polish Title: Selekcja i przetwarzanie wzmocnionych przestrzennie obrazów wielospektralnych Landsat TM - porównanie wyników opartych o dane scalone i dane zródłowe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirowski, T.; Szczaciuk, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents results of merging lower-resolution spectral data (Landsat, 30m) with panchromatic images of higher spatial resolution (IRS 5.8m). During the first stage of the research, thirty methods of merging satellite data (including their variants) have been tested. The first assessment was based on statistical measures covering spectral distortion and spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The second assessment was based on the color composite factors essential for photo interpretation. Comparing both obtained ranks of methods revealed substantial differences in their assessed spectral distortion. On the other hand, there appeared similarities in the obtained values for the spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The reasons of such discrepancies were defined. The research allowed appointing the HPF (High Pass Filter) and LCM (Local Correlation Modeling) methods as the best according to the tested factors. In the second part of the research, the applicability of the selected methods was tested. Information content of color composites was analyzed as well as tresholding and band ratioing. In the tests there were used images fused through five merging methods: HPF, LCM, IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation), PCA (Principal Components Analysis) and WMK (based on band ratioing and having specific photo interpretation features). The findings of the research suggest that none of the merging algorithms provide universal solution. Depending on the data processing technique used, the best results are based on images obtained from various integration methods. It means that the method ranks do not correspond with method applicability. Methods appointed as the best ones obtain poor results in some tests and methods which came low in the rank received high rank in some tests. If this conclusion becomes confirmed, it might be necessary to revise the assessment methods of merged images.

  3. Comparison of point clouds derived from aerial image matching with data from airborne laser scanning. (Polish Title: Porównanie wóaściwości chmury punktów wygenerowanej metodą dopasowania obrazów zdjęć lotniczych z danymi z lotniczego skanowania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, W.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of point clouds derived from aerial image matching and to compare them with point clouds from airborne laser scanning. A set of aerial images acquired in years 2010-2013 over the city of Elblag were used for the analysis. Images were acquired with the use of three digital cameras: DMC II 230, DMC I and DigiCAM60 with a GSD varying from 4.5 cm to 15 cm. Eight sets of images that were used in the study were acquired at different stages of the growing season - from March to December. Two LiDAR point clouds were used for the comparison - one with a density of 1.3 p/m2 and a second with a density of 10 p/m2. Based on the input images point clouds were created with the use of the semi-global matching method. The properties of the obtained point clouds were analyzed in three ways: - by the comparison of the vertical accuracy of point clouds with reference to a terrain profile surveyed on bare ground with GPS-RTK method - by visual assessment of point cloud profiles generated both from SGM and LiDAR point clouds - by visual assessment of a digital surface model generated from a SGM point cloud with reference to a digital surface model generated from a LiDAR point cloud. The conducted studies allowed a number of observations about the quality of SGM point clouds to be formulated with respect to different factors. The main factors having influence on the quality of SGM point clouds are GSD and base/height ratio. The essential problem related to SGM point clouds are areas covered with vegetation where SGM point clouds are visibly worse in terms of both accuracy and the representation of terrain surface. It is difficult to expect that in these areas SGM point clouds could replace LiDAR point clouds. This leads to a general conclusion that SGM point clouds are less reliable, more unpredictable and are dependent on more factors than LiDAR point clouds. Nevertheless, SGM point clouds generated with appropriate parameters can have better accuracy than LiDAR point clouds and present more detailed information about the terrain surface.

  4. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  5. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  6. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy…

  7. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  8. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  9. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  10. Modèle numérique de terrain comme outil pour contrôler et mesurer l'érosion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevación como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosión por cárcavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  11. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents…

  12. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  13. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  14. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  15. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  16. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  17. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  18. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  19. Análise de Associação por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro Líquido, à Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de Células Somáticas na raça Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  20. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded.

  1. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  2. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-05

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  3. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  4. Feline and canine leishmaniosis and other vector-borne diseases in the Aeolian Islands: Pathogen and vector circulation in a confined environment.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Napoli, Ettore; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Annoscia, Giada; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Greco, Grazia; Lorusso, Eleonora; Gulotta, Laura; Falsone, Luigi; Basano, Fabrizio Solari; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Deuster, Katrin; Capelli, Gioia; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Brianti, Emanuele

    2017-03-15

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are prevalently investigated in dogs. Studies on feline VBDs are scant, though feline leishmaniosis (FeL) is increasingly recognised as a disease of cats in endemic areas. Comprehensive investigations on the distribution of VBDs in populations of cats and dogs living in relatively small geographical areas, such as islands, are currently lacking. In this study the prevalence of Leishmania infantum and other VBD pathogens was assessed in cohorts of cats and dogs living in the Aeolian Islands. Autochthonous animals (330 cats and 263 dogs) of different age and sex were sampled. Blood and conjunctival samples were collected from cats and dogs for serological and molecular testing. Eighty-five (25.8%) cats were positive for L. infantum, 13 (3.9%) for Bartonella spp. and 1 (0.3%) for Hepatozoon felis. One-hundred and ten dogs (41.8%) were positive for L. infantum and three (1.1%) for Hepatozoon canis. The incidence of L. infantum infection in cats positive after one season of exposure to sand fly was 14.7%. Leishmania infantum prevalence and year incidence were higher in dogs than in cats (p=0.0001 and p=0.0003, respectively). Thirty-four cats (10.3%) scored positive for ticks (mean intensity rate of infestation, 2.03±1.4), which were identified to the species level as Ixodes ventalloi and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Conversely, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) was the only species identified in dogs (10.6%). A larger prevalence of infestation by Ctenocephalides felis was recorded in cats (n=91; 27.6%) than in dogs (n=33; 12.5%) (p=0.0001). In addition, one female Nosopsyllus fasciatus (syn. Ceratophyllus fasciatus) and one male Spilopsyllus cuniculi were also identified in flea-infected cats. VBDs are endemic in the Aeolian Islands being L. infantum the most prevalent vector-borne pathogen circulating between cats and dogs. The overall seroprevalence of FeL herein recorded is higher than that assessed, only by IFAT, in populations of

  5. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-09

    finding its market in Jor- dan, Morocco, and Argentina . Outside of theBasque Country, he stresses Instalaza (Zaragoza), specializing in the Latin...30 por 100 J 3por100(Lf) fc 1por100(L$) (20) 4. £Cree qua las mujeres deben ir (2") SI ........... 36 poKlDO V No .......... 67 por 100

  6. Effect of dietary porphyran from the red alga, Porphyra yezoensis, on glucose metabolism in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Yuki; Murazumi, Koki; Duan, Jingjing; Kurose, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Porphyran (POR) from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis is a water soluble dietary fiber. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary POR on glucose metabolism in KK-Ay mice (a model for type 2 diabetes). Mice were divided into 4 groups and fed a diet containing 5% cellulose (control), POR, POR Arg or POR K. After 3 wk of feeding, plasma insulin levels and the calculated homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were significantly lower in the POR group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly increased in the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups. These results suggest that dietary POR should improve glucose metabolism in diabetes via up-regulation of adiponectin levels. In addition, the amount of propionic acid in the cecum of the POR group was significantly higher than in the control group and the profile of bacterial flora was changed by dietary POR. In the cecum of the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups, Bacteroides was significantly increased and Clostridium coccoides was significantly decreased compared with in the control group. The effects of dietary POR on the hindgut environment might contribute to the improvement of glucose metabolism.

  7. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Tylodinus Champion (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae: Tylodina) of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Luna-Cozar, Jesús; Anderson, Robert S; Jones, Robert W; León-Corté, Jorge L

    2014-04-15

    nodulosus species group (3) T. andersoni new species (Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1), T. nodulosus (Boheman), T. zilchi Kuschel; Tylodinus pusillus species group (2) T. porvenirensis new species (type locality: Chiapas, El Porvenir, El Porvenir (2 km NE)), T. pusillus new species (type locality: Chiapas, 4 km SE Custepec); Tylodinus spiniventris species group (2) T. lum new species (Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec), and T. spiniventris new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Reserva Huitepec); Incertae sedis (13) T. pinguis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1) , T. kissingeri new species (type locality: Chiapas, Tapalapa, ca. 14 km NE Coapilla), T. complicatus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, La Yerbabuena), T. dominicus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Corzo, Reserva de la Biósfera La Sepultura), T. noctis new species (type locality: Chiapas, Coapilla, ca. 10.5 km NE Coapilla), T. rufus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas, Cerro Huitepec); T. branstetteri new species (type locality: Chiapas, La Concordia, 4 km SE Custepec), T. kuscheli new species (type locality: Chiapas, Villa Flores, Ejido Sierra Morena), T. pappi new species (type locality: Chiapas, Unión Juárez, Volcán Tacan), T. gibbosus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán, Yerbabuena Reserve), T. immundus new species (type locality: Chiapas, San Cristóbal de las Casas Cerro Huitepec), T. intzin new species (type locality: Chiapas, Tenejapa, Yashanal), T. elongatus new species (type locality: Chiapas, Ángel Albino Corzo, Reserva El Triunfo, Polígono 1). Three species (T. nodulosus (Boheman), T. zilchi Kuschel and T. cavicrus Champion) are not known to occur in Chiapas but were included in this study to be more representative of inter- and intraspecific variation and to provide a

  8. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in

  9. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGES

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  10. Modulation of Energy Transfer into Sequential Electron Transfer upon Axial Coordination of Tetrathiafulvalene in an Aluminum(III) Porphyrin-Free-Base Porphyrin Dyad.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-09-08

    Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 × 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 × 10(9)-1.25 × 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+•)-AlPor(-•)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+•)-AlPor-H2Por(-•) radical pair.

  11. Monóxido de carbono

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La mayoria de los accidentes causados por envenenamiento por monoxido de carbono (CO) se producen en los hogares y estan relacionados a nuestras actividades diarias como cocinar y usar la calefaccion.

  12. Isolation of porphyran-degrading marine microorganisms from the surface of red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Sumi, Toshihisa; Yoshiki, Masahiro; Tsuruta, Yumi; Abe, Shin-ichi; Nishino, Shiduo; Sanematsu, Seigo; Koganemaru, Kazuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    Marine microorganisms degrading porphyran (POR) were found on the surface of thalli of Porphyra yezoensis. Fifteen crude microorganism groups softened and liquefied the surface of agar-rich plate medium. Among these, 11 microorganism groups degraded porphyran that consisted of sulfated polysaccharide in Porphyra yezoensis. Following isolation, 7 POR-degradable microorganisms were isolated from the 11 POR-degradable microorganism groups.

  13. 78 FR 27954 - Frontseating Service Valves From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... DunAn did not have reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, we preliminarily determine... potential shipments made by DunAn during the POR; CBP did not provide any evidence that contradicts DunAn's... determine that DunAn did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, the...

  14. Autonomous Vehicle Panel 2011 Pacific Operations Science and Technology Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    Transportable Robot System (MTRS) POR Multi- Mission Unmanned Ground Vehicle (MM- UGV) CDD Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS) POR...Battlefield Extraction Assist Robot (BEAR) Initiative Squad Multi- purpose Equipment Transport (SMET) CDD Exoskeleton (XOS) CDD Autonomous Mobility...Appliqué System (AMAS) CDD M160 Light Flail POR 3 CPD To be released Ground Robotics Capability Sets (photos are notional representations

  15. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR.

  16. Physical and biological characteristics of the pelagic system across Fram Strait to Kongsfjorden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hop, Haakon; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Svendsen, Harald; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Pavlov, Vladimir; Pavlova, Olga; Søreide, Janne E.

    2006-10-01

    The Fram Strait is very important with regard to heat and mass exchange in the Arctic Ocean, and the large quantities of heat carried north by the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) influence the climate in the Arctic region as a whole. A large volume of water and ice is transported through Fram Strait, with net water transport of 1.7-3.2 Sv southward in the East Greenland Current and a volume ice flux in the range of 0.06-0.11 Sv. The mean annual ice flux is about 866,000 km 2 yr -1. The Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden fjord system on the coast of Spitsbergen, or at the eastern extreme of Fram Strait, is mainly affected by the northbound transport of water in the WSC. Mixing processes on the shelf result in Transformed Atlantic Water in the fjords, and the advection of Atlantic water also carries boreal fauna into the fjords. The phytoplankton production is about 80 g C m -2 yr -1 in Fram Strait, and has been estimated both below and above this for Kongsfjorden. The zooplankton fauna is diverse, but dominated in terms of biomass by calanoid copepods, particularly Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus. Other important copepods include C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa and the smaller, more numerous Pseudocalanus ( P. minutus and P. acuspes), Microcalanus ( M. pusillus and M. pygmaeus) and Oithona similis. The most important species of other taxa appear to be the amphipods Themisto libellula and T. abyssorum, the euphausiids Thysanoessa inermis and T. longicaudata and the chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and Eukrohnia hamata. A comparison between the open ocean of Fram Strait and the restricted fjord system of Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden can be made within limitations. The same species tend to dominate, but the Fram Strait zooplankton fauna differs by the presence of meso- and bathypelagic copepods. The seasonal and inter-annual variation in zooplankton is described for Kongsfjorden based on the record during July 1996-2002. The ice macrofauna is much less diverse, consisting of a

  17. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  18. RNAi based simultaneous silencing of all forms of light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase genes result in the accumulation of protochlorophyllide in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2013-10-01

    Conversion of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) into chlorophyllide (Chlide), a key step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, is mediated by a light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). POR exists in multiple isoforms that share high degree of homology. RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach was used to suppress the expression of POR genes in order to study its role in the Chls biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants were devoid of chlorophyll pigments and resembled albino plants. Northern blot analysis confirmed the degradation of POR transcripts into 21-23 bp fragments. Pigment analysis showed the accumulation of various intermediate compounds of Chl biosynthesis pathway including Pchlide. However, no trace of chlorophyll was observed. As compared to wild type, POR-silenced plants accumulated larger (60%) amounts of Pchlide from its endogenous substrate. When leaf discs of WT and POR-silenced plants were treated with exogenous ALA both WT and POR-silenced plants accumulated large amounts of tetrapyrrolic intermediates demonstrating that Pchlide biosynthesis potential was not suppressed in POR-silenced plants. Upon illumination, WT plants photo-transformed large amounts of Pchlide to Chlide. However, POR-silenced plants almost completely failed to do so. Results demonstrate that the antisense approaches to drop expression of individual POR isoforms have provided valuable insights into the role of distinct PORs during greening. Moreover, data illustrate that the POR is the only enzyme that can convert the Pchlide to Chlide and there is no alternate enzyme that can substitute the POR in higher plants. Thus, this investigation describes ideal mechanism for the silencing of POR isozymes in tobacco.

  19. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  20. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency - a new form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V; Huang, Ningwu; Agrawal, Vishal; Miller, Walter L

    2008-01-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency, genital anomalies and bony malformations resembling the Antley- Bixler syndrome (a craniosynostosis syndrome), are likely to have P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency. Since our first report in 2004, about 26 recessive POR mutations have been identified in 50 patients. POR is the obligate electron donor to all microsomal (type II) P450 enzymes, including the steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1. POR deficiency may cause disordered sexual development manifested as genital undervirilization in 46,XY newborns as well as overvirilization in those who are 46,XX. This may be explained by impaired aromatization of fetal androgens which may also lead to maternal virilization and low urinary estriol levels during pregnancy. A role for the alternate 'backdoor' pathway of androgen biosynthesis, leading to dihydrotestosterone production bypassing androstenedione and testosterone, has been suggested in POR deficiency but remains unclear. POR variants may play an important role in drug metabolism, as most drugs are metabolized by hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes. However, functional assays studying the effects of specific POR mutations on steroidogenesis showed that several POR variants impaired CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1 activities to different degrees, indicating that each POR variant must be studied separately for each potential target P450 enzyme. Thus, the impact of POR mutations on drug metabolism by hepatic P450s requires further investigation.

  1. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments.

  2. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  3. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  4. 77 FR 58512 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... resulting benefit by POSCO's total free on board (f.o.b.) sales. See 19 CFR 351.525(b)(3). On this basis, we... attributable to the POR by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we determine a net... of exemptions by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we preliminarily...

  5. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris), southern white... available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\11\\ As a general matter,...

  6. ESHRE consensus on the definition of 'poor response' to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization: the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Ferraretti, A P; La Marca, A; Fauser, B C J M; Tarlatzis, B; Nargund, G; Gianaroli, L

    2011-07-01

    The definition presented here represents the first realistic attempt by the scientific community to standardize the definition of poor ovarian response (POR) in a simple and reproducible manner. POR to ovarian stimulation usually indicates a reduction in follicular response, resulting in a reduced number of retrieved oocytes. It has been recognized that, in order to define the poor response in IVF, at least two of the following three features must be present: (i) advanced maternal age or any other risk factor for POR; (ii) a previous POR; and (iii) an abnormal ovarian reserve test (ORT). Two episodes of POR after maximal stimulation are sufficient to define a patient as poor responder in the absence of advanced maternal age or abnormal ORT. By definition, the term POR refers to the ovarian response, and therefore, one stimulated cycle is considered essential for the diagnosis of POR. However, patients of advanced age with an abnormal ORT may be classified as poor responders since both advanced age and an abnormal ORT may indicate reduced ovarian reserve and act as a surrogate of ovarian stimulation cycle outcome. In this case, the patients should be more properly defined as 'expected poor responder'. If this definition of POR is uniformly adapted as the 'minimal' criteria needed to select patients for future clinical trials, more homogeneous populations will be tested for any new protocols. Finally, by reducing bias caused by spurious POR definitions, it will be possible to compare results and to draw reliable conclusions.

  7. Characterisation and immune responses to meningococcal recombinant porin complexes incorporated into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sandra; Abel, Ana; Marzoa, Juan; Gorringe, Andrew; Criado, Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2009-08-27

    We have analysed the structure of meningococcal outer membrane complexes and found that the main complexes are formed by different combinations of PorA and/or PorB molecules, associated to other proteins such as RmpM. In view of the growing knowledge of the importance of conformational epitopes in the immune responses to many pathogens, our aim in this study was to analyse the interactions of PorA and PorB by reconstitution of both recombinant porins into liposomes and determine the relevance of these interactions for the immune response. Recombinant PorA and PorB incorporated into liposomes associate forming complexes that are homomeric when only one of the porins is present, but heteromeric when both neisserial porins are present, mimicking those found previously in native outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Association of PorA and PorB to form heterocomplexes modifies the immunogenicity of at least PorB, allowing the production of antibodies that recognise conformational epitopes, and produces new epitopes that react with a 50 kDa outer membrane protein not yet identified.

  8. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: las incapacidades prolongadas no sólo tienen un alto costo económico sino también repercusiones en la productividad debido a la ausencia del trabajador. Objetivo: evaluar el costo del subsidio pagado por el Instituto Mexicano Seguro Social (IMSS) a los trabajadores que incapacita por hernia de disco. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo efectuado con trabajadores del IMSS a quienes se incapacita para no laborar por más de 14 días. El estudio se efectuó mediante la revisión de los registros asentados entre 2009-2011 de 1,070 trabajadores con incapacidad prolongada de los que 48 tuvieron diagnóstico de hernia de disco. Se cuantificaron los días totales de incapacidad, días subsidiados por incapacidad versus los días sugeridos por el consejero médico de incapacidades. Resultados: de los 48 pacientes con hernias de disco, 54% fueron cervicales y 65% recibieron tratamiento uirúrgico. Los días totales promedio de incapacidad por hernias de disco fueron 125 ± 84 y 24 (50%), respectivamente. De las que rebasaron las recomendadas por el consejero médico, 6 (26%) fueron por concordancia diagnóstica, 12 (52%) por diferimiento en el diagnóstico y 5 (22%) por dolor residual. El costo de las incapacidades laborales originadas por hernias de disco que rebasaron las sugeridas por el consejero médico fue de 683,026 pesos en comparación con 367,081 pesos que no rebasaron la recomendación de éste. Después de 12 meses de seguimiento, 9 casos (18.8%) seguían con incapacidad y 2 (4%) tuvieron pensión por invalidez. Conclusiones: el costo en subsidio por incapacidades a pacientes con hernia de disco se duplicó principalmente por diferimiento en el diagnóstico.

  9. Encapsulation of cobalt porphyrins in organically modified silica gel glasses and their nonlinear optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chan; Huang, Li; Li, Wei; Chen, Wenzhe

    2017-01-01

    2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphyrin Cobalt(II) (CoPor) was introduced into nanostructured organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) using a sol-gel technique. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were performed to investigate the morphology, structure, thermal stability, and linear optical properties of the resulting gel glasses. The FT-IR spectrum and UV-Vis spectra strongly indicated the formation of a silica gel glass network and the successful encapsulation of CoPor in ORMOSIL silica gel glasses, respectively. The introduction of guest CoPor molecules induces silica to form more condensed surface characteristics, owing to the fact that CoPor can promote the hydrolysis and polycondensation procedure, and hence have better thermal stability as compared to blank silica gel glasses. Meanwhile, the dimerization phenomenon in a liquid matrix can be effectively suppressed in a silica solid-state matrix and is attributed to the `cage protection effect.' The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of CoPor gel glasses were investigated using the open-aperture Z-scan technique at 532 nm. The NLO performance of CoPor-incorporated solid-state silica gel glasses has been improved in comparison with those dispersed in dimethylformamide solution. More significantly, the NLO properties of CoPor-doped ORMOSIL gel glasses can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the CoPor molecules.

  10. [Pure neural leprosy. Diagnostic aspects of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M; Ezsol-Lendvai, S; Rodriguez-Vazquez, M; Agudo-Mena, J L; Godes-Medrano, B

    2016-09-16

    Introduccion. La lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por la bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Presenta especial avidez por la piel y los troncos nerviosos, y, de hecho, ambos se afectan en la mayor parte de los infectados. Se trasmite por exposicion con enfermos y en ocasiones por reactivacion. Una posibilidad inhabitual es la lepra neural pura, caracterizada por neuropatia, pero sin lesiones en la piel. Se describe un paciente con lepra neural pura y se revisan los aspectos diagnosticos. Caso clinico. Varon de 40 años, inmigrante, diagnosticado y tratado de lepra 20 años antes. Acudio por parestesias y disestesias dolorosas en las manos y las piernas sin lesiones en la piel. Se demostro mononeuritis multiple aguda con principal afectacion de cubitales. La enfermedad, tipificada como tuberculoide paucibacilar, se trato y en pocas semanas la mejoria fue evidente. Conclusiones. En este caso de lepra neural pura por reactivacion, el diagnostico temprano permitio un rapido tratamiento. Es recomendable la evaluacion de la neuropatia integrada con criterios clinicos, electrofisiologicos y ecograficos. De este modo se consigue una alta sensibilidad y especialmente una precocidad en el diagnostico y la instauracion del tratamiento, y por consecuencia una mejor recuperacion funcional.

  11. Use of the Maximum Likelihood Method in the Analysis of Chamber Air Dives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    de probabilidad maxima para evaluar ci niesgo de enfermedad por des- t,- 1.WalersbyP. doeo (EPD) onimrinsd aaacnaire electivas. Sc optmz los...parametros -Medic Rcsearc dedsmodelos matemnaticos para predecir la EPD, hasta que se alcanzo el mejor critenio tute, 198 (medido por la probabilidad maxima

  12. Using MOMP typing as an epidemiological tool to investigate outbreaks caused by milkborne Campylobacter jejuni isolates in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe using major outer membrane protein (MOMP) typing as a screen to compare the C. jejuni porA gene sequences of clinical outbreak strains from human stool with the porA sequences of dairy farm strains isolated during two milkborne campylobacteriosis outbreak investigations in California. Th...

  13. Algunos Resumenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    En una sesion especial celebrada en Ginebra el dia 26 de marzo el Consejo de la ESO aeepto por unanimidad a Italia y Suiza eomo nuevos estados miembros de la organizaeion. Una vez que los proeedimientos necesarios para la ratifieaeion por las Camaras de ambos pafses hayan sido eoneluldos eon exito, podrfan ellos ser asoeiados efectivamente a prineipios dei ario 1981.

  14. 77 FR 47593 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Baosteel and Hunan Valin did not have reviewable transactions during the POR. Further, the Department preliminarily finds that because the other two respondents, Anshan and Liaoning, did not establish their... shipments of subject merchandise to the United States during the POR. In addition, CBP did not provide...

  15. 78 FR 29322 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final No Shipments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Jinneng''), did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. We gave interested parties an..., we continue to find that Shanghai Jinneng did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. \\1... Determination of No Shipments In the Preliminary Results, we preliminarily determined that Shanghai Jinneng...

  16. 76 FR 33204 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 6627 (February 10, 2010) (``SSSS from Mexico... the cost changes and the sales prices during the POR. See SSSS from Mexico at Comment 6 and SSPC from... between Borusan's changing costs and sales prices during the POR. See id. See also SSSS from Mexico...

  17. 25 CFR 900.112 - What are construction phases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... project Program of Requirements (POR); (3) The design phase. The phase during which licensed design professional(s) using the POR as the basis for design of the project, prepare project plans, specifications, and other documents that are a part of the construction documents used to build the project....

  18. Aerodinámica y béisbol

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA es conocida por la astronáutica y los aviones, pero ¿también por el Active béisbol? A los investigadores de la NASA les gusta resolver problemas prácticoscomo cuán lejos llegará una bola b...

  19. Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine (Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Forreiter, C; Apel, K

    1993-01-01

    Lower plants and gymnosperms synthesize chlorophyll and develop photosynthetically competent chloroplasts even when grown in the dark. In cell-free extracts of pine (Pinus mugo, Turra, ssp. mugo) seedlings, light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities are present. Two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR) polypeptides can be detected immunologically with an antiserum raised against the POR of barley. The subcellular localization and amounts of the two POR polypeptides are differentially affected by light: one of them is predominantly present in prolamellar bodies of etiochloroplasts and its abundance rapidly declines once the pine seedlings are exposed to light; the other is found in thylakoid membranes and its amount does not change during illumination of dark-grown seedlings. Two types of cDNA sequences are identified that encode two distinct POR polypeptides in pine. The relevance of these POR polypeptides for the two chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways active in gymnosperms is discussed.

  20. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Breast Cancer a Novel Application of an Etiologic Theory for Allergies, Asthma, and Other Immune Disorders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    acerca de alergias . Por alergias , estamos hablando de los siguientes síntomas: nariz constipada, ojos lagrimosos, congestión o estornudos, ahogo o asma...anafiláctico o alérgico B. ¿A qué edad notó por primera vez esta alergia ? C. ¿A que edad tuvo por última vez una reacción alérgica a polvo casero...alérgico B. ¿A qué edad noto por primera vez esta alergia ? C. ¿A qué edad tuvo por última vez una reacción alérgica a [animal]? D. ¿Cuántos

  1. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of four neurovirulent Mexican isolates of porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barrera, Ali A; Del Valle, Alberto; Montaño-Hirose, Juan A; Barrón, Blanca Lilia; Salinas-Trujano, Juana; Torres-Flores, Jesus

    2017-02-09

    We report the complete genome sequences of four neurovirulent isolates of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) from 2015 and one historical PorPV isolate from 1984 obtained by next-generation sequencing. A phylogenetic tree constructed using the individual sequences of the complete HN genes of the 2015 isolates and other historical sequences deposited in the GenBank database revealed that several recent neurovirulent isolates of PorPV (2008-2015) cluster together in a separate clade. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences revealed that the neurovirulent strains of PorPV that circulated in Mexico during 2015 are genetically different from the PorPV strains that circulated during the 1980s.

  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of potential immunogenic recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, Julieta Sandra; Rivera-Benítez, José Francisco; Hernández-Baumgarten, Eliseo; Hernández-Jaúregui, Pablo; Vega, Marco; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Berg, Mikael; Baule, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Blue eye disease caused by Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) is an endemic viral infection of swine causing neurological and respiratory disease in piglets, and reproductive failure in sows and boars. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of PorPV is the most abundant component in the viral envelope and the main target of the immune response in infected animals. In this study, we expressed the HN-PorPV-recombinant (rHN-PorPV) protein in an Escherichia coli system and analyzed the immune responses in mice. The HN gene was cloned from the reference strain PorPV-La Piedad Michoacan Virus (GenBank accession number BK005918), into the pDual expression vector. The expressed protein was identified at a molecular weight of 61.7 kDa. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the main conformational and functional domains of the rHN-PorPV protein were preserved. The antigenicity of the expressed protein was confirmed by Western blot with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the HN, and by testing against serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with PorPV. The immunogenicity of the rHN-PorPV protein was tested by inoculation of BALB/c mice with AbISCO-100(®) as adjuvant. Analysis of the humoral immune responses in mice showed an increased level of specific antibodies 14 days after the first immunization, compared to the control group (P < 0.0005). The results show the ability of the rHN-PorPV protein to induce an antibody response in mice. Due to its immunogenic potential, the rHN-PorPV protein will be further evaluated in pig trials for its suitability for prevention and control of blue eye disease.

  3. Interannual variation and long-term trends in proportions of resident individuals in partially migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Meller, Kalle; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Hokkanen, Tatu; Rintala, Jukka; Piha, Markus; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    Partial migration - a part of a population migrates and another part stays resident year-round on the breeding site - is probably the most common type of migration in the animal kingdom, yet it has only lately garnered more attention. Theoretical studies indicate that in partially migratory populations, the proportion of resident individuals (PoR) should increase in high latitudes in response to the warming climate, but empirical evidence exists for few species. We provide the first comprehensive overview of the environmental factors affecting PoR and the long-term trends in PoR by studying 27 common partially migratory bird species in Finland. The annual PoR values were calculated by dividing the winter bird abundance by the preceding breeding abundance. First, we analysed whether early-winter temperature, winter temperature year before or the abundance of tree seeds just before overwintering explains the interannual variation in PoR. Secondly, we analysed the trends in PoR between 1987 and 2011. Early-winter temperature explained the interannual variation in PoR in the waterbirds (waterfowl and gulls), most likely because the temperature affects the ice conditions and thereby the feeding opportunities for the waterbirds. In terrestrial species, the abundance of seeds was the best explanatory variable. Previous winter's temperature did not explain PoR in any species, and thus, we conclude that the variation in food availability caused the interannual variation in PoR. During the study period, PoR increased in waterbirds, but did not change in terrestrial birds. Partially migratory species living in physically contrasting habitats can differ in their annual and long-term population-level behavioural responses to warming climate, possibly because warm winter temperatures reduce ice cover and improve the feeding possibilities of waterbirds but do not directly regulate the food availability for terrestrial birds.

  4. [The two faces of veno-arteriolar reflex: cutaneous vasodilatation and vasoconstriction to raise and to lower the arm].

    PubMed

    Estanol-Vidal, B; Gutierrez-Manjarrez, F; Martinez-Memije, R; Senties-Madrid, H; Berenguer-Sanchez, M J; Magana-Zamora, L; Delgado-Garcia, G; Chiquete-Anaya, E

    2016-05-01

    Introduccion. El reflejo venoarteriolar (RVA) lo provoca un incremento en la presion venosa transmural al colocar una parte del cuerpo en el sentido de la aceleracion gravitatoria por debajo del corazon. Objetivo. Evaluar el RVA en sujetos sanos al levantar una parte del cuerpo por encima del corazon. Sujetos y metodos. En 16 sujetos sanos (20-65 años) se estudio el RVA mediante cambios en el flujo sanguineo de la piel con un fotopletismografo digital infrarrojo colocado en el pulpejo en sujetos sanos durante las siguientes condiciones: brazo derecho a la altura del corazon, brazo derecho 40 cm por debajo del corazon y brazo derecho 40 cm por encima del corazon. Las variables medidas fueron: amplitud del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo a la altura del corazon (amplitud basal), porcentaje de disminucion del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por debajo del corazon y porcentaje de aumento del flujo sanguineo de la piel con el brazo por encima del corazon. Resultados. El porcentaje de vasoconstriccion con el brazo derecho por debajo del corazon fue del 35%, y el de vasodilatacion, del 50%. Conclusiones. La evaluacion del RVA con el brazo por debajo del corazon provoca vasoconstriccion, y la elevacion del brazo produce una importante vasodilatacion. La vasoconstriccion y la vasodilatacion se mantienen mientras la extremidad se mantenga por encima o por debajo del corazon. Este es un estudio potencialmente muy util y economico para estudiar la inervacion de la microcirculacion en diversas neuropatias perifericas de fibras delgadas y mixtas.

  5. Deletion of P399{sub E}401 in NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase results in partial mixed oxidase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Flueck, Christa E.; Mallet, Delphine; Hofer, Gaby; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Leger, Juliane; Polak, Michel; Morel, Yves; Pandey, Amit V.

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Mutations in human POR cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia. {yields} We are reporting a novel 3 amino acid deletion mutation in POR P399{sub E}401del. {yields} POR mutation P399{sub E}401del decreased P450 activities by 60-85%. {yields} Impairment of steroid metabolism may be caused by multiple hits. {yields} Severity of aromatase inhibition is related to degree of in utero virilization. -- Abstract: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the electron donor for all microsomal P450s including steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2. We found a novel POR mutation P399{sub E}401del in two unrelated Turkish patients with 46,XX disorder of sexual development. Recombinant POR proteins were produced in yeast and tested for their ability to support steroid metabolizing P450 activities. In comparison to wild-type POR, the P399{sub E}401del protein was found to decrease catalytic efficiency of 21-hydroxylation of progesterone by 68%, 17{alpha}-hydroxylation of progesterone by 76%, 17,20-lyase action on 17OH-pregnenolone by 69%, aromatization of androstenedione by 85% and cytochrome c reduction activity by 80%. Protein structure analysis of the three amino acid deletion P399{sub E}401 revealed reduced stability and flexibility of the mutant. In conclusion, P399{sub E}401del is a novel mutation in POR that provides valuable genotype-phenotype and structure-function correlation for mutations in a different region of POR compared to previous studies. Characterization of P399{sub E}401del provides further insight into specificity of different P450s for interaction with POR as well as nature of metabolic disruptions caused by more pronounced effect on specific P450s like CYP17A1 and aromatase.

  6. Diminished Ovarian Reserve (DOR) in the US ART Population: Diagnostic Trends Among 181,536 Cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS)

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Kate; Mumford, Sunni L.; Wu, Mae; DeCherney, Alan H.; Hill, Micah J.; Propst, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate trends in DOR assignment in the SART CORS database and to evaluate its accuracy in predicting poor ovarian response (POR) as defined in ESHRE’s ‘Bologna Criteria’ (2011). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Not applicable. Patients 181,536 fresh, autologous ART cycles reported to SART by US clinics in 2004 and 2011 (earliest and most recent available reporting years). Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) DOR assignment was the primary exposure. POR, defined as cycle cancellation for poor response or <4 oocytes retrieved following conventional gonadotropin stimulation (>149 IU FSH daily), was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were live birth and number of oocytes retrieved. DOR prevalence, power of DOR and FSH (POR, and live birth in POR cycles were also calculated. Results DOR prevalence increased from 19 to 26% from 2004 to 2011. Among cycles clinically assigned as DOR, incidence of POR decreased from 32 to 30%, and live birth improved from 15 to 17%. Comparing basal FSH ≥12 versus clinical assignment of DOR, basal FSH had a higher specificity (92.2% vs.81.6%) and PPV (38.3%vs.30.9%) for predicting POR. Live birth among POR cycles was 4%. Conclusions DOR diagnosis is increasing, and accuracy remains poor, despite the availability of additional diagnostic parameters such as antral follicle count and anti-mullerian hormone. POR entailed poor outcomes, but the majority of patients clinically assigned as DOR did not experience POR. Development and utilization of more accurate predictors of POR are needed to minimize patient distress resulting from over-diagnosis. PMID:26049057

  7. [Analysis of the causes leading to withdrawal of the treatment with triple antiviral therapy for hepatitis C patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Ramos, J; Lorente Fernández, L; Gil Gómez, I; Cueto Sola, M; Monte Boquet, E; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2014-05-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar las causas de suspensión de tratamientofrente a Hepatitis C que reciben triple terapia antiviral (peginterferon+ ribavirina + inhibidor de proteasa).Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de pacientes queiniciaron triple terapia antiviral entre enero 2012 - marzo 2013y suspendieron el tratamiento antes de completar el mismo.Resultados: De 156 pacientes que iniciaron triple terapia, 41interrumpieron el tratamiento: Diecinueve por toxicidad, siendodermatológica en siete pacientes (36,8%), intolerancia en seis(31,6%) y hematológica en cuatro (15,8%). Dieciséis pacientessuspendieron todo el tratamiento por ineficacia. El grupo depacientes con mayor porcentaje de fracasos por ineficacia fueronlos “no respondedores” (32,3%) mientras que el grupo depacientes “recidivantes” fueron el grupo con mayor porcentajede suspensiones por toxicidad (15,6%). Dos pacientes fallecierondurante el tratamiento por neumonía.Conclusiones: La triple terapia frente a VHC está asociada a unnúmero importante de fracasos terapéuticos tanto por toxicidadcomo por ineficacia.

  8. [Analysis of maternal deaths in Mexico occurred during 2009].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán; Meljem-Moctezuma, José; Vicente-González, Esther; Venegas-Páez, Francisco Vicente; Villalba-Espinoza, Ignacio; Pérez-Cardoso, Ana Luisa; Barrón-Saldaña, Dante Adrián; Montesinos-Gómez, Gabriela; Aguirre Güemez, Ana Valeria; Novoa-Boldo, Alejandro; Mendoza-Larios, Laura Alejandra; López-González, Rosa; Mazón-González, Betania; Aguirre-Gas, Héctor Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: en 2011 ocurrieron 955 defunciones maternas en México, 49.9 por 100 000 nacidos vivos. La meta de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para 2015 es reducir la tasa a 22.5: 560 defunciones anuales. Métodos: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo de 1257 muertes maternas ocurridas en México durante 2009, con una muestra representativa de 173 expedientes. Se calcularon frecuencias simples y porcentajes. Resultados: las muertes maternas ocurrieron por causas directas como preeclampsia-eclampsia, infección y hemorragia obstétrica secundaria a atonía uterina, acretismo placentario y placenta previa. Quince mujeres tuvieron complicaciones por abortos. Cuatro murieron por embarazo extrauterino debido a diagnóstico y tratamiento tardíos. Las causas indirectas de la muerte materna fueron neoplasias, sepsis abdominal, eventos vasculares, problemas metabólicos y cardiopatías. Veinticinco pacientes fallecieron por neumonía atípica y 11 por influenza A H1N1. Conclusiones: es factible disminuir la mortalidad materna mediante suficientes consultas prenatales de calidad y evitar embarazos con riesgo alto por los antecedentes obstétricos y los padecimientos asociados. La influenza A H1N1 interrumpió la tendencia descendente de la mortalidad materna.

  9. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  10. An ortholog of farA of Aspergillus nidulans is implicated in the transcriptional activation of genes involved in fatty acid utilization in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    SciTech Connect

    Poopanitpan, Napapol; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akinori

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} POR1 is a Yarrowia lipolytica ortholog of farA involved in fatty acid response in A. nidulans. {yields} Deletion of POR1 caused growth defects on fatty acids. {yields} {Delta}por1 strain exhibited defects in the induction of genes involved in fatty acid utilization. -- Abstract: The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica effectively utilizes hydrophobic substrates such as fatty acids and n-alkanes. To identify a gene(s) regulating fatty acid utilization in Y. lipolytica, we first studied homologous genes to OAF1 and PIP2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their disruption did not change growth on oleic acid at all. We next characterized a Y. lipolytica gene, POR1 (primary oleate regulator 1), an ortholog of farA encoding a transcriptional activator that regulates fatty acid utilization in Aspergillus nidulans. The deletion mutant of POR1 was defective in the growth on various fatty acids, but not on glucose, glycerol, or n-hexadecane. It exhibited slight defect on n-decane. The transcriptional induction of genes involved in {beta}-oxidation and peroxisome proliferation by oleate was distinctly diminished in the {Delta}por1 strains. These data suggest that POR1 encodes a transcriptional activator widely regulating fatty acid metabolism in Y. lipolytica.

  11. Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy; Lima, Daniel; Mason, Mary E; Apel, Klaus; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2012-03-01

    During skotomorphogenesis in angiosperms, NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) forms an aggregate of photolabile NADPH-POR-protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) ternary complexes localized to the prolamellar bodies within etioplasts. During photomorphogenesis, POR catalyzes the light-dependent reduction of Pchlide a to chlorophyllide (Chlide) a, which is subsequently converted to chlorophyll (Chl). In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis. During illumination, PORA is only transiently expressed, whereas PORB and PORC persist and are responsible for bulk Chl synthesis throughout plant development. Here we have tested whether PORA is important for skotomorphogenesis by assisting in etioplast development, and normal photomorphogenic development. Using reverse genetic approaches, we have identified the porA-1 null mutant, which contains an insertion of the maize Dissociation transposable element in the PORA gene. Additionally, we have characterized PORA RNAi lines. The porA-1 and PORA RNAi lines display severe photoautotrophic growth defects, which can be partially rescued on sucrose-supplemented growth media. Elimination of PORA during skotomorphogenesis results in reductions in the volume and frequency of prolamellar bodies, and in photoactive Pchlide conversion. The porA-1 mutant characterization thus establishes a quantitative requirement for PORA in etioplast development by demonstrating significant membrane ultrastructural and biochemical defects, in addition to suggesting PORA-specific functions in photomorphogenesis and plant development.

  12. Clinical, Genetic, and Enzymatic Characterization of P450 Oxidoreductase Deficiency in Four Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Huang, Ningwu; Tee, Meng Kian; Agrawal, Vishal; Russell, William E.; Crock, Patricia; Murphy, Nuala; Migeon, Claude J.; Miller, Walter L.

    2009-01-01

    Context: P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency causes disordered steroidogenesis; severe mutations cause genital ambiguity in both sexes plus the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome, whereas mild mutations can cause adult infertility. Objective: We describe four patients with POR deficiency and identify and characterize the activities of their mutations. A 46,XY male with micropenis and two 46,XX female infants with genital ambiguity presented with skeletal malformations, and a 46,XX adolescent presented with primary amenorrhea, elevated 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, and low sex steroids. Methods: The coding regions of the POR gene were sequenced, and the identified mutations were recreated in human POR cDNA expression vectors lacking 27 N-terminal residues. POR and human P450c17 were expressed in bacteria. POR activity was measured by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and support of the 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20 lyase activities of P450c17. Results: All four patients were compound heterozygotes for POR mutations, including five novel mutations: L577R, N185K, delE217, and frameshift mutations 1363delC and 697–698insGAAC. N185K and delE217 lacked measurable activity in the assays based on P450c17 but retained partial activity in the assays based on cytochrome c. As assessed by Vmax/Km, L577R supported 46% of 17α-hydroxylase activity but only 27% of 17,20 lyase activity. Computational modeling of these novel mutants revealed the structural basis for their reduced or absent activities. Conclusion: These patients illustrate the broad clinical spectrum of POR deficiency, including amenorrhea and infertility as the sole manifestation. POR assays based on P450c17 correlate well with hormonal and clinical phenotypes. PMID:19837910

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Bersano Benavides, Gonzalo; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Tumi Figueroa, Ernesto Nayer; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Sulla-Torres, Jose; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2016-03-25

    Objetivo: validar un cuestionario para medir la preocupación por la alimentación de los adolescentes, verificar la fiabilidad y desarrollar valores normativos en función de la edad, sexo y categoría. Metodología: se estudió a 3.121 (1.645 hombres y 1.476 mujeres) adolescentes de 11,0 a 18,9 años de cinco establecimientos municipales de la región del Maule, Chile. Se evaluó el peso, estatura y se calculó el índice de masa corporal. Se aplicó un cuestionario que mide la preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Se validó por análisis confirmatorio y la fiabilidad se determinó por consistencia interna. Resultados: el análisis factorial confirmó la presencia de cuatro factores (preocupación por la restricción de la comida, preocupación por el consumo de comida, preocupación por la forma de comer y preocupación por el peso corporal). Se eliminaron 5 preguntas que mostraron saturaciones inferiores a 0,39. El instrumento quedó conformado con 24 preguntas que explican 51,8% de la varianza. El alpha de Cronbach mostró valores entre 0,85 y 0,88. Se construyeron percentiles (p15, p50 y p85) a partir del método LMS para valorar la preocupación por la alimentación por categoría, edad y sexo. Conclusión: el instrumento desarrollado es válido y confiable y sirve para valorar el nivel de preocupación por la alimentación de adolescentes escolares. Además, las normas propuestas podrían servir a los profesionales del sistema educativo para llevar a cabo tareas de prevención con los jóvenes que evidencien bajos niveles de preocupación por su alimentación.

  14. Swinging Over the Water Hole

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    de una cuerda en el borde de un agujero de agua en x = 0, oscilando hacia arriba, y suelta la cuerda en algunos momentos, volando libremente por el...aire hasta que se sumerge en el agua en x = 0. Para pequeñas velocidades iniciales, el máximo rango de R se obtiene mediante la liberación de la...cuerda justo por debajo de su punto de inflexión y cayendo casi en línea recta hacia abajo en el agua desde el reposo. Por otra parte, como la velocidad

  15. Back Cover: NIH MedlinePlus Salud

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues NIH MedlinePlus Salud Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. ¡A su salud! Los Institutos Nacionales de la Salud (NIH, por ...

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of selenomethionine-labelled progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A

    2006-03-01

    Progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) catalyzes the reduction of progesterone to 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione and is the first stereospecific enzyme in the putative biosynthetic pathway of Digitalis cardenolides. Selenomethionine-derivatized 5beta-POR from D. lanata was successfully overproduced and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.73, c = 186.64 A. A MAD data set collected at 2.7 A resolution allowed the identification of six out of eight possible Se-atom positions. A first inspection of the MAD-phased electron-density map shows that 5beta-POR is a Rossmann-type reductase and the quality of the map is such that it is anticipated that a complete atomic model of 5beta-POR will readily be built.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of P450 oxidoreductase: implications in drug metabolism and therapy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Zhuo, Wei; He, Yi-Jing; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Fan, Lan

    2012-11-01

    The redox reaction of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) is an important physiological and biochemical reaction in the human body, as it is involved in the oxidative metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only obligate electron donor for all of the hepatic microsomal CYP enzymes. It plays a crucial role in drug metabolism and treatment by not only acting as an electron donor involved in drug metabolism mediated by CYP enzymes but also by directly inducing the transformation of some antitumor precursors. Studies have found that the gene encoding human POR is highly polymorphic, which is of considerable clinical significance as it affects the metabolism and curative effects of clinically used drugs. This review aims to discuss the effect of POR and its genetic polymorphisms on drug metabolism and therapy, as well as the potential mechanisms of POR pharmacogenetics.

  18. Neural tube defects and drinking water disinfection by-products.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J B; Pyrch, L A

    1999-07-01

    We conducted a population-based case control study of neural tube defects and drinking water contaminants, specifically, disinfection by-products. We used public monitoring records concurrent with the first month of gestation to assess exposure. The prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for the highest tertile of total trihalomethanes compared with the lowest was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9-2.70). Surface water source was also associated with neural tube defects (POR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.5). Sensitivity analyses restricted to isolated neural tube defect cases and mothers with known residence at conception yielded stronger associations [total trihalomethanes, POR = 2.1 (95% CI = 1.1-4.0); surface water, POR = 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9-3.2)]. Other major groups of disinfection by-products (haloacetic acids and haloacetonitriles) showed little relation to these defects.

  19. 75 FR 18788 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ..., 2010) (SSSS from Mexico); see also Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of... cost changes and sales prices during the POR. See Preliminary Cost Calculation Memo. See, e.g.,...

  20. 75 FR 33578 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Review, 75 FR 6627 (February 10, 2010) (SSSS from Mexico), and accompanying Issues and Decision... between LMEL's changing costs and sales prices during the POR. See Cost Calculation Memo. See, e.g.,...

  1. Nuevos sistemas de frecuencia intermedia para el IAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalde, J. C.; Perilli, D.; Larrarte, J. J.

    Se presenta el diagrama en bloques de los nuevos sistemas de Frecuencia Intermedia para los dos radiómetros instalados en el IAR. Entre las características más importantes del sistema podemos mencionar la posibilidad de conectar cualquiera de las dos antenas a los ``backend" disponibles: analizador espectral de alta resolución (META II) de 0,05 Hz, autocorrelador de 1008 canales y contínuo. Se incorporan al sistema nuevos sintetizadores de frecuencia implementados con PLL y la moderna técnica de síntesis digital directa. Por último, el conjunto del sistema es susceptible de ser configurado por las computadoras de adquisición de datos, supervisadas por otra, que entrega el estado de funcionamiento actual y evita la selección de configuraciones incorrectas por parte del usuario.

  2. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\23\\ As a general matter, the Department prefers...

  3. 76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., publicly available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\10\\ As a general...

  4. 76 FR 62776 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Chemicals, Co., Ltd. (``Jiheng'') by-product offsets for chlorine, ammonia gas, hydrogen, and recovered... production of chlorine, ammonia gas, hydrogen, and sulfuric acid recovered during the POR. However,...

  5. Las características más fascinantes del nuevo Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    impresionante es la palabra que describe perfectamente al nuevo robot Curiosity por su tamaño, sus instrumentos científicos y la manera en que la NASA planifica hacerlo aterrizar en Marte de forma ...

  6. 78 FR 72633 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... chlorinated isocyanurates (chlorinated isos) from Spain.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is June 1, 2011... notice. \\1\\ See Chlorinated Isocyanurates from Spain: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping...

  7. Light-harvesting ytterbium(III)-porphyrinate-BODIPY conjugates: synthesis, excitation-energy transfer, and two-photon-induced near-infrared-emission studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xunjin; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Tam, Hoi-Lam; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2013-01-07

    Based on a donor-acceptor framework, several conjugates have been designed and prepared in which an electron-donor moiety, ytterbium(III) porphyrinate (YbPor), was linked through an ethynyl bridge to an electron-acceptor moiety, boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY). Photoluminescence studies demonstrated efficient energy transfer from the BODIPY moiety to the YbPor counterpart. When conjugated with the YbPor moiety, the BODIPY moiety served as an antenna to harvest the lower-energy visible light, subsequently transferring its energy to the YbPor counterpart, and, consequently, sensitizing the Yb(III) emission in the near-infrared (NIR) region with a quantum efficiency of up to 0.73% and a lifetime of around 40 μs. Moreover, these conjugates exhibited large two-photon-absorption cross-sections that ranged from 1048-2226 GM and strong two-photon-induced NIR emission.

  8. 78 FR 6297 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen fish fillets from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review (``POR... Republic of Vietnam'' from Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Antidumping and...

  9. Enzymatic product formation impairs both the chloroplast receptor- binding function as well as translocation competence of the NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, a nuclear-encoded plastid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The key enzyme of chlorophyll biosynthesis in higher plants, the light- dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1), is a nuclear-encoded plastid protein. Its posttranslational transport into plastids of barley depends on the intraplastidic availability of one of its substrates, protochlorophyllide (PChlide). The precursor of POR (pPOR), synthesized from a corresponding full-length barley cDNA clone by coupling in vitro transcription and translation, is enzymatically active and converts PChlide to chlorophyllide (Chlide) in a light- and NADPH-dependent manner. Chlorophyllide formed catalytically remains tightly but noncovalently bound to the precursor protein and stabilizes a transport-incompetent conformation of pPOR. As shown by in vitro processing experiments, the chloroplast transit peptide in the Chlide-pPOR complex appears to be masked and thus is unable to physically interact with the outer plastid envelope membrane. In contrast, the chloroplast transit peptide in the naked pPOR (without its substrates and its product attached to it) and in the pPOR- substrate complexes, such as pPOR-PChlide or pPOR-PChlide-NADPH, seems to react independently of the mature region of the polypeptide, and thus is able to bind to the plastid envelope. When envelope-bound pPOR- PChlide-NADPH complexes were exposed to light during a short preincubation, the enzymatically produced Chlide slowed down the actual translocation step, giving rise to the sequential appearance of two partially processed translocation intermediates. However, ongoing translocation induced by feeding the chloroplasts delta-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor of PChlide, was able to override these two early blocks in translocation, suggesting that the plastid import machinery has a substantial capacity to denature a tightly folded, envelope-bound precursor protein. Together, our results show that pPOR with Chlide attached to it is impaired both in the ATP-dependent step of binding to a

  10. Brain abnormalities in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya; Alegría, Analucía A; Brinson, Helen

    2014-02-24

    Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los estudios con resonancia magnetica en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) infantil y adulto. Desarrollo. Dichos estudios han demostrado que el TDAH se caracteriza por la presencia de multiples anomalias de caracter estructural y funcional, primordialmente en los circuitos frontoestriatales, pero tambien en los circuitos frontoparietotemporales, frontocerebelares e, incluso, frontolimbicos. Los datos aportados por los estudios longitudinales de resonancia magnetica estructural demuestran que el TDAH se caracteriza por un retraso en la maduracion estructural del cerebro. Esta conclusion se ve reforzada por los indicios indirectos ofrecidos por los estudios de cortes transversales, que indican la existencia de una inmadurez sustancial tanto en la funcion cerebral como en los patrones de conectividad estructural y funcional, indicios que, sin embargo, estan pendientes de confirmar en estudios longitudinales. La alteracion funcional de la corteza prefrontal ventrolateral parece estar mas afectada en el TDAH que en otros trastornos pediatricos, y existen algunos indicios de anomalias distintivas en los ganglios basales. Un metaanalisis sobre los efectos de los estimulantes en la funcion cerebral demuestra que el mecanismo de accion agudo mas congruente de los farmacos psicoestimulantes consiste en el aumento de la activacion de la corteza prefrontal inferior y los ganglios basales. Los primeros intentos por utilizar los datos de los estudios de neuroimagen para elaborar clasificaciones diagnosticas individuales de los niños con TDAH a partir de tecnicas de reconocimiento de patrones han cosechado resultados alentadores, pero todavia deben ser replicados por mas centros y aparatos de resonancia magnetica. Conclusiones. Durante los ultimos 20 años, las tecnicas de neuroimagen han perfilado los biomarcadores del TDAH, pero es necesario que nuevos estudios descubran la utilidad clinica de esa informacion, como el

  11. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?--Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Tanja; Bannert, Erik; Kluess, Jeannette; Frahm, Jana; Kersten, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Renner, Lydia; Kahlert, Stefan; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-12-23

    We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON)-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR) in pigs. Barrows (n = 44) were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed) and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis) and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna) and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW). Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON) and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal) created six groups: CON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), CON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-CON(por.), DON_CON(jug.)-LPS(por.), DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). Blood samples were taken at -30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001), hyperthermia (p < 0.01), and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001). In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05) and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.) resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08) compared to CON_LPS(jug.)-CON(por.). In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  12. Conditional deletion of cytochrome p450 reductase in osteoprogenitor cells affects long bone and skull development in mice recapitulating antley-bixler syndrome: role of a redox enzyme in development.

    PubMed

    Panda, Satya P; Guntur, Anyonya R; Polusani, Srikanth R; Fajardo, Roberto J; Gakunga, Peter T; Roman, Linda J; Masters, Bettie Sue

    2013-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the primary electron donor for cytochromes P450, dehydrocholesterol reductase, heme oxygenase, and squalene monooxygenase. Human patients with specific mutations in POR exhibit severe developmental malformations including disordered steroidogenesis, sexual ambiguities and various bone defects, similar to those seen in patients with Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). To probe the role of POR during bone development, we generated a conditional knockout mouse (CKO) by cross breeding Por (lox/lox) and Dermo1 Cre mice. CKO mice were smaller than their littermate controls and exhibited significant craniofacial and long bone abnormalities. Differential staining of the CKO mice skull bases shows premature fusion of the sphenooccipital and basioccipital-exoccipital synchondroses. Class III malocclusion was noted in adult knockout mice with an unusual overgrowth of the lower incisors. Shorter long bones were observed along with a reduction in the bone volume fraction, measured by microCT, in the Por-deleted mice compared to age- and sex-matched littermate controls. Concerted up- or down-regulation of proteins in the FGF signaling pathway observed by immunohistochemistry in the tibia samples of CKO mice compared to wild type controls shows a decrease in the FGF signaling pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a mouse model that recapitulates both skull and long bone defects upon Por deletion, offering an approach to study the sequelae of POR mutations. This unique model demonstrates that P450 metabolism in bone itself is potentially important for proper bone development, and that an apparent link exists between the POR and FGF signaling pathways, begging the question of how an oxidation-reduction flavoprotein affects developmental and cellular signaling processes.

  13. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-31

    procedural and subjective (see Program Managers Guide: A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http...a sensor pod for the Man- Transportable Robotic System (MTRS) PoR. The acquisition agent for the MTRS PoR is the Robotic System Joint Program...subjective (see Program Managers Guide: A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil

  14. Vehicle Systems Engineering and Integration Activities - Phase 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-31

    A Modular Open Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004...System (MTRS) PoR. The acquisition agent for the MTRS PoR is the Robotic System Joint Program Office (RS-JPO), under the TACOM Program Executive...Systems Approach to Acquisition Version 2, Open Systems Joint Task Force, http://www.acq.osd.mil/osjtf/pmguide.html, 2004). Systems engineering

  15. Phosphoethanolamine Residues on the Lipid A Moiety of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipooligosaccharide Modulate Binding of Complement Inhibitors and Resistance to Complement Killing

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, William M.; Dutta Ray, Tathagat; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of phosphoethanolamine (PEA) from the lipid A of gonococcal strain FA19 results in increased sensitivity to killing by the classical pathway of complement. Here we demonstrate that loss of PEA from lipid A diminishes binding of the complement regulatory protein C4b binding protein (C4BP) to the FA19 porin B (PorB), providing a molecular basis to explain the susceptibility of an lptA null strain of FA19 to killing by normal human serum (NHS). Loss of PEA from lipid A in three additional gonococcal strains that expressed diverse PorB molecules also resulted in decreased C4BP binding, increased deposition of C4b, and increased susceptibility to killing by NHS. Complementation of lptA null strains with lptA restored C4BP binding, decreased C4b deposition, and increased resistance to killing by NHS. These effects of lipid A PEA on C4BP binding to gonococcal PorB and serum resistance were simulated when gonococcal PorB was expressed in a meningococcal background. Loss of PEA from lipid A also affected binding of the alternative pathway regulator factor H (fH) to PorB of some strains. For instance, PorB molecules of lptA null mutants of strains 252 and 1291 bound less fH than those of their parent strains when lipooligosaccharide (LOS) was sialylated, whereas PorB molecules of lptA null mutants of strains FA1090 and 273 retained the ability to bind fH when LOS was sialylated. These data indicate that replacement of lipid A with PEA alters binding of C4BP and fH to PorB and contributes to the ability of gonococci to resist complement-mediated killing. PMID:23071134

  16. DoD LSI Transformation: Creating a Model-Based Acquisition Framework \\201MBAF\\202

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Warfare Concept (IWC) • Mission centric approach to defining operational requirements • Using MBSE Need to interface POR MBSE to IWC MBSE 3...Background (cont) POR Workforce, Tools, Training Documents, Process, System Reqmts IWC LSI, SoS, Models Opera onal & Mission Reqmts SDEA 4 Problem...optimization and cross platform interoperability that provide traceability to mission level requirements. • Define and control system interfaces consistent

  17. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  18. Intelligence Professionalism in the Americas (profesionalismo de inteligencia en las americas)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    inteligencia. Aspecto importante para el profesionalismo de la actividad de inteligencia: evitar su empleo indiscriminado en materia policial. Otro...consiste, fundamentalmente, en el empleo por parte de instituciones policiales dentro de la actividad policial de determinados métodos propios de la...Tam- bién, por extensión, a actividades delictivas complejas o cuyas características requerían del empleo de una importante capacidad de análisis

  19. [Cytomegalovirus: congenital infection and clinical presentation in infants with respiratory distress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Contreras, Angélica; Lira, Rosalía; Soria-Rodríguez, Carmen; Hori-Oshima, Sawako; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Angélica; Rojas-Montes, Othón; Ayala-Figueroa, Rafael; Estrada-Guzmán, Julia; Álvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria (SDR) es una enfermedad común multifactorial que varía del 15 al 50 % en el recién nacido (RN), y la mortalidad es de 50 %. Puede estar asociado a infecciones bacterianas y virales, una de las más frecuentes: el citomegalovirus (CMV). En el periodo neonatal la incidencia de infección por CMV es de 0.4 a 2.5 % y la seroprevalencia de 50 a 75 %; se desconoce la incidencia de infección en los RN. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia de infección por CMV en recién nacidos con SDR e identificar factores de riesgo asociados a infección. Métodos: el DNA-CMV fue identificado en plasma por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) cuantitativa, y las variables maternas y neonatales que definieron el cuadro clínico fueron analizadas por regresión logística. Resultados: la frecuencia de infección por CMV en 197 RN con SDR fue de 8.6 % (IC 95 % 4.7-12.5). Las variables significativas en los RN fueron: neutropenia (p = 0.012), trombocitopenia (p = 0.021), piel marmórea (p = 0.03) y la variable materna significativa fue cervicovaginitis (p = 0.05). Conclusiones: se reporta por primera vez la frecuencia más alta de infección por CMV en RN con SDR y la asociación de varios factores de riesgo con la infección por CMV.

  20. Army Delivers Route Clearance Vehicle Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    the Husky Vehicle-Mount- ed Mine-Detection (VMMD) System, the Buffalo® Mine- Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV), the Panther Medium Mine-Protected...cord (POR) RCVs—the Husky, the Buf- falo, and the Panther . POR-configured Huskys, Buffalos, and Panthers have already been fielded in-theater—albeit...IED vehicle equipped with a distinctive hydraulic arm that inter- rogates suspected explosive hazards and clears them when necessary. The Panther

  1. [Therapeutic potential of bone marrow stem cells in cerebral infarction].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cruz, Gilberto; Milián-Rodríguez, Lismary

    2015-05-16

    Introduccion. Las celulas madre constituyen una alternativa terapeutica que se encuentra en fase de experimentacion para el infarto cerebral. Objetivo. Mostrar la evidencia cientifica existente sobre el potencial terapeutico de las celulas madre de la medula osea en esta enfermedad. Desarrollo. El infarto cerebral representa el 80% de las enfermedades cerebrovasculares. La trombolisis constituye la unica terapia aprobada, pero, por su estrecha ventana terapeutica, solo se aplica a un bajo porcentaje de los pacientes. De manera alternativa, los tratamientos neurorrestauradores, como el de celulas madre, pueden aplicarse en periodos mas prolongados. Por esta razon se efectuo una busqueda bibliografica en PubMed con el empleo de las palabras clave 'stem cells', 'bone marrow derived mononuclear cells' y 'stroke'. Se encontraron evidencias de seguridad y eficacia de dichas celulas en diferentes momentos evolutivos del infarto cerebral. Se identificaron estudios que en clinica y preclinica las recolectaron por puncion medular y en sangre periferica, y las trasplantaron directamente en el area infartada o por via intravascular. El efecto terapeutico se relaciona con sus propiedades de plasticidad celular y liberacion de factores troficos. Conclusiones. El concentrado de celulas mononucleares autologas, obtenido en sangre periferica o por puncion de la medula osea, y trasplantado por via intravenosa, es una factible opcion metodologica que permitira rapidamente incrementar el numero de ensayos clinicos en diferentes etapas evolutivas del infarto cerebral. Esta terapia muestra seguridad y eficacia; sin embargo, deben ampliarse las evidencias que avalen su generalizacion en humanos.

  2. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu. PMID:25023245

  3. In situ FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopy of the low-temperature NO disproportionation mediated by solid state manganese(II) porphyrinates.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Garik G; Azizyan, Arsen S; Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2006-05-15

    The heterogeneous reaction between NO gas and sublimed layers of manganese(II) porphyrinato complexes Mn(Por) (Por = TPP (tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion), TMP (tetramesitylporphyrinato dianion), or TPP(d20) (perdeuterated tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion)) has been monitored by IR and optical spectroscopy over the temperature range of 77 K to room temperature. These manganese porphyrins promote NO disproportionation to NO2 species and N2O, and the reaction proceeds via several distinct stages. At 90 K, the principal species observed spectrally are the nitric oxide dimer, cis-ONNO, two manganese nitrosyls, the simple NO adduct Mn(Por)(NO), and another intermediate (1) that is apparently critical to the disproportionation mechanism. This key intermediate is formed prior to N2O evolution, and proposals regarding its likely structure are offered. When the system is warmed to 130 K, the disproportionation products, N2O and the O-coordinated nitrito complex Mn(Por)(NO)(ONO) (2), are formed. IR spectral changes show that, upon further warming to 200 K, 2 isomerizes into the N-bonded nitro linkage isomer Mn(Por)(NO)(NO2) (3). After it is warmed to room temperature, the latter species loses NO and converts to the known 5-coordinate nitrito complex Mn(Por)(ONO) (4).

  4. Lack of a surface layer in Tannerella forsythia mutants deficient in the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yuka; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Shoji, Mikio; Nakane, Daisuke; Nagano, Keiji; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Tannerella forsythia, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium, is an important pathogen in periodontal disease. This bacterium possesses genes encoding all known components of the type IX secretion system (T9SS). T. forsythia mutants deficient in genes orthologous to the T9SS-encoding genes porK, porT and sov were constructed. All porK, porT and sov single mutants lacked the surface layer (S-layer) and expressed less-glycosylated versions of the S-layer glycoproteins TfsA and TfsB. In addition, these mutants exhibited decreased haemagglutination and increased biofilm formation. Comparison of the proteins secreted by the porK and WT strains revealed that the secretion of several proteins containing C-terminal domain (CTD)-like sequences is dependent on the porK gene. These results indicate that the T9SS is functional in T. forsythia and contributes to the translocation of CTD proteins to the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu.

  5. [Familial microepidemic of food-borne botulism in the Region of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Jalda, D; Junco, A; Alvarez-Moreno, M; Rodero, I; Carneado-Ruiz, J

    2016-07-01

    Introduccion. El botulismo es un sindrome causado por la toxina del bacilo Clostridium botulinum. La toxina actua bloqueando las terminaciones colinergicas presinapticas de la placa motora y del sistema nervioso parasimpatico, y ocasiona una paralisis flacida y un fallo parasimpatico. El modo mas habitual de adquisicion de la enfermedad es por ingesta de toxina preformada presente en las conservas caseras mal esterilizadas, aunque otros mecanismos son posibles. Su incidencia actual en Espana es muy baja. Casos clinicos. Se describen tres miembros convivientes de una familia que presentaron un cuadro de botulismo alimentario. Las manifestaciones clinicas iniciales mostraron predileccion por la paresia ocular y por sintomatologia disautonomica de escasa especificidad, y la agregacion familiar fue el indicio fundamental que sugirio el diagnostico. Posteriormente, los pacientes empeoraron y dos de ellos presentaron afectacion de la funcion respiratoria y precisaron ingreso prolongado en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los tres pacientes convalecieron y se recuperaron sin secuelas. Se consiguio detectar la toxina botulinica por bioensayo en los restos de alimentos, lo que confiere al caso la categoria diagnostica de confirmado. Conclusiones. La microepidemia familiar presentada constituye un caso de afectacion inicial predominantemente ocular y disautonomica. Asimismo, ilustra varios aspectos tipicos de la enfermedad: la sospecha diagnostica ante pacientes convivientes que acuden simultaneamente por clinica similar, las complicaciones caracteristicas del proceso y su tratamiento, el diagnostico de laboratorio y su historia natural hacia la resolucion.

  6. Arabidopsis light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chanhong; Apel, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Recently the porA-1 null mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified, which contains an insertion of the Dissociation (Ds) element in the PORA gene (Paddock et al. in Plant Mol Biol 78:447-460, 2012). Light-grown porA-1 seedlings suffer from a drastically reduced chlorophyll content and a developmental arrest beyond the cotyledon stage, suggesting that PORA is not only transiently involved in initiating chlorophyll synthesis during illumination of etiolated seedlings but is also essential for normal growth and plant development. Here we report the presence of a second Ds element in this porA-1 mutant line that inactivates the Speechless gene required for stomata formation. Similar to porA-1, speechless seedlings are severely impaired in their development. Our results suggest that the lack of stomata in porA-1 may contribute to the dwarfed phenotype of the mutant and thus emphasizes the need to re-address the proposed role of PORA during plant development by studying a porA mutant that retains its stomata formation.

  7. Effect of binge eating disorder on the outcomes of laparoscopic gastric bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    García Díaz, Eduardo; Jerez Arzola, María Elena; Martín Folgueras, Tomás; Morcillo Herrera, Luis; Jiménez Sosa, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los estudios previos sobre el efecto del trastorno por atracón en los resultados del tratamiento de la obesidad mediante bypass gástrico por vía laparoscópica (LGBP) son controvertidos. Faltan trabajos que comparen a pacientes con y sin trastorno por atracón según el sistema BAROS, que incluye: el porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, la evolución de las comorbilidades, la calidad de vida y las complicaciones. Objetivo: Estudiar si el trastorno por atracón predispone a peores resultados tras el LGBP en los términos que definen el sistema BAROS. Métodos: En un estudio de cohortes con 45 obesos mórbidos intervenidos mediante LGBP, se identificó a los pacientes con trastorno por atracón prequirúrgico mediante el Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns- Revised y se valoró sus resultados según los parámetros incluidos en el sistema BAROS. Resultados: El 21,4% de los pacientes presentaban trastorno por atracón. La mediana de seguimiento postoperatorio fue 12 meses. Los pacientes con trastorno por atracón presentaron menor tasa de resolución de la hipertensión arterial (42,9% frente a 92,9%; p = 0,025) y mayor frecuencia de estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal (70% frente al 17,1%; p = 0,003) que los pacientes sin trastorno por atracón. No se encontraron diferencias entre los grupos con y sin trastorno por atracón respecto al porcentaje de sobrepeso perdido, calidad de vida y puntuación global BAROS. Conclusiones: Los obesos con trastorno por atracón presentan tras el LGBP menores tasas de resolución de la hipertensión arterial y se complican más frecuentemente con una estenosis de la anastomosis gastroyeyunal. La valoración BAROS, la pérdida de peso y la calidad de vida son equiparables a la de los pacientes sin trastornopor atracón.

  8. Five- and six-coordinate adducts of nitrosamines with ferric porphyrins: structural models for the Type II interactions of nitrosamines with ferric cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Goodrich, Lauren E; Lehnert, Nicolai; Powell, Douglas R; Richter-Addo, George B

    2010-05-17

    Nitrosamines are well-known for their toxic and carcinogenic properties. The metabolic activation of nitrosamines occurs via interaction with the heme-containing cytochrome P450 enzymes. We report the preparation and structural characterization of a number of nitrosamine adducts of synthetic iron porphyrins. The reactions of the cations [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) (por = TPP, TTP, OEP) with dialkylnitrosamines (R(2)NNO; R(2) = Me(2), Et(2), (cyclo-CH(2))(4), (cyclo-CH(2))(5), (PhCH(2))(2)) in toluene generate the six-coordinate high-spin (S = 5/2) [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) compounds and a five-coordinate intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) [(OEP)Fe(ONNMe(2))]ClO(4) derivative in 57-72% yields (TPP = 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TTP = 5,10,15,20-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, OEP = 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethylporphyrinato dianion). The N-O and N-N vibrations of the coordinated nitrosamine groups in [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) occur in the 1239-1271 cm(-1) range. Three of the six-coordinate [(por)Fe(ONNR(2))(2)]ClO(4) compounds and one five-coordinate [(OEP)Fe(ONNMe(2))]ClO(4) compound have been characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. All the nitrosamine ligands in these complexes bind to the ferric centers via a sole eta(1)-O binding mode. No arylnitrosamine adducts were obtained from the reactions of the precursor compounds [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) with three arylnitrosamines (Ph(2)NNO, Ph(Me)NNO, Ph(Et)NNO). However, prolonged exposure of [(por)Fe(THF)(2)]ClO(4) to these arylnitrosamines resulted in the formation of the known five-coordinate (por)Fe(NO) derivatives. The latter (por)Fe(NO) compounds were obtained more readily by the reactions of the three arylnitrosamines with the four-coordinate (por)Fe(II) precursors.

  9. [Experience in molecular diagnostic in hereditary neuropathies in a pediatric tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; López-Laso, Eduardo; Camino-León, Rafael; Gascón-Jiménez, Francisco J; Jiménez-González, M Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es la neuropatia hereditaria sensitivomotora mas frecuente. Avances en el diagnostico molecular han incrementado las posibilidades diagnosticas de estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 36 casos pediatricos diagnosticados de CMT en un centro terciario en el periodo 2003-2015. Resultados. Se identificaron 16 pacientes con CMT1A por una duplicacion en PMP22; dos casos se diagnosticaron de neuropatia hereditaria con predisposicion a paralisis por presion, uno de ellos con una mutacion puntual en PMP22; un varon con un fenotipo leve desmielinizante se diagnostico de CMTX1 por mutacion en GJB1; un paciente con una hipotonia paralitica en el nacimiento y un patron axonal por mutacion en MFN2; un paciente de origen rumano se diagnostico de CMT4D por una mutacion en el gen NDRG1; una paciente con una atrofia muscular espinal congenita distal con neuropatia axonal leve asociada por mutacion en el gen TRPV4; tres niñas de una familia consanguinea de etnia gitana se diagnosticaron de CMT axonal con descargas neuromiotonicas por una mutacion en el gen HINT1; 12 pacientes no tienen diagnostico molecular actualmente, cuatro de ellos de etnia gitana. Conclusiones. CMT1A predomino en nuestra serie (44%), como corresponde a la bibliografia. Destacamos la descripcion de una paciente con una mutacion en TRPV4 recientemente descrita como causa de CMT2C y tres casos de una misma familia consanguinea gitana con la misma mutacion en el gen HINT1 recientemente publicada como causa de neuropatia axonal con neuromiotonia autosomica recesiva (AR-CMT2). El porcentaje de casos sin diagnostico molecular es similar al de grandes series europeas.

  10. Addressing Health Disparities among Men: Demographic, Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Men who have Sex with Men Living in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Colón-López, Vivian; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos; Suárez, Erick L.; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico. PMID:24288521

  11. [Incidence and lethality of ischaemic stroke among people 60 years or older in the region of Tarragona (Spain), 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Vila-Corcoles, Ángel; Satue-Gracia, Eva; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga; de Diego-Cabanes, Cinta; Vila-Rovira, Ángel; Blade, Jordi; Bobé, Francesc; Casanova, Raquel; Jariod, Manuel; Reig, Rosaura

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La informacion existente sobre la epidemiologia del ictus en nuestro pais es limitada. Este estudio analizo la incidencia y mortalidad por ictus isquemico en la poblacion general mayor de 60 años del area de Tarragona. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio de cohortes de base poblacional que incluyo a 27.204 personas de 60 o mas años adscritas a nueve areas basicas de salud en la comarca del Tarragones. Se realizo un seguimiento prospectivo durante tres años, en los que se seleccionaron todos los episodios de ictus isquemicos ocurridos entre los miembros de la cohorte desde el 1 de diciembre de 2008 hasta el 30 de noviembre de 2011. Se incluyeron exclusivamente episodios con diagnostico validado tras la revision de la historia clinica y se excluyeron aquellos casos sin confirmacion diagnostica por neuroimagen. Resultados. Se observo un total de 343 casos confirmados de ictus isquemico, lo cual supuso una incidencia de 453 episodios por 100.000 personas/año (intervalo de confianza del 95% = 408-504). La incidencia fue mayor en hombres que en mujeres (531 frente a 392 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001) y aumento sustancialmente con la edad (195 frente a 517 y frente a 1.006 por 100.000 personas/año en 60-69, 70-79 y >= 80 años, respectivamente; p < 0,001). La incidencia fue mas de ocho veces superior entre las personas con antecedentes de ictus previo en comparacion con aquellas sin historia de ictus previo (2.962 frente a 340 por 100.000 personas/año; p < 0,001). El indice de letalidad global fue del 13%, y alcanzo el 21% entre las personas de 80 o mas años. Conclusiones. La morbimortalidad por ictus es considerable en nuestra poblacion. Medidas preventivas y tratamientos mas eficaces son imperativos.

  12. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  13. [Quality care in an intensive therapy unit at private hospital].

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Miranda, Mauricio; Anthon-Mendez, Francisco Javier; Esponda-Prado, Juan Gerardo; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es evaluar la calidad de la atención en una unidad de terapia intensiva con índices internacionales de calidad. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de atención privada en México. Se analizan los indicadores de 2012 con un total de 446 pacientes hospitalizados. Los indicadores de calidad fueron acordes a recomendaciones internacionales. La gravedad fue determinada por la escala SAPS III. Resultados: el indicador de neumonías asociadas a ventilación se encontró por debajo del estándar recomendado (11.7 frente a 12 por mil); la bacteremia relacionada a catéter venoso central en rangos aceptados (5.7 frente a 4 por mil). Las acciones de profilaxis de úlceras, prevención de tromboembolia pulmonar y prevención de caídas en altas proporciones de cumplimiento (> 90, > 95 % y 0 caídas). Las tasas de extubación no programada y reintubaciones estuvieron por debajo de los indicadores (< 1 por mil días intubación y < 12 %). La mortalidad fue menor a la estimada por la gravedad. Conclusión: En esta terapia la implementación de acciones recomendadas a nivel internacional ha permitido mantener una adecuada calidad de atención. El esfuerzo a impactado no solo a los pacientes con condiciones agudas de ingreso, sino también a pacientes con alto riesgo de mortalidad.

  14. The crystal structure of progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata defines a novel class of short chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Andrea; Egerer-Sieber, Claudia; Jäger, Christof M; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang; Muller, Yves A

    2008-06-20

    Progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of progesterone to 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione and is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of cardenolides in Digitalis (foxglove) plants. Sequence considerations suggested that 5beta-POR is a member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family of proteins but at the same time revealed that the sequence motifs that in standard SDRs contain the catalytically important residues are missing. Here we present crystal structures of 5beta-POR from Digitalis lanata in complex with NADP(+) at 2.3A and without cofactor bound at 2.4A resolution together with a model of a ternary complex consisting of 5beta-POR, NADP(+), and progesterone. Indeed, 5beta-POR displays the fold of an extended SDR. The architecture of the active site is, however, unprecedented because none of the standard catalytic residues are structurally conserved. A tyrosine (Tyr-179) and a lysine residue (Lys-147) are present in the active site, but they are displayed from novel positions and are part of novel sequence motifs. Mutating Tyr-179 to either alanine or phenylalanine completely abolishes the enzymatic activity. We propose that the distinct topology reflects the fact that 5beta-POR reduces a conjugated double bond in a steroid substrate via a 1-4 addition mechanism and that this requires a repositioning of the catalytically important residues. Our observation that the sequence motifs that line the active site are conserved in a number of bacterial and plant enzymes of yet unknown function leads us to the proposition that 5beta-POR defines a novel class of SDRs.

  15. The relationship between different spectral forms of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase complex and the structural organisation of prolamellar bodies isolated from Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Selstam, Eva; Brain, Anthony P R; Williams, W Patrick

    2011-05-01

    Incubation of prolamellar bodies (PLB) in high-salt media leads to changes in PLB structure and properties of their protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase-protochlorophyllide (POR-PChlide) complex. The paracrystalline organisation typical of PLB is disrupted and NADPH dissociates from photoconvertible POR-PChlide, with absorption maxima at 640 and 650 nm (POR-PChlide (640/650)), and a non-photoconvertible form, with absorption maxima at 635 nm (POR-PChlide (635)), is formed. These effects are strongly dependent on the valence of the cation of the perturbing salt, indicating that they involve surface double layers effects. They are also influenced by the nature of the anion and by high concentrations of non-electrolytes, suggesting the involvement of surface hydration effects. The structural changes are largely, if not entirely, independent of the presence of excess NADPH. Changes to the POR-PChlide complex, however, are strongly inhibited by excess NADPH suggesting that the two sets of changes may not be causally linked. As long as the disruption is not too great, the structural changes seen on incubation of PLB in high salt media lacking excess NADPH are reversed on removal of the high salt perturbation. This reversal is independent of the presence or absence of added NADPH. Reformation of photoconvertible POR-PChlide, however, requires the presence of NADPH. The reformation of paracrystalline PLB in the absence of NADPH strongly indicates that preservation of PLB structure, in isolated PLB preparations at least, is independent of the presence or absence of POR-PChlide (650).

  16. Electrostriction effects on electron transfer reactions in solution. I. Adiabatic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jonggu; Kim, Hyung J.

    1997-04-01

    The outer-sphere unimolecular electron transfer reactions, DA⇌D+A-, in polar solvents are studied theoretically. By employing a recent theory of fluctuating cavities [H. J. Kim, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6818, 6833 (1996)], we construct a nonequilibrium free energy formulation that accounts for both the solvation and electrostriction aspects of the changing solute dipole moment during the reaction. With a two-state diabatic description for the solute electronic structure, we obtain a two-dimensional free energy surface in terms of the cavity radius a and a solvent coordinate that gauges the nonequilibrium solvent orientational polarization Por. The equilibrium a values for the reactant and product states are found to differ significantly, indicating that the cavity reorganization plays an important role in the reaction free energetics and dynamics. The reaction mechanism and rate constant are analyzed via the solution-phase reaction path, which is found to vary markedly with the relative time scales of the Por and a motions. To be specific, the charge transfer proceeds in a concerted fashion with active participation of both Por and a when their characteristic times are comparable. By contrast, a stepwise mechanism results when there is a large mismatch between the Por and a time scales. In the slow cavity limit where a is much slower than Por, the reorganization through the cavity size adjustment precedes the barrier crossing that occurs exclusively along the Por coordinate. In the opposite fast cavity regime where Por is mainly responsible for activation and deactivation, it is found that the saddle point on the free energy surface is no longer rate-determining due to the nonlinear residual entropic effects. A brief comparison with other reaction systems involving charge shift in solution is also made.

  17. Predictive modeling of coral disease distribution within a reef system.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gareth J; Aeby, Greta S; Cowie, Rebecca O M; Davy, Simon K

    2010-02-17

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular

  18. Predictive Modeling of Coral Disease Distribution within a Reef System

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gareth J.; Aeby, Greta S.; Cowie, Rebecca O. M.; Davy, Simon K.

    2010-01-01

    Diseases often display complex and distinct associations with their environment due to differences in etiology, modes of transmission between hosts, and the shifting balance between pathogen virulence and host resistance. Statistical modeling has been underutilized in coral disease research to explore the spatial patterns that result from this triad of interactions. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) coral diseases show distinct associations with multiple environmental factors, 2) incorporating interactions (synergistic collinearities) among environmental variables is important when predicting coral disease spatial patterns, and 3) modeling overall coral disease prevalence (the prevalence of multiple diseases as a single proportion value) will increase predictive error relative to modeling the same diseases independently. Four coral diseases: Porites growth anomalies (PorGA), Porites tissue loss (PorTL), Porites trematodiasis (PorTrem), and Montipora white syndrome (MWS), and their interactions with 17 predictor variables were modeled using boosted regression trees (BRT) within a reef system in Hawaii. Each disease showed distinct associations with the predictors. Environmental predictors showing the strongest overall associations with the coral diseases were both biotic and abiotic. PorGA was optimally predicted by a negative association with turbidity, PorTL and MWS by declines in butterflyfish and juvenile parrotfish abundance respectively, and PorTrem by a modal relationship with Porites host cover. Incorporating interactions among predictor variables contributed to the predictive power of our models, particularly for PorTrem. Combining diseases (using overall disease prevalence as the model response), led to an average six-fold increase in cross-validation predictive deviance over modeling the diseases individually. We therefore recommend coral diseases to be modeled separately, unless known to have etiologies that respond in a similar manner to particular

  19. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Introduccion. El tarantismo es la enfermedad producida por la picadura de la tarantula, en la que la musica de la tarantela desencadena un baile involuntario. Se conoce en Italia desde el siglo XVI. Objetivo. Analizar el tarantismo descrito en España a finales del siglo XVIII, atendiendo especialmente a sus aspectos neurologicos, y proponer su explicacion medica y psicopatologica. Desarrollo. En 1782 hubo una epidemia de afectados por picadura de tarantula en España. Medicos españoles describieron correctamente los efectos clinicos, identicos a los provocados por la picadura de la araña viuda negra (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), identificada en la epoca como tarantula. Los casos descritos por Francisco Xavier Cid curaban con el baile involuntario provocado por la tarantela, como se describia en Italia desde el siglo XVI. Interpretamos el efecto curativo de este baile en España como un fenomeno de sugestion. En los pacientes españoles no se producian los trastornos del comportamiento, las recidivas periodicas ni la afectacion colectiva descritos por autores italianos, y que sugieren un fenomeno histerico, probablemente continuacion de la mania danzante de la Edad Media. Conclusiones. El tarantismo descrito en España en el siglo XVIII incluye dos fenomenos distintos: los sintomas sistemicos producidos de la mordedura de la tarantula, que es en realidad un latrodectismo, y el efecto curativo de la tarantela, lo cual se explica por un fenomeno de sugestion. Los trastornos psiquicos falsamente asociados a la picadura de la tarantula observados en Italia, de origen histerico, no estuvieron presentes en los casos españoles de tarantismo del siglo XVIII.

  20. Optimization of heme precursors for the expression of human cytochrome P450 2A13 and its co-expression with oxidoreductase in baculovirus/sf9 system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Yuan; Qiu, Liang-Lin; Yang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2013-06-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), mainly expressed in respiratory tract, is active towards numerous toxicants. To establish the metabolism in vitro, we expressed CYP2A13 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) in a baculovirus/sf9 system. Due to the deficiency of sf9 cells in heme incorporation, we investigated the effects of different heme precursors on the expression of CYP2A13, POR and their co-expression. The present results showed that both CYP2A13 and POR were presented the highest expression levels or activity with 0.2 mM δ-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA), 0.02 mM Fe(3+) and 0.5-1.0 μg/ml hemin. The combination of 0.2 mM 5-ALA and 0.02 mM Fe(3+) significantly improved CYP2A13 expression and content compared with heme precursors alone, so was POR activity. A multiplicity of infection (MOI) value of 5 pfu/cell for CYP2A13 baculovirus particles induced very high CYP2A13 expression. When co-infected with different POR MOI values, a viral ratio of 5 : 2 was associated with the highest CYP2A13 activity, whereas POR activity dose dependently increased with POR MOI. Furthermore, the expressed CYP2A13 in the optimized conduction could eliminate its substrate aflatoxin B1 at a significantly higher than those in other condition (P < 0.01). Our results provide an efficient approach for expressing functionally characterized, highly active and homogeneous CYP2A13 proteins.

  1. Toll-Like Receptors Expression in Follicular Cells of Patients with Poor Ovarian Response

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Karimian, Leili; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor ovarian response (POR) to gonadotropin stimulation has led to a significant decline in success rate of fertility treatment. The immune system may play an important role in pathophysiology of POR by dysfunctions of cytokines and the growth factor network, and the presence of ovarian auto-antibodies. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 genes in follicular cells and concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as major parts of innate immunity, in follicular fluid (FF) obtained from POR women in comparison with normal women. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, 20 infertile POR patients and 20 normal women took part in this study and underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. The FF was obtained from the largest follicle (>18 mm). The FF was centrifuged and cellular pellet was then used for evaluation of expression of TLRs and COX2 genes by real-time PCR. FF was used for quantitative analysis for IL-6, IL-8 and MIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and COX2 gene expression were significantly higher in POR (p<0.05). Concentration of IL-6, IL-8 and MIF proteins was significantly increased in POR compared with normal women (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that the immune system may be involved in pathophysiology of POR through TLRs. PMID:25083184

  2. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity among people consulting for HIV antibody testing: a pilot surveillance study in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Castel, J

    1990-01-01

    The surveillance of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) through case reporting only reflects the epidemiologic features of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission a few years earlier and not the prevalence of HIV seropositivity. HIV infection is not a notifiable condition in Quebec. We were asked by the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec to perform a pilot project for the surveillance of HIV seropositivity using a network of sentinel physicians. From May 15, 1988, to Sept. 30, 1989, physicians from four collaborating centres collected data on the serologic status, demographic characteristics and risk factors for 4209 patients who underwent HIV antibody testing. Of the 3899 subjects included in the study 7.9% were HIV positive. Through logistic regression analysis the following variables were found to be significantly associated with HIV seropositivity: presence of HIV-related symptoms (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 36.5), origin from an endemic area (POR 9.1), homosexuality or bisexuality (POR 8.4), intravenous drug use (POR 4.2), male sex (POR 2.8), previous HIV antibody testing (POR 2.5) and previous sexually transmitted disease (POR 1.8). Over the study period we found a large increase in HIV seroprevalence among intravenous drug users (4.2% in 1988 to 19.0% in 1989) (p = 0.02). This increase might reflect a recent change in the epidemiologic pattern of HIV transmission in Quebec. Surveillance of HIV seropositivity through a network of sentinel physicians may be a reasonable alternative to mandatory reporting. PMID:2357678

  3. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody

  4. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; De la Luz-Armendáriz, Jazmín; Saavedra-Montañez, Manuel; Jasso-Escutia, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Betancourt, Ivan; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Martínez-Lara, Atalo; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2016-02-29

    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the pathogenicity of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus (swH1N1) in growing pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Conventional six-week-old pigs were intranasally inoculated with PorPV, swH1N1, or PorPV/swH1N1. A mock-infected group was included. The co-infection with swH1N1 was at 44 days post-infection (DPI), right after clinical signs of PorPV infection had stopped. The pigs of the co-infection group presented an increase of clinical signs compared to the simple infection groups. In all infected groups, the most recurrent lung lesion was hyperplasia of the bronchiolar-associated lymphoid tissue and interstitial pneumonia. By means of immunohistochemical evaluation it was possible to demonstrate the presence of the two viral agents infecting simultaneously the bronchiolar epithelium. Viral excretion of PorPV in nasal and oral fluid was recorded at 28 and 52 DPI, respectively. PorPV persisted in several samples from respiratory tissues (RT), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). For swH1N1, the viral excretion in nasal fluids was significantly higher in single-infected swH1N1 pigs than in the co-infected group. However, the co-infection group exhibited an increase in the presence of swH1N1 in RT, SLO, and BALF at two days after co-infection. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm an increase in the clinical signs of infection, and PorPV was observed to impact the spread of swH1N1 in analysed tissues in the early stage of co-infection, although viral shedding was not enhanced. In the present study, the interaction of swH1N1 infection is demonstrated in pigs persistently infected with PorPV.

  5. Moléculas orgánicas obtenidas en simulaciones experimentales del medio interestelar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Caro, Guillermo Manuel

    Las nubes moleculares son regiones de formación de estrellas, con temperaturas cinéticas entre 10-50 K y densidades de 103-106 átomos cm-3. Su materia está formada por gas y polvo interestelar. Estas partículas de polvo están cubiertas por una fina capa de hielo, de unos 0.01 μm, que contiene H2O y a menudo CO, CO2, CH3OH y NH3. El hielo es presumiblemente irradiado por fotones ultravioleta y rayos cósmicos en las zonas poco profundas de las nubes moleculares y las regiones circunestelares. En un sistema de vacío, P ˜ 10-7 mbar, simulamos la deposición de hielo a partir de 10 K y la irradiación ultravioleta por medio de una lámpara de descarga de hidrógeno activada con microondas. La evolución del hielo se observa por medio de un espectrómetro infrarrojo. De este modo es posible determinar la composición del hielo observado en el medio interestelar y predecir la presencia de moléculas aún no detectadas en el espacio, que han sido producto del procesamiento del hielo en nuestros experimentos. También es posible calentar el sistema hasta temperatura ambiente para sublimar el hielo depositado. Cuando el hielo ha sido previamente irradiado, se observa un residuo compuesto por moléculas orgánicas complejas, algunas prebióticas, como varios ácidos carboxílicos, aminas, amidas, ésteres y en menor proporción moléculas heterocíclicas y aminoácidos. Algunas de estas moléculas podrían detectarse en estado gaseoso por medio de observaciones milimétricas y de radio. También podrían estar presentes en el polvo cometario, cuyo análisis químico está planeado por las misiones Stardust y Rosetta. Mientras tanto, nuestro grupo está llevando a cabo el análisis de partículas de polvo interplanetario (IDPs), algunas de las cuales pueden ser de origen cometario. Al igual que ocurre con los productos obtenidos por irradiación del hielo en nuestros experimentos, algunas IDPs son ricas en material orgánico que contiene oxígeno.

  6. PubMed

    Fernández-Pacheco, P A De la Rosa; Delfrade Osinaga, J; Floristán Floristán, Y; Teijeira Alvarez, R; Moreno-Iribas, C

    2016-12-30

    Fundamento. Se analizan las tendencias de la mortalidad por accidentes de transporte entre 1999 y 2013 y se evalúa el impacto de la introducción del permiso de conducción por puntos en Navarra.Material y métodos. Los datos para la realización de este estudio proceden de los ficheros de defunciones según la causa de muerte que anualmente publica el Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE). La codificación de la causa de defunción se realizó con la CIE-10, a partir de la información de los documentos estadísticos de defunción y los informes forenses. Se calcularon tasas por edad, sexo, tipo de víctima, tipo de accidente y residencia (urbano/rural). Para estimar el efecto de la ley del permiso de conducción por puntos que entró en vigor en julio de 2006 se utilizó un modelo ARIMA de Box and Jenkins de series temporales.Resultados. Se registraron un total de 1.052 fallecimientos por accidentes de transporte, de los cuales 1.044 fueron de vehículos de transporte terrestre (1.020 por accidentes de tráfico y 24 por accidentes no de tráfico). Entre los jóvenes, destaca la mortalidad en conductores de vehículo de motor; mientras que entre los mayores de 84 años, las víctimas fueron en mayor proporción peatones. Los hombres y mujeres residentes en zonas rurales presentaron tasas de mortalidad un 33% y un 21% más elevadas. Tras la instauración del permiso de conducción por puntos, la tasa de mortalidad por accidente de tráfico descendió un 51%.Conclusiones. Las estadísticas de mortalidad de Navarra muestran la efectividad de las estrategias preventivas organizadas en España.

  7. [Neurological health care activity in a recently created district hospital: model of high efficiency].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix J; Plaza-Nieto, José F; Navacerrada, Francisco; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Pilo-de-la-Fuente, Belén; Arroyo-Solera, Margarita; Guillán, Marta; Calleja, Marisol; Moreno-Puertas, Dolores

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo. Analizar la actividad asistencial de un hospital comarcal de reciente creacion, con especial enfasis en los indicadores asistenciales en consultas externas y en actos medicos de pacientes ingresados. Pacientes y metodos. Describimos la actividad asistencial realizada por nuestra seccion de neurologia durante los años 2008-2013. Se comparan nuestros indicadores asistenciales de los años 2012 y 2013 (quinto y sexto año de actividad), tanto en consultas externas como en pacientes ingresados, con los de otros dos hospitales de caracteristicas similares, otros tres de nivel secundario y otros cuatro de nivel terciario. Resultados. La seccion de neurologia de nuestro hospital fue la que realizo mayor numero de primeras consultas por facultativo, tuvo el mejor indice de consultas sucesivas/primeras y el mayor porcentaje de consultas de alta resolucion, tuvo la menor estancia media en los dos grupos relacionados por el diagnostico (GRD) mas frecuentes en nuestra especialidad, y fue la segunda en ingresos por facultativo del GRD 'ictus con infarto' y la tercera en ingresos por facultativo del GRD 'otros trastornos del sistema nervioso'. Conclusiones. Los indicadores asistenciales de la seccion de neurologia de nuestro hospital muestran un modelo de muy alta eficiencia, al cual solo se aproximan los de otros dos de caracteristicas y desarrollo similares al nuestro. La implantacion gradual de modelos similares al de estos tres hospitales en los niveles secundario y terciario podria ser de utilidad en la mejora de su eficiencia asistencial.

  8. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statePORs were insensitive to the direction of pitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli.

  9. Respiratory disease in growing pigs after Porcine rubulavirus experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the pathogenicity and distribution of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs. Nine 6-week-old pigs were infected with PorPV and examined clinically. Blood, nasal swab, and tissue samples were collected on different days post-infection (DPI). The humoral immune responses and viral loads were evaluated. The infected pigs exhibited an increase in the respiratory clinical signs. In addition, the excretion of PorPV was extended to 23 DPI in the nasal fluid. The distribution of PorPV in the respiratory tract tissues was extended until the end of the experiment; soft palate tonsil and lymph nodes exhibited high viral loads. The major microscopic lesions observed in the lungs corresponded to interstitial pneumonia and hyperplasia of the associated lymphoid tissue. In conclusion, PorPV infection causes a pneumonic disease characterized by a prolonged virus excretion and high viral load in the lymphoid tissues.

  10. [Comparison between the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with the DSM-5 and neuropsychological evaluation of the executive functions].

    PubMed

    Abad-Mas, L; Caloca-Catala, O; Mulas, F; Ruiz-Andres, R

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. El trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) tiene una prevalencia del 3-7% de la poblacion en edad escolar y cursa con problemas academicos y disfunciones ejecutivas. Objetivo. Estudiar la relacion entre el diagnostico del TDAH por medio de los criterios del Manual diagnostico y estadistico de los trastornos mentales, quinta edicion (DSM-5), y la evaluacion neuropsicologica de las funciones ejecutivas. Sujetos y metodos. Se evaluo a 50 sujetos, 12 mujeres y 38 varones, entre 8 y 10 años. Para evaluar el control inhibitorio se utilizo el Continuous Performance Test (CPT) y el test de Stroop; para la inteligencia y la memoria de trabajo, la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para niños-IV; y para la atencion, el CPT y el Selective Attention Test. Resultados. No habia diferencias significativas entre ambos subtipos de TDAH en cuanto a la memoria de trabajo. Las niñas presentaban mejores habilidades en la tarea de flexibilidad cognitiva que los niños, y los sujetos diagnosticados de TDAH combinado presentaban mayores dificultades en el control inhibitorio. Conclusiones. Confirmamos que las definiciones del TDAH en el DSM-5 son imprecisas. Son una escasa enumeracion de sintomas clinicos del trastorno, sin definir con claridad criterios propios de el. Por lo tanto, la definicion del trastorno se realiza por la evaluacion especifica de la atencion y de los mecanismos de control inhibitorio y, por ello, es necesaria una evaluacion neuropsicologica de las funciones cerebrales superiores.

  11. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of progesterone 5beta-reductase from Digitalis lanata Ehrh.

    PubMed

    Herl, Vanessa; Fischer, Gabriele; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    A full-length cDNA clone that encodes progesterone 5beta-reductase (5beta-POR) was isolated from Digitalis lanata leaves. The reading frame of the 5beta-POR gene is 1170 nucleotides corresponding to 389 amino acids. For expression, a Sph1/Sal1 5beta-POR fragment was cloned into the pQE vector and was transformed into Escherichia coli strain M15[pREP4]. The recombinant gene was functionally expressed and the recombinant enzyme was characterized. The K(m) and v(max) values for the putative natural substrate progesterone were calculated to be 0.120 mM and 45 nkat mg(-1) protein, respectively. Only 5beta-pregnane-3,20-dione but not its alpha-isomer was formed when progesterone was used as the substrate. Kinetic constants for cortisol, cortexone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and NADPH were also determined. The molecular organization of the 5beta-POR gene in D. lanata was determined by Southern blot analysis. The 5beta-POR is highly conserved within the genus Digitalis and the respective genes and proteins share considerable homology to putative progesterone reductases from other plant species.

  12. [Delayed neurological syndrome following carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lima, Manuel J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Cesáreo; Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2015-08-16

    Introduccion. La intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono es la mas frecuente en nuestro medio a consecuencia de la exposicion a gases toxicos. Los efectos de la intoxicacion por monoxido de carbono no se limitan a la exposicion aguda porque, tras la aparente recuperacion de la intoxicacion, pueden aparecer alteraciones neurologicas o del comportamiento. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un estudio de las intoxicaciones por monoxido de carbono en un area sanitaria de 80.000 habitantes durante un periodo de 10 años. Posteriormente se hizo un seguimiento de estos pacientes y se valoro la aparicion de sindrome neurologico tardio (SNT) y su relacion con diferentes variables en la exposicion inicial al monoxido de carbono, en el tratamiento administrado o en la gravedad de la intoxicacion. Resultados y conclusiones. Se observo que el 9,1% de los intoxicados por monoxido de carbono detectados en el area sanitaria de Salnes desarrollan el SNT, que es mas frecuente en los pacientes con criterios analiticos de gravedad y muy poco probable en los que no los tienen. Los pacientes con SNT no expresaron manifestaciones clinicas ni analiticas diferentes a los que no presentaron el sindrome; tampoco se observaron diferencias en relacion con la terapia con oxigeno administrada. La tasa de SNT en el area sanitaria de Salnes entre 2002 y 2012 es de 0,84 casos por 100.000 habitantes y año.

  13. Genetic variations in NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase in a Czech Slavic cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tomková, Mária; Panda, Satya Prakash; Šeda, Ondřej; Baxová, Alice; Hůlková, Martina; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Martásek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Background Gene polymorphisms encoding the enzyme NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response. Aim To estimate polymorphic allele frequencies of the POR gene in a Czech Slavic population. Materials & Methods The gene POR was analyzed in 322 Czech Slavic individuals from a control cohort by sequencing and HRM analysis. Results Twenty-five SNP genetic variations were identified. Of these variants, 7 were new, unreported SNPs, including two SNPs in the 5´flanking region (g.4965 C>T and g.4994 G>T), one intronic variant (c.1899 −20C>T), one synonymous SNP (p.20Ala=) and three nonsynonymous SNPs (p.Thr29Ser, p.Pro384Leu and p.Thr529Met). The p.Pro384Leu variant exhibited reduced enzymatic activities compared to wild type. Conclusion New POR variant identification indicates that the number of uncommon variants might be specific for each subpopulation being investigated, particularly germane to the singular role that POR plays in providing reducing equivalents to all CYPs in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:25712184

  14. [Subcutaneous drug administration in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Matoses Chirivella, Carmen; Rodríguez Lucena, Francisco José; Sanz Tamargo, Gregorio; Murcia López, Ana Cristina; Morante Hernández, María; Navarro Ruiz, Andrés

    2015-03-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una guía que recopile toda la información disponible en la bibliografía para el personal sanitario sobre la administración de medicamentos por vía subcutánea en pacientes de cuidados paliativos de la Unidad de Hospitalización a Domicilio. Método: Se diseña una tabla resumen de fármacos susceptibles de ser administrados por vía subcutánea en pacientes de cuidados paliativos mediante la revisión de los informes técnicos de los laboratorios fabricantes y de otra literatura publicada por organizaciones científicas, además de la búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed® y Micromedex®. Resultados: Se han revisado 65 fármacos y se ha elaborado una guía de recomendaciones en función de si existe información de su administración por vía subcutánea o, si por el contrario, esta contraindicado su uso. Conclusiones: Aunque mayoritariamente los laboratorios fabricantes no disponen de datos, la información recopilada en esta guía permitirá el manejo de la vía subcutánea de algunos de los medicamentos más utilizados en cuidados paliativos.

  15. [The neural networks of facial expression].

    PubMed

    Gordillo, F; Mestas, L; Castillo, G; Perez, M A; Lopez, R M; Arana, J M

    2017-02-01

    Introduccion. La percepcion de caras involucra una amplia red de conexiones entre regiones corticales y subcorticales que intercambian y sincronizan informacion a traves de haces de sustancia blanca. Este preciso sistema de comunicacion puede verse afectado tanto a traves de las propias estructuras como por las vias que las conectan. Objetivos. Delimitar el sustrato neuronal que subyace a la percepcion de la expresion facial y analizar los diferentes factores que participan modulando la integridad de esta red neuronal, con el fin de proponer mejoras en los programas de rehabilitacion. Desarrollo. Cuando la compleja red de conexiones que participa en la percepcion de la expresion facial se altera por traumatismos, patologias neurodegenerativas, trastornos del desarrollo, incluso por aislamiento social o contextos negativos, se deteriora tambien la capacidad para interactuar de manera adaptativa con el entorno. Conclusiones. La posibilidad de restaurar la integridad de la red neuronal encargada del procesamiento de la expresion facial pasa por tener en cuenta diferentes variables que en mayor o menor grado se han mostrado capaces de modificar la estructura o funcionalidad de las redes neuronales, como el entrenamiento aerobico, la estimulacion magnetica transcraneal, la estimulacion electrica transcraneal y el aprendizaje, sin bien estas variables estarian condicionadas por la edad, el tipo y evolucion del trastorno o el contexto generador, lo que plantearia la necesidad de protocolos de rehabilitacion ajustados y orientados a delimitar el sustrato neuronal del deficit.

  16. Correlation between NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 C609T polymorphism and increased risk of esophageal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jingfang; Bao, Jie; Peng, Jianxin; Mo, Jiaqiang; Ye, Qing; He, Junming

    2016-01-01

    NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T gene polymorphisms have been reported to influence the risk for esophageal cancer (EC) in many studies. However, the results remain controversial and ambiguous. We performed a meta-analysis, which included 13 independent studies with a total of 2357 subjects, to examine the association between NQO1 C609T polymorphism and EC. The association was assessed by five different gene models. The overall analysis suggested that the variant allele and genotypes were significantly related to increased risk of EC (odds ratio [OR] T versus C = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95–1.40, probability of rejection [POR] = 0.014; OR TT versus CC = 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.73, POR = 0.045; OR TC versus CC = 1.32, 95% CI 0.98–1.21, POR = 0.128; OR TT + TC versus CC = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00–1.20, POR = 0.05; OR TT versus CC + TC = 1.26, 95% CI 0.95–1.57, POR = 0.103). Sensitivity analysis confirmed the reliability of these findings. Our study shows that individuals carrying the NQO1 C609T variant allele and genotypes are more susceptible to EC. PMID:28203294

  17. Estimación de pequeñas perturbaciones en satélites geocéntricos como un problema inverso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadunaisky, P. E.

    El movimiento geocéntrico de un satélite artificial es simulado automáticamente por un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales de segundo orden que incluyen dos funciones perturbadoras. La primera representa el segundo término del potencial gravitatorio de la Tierra y la segunda corresponde al frenado atmosférico. Asumiendo como conocidas, por hipótesis o por mediciones, la posición y velocidad del satélite en instantes sucesivos se estiman las perturbaciones a intervalos sucesivos por un método determinístico. Para ilustrar el método y comprobar la precisión de nuestros resultados hemos simulado dos ejemplos incluyendo valores conocidos de las perturbaciones que luego comparamos con los resultados de nuestro método. El método puede aplicarse por ejemplo para el intervalo de una revolución satelital lo cual permitiría el diseño inmediato de una maniobra correctiva de la órbita satelital.

  18. Simultaneous measurements of solvent dynamics and functional kinetics in a light-activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Durin, Guillaume; Delaunay, Aude; Darnault, Claudine; Heyes, Derren J; Royant, Antoine; Vernede, Xavier; Hunter, C Neil; Weik, Martin; Bourgeois, Dominique

    2009-03-04

    Solvent fluctuations play a key role in controlling protein motions and biological function. Here, we have studied how individual steps of the reaction catalyzed by the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) couple with solvent dynamics. To simultaneously monitor the catalytic cycle of the enzyme and the dynamical behavior of the solvent, we designed temperature-dependent UV-visible microspectrophotometry experiments, using flash-cooled nanodroplets of POR to which an exogenous soluble fluorophore was added. The formation and decay of the first two intermediates in the POR-catalyzed reaction were measured, together with the solvent glass transition and the buildup of crystalline ice at cryogenic temperatures. We find that formation of the first intermediate occurs below the glass transition temperature (T(g)), and is not affected by changes in solvent dynamics induced by modifying the glycerol content. In contrast, formation of the second intermediate occurs above T(g) and is influenced by changes in glycerol concentration in a manner remarkably similar to the buildup of crystalline ice. These results suggest that internal, nonslaved protein motions drive the first step of the POR-catalyzed reaction whereas solvent-slaved motions control the second step. We propose that the concept of solvent slaving applies to complex enzymes such as POR.

  19. Cholesterol metabolism: the main pathway acting downstream of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase in skeletal development of the limb.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katy; Hughes, Catherine; Chudek, J A; Goodyear, Simon R; Aspden, Richard M; Talbot, Richard; Gundersen, Thomas E; Blomhoff, Rune; Henderson, Colin; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll

    2009-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor for all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, which catalyze the metabolism of a wide spectrum of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds. Point mutations in POR have been found recently in patients with Antley-Bixler-like syndrome, which includes limb skeletal defects. In order to study P450 function during limb and skeletal development, we deleted POR specifically in mouse limb bud mesenchyme. Forelimbs and hind limbs in conditional knockout (CKO) mice were short with thin skeletal elements and fused joints. POR deletion occurred earlier in forelimbs than in hind limbs, leading additionally to soft tissue syndactyly and loss of wrist elements and phalanges due to changes in growth, cell death, and skeletal segmentation. Transcriptional analysis of E12.5 mouse forelimb buds demonstrated the expression of P450s involved in retinoic acid, cholesterol, and arachidonic acid metabolism. Biochemical analysis of CKO limbs confirmed retinoic acid excess. In CKO limbs, expression of genes throughout the whole cholesterol biosynthetic pathway was upregulated, and cholesterol deficiency can explain most aspects of the phenotype. Thus, cellular POR-dependent cholesterol synthesis is essential during limb and skeletal development. Modulation of P450 activity could contribute to susceptibility of the embryo and developing organs to teratogenesis.

  20. [Blood and urine lead levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Villegas, M del Carmen S; Cortés-Vargas, Astrid; Hidalgo-Luna, Ricardo Gerardo; Alam-Escamilla, David Abraham; Vargas-García, Víctor Manuel; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: los síntomas del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad pueden persistir hasta la vida adulta en 60 % de quienes la padecieron en la niñez. Nuestro objetivo fue cuantificar los niveles de plomo en la sangre y la orina en niños con diagnóstico de trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad para identificar si existe alguna relación. MÉTODOS: estudio observacional que incluyó a una muestra cautiva del Servicio de Higiene Mental del Hospital General del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, con diagnóstico de trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Se cuantificaron los niveles séricos y urinarios del plomo mediante la técnica de absorción atómica.