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Sample records for por trichophyton mentagrophytes

  1. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  2. Mating genes of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Kawasaki, Masako; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hiruma, Masatarou; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2012-03-01

    The mating type (-)-specific gene of the alpha-box and the mating type (+)-specific gene of the high-mobility group (HMG) DNA-binding domain were confirmed in zoophilic dematophytes of Arthroderma simii and A. vanbreuseghemii. The sequence of the alpha-box gene was 1,375 bp, containing 2 exons (from 172 to 463 bp and from 513 to 1,375 bp) in the A. simii (-) mating type strain and 1,380 bp, containing 2 exons (from 177 to 468 bp and from 518 to 1,380 bp) in the A. vanbreuseghemii (-) mating type strain. The sequence of the HMG gene was 1,871 bp, containing 2 exons (from 181 to 362 bp and from 426 to 1,440 bp, coding a protein of 398 amino acids) in the A. simii (+) mating type strain and 1,811 bp containing 2 exons (from 158 to 339 bp and from 403 to 1,381 bp, coding a protein of 386 amino acids) in the A. vanbreuseghemii (+) mating type strain. Of 15 animal isolates and 72 human isolates examined, the alpha-box gene was detected in five of the animal isolates and in none of the human isolates, while the HMG gene was detected in the other 10 of the animal isolates and in all of the human isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the alpha-box and HMG genes of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains and the Microsporum gypseum strain revealed that these strains were divided into 4 clusters; the first cluster consisting of A. vanbreuseghemii and the isolates from animals and humans, the second cluster consisting of A. simii, the third cluster consisting of A. benhamiae and the fourth cluster consisting of M. gypseum. These results indicate that anthropophilic T. mentagrophytes evolved from the A. vanbreuseghemii (+) mating strain.

  3. [Erythema multiforme secondary to cutaneous Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Barrera, Martha E; Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Torres-Guerrero, D Edoardo; Aguilar-Donis, Adriana; Arenas, Roberto

    2009-06-30

    Erythema multiforme is an acute self-limited cutaneous syndrome associated in more than 50% of the cases with herpes simplex virus infection; but it can also be a consequence of other infectious agents or drugs. We report on a 24 year-old female patient with erythema multiforme secondary to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes cutaneous infection acquired from contact with animals in a research laboratory.

  4. An unusual clinical presentation of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deok-Woo; Yang, Ji-Hye; Choi, Seok-Joo; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Mi-Na

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, the natural host of which is the hedgehog, has been found to cause highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions, including tinea manuum, tinea corporis, nail infection, kerion, scalp infection, and tinea barbae. To our knowledge, however, no reports have been made of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the English language literature. We provide here the case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

  5. Kerion of the vulva caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Bougrine, Amina; Villeneuve-Tang, Catherine; Bouffard, Danielle; Rouleau, Danielle; Chartier, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Deep dermatophytosis of genital skin is a rare clinical manifestation of infection by a common group of pathogens. We emphasize the importance of clinical suspicion and the use of accurate diagnostic methods in the evaluation of deep dermatophytosis. We report a single case of tinea pubis, kerion type, caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in an immunocompetent host. A 54-year-old female presented with a suppurative infection of the vulva and pubis that was unresponsive to empirical antibiotic therapy. T. mentagrophytes was isolated. Oral itraconazole was initiated on the basis of clinical suspicion and continued for a total of 6 weeks. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of deep dermatophytosis of genital skin rests upon proper identification of the pathogen. Prompt initiation of treatment with an oral antifungal agent, such as itraconazole, should be undertaken in order to avoid irreversible scarring alopecia.

  6. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-01-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  7. Dermatophytosis (Trichophyton mentagrophytes) in a Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli).

    PubMed

    Phair, Kristen; Larsen, R Scott; Wack, Raymund

    2011-12-01

    A 19-yr-old intact male Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) was evaluated for a crusting facial dermatopathy. Fungal culture and histopathology of skin biopsies were consistent with dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and treatment with the antifungal medication terbinafine was initiated. After 1 mo of treatment, all clinical signs had resolved and a fungal culture of the skin was negative. The sifaka was treated with terbinafine for a total of 81 days. Two additional fungal cultures were taken and found to be negative for the presence of dermatophytes, the last culture being taken 1 mo after discontinuation of terbinafine. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of dermatophytosis in a prosimian species and the first reported treatment of a prosimian with the antifungal drug terbinafine.

  8. In vitro characterization of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms.

    PubMed

    Costa-Orlandi, C B; Sardi, J C O; Santos, C T; Fusco-Almeida, A M; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for a disease known as dermatophytosis. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. This paper describes, for the first time, the characteristics of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms. Biofilm formation was analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Both species were able to form mature biofilms in 72 h. T. rubrum biofilm produced more biomass and EPS and was denser than T. mentagrophytes biofilm. The SEM results demonstrated a coordinated network of hyphae in all directions, embedded within EPS in some areas. Research and characterization of biofilms formed by dermatophytes may contribute to the search of new drugs for the treatment of these mycoses and might inform future revisions with respect to the dose and duration of treatment of currently available antifungals.

  9. Fine structural characterization of microbodies and Woronin bodies in Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Vannini, G L; Mares, D

    1975-08-15

    Microbodies and Woronin bodies, organelles surrounded by a single unit membrane, were identified in the hyphal cells of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by employing a fixative containing TAPO. The fine structure of the organelles is described and their possible significance discussed.

  10. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    PubMed

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10(6) colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm(2) after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm(2). Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Which Fungus Originally was Trichophyton mentagrophytes? Historical Review and Illustration by a Clinical Case.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Annemay; Cattin, Vincent; Fratti, Marina; Mignon, Bernard; Monod, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Several dermatophytes producing numerous pyriform or round microconidia were called Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Among these dermatophytes are the teleomorph species Arthroderma benhamiae, Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii and Arthroderma simii, and other species such as Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton erinacei and Trichophyton quinckeanum for which only the anamorph is known. Confusion exists about which fungus should be really called T. mentagrophytes and about the rational use of this name in practice. We report a case of beard ringworm (tinea barbae) with A. vanbreuseghemii. According to both clinical signs and the type of hair parasitism, this case was exactly compatible to the first description of a non-favic dermatophytosis by Gruby under the name of "mentagrophyte" from which was derived the dermatophyte epithet mentagrophytes. In addition, the phenotypic characters of the isolated fungus in cultures perfectly matched with those of the first description of a dermatophyte under T. mentagrophytes by Blanchard (Parasites animaux et parasites végétaux à l'exclusion des Bactéries, Masson, Paris, 1896). In conclusion, T. mentagrophytes corresponds to the fungus later named A. vanbreuseghemii. However, because the neotype of T. mentagrophytes was not adequately designated in regard to the ancient literature, we would privilege the use of A. vanbreuseghemii and abandon the name of T. mentagrophytes.

  12. Diagnostic value of morphological, physiological and biochemical tests in distinguishing Trichophyton rubrum from Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.

    PubMed

    Ates, Aylin; Ozcan, Kadri; Ilkit, Macit

    2008-12-01

    The two most frequently encountered dermatophyte etiologic agents of glabrous skin and nail dermatophytoses are Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes. This study was aimed to discuss the efficacy of morphological, physiological and biochemical diagnostic tests commonly used in the identification of T. rubrum and members of the T. mentagrophytes complex. In this study, we evaluated; hydrolysis of urea in broth and on urea agar slants and Petri plates incubated at 22 degrees C, 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C, in vitro hair perforation (blond child, sheep and goat hair), pigment production on cornmeal dextrose agar (CMDA) and bromcresol purple-milk solids-glucose agar (BCP-MS-G), Tween opacity, sorbitol assimilation, and salt tolerance. Additionally, the production of micro- and macroconidia was investigated by using brain heart infusion agar (BHIA), Christensen's urea agar in Petri plates (UPA), CMDA, Lowenstein-Jensen agar (LJA), malt extract agar, oatmeal agar, Oxoid chromogenic Candida agar, and potato dextrose agar. All cultures were incubated at 28 degrees C, and conidial production was compared on days 5, 10 and 15. It was found that the urea hydrolysis test yielded more rapid and significant results when urea medium was prepared in Petri plates and incubated at 28 degrees C (P<0.01). LJA supported the highest production of microconidia after 15 days (P<0.001). Additionally, it was found that T. rubrum strains produced red pigment on CMDA (P<0.01) and BCP-MS-G, while strains of the T. mentagrophytes species complex did not. A special algorithm containing the various test procedures employed in these studies is presented which was found to be useful in the differentiation of T. rubrum strains from T. mentagrophytes complex. Our results revealed that UPA, CMDA, BCP-MS-G, LJA, and BHIA may be used as common mycological agars in routine practice.

  13. Ozone gas effectively kills laboratory strains of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes using an in vitro test system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Brintnell, W

    2014-06-01

    Ozone gas possesses antimicrobial potential against many microorganisms, however limited data exist on its effect on the keratinophilic dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes; two organisms commonly isolated as the etiological agent in onychomycosis and tinea pedis patients. We utilized a commercial ozone gas generation device for testing the fungicidal effects of ozone on ATCC strains of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. We demonstrated that ozone gas is effective in killing > 99% of viable fungi present in various experimental systems. This work represents a proof of principle regarding ozone gas and its fungicidal effect on dermatophyte fungi. From these findings, further ozone gas studies will be conducted to develop a novel adjunct therapy for use in parallel with current antifungal medications and/or devices to better treat onychomycosis and tinea pedis patients in the short and long term.

  14. Antifungal activities of the combination of tacrolimus and itraconazole against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hiroko; Okabayashi, Ken; Kano, Rui; Watanabe, Shinichi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2005-06-01

    Tacrolimus was reported to have no antifungal activity against dermatophytes, but it might show a synergistic fungicidal activity with azoles against dermatophytes as in the case of pathogenic yeasts. Therefore, we examined the antifungal activity of tacrolimus combined with itraconazole (ITZ) against five strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes by measuring cell growth and performing MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) testing. The mean colony diameter of T. mentagrophytes on 1/10 diluted Sabouraud dextrose agar (dSDA) with tacrolimus combined with ITZ was significantly shorter than that on dSDA with tacrolimus or ITZ. MICs of tacrolimus, ITZ, and tacrolimus combined with ITZ against T. mentagrophytes were determined, respectively. The results revealed a synergistic activity of tacrolimus in combination with ITZ against T. mentagrophytes.

  15. The first case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei isolated in Chile.

    PubMed

    Concha, Marcela; Nicklas, Claudia; Balcells, Elvira; Guzmán, Ana María; Poggi, Helena; León, Eugenia; Fich, Felix

    2012-03-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte transmitted by hedgehogs which human infections manifest as highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions. We report a 21-year-old woman who presented with a two-week history of a pruritic scaly erythematous plaque on the nose. The patient had kept hedgehogs as pets, and one had bitten her on the tip of the nose two months prior to the appearance of the nasal lesion. Fungal culture from the scales on the tip of the patient's nose was compatible with T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei. The strains isolated from cultures made from samples taken from the noses and ears of the pet hedgehogs were morphologically similar to the strain isolated from the patient. Morphological identification was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer. The lesion was diagnosed as tinea faciei, and therapy was initiated with topical and systemic terbinafine 250mg/day for eight weeks, which resulted in complete improvement. Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is the most common dermatophyte isolated in hedgehogs. Usually T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei infection manifests as an extremely inflammatory and pruritic eruption that is confined to the site of contact with the hedgehog. Although the identification of T. mentagrophytes by traditional methods is possible, identification by ITS region analysis is a fast, simple, and increasingly available method. The increasing frequency of the practice of keeping exotic animals as pets has resulted in the emergence of several zoonotic diseases that can potentially be transmitted to humans. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. A case of tinea manuum caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei: the first isolation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Do-Young; Kim, Myoung-Shin; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Koh, Jai-Kyoung; Choi, Jong-Soo

    2009-05-01

    Hedgehogs have recently become popular exotic pets in Korea. Several diseases may be acquired from these animals including dermatophytosis, Salmonella infections, contact urticaria and possibly Mycobacterium infections. We describe here a 15-year-old girl who developed tinea manuum after keeping a hedgehog for 4 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic and mycological examination. The causative agent was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, a zoophilic dermatophyte.

  17. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (p< 0.025), T.rubrum strains did not. Based on these results, it was concluded that culture medium containing Tween-80

  18. Effect of citral, eugenol, nerolidol and alpha-terpineol on the ultrastructural changes of Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Park, M J; Gwak, K S; Yang, I; Kim, K W; Jeung, E B; Chang, J W; Choi, I G

    2009-07-01

    The antifungal effects of citral, eugenol, nerolidol and alpha-terpineol on Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated. Citral over 0.1 mg/ml strongly inhibited the hyphal growth of T. mentagrophytes, and the antifungal activity of alpha-terpineol was less effective. The morphological changes of the fungus exposed to the terpenes were observed by electron microscopy. The hyphae were distorted and collapsed at 0.2, 0.4 and 1 mg/ml of eugenol, nerolidol and alpha-terpineol respectively, and cell membrane and organelles were irreversibly damaged at 0.2 mg/ml citral. These suggested that four terpenes possess antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes, and the activity might lead to irreversible cellular disruption.

  19. Tinea incognito due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes: case report.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Camila; Hasbún, Paula; Gubelin, Walter

    2016-11-09

    Tineas are frequent infections caused by dermatophytes that are able to invade keratinized tissue, causing rounded, erythematous, scaly lesions. Nonetheless, in tinea incognito the lesions are modified because of inappropriate use of topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors, making it difficult to diagnose. We present a case of a 12-year-old male child that presents with erythematous lesions on the right eyebrow, which at first was diagnosed as a contact dermatitis, so corticosteroids were indicated. The lesions became more inflammatory and a fungus culture was requested, which was positive for Tricophyton mentagrophytes. The conclusion of this report is that tineas can mimic other dermatologic conditions therefore caution should be taken when prescribing topical corticosteroids or calcineurin inhibitors without diagnostic certainty because if lesions are caused by tinea, diagnosis and treatment may become more difficult.

  20. Enhanced gene replacements in Ku80 disruption mutants of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Makimura, Koichi; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishihara, Yumiko; Umeda, Yoshiko; Abe, Shigeru

    2009-09-01

    The frequency of targeted gene disruption via homologous recombination is low in the clinically important dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The Ku genes, Ku70 and Ku80, encode key components of the nonhomologous end-joining pathway involved in DNA double-strand break repair. Their deletion increases the homologous recombination frequency, facilitating targeted gene disruption. To improve the homologous recombination frequency in T. mentagrophytes, the Ku80 ortholog was inactivated. The nucleotide sequence of the Ku80 locus containing a 2788-bp ORF encoding a predicted product of 728 amino acids was identified, and designated as TmKu80. The predicted TmKu80 product showed a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity to known fungal Ku80 proteins. Ku80 disruption mutant strains of T. mentagrophytes were constructed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. The average homologous recombination frequency was 73.3 +/- 25.2% for the areA/nit-2-like nitrogen regulatory gene (tnr) in Ku80(-) mutants, about 33-fold higher than that in wild-type controls. A high frequency (c. 67%) was also obtained for the Tri m4 gene encoding a putative serine protease. Ku80(-) mutant strains will be useful for large-scale reverse genetics studies of dermatophytes, including T. mentagrophytes, providing valuable information on the basic mechanisms of host invasion.

  1. Epizootic and epidemic dermatophytose outbreaks caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes from rabbits in Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, João R; Vasconcelos-Nóbrega, Carmen; Oliveira, Jorge; Coelho, Catarina; Vala, Helena; Fratti, Marina; Arabatzis, Michael; Velegraki, Aristea; Michel, Monod

    2016-10-01

    We report an outbreak of dermatophytoses in rabbits, which was the origin of a dermatophytose epidemic in an agricultural school in central Portugal, affecting 15 people. Both the phenotypic characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of the dermatophytes isolated from the rabbits and patients were identical, suggesting that a single strain was responsible for both the epizootic and epidemic dermatophytoses and confirming that these two outbreaks were linked. The ITS sequences were also 100% identical to the ITS sequence of five strains isolated from rabbits in Greece and Italy, but different from that of Trichophyton mentagrophytes commonly isolated from dogs and cats. These results suggest that a particular T. mentagrophytes genotype could be prevalent in rabbits in southern Europe.

  2. Severe dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale in flocks of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Khosravi, A R; Shokri, H; Rostami, A; Tamai, I A; Erfanmanesh, A; Memarian, I

    2012-05-01

    To describe the clinical, mycological, histopathological and molecular findings in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) affected with severe dermatophytosis in selected flocks near Tehran, Iran. Samples were collected from the scales of skin lesions and tested with standard mycological methods and dermatophyte-specific PCR amplification analysis using the primer pair for the chitin synthase 1(CHS1) gene. All iguanas were definitively diagnosed with dermatophytosis using both traditional and molecular diagnostic methods. PCR fingerprinting profiles using simple repetitive (GACA)4 primers showed that all diagnosed iguanas had the same pattern profile. Intraspecific variability was not observed for these isolates. Oligonucleotide sequencing of CHS1 gene PCR products confirmed Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale as the infectious agent. These results suggest that (GACA)4-based PCR has utility both as a simple and rapid method for identification of dermatophyte species and for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes variants. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. The histological lesions of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var erinacei infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fairley, R A

    2001-04-01

    A retrospective study of the histological features of four cases of canine Trichophyton mentagrophytes var erinacei infection is reported. In all four dogs the initial lesions affected the dorsal muzzle and in two dogs the lesions spread to more distant sites on the body. Clinically, the lesions were characterized by scaling, crusting and hair loss. Histologically, the main lesions were characterized by acanthosis, epidermal, ostial and infundibular hyperkeratosis, serocellular crusting, mural folliculitis and furunculosis. Fungal hyphae were usually sparse and often difficult to see in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. When visible they were seen in the epidermal, ostial and infundibular scale and, less frequently, within hair shafts.

  4. Tinea caput medusa: an unusual presentation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Houck, H E; Cooley, J E; Lowitt, M H; Kao, G F

    1996-07-01

    Tinea capitis has a wide variety of clinical presentations in adolescents and adults. However, the occurrence of fingerlike projections in the scalp has not been previously described. A 14-year-old girl presented with a one-year history of a painful scalp mass. Debridement of this mass revealed slender papillomatous growths resembling those seen in elephantiasis nostras verrucosa. A fungal culture grew Trichophyton mentagrophytes. We describe the first case of this unusual clinical variant of tinea capitis and hypothesize on its pathophysiological basis.

  5. Effective treatment of tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with combined isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate therapy.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor A

    2013-05-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the dermatophyte species most commonly reported in cases of guinea pig-associated dermatophytosis (or guinea pig fungus) a condition that more often affects children than adults. In this case, a 13-year-old girl with recent direct contact with guinea pigs presented with a previously undertreated inflammatory skin lesion on the left side of her upper body, which was positive both for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The condition was subsequently diagnosed as tinea corporis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with concomitant bacterial infection and effectively treated with 2 weeks of twice-daily application of Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%. Visible improvement in the lesion was apparent after only 1 week of treatment. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of experimental Trichophyton mentagrophytes infections in guinea pig skin.

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, R D; Kerbs, S; Yee, K

    1978-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes invasion of guinea pig skin was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Biopsies were obtained daily for 12 days from experimental infection sites. Dermatophyte invasion, examined in detail by scanning electron microscopy of cross-sectioned, prefixed skin was evidenced by: the appearance of hyphae within the stratum corneum; follicular invasion by hyphae, which remained initially within the follicle wall; emergence of the hyphae from the wall into the follicular canal; proliferation of the fungus down the follicle, with furrowing of the follicle wall and hair shaft cuticle; penetration of hyphae into the hair shaft by subcuticular and transcuticular routes; and massive peripilar hyphal proliferation with arthrosporogenesis. A three-dimensional perception of the invasion sequence of a dermatophyte in guinea pig skin was obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Images PMID:711318

  7. A case of Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Pressanti, Charline; Delverdier, Maxence; Iriart, Xavier; Morcel, Frédérique; Cadiergues, Marie-Christine

    2012-10-01

    A 2-year-old male fennec fox presented with a 4 month history of nonpruritic, crusty skin lesions on the forehead, the pinnae and the tail tip. Initial investigations, including routine haematology, biochemistry profile, multiple skin scrapings, trichoscopic examination, Wood's lamp examination and fungal culture, failed to reveal any abnormalities. Histopathological examination of a first set of skin biopsies showed an interface dermatitis pattern, with lymphocyte infiltration in the basal layer, a significant lymphocytic exocytosis and occasional apoptotic basal epidermal keratinocytes; periodic acid Schiff stain did not reveal any fungal elements. On further biopsies, there was a pustular neutrophilic dermatitis, with numerous crusts containing high numbers of arthrospores and fungal hyphae. Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection was confirmed on fungal culture and PCR. The fennec fox received oral itraconazole (5 mg/kg once daily for 6 weeks) combined with a miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo applied on affected areas once weekly, followed with an enilconazole dip. The fox improved dramatically, and a fungal culture performed at 6 weeks was negative. Unfortunately, a few days later the fennec fox developed anorexia, icterus and died. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Trichophyton infection in a fennec fox and, although a postmortem examination was not performed, this is possibly the first report of fatal acute liver failure associated with itraconazole in a canid.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of Trichophyton mentagrophytes human and animal isolates based on MnSOD and ITS sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Fréalle, Emilie; Rodrigue, Marion; Gantois, Nausicaa; Aliouat, Cécile-Marie; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Camus, Daniel; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Guillot, Jacques; Delhaes, Laurence

    2007-10-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi able to infect keratinized tissues of human or animal origin. Among them, Trichophyton mentagrophytes is known to be a species complex composed of several species or variants, which occur in both human and animals. Since the T. mentagrophytes complex includes both anthropophilic and zoophilic pathogens, accurate molecular identification is a critical issue for comprehensive understanding of the clinical and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this complex. Here, 41 T. mentagrophytes isolates from either human patients (14 isolates) or animals (27 isolates) with dermatophytosis were prospectively isolated by culture and identified on morphological bases at the University Hospital Centres of Lille and Poitiers, and the Veterinary School of Alfort, respectively. The isolates were differentiated by DNA sequencing of the variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions flanking the 5.8S rDNA, and of the housekeeping gene encoding the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme which is involved in defence against oxidative stress and has previously provided interesting insight into both fungal taxonomy and phylogeny. ITS1-ITS2 regions and MnSOD sequences successfully differentiate between members of the T. mentagrophytes complex and the related species Trichophyton rubrum. Whatever the phylogenetic marker used, members of this complex were classified into two major clades exhibiting a similar topology, with a higher variability when the ITS marker was used. Relationships between ITS/MnSOD sequences and host origin, clinical pattern and phenotypic characteristics (macroscopic and microscopic morphologies) were analysed.

  9. Comparison of a glucose consumption based method with the CLSI M38-A method for testing antifungal susceptibility of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jian; Huang, Huai-Qiu; Xi, Li-Yan; Lai, Wei; Xue, Ru-Zeng; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Rong-Zhang

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of dermatophytoses and the development of new antifungal agents has focused interest on susceptibility tests of dermatophytes. The method used universally for susceptibility tests of dermatophytes was published as document (M38-A) in 2002 by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), dealing with the standardization of susceptibility tests in filamentous fungi, though not including dermatophytes especially. However, it is not a very practical method for the clinical laboratory in routine susceptibility testing. In this test, we developed a novel rapid susceptibility assay-glucose consumption method (GCM) for dermatophytes. In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VOC), econazole nitrate (ECN) and terbinafine (TBF) by glucose consumption method (GCM), in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A method. Twenty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) (n = 14) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes) (n = 14), were tested. In the GCM, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of enzyme substrate color mix. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually. Comparison revealed best agreement for TBF against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, since MIC range, MIC50, and MIC90 were identical from two methods. However, for ITC and VOC, GCM showed wider MIC ranges and higher MICs than CLSI methods in most isolates. For ECN against T. rubrum, high MICs were tested by GCM (0.125-16 microg/ml) but not M38-A method (0.5-1 microg/ml). The overall agreements for all isolates between the two methods within one dilution and two dilutions for ITC, VOC, ECN and TBF was 53.6% and 75.0%, 57.1% and 75.0%, 82.1% and 89.3%, and 85.7 and 85.7%, respectively. Measurement of glucose uptake can predict the susceptibility of T. rubrum and T

  10. TLR2(-/-) Mice Display Increased Clearance of Dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in the Setting of Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Débora de Fátima; Fraga-Silva, Thais F de Campos; Santos, Amanda R; Finato, Angela C; Marchetti, Camila M; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Lara, Vanessa S; Arruda, Maria S P; Venturini, James

    2017-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is one of the most common human infections affecting both immunocompetent individuals and immunocompromised patients, in whom the disease is more aggressive and can reach deep tissues. Over the last decades, cases of deep dermatophytosis have increased and the dermatophyte-host interplay remains poorly investigated. Pattern recognition molecules, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR), play a crucial role against infectious diseases. However, there has been very little research reported on dermatophytosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR2 during the development of experimental deep dermatophytosis in normal mice and mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus, an experimental model of diabetes that exhibits a delay in the clearance of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Tm). Our results demonstrated that inoculation of Tm into the footpads of normal mice increases the expression of TLR2 in CD115(+)Ly6C(high) blood monocytes and, in hypoinsulinemic-hyperglycemic (HH) mice infected with Tm, the increased expression of TLR2 was exacerbated. To understand the role of TLR2 during the development of murine experimental deep dermatophytosis, we employed TLR2 knockout mice. Tm-infected TLR2(-/-) and TLR2(+/+) wild-type mice exhibited similar control of deep dermatophytic infection and macrophage activity; however, TLR2(-/-) mice showed a noteworthy increase in production of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17, and an increased percentage of splenic CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells. Interestingly, TLR2(-/-) HH-Tm mice exhibited a lower fungal load and superior organization of tissue inflammatory responses, with high levels of production of hydrogen peroxide by macrophages, alongside low TNF-α and IL-10; high production of IL-10 by spleen cells; and increased expansion of Tregs. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TLR2 diminishes the development of adaptive immune responses during experimental deep dermatophytosis and, in a diabetic scenario, acts

  11. Chiral N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamines and their in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Thvedt, Thor H Krane; Kaasa, Kristin; Sundby, Eirik; Charnock, Colin; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2013-10-01

    In the search for new antifungal compounds and to explore structure activity relationships, a series of 24 chiral benzyl amine type antifungals was synthesised and characterised. In vitro testing against the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans revealed that several derivatives had MIC50 values similar to that of the commercial drug Butenafine. All of these contained a bulky group in the para position of the benzyl fragment. Eighteen compounds were also tested for activity against the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum. Of these (R)-N-(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamine (MIC50: 0.06 μg/mL) and a para-benzyloxy substituted derivative (MIC50: 0.125 μg/mL) possessed high activity. Testing of derivatives with a stereocentre at the benzylic carbon, revealed that (S)-stereochemistry was required for potency: a MIC50 value of 1 μg/mL was obtained for (S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)ethanamine. Preparation of the corresponding fluoromethyl compound was achieved employing lipase B from Candida antarctica as catalyst in the key step. A low antifungal activity was observed for the fluorinated derivative indicating the importance of the amine basicity for the antifungal potency of these compounds.

  12. Fungistatic capacity of sera from guinea pigs injected with various iron solutions: differences between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R L; Artis, W M

    1982-01-01

    The fungistatic capacity and serum ion levels (SI) of guinea pigs given subcutaneous injections of various iron solutions were examined. The administration of 2.0 ml of 0.1 M ferric ammonium sulfate, ferric sulfate, or ferric chloride subcutaneously had no significant effect on the SI 3 h after administration, whereas ferric ammonium citrate, ferric citrate, or ferrous sulfate elevated the SI to 50 to 140 times that necessary to saturate the unbound transferrin in normal sera. The sera from 11 of 15 guinea pigs with an elevated SI remained fungistatic for Trichophyton mentagrophytes, whereas 3 of 15 guinea pigs with an elevated SI remained fungistatic for Rhizopus oryzae. The sera from normal guinea pigs were consistently fungistatic for Rhizopus oryzae. The sera from normal guinea pigs were consistently fungistatic for both T. mentagrophytes and R. oryzae. These data suggest that subcutaneous administration of certain iron compounds can significantly elevate the SI without completely abolishing the fungistatic capacity of the serum. PMID:7054128

  13. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, P A M; Avermaete, K H A van; Mertens, C A R M; Meijer, M; Schoemaker, N J

    2017-06-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    This work was originally undertaken to determine the effective conditions of essential oils against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro for the treatment of tinea pedis in a foot bath. Agar blocks implanted with T. mentagrophytes were immersed in 0.1% aqueous agar containing two-fold dilutions of essential oils with or without sodium chloride at 27 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 10 and 20 min. The number of surviving mycelia on the agar blocks was determined from the standard curves of the colony diameter and original inocula of the conidia. At the same time, the thermal effect on the cellular morphology was examined using SEM. Most fungal mycelia (99.7%) were killed after treatment at 42 degrees C for 20 min without essential oil. The fungicidal activity of essential oils was markedly enhanced by treating at 42 degrees C for 20 min as compared with that at 27 degrees C, showing 1/4 - 1/32-fold reduction of minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC to kill 99.99%). The order of the fungicidal activity of 11 essential oils was oregano, thyme thymol, cinnamon bark > lemongrass > clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender > geranium Bourbon, tea tree > thyme geraniol oils. MFCs were further reduced to 1/2 - 1/8 by the addition of 10% sodium chloride. The salt effect was explained, at least partly, by an increase in mycelial adsorption of antifungal constituents in the presence of sodium chloride. Considerable hyphal damage was done at 27 degrees C by the essential oils, but no further alteration in morphology of the hyphae treated at 42 degrees C with or without oil was observed by SEM. The inhibitory effect of heat and oils was also observed against mycelia of T. rubrum and conidia of T. mentagrophytes. Thermotherapy combined with essential oils and salt would be promising to treat tinea pedis in a foot bath.

  15. [Tinea barbae profunda due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes after journey to Thailand : Case report and review].

    PubMed

    Wendrock-Shiga, G; Mechtel, D; Uhrlaß, S; Koch, D; Krüger, C; Nenoff, P

    2017-08-01

    Tinea barbae represents a very rare dermatophytosis. We report on a tinea barbae profunda following a journey to Southeast Asia. After travel to Thailand, a businessman was affected by a foudroyant proceeding abscessing infection of the upper lip and beard area. The initial therapy with oral acyclovir and oral ciprofloxacin, which later was changed to ampicillin plus sulbactam, intravenously, was unsuccessful. In a biopsy sample, histologically, with Grocott-Gomori's methenamine silver stain, fungal mycelium was apparent in the tissue. Thereupon, terbinafine 250 mg was given for 4 weeks, topically, a 1% ciclopiroxolamine-containing cream. In fungal culture, T. mentagrophytes were found to grow. Meanwhile, the patient's German wife suffered from a tinea faciei. From skin scrapings from the cheek, T. mentagrophytes was also cultivated. This zoophilic dermatophyte was identical with other zoophilic strains of T. mentagrophytes currently found in Germany, which were also acquired in Thailand. The patient had contact with Thai female sex workers who must be considered as a source of infection of the dermatophytosis. There was no animal contact, neither in Thailand, nor in Germany. The infection chain of the dermatophytosis from Thailand probably reached from a female sex worker via the here described patient to his wife in Germany. This pathway of infection has been known for 1 or 2 years, but until now, in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria exclusively via pubogenital infections (tinea genitalis profunda) due to T. mentagrophytes after journeys to Southeast Asia. For treatment, oral antifungal agents should be used, first of all terbinafine, alternatively fluconazole or itraconazole.

  16. Morphological Effect of the New Antifungal Agent ME1111 on Hyphal Growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Determined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Takahata, Sho; Abe, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, on the hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Structural changes, such as pit formation and/or depression of the cell surface, and degeneration of intracellular organelles and plasmolysis were observed after treatment with ME1111. Our results suggest that the inhibition of energy production by ME1111 affects the integrity and function of cellular membranes, leading to fungal cell death. PMID:27799213

  17. Efficacy of NVC-422 in the treatment of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes using a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Long, Lisa; Cirino, Amber J; Miller, Anthony R; Najafi, Ron; Wang, Lu; Sharma, Kuldeepak; Anderson, Mark; Memarzadeh, Bahram

    2013-05-01

    Dermatophytes, belonging to genera including Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, are the causative agents of superficial fungal infections, prevalences of which are estimated to be as high as 25% in the worldwide population. This study evaluated the activity of topical formulations of NVC-422 (sodium 2-[dichloroamino]-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonate), the lead compound in a new class of antimicrobials that consist of broad-spectrum, fast-acting, nonantibiotic antimicrobial molecules based on the endogenously produced N-chlorotaurines. The antifungal efficacy of NVC-422 was investigated using a guinea pig model of infection with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Infected guinea pigs were randomly assigned to four treatment and two control groups. The efficacy of the treatments was assessed clinically and mycologically at 72 hours after the final topical dose. The test compound 2% NVC-422 in 1% Noveon Gel demonstrated the highest level of clinical efficacy. Outcomes of treatment with all other test compounds differed significantly from outcomes in the untreated control group (P = 0.003, P = 0.029, P = 0.012, and P < 0.0001, respectively). Fungal elements were detectable in skin sections from untreated guinea pigs but not in skin sections obtained from any of the treatment groups. Evaluation of the efficacy of NVC-422 in the treatment of dermatophytosis using an experimental guinea pig model showed that this compound possesses potent antifungal efficacy as measured by mycological and clinical endpoints. The highest degree of clinical and mycological efficacy was demonstrated by 2% NVC-422 in 1% Noveon Gel. These data show that NVC-422 has potent antifungal activity in vivo. Clinical evaluation of NVC-422 in the treatment of superficial infections caused by dermatophytes, including onychomycosis, is warranted. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15 days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth.

  19. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Ribosomal DNA Intergenic Regions Is Useful for Differentiating Strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Barton, Richard C.; Moore, Mary K.; Jackson, Colin J.; Kelly, Steven L.; Evans, E. Glyn V.

    2003-01-01

    Twenty isolates of Tricophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 47 isolates of T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, identified by morphological characteristics, were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Sixty isolates (14 of 20 T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates and 46 of 47 T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates) shared an identical ITS RFLP profile and were further investigated by using a probe targeted to the rDNA nontranscribed spacer (NTS) region. Polymorphisms were observed in the NTS regions of both T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates. Twenty-three individual RFLP patterns (DNA types P-1 to P-12 and A-1 to A-11) were recognized and divided into two groups depending on the presence (P) or absence (A) of a 2.5-kb band, which correlated to a large extent with the morphological variety. Eleven of 14 T. metagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates were A types, and all of the 46 T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates were P types. A majority of strains (23 of 60 [38.3%]) were characterized by one RFLP pattern (pattern P-1), and eight types (P-1 to P-6, P-8, and P-9) accounted for 75% (45 of 60) of all strains, including all of the T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates. The remaining 15 types were represented by one only isolate and included all of the T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates. We conclude that RFLP analysis of the rDNA NTS region is a valuable technique for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes strains. Furthermore, by use of this method, there appears to be a greater degree of diversity among T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes isolates than among T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale isolates. PMID:14532186

  20. TLR2−/− Mice Display Increased Clearance of Dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in the Setting of Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Débora de Fátima; Fraga-Silva, Thais F. de Campos; Santos, Amanda R.; Finato, Angela C.; Marchetti, Camila M.; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Lara, Vanessa S.; Arruda, Maria S. P.; Venturini, James

    2017-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is one of the most common human infections affecting both immunocompetent individuals and immunocompromised patients, in whom the disease is more aggressive and can reach deep tissues. Over the last decades, cases of deep dermatophytosis have increased and the dermatophyte-host interplay remains poorly investigated. Pattern recognition molecules, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR), play a crucial role against infectious diseases. However, there has been very little research reported on dermatophytosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR2 during the development of experimental deep dermatophytosis in normal mice and mice with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus, an experimental model of diabetes that exhibits a delay in the clearance of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Tm). Our results demonstrated that inoculation of Tm into the footpads of normal mice increases the expression of TLR2 in CD115+Ly6Chigh blood monocytes and, in hypoinsulinemic-hyperglycemic (HH) mice infected with Tm, the increased expression of TLR2 was exacerbated. To understand the role of TLR2 during the development of murine experimental deep dermatophytosis, we employed TLR2 knockout mice. Tm-infected TLR2−/− and TLR2+/+ wild-type mice exhibited similar control of deep dermatophytic infection and macrophage activity; however, TLR2−/− mice showed a noteworthy increase in production of IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-17, and an increased percentage of splenic CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells. Interestingly, TLR2−/− HH-Tm mice exhibited a lower fungal load and superior organization of tissue inflammatory responses, with high levels of production of hydrogen peroxide by macrophages, alongside low TNF-α and IL-10; high production of IL-10 by spleen cells; and increased expansion of Tregs. In conclusion, we demonstrate that TLR2 diminishes the development of adaptive immune responses during experimental deep dermatophytosis and, in a diabetic scenario, acts to

  1. Morphological Effect of the New Antifungal Agent ME1111 on Hyphal Growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Determined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yayoi; Takahata, Sho; Abe, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, on the hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Structural changes, such as pit formation and/or depression of the cell surface, and degeneration of intracellular organelles and plasmolysis were observed after treatment with ME1111. Our results suggest that the inhibition of energy production by ME1111 affects the integrity and function of cellular membranes, leading to fungal cell death. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (molecular type Arthroderma benhamiae ) mimics impetigo : a case report and literature review of cases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Utako; Yokoyama, Kae; Hiruma, Masataro; Kano, Rui; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old female elementary schoolteacher presented with aggregated serous papules surrounded by mild erythema, extending from both nasal wings/nostrils down to the upper lip. No improvement was seen following treatment of the lesions with topical antibiotics for impetigo. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) direct microscopy confirmed the presence of mycelia, and the infection was diagnosed as tinea faciei. The isolate was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes using morphological analysis and as Arthroderma benhamiae using genetic analysis. Here we describe that case and summarize the clinical features of other cases of A. benhamiae infection in Japan that have been reported in the literature.

  3. [From guinea pig to man: Tinea outbreak due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. porcellae in pet shops in Nancy (France)].

    PubMed

    Bloch, M; Cavignaux, R; Debourgogne, A; Dorin, J; Machouart, M; Contet-Audonneau, N

    2016-09-01

    Dermatophytes are responsible for widespread superficial fungal infections, currently representing a real public health problem. Some of the fungi involved in these mycoses are transmitted by pets, illustrating great host specificity within this fungal group. Thus, a new variety of zoophilic dermatophyte has been described in recent years by the Mycology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Nancy, within the complex T. mentagrophytes. This variant was named T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae, following the observation of a significant number of patients with dermatomycoses of exposed parts of the body and having had contact with a guinea pig. The current work follows this first description and aims to assess the frequency of T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae in guinea pigs within three pet shops in the region of Nancy (France). In total, almost two thirds of collected guinea pigs were carriers of this new dermatophyte. This study highlights the risks associated with the adaptation of dermatophytes to potential new hosts that may spread to new species. Thus, in this context, sanitary measures could be proposed to the pet shops, usually not informed of the risks facing the growing enthusiasm of the population for new pets, in order to limit contamination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. The vapor activity of oregano, perilla, tea tree, lavender, clove, and geranium oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a closed box.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Hasumi, Yayoi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    The vapor activity of six essential oils against a Trichophyton mentagrophytes was examined using a closed box. The antifungal activity was determined from colony size, which was correlated with the inoculum size. As judged from the minimum inhibitory dose and the minimum fungicidal dose determined after vapor exposure for 24 h, the vapor activity of the six essential oils was ranked in the following order: oregano > clove, perilla > geranium, lavender, tea tree. The vapors of oregano, perilla, tea tree, and lavender oils killed the mycelia by short exposure, for 3 h, but the vapors of clove and geranium oils were only active after overnight exposure. The vapor of oregano and other oils induced lysis of the mycelia. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that the cell membrane and cell wall were damaged in a dose- and time-dependent manner by the action of oregano vapor, causing rupture and peeling of the cell wall, with small bulges coming from the cell membrane. The vapor activity increased after 24 h, but mycelial accumulation of the active oil constituents was maximized around 15 h, and then decreased in parallel with the decrease of vapor concentration. This suggested that the active constituent accumulated on the fungal cells around 15 h caused irreversible damage, which eventually led to cellular death.

  5. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae.

  6. Anti-Trichophyton Activity of Protocatechuates and Their Synergism with Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Scorzoni, Liliana; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Souza, Patrícia Fernanda; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytosis and superficial mycosis are a major global public health problem that affects 20–25% of the world's population. The increase in fungal resistance to the commercially available antifungal agents, in conjunction with the limited spectrum of action of such drugs, emphasises the need to develop new antifungal agents. Natural products are attractive prototypes for antifungal agents due to their broad spectrum of biological activities. This study aimed to verify the antifungal activity of protocatechuic acid, 3,4-diacetoxybenzoic, and fourteen alkyl protocatechuates (3,4-dihydroxybenzoates) against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and to further assess their activities when combined with fluconazole. Susceptibility and synergism assays were conducted as described in M38-A2 (CLSI), with modifications. Three strains of Trichophyton rubrum and three strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were used in this work. The pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, and decyl protocatechuates showed great fungicidal effects, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.97 to 7.8 mg/L. Heptyl showed a synergistic activity (FIC index = 0.49), reducing the MIC of fluconazole by fourfold. All substances tested were safe, especially the hexyl, heptyl, octyl, and nonyl compounds, all of which showed a high selectivity index, particularly in combination with fluconazole. These ester associations with fluconazole may represent a promising source of prototypes in the search for anti-Trichophyton therapeutic agents. PMID:25136374

  7. In vitro fungicidal photodynamic effect of hypericin on Trichophyton spp.

    PubMed

    Paz-Cristobal, Manuel Pablo; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Alejandre, Carmen; Pardo, Julián; Revillo, M José; Rezusta, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Hypericin is a natural photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy (PDT), which has shown in vitro antifungal effect against Candida spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fungicidal effect of hypericin-PDT on dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains were incubated with different concentrations of hypericin for different times and exposed to light-emitting diode lamp (602 ± 10 nm, 10.3 mW cm(-2), and fluence 37 J cm(-2)). Using the optimal incubation time, 60 min, a 3-log fungicidal effect was achieved with hypericin concentration ranges of 10-20 μM for T. rubrum and 20-50 μM for T. mentagrophytes (p = 0.95). Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed the localization of hypericin inside the dermatophytes diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of conidia and hyphae and outside the nucleus. In conclusion, hypericin-PDT has a fungicidal effect in vitro on dermatophytes. Hypericin seems to be a promising photosensitizer to treat localized dermatophytic infections such as tinea pedis and onychomycosis.

  8. Dermatophyte-hormone relationships: characterization of progesterone-binding specificity and growth inhibition in the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, K V; Schär, G; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    We reported previously that Trichophyton mentagrophytes contains a cytoplasmic macromolecule which specifically binds progesterone. Progesterone is also an effective inhibitor of growth of the fungus. We report here studies which characterize more fully the specific binding properties and the functional responses of T. mentagrophytes and taxonomically related fungi to a series of mammalian steroid hormones. Scatchard analysis of [3H]progesterone binding in both the + and - mating types of Arthroderma benhamiae and in Microsporum canis revealed a single class of binding sites with approximately the same affinity as that in T. mentagrophytes (Kd, 1 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-7) M). Trichophyton rubrum had a protein with a higher binding affinity (Kd, 1.6 X 10(-8) M). Characterization of the [3H]progesterone-binding sites in T. mentagrophytes showed the binder to be a protein which was destroyed by trypsin and heating to 56 degrees C. Previous examination of the steroid-binding specificity in T. mentagrophytes had demonstrated that deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. Expansion of this study to include other competitors revealed that R5020 (a synthetic progestin), androstenedione, and dehydroepiandosterone possessed relative binding affinities which were 20, 11, and 9% of that of progesterone, respectively. Other ligands tested were less effective. Competition studies for the binder in M. canis resulted in similar findings: DOC and DHT were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. The growth of A. benhamiae + and -, M. canis, and T. rubrum were all inhibited by progesterone in a dose-responsive manner, with 50% inhibition achieved at concentrations of 9.8 x 10(-6), 1.2 x 10(-5), 1.5 x 10(-5), and 2.7 x 10(-6) M. respectively,. PMID:3182998

  9. Simple identification of Trichophyton tonsurans by chlamydospore-like structures produced in culture media.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Sakata, Yuichi; Fujihiro, Machiko

    2013-12-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is known to be the causative agent of a worldwide epidemic of dermatophytoses among contact sports practitioners, and is spreading among the general population of Japan. Prompt and simple identification of T. tonsurans in diagnostic laboratories is crucial to control infection. The present study evaluated the availability of observation of chlamydospore-like structures grown in culture media as a characteristic for identification of T. tonsurans. Twenty-five strains of T. tonsurans and five strains each of Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were inoculated on Mycosel agar plates and inoculated Petri dishes were observed by light microscopy from the reverse side. Twenty-three of 25 T. tonsurans strains showed chlamydospore-like structures within 5 days, and all strains at day 8. The numbers of chlamydospore-like structures were very abundant in most strains. The majority of strains of other species showed no chlamydospore-like structures, or very few when present. Positive for chlamydospore-like structures among 15 strains other than T. tonsurans was one strain at day 5 and six strains at day 8. As for the identification of T. tonsurans, presence of chlamydospore-like structures showed 92.0% sensitivity (23/25) and 93.3% specificity (14/15) at day 5, and 100% sensitivity (25/25) and 60.0% specificity (9/15) at day 8. Electron microscopic findings suggest chlamydospore-like structures are not true chlamydospores but are produced by inflation of actively growing hyphae by developing vacuoles in cells. In conclusion, observation of development of chlamydospore-like structures in culture media is the simplest method for identification of T. tonsurans.

  10. Multiplication of an ancestral gene encoding secreted fungalysin preceded species differentiation in the dermatophytes Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed

    Jousson, Olivier; Léchenne, Barbara; Bontems, Olympia; Capoccia, Sabrina; Mignon, Bernard; Barblan, Jachen; Quadroni, Manfredo; Monod, Michel

    2004-02-01

    Dermatophytes are human and animal pathogenic fungi which cause cutaneous infections and grow exclusively in the stratum corneum, nails and hair. In a culture medium containing soy proteins as sole nitrogen source a substantial proteolytic activity was secreted by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. This proteolytic activity was 55-75 % inhibited by o-phenanthroline, attesting that metalloproteases were secreted by all three species. Using a consensus probe constructed on previously characterized genes encoding metalloproteases (MEP) of the M36 fungalysin family in Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus oryzae and M. canis, a five-member MEP family was isolated from genomic libraries of T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. A phylogenetic analysis of genomic and protein sequences revealed a robust tree consisting of five main clades, each of them including a MEP sequence type from each dermatophyte species. Each MEP type was remarkably conserved across species (72-97 % amino acid sequence identity). The tree topology clearly indicated that the multiplication of MEP genes in dermatophytes occurred prior to species divergence. In culture medium containing soy proteins as a sole nitrogen source secreted Meps accounted for 19-36 % of total secreted protein extracts; characterization of protein bands by proteolysis and mass spectrometry revealed that the three dermatophyte species secreted two Meps (Mep3 and Mep4) encoded by orthologous genes.

  11. Identification and genetic homogeneity of Trichophyton tonsurans isolated from several regions by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Kim, J A; Takizawa, K; Fukushima, K; Nishimura, K; Miyaji, M

    1999-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte mostly causing tinea capitis and tinea corporis. This study was carried out to identify T. tonsurans and to clarify whether it has any genetic differences depending on the phenotype or region of isolation by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with three random primers. The assay was performed in 11 Korean, 2 Japanese, 2 Taiwanese, 5 Brazilian and 1 American isolates of T. tonsurans together with the other 10 anamorphic species of dermatophytes and 3 Arthroderma spp. All tested species of dermatophytes showed distinct bands and T. tonsurans was differentiated from other dermatophytes. It was most clearly differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by using primer 5'-GAAGGCTCCC-3' (OPAO-15). No difference was found in RAPD band patterns in all strains of T. tonsurans with these random primers. It was considered that T. tonsurans is a genetically homogeneous species regardless of its isolation regions, morphologic or physiologic characteristics.

  12. In vivo anti-Trichophyton Activities of Seed Oil Obtained from Caraganakorshinskii Kom.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenna; Xu, Heng; Luan, Guangxiang; Wang, HongLun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ji, Mingkai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed oil of Caragana korshinskii Kom. against Trichophyton mentagrophytes on an in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. The skin of albino guinea pigs was infected with T. mentagrophytes, and the animals were divided into five groups: negative control (NC group), positive control (PC group), vehicle control, CK50% group (received topical 50% seed oil of C.korshinskii), and CK100% group (received topical 100% seed oil of C.korshinskii). Evaluation of clinical efficacy was performed 72 h after the completion of a 10-day treatment regimen. Skin biopsy samples were processed for histopathological examination. The infected untreated control guinea pigs showed patches of hair loss and ulcerated or scaly skin. Lower clinical scores indicate improved efficacy compared with NC. The lesion scores significantly declined in the CK50%, CK100%, and PC groups in comparison with the NC group. The CK50% group (45.31%) and the CK100% group (75%) showed clinical efficacy compared with the PC group (78.13%). In addition, no fungal elements, inflammation, or tissue destruction was observed in any of the PAS-stained sections of the infected skin in the groups treated with CK100% or 1% terbinafine. Seed oil of C.korshinskii demonstrated high antifungal efficacy in experimental dermatophytosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Efficacy of eight commercial disinfectants against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton spp. infective spores on an experimentally contaminated textile surface.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Kunder, Darcie; Hondzo, Hanna

    2013-12-01

    An important part of treatment of dermatophytosis is the removal of infective material and decontamination of the environment. It is recognized that the role of disinfectants is to kill infective material not removed during the mechanical removal of debris and gross cleaning steps. A widely used disinfectant in the home is a dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite. To determine whether over-the-counter products, particularly ready-to-use formulations, with label claim as fungicidal are effective against Microsporum or Trichophyton spores isolated from cat hair. Eight commercial disinfectants were tested in vitro for fungicidal efficacy using three different trials and a 10 min contact time, as follows: a standard 1:10 spore dilution suspension test; 1 and 5 mL of disinfectant solution applied to contaminated gauze fabric; and, to simulate home use, one and five sprays of disinfectant applied to contaminated gauze. Good efficacy was defined as a product that completely inhibited growth. All products completely inhibited growth in the suspension test. Four of eight products showed complete inhibition of growth of both pathogens on the textile test after 1 mL or one spray; however, all eight products showed complete inhibition of pathogen growth after 5 mL or five sprays. Aggressive removal of contaminated material followed by thorough application of commercial ready-to-use disinfectants labelled as fungicidal against Trichophyton mentagrophytes are alternatives to dilute sodium hypochlorite. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. In vitro susceptibility patterns of clinically important Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species against nine antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Badali, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mashedi, Olga; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F

    2015-05-01

    Despite the common, worldwide, occurrence of dermatophytes, little information is available regarding susceptibility profiles against currently available and novel antifungal agents. A collection of sixty-eight clinical Trichophyton species and Epidermophyton floccosum were previously identified and verified to the species level by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, terbinafine and MECs of caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed based on CLSI M38-A2. The resulting MIC90 s of all strains were, in increasing order, as follows: terbinafine (0.063 mg l(-1) ); posaconazole (1 mg l(-1) ); isavuconazole and anidulafungin (2 mg l(-1) ); itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin (4 mg l(-1) ) and fluconazole (>64 mg l(-1) ). These results confirm that terbinafine is an excellent agent for treatment of dermatophytosis due to T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, T. schoenleinii and E. floccosum. In addition, the new azoles POS and ISA are potentially useful antifungals to treat dermatophytosis. However, the clinical effectiveness of these novel antifungals remains to be determined.

  15. Trichophyton Schoenleinii-induced widespread tinea corporis mimicking parapsoriasis.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, P; Farshi, S; Khosravi, A R; Naraghi, Z S; Chalangari, R

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of extensive tinea corporis in an 80-year-old woman on her forearms, thighs, legs, buttocks and trunk, mimicking parapsoriasis due to Trichophyton schoenleinii, without scalp involvement. Diagnosis of Trichophyton schoenleinii was confirmed by microscopy and mycological culture specimens.

  16. Trichophyton tonsurans-Ringworm in an NICU.

    PubMed

    Sproul, Ann Vivian; Whitehall, John; Engler, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Ringworm is very rarely found in the neonate, especially infants who have been confined from birth to an intensive care unit. We report an infection with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, the most common cause of tinea capitis in children but not yet described in a premature baby who has never left the nursery. Our case illustrates the need to consider this diagnosis among the causes of dermatitis in the newborn, especially in at-risk populations such as indigenous Australians. Though our infant's presentation was the classic "ring" shape, a literature review revealed varied presentations. In contrast to the usual need for long-term antifungal medication, our case responded rapidly to a topical azole preparation. Although we did not screen visiting family members, screening would have been appropriate, and those found positive might have benefited from at least antifungal shampoo.

  17. Proteomic profile of dormant Trichophyton Rubrum conidia

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Rui; Yang, Jian; Wei, Candong; Zhang, Wenliang; Jin, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte causing fungal skin infections in humans. Asexual sporulation is an important means of propagation for T. rubrum, and conidia produced by this way are thought to be the primary cause of human infections. Despite their importance in pathogenesis, the conidia of T. rubrum remain understudied. We intend to intensively investigate the proteome of dormant T. rubrum conidia to characterize its molecular and cellular features and to enhance the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Results The proteome of T. rubrum conidia was analyzed by combining shotgun proteomics with sample prefractionation and multiple enzyme digestion. In total, 1026 proteins were identified. All identified proteins were compared to those in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, the eukaryotic orthologous groups database, and the gene ontology database to obtain functional annotation information. Functional classification revealed that the identified proteins covered nearly all major biological processes. Some proteins were spore specific and related to the survival and dispersal of T. rubrum conidia, and many proteins were important to conidial germination and response to environmental conditions. Conclusion Our results suggest that the proteome of T. rubrum conidia is considerably complex, and that the maintenance of conidial dormancy is an intricate and elaborate process. This data set provides the first global framework for the dormant T. rubrum conidia proteome and is a stepping stone on the way to further study of the molecular mechanisms of T. rubrum conidial germination and the maintenance of conidial dormancy. PMID:18578874

  18. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 Phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L.; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm2 reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24614382

  19. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2014-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm(2) reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis.

  20. Tinea faciei in a newborn due to Trichophyton tonsurans

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Meihua; Ge, Yiping; Chen, Wei; Feng, Suying; She, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaofang; Liu, Weida

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first case of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in mainland China. The mother of the infant had tinea corpris and tinea capitis while the father had tinea incongnito. The infections in the parents were mycologically confirmed to be due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ttinea faciei in the infant was cured after two-week topical use of amorolfine cream. The mother ceased breastfeeding and took oral terbinafine for 4 weeks. No recurrence was observed in the infant during 12 months of follow-up. PMID:23554797

  1. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Trichophyton rubrum by E-test.

    PubMed

    da Silva Barros, Maria Elisabete; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Soares Hamdan, Júnia

    2007-05-01

    Trichophyton rubrum isolates were used in susceptibility testing for azoles by E-test. Voriconazole was the most and fluconazole was the less-active drug. Our results are in agreement with susceptibility data observed by researchers that used others' methodologies. E-test seems to be a reliable methodology to susceptibility-testing for T. rubrum.

  2. Detection of xanthomegnin in epidermal materials infected with Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Borst, I; Summerbell, R C

    2000-11-01

    Xanthomegnin, a mutagenic mycotoxin best known as an agent of nephropathy and death in farm animals exposed to food-borne Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi, was first isolated about 35 y ago as a diffusing pigment from cultures of the dermatophyte, Trichophyton megninii. This study investigates the production of xanthomegnin by the most common dermatophytic species, Trichophyton rubrum, both in dermatologic nail specimens and in culture. In view of the labile nature of xanthomegnin, a chromatographic procedure was developed to allow high-performance liquid chromatography analysis within 1 h of sample extraction. In cultures, Tricho- phyton rubrum produced xanthomegnin as a major pigment that appears to give the culture its characteristic red colony reverse. Xanthomegnin was also repeatedly extracted from human nail and skin material infected by Trichophyton rubrum. The level of xanthomegnin present, however, varied among the clinical samples studied. Xanthomegnin was not detected in uninfected nails. These results show that patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections may be exposed to xanthomegnin, although the consequences of such an exposure are not currently known.

  3. Trichophyton species susceptibility to green and red propolis from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, A B S; Gomes, B S; Cambuim, I; Maia, R; Abreu, S; Souza-Motta, C M; de Queiroz, L A; Porto, A L F

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of Brazilian green and red propolis was tested against different species of Trichophyton. The antifungal activity of the Brazilian aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the green propolis and the alcoholic extract of red propolis was observed against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans and Trichophyton mentagrohytes samples, using as controls itraconazole and terbinafine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined following the microdilution method indicated by the 'Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute'. The minimal fungicide concentration was determined by the absence of growth in liquid sabouraud culture medium. The data obtained showed that the green propolis alcoholic extract's antifungal activity was from 64 to 1024 microg ml(-1), whereas the red propolis alcoholic extract was from 8 to 1024 microg ml(-1). The antifungal activity of the red propolis alcoholic extract was more efficient than the green propolis alcoholic extract for all three species studied. The T. rubrum samples were shown to be more sensitive to the antifungal activity of the alcoholic extracts of the propolis. The antifungal potential of the alcoholic extracts of green and red propolis demonstrated suggest an applicable potential as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis caused by these species.

  4. The Novel Azole R126638 Is a Selective Inhibitor of Ergosterol Synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14α-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14α-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC50s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 μM for itraconazole and 3.1 μM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC50 = 3.5 μM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (IC50 > 10 μM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 μM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 μM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6β hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast infections. PMID:15328084

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i and Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l by Illumina 2000 and Pacific Biosciences

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ping; de Hoog, Sybren

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT One strain of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i (=CBS 139224) isolated from onychomycosis and one strain of Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l (=CBS 141829) isolated from tinea capitis in China were whole-genome sequenced by Illumina/Solexa, while the former was also sequenced by Pacific Biosciences sequencing in parallel. PMID:28963202

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i and Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l by Illumina 2000 and Pacific Biosciences.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; de Hoog, Sybren; Liu, Weida

    2017-09-28

    One strain of Trichophyton rubrum CMCC(F)T1i (=CBS 139224) isolated from onychomycosis and one strain of Trichophyton violaceum CMCC(F)T3l (=CBS 141829) isolated from tinea capitis in China were whole-genome sequenced by Illumina/Solexa, while the former was also sequenced by Pacific Biosciences sequencing in parallel. Copyright © 2017 Zhan et al.

  7. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  8. Tinea corporis bullosa due to Trichophyton schoenleinii: case report.

    PubMed

    Mareş, Mihai; Năstasă, Valentin; Apetrei, Ingrid Cezara; Suditu, Gabriela Cristina

    2012-10-01

    We report the first case of tinea corporis bullosa due to Trichophyton schoenleinii in a 41-year-old Romanian woman, without any involvement of the scalp and hair. The species identification was performed using macroscopic and microscopic features of the dermatophyte and its physiological abilities. Epidemiological aspects of the case are also discussed. The general treatment with terbinafine and topical applications of ciclopiroxolamine cream have led to complete healing, with the lesions disappearing in 2 weeks.

  9. [Extensive inflammatory and childhood dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum].

    PubMed

    Khebizi, S; Mansouri, R

    2014-09-01

    We report an observation of extensive and atypical dermatophytosis to Trichophyton rubrum coexisting with fingernails and tinea manuum candidiasis in a 13-year-old girl presenting inflammatory cutaneous lesions, involvement of scalp, as well as total dystrophic onychomycosis of feet associated with a perionyxis of hands. The results of the mycological examination of specimen showed fungal elements of septate hyphae and pilar parasitism. The fungal culture allowed the diagnosis of certainty of the dermatophytosis to T. rubrum. The therapeutic success of this infection was obtained thanks to the administration of antifungals by oral route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii from a dog.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Suzuki, Takayuki; Watanabe, Shinichi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2010-06-01

    A rare anthropophilic dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii, was isolated for the first time from a case of animal dermatophytosis. We morphologically and physiologically identified the isolate from a case of canine dermatophytosis. Molecular typing of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences suggest that human and canine isolates of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii are genetically identical. Therefore, T. rubrum, including T. rubrum var. raubitschekii, might be pathogenic to humans and dogs.

  11. Invasive Trichophyton rubrum resembling blastomycosis infection in the immunocompromised host.

    PubMed

    Squeo, R F; Beer, R; Silvers, D; Weitzman, I; Grossman, M

    1998-08-01

    A 55-year-old renal transplant recipient with onychomycosis and chronic tinea pedis presented with tender nodules on his left medial heel. He then developed papules and nodules on his right foot and calf. A skin biopsy demonstrated periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, thick walled round cells, 2 to 6 microm in diameter, in the dermis. Skin biopsy culture grew Trichophyton rubrum. T. rubrum has been described as an invasive pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical presentation, histopathology, and early fungal culture growth suggested Blastomyces dermititidis in the differential diagnosis before the final identification of T. rubrum.

  12. Tinea corporis purpurica and onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton violaceum.

    PubMed

    Romano, Clara; Massai, Lucia; Strangi, Rosa; Feci, Luca; Miracco, Clelia; Fimiani, Michele

    2011-03-01

    We report two cases of tinea corporis purpurica of the legs, presumably caused by self-inoculation of the mycete from the toenails, in two elderly women (80 and 78 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated from the skin and nails. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen from the leg lesions confirmed the diagnosis. The source of infection was an Ethiopian carer who had tinea capitis in the first case, and was undiagnosed in the second patient. Cases of purpuric variants of tinea corporis are rare and this is the first report of probable self-inoculation of T. violaceum from onychomycosis.

  13. [Establishing an experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis Using Trichophyton rubrum].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian-Jin; Shen, Yong-Nian; Lü, Gui-Xia; Liu, Wei-Da

    2008-10-01

    To construct an animal model infected by Trichophyton rubrum. Three different strains of Trichophyton rubrum were separated from clinical specimen for the infection of guinea pigs. Corticosteroids were given before and after the construction of animal model to facilitate the infection. Direct microscopy, culture, and histopathologic methods were adopted to verify the construction. Ten days after the inoculation of Trichophyton rubrum, with the intervention of corticosteroid, the guinea pigs were examined. Prominent scales and inflammation could be seen on the inoculation site of the Trichophyton rubrum infected guinea pig. Scales and hairs of Trichophyton rubrum infected guinea pig dealt with 10% potassium hydroxide, hypha out of the hair and microconidia or hypha in the hair shaft could be seen. Seven days after the inoculation of scales and hair on SDA plate, cultures of Trichophyton rubrum showed that the colonial morphology were identical to the original dermatophytes. PAS staining of infected guinea pig skin tissue showed that hypha and microconidia could be seen in the infundibula and hair root. With the intervention of corticosteroid, a stable guinea pig model infected by Trichophyton rubrum were successfully constructed.

  14. Epidemiological aspects of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Midori; Kano, Rui; Sugita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2012-12-01

    Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii was studied in 200 cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan. The 200 clinical isolates were shown to be of downy type as their colonies on Sabouraud's dextrose agar were white to cream, suede-like to downy, with a yellow-brown to wine-red reverse, and they produced few macroconidia. The type strain of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii (CBS 100084) and one clinical isolate (KMU 8337; isolated at Kanazawa) of downy type tested positive for urease, but the reference strain of T. rubrum (CBS 392.58) and the remaining 199 clinical isolates tested negative. Further epidemiological investigations are required to study human cases of infection with the granular type of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

  15. Dermatophytosis in farmed mink (Mustela vison) caused by Trichophyton equinum.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Marron-Lopez, Fany; Muckle, Anne; Bourque, Andrea; Lund, Lorraine; MacHattie, David; Lopez, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    This report details 2 outbreaks of dermatophytosis in 2 different mink ranches. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected. Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae. The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Tinea faciei on the right eyebrow caused by Trichophyton interdigitale*

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Kai Wen; Dai, Ya Ling; Ran, Yu Ping; Lama, Jebina; Fan, Yi Ming

    2016-01-01

    Tinea faciei is a relatively uncommon dermatophyte infection entailing atypical clinical symptoms, usually misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. The authors describe a case of tinea faciei on the right eyebrow caused by Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was an 18-year-old girl, who had an inflammatory plaque with a scaly, pustular surface on the right eyebrow and upper eyelid, which had persisted for over 1 month. She was once misdiagnosed as having eczema and was treated using corticosteroid cream. A diagnosis of tinea faciei was made based on direct microscopy and culture. The sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and β-tubulin gene of the isolate established its T. interdigitale lineage. The patient was cured by treatment with systemic terbinafine in combination with topical application of 1% naftifine-0.25% ketaconazole cream for 2 weeks. PMID:28099612

  17. Tinea faciei on the right eyebrow caused by Trichophyton interdigitale.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Kai Wen; Dai, Ya Ling; Ran, Yu Ping; Lama, Jebina; Fan, Yi Ming

    2016-01-01

    Tinea faciei is a relatively uncommon dermatophyte infection entailing atypical clinical symptoms, usually misdiagnosed and treated with corticosteroids. The authors describe a case of tinea faciei on the right eyebrow caused by Trichophyton interdigitale. The patient was an 18-year-old girl, who had an inflammatory plaque with a scaly, pustular surface on the right eyebrow and upper eyelid, which had persisted for over 1 month. She was once misdiagnosed as having eczema and was treated using corticosteroid cream. A diagnosis of tinea faciei was made based on direct microscopy and culture. The sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and β-tubulin gene of the isolate established its T. interdigitale lineage. The patient was cured by treatment with systemic terbinafine in combination with topical application of 1% naftifine-0.25% ketaconazole cream for 2 weeks.

  18. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24688522

  19. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  20. Boric Acid Inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum Growth and Conidia Formation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin

    2017-04-08

    Trichophyton rubrum is a common human dermatophyte that is the causative agent of 80-93% of fungal infections of the skin and nails. While dermatophyte infections in healthy people are easily treatable with over-the-counter medications, such infections pose a higher risk for patients with compromised immune function and impaired regenerative potential. The efficacy of boric acid (BA) for the treatment of vaginal yeast infections prompted an investigation of the effect of BA on growth and morphology of T. rubrum. This is of particular interest since BA facilitates wound healing, raising the possibility that treating athlete's foot with BA, either alone or in combination with other antifungal drugs, would combine the benefits of antimicrobial activity and tissue regeneration to accelerate healing of infected skin. The data presented here show that BA represses T. rubrum growth at a concentration reported to be beneficial for host tissue regeneration. Oxygen exposure increases BA toxicity, and mycelia growing under BA stress avoid colonizing the surface of the growth surface, which leads to a suppression of aerial mycelium growth and surface conidia formation. BA penetrates into solid agar matrices, but the relative lack of oxygen below the substrate surface limits the effectiveness of BA in suppressing growth of embedded T. rubrum cells.

  1. Analysis of part of the Trichophyton rubrum ESTs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Ma, Li; Leng, Wenchuan; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Junping; Dong, Jie; Xue, Ying; Zhe, Wan; Li, Ruoyu; Jin, Qi

    2004-10-01

    Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is the most common of the superficial fungi. In an effort to better understand the genetic and biochemical makeup of T. rubrum, we generated cDNA libraries from 3 growth stages and used these to isolate 4002 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence comparisons with the Genbank database allowed 1226 of the ESTs to be assigned putative functions or matched with homologs from other organisms. Of the remaining ESTs, 989 were only weakly similar to known sequences and 1787 had no identifiable functions, suggesting that they represent novel genes. We further analyzed the presence of several important genes involved in the growth, metabolism, signal transduction, pathogenesis and drug resistance in T. rubrum. This information was used to newly elucidate important metabolic pathways in T. rubrum. Taken together, our results should form the molecular basis for continued research on the physiological processes and pathogenic mechanisms of T. rubrum, and may lead to a better understanding of fungal drug resistance and identification of new drug targets.

  2. Purification and characterization of major extracellular proteinases from Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, M; Lindquist, R; Fukuyama, K; Apodaca, G; Epstein, W L; McKerrow, J H

    1985-01-01

    Two extracellular proteinases that probably play a central role in the metabolism and pathogenesis of the most common dermatophyte of man, Trichophyton rubrum, were purified to homogeneity. Size-exclusion chromatography and Chromatofocusing were used to purify the major proteinases 42-fold from crude fungal culture filtrate. The major enzyme has pI 7.8 and subunit Mr 44 000, but forms a dimer of Mr approx. 90 000 in the absence of reducing agents. A second enzyme with pI 6.5 and subunit Mr 36 000, was also purified. It is very similar in substrate specificity to the major enzyme but has lower specific activity, and may be an autoproteolysis product. The major proteinase has pH optimum 8, a Ca2+-dependence maximum of 1 mM, and was inhibited by serine-proteinase inhibitors, especially tetrapeptidyl chloromethane derivatives with hydrophobic residues at the P-1 site. Kinetic studies also showed that tetrapeptides containing aromatic or hydrophobic residues at P-1 were the best substrates. A kcat./Km of 27 000 M-1 X S-1 was calculated for the peptide 3-carboxypropionyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme has significant activity against keratin, elastin and denatured type I collagen (Azocoll). Images Fig. 1. PMID:3910025

  3. Analysis of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum expressed sequence tags

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Ma, Li; Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Lu; Yang, Jian; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhang, Qian; Dong, Jie; Xue, Ying; Zhu, Yafang; Xu, Xingye; Wan, Zhe; Ding, Guohui; Yu, Fudong; Tu, Kang; Li, Yixue; Li, Ruoyu; Shen, Yan; Jin, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are the primary causative agent of dermatophytoses, a disease that affects billions of individuals worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common of the superficial fungi. Although T. rubrum is a recognized pathogen for humans, little is known about how its transcriptional pattern is related to development of the fungus and establishment of disease. It is therefore necessary to identify genes whose expression is relevant to growth, metabolism and virulence of T. rubrum. Results We generated 10 cDNA libraries covering nearly the entire growth phase and used them to isolate 11,085 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,816 contigs and 7,269 singletons. Comparisons with the GenBank non-redundant (NR) protein database revealed putative functions or matched homologs from other organisms for 7,764 (70%) of the ESTs. The remaining 3,321 (30%) of ESTs were only weakly similar or not similar to known sequences, suggesting that these ESTs represent novel genes. Conclusion The present data provide a comprehensive view of fungal physiological processes including metabolism, sexual and asexual growth cycles, signal transduction and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:17032460

  4. Trichophyton onychocola sp. nov. isolated from human nail.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Cmokova, Adela; Skorepova, Magdalena; Mikula, Peter; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    A previously undescribed Trichophyton species was isolated from the nail of a 33-year-old man with a history of probable distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (without confirmation by mycological examination). The infection occurred for the first time five years earlier (in 2006) and affected the right great toenail, with complete clinical remission after treatment with ciclopirox olamine. This undescribed species was isolated during probable relapse in 2011, but its etiological significance was not confirmed, that is, direct microscopy was negative and additional clinical samples were not collected. The species is probably geophilic based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] rDNA) and is most closely related to the anamorphic T. thuringiense, homothallic Arthroderma ciferrii (anamorph T. georgiae), and heterothallic A. melis. The new species is characterized by yellowish colonies, red reverse on several media, positive urease test, negative hair-perforation test, absence of growth at 34°C, absence of macroconidia, formation of one-celled clavate microconidia, and spiral hyphae. The species grows well on sterilized human hairs placed on agar medium without any additional nutrients and forms gymnothecium-like structures covered by peridial hyphae. The combination of unique micro- and macromorphological features and physiological and sequence data from four unlinked loci (ITS, benA, RPB2, and act1 gene) justified the proposal of a new species T. onychocola sp. nov.

  5. Tinea manuum due to Trichophyton erinacei from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Drira, I; Neji, S; Hadrich, I; Sellami, H; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2015-09-01

    Trichophyton erinacei is a zoonotic fungus affecting hedgehogs. Although several human infections with this organism have been documented in the literature, it has rarely been isolated as a human pathogen. This paper reports on an erythematous lesion spotted on the hand of a 10-year-old girl. Based on the culture of the patient's skin scrapings, the pathogen was mycologically identified as T. erinacei, which was further confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacers of the fungal nuclear ribosomal DNA using universal primer ITS1-ITS4. This is the first case of T. erinacei in a Tunisian patient. A survey was carried out on the environment of our patient, and the results revealed the presence of hedgehogs with suspect scaly lesions. The same fungus was isolated from the hair and scales of the hedgehog, which was confirmed by PCR sequencing. The frequency of T. erinacei has often been underestimated, which is attributed not only to the gaps of knowledge still existing in the current understanding of the dermatophyte but also to differential diagnosis problems. Molecular study offers a simple and rapid tool to identify the source of infection and, hence, avoid the risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  7. Tinea corporis with acute inflammation caused by Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Sayoko; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Masako; Horiguchi, Yuji

    2008-09-01

    A 13-year-old Japanese boy presented with acute skin inflammation on the extremities. He belonged to a judo club of a junior high school in which club tinea capitis and tinea corporis seemed to be prevalent. Vesicles and pustules appeared on his right forearm and right leg. They increased in numbers and formed annular lesions. Pruritic erythema appeared surrounding these lesions. Direct microscopic examination of the lesions detected hyphae, and culture for the fungi yielded yellowish colonies. The result of culture from pustules revealed Staphylococcus aureus. At first, a topical antifungal drug and systemic antibiotics seemed to cure annular lesions, but pustules arose again. A large surrounding erythema was cured by topical treatment with a steroid agent. A biopsy specimen from a pustule showed hyphae of fungi within a hair shaft and in the bulb. The restriction fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer regions of the ribosomal gene (polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism) revealed a banding pattern compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Treatment with systemic itraconazole was begun and lesions disappeared immediately. Systemic antifungal therapy was needed in our case. Tinea corporis with inflammation necessitates systemic antifungal therapy.

  8. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  9. Inhibition of growth of Trichophyton tonsurans by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Mauch, A; Galle, S; Murphy, P; Arendt, E K; Coffey, A

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to identify antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and characterize their activity against the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans. A total of 165 different LAB were isolated and initially screened for anti-Penicillium expansum activity. Five strains, which exhibited strong inhibitory activity, were then tested against the dermatophyte T. tonsurans DSM12285, where they also caused inhibition as observed by large fungal clearing on agar surface. The strongest inhibition was seen with Lactobacillus reuteri R2. When freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder from this strain was incorporated in culture medium at concentrations >1%, growth of fungal colony was inhibited. Conidia germination was also inhibited under these conditions as determined by microscopy. The anti-T. tonsurans activity of Lact. reuteri R2 was not affected neither by heat treatment nor by proteolytic treatment using pronase E and proteinase K, indicating that the responsible agent(s) were nonproteinaceous in nature. Lactobacillus reuteri R2 was identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the dermatophyte T. tonsurans DSMZ12285. LAB are naturally associated with many foods and are well recognized for their biopreservative properties. The use of these and/or their products may well provide alternative safe approaches for the inhibition of dermatophytic fungi. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. The Immunomodulatory Effect of Trichophyton Rubrum Exoantigens in the Treatment of Experimental Septic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ghiasian, Seyed A; Maghsood, Amir H; Abniki, Asadollah; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the nature and function of fungal exoantigens might lead to novel approaches in the treatment and prophylaxis of some infectious diseases. Septic arthritis represents a serious problem for medicine due to the high incidence rate and severe complications. The present study aimed at assessing the immunomodulatory effects of Trichophyton rubrum culture filtrate as a novel compound in experimental septic arthritis. The septic arthritis was haematogenously induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intravenous injection of 10(9) colony forming units of the human clinical isolate Staphylococcus aureus producing toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Trichophyton rubrum culture filtrate at two different doses 20 and 40 mg/kg was administered intraperituneally two days after bacterial inoculation in the treatment groups and concurrently with the appearance of clinical signs in the patient groups. The administration of Trichophyton rubrum solution was continued every other day for 10 injections. The clinical evaluation showed that Trichophyton rubrum-treated rats were significantly protected from disease development compared with untreated controls. This finding was correlated with results of radiological evaluation of the involved joints. Although, the inflammatory cell infiltration, cartilage/bone destruction and synovial hypertrophy had been decreased in the treatment groups in comparison with arthritic controls however, the histological changes were not significant in these two groups. It is possible that Trichophyton rubrum antigens may play a role in modulating the immune responses and would be efficient in septic arthritis treatment.

  11. Trichophyton rubrum-induced Majocchi's Granuloma in a heart transplant recipient. A therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Urs C; Trüeb, Ralph M; Schad, Karin; Kamarashev, Jivko; Koch, Simon; French, Lars E; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2012-09-28

    Solid organ transplant recipients are at an increased risk for infections because of long-term immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. Fungal infections with dermatophytes are a common cause of cutaneous infections seen in organ transplant recipients and cutaneous dermatophyte infections may progress to Majocchi's granuloma. Itraconazole is an anti-fungal compound used for the treatment of infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes. We report on a heart transplant recipient who developed widespread Trichophyton rubrum infection presenting as Majocchi's granuloma. Itraconazole treatment was complicated by drug interactions. Tricho-phyton rubrum infection progressed, while itraconazole treatment was varied in dose and delivery form. In patients with Trichophyton rubrum infections, refractory to itraconazole treatment, altered drug absorption or drug interactions has to be considered. Careful monitoring and adjustment of itraconazole is of vital importance.

  12. Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a Tenerife Lizard (Gallotia galloti): an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Orós, J; Hernández, J D; Gallardo, J; Lupiola, P; Jensen, H E

    2013-01-01

    Reports of dermatophytosis in reptiles are rare. This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical findings in a case of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a 2-year-old Tenerife lizard (Gallotia galloti) with ulcerative and pustular skin lesions. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by superficial epidermal pustules containing heterophils with numerous fungal hyphae that stained by periodic acid-Schiff and Grocott's stain. Fungal culture was not performed, but a panel of polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera was applied to tissue sections. These immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactivity of the hyphae only with antiserum specific for Trichophyton spp. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic widespread dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: a syndrome associated with a Trichophyton-specific functional defect of phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria da Glória T.; Santana, Grazielle B.; Criado, Paulo R.; Benard, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are agents of typically benign superficial infections. However, an increasing number of severe infections in immunocompromised hosts has been reported. We aimed to understand the factors underlying the existence of a cohort of patients presenting with chronic widespread dermatophytosis (CWD) due to Trichophyton rubrum, but with no signs of immunodeficiency. Their disease is usually recurrent and difficult to manage. Fourteen patients meeting the following criteria for CWD were studied: T. rubrum culture-proven skin lesions of ≥10 cm in at least one dimension; the involvement of at least three non-contiguous localizations of >1 year’s duration; and no predisposing conditions. For comparison, we also studied 13 acute Tinea pedis patients. Macrophages and neutrophils were isolated and tested for T. rubrum conidia phagocytic and killing activity. H2O2, NO, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release were measured. All experiments were run with age- and sex-matched healthy donors’ cells in parallel. CWD patients’ macrophages and neutrophils presented with reduced T. rubrum–phagocytic and killing abilities, and reduced H2O2 and NO release when compared with those of healthy donors. CWD patients’ macrophages secreted lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but enhanced levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Neutrophil secretion closely followed this unbalanced pattern. In contrast, responses to the positive controls zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, and phorbol myristate acetate were comparable with those of healthy donors. The same experiments were performed with macrophages and neutrophils from the acute Tinea pedis patients and showed no differences when compared with the matched healthy donors. Patients with CWD have a T. rubrum-related functional deficiency of phagocytes and may represent a distinct clinical entity in the complex spectrum of the Trichophyton

  14. The agony of choice in dermatophyte diagnostics-performance of different molecular tests and culture in the detection of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    PubMed

    Kupsch, C; Ohst, T; Pankewitz, F; Nenoff, P; Uhrlaß, S; Winter, I; Gräser, Y

    2016-08-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum belong to the most frequent mycoses worldwide. Molecular detection methods proved to be highly sensitive and enable rapid and accurate detection of dermatophyte species from clinical specimens. For the first time, we compare the performance of different molecular methods with each other and with conventional diagnostics in the detection of dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale in clinical specimens (nail, skin and hair). The compared molecular methods comprise two already published PCR-ELISAs, a published quantitative RT-PCR as well as a newly developed PCR-ELISA targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. We investigated the sensitivity of the assays by analysing 375 clinical samples. In 148 specimens (39.5%) a positive result was gained in at least one of the four molecular tests or by culture, but the number of detected agents differed significantly between some of the assays. The most sensitive assay, a PCR-ELISA targeting a microsatellite region, detected 81 T. rubrum infections followed by an internal transcribed spacer PCR-ELISA (60), quantitative RT-PCR (52) and a topoisomerase II PCR-ELISA (51), whereas cultivation resulted in T. rubrum identification in 37 samples. The pros and cons of all four tests in routine diagnostics are discussed.

  15. Invasive Trichophyton rubrum mimicking blastomycosis in a patient with solid organ transplant.

    PubMed

    Talebi-Liasi, Faezeh; Shinohara, Michi M

    2017-09-01

    We present a case of tissue invasive Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) histologically mimicking blastomycosis in a patient with kidney transplant on chronic immunosuppression. Invasive dermatophyte infections are rare, and present a diagnostic challenge to the dermatopathologist due to atypical clinical and histopathological presentations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Phosphoglycerides of Trichophyton terrestre and one phenotype selected from the Apollo 16 microbial ecology evaluation device.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R T; Deskins, D C; Volz, P A

    1975-05-01

    Total lipid extracted from wild-type Trichophyton terrestre CDC-X285 was found to be 2.0 percent of the dry cell weight. The total lipid contained the following phospholipid components identified by silicic acid-impregnated thin-layer and paper chromatography: phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidic acid. The total lipid extracted from the phenotype T. terrestre 7048-1 isolated from the Apollo 16 Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) was found to vary according to the time at which the phospholipids were extracted. The Trichophyton phenotype was selected from a cuvette housed in the MEED exposed to specific space parameters including ultraviolet light of known wavelengths and energy levels in deep space. The phospholipid components, identified in the phenotype were phosphatidyl ethanolamine and cardiolipin. The major lipid fraction was composed of digalactosyl diglyceride and monogalactosyl diglyceride. An unusual lipid was detected in the phenotype, which appeared to be sterol glycoside.

  17. Phosphoglycerides of Trichophyton terrestre and One Phenotype Selected from the Apollo 16 Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, R. T.; Deskins, D. C.; Volz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Total lipid extracted from wild-type Trichophyton terrestre CDC-X285 was found to be 2.0% of the dry cell weight. The total lipid contained the following phospholipid components identified by silicic acid-impregnated thin-layer and paper chromatography: phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl serine, and phosphatidic acid. The total lipid extracted from the phenotype T. terrestre 7048-1 isolated from the Apollo 16 Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) was found to vary according to the time at which the phospholipids were extracted. The Trichophyton phenotype was selected from a cuvette housed in the MEED exposed to specific space parameters including ultraviolet light of known wavelengths and energy levels in deep space. The phospholipid components identified in the phenotype were phosphatidyl ethanolamine and cardiolipin. The major lipid fraction was composed of digalactosyl diglyceride and monogalactosyl diglyceride. An unusual lipid was detected in the phenotype, which appeared to be sterol glycoside. Images PMID:1147604

  18. Susceptibility of Microsporum and Trichophyton species to suicide inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Boyle, S M; Sriranganathan, N; Cordes, D

    1988-01-01

    DFMO (difluoromethylornithine) and DFMA (difluoromethylarginine), irreversible suicide inhibitors of ornithine and arginine decarboxylase activities (ODC and ADC) respectively, inhibit the growth of six species of Microsporum and six species of Trichophyton. Trichophyton species in general, are more sensitive than Microsporum species. DFMA inhibits growth as effectively as DFMO but at a 10-fold lower concentration. Inhibition is specific, as a number of substrates and end products of ODC and ADC activities antagonize DFMA and DFMO (i.e. ornithine greater than putrescine = spermidine greater than agmatine). The methylester analogue of ornithine, MFMOme (monofluormethyldehydroornithine methylester) is at least a 25-fold more effective inhibitor than DFMO; the inhibition is specific as it is reversed by ornithine.

  19. Trichophyton rubrum autoinoculation from infected nails is not such a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Matusiak, Lukasz

    2008-07-01

    Kerion-like lesions are usually caused by zoophilic dermatophytes. Here, we present a rare case report - an inflammatory tinea barbae due to an anthropophilic fungus (Trichophyton rubrum), which is the main pathogen of onychomycosis and tinea pedis. Probably the infection, in the presented case, spread from diseased fingernails. We do postulate that physicians should consider autoinoculation as a not so rare way of fungal infection transmission.

  20. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Smriti, C; Anuradha, S; Kamlesh, T; Isampreet, K; Nitin, K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas.

  1. Comparison of the in vitro activities of newer triazoles and established antifungal agents against Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuwen; Zhang, Chao; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Zhu, Shuang; Tan, Xin; Wen, Yiyang; Huang, Xin; Lei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Zhaojing; Fang, Wenjie; Shen, Shuaishuai; Deng, Danqi; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2015-07-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26 mg/liter; griseofulvin, 1.65 mg/liter; and fluconazole, 2.12 mg/liter.

  2. Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

  3. [From hedgehogs to men. Zoophilic dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei in eight patients].

    PubMed

    Schauder, S; Kirsch-Nietzki, M; Wegener, S; Switzer, E; Qadripur, S A

    2007-01-01

    The hedgehog is an in Germany previously unrecognized source of human ringworm. Eight hedgehog caretakers from Göttingen and the surrounding area developed dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton erinacei. Four patients who handled the animals without gloves developed lesions on the hands that were more in keeping with hand eczema, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The other caretakers who wore gloves presented with typical ringworm on the arms, the big toe, the back, the abdomen, and the thighs. Their typical clinical features led to an early diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Trichophyton erinacei kerion barbae from a hedgehog with direct osculatory transfer to another person.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, R U; Chan, I; Francis, N; Bunker, C B

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of kerion tinea barbae infection due to Trichophyton erinacei in a 37-year-old man. The infection had also been transferred to his partner by direct contact from kissing. T. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte occasionally harboured by the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). There are few reports of human infection in the literature, and it rarely causes a kerion. There is only one previous report of tinea barbae occurrence due to T. erinacei. This case highlights the possibility of one of the more unusual fungal infections that can be acquired in the UK, and highlights the necessity of asking specific questions to identify possible sources of infection.

  5. Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum mimicking syphilid: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yongfang; Lin, Liangbao; Feng, Peiying; Lai, Wei

    2014-05-01

    A 56-year-old man who was under chemotherapy presented with a 2-week history of erythema on the left palm, soles, glans penis and the foreskin with no itching and pain. Initially syphilid was suspected. However, both toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST) and treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) were negative. Microscopy showed hyphae in all sites and skin culture revealed Trichophyton rubrum infection, consistent with the diagnosis of tinea infection. He was cured with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks. We report here a case of tinea incognito caused by T. rubrum mimicking syphilid and review the literature. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indicated that the disease can be caused by T. rubrum.

  7. Terbinafine resistance conferred by multiple copies of the salicylate 1-monooxygenase gene in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hemelin L; Lang, Elza A S; Segato, Fernando; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2017-06-02

    Resistance to antifungals is a leading concern in the treatment of human mycoses. We demonstrate that the salA gene, encoding salicylate 1-monooxygenase, is involved in resistance of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum to terbinafine, one of the most effective antifungal drugs against dermatophytes. A strain with multiple copies of salA was constructed and exhibited elevated expression of salA and increased terbinafine resistance. This reflects a mechanism not yet reported in a pathogenic fungus. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Tinea unguium with Microsporum langeronii and Trichophyton soudanense revealing tinea capitis with M. langeronii].

    PubMed

    Diongue, K; Diop, A; Diallo, M A; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Samb, D; Ndiaye, Y D; Ndiaye, D

    2016-12-01

    A Senegalese lady of 17 years old presented right hand tinea unguium on all fingernails except the thumb lasting for 10 years. Mycological analysis showed with the direct examination 20% KOH mount numerous septate hyphae. Culture revealed Microsporum langeronii at a first time. The mycological analysis resumption with sampling scalp revealed a tinea capitis with M. langeronii then culture of nail pieces confirmed in a second time M. langeronii also associated with Trichophyton soudanense in the tinea unguium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Tinea capitis and tinea corporis with a severe inflammatory response due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź, Anita; Beck-Jendroschek, Vera; Brasch, Jochen; Kalinowska, Katarzyna; Jagielski, Tomasz

    2011-10-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an anthropophilic dermatophyte, with a worldwide distribution, although its prevalence varies considerably between different geographical regions. Whereas in North America infections due to this fungus are exceptionally common, on the European continent they appear relatively seldom. Although T. tonsurans is primarily associated with tinea capitis, it can also be the cause of tinea corporis and tinea unguium. The course of infection is usually only mildly symptomatic. We describe here two cases of urease-positive T. tonsurans infections with atypically extensive cutaneous lesions and severe inflammatory responses. .

  10. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton simii - a first case from Iran.

    PubMed

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Yaghoobi, Reza

    2008-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was examined for tinea corporis. Microscopic examination of direct 10% KOH mount of skin scraping revealed the presence of hyaline, septate, branching hyphae. Cultures inoculated with portions of skin scrapings yielded, after two weeks Trichophyton simii. The identification of the fungus was based on colony morphology on mycobiotic agar and microscopic characteristics on slide cultures. Microscopic features of T. simii were cylindrical, 3-7 celled, thin-walled macroconidia. In older culture, macroconidia converted into chlamydospores, which is an important characteristic of T. simii.

  11. [Trichophyton violaceum : Main cause of tinea capitis in children at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in Uganda].

    PubMed

    Wiegand, C; Mugisha, P; Mulyowa, G K; Elsner, P; Hipler, U C; Gräser, Y; Uhrlaß, S; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    Tinea capitis is caused by anthropophilic, zoophilic or geophilic dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum or Trichophyton. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical presentation of tinea capitis among children in western Uganda. From February to June 2012, skin and hair samples were obtained from 115 patients aged from 1 to 16 years presenting at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MUSC) with clinically suspected tinea capitis. Conventional mycological diagnostics comprised Blancophor preparation and cultivation of fungi for species identification. Tinea capitis among the children included in the MUSC study was mainly noninflammatory showing mostly a seborrhoeic pattern or "black dot" and "gray patch" form and highly inflammatory kerion celsi. Blancophor preparation identified 82.6 % positive and 17.4 % negative samples. Cultural species differentiation showed Trichophyton (T.) violaceum as the causative agent for tinea capitis in 56.6 % of the patients. In 13 %, Microsporum (M.) audouinii was isolated followed by T. soudanense (2.6 %), and T. rubrum (1.7 %). In addition, moulds (contamination?) such as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium oxysporum were found as well as mixed infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte T. violaceum represents the most frequent cause of tinea capitis in western Uganda. For successful management oral antifungal therapy is necessary together with supportive topical treatment.

  12. Strain Identification of Trichophyton rubrum by Specific Amplification of Subrepeat Elements in the Ribosomal DNA Nontranscribed Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Colin J.; Barton, Richard C.; Kelly, Steven L.; Evans, E. Glyn V.

    2000-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the commonest cause of dermatophytosis of skin and nail tissue. Molecular characterization of the T. rubrum ribosomal DNA nontranscribed-spacer region revealed two novel tandemly repetitive subelements (TRSs): TRS-1, containing a 27-bp palindromic sequence, and TRS-2. Specific amplification of TRS-1 produced strain-characteristic banding patterns (PCR types), with 21 TRS-1 PCR types recognized from 101 clinical isolates. Four simple patterns representing 1 to 4 copies of TRS-1 accounted for 75 (75%) of all 101 strains, whereas more complex patterns were observed for 21 (20%) of the 101 isolates. The copy number of TRS-2 was 0 to 3 repeats per cistron, with a majority of isolates having two copies of this element. Eleven isolates were polymorphic for TRS-2, and in combination, 23 separate PCR types were recognized by amplification of both TRS-1 and TRS-2. The PCR patterns from both elements were stable and reproducible. Elements with homology to TRS-1 were present in three phylogenetically related species, Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton gourvilii, and Trichophyton soudanense, but these elements were not identified in other dermatophyte taxa. There was no clear correlation of PCR type with specimen (skin or nail tissue), but certain PCR types appeared to show a bias in geographic distribution. This new method of typing T. rubrum will enable important questions about pathogenesis and epidemiology of this fungus to be addressed. PMID:11101591

  13. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  14. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  15. Genome sequence of a clinical isolate of dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum from India.

    PubMed

    Latka, Chitra; Dey, Sanchita Sanchaya; Mahajan, Siddharth; Prabu, Ramachandira; Jangir, Pramod Kumar; Gupta, Chhavi; Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai Ganapathysubramanian; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath; Pandey, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Taneja, Bhupesh

    2015-04-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the major causative agents of dermatophytosis in humans worldwide. We report the draft genome sequence of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii from Delhi, India, isolated from a patient presenting symptoms of onychomycosis. The total estimated genome size of the clinical isolate is 25.2 MB containing 8265 predicted protein-coding sequences, 91 tRNA and 15 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis of the secreted subtilases, one of the major virulence factors in dermatophytes, clusters them into three subfamilies with distinct sequence features. The genome sequence is a step in understanding diversity of dermatophytes worldwide and will aid in identification of virulence factors and dissecting mechanisms of pathogenesis among them.

  16. Canine dermatophytosis caused by an anthropophilic species: molecular and phenotypical characterization of Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, R S N; Cordeiro, R A; Gomes, J M F; Sidrim, J J C; Rocha, M F G

    2006-11-01

    Microsporum canis is the most common species isolated from canine and feline dermatophytosis in the world. However, this study reports a rare case of canine dermatophytosis caused by the anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The fungal characterization was performed by classical mycological examination and by genotypical analysis using the restriction enzymes Sau3A, RsaI, DdeI and EcoRI. The phenotypical characteristics were compatible with T. tonsurans. The results obtained in the genotypical analysis were similar to the digestion pattern of the ITS sequences for T. tonsurans strains. In addition, an antifungal susceptibility test was performed with griseofulvin, ketoconazole and itraconazole. The MICs were 0.5 microg ml(-1) for griseofulvin, 0.25 microg ml(-1) for ketoconazole and 1 microg ml(-1) for itraconazole. This study emphasizes the adaptability of anthropophilic fungi such as T. tonsurans to animal conditions.

  17. Mating type gene (MAT1-1) in Japanese isolates of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Isizuka, Maiko; Hiruma, Masataro; Mochizuki, Takashi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is an anthropophilic species that is the most frequent etiologic agent of human dermatophytosis throughout the world. No teleomorph has been identified for T. rubrum strains. This study used PCR analysis to confirm the presence of a mating type locus in the genome of Japanese isolates of T. rubrum. To clarify the epidemiological and ecological characteristics of this fungus, mating type sequences were tested for correlation of MAT genotype to mating type. This study examined clinical isolates of T. rubrum that had been obtained from 206 human cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan, including those from Fukuoka (29 strains), Gifu (23 strains), Kanazawa (63 strains), and Tokyo (91 strains), along with 10 isolates derived from 10 cases of canine dermatophytosis. PCR detected the presence of MAT1-1 in all of the human and animal isolates. Therefore, all isolates examined were expected to react as (-) type on the mating test and not as (+) type.

  18. Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum gene expression in response to cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Paião, Fernanda G; Segato, Fernando; Cursino-Santos, Jeny R; Peres, Nalu T A; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2007-06-01

    Suppressive subtractive hybridization was used to isolate transcripts specifically upregulated during Trichophyton rubrum exposure to acriflavin, fluconazole, griseofulvin, terbinafine or undecanoic acid. Macro-array dot-blot and sequencing of 132 clones, which correspond to genes differentially expressed after exposition of T. rubrum to at least one of these cytotoxic drugs, revealed 39 unique genes. Of these, 32 have not been previously described in T. rubrum, representing an increase in the number of T. rubrum genes that have been identified. The upregulation of the novel genes encoding a retrotransposon element, a carboxylic ester hydrolase, a copper resistance-associated P-type ATPase, a DNA mismatch repair protein and a NIMA (never in mitosis A) interactive protein was confirmed by Northern blot.

  19. Extra-scalp black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among contact sports players.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Masako; Anzawa, Kazushi; Kojima, Kiyoto; Hatta, Junko; Tababe, Hiroshi; Higaki, Shuichi; Fujita, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    We describe here two patients with tinea corporis exhibiting black dot ringworm (BDR). A cluster of black dots was observed on the extensor surfaces of the extremities of two rather hairy male patients, a 15-year-old judo practitioner and a 26-year-old combined martial arts fighter, during treatment of tinea corporis with topical antimycotics. Direct KOH examination showed that the black dots were composed of degenerated hair with numerous arthroconidia and were indistinguishable from BDR of tinea capitis. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from the dots of both patients. Although they were diagnosed with tinea corporis, they required 2-3 months of treatment with oral terbinafine. Dermatologists should be aware that BDR can appear on areas of the skin other than the scalp.

  20. Chronically recurrent and widespread tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Kong, Q T; Du, X; Yang, R; Huang, S Y; Sang, H; Liu, W D

    2015-04-01

    A 31-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with a 4-year history of extensive erythematous and scaly plaques involving the abdomen, gluteal and inguen regions with concomitant tinea pedis and onychomycosis is described. Diagnosis was based on positive mycological examination and positive histopathologic examination. Species identification was performed by growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar and by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA region. The pathogen identified was Trichophyton rubrum. The same fungal species was cultured from his abdominal, gluteal, foot and toenail. A combination therapy with systemic terbinafine and topically applied terbinafine cream was successful. A 1-year follow-up did not show any recurrence of infection.

  1. A Case of Tinea Corporis due to Trichophyton tonsurans that Manifested as Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Harunari; Nakashima, Chikako; Hase, Midori; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year-old man visited our dermatology clinic because an eruption, which was resistant to steroid ointment treatment, had appeared on his right forearm. An oval, soybean-sized erythematous infiltrated lesion with scales and crusts was located in the central part of the extensor surface of the right forearm and showed partial erosion with attached yellow crusts. The lesion had an impetigo-like appearance. Fungal elements were confirmed from the scales by KOH examination and the fungus was identified as Trichophyton tonsurans by fungal culture and molecular method. Clinical features of T. tonsurans infection vary, wherein some patients have strong inflammatory manifestations, while others remain as asymptomatic carriers. Especially at the early stage of the infection, diagnosis is difficult because it is often misdiagnosed as eczema. We report a case of T. tonsurans infection that had impetigo-like appearance. We also studied the mechanism of the disease.

  2. Trichophyton tonsurans associated tinea corporis infection with the development of Majocchi's granuloma in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Rajpara, Vidya; Frankel, Stacy; Rogers, Cindy; Nouri, Keyvan

    2005-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is an uncommon cause of tinea corporis, and an even more uncommon cause of Majocchi's granuloma. We report a patient who developed tinea corporis with Majocchi's granuloma from T. tonsurans infection. Immunocompromised hosts are predisposed to develop cutaneous fungal infections, as was the case with this patient. Majocchi's granuloma is a rare complication with immunosuppression, but is significant to consider when a fungal infection is suspected because it may require more aggressive therapy.

  3. A 9-Month-Old Girl from Iran with Extensive Erythematous Plaques Due to Trichophyton simii, a Zoophilic Dermatophyte.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Nouripour-Sisakht, Sadegh; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Jannesar, Ramin; Mohammadi, Haniyeh; Fazli, Yousef; Ilkit, Macit; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton simii is generally considered to be limited to endemic areas, particularly one area of India. However, the high similarity between the morphological features of atypical T. simii isolates and those of other dermatophytes such as Trichophyton interdigitale and Arthroderma benhamiae may lead to misidentification of the cause of dermatophytosis in many instances. We investigated a rare case of tinea corporis in a 9-month-old female with extensive erythematous lesions. Morphological features of the recovered isolate from the culture resulted in the identification of Trichophyton interdigitale. For accurate identification, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene were sequenced and the isolate was ultimately identified as T. simii. In conclusion, T. simii, which has been formerly known to be restricted to specific endemic regions, appears to be not infrequent in non-endemic areas but instead simply less well-known and consequently underestimated. To determine its actual prevalence of infection, the application of DNA-based molecular methodologies is required.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Paenibacillus kribbensis POC 115 against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; da Mota, Fabio Faria; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia; E Silva, Davi Oliveira; da Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-03-01

    In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes.

  5. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  6. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea. PMID:26839486

  7. Skin Infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans Still Occurs in People in Korea but not as Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Weon Ju; Sim, Hyun Bo; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won; Jun, Jae Bok; Bang, Yong Jun

    2016-02-01

    Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea.

  8. Topical nitric oxide releasing nanoparticles are effective in a murine model of dermal Trichophyton rubrum dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Mordorski, Breanne; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Baltazar, Ludmila M; Carreño, Leandro J; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie; Navati, Mahantesh; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares; Friedman, Joel M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam J

    2017-10-01

    Systemic therapies are preferred for treating dermal dermatophytosis due to inadequate penetration of topical agents. However, systemic antifungals are associated with off-target effects and limited tissue penetration, and antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern. To address this, we investigated topical nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np), which have been used against superficial fungal infections and bacterial abscesses. In addition to enhanced penetration and permeation conferred by nanoparticles, nitric oxide, a broad-spectrum multi-mechanistic antimicrobial agent, offers decreased likelihood of resistance development. In the current study, NO-np inhibited Trichophyton rubrum in vitro, as well as in a murine model of dermal dermatophytosis. In mice, NO-np reduced fungal burden after three days, with complete clearance after seven. Furthermore, NO-np decreased tissue IL-2, 6, 10 and TNFα, indicating earlier attenuation of the host inflammatory response and decreased tissue morbidity. Thus, topical NO-np represent an attractive alternative to systemic therapy against dermal T. rubrum infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, LingLing; Peng, JunPing; Yu, Lu; Liu, Tao; Leng, WenChuan; Yang, Jian; Chen, LiHong; Zhang, WenLiang; Zhang, Qian; Qi, YiPeng; Jin, Qi

    2007-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is correlated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction system were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expression, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  10. Mating Type Gene (MAT) and Itraconazole Susceptibility of Trichophyton tonsurans Strains Isolated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Okubo, Miki; Kano, Rui; Kumagawa, Mai; Hiruma, Masataro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2016-06-01

    Infection by Trichophyton tonsurans is an emerging fungal epidemic in Japan. Itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine have been used for the treatment of this infection for 15 years. However, patients with T. tonsurans infections have been shown to remain uncured or to become reinfected, suggesting that subclinical infection or polyphyletic strains and/or antifungal drug-resistant strains might be occurring in Japan. In this study, PCR analysis was performed to confirm the presence of the mating type locus MAT in genomic DNA from 60 Japanese clinical isolates of T. tonsurans, and to assess the previously postulated clonal origin of clinical isolates of this species. Antifungal susceptibility testing on isolates also was performed to confirm the absence of strains resistant to ITZ. PCR analysis proved that all 60 strains contained the MAT1-1 allele, while none contained the MAT1-2 allele. As determined by E-test, the mean MIC of ITZ in the 60 strains was 0.023 mg/L (range 0.002-0.125 mg/L). All strains of T. tonsurans isolated in Japan were clonal and were not resistant to ITZ. Therefore, dermatophytosis due to T. tonsurans is expected to respond to ITZ, since clinical isolates of T. tonsurans tested to date have been susceptible to this antifungal. This infection is proliferating as a subclinical infection in Japan.

  11. Highly Discriminatory Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Markers for Genotyping of Trichophyton interdigitale Strains

    PubMed Central

    Drira, Ines; Hadrich, Ines; Neji, Sourour; Mahfouth, Nedia; Trabelsi, Houaida; Sellami, Hayet; Makni, Fattouma

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is the second most frequent cause of superficial fungal infections of various parts of the human body. Studying the population structure and genotype differentiation of T. interdigitale strains may lead to significant improvements in clinical practice. The present study aimed to develop and select suitable variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) markers for 92 clinical strains of T. interdigitale. On the basis of an analysis of four VNTR markers, four to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a D value of 0.802. The combination of all four markers yielded a D value of 0.969 with 29 distinct multilocus genotypes. VNTR typing revealed the genetic diversity of the strains, identifying three populations according to their colonization sites. A correlation between phenotypic characteristics and multilocus genotypes was observed. Seven patients harbored T. interdigitale strains with different genotypes. Typing of clinical T. interdigitale samples by VNTR markers displayed excellent discriminatory power and 100% reproducibility. PMID:24989614

  12. Potential of Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors To Cause Resistance or Cross-Resistance in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Celandroni, Francesco; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Salvetti, Sara; Senesi, Sonia; Bulgheroni, Anna; Mailland, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum are among the most common infections worldwide. T. rubrum infections are difficult to treat and are often associated with recurrences after interruption of the antifungal therapy. Nevertheless, reports on T. rubrum resistance to commonly used antifungal drugs are rare. In this study, we compared the in vitro resistance frequencies and development of resistance to terbinafine, itraconazole, amorolfine, and ciclopirox in T. rubrum. Results demonstrated that naturally occurring mutants were isolated at a frequency of 10−7 for itraconazole and 10−9 for terbinafine and amorolfine. To mimic conditions of body sites in which low drug levels are reached during therapy, T. rubrum was propagated for 10 transfers in media containing subinhibitory drug concentrations. Resistance to itraconazole, terbinafine, and amorolfine emerged at a higher frequency than was seen with spontaneous mutation. Itraconazole-resistant mutants also showed decreased susceptibility to amorolfine as well as to terbinafine, and amorolfine-resistant mutants were also less susceptible to terbinafine. No mutant resistant to ciclopirox was isolated, suggesting no propensity of T. rubrum to develop resistance to this drug. How different drug mechanisms of action can influence the onset of resistance is discussed. PMID:24614379

  13. Investigation on mechanism of antifungal activity of eugenol against Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Mendes, Juliana Moura; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2013-07-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a worldwide agent responsible for chronic cases of dermatophytosis which have high rates of resistance to antifungal drugs. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of aromatic compounds because of their promising biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal activity of eugenol against 14 strains of T. rubrum which involved determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial growth (dry weight), conidial germination and morphogenesis. The effects of eugenol on the cell wall (sorbitol protect effect) and the cell membrane (release of intracellular material, complex with ergosterol, ergosterol synthesis) were investigated. Eugenol inhibited the growth of 50% of T. rubrum strains employed in this study at an MIC = 256 μg/ml, as well as mycelial growth and conidia germination. It also caused abnormalities in the morphology of the dermatophyte in that we found wide, short, twisted hyphae and decreased conidiogenesis. The results of these studies on the mechanisms of action suggested that eugenol exerts antifungal effects on the cell wall and cell membrane of T. rubrum. Eugenol act on cell membrane by a mechanism that seems to involve the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. The lower ergosterol content interferes with the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Finally, our studies support the potential use of the eugenol as an antifungal agent against T. rubrum.

  14. IL-1 signaling inhibits Trichophyton rubrum conidia development and modulates the IL-17 response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Fábio Seiti Yamada; Ferreira, Lucas Gonçalves; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis are one of the most common fungal infections in the world. They compromise keratinized tissues and the main etiological agent is Trichophyton rubrum. Macrophages are key cells in innate immunity and prominent sources of IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine whose main production pathway is by the activation of inflammasomes and caspase-1. However, the role of inflammasomes and IL-1 signaling against T.rubrum has not been reported. In this work, we observed that bone marrow-derived macrophages produce IL-1β in response to T.rubrum conidia in a NLRP3-, ASC- and caspase-1-dependent fashion. Curiously, lack of IL-1 signaling promoted hyphae development, uncovering a protective role for IL-1β in macrophages. In addition, mice lacking IL-1R showed reduced IL-17 production, a key cytokine in the antifungal defense, in response to T.rubrum. Our findings point to a prominent role of IL-1 signaling in the immune response to T.rubrum, opening the venue for the study of this pathway in other fungal infections.

  15. Equine Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton bullosum, a Poorly Known Zoophilic Dermatophyte Masquerading as T. verrucosum.

    PubMed

    Lyskova, Pavlina; Hubka, Vit; Petricakova, Anna; Dobias, Radim; Cmokova, Adela; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-12-01

    Trichophyton bullosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte from the Arthroderma benhamiae complex with a poorly known distribution. In this study, we report a case of dermatophytosis caused by T. bullosum in a 6-year-old male horse who had a skin lesion located in a saddle area. The infection spread rapidly to the upper chest and to both sides of the trunk. The dermatophyte was isolated in culture and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS rDNA). To date, this is the first verified case of animal infection due to T. bullosum in Europe following the 2012 report of human infection in France. We hypothesize that this species can be relatively common in horses and donkeys, but it is confused with other zoophilic species responsible for infections with similar clinical manifestations, and when isolated in culture, it is misidentified as the phenotypically similar T. verrucosum. Previous cases of dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes in horses and donkeys were reviewed together with human infections transmitted from these animals. This summary estimates possible distribution width of T. bullosum. The taxonomy of T. verrucosum-like dermatophytes is extremely difficult due to lack of original material and poor morphology of species. Molecular genetic methods are necessary to verify the identification of these fungi. ITS1 or ITS2 region of rDNA alone is sufficient for correct identification.

  16. Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

    2014-07-01

    In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Investigating Effects of Nano- to Micro-Ampere Alternating Current Stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum Growth.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dong Rak; Kwon, Hyunjung; Lee, Woo Ram; Park, Joonsoo

    2016-10-01

    Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader. Twelve Petri dishes were divided into four groups. The given amperage of electric current was 500 nA, 2 µA, and 4 µA in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No electric current was given in group D. In the first 48 hours, colonies only appeared in groups A and B (500 nA and 2 µA exposure). Colonies in group A (500 nA) were denser. Group C (4 µA) plates showed a barely visible film of fungus after 96 hours of incubation. Fungal growth became visible after 144 hours in the control group. Lower intensities of electric current caused faster fungal growth within the amperage range used in this study. Based on these results, further studies with a larger sample size, various fungal species, and various intensities of electric stimulation should be conducted.

  18. Investigating Effects of Nano- to Micro-Ampere Alternating Current Stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dong Rak; Kwon, Hyunjung; Lee, Woo Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. Objective This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Methods Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader. Twelve Petri dishes were divided into four groups. The given amperage of electric current was 500 nA, 2 µA, and 4 µA in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No electric current was given in group D. Results In the first 48 hours, colonies only appeared in groups A and B (500 nA and 2 µA exposure). Colonies in group A (500 nA) were denser. Group C (4 µA) plates showed a barely visible film of fungus after 96 hours of incubation. Fungal growth became visible after 144 hours in the control group. Conclusion Lower intensities of electric current caused faster fungal growth within the amperage range used in this study. Based on these results, further studies with a larger sample size, various fungal species, and various intensities of electric stimulation should be conducted. PMID:27746636

  19. [Outbreak of Trichophyton tonsurans ringworm in a health area of the Community of Madrid (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Durán-Valle, María Teresa; Regodón-Domínguez, Marta; Velasco-Rodríguez, Manuel José; Aragón, Andrés; Gómez-Garcés, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is a dermatophyte fungus that can cause ringworm outbreaks. In our health area in September 2013, two cases of T. tonsurans ringworm were diagnosed in children who lived in a Children's Centre. To determine the origin and extent of the outbreak. Mycological cultures of scalp and skin samples from the contacts of the diagnosed cases were performed, as well as environmental samples from the Children's Centre. The patients started with a treatment for their ringworm, and an environmental disinfection of the centre was performed. Twelve cases of ringworm were detected, along with three asymptomatic scalp carriers of T. tonsurans among 20 children in the Centre. The index case was a resident in whose family, that had just returned from their country of origin, Nigeria, three cases of ringworm were diagnosed. From November 2013 to February 2014 another five cases of ringworm were diagnosed among schoolmates of three cases from the Children's Centre. The antifungal treatment of the children resulted in the mycological and clinical resolution, and from February to November 2014 no other cases of ringworm by T. tonsurans in the same health area were diagnosed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. A Large Outbreak of Trichophyton Tonsurans Among Healthcare Workers in a Pediatric Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Shroba, Jodi; Olson-Burgess, Cindy; Preuett, Barry; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Trichophyton tonsurans remains a wide spread cause of dermataophytoses among U.S. children, yet nosocomial spread may go unrecognized in a health care setting. We describe a staff outbreak of T. tonsurans infection among healthcare workers in a freestanding pediatric hospital. Methods Epidemiologic evaluation (retrospective and prospective) was performed in the healthcare providers and ancillary staff assigned to a 27-bed inpatient medical unit where a suspected outbreak occurred. Results Twenty-one individuals including staff, a hospital volunteer and a patient developed tinea corporis during a 5 month period. All infections coincided with multiple admissions of a 2 year old suspected index patient who demonstrated persistent infections of the scalp and arm. Fungal isolates obtained from the index patient and affected staff (when available) were subjected to multi-locus strain typing which revealed an identical genetic match between the index case and infected hospital personnel. Conclusion T. tonsurans can spread widely among staff members caring for children with recalcitrant dermatophyte infections. Timely recognition that work-place transmission may be the etiology of a succession of infections occurring in a single inpatient unit is necessary to limit the number of infected individuals. PMID:18834726

  1. Biochemical and morphological effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, C M; Boyle, S M

    1991-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of three known irreversible inhibitors of polyamine synthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and monofluoromethyldehydroornithine methylester (MFMOme), inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), were determined for 10 species of dermatophytic fungi. Trichophyton species were generally more sensitive to these inhibitors than Microsporum species. Both genera produced arginase, and treatment of members of either genus with DFMO or DFMA resulted in an inhibition of ODC activity and a depletion of cellular polyamines. However, conversion of labelled DFMA to DFMO, either in vivo or in vitro, could not be demonstrated in spite of both genera producing arginase. The ultrastructure of cells cultured in the presence of either DFMO or DFMA was similar, and revealed disruption of calcium metabolism, an increase in mitochondrial number and alterations to membrane systems. DFMA and DFMO also inhibited sporulation in Microsporum gypseum. Our findings indicate that DFMO limits the growth of dermatophytes by direct inhibition of ODC and lowering of cellular polyamine levels; in contrast, DFMA inhibits polyamine synthesis in an unspecified manner as ADC activity was undetected.

  2. Perniosis-like tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton verrucosum in cold-exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Placzek, M; van den Heuvel, M E; Flaig, M J; Korting, H C

    2006-11-01

    Trichophyton verrucosum is a zoophilic infectious agent causing 98% of the dermatophytic infections of cattle. Transmission to humans has, until recently, been rare. One reason for an increase of infection in humans and animals seems to be the decrease in immunisation of cattle. We report on three cases of pertinent human infections with disseminated, sharply defined, bluish red, partly oedematous nodules and plaques in particular not only on the thighs, but also on the trunk and arms. Two of our patients work with farm animals. The third one works as an assistant in a butcher shop, but lives on a cow farm. All three patients are often exposed to the cold. In all three cases T. verrucosum was detected by culture. Tinea corporis was histologically confirmed in two patients. Based on the microbiological results, we began a combined systemic and local antimycotic therapy with fluconazole 50 mg day(-1) in two patients, itraconazole 100 mg day(-1) in one patient p.o. combined with topical ciclopiroxolamine. All patients were cured. Dermatophytosis caused by T. verrucosum can, under certain circumstances, such as frequent exposure to cold or a long-term corticosteroid therapy, mimic the characteristic clinical picture of perniosis, as we demonstrate here.

  3. Management and follow-up survey of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in a university judo club.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of Trichophyton tonsurans infection of the scalp in members of a university judo club (combat sport) was investigated over a 3.5-year period using a questionnaire survey and an assay based on fungal culture by the hairbrush method. In November 2002, 11 (35%) of 31 athletes were found to be positive for T. tonsurans infection by the hairbrush method and provided treatment with oral and topical antifungal agents according to a prescribed protocol. All the infected subjects became culture-negative following this treatment. We continued to conduct screening examinations every year in the month of April, when new university enrolment occurs. During three-and-a-half years of follow-up, there have been no outbreaks of the infection among the members of the university judo club. There were some positive culture results among the newly enrolled students, but these cases also became culture-negative with treatment. No re-infection has been noted after graduation among the club members who had been educated about and treated for the infection. Our findings indicate that the spread of T. tonsurans infection in sports clubs can be controlled by regular mass screening examination, therapy and measures at regular intervals to prevent the infection.

  4. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pan-Pan; Huang, Xin-Zhu; Yi, Jin-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Ma, Han; Ye, Cong-Xiu; Chen, Xian-Yan; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-05

    Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin ®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection.

  5. A Trichophyton Rubrum Infection Model Based on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis - Episkin®

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Pan-Pan; Huang, Xin-Zhu; Yi, Jin-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Ma, Han; Ye, Cong-Xiu; Chen, Xian-Yan; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum represents the most common infectious fungus responsible for dermatophytosis in human, but the mechanism involved is still not completely understood. An appropriate model constructed to simulate host infection is the prerequisite to study the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. In this study, we intended to develop a new T. rubrum infection model in vitro, using the three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis - EpiSkin®, and to pave the way for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. Methods: The reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) was infected by inoculating low-dose (400 conidia) and high-dose (4000 conidia) T. rubrum conidia to optimize the infection dose. During the various periods after infection, the samples were processed for pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Results: The histological analysis of RHE revealed a fully differentiated epidermis with a functional stratum corneum, which was analogous to the normal human epidermis. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining and the periodic acid-Schiff staining showed that the infection dose of 400 conidia was in accord with the pathological characteristics of host dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum. SEM observations further exhibited the process of T. rubrum infection in an intuitionistic way. Conclusions: We established the T. rubrum infection model on RHE in vitro successfully. It is a promising model for further investigation of the mechanisms involved in T. rubrum infection. PMID:26712433

  6. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  7. Antimicrobial effects of allicin and ketoconazole on trichophyton rubrum under in vitro condition.

    PubMed

    Aala, Farzad; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Jamal, Farida; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-04-01

    Dermatophytosis is caused by a group of pathogenic fungi namely, dermatophytes, is among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. Azole drugs are widely used in the treatment of dermatomycosis, but can cause various side effects and drug resistance to the patients. Hence, for solving this problem can be used from the plant extract as alternative for chemical drugs. Allicin is a pure bioactive compound isolated from garlic was tested for its potential as a treatment of dermatomycosis in this study. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy of pure allicin against ten isolates of Trichophyton rubrum and the MIC50 and MIC90 ranged from 0.78-12.5 μg/ml for allicin. The results revealed that the order of efficacy based on the MICs values, all isolates showed almost comparable response to allicin and ketoconazole except for some isolates, at 28 °C for both 7 and 10 days incubation. Mann-Whitney test indicate that MICs at 7 days incubation was not observed a significant difference between the effects of allicin and ketoconazole (p > 0.05), but MICs at 10 days incubation, a significant difference was observed (p ≤ 0.05). On the other side, time kill studies revealed that allicin used its fungicidal activity within 12-24 h of management in vitro as well as ketoconazole. In conclusion, allicin showed very good potential as an antifungal compound against mycoses-causing dermatophytes, almost the same as the synthetic drug ketoconazole. Therefore, this antifungal agent appears to be effective, safe and suitable alternative for the treatment of dermatomycosis.

  8. Effect of vacuum and thermal shock on laser treatment of Trichophyton rubrum (toenail fungus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Sun, Feng; Carlier, Pierre; Young, Erica; Hennings, David; González, F. Javier

    2010-02-01

    The eradication of Trichophyton rubrum has been attempted via laser irradiation because it could result advantageous relative to current clinical therapies. Anticipating that the necessary thermal effects could unintentionally damage the underlying toe dermal layer, we have explored two auxiliary approaches: (a) laser irradiation under vacuum pressure, with and without water dousing and, (b) cooling followed by laser heating (thermal shock). The rationale is that at low pressures, the temperature necessary to achieve water evaporation/boiling is significantly reduced, thus requiring lower fluences. Similarly, a thermal shock induced by cooling followed by laser irradiation may require lower fluences to achieve fungus necrosis. For all experiments presented we use a Cooltouch, model CT3 plus, 1320 nm laser to irradiate fungi colonies. The vacuum pressure experiments exposed fungi colonies to a subatmospheric pressure of 84.7 kPa (25 inHg) with and without water dousing for 5 min, followed by irradiation with 4.0 J/cm2 fluence and 40-90 J total energies. The thermal shock experiments consisted of three sections at 4.8 J/cm2: cooling the fungus to 0 °C at 0.39 °C/min and then irradiating to 45-60 °C cooling to -20 °C at 1.075 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C and cooling to -20 °C at 21.5 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C. Fungus growth rate over a 1-week period assessed the feasibility of these procedures. Results indicated both approaches hamper the growth rate of fungi colonies relative to untreated control samples, especially water dousing under vacuum conditions and slow cooling rate preceding irradiation for thermal shock effect.

  9. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  10. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp. PMID:25242937

  11. Morphological changes of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum after photodynamic treatment: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Smijs, Threes G M; Mulder, Aat A; Pavel, Stan; Onderwater, Jos J M; Koerten, Henk K; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for superficial mycosis caused by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum consist of the use of topical or oral antifungal preparations. We have recently discovered that T. rubrum is susceptible to photodynamic treatment (PDT), with 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) as a photosensitizer. The susceptibility appeared to depend on the fungal growth stage, with PDT efficacy higher with microconidia when compared to mycelia. The aim of this study was to investigate, with the use of scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes caused by a lethal PDT dose to T. rubrum when grown on isolated human stratum corneum. Corresponding dark treatment and light treatment without photosensitizer were used as controls. A sub-lethal PDT dose was also included in this investigation The morphologic changes were followed at various time points after the treatment of different fungal growth stages. Normal fungal growth was characterized by a fiber-like appearance of the surface of the hyphae and microconidia with the exception of the hyphal tips in full mycelia and the microconidia shortly after attachment to the stratum corneum. Here, densely packed globular structures were observed. The light dose (108 J/cm2) in the absence of Sylsens B, or the application of the photosensitizer in the absence of light, caused reversible fungal wall deformations and bulge formation. However, after a lethal PDT, a sequence of severe disruptions and deformations of both microconidia and the mycelium were observed leading to extrusion of cell material and emptied fungal elements. In case of a non-lethal PDT, fungal re-growth started on the remnants of the treated mycelium.

  12. Calcofluor White Combination Antifungal Treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Joanne M.; Heitman, Joseph; Pinnell, Sheldon R.

    2012-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW) inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses. PMID:22792174

  13. In Silico Analog Design for Terbinafine Against Trichophyton rubrum: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Karumuri, Sudha; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2015-09-01

    The diseases caused by dermatophytes are common among several other infections which cause serious threat to human health. It is evident that enzyme squalene epoxidase is responsible for prolonged dermatophyte infection and it is appealing to note that this enzyme is also responsible for fatty acid synthesis in these groups of fungi. In the present study, terbinafine drug which targets enzyme squalene epoxidase has been explored to design its various novel analogues. The present study suggests that many more prominent drug analogues could be constituted which may be crucial towards designing new drug candidates. In the present study, we have designed a series of such analogues viz. [(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)amine, N-[8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]-2-(sulfoamino) acetamide, {[4-(dihydroxyamino)-8-({[(2E)-6,6-dimethylhept-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)naphthalen-1-yl]sulfanyl}methanol and (R)-{[4-({[(2E,6R)-6,7-dimethyloct-2-en-4-yn-1-yl](methyl)amino}methyl)-5-[(hydroxysulfamoyl)amino]naphthalen-1-yl]amino}sulfinic acid. Moreover, further by molecular docking approach the binding between enzyme and designed analogues was further analysed. The present preliminary report suggested a considerably good docking interaction score of -338.75 kcal/mol between terbinafine and squalene epoxidase from Trichophyton rubrum. This preliminary study implies that few designed candidate ligands can be effectual towards the activity of this enzyme and can play crucial role in pathogenesis control of T. rubrum.

  14. Trichophyton rubrum DNA strain switching increases in patients with onychomycosis failing antifungal treatments.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Nakrieko, K-A

    2015-01-01

    The dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is responsible for approximately 80% of onychomycosis cases. Genetic strain typing was developed to help elucidate its epidemiology and pathogenicity. To determine T. rubrum DNA strain types in North American patients with onychomycosis and to track the patients before and after their course of treatments. T. rubrum DNA strain types were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms in ribosomal DNA and Southern blotting from toenails that were cultured from 50 North American patients with onychomycosis prior to treatment. Some of the patients were subsequently typed from oral terbinafine (n = 6), laser (n = 9) or placebo (n = 8) treatment groups. Three European DNA strains were obtained for comparison. DNA strains from the terbinafine group were tested for in vitro susceptibility to terbinafine. Six DNA strain types (A-F) accounted for 94% of T. rubrum DNA strains and corresponded to European isolates. Three DNA strains (6%) novel to North America were detected. DNA strain type switching occurred in all treatment groups: terbinafine (83%), laser (56%) and placebo (25%). Most of the switches (50%) observed in the terbinafine group coincided with mycological cures followed by relapse. Patients treated with laser therapy or placebo exhibited no intermittent cures. DNA strains from the terbinafine group were all susceptible to terbinafine in vitro. Nine T. rubrum DNA strains were identified in a North American population: three novel and six predominant to a European population. Although DNA strain type switching in onychomycosis is a natural phenomenon, with presence in the placebo group, increases following the course of failed onychomycosis treatment suggest an antifungal-induced response. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. [A case of black dot ringworm caused by Trichophyton tonsurans in Chiba Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Komori, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2005-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman visited a clinic in Kisarazu, Chiba Prefecture in December 2002 complaining of itching, scale and alopecia. She had been diagnosed as having tinea capitis by a direct microscopic examination of scales, and been treated with an antifungal cream and steroid lotion since 1999. The bald area spread from frontal to occipital in which multiple black dots and red papules were scattered. Abundant endothrix spores were observed in the hair shaft. A mycelial colony was isolated from the black dots. A giant colony on Sabouraud's agar was white, powdery and flattened with cottony elevation at the center in the obverse, and a reddish-brown pigmentation in the reverse. The isolate produced abundant microconidia that were round to club-and balloon-shaped with extreme swelling, while macroconidia and spiral bodies were few. Hair perforation test was negative and urease activity test was positive. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA sequencing revealed 100% homology with T. tonsurans isolated from two old women in Niigata Prefecture. On the other hand, 3 bases were different from those of the outbreak isolates from judo and wrestling players infected through international matches. T. tonsurans has polymorphism and the present isolate might be an autochthonous genotype in Japan. This is the first time T. tonsurans was isolated in Chiba Prefecture. But this prefecture had been known as an endemic area of Trichophyton coccineum, which was very similar in morphological and physiological characteristics to those of T. tonsurans before World War II. These facts raise the question of whether T. tonsurans has existed in this prefecture before.

  16. Antifungal activity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against Trichophyton equinum: an in vivo assay.

    PubMed

    Pisseri, F; Bertoli, A; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Guidi, G; Mancianti, F

    2009-11-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. Among them Trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. The conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among the animals. Nevertheless the popularity of phytotherapy is at an all-time peak, and the interest for natural alternatives or complements to conventional drug therapy is challenging both in human and veterinary field. Among herbal remedia Tea Tree Oil (TTO) shows a wide range of antimicrobial activities. A randomized open clinical trial was carried out on 60 thoroughbred breeding horses affected by equine ringworm. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 subjects. Diagnostic criteria were the presence of clinical signs and positive T. equinum culture. Specificity control using TTO mixture in 5 not dermatophyte affected animals was achieved also. The antimycotic activity against T. equinum of a mixture containing 25% TTO in sweet almond oil, was evaluated in vivo treating 30 subjects, the others were administered enilconazole 2% solution. The animals of both groups were topically treated twice a day for 15 days with a 25% mixture of TTO diluted in sweet almond oil and every 3 days, four times with enilconazole rinses, respectively. The clinical and mycological outcome were evaluated at day 30 from the start of the treatments. Data analysis was performed by chi square test. All the treated animals showed complete clinical and aetiological healing. Part of control subjects also, showed an improvement and none of them exacerbate the lesions. This therapeutic protocol appears to be effective and versatile, being applicable immediately after physical examination, prior to have the laboratory response. It could be an alternative for practitioners interested in herbal medicines, contributing to fulfill the gap

  17. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  18. A different kind of hedgehog pathway: tinea manus due to Trichophyton erinacei transmitted by an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Weishaupt, Julia; Kolb-Mäurer, Annette; Lempert, Sigrid; Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Hamm, Henning; Goebeler, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    The unusual case of a 29-year-old woman with tinea manus caused by infection due to Trichophyton erinacei is described. The patient presented with marked erosive inflammation of the entire fifth finger of her right hand. Mycological and genomic diagnostics resulted in identification of T. erinacei as the responsible pathogen, which had been transmitted by a domestic African pygmy hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris. Upon prolonged treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents skin lesions slowly resolved. This case illustrates that the increasingly popular keeping of extraordinary pets such as hedgehogs may bear the risk of infections with uncommon dermatophytes.

  19. Two cases of tinea ciliaris with blepharitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrucosum and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gulay Ozel; Dadaci, Zeynep; Ozer, Turkan Toka

    2014-09-01

    Dermatophytes are rarely taken into account among the causes of blepharitis. In our report, we describe a 69-year-old man and a 40-year-old woman with chronic blepharitis for 10 years and 4 years respectively, in whom we examined the scales and pulled eyelashes on direct microscopy and isolated Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrrucosum in the culture. We emphasise that dermatophytes may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. In chronic, treatment resistance blepharitis fungal infections may be considered as possible cause.

  20. Inhibitory effects of cold atmospheric plasma on the growth, ergosterol biosynthesis, and keratinase activity in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Shapourzadeh, Atena; Rahimi-Verki, Neda; Atyabi, Seyed-Mohammad; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Irani, Shiva; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-10-15

    Dermatophytosis is the most important superficial fungal infection which affects nearly 20% of human population worldwide. Recurrence of disease and emerging resistance of Trichophyton rubrum to synthetic antifungals are the main problems in control of dermatophytosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on T. rubrum growth, ergosterol biosynthesis and keratinase activity. A CAP system, comprised of helium 98% - oxygen 2% (He/O2), was used. Trichophyton rubrum conidia suspensions were treated with CAP in time periods of 90, 120, 150 and 180 s in 96-well microplates. Fungal growth was evaluated by counting the colony forming unit (CFU). Fungal dry weight, ergosterol biosynthesis and keratinase activity were evaluated in CAP-treated T. rubrum and untreated controls. T. rubrum growth was significantly inhibited by 62%-91%. CAP strongly suppressed fungal ergosterol biosynthesis by 27%-54%. The keratinase activity was increased by 7.30%-21.88% up to 120 s CAP exposure. Our results demonstrated for the first time that CAP inhibits T. rubrum growth, suppresses ergosterol biosynthesis and increases moderately keratinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, CAP exposure could be a potentially useful method for treatment of clinical cases of human and animal dermatophytoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dermatophyte abscesses caused by Trichophyton rubrum in a patient without pre-existing superficial dermatophytosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si-Hyun; Jo, Ik Hyun; Kang, Jun; Joo, Sun Young; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-06-17

    Trichophyton usually causes a superficial skin infection, affecting the outermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum. In immunocompromised patients, deeper invasion into the dermis and even severe systemic infection with distant organ involvement can occur. Most cases of deeper dermal dermatophytosis described in the literature so far involved pre-existing superficial dermatophytosis. We report a 68-year-old woman presented to our clinic with a 3-month history of palpable nodules on the right ankle without pre-existing superficial dermatophytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple, well-demarcated, cystic lesions around the lateral malleolus, located in the subcutaneous or dermal layers. The sizes varied from 0.5 cm to 4 cm in diameter. The patient underwent complete excision of the lesions. Fungal culture yielded Trichophyton rubrum on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Histopathology showed organizing abscesses with degenerated fungal hyphae. After the 12-week oral itraconazole therapy, the lesions were completely resolved. Dermatophytes should be considered as a possible cause of deep soft tissue abscesses in immunocompromised patients, even though there is no superficial dermatophytosis lesion.

  2. A case of blastomycosis-like pyoderma caused by mixed infection of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Takeshi; Tamura, Mai; Nishimoto, Shuhei; Sato, Tomotaka; Ishiko, Akira

    2011-06-01

    Blastomycosis-like pyoderma (BLP) is a type of chronic pyoderma characterized histologically by specific epidermal changes namely: pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and intraepithelial abscesses. These epidermal changes are also seen in blastomycosis (referred to as deep dermatophytosis in North America). Here, we describe the case of a 53-year-old male with prurigo nodularis, diabetes, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with multiple yellowish-red colored papules that coalesced to form a vegetating plaque. In addition to the typical features of BLP, spores with budding were seen histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Cultures of a skin specimen grew Staphylococcus epidermidis and Trichophyton rubrum. Antibiotic therapy was effective but failed to eliminate the lesion until antifungal therapy using terbinafine was administered concurrently. Past reports suggest that BLP is mainly caused by bacterial infection, but our case suggests that fungal infection can also be involved as the causative organism in BLP.

  3. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  4. Distal and lateral toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The study showed the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue to treat severe distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis. 22 patients were divided into two groups: group A consisting of 11 patients with severe toenail onychomycosis and group B consisting of 11 patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. All patients had onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patients were treated with sessions of 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode device with 630 nm and 36 J/cm2 biweekly for six months. The clinical response was significantly better in patients with mild-to-moderate (100%) onychomycosis compared with patients with severe onychomycosis (63.6%).

  5. Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health: Refractory Trichophyton rubrum Infections in Turin, Italy: A Problem Still Present.

    PubMed

    Tullio, Vivian; Cervetti, Ornella; Roana, Janira; Panzone, Michele; Scalas, Daniela; Merlino, Chiara; Allizond, Valeria; Banche, Giuliana; Mandras, Narcisa; Cuffini, Anna Maria

    Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum is the most common cutaneous fungal infection in industrialized countries and worldwide with high recurrence and lack of treatment response. In addition, patients with cutaneous and concurrent toenail lesions are often misdiagnosed and therefore treated with an inappropriate therapy. In this study, we evaluated five previously misdiagnosed cases of T.rubrum chronic dermatophytosis sustained by two variants at sites distant from the primary lesion. Our patients were successfully treated by systemic and topical therapy, and 1 year after the end of therapy follow-up did not show any recurrence of infection.Our data indicate that the localization of all lesions, the isolation and the identification of the causative fungus are essential to establish the diagnosis and the setting of a correct therapeutic treatment to avoid recurrences.

  6. Medical management of Trichophyton dermatophytosis using a novel treatment regimen in L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti).

    PubMed

    Keeble, E J; Neuber, A; Hume, L; Goodman, G

    2010-11-27

    An outbreak of Trichophyton dermatophytosis was diagnosed in a group of four L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti) housed in the primate section at a zoological collection. The affected animals presented with areas of non-pruritic alopecia, scaling and crusting. The diagnosis was based on culture and direct microscopy of hair plucks. Treatment was commenced with oral terbinafine at a dose of 8.25 mg/kg bodyweight, topical enilconazole washes and disinfectant fogging of the enclosure. Control measures were designed to limit the spread of infection and reduce the zoonotic risk. Treatment was successful, with no further clinical cases being diagnosed and with resolution of the clinical signs after four weeks and mycological cure after eight weeks.

  7. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  8. Widespread tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum with non-typical cultural characteristics--diagnosis via PCR.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Ziemer, Mirjana; Gräser, Yvonne; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2007-01-01

    From the epidemiological point of view, Trichophyton rubrum is the most important dermatophyte in the Western world. Mostly, the lesions of fungal infections of the skin are restricted and circumscribed. Immunodeficiency, diabetes or treatment with steroids, however, favour widespread disease involving the entire integument. In the present study, we describe a patient without immunodeficiency or diabetes presenting with widespread tinea corporis caused by T. rubrum. The fungal isolate showed atypical morphological features. Moreover, the typical metabolic features (negative urease test, production of red pigment on potato dextrose agar) were expressed with delay after 6 weeks of cultivation. Thus, sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA was applied to identify the fungal isolate and led us to the correct diagnosis, before conventional mycological methods were successful.

  9. [Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis with secondary Aspergillus versicolor infection in a 12-year-old girl: successful topical therapy with terbinafine-urea ointment].

    PubMed

    Mayser, P A; Gries, A; Hamrouni, N

    2014-07-01

    A 12-year-old with a functional circulatory disturbance had toe nail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. There were no other underlying diseases. Oral therapy with terbinafine 125 mg once weekly in addition to ciclopirox nail lacquer was ineffective. Two years later the disease worsened and A. versicolor was found in pure culture. A preparation of 10% terbinafine HCl in a 20% urea ointment (Onychomal®) applied daily for 4 weeks, then once weekly resulted in complete cure after 7 months.

  10. Apollo MEED mycology revisited and reviewed, including the Trichophyton terrestre keratinophilic growth at splashdown and 23 years after exposure to space parameters.

    PubMed

    Volz, P A; Long, J D; Veselenak, J M

    1995-01-01

    Keratinophilic Trichophyton terrestre conidia were exposed to selected parameters of space flight including 254, 280 and 300 nm UV light, full light and total darkness of space. Phenotypic isolates were grown on human hair collected from one source at years 1 and 23 after splashdown. The patterns of fungal growth on the hair, and the hair deterioration rates, were noted according to the space exposure. Growth and deterioration were consistent but slightly reduced at year 23.

  11. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of 12 Antifungal Drugs against 55 Trichophyton schoenleinii Isolates from Tinea Capitis Favosa Patients in Iran, Turkey, and China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuwen; Ansari, Saham; Ilkit, Macit; Rafati, Haleh; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mojtaba; Nasrollahi-Omran, Ayatollah; Tolooe, Ali; Zhan, Ping; Liao, Wanqing; van der Lee, Henrich A; Verweij, Paul E; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2017-02-01

    Trichophyton schoenleinii is an anthropophilic dermatophyte mainly causing tinea favosa of the scalp in certain regions of the world, especially Africa and Asia. We investigated the in vitro susceptibilities of 55 T. schoenleinii isolates collected over the last 30 years from Iran, Turkey, and China to 12 antifungals using the CLSI broth microdilution method. Our results revealed that terbinafine and ketoconazole were the most potent antifungal agents among those tested, independently of the geographic regions where strains were isolated.

  12. The use of MALDI-TOF ICMS as an alternative tool for Trichophyton rubrum identification and typing.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Leonel; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight intact cell mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF ICMS) was investigated for the identification of clinical isolates. The isolates were analyzed at the species and strain level. Spectral identification by MALDI-TOF ICMS was performed for all strains, and compared with the results of sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), and the 5.8S rDNA region. PCR fingerprinting analysis using primers M13, (GACA)4, and (AC)10 was performed in order to assess the intra-specific variability of Trichophyton rubrum strains. The identification of strains at species level by MALDI-TOF ICMS was in agreement with the previously performed morphological and biochemical analysis. Sequence data confirmed spectral mass identification at species level. Intra-specific variability was assessed. Within the T. rubrum cluster, strains were distributed into smaller highly related sub-groups with a similarity values above 85%. MALDI-TOF ICMS was shown to be a rapid, low-cost and accurate alternative tool for the identification and strain typing of T. rubrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection and identification of Trichophyton tonsurans from clinical isolates and hairbrush samples by loop-mediated isothermal amplification system.

    PubMed

    Yo, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Nakayama, Takako; Ishikawa, Jun; Makimura, Koichi

    2016-09-01

    Since the 1990s, there have been reports of the spread of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans among contact sports athletes in several countries, including Japan. This study was performed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system for rapid and accurate detection and identification of T. tonsurans from clinical isolates or hairbrush samples for diagnosis and to prevent the spread of infection. A specific primer set was prepared by comparing the whole genome sequence of T. tonsurans with those of six other closely related dermatophytes. After confirming the sensitivity and specificity of this system, LAMP assay was performed using 37 clinical samples obtained from three healthy volunteers and 24 judo athletes. A total of 155 fungal isolates (56 strains of various standard fungi, 96 identified T. tonsurans isolates, three hairbrush-cultured isolates from judo athletes) and 37 hairbrush samples (34 samples from 24 judo athletes, and three samples from three healthy volunteers) were used for culture and LAMP assay, respectively. The assay showed no cross-reactivity to standard strains other than T. tonsurans. The detection limit was 100 copies of DNA template per tube. All of the 96 T. tonsurans isolates were amplified, and all samples from healthy volunteers showed negative results. Four of the 34 hairbrush samples obtained from judo athletes showed positive results in LAMP assay, and two of the four were positive in both culture and LAMP assay. We developed a rapid LAMP system with high specificity and sensitivity for diagnosis of T. tonsurans infection.

  14. Transcriptional profiling reveals the expression of novel genes in response to various stimuli in the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Peres, Nalu T A; Sanches, Pablo R; Falcão, Juliana P; Silveira, Henrique C S; Paião, Fernanda G; Maranhão, Fernanda C A; Gras, Diana E; Segato, Fernando; Cazzaniga, Rodrigo A; Mazucato, Mendelson; Cursino-Santos, Jeny R; Aquino-Ferreira, Roseli; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2010-02-08

    Cutaneous mycoses are common human infections among healthy and immunocompromised hosts, and the anthropophilic fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from such clinical cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional profile of T. rubrum exposed to various stimuli in order to obtain insights into the responses of this pathogen to different environmental challenges. Therefore, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST) collection by constructing one cDNA library and nine suppression subtractive hybridization libraries. The 1388 unigenes identified in this study were functionally classified based on the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) categories. The identified proteins were involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular defense and stress, protein degradation, signaling, transport, and secretion, among other functions. Analysis of these unigenes revealed 575 T. rubrum sequences that had not been previously deposited in public databases. In this study, we identified novel T. rubrum genes that will be useful for ORF prediction in genome sequencing and facilitating functional genome analysis. Annotation of these expressed genes revealed metabolic adaptations of T. rubrum to carbon sources, ambient pH shifts, and various antifungal drugs used in medical practice. Furthermore, challenging T. rubrum with cytotoxic drugs and ambient pH shifts extended our understanding of the molecular events possibly involved in the infectious process and resistance to antifungal drugs.

  15. Transcriptional profiling reveals the expression of novel genes in response to various stimuli in the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cutaneous mycoses are common human infections among healthy and immunocompromised hosts, and the anthropophilic fungus Trichophyton rubrum is the most prevalent microorganism isolated from such clinical cases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the transcriptional profile of T. rubrum exposed to various stimuli in order to obtain insights into the responses of this pathogen to different environmental challenges. Therefore, we generated an expressed sequence tag (EST) collection by constructing one cDNA library and nine suppression subtractive hybridization libraries. Results The 1388 unigenes identified in this study were functionally classified based on the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) categories. The identified proteins were involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular defense and stress, protein degradation, signaling, transport, and secretion, among other functions. Analysis of these unigenes revealed 575 T. rubrum sequences that had not been previously deposited in public databases. Conclusion In this study, we identified novel T. rubrum genes that will be useful for ORF prediction in genome sequencing and facilitating functional genome analysis. Annotation of these expressed genes revealed metabolic adaptations of T. rubrum to carbon sources, ambient pH shifts, and various antifungal drugs used in medical practice. Furthermore, challenging T. rubrum with cytotoxic drugs and ambient pH shifts extended our understanding of the molecular events possibly involved in the infectious process and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:20144196

  16. Antifungal activities of Astragalus verus Olivier. against Trichophyton verrucosum on in vitro and in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Mikaeili, Ali; Modaresi, Masoud; Karimi, Isaac; Ghavimi, Hamed; Fathi, Mazyar; Jalilian, Nastaran

    2012-07-01

    Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae has been used against ringworm in Kurdish ethnomedicine throughout millennia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. verus extracts against Trichophyton verrucosum on in vitro and in vivo guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. The skin of albino guinea pigs was infected with T. verrucosum (1.0×10(7) conidia) and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each): negative control (NC), received a vehicle; positive control (PC), received topical terbinafine 1.0% and three other groups: AE10%, AE20% and AE40% which received topical 10%, 20% and 40% aqueous extract of A. verus, respectively. Evaluation of clinical efficacy was performed 72h after completion of a 7-day treatment regimen. Higher significant antifungal activities were observed in aqueous extract in the concentration 320 mg ml(-1) compared with acetone and methanol extracts. The aqueous extract showed minimum inhibitory concentration at 160 mg ml(-1) . Lower clinical scores indicate improved efficacy compared with NC. The lesion scores significantly declined in AE20%, AE40% and PC groups in comparison with NC group. The lesion scores in AE10% and AE20% groups were significantly higher than that of PC group. The AE10% group (18.3%) and AE20% group (39.43%) and AE40% group (66.19%) showed clinical efficacies compared with PC group (76.05%). In conclusion, aqueous extract showed promising antidermatophytic activity. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Tinea Capitis: Mixed or Consecutive Infection with White and Violet Strains of Trichophyton violaceum: A Diagnostic or Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting scalp and hair of pre-pubertal children. With introduction of Griseofulvin in 1958, there has been considerable improvement in the treatment of tinea capitis. A seven-year-old male child was brought to the dermatology clinic. He presented with diffuse white scaly patches of alopecia on scalp of one-year duration. The child was sent to the microbiology section of the National Health laboratory, Botswana for the collection of the samples. The samples consisted of scalp scrapings and few plucked hairs from the suspicious areas, which were collected by swab and scalpel blade methods. Potassium hydroxide (10% KOH) mounts were prepared for scales and hair samples. Scales were positive for fungal elements and endothrix type of perforation was seen in hair. Cultures on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and Derm agar were incubated at 25°C, which yielded white variant of Trichophyton violaceum after two weeks of incubation. T. vioaceum (white variant) grew in all the plates. After six weeks of treatment with griseofulvin, the repeat culture grew only T. violaceum (violet strain). The child showed a definite clinical improvement. PMID:26814801

  18. Outbreak of tinea corporis gladiatorum, a fungal skin infection due to Trichophyton tonsurans, in a French high level judo team.

    PubMed

    Poisson, D M; Rousseau, D; Defo, Defo; Estève, E

    2005-09-01

    An outbreak of 49 cases of tinea corporis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans infection occurred in a high level judo team of 131 members in Orleans, central France, between October 2004 and April 2005. The team was divided into 5 groups: cadet-junior boys (n=44), cadet-junior girls (n=33), male university students (n= 15), female university students (n=21), and a group called 'pole technique' made up of high level judokas who have finished academic study (n=18). The outbreak involved 86% of the cadet-junior boys, but only 6 men in the 'pole technique' (33%) and only 5 of the 69 other team members (7%) (cadet-junior girls and university students). We describe the outbreak and the results of a survey that found a known risk factor for the 'pole technique': sharing an electric hair shaver. Personal hygiene practices were found to be very good among the cadet-junior boys. The high attack rate in this group may be linked to the poor shower facilities in the gymnasium where they practiced that led them to have their showers several hours after the end of daily practice.

  19. Trichophyton rubrum is Inhibited by Free and Nanoparticle Encapsulated Curcumin by Induction of Nitrosative Stress after Photodynamic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Camila Oliveira; Adler, Brandon L.; Landriscina, Angelo; Musaev, Tagai; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Friedman, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inhibition (aPI) utilizes radical stress generated from the excitation of a photosensitizer (PS) with light to destroy pathogens. Its use against Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophytic fungus with increasing incidence and resistance, has not been well characterized. Our aim was to evaluate the mechanism of action of aPI against T. rubrum using curcumin as the PS in both free and nanoparticle (curc-np) form. Nanocarriers stabilize curcumin and allow for enhanced solubility and PS delivery. Curcumin aPI, at optimal conditions of 10 μg/mL of PS with 10 J/cm2 of blue light (417 ± 5 nm), completely inhibited fungal growth (p<0.0001) via induction of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), which was associated with fungal death by apoptosis. Interestingly, only scavengers of RNS impeded aPI efficacy, suggesting that curcumin acts potently via a nitrosative pathway. The curc-np induced greater NO• expression and enhanced apoptosis of fungal cells, highlighting curc-np aPI as a potential treatment for T. rubrum skin infections. PMID:25803281

  20. Trichophyton rubrum is inhibited by free and nanoparticle encapsulated curcumin by induction of nitrosative stress after photodynamic activation.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Ludmila Matos; Krausz, Aimee E; Souza, Ana Camila Oliveira; Adler, Brandon L; Landriscina, Angelo; Musaev, Tagai; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic inhibition (aPI) utilizes radical stress generated from the excitation of a photosensitizer (PS) with light to destroy pathogens. Its use against Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophytic fungus with increasing incidence and resistance, has not been well characterized. Our aim was to evaluate the mechanism of action of aPI against T. rubrum using curcumin as the PS in both free and nanoparticle (curc-np) form. Nanocarriers stabilize curcumin and allow for enhanced solubility and PS delivery. Curcumin aPI, at optimal conditions of 10 μg/mL of PS with 10 J/cm² of blue light (417 ± 5 nm), completely inhibited fungal growth (p<0.0001) via induction of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), which was associated with fungal death by apoptosis. Interestingly, only scavengers of RNS impeded aPI efficacy, suggesting that curcumin acts potently via a nitrosative pathway. The curc-np induced greater NO˙ expression and enhanced apoptosis of fungal cells, highlighting curc-np aPI as a potential treatment for T. rubrum skin infections.

  1. Carbohydrate profiling of fungal cell wall surface glycoconjugates of Trichophyton tonsurans and other keratinophilic filamentous fungi using lectins.

    PubMed

    Leal, André Ferraz Goiana; de Lima Neto, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2011-11-01

    Various researchers have concluded that lectins are useful reagents for the study of fungal cell wall surface glycoconjugates. In this study, we evaluated the expression of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, L-fucose, D-galactose and glucose/mannose on the cell wall surface of Trichophyton tonsurans and other keratinophilic filamentous fungi, using a simple lectin-binding protocol. The fungal cultures used were isolated from soils obtained from public parks by the hair-bait technique. The lectin assays used concanavalin A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), all conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. Adhesive tape was placed sticky-side down over the fungal colony, gently pressed and then removed. The fungal-tape samples were incubated with the lectin for 1 h at 4 °C. Lectin binding was visualised using 3,3-diaminobendizine (DAB) and hydrogen peroxidase. There was a high expression of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine on the cell wall surface of all fungi species tested, whereas the expression of L-fucose, D-galactose and glucose/mannose demonstrated inter-specific variations. The lectin-binding assay presented in this article eliminates many of the laborious steps involved in other protocols. The amount and quality of the mycelium and spores immobilised by the adhesive tapes were suitable for obtaining the carbohydrate profile in glycoconjugates of the cell wall surface of filamentous fungi. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.450... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations...

  3. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.450... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations...

  4. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.450... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations...

  5. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.450 Clotrimazole... fungal infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3...

  6. A potential plant-derived antifungal acetylenic acid mediates its activity by interfering with fatty acid homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    6-Nonadecynoic acid (6-NDA), a plant-derived acetylenic acid, exhibits strong inhibitory activity against the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses...

  7. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis.

  8. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  9. Synergistic combination of violacein and azoles that leads to enhanced killing of major human pathogenic dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Anju, S; Kumar, Nishanth S; Krishnakumar, B; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophytic fungi such as Trichophyton rubrum represent the most common type of worldwide human infection affecting various keratinized tissues in our body such as the skin, hair, and nails, etc. The dermatophytic infection is a significant public health threat due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates, and thus alternative treatments to cure this fungal infection are urgently required. The present study mainly focused on the synergistic activity of violacein with four azole drugs (ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and itraconazole) against T. rubrum. The synergistic antifungal activities of violacein and azoles were measured by checkerboard microdilution and time-kill assays. In our study, combinations of violacein and azoles predominantly recorded synergistic effect (FIC index < 0.5). Significant synergistic value was recorded by the combination of violacein and clotrimazole. Time-kill assay by the combination of MIC concentration of violacein and azoles recorded that the growth of the T. rubrum was significantly arrested after 4-12 h of treatment. The combination of violacein and azoles leads to the enhanced inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination. Moreover combination enhanced the rate of release of intracellular materials. Morphological changes by SEM analysis were also prominent with the combination. A normal human cell line [Foreskin (FS) normal fibroblast] was used to check the cytotoxicity of violacein. Interestingly violacein recorded no cytotoxicity up to 100 μg/ml. The in vitro synergistic effect of violacein and azoles against clinically relevant fungi, T. rubrum, is reported here for the first time. Finally, our findings support the potential use of the violacein as an antifungal agent especially against dermatophytic fungi T. rubrum.

  10. Synergistic combination of violacein and azoles that leads to enhanced killing of major human pathogenic dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Anju, S.; Kumar, Nishanth S.; Krishnakumar, B.; Kumar, B. S. Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophytic fungi such as Trichophyton rubrum represent the most common type of worldwide human infection affecting various keratinized tissues in our body such as the skin, hair, and nails, etc. The dermatophytic infection is a significant public health threat due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates, and thus alternative treatments to cure this fungal infection are urgently required. The present study mainly focused on the synergistic activity of violacein with four azole drugs (ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and itraconazole) against T. rubrum. The synergistic antifungal activities of violacein and azoles were measured by checkerboard microdilution and time-kill assays. In our study, combinations of violacein and azoles predominantly recorded synergistic effect (FIC index < 0.5). Significant synergistic value was recorded by the combination of violacein and clotrimazole. Time-kill assay by the combination of MIC concentration of violacein and azoles recorded that the growth of the T. rubrum was significantly arrested after 4–12 h of treatment. The combination of violacein and azoles leads to the enhanced inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination. Moreover combination enhanced the rate of release of intracellular materials. Morphological changes by SEM analysis were also prominent with the combination. A normal human cell line [Foreskin (FS) normal fibroblast] was used to check the cytotoxicity of violacein. Interestingly violacein recorded no cytotoxicity up to 100 μg/ml. The in vitro synergistic effect of violacein and azoles against clinically relevant fungi, T. rubrum, is reported here for the first time. Finally, our findings support the potential use of the violacein as an antifungal agent especially against dermatophytic fungi T. rubrum. PMID:26322275

  11. In vitro efficacy of shampoos containing miconazole, ketoconazole, climbazole or accelerated hydrogen peroxide against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton species.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of shampoo formulations of ketoconazole, miconazole or climbazole and accelerated hydrogen peroxide wash/rinse against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton species spores. Methods Lime sulfur (1:16)-treated control, enilconazole (1:100)-treated control, accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP 7%) 1:20 and a 1:10 dilution of shampoo formulations of miconazole 2%, miconazole 2%/chlorhexidine gluconate 2-2.3%, ketoconazole 1%/chlorhexidine 2%, climbazole 0.5%/chlorhexidine 3% and sterile water-untreated control were tested in three experiments. In the first, a suspension of infective spores and hair/scale fragments was incubated with a 1:10, 1:5 and 1:1 dilution of spores to test solutions for 10 mins. In the second, toothbrushes containing infected cat hair in the bristles were soaked and agitated in test solutions for 10 mins, rinsed, dried and then fungal cultured (n = 12×). In the third, a 3 min contact time combined with an AHP rinse was tested (n = 10×). Good efficacy was defined as no growth. Results Water controls grew >300 colony-forming units/plate and all toothbrushes were culture-positive prior to testing. For the suspension tests, all test products showed good efficacy. Miconazole 2%, ketoconazole 1% and AHP showed good efficacy after a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was achieved with a shorter contact time (3 mins) only if combined with an AHP rinse. Conclusions and relevance Lime sulfur and enilconazole continued to show good efficacy. In countries or situations where these products cannot be used, shampoos containing ketoconazole, miconazole or climbazole are alternative haircoat disinfectants, with a 10 min contact time or 3 mins if combined with an AHP rinse.

  12. [Trichophyton thuringiense H.A. Koch 1969. A rare geophilic dermatophyte--now isolated for the first time from man].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Winter, I; Winter, A; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Gräser, Y; Rangno, N; Maier, T; Simon, J C

    2014-03-01

    In 1969, Kolipp and Hoffmann isolated Trichophyton (T.) thuringiense spec. nov. Koch when they performed their thesis dealing with the distribution and epidemiology of dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi in mice and other small mammals. At that time, T. thuringiense was detected as saprophytic fungus of the skin of different mice species (e.g. Mus musculus) both in rural and urban settings in the area of Thuringia in Germany. There were no further reports on this dermatophyte species until now, neither in animals, nor in man. Currently, we were able to isolate this geophilic fungus for the first time from a human being. A 58 year old patient baker by trade and living in a rural setting (village) suffered from nail changes like hyperkeratosis and thickening of the nail plate of his big toe. From his nail samples grew a dermatophyte with peripheral radiating and flat colonies which were a bit cottony in the centre. On Sabouraud's 4 % dextrose agar the thallus of the fungus was white to purple stained, the reverse side showed a dark red to brown color. In a typical manner, macroconidia were cylindrical to clavate, microconidia obovoidal to short-clavate with broad base. The species identification of T. thuringiense was done and confirmed by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. Antifungal treatment has been refused from the patient. In conclusion, this is the second description of the geophilic dermatophyte T. thuringiense, which could be isolated for the first time from a human being, in particular from nail sample of the big toe under the suspicion of onychomycosis. However, it is still uncertain if this fungus should be considered either as secondary colonization of the nail plate, or as causative agent of tinea unguium or onychomycosis.

  13. Public health and the urban gray squirrel: mycology.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E; Hoff, G L; Bigler, W J; Jefferies, M B

    1975-10-01

    From 180 gray squirrels (Sciurus c. carolinesis), 942 isolates of fungi representing 19 genera were recovered upon culture of hair-skin scrapings and toenails. Of the isolates, 170 represented known human pathogens and 142, squirrel pathogens. A human infection of Trichophyton mentagrophytes was derived from handling the squirrels. Skin lesions of seven squirrels were attributable to T. mentagrophytes and Mucor sp.

  14. Continuous increase of Trichophyton tonsurans as a cause of tinea capitis in the urban area of Paris, France: a 5-year-long study.

    PubMed

    Gits-Muselli, Maud; Benderdouche, Mazouz; Hamane, Samia; Mingui, Anselme; Feuilhade de Chauvin, Martine; Guigue, Nicolas; Picat, Marie-Quitterie; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Petit, Antoine; Bagot, Martine; Alanio, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-10-14

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33.5%), Trichophyton soudanense (38.3%), or Microsporum audouinii (28.2%)]. When considering one TC case per family, we observed a significant increase of T. tonsurans (P = .018) during these 5 years. The increase was more pronounced (P = .0047) in patients of West-African descent (n = 666), and was at the expense of M. audouinii and T. soudanense On the other hand, the Caribbean patients (n = 85) remained predominantly (72.9%) infected by T. tonsurans Our results show a better virulence of T. tonsurans over other species as already reported. Since T. tonsurans has not been reported in Africa, the infection of patients of West-African descent probably took place in the Paris area by exchanges with Caribbean patients. This increase of TC due to T. tonsurans was observed in the context of griseofulvin being the only licensed paediatric treatment for TC in France, which should deserve reappraisal because terbinafine may be more efficacious.

  15. Neonatal kerion Celsi: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Larralde, Margarita; Gomar, Begoña; Boggio, Paula; Abad, María Eugenia; Pagotto, Betina

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection caused by dermatophytes, frequent in children but uncommon in the neonatal period. Kerion Celsi is the inflammatory manifestation of tinea capitis secondary to host immunologic responses and its occurrence in newborns is extremely infrequent. We describe three neonates with the diagnosis of kerion Celsi. The isolated dermatophytes were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes in two patients and Trichophyton rubrum in the third. Both patients with T. mentagrophytes referred an indirect contact with rabbits and were successfully treated with systemic antifungal (griseofulvin and fluconazole). The patient with T. rubrum had a father with a tinea manuum and both received just topical antimycotic treatment.

  16. Over-expression of genes coding for proline oxidase, riboflavin kinase, cytochrome c oxidase and an MFS transporter induced by acriflavin in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Segato, Fernando; Nozawa, Sérgio R; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2008-03-01

    Acriflavin (3,6-acridinediamine) and other acridine derivatives act in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at the level of DNA-coiling enzymes (topoisomerases) causing the stabilization of the enzyme-DNA cleavable complex. In order to better understand the mode of action of acriflavin, Differential Display RT-PCR was used to isolate transcripts specifically over-expressed during exposure of Trichophyton rubrum mycelia to this drug. Five transcripts, whose differential expressions were confirmed by Northern blotting, revealed genes not previously described in this dermatophyte. Functional grouping identified putative enzymes possibly involved in the mitochondrial respiratory electron-transport chain and in iron transport. These results may be relevant to our understanding of the molecular events involved in the stress response of T. rubrum to acriflavin.

  17. Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 promote control of the fungal pathogen Trichophyton rubrum independently of IL-17 and adaptive immunity in experimental deep dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Fabio Sy; Yabe, Rikio; Iwakura, Yoichiro; de Almeida, Sandro R; Saijo, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are chronic fungal infections, the main causative agent of which is Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). Despite their high occurrence worldwide, the immunological mechanisms underlying these diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered the C-type lectin receptors, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, as key elements in the immune response to T. rubrum infection in a model of deep dermatophytosis. In vitro, we observed that deficiency in Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 severely compromised cytokine production by dendritic cells. In vivo, mice lacking Dectin-1 and/or Dectin-2 showed an inadequate pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to T. rubrum infection, impairing its resolution. Strikingly, neither adaptive immunity nor IL-17 response were required for fungal clearance, highlighting innate immunity as the main checkpoint in the pathogenesis of T. rubrum infection. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Arendrup, Maiken C; Cmokova, Adela; Kubatova, Alena; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year-old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct microscopic nail examination was positive for hyphae, however the etiological significance of T. onychocola was not supported by repeated isolation of the fungus. This new species may be an overlooked geophilic species due to the resemblance to some common species, for example, zoophilic T. interdigitale or some species of geophilic dermatophytes. We included differential diagnosis with phenotypically similar species; however, it is recommended that molecular methods are used for correct identification. The MAT locus of Danish strain was of opposite mating type than in the previously isolated Czech strain and the two isolates were successfully mated. The mating experiments with related heterothallic species T. thuringiense and Arthroderma melis were negative. The sexual state showed all typical signs of arthroderma-morph and is described by using optical as well as scanning electron microscopy. The sexual state was induced on a set of agar media, however low cultivation temperature and the presence of keratin source were crucial for the success rather than formulation of medium.

  19. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-07

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems.

  20. IFN-γ impairs Trichophyton rubrum proliferation in a murine model of dermatophytosis through the production of IL-1β and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Ludmila de Matos; Santos, Patrícia Campi; Paula, Talles Prosperi de; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Souza, Danielle Glória; Santos, Daniel Assis

    2014-04-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the main etiological agent of dermatophytosis, an infection of the skin that affects millions of people worldwide. In this study, we developed a murine model of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in which C57BL/6 wild-type, interleukin (IL)-12(-/-), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(-/-)) mice were inoculated with 1 × 10(6) conidia/animal. The fungal burden, myeloperoxidase and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities, cytokine and chemokine profiles, and histopathology of the skin were evaluated on the seventh and fourteenth days post infection. Phagocytic indices, intracellular proliferation rates, and oxidative bursts generated by macrophages from WT and IFN-γ(-/-) mice were determined. On day 7 post infection, higher fungal burdens were observed comparison with burdens on day 14 post infection. The IL-12(-/-) and IFN-γ(-/-) mice showed higher fungal burdens on the skin and lower levels of IL-1β. Conversely, the WT mice showed lower fungal burdens with higher production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and chemokine ligand 1/keratinocyte chemoattractant (CXCL1/KC). The macrophages from WT mice proved to be more efficient at engulfing and killing T. rubrum conidia through the production of reactive oxygen species. The results show that our model is a useful tool for understanding the pathogenesis of dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum and that IL-12 and IFN-γ are pivotal in controlling the infection through the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and macrophages.

  1. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Lingling; Yu, Lu; Leng, Wenchuan; Yang, Jian; Chen, Lihong; Peng, Junping; Ma, Li; Dong, Jie; Xu, Xingye; Xue, Ying; Zhu, Yafang; Zhang, Wenliang; Yang, Li; Li, Weijun; Sun, Lilian; Wan, Zhe; Ding, Guohui; Yu, Fudong; Tu, Kang; Qian, Ziliang; Li, Ruoyu; Shen, Yan; Li, Yixue; Jin, Qi

    2007-01-01

    Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum. PMID:17428342

  2. [Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum. Ten-year period (1996-2006) data collection in a Dermatology Department in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Carbajal-Pruneda, Patricia; Fernández Martínez, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis in the world up to 80% caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in a dermatological outpatient clinic during a ten years period, from 1996 to 2005. We collected the data from patients with a dermatophytosis from which we have isolated T. rubrum. A total of 776 patients with dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum were found. A slight predominance of female patients (56.2%) was observed. The most commonly affected age group was those in the third to the fifth decade of life, and house working women (33.5%) were predominant. Onychomycosis was found in 63% of the cases, tinea pedis in 22.7%, tinea corporis in 5.2% and tinea cruris in 2.8%. In onychomycosis, the first toe nail was the most commonly affected (58.9%) and the dystrophic type was seen in 50.7% of them.

  3. Microsatellite-Primed PCR for Intra-species Genetic Relatedness in Trichophyton ajelloi Strains Isolated in Poland from Various Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielska, Anita; Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Stączek, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton ajelloi is a geophilic dermatophyte that specializes in the decomposition of native keratin. It exists in soil with a permanent influx of keratin matter. In the present study, two PCR-based methods were used for the identification and intra-species differentiation of T. ajelloi strains isolated from 3 types of soils with different physicochemical properties. The first method, employed for molecular identification, was PCR amplification of the 5.8S rRNA gene and its flanking regions encoding internal transcribed spacers (ITSs), followed by restriction enzyme digestion using endonuclease HinfI. The second method, employed for molecular differentiation, was microsatellite-primed PCR (MSP-PCR) using the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4. All the T. ajelloi strains were also identified using a traditional culture method. Our results showed that molecular identification using the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method agreed with the identification made using the traditional approach. On the other hand, PCR-RFLP results showed no strain differentiation, while MSP-PCR using the (GACA)4 primer identified different varieties among the T. ajelloi strains. The reasons for the intra-species differentiation of T. ajelloi have been discussed. PMID:24859370

  4. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from patients with dermatophytosis restrict the growth of Trichophyton rubrum and induce CD4-T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Karla; Bomfim, Gisele Facholi; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Almeida, Sandro Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are the most common agents of superficial mycoses that are caused by mold fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common pathogen causing dermatophytosis. The immunology of dermatophytosis is currently poorly understood. Recently, our group investigated the interaction of T. rubrum conidia with peritoneal mouse macrophages. We found that macrophages phagocytose T. rubrum conidia resulted in a down-modulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Furthermore, it induced the production of IL-10, and T. rubrum conidia differentiated into hyphae that grew and killed the macrophages after 8 hrs of culture. This work demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, from patients or normal individuals, avidly interact with pathogenic fungus T. rubrum. The dermatophyte has two major receptors on human monocyte-derived DC: DC-SIGN and mannose receptor. In contrast macrophage has only mannose receptor that participates in the phagocytosis or bound process. Another striking aspect of this study is that unlike macrophages that permit rapid growth of T. rubrum, human DC inhibited the growth and induces Th activation. The ability of DC from patients to interact and kill T. rubrum and to present Ags to T cells suggests that DC may play an important role in the host response to T. rubrum infection by coordinating the development of cellular immune response.

  5. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in a woman and Tinea capitis in her 15-day-old baby: molecular evidence of vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, E T M; Borghi, E; Cerri, A; Sciota, R; Morace, G; Menni, S

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman who came under our observation with a 7-year history of a chronic erythematous scaly dermatitis, diagnosed as psoriasis, involving gluteal area and thighs, and treated with topical steroids without benefit. During pregnancy, a progressive worsening of her condition and an extension of cutaneous lesions were observed. Her newborn, a 15-day-old girl, presented a similar scaly and squamous lesion on her scalp. Mycological examination was positive for Trichophyton rubrum in both cases, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the isogenicity of the two isolates. We performed a diagnosis of T. rubrum tinea corporis and tinea capitis. The case we describe illustrates an unusual clinical presentation of tinea corporis with remarkable extension of cutaneous lesions due to the diagnostic delay and the continuous use of local steroids, together with a rare tinea capitis in the newborn. Our experience highlights the possibility of mother-child transmission and the importance of an early diagnosis.

  6. Kerion and Tinea Corporis Caused by Rabbit-Derived Trichophyton interdigitale in Three Siblings and One Consulting Doctor Using β-Tubulin Gene to Identify the Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Ping; Sheng, Ping; Liu, Zhong; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Trichophyton interdigitale is generally deemed as an anamorph of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, but recently their anamorph/teleomorph connection should be cautioned based on β-tubulin phylogeny. We report three siblings and one consulting doctor who developed kerion and tinea corporis after contact with domestic rabbits. Seven same strains were isolated from four patients and three regions of a sick rabbit. The ITS and D1/D2 sequences of our isolate were 99 % homologous to A. Vanbreuseghemii, while β-tubulin sequence was 100 % identical to T. interdigitale. Our isolate was identified as T. interdigitale based on maximum likelihood analysis of β-tubulin. Random amplified polymorphic DNA revealed that the band patterns of five isolated strains and another rabbit-derived strain WCH023 were identical for OPF-03 and OPF-12. Skin lesions of all patients resolved completely for 2- to 6-week therapy of oral terbinafine and topical 1 % bifonazole or 1 % terbinafine cream. This study demonstrates that T. interdigitale of rabbit origin can cause various types of human dermatophytosis by mild scratch. Terbinafine may be the first choice for dermatophytosis caused by T. interdigitale.

  7. Sequence-Based Identification of a Zoophilic Strain of Trichophyton interdigitale in a Rare Case of Tinea Blepharo-Ciliaris Associated with Tinea Barbae.

    PubMed

    Buruiana, Adrian M; Mihali, Ciprian V; Popescu, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Impaired hair at blepharo-ciliaris area by dermatophytes is a rare clinical entity. This infection is often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed, being mistakenly referred to as an infection of bacterial origin. Herein, we present a rare case of tinea blepharo-ciliaris associated with tinea barbae in an adult male. Considering the two lesions of the patient, mycological examination was performed by phenotypic methods, including environmental electronic scanning microscopy. Trichophyton interdigitale zoophilic strain was identified as the etiological agent by direct examination of the hair, primary culture analysis of the developed colonies and PCR sequencing of the ITS1 region of the rDNA gene. Homology search showed 100% similarity with T. interdigitale (GenBank accession number: KC595993), Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (GenBank accession number: JQ407190) and zoophilic strain of T. interdigitale (GenBank accession number: AY062119.1.). Four weeks of oral and local treatment with itraconazole (100 mg twice a day) and fluconazole 0.3% (eyedrops) induced complete remission. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tinea blepharo-ciliaris associated with tinea barbae in Romania.

  8. Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-08-01

    A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro antifungal, anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of essential oils of Cinnamomum-, Syzygium- and Cymbopogon-species against Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2011-12-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate effects of certain essential oils namely Cinnamomum verum, Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon martini and their major components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, citral and geraniol respectively, on growth, hyphal ultrastructure and virulence factors of Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum. The antifungal activity of essential oils and their major constituents was in the order of cinnamaldehyde>eugenol>geraniol=C. verum>citral>S. aromaticum>C. citratus>C. martini, both in liquid and solid media against T. rubrum and A. fumigatus. Based on promising antifungal activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, these oils were further tested for their inhibitory activity against ungerminated and germinated conidia in test fungi. Cinnamaldehyde was found to be more active than eugenol. To assess the possible mode of action of cinnamaldehyde, electron microscopic studies were conducted. The observations revealed multiple sites of action of cinnamaldehyde mainly on cell membranes and endomembranous structures of the fungal cell. Further, test oils were also tested for their anti-virulence activity. More than 70% reduction in elastase activity was recorded in A. fumigatus by the oils of C. verum, C. martini, eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and geraniol. Similar reduction in keratinase activity in A. niger was recorded for the oils of C. martini and geraniol. Maximum reduction (96.56%) in elastase activity was produced by cinnamaldehyde whereas; geraniol caused maximum inhibition (97.31%) of keratinase activity. Our findings highlight anti-elastase and anti-keratinase activity of above mentioned essential oils as a novel property to be exploited in controlling invasive and superficial mycoses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  11. Transcription profile of Trichophyton rubrum conidia grown on keratin reveals the induction of an adhesin-like protein gene with a tandem repeat pattern.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Macedo, Claudia; Franco, Matheus Eloy; Assis, Amanda Freire; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Stehling, Eliana Guedes; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Malavazi, Iran; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2016-03-18

    Trichophyton rubrum is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus that can infect human keratinized tissue (skin, nails and, rarely, hair) and is the major agent of all chronic and recurrent dermatophytoses. The dermatophyte infection process is initiated through the release of arthroconidial adhesin, which binds to the host stratum corneum. The conidia then germinate, and fungal hyphae invade keratinized skin structures through the secretion of proteases. Although arthroconidia play a central role in pathogenesis, little is known about the dormancy and germination of T. rubrum conidia and the initiation of infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transcriptional gene expression profile of T. rubrum conidia during growth on keratin- or elastin-containing medium, mimicking superficial and deep dermatophytosis, respectively. A transcriptional profiling analysis was conducted using a custom oligonucleotide-based microarray by comparing T. rubrum conidia grown on elastin and keratin substrates. This comparison shows differences according to protein source used, but consisted of a very small set of genes, which could be attributed to the quiescent status of conidia. The modulated genes were related to the dormancy, survival and germination of conidia, including genes involved in the respiratory chain, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. However, an induction of a great number of proteases occurred when T. rubrum was grown in the presence of keratin such as the subtilisin family of proteases (Sub 1 and Sub 3) and leucine aminopeptidase (Lap 1 and Lap 2). Interestingly, keratin also promoted the up-regulation of a gene encoding an adhesin-like protein with a tandem repeat sequence. In silico analysis showed that the protein contains a domain related to adhesin that may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. The expression of this adhesin-like gene was also induced during the co-culture of T. rubrum with a human keratinocyte cell line, confirming its

  12. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Zhu; Liang, Pan-Pan; Ma, Han; Yi, Jin-Ling; Yin, Song-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Li, Mei-Rong; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than TXHB. The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than TXHB. The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB. After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h. Conclusion: The

  13. Antidermatophytic triterpenoids from Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Mouokeu, Simplice; Wabo, Hypolyte K; Tane, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    Chemical investigation of the EtOAc extract of the stem bark of Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) afforded a number of known triterpenes such as friedelin, beta-amyrin acetate, betulinic acid and lupeol. Friedelin was submitted to a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation, and was also reduced with LiAlH(4) to give the known friedelolactone and friedelanol, respectively. These compounds were identified by comparison of NMR spectral data with those from the literature. The EtOAc extract and the isolated compounds were tested for their antidermatophytic activity against three dermatophyte species: Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton soudanense, commonly found in Cameroon. Betulinic acid and friedelolactone were the most active compounds, and the most sensitive fungi were Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Syzygium jambolanum seeds.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2004-03-01

    The water and methanolic extracts of Syzygium jambolanum seeds were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activity in vitro using the disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration. Activity against gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli) and fungal strains (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp., Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum) is discussed.

  15. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    PubMed

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  16. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Massaroto, Bruna Gabriele; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-09-17

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0.5 MIC of trans-chalcone and

  17. A Practical Methylation Procedure for (1H)-1,2,4-Triazole (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Brammer, K.W.; Marriott, M.S.; Troke, P.F. Activity of UK-49,858, a bistriazole derivative, against experimental infections with Candida ... albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1985, 27, 832-835. (g.) Heeres, J.; Hendrickx, R.; Van Cutsem, J. Antimycotic

  18. Dermatophytoses in the Gdańsk area, Poland: a 12-year survey.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, R

    1996-01-01

    A survey of dermatophytes and dermatophytoses was carried out among patients of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Gdańsk, in the years 1984-95. Over the 12-year period, 1195 cases of ringworm were seen: 55% in men and 45% in women. Listing the dermatophytes isolated and their frequencies as a percentage of the total are as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes 42.1%, Microsporum canis 26.0%, Trichophyton rubrum 14.7%, Epidermophyton floccosum 11.0%, Trichophyton tonsurans 4.6%, Trichophyton verrucosum 1.3%, Trichophyton violaceum 0.3%. The most common clinical variant of dermatophytosis in the Gdańsk area was tinea cutis glabrae (32.9%), followed by tinea pedis (24%), onychomycosis (16.5%), tinea capitis (11.9%)), tinea inguinalis (10.3%) and tinea manuum (4.4%). Dermatophytoses were significantly more frequent among adults (> 15 years) (71.3%).

  19. Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Virulence Activities of Dermatophytes on Solid Media

    PubMed Central

    Elavarashi, Elangovan; Rangarajan, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi causing superficial cutaneous infections that account 20-25% of the global population. As per literature search, there is a dearth in the study on virulence factors of dermatophytes from the Indian sub-continent and moreover the association of the virulence factors and the host tissue in vitro helps in understanding the host-pathogen interaction. Aim To analyse the enzymatic and non-enzymatic virulence activities of dermatophytes on solid media. Materials and Methods A total of 11 isolates, three standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains- Trichophyton rubrum- 28188, Trichophyton mentagrophytes- 9533, Trichophyton tonsurans- 28942, one CBS KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre strain- Arthroderma grubyi- 243.66, five clinical isolates- T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii, Trichophyton interdigitale, Epidermophyton floccosum, and two laboratory isolates - Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were screened for the production of virulence enzymes such as phospholipase, lipase, protease, gelatinase and non-enzyme virulence factors (haemolytic activity) of dermatophytes. The clinical isolates were identified from a tertiary care hospital, Chennai. These dermatophytes were tested upon specific substrates on solid media such as egg yolk, tween 80, bovine serum albumin, gelatin powder and sheep blood respectively. Results The virulence activity of phospholipase, lipase, protease and gelatinase was observed from all the dermatophyte species. T. rubrum, T. rubrum ATCC strain, T. rubrum var. raubitschekii, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes ATCC strain, T. interdigitale and A. grubyi CBS strain produced complete haemolysis, whereas other dermatophytes showed no haemolytic activity. Conclusion Phospholipase, lipase, protease and gelatinase act as enzymatic virulence marker and the T. rubrum complex, T. mentagrophytes complex and A. grubyi showed complete haemolysis and hence

  20. Detection of synergistic combinations of Baccharis extracts with terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum with high throughput screening synergy assay (HTSS) followed by 3D graphs. Behavior of some of their components.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, María Victoria; Sortino, Maximiliano A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Pellegrino, José M; Favier, Laura S; Raimondi, Marcela P; Gattuso, Martha A; Zacchino, Susana A

    2013-10-15

    Forty four extracts from nine Baccharis spp. from the Caulopterae section were tested in combination with terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum with the HTSS assay at six different ratios with the aim of detecting those mixtures that produced a ≥50% statistically significant enhancement of growth inhibition. Since an enhanced effect of a combination respective of its components, does not necessarily indicate synergism, three-dimensional (3D) dose-response surfaces were constructed for each selected pair of extract/antifungal drug with the aid of CombiTool software. Ten extracts showed synergistic or additive combinations which constitutes a 22% hit rate of the extracts submitted to evaluation. Four flavonoids and three ent-clerodanes were detected in the active Baccharis extracts with HPLC/UV/ESI-MS methodology, all of which were tested in combination with terbinafine. Results showed that ent-clerodanes but not flavonoids showed synergistic or additive effects. Among them, bacchotricuneatin A followed by bacrispine showed synergistic effects while hawtriwaic acid showed additive effects.

  1. In vitro model of infected stratum corneum for the efficacy evaluation of poloxamer 407-based formulations of ciclopirox olamine against Trichophyton rubrum as well as differential scanning calorimetry and stability studies.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2015-10-15

    Superficial fungal skin infections are a common disease and concern 20-25% of the world's population with the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum being the main trigger. Due to autoinoculation, fungal skin infections of the feet (tinea pedis) often occur simultaneously with fungal nail infections (onychomycosis). Therefore, the overall objective was the development and characterisation of poloxamer 407-based formulations with the antimycotic active ingredient ciclopirox olamine (CPX) for simultaneous antifungal therapy. The formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, water, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol and medium chain triglycerides in given ratios. The in vitro antifungal efficacy against T. rubrum was tested in a novel in vitro model of infected stratum corneum in comparison to a marketed semi-solid formulation containing 1% (w/w) ciclopirox olamine and a marketed nail lacquer containing 8% ciclopirox. Several liquid poloxamer 407-based formulations with only 1% CPX completely inhibited fungal growth after 6 days of incubation, whereas the marketed semi-solid formulation did not inhibit fungal growth. Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealing the interaction between the formulations and the SC showed that increasing isopropyl alcohol/propylene glycol concentrations as well as increasing CPX concentrations caused increasing endothermic transition shifts. Moreover, stability studies at 30 °C exhibited only a slight decrease of the CPX amount after 12 months of storage. Each formulation contained >90% of the initial CPX concentration after termination of the stability studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A survey of dermatophytosis in animals in Madras, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S; Arun Mozhi Balajee, S; Mahendra Raja, S

    Two hundred and eleven dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in and around the city of Madras, India were screened for the presence of dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17 strains from bovines) were isolated. 57/106 strains were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 42/106 strains were of the Microsporum gypseum complex. 5 strains of T. rubrum and 2 strains of T. simii were also obtained in culture. A predominance of M. gypseum complex isolates was recorded in stray dogs and cattle and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum in strictly house dogs. The family history of the owners of the most of the dogs had clear records of dermatophytosis. Further, the owners of the 11 dogs that yielded T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes had either tinea corporis or tinea pedis. The etiological agent of all the 11 human cases was T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale. Similarly the owners of 4 of the 5 dogs that yielded T. rubrum were known T. rubrum patients. All these patients responded to oral griseofulvin or ketaconozole, but the recurrence of lesions was noted with the cessation of treatment. None of the patients had onychomycosis and the family history of all the patients revealed no reports of T. rubrum infections. The pet dogs were presumed to be the source of re-infection. Reversed transmission of dermatophytes from humans to animals may be the reason for the selective predominance of these organisms in strictly house dogs. They also may act as sources of reinfection. Most of the animals had small, occult, scattered lesions. These lesions may either go unnoticed or are ignored by the owners of the animals. The taxonomic status of T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale was aligned to their teleomorph Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. Our study suggests that the periodic screening and medication of all live-stock are essential for the prevention and

  3. Comparative efficacies of commonly used disinfectants and antifungal pharmaceutical spray preparations against dermatophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Ahmad, I; Summerbell, R C

    2001-08-01

    Arthroconidia from five fungal strains belonging to three Trichophyton species, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. raubitschekii and T. tonsurans, were tested against commercial chemical disinfectants and pharmaceutical antifungal agents. The chemical disinfectants included chlorine, phenol, sodium dodecyl sulphate and several quaternary ammonium salts, while the two pharmaceutical preparations contained bifonazole and terbinafine as active agents. Arthroconidia were exposed to the antifungal agent either in a suspension solution for a given period of time and assayed for kill rate, or on a sprayed agar plate and monitored for surviving colonies over a period of 14 days. Chlorine (1%) and terbinafine (0.01%) were found to be high level disinfectants bringing about a rapid inactivation of conidia in all five strains. Phenol was equally effective against T. raubitschekii and T. tonsurans; however, T. mentagrophytes cells were able to survive for up to 1 h in 5% phenol. Quaternary ammonium compounds were less rapid in their action against dermatophytes and were needed at a level of about 0.5% to be completely fungicidal. Three commercial spray formulations with a range of 0.1 to 0.3% quaternary ammonium salts were fungistatic against T. mentagrophytes strains. Bifonazole (1%) was also fungistatic in its action against T. mentagrophytes. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (0.5%) was largely ineffective against Trichophyton arthroconidia.

  4. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Dermatophytosis diagnosed at the laboratory of parasitology and mycology of Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar between 2007 and 2011].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, D; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A; Seck, M C; Faye, B; Ndiaye, J L; Tine, R; Ndir, O

    2013-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a disease caused by dermatophytes, filamentous fungi adapted to human and animal keratin, colonizing and infecting human skin. The goal of this study was to identify dermatophytes responsible for dermatophytosis among patients, seeking for care in Dakar. Material and methods This study was carried out at the laboratory of parasitology and mycology at Le Dantec Hospital, in Senegal between June 2007 and December 2011, and included 2026 patients. Among these 2026 patients, 796 patients presented a dermatophytosis, confirmed after direct examination and/or culture in 1044 specimens. Patients' age varied between 3months to 89years with 25.5 years of age average; the infestation index was 39.3%. Patients between 20-29years were more infested with 15.3%, followed by 10-19years (9.1%), 0-9years (8.7%), 30-39years (2.7%), 40-49years (1.5%), 50-59years (1.3%), 60-69years (0.4%), 70-79years (0.2%), and 80-89years (0.1%). Women were more infected (77%) than men 23%. The main species isolated were Trichophyton soudanense (52.78%), Trichophyton rubrum (30.94%), Microsporum canis (4.89%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (4.50%), Microsporum langeronii (3.54%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (1.82%). This study shows that dermatophytes and dermatophytosis are endemic to Senegal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric.

  7. Single-step PCR using (GACA)4 primer: utility for rapid identification of dermatophyte species and strains.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Atef S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Aboulatta, Hassan N; el-Akhras, Atef I; Abbadi, Said H; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-08-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi that belong to three genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Identification of dermatophyte species is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis. Routine identification depends on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, which is time-consuming and does not identify dermatophyte strains. In this study, two PCR-based methods were compared for their abilities to identify 21 dermatophyte isolates obtained from Egyptian patients to the species and strain levels. The first method employed a two-step method: PCR amplification, using ITS1 and ITS4 as primers, followed by restriction enzyme digestion using the endonuclease MvaI. The second method employed a one-step approach employing the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)(4) as a primer. Dermatophyte strains were also identified using a conventional culture method. Our results showed that the conventional culture method identified four species: Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Moreover, both PCR methods agreed with the diagnosis made using the conventional approach. Furthermore, ITS1/ITS4-based PCR provided no strain differentiation, while (GACA)(4)-based PCR identified different varieties among the T. mentagrophytes isolates. Taken together, our results suggest that (GACA)(4)-based PCR has utility as a simple and rapid method for identification of dermatophyte species as well as utility for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes variants.

  8. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of wax and hexane extracts from Citrus spp. peels.

    PubMed

    Johann, Susana; Oliveira, Vetúria Lopes de; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Schripsema, Jan; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Branco, Alexsandro; Smânia Jr, Artur

    2007-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified from peel extracts, which presented antimicrobial activity especially against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes: 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone (tangeritin) and 3',4',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxyflavone (nobiletin) from C. reticulata; and 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (also known as escoparone, scoparone or scoparin) from C. limon.

  10. Misdiagnosed zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis effectively treated with isoconazole nitrate and diflucortolone valerate combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Czaika, Viktor A

    2013-05-01

    There have been few published reports on the human transmission of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, a zoophilic fungus frequently occurring in pets. Here we report on 2 girls, living with a pet dwarf rabbit, who presented with inflammatory skin lesions positive for T. mentagrophytes and subsequently diagnosed as zoophile tinea faciei and tinea corporis. The patients were successfully treated with systemic terbinafine and 2-week therapy with Travocort cream containing isoconazole nitrate 1% and diflucortolone valerate 0.1%. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. A survey of dermatophytosis in animals in Madras, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, S; Balajee, S A; Raja, S M

    Two hundred and eleven dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in and around the city of Madras, India were screened for the presence of dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17 strains from bovines) were isolated. 57/106 strains were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 42/106 strains were of the Microsporum gypseum complex. 5 strains of T. rubrum and 2 strains of T. simii were also obtained in culture. A predominance of M. gypseum complex isolates was recorded in stray dogs and cattle and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum in strictly house dogs. The family history of the owners of the most of the dogs had clear records of dermatophytosis. Further, the owners of the 11 dogs that yielded T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes had either tinea corporis or tinea pedis. The etiological agent of all the 11 human cases was T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale. Similarly the owners of 4 of the 5 dogs that yielded T. rubrum were known T. rubrum patients. All these patients responded to oral griseofulvin or ketaconozole, but the recurrence of lesions was noted with the cessation of treatment. None of the patients had onychomycosis and the family history of all the patients revealed no reports of T. rubrum infections. The pet dogs were presumed to be the source of re-infection. Reversed transmission of dermatophytes from humans to animals may be the reason for the selective predominance of these organisms in strictly house dogs. They also may act as sources of reinfection. Most of the animals had small, occult, scattered lesions. These lesions may either go unnoticed or are ignored by the owners of the animals. The taxonomic status of T. mentagrophytes and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale was aligned to their teleomorph Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. Our study suggests that the periodic screening and medication of all live-stock are essential for the prevention and management of the

  12. In vitro antifungal activity of micafungin and caspofungin against dermatophytes isolated from China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying-qiu; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruo-yu

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the in vitro activities of micafungin and caspofungin that are two new echinocandin antifungal drugs against clinically isolated dermatophytes in China and to define MEC (minimal effective concentration) as the reading endpoints of this study in accordance with (Clinical and laboratory Standards Institute) CLSI M38-A2 reference. Minimal effective concentrations (MECs) of micafungin and caspofungin for 82 dermatophyte strains were determined according to CLSI (formerly NCCLS) M38-A2 broth microdilution methods. (1) The MEC(90s) of micafungin for Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton tonsurans were 0.25 μg/mL, and for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton verrucosum were 0.06 μg/mL. The MEC(90s) for Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum were 0.03 μg/mL. (2) The MEC(90s) of caspofungin for T. rubrum, T. violaceum and T. tonsurans were 1 μg/mL, and for T. mentagrophytes, M. canis, M. gypseum, E. floccosum and T. verrucosum were 0.5 μg/mL. (3) Compared with caspofungin, micafungin demonstrated lower MEC value to dermatophytes (P < 0.05). Micafungin has stronger in vitro antifungal activity than caspofungin.

  13. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  14. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Luilma A; Sidrim, J J C; Martins, Domingos T; Cechinel Filho, V; Rao, Vietla S

    2005-02-28

    Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.

  16. [Epidemiology of Tinea capitis in the suburbs of Tipasa, Algeria].

    PubMed

    Bendjaballah-Laliam, A; Djazer, H

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis represent a public health problem in Algeria, despite improvement of living conditions. We conducted a retrospective study of cases diagnosed in the hospital Hadjout (Tipasa), Algeria, during 3 years (January 2010-January 2013). Among a total of 213 hair samples, 133 were positive (direct examination or culture). Incidence average was 44 cases per year. Patients were under 12 years of age in 91%. Three species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton violaceum (66%), Microsporum canis (32.5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.5%). No favus was diagnosed during the study period. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi in soil of burrows of rats and of other sites in bamboo plantations in India and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, H C; Paliwal-Joshi, A; Rahman, H; Padhye, A A; Singh, T S K; Das, T K; Khanal, B; Bajaj, R; Rao, S; Chukhani, R

    2007-11-01

    This study examined 215 samples of soil from burrows of rats, other sites in bamboo plantations in different parts of India and Nepal by dilution plating and mouse passage technique for occurrence of Penicillium marneffei and other pathogenic fungi. None of the samples including 25 collected from the burrows of a bamboo rat (Cannomys badius) known to be a carrier of P. marneffei, was positive for the fungus. Among the pathogenic fungi recovered were four isolates of Pseudallescheria boydii (including one from Nepal), two of Trichosporon asteroides, one of Scytalidium hyalinum, 23 isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (including two from Nepal), and two of Microsporum gypseum. Fourteen of the 23 isolates of T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes when tested with the mating types of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii were found to be of the '+' mating type. The frequent recovery of this dermatophyte from soils of bamboo plantations in several parts of India is remarkable. The study also demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of P. boydii and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes in Nepalese soil. Among the other fungi recovered were several isolates of species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Fusarium, Chrysosporium, Acremonium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Geotrichum, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula.

  18. Immediate hypersensitivity and serum IgE antibody responses in patients with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Mansouri, Parvin

    2012-03-01

    The association of dermatophytes with atopic patients and improvement in allergic signs with antifungal treatment suggest a possible link between chronic infection and atopy. The purpose of this study was to determine skin reactivity and serum IgE antibody responses in patients with chronic and acute dermatophytosis. One hundred and sixty-three patients with chronic dermatophytosis, 35 patients with acute dermatophytosis, 41 atopic patients and 49 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Sensitization to Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus antigens has been evaluated in patients by skin prick test (SPT) and by the presence of specific IgE antibody in enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Positive immediate hypersensitivity (IH) reactions were obtained in 95.1% of the atopic patients with chronic infection for T. mentagrophytes, representing a significant difference from other patient groups (P < 0.05). Specificanti-T. mentagrophytes IgE antibodies were detected in atopic patients with chronic (65.9%) and acute (50%) dermatophytosis, while none of the atopic subjects had positive IgE reactions to T. mentagrophytes. The results showed significant higher positive IH and specific anti-T. mentagrophytes IgE responses in atopic patients with chronic dermatophytosis than the other groups.

  19. A new cadmium(II) complex with bridging dithiolate ligand: Synthesis, crystal structure and antifungal activity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahesh Kumar; Sutradhar, Sanjit; Paul, Bijaya; Adhikari, Suman; Laskar, Folguni; Butcher, Raymond J.; Acharya, Sandeep; Das, Arijit

    2017-07-01

    A new polymeric complex of Cd(II) with 1,1-dicyanoethylene- 2,2-dithiolate [ i-MNT2- = {S2C:C(CN)2}2- ] as a bridging ligand has been synthesized and characterized on the basis of spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Cadmium (II) complex is six coordinated 1D polymeric in nature. Biological screening effects in vitro of the synthesized polymeric complex has been tested against five fungi Synchitrium endobioticum, Pyricularia oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, Candida albicans(ATCC10231), Trichophyton mentagrophytes by the disc diffusion method. In vitro antifungal screening indicates that the complex exhibits fungistatic and fungicidal antifungal activity whereas K2i-MNT.H2O became silent on Synchitrium endobioticum, Pyricularia oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae, Candida albicans (ATCC10231), Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  20. [Feet dermatophytosis in soccer players].

    PubMed

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Leite, Neiva

    2009-01-01

    Athletes present risk of cutaneous mycosis. A study was carried out with 23 soccer players using clinical and mycological examination (direct microscopic examination and culture) and nail clipping. Eighteen (78.26%) did not present mycosis; two (8.70%) presented tinea pedis, and three (13.04%) presented onychomycosis associated to tinea pedis, mainly for Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Infected tinea pedis has produced cellulitis in one of the athletes. It is necessary to create an educative program of skin care during sports practice.

  1. [Fungi, pets and their owners].

    PubMed

    Noël, F; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E; Quatresooz, P

    2011-11-01

    Some parasitic or pathogen fungi for pet skin are possibly transmitted to humans in whom they are responsible for superficial mycozoonoses. Cats, dogs and some small rodents are commonly involved. The lesions correspond to glabrous skin dermatophytoses and to microsporic tinea of the scalp. These disorders represent the vast majority of the prevalent mycozoonoses in Wallonia. Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are the two fungi that are commonly involved.

  2. Identification of Dermatophyte Species by 28S Ribosomal DNA Sequencing with a Commercial Kit

    PubMed Central

    Ninet, Béatrice; Jan, Isabelle; Bontems, Olympia; Léchenne, Barbara; Jousson, Olivier; Panizzon, Renato; Lew, Daniel; Monod, Michel

    2003-01-01

    We have shown that dermatophyte species can be easily identified on the basis of a DNA sequence encoding a part of the large-subunit (LSU) rRNA (28S rRNA) by using the MicroSeq D2 LSU rRNA Fungal Sequencing Kit. Two taxa causing distinct dermatophytoses were clearly distinguished among isolates of the Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex. PMID:12574293

  3. Inflammatory tinea capitis: kerion, dermatophytic granuloma, and mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Isa-Isa, Rafael; Arenas, Roberto; Isa, Mariel

    2010-03-04

    Inflammatory tinea capitis is the result of a hypersensitivity reaction to a dermatophytic infection. The usual forms are favus, kerion celsi, dermatophytic Majocchi granuloma, and mycetoma. Inflammatory tinea capitis can be caused by Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T tonsurans, T rubrum, and M gypseum. Histopathologic findings include a spectrum from mild suppurative folliculitis to dense granulomatous infiltrates. In mycetoma, grains must be present. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. New carvotanacetone derivatives from Sphaeranthus africanus.

    PubMed

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; Tsai, Po-Wei; Galvez, Cecilia T; Shen, Chien-Chang

    2010-02-01

    The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried leaves of Sphaeranthus africanus afforded four new carvotanacetone derivatives (1, 2, 3A, and 3B). Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Compounds 1- 3 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Aspergillus niger. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  6. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES

    PubMed Central

    BIASI-GARBIN, Renata Perugini; DEMITTO, Fernanda de Oliveira; do AMARAL, Renata Claro Ribeiro; FERREIRA, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; SOARES, Luiz Alberto Lira; SVIDZINSKI, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; BAEZA, Lilian Cristiane; YAMADA-OGATTA, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytesATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species. PMID:27007561

  7. Dermatophyte species in superficial mycoses in the Kraków district, Poland in the years 1972-2007.

    PubMed

    Macura, A B; Krzyściak, P; Skóra, M; Gniadek, A

    2010-03-01

    Considerable changes in the dermatophyte spectrum have been observed in the past century. Hence, many authors point out the necessity of performing periodical overviews of the mycological flora producing mycoses in humans in a given area. Analysis of dermatophyte species was performed, which were isolated from the lesions in patients suspected of superficial mycosis and referred to the Department of Mycology. The materials were isolated from patients suspected of superficial mycosis from Kraków region from January 1, 1972 through December 31, 2007. A total of 4983 dermatophyte strains were isolated from 23 124 specimens, which amounts to 21.5%. The percentage of dermatophytes isolated in the past decade decreased to 13.1% in the year 2007. Trichophyton rubrum outnumbered Trichophyton mentagrophytes during the entire survey period: 62.4 vs. 33.5%. The participation of Microsporum canis amounted to 1.71% and that of Epidermophyton floccosum to 1.32%. The species M. canis appeared by the end of the 1980s. The remaining dermatophyte species comprised 1% of the isolates. A considerable decrease in dermatophyte isolations has been observed since 2000. Trichophyton rubrum outnumbered T. mentagrophytes during the entire period of study. The percentages of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes are decreasing while the percentages of other dermatophytes are slowly increasing.

  8. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF PLANT SPECIES FROM BRAZILIAN CAATINGA AGAINST DERMATOPHYTES.

    PubMed

    Biasi-Garbin, Renata Perugini; Demitto, Fernanda de Oliveira; Amaral, Renata Claro Ribeiro do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, or Trichophyton spp. are the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, whose treatment is limited by the high cost of antifungal treatments, their various side effects, and the emergence of resistance amongst these species. This study evaluated the in vitro antidermatophytic activity of 23 crude extracts from nine plant species of semiarid vegetation (caatinga) found in Brazil. The extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 1.95 to 1,000.0 mg/mL by broth microdilution assay against the reference strains T. rubrum ATCC 28189 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and 33 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. All plants showed a fungicidal effect against both fungal species, with MIC/MFC values of the active extracts ranging from 15.6 to 250.0 µg/mL. Selected extracts of Eugenia uniflora (AcE), Libidibia ferrea (AE), and Persea americana (AcE) also exhibited a fungicidal effect against all clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex. This is the first report of the antifungal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius, Piptadenia colubrina, Parapiptadenia rigida, Mimosa ophthalmocentra, and Persea americana against both dermatophyte species.

  9. Isolation of glycopeptides with skin test activity from dermatophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, S A; Pollack, J D

    1978-01-01

    By using ethylene glycol extraction of whole submerged cultures followed by Sephadex G-200 and diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography, we isolated four distinct glycopeptides from Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Microsporum canis. Chemical analyses revealed that these glycopeptides contained mostly carbohydrate (42.5 to 81.6%) and protein (4.3 to 11.3%), with lesser amounts of phosphorus (0.4 to 6.0%) and hexosamines (0.3 to 0.6%). Based upon total carbohydrate and monosaccharide content, these dermatophyte glycopeptides could be divided into two chemical groups: glucopeptides (DSI1) and mannopeptides (DSI2, DSII1, and DSII2). The mannopeptides and glucopeptides of each species of dermatophyte were not significantly different chemically from those derived from the other two dermatophyte species studied. Skin testing of DSI1-glycopeptides or DSI2-mannopeptides in immunized guinea pigs indicated that only the DSI2-mannopeptides elicited a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Skin testing T. mentagrophytes 62-infected guinea pigs with the four purified DS-glycopeptides, as well as earlier fractions from the purification scheme, derived from T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and M. canis, again indicated that only the DSI2-mannopeptides of the two Trichophyton species elicited a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. The number of infections or duration of infection had no effect on the size of the skin test response. DSI2-mannopeptides were non-cross-reactive between genera when tested in Trichophyton-immunized or -infected guinea pigs and Microsporum-immunized guinea pigs. Images PMID:640721

  10. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  11. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  12. Comparison of the activities of four antifungal agents in an in vitro model of dermatophyte nail infection.

    PubMed

    Nowrozi, Hossein; Nazeri, Golrokh; Adimi, Parvaneh; Bashashati, Mohsen; Emami, Masood

    2008-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a difficult condition to treat and cure rates are disappointing. Moreover fungicidal action of antifungal agents in NCCLS assays and their rapid accumulation in nails in vivo are not compatible with the duration of treatment. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of 4 different antifungal agents in an in vitro model with some similarities to in vivo conditions. Strains of Trichophyton rubrum I-III, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (usual form), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 73, Epidermophyton Flucosom, Microsporum Canis, and Trichophyton Schoenleini which were isolated from the nails of patients, were hired. Inocula suspensions were prepared from 7 to 14 day-old cultures of dermatophytes. Antifungal agents including fluconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin were obtained as standard powders. For each antifungal agent, initial MIC was calculated by registering the optical density for 10 two-fold serially diluted forms which was incubated with diluted fungal suspensions with RPMI 1640. Human nail powder inoculated with different strains and incubated in RPMI 1640 and different concentrations of antifungal drugs for 4 weeks. Final MIC at different steps of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks were investigated. The final MIC that resulted from the incubation of dermatophytes with nail powder was much more than the initial which was concluded from conventional MIC assay. Terbinafine had the lowest rate of initial and final MICs. The model described here may present more similar conditions to clinical fungal infections; therefore the results such as MIC may be more helpful for hiring the most effective antifungal agent.

  13. [Dermatophytosis in the greater Resistencia area, Chaco Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M L; Giusiano, G E; Alonso, J M; Pons de Storni, L; Waisman, R

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological characteristics of dermatophytoses in the metropolitan area of Resistencia city are described. Hair fragments, skin, scalp or nail scrapings were collected from 3.507 persons with dermatological symptoms of probable fungal origin. The mycological studies were performed by three mycological laboratories, one from a university Institute and two from private laboratories. Direct microscopic examinations showed fungi in 39.66% of samples, while the recovering of dermatophytes from cultures was 40.66%. Microsporum canis was the most prevalent species among dermatophytes, isolated in 217 samples (41.73% of cultures) while Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were present in 38.46%, 6.35%, 5.58% and 4.81%, respectively. Microsporum and Trichophyton genus were clearly predominant over Epidermophyton. Variations in prevalences of fungal genus from different places of the world probably reflect the existence of particular environmental situations defined by biotic and abiotic factors that influence the settlement of endemic mycoses.

  14. [Dermatophytes isolated in Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre (Madrid, Spain).].

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, A; Cuétara, M S; Valle, A; González, A; Almondarain, I; Ramos Castillo, M J; Moran Vasallo, A; Pereiro Miguens, M

    1999-06-01

    Over a 10 year period (January 1988 - December 1997), 3,241 dermatophyte strains were isolated from 18,465 specimens from patients in whom dermatophytosis was suspected clinically. This represents a 17.5% rate of isolation. Trichophyton rubrum (38.44%), Microsporum canis (28.75%), Epidermophyton floccosum (14.5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.5%) were the dominant species, and Trichophyton tonsurans (2.09%) has emerged, whilst in the previous decade it had virtually disappeared. Our study is basically based on an out-patient selected population, and tinea corporis (30.79%), followed by tinea cruris (16.69%) and tinea unguium (16.69%) were the most prevalent clinical forms.

  15. Tinea barbae (tinea sycosis): experience with nine cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Tamayo, Teresa; Saúl, Amado

    2003-12-01

    Tinea barbae is a rare dermatophytosis that affects the hair and hair follicles of the beard and mustache. This paper presents 9 cases of tinea barbae observed over an 18-year period of time and classified as follows: 1 was superficial and 8 were deep (6 folliculitis-like and 2 kerion-like). Most of the cases (4) were associated with topical steroid therapy, others with pet contact (3 cases) and one with diabetes. The causal agents isolated were: Trichophyton rubrum in 3; Microsporum canis in 3; Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2; and Trichophyton tonsurans in one. The involvement of the hair was observed and classified in all cases. The trichophytin skin reaction was positive in all 9 patients. All the patients were treated with systemic antimycotics, 3 cases with griseofulvin, 1 with ketoconazole, 3 with itraconazole, and 2 with terbinafine. Clinical and mycologic cures were achieved at 6 to 8 weeks of treatment at the usual doses.

  16. [Tinea capitis in children from Goiânia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dias, Tatiana; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fátima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Passos, Xisto Sena; Costa, Milce; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    During the period January 1999 to July 2002 a total de 164 cases of Tinea capitis were diagnosed by mycological examination in Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública of the Universidade Federal de Goiás. Of the 164 patients 94 (57.3%) were males, with an age of 3 months to 13 years. Laboratory studies were performed by direct examination with 20% KOH and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The following species were identified: Microsporum canis (71.3%), Trichophyton tonsurans (11%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7.9%), Trichophyton rubrum (6.7%), and Microsporum gypseum (3%). Our study showed that the most frequent rise of scalp infection was a zoophylic fungi, called Microsporum canis.

  17. [Onychomycosis in Morocco: experience of the parasitology and medical mycology laboratory from Rabat children hospital (1982-2003)].

    PubMed

    Boukachabine, K; Agoumi, A

    2005-01-01

    Cases of onychomycosis diagnosed by mycological examination in the parasitology and mycology laboratory (Children Hospital, Rabat, Marocco) over the 22-year period, between 1982 and 2003, have been reviewed. 17,177 dermatophytes have been isolated in 4,940 patients. Dermatophytes presented 61.46% of onychomycosis, yeasts Candida albicans were responsible in 25.5%, moulds in 1.53% and for 12% fungi identification was not determined (positive direct examination or negative direct examination and culture despite typical clinical aspect). The most frequent dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (83.6%), followed by Trichophyton violaceum var. glabrum (9%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (6.9%). Candida albicans was the prevalent yeast. Moulds were mainly Fusarium spp. (47%), followed Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (16%) and Aspergillus spp. (12%). Dermatophytes and moulds most commonly infected the toenails, yeasts the fingernails.

  18. 1998 William J. Stickel Bronze Award. Antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree) oil against various pathogenic organisms.

    PubMed

    Concha, J M; Moore, L S; Holloway, W J

    1998-10-01

    Tea-tree oil (oil of Melaleuca alternifolia) has recently received much attention as a natural remedy for bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and mucosa. As with most naturally occurring agents, claims of effectiveness have been only anecdotal; however, several published studies have recently demonstrated tea-tree oil's antibacterial activity. This study was conducted to determine the activity of tea-tree oil against 58 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (n = 10), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 8), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 9), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 10), Aspergillus niger (n = 9), Penicillium species (n = 9), Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 2), and Microsporum gypsum (n = 1). Tea-tree oil showed inhibitory activity against all isolates tested except one strain of E floccosum. These in vitro results suggest that tea-tree oil may be useful in the treatment of yeast and fungal mucosal and skin infections.

  19. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent.

  20. Tinea capitis in adults in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Oumari, Kamel E L; Ghariani, Najet; Mili, Akila Fathallah; Belajouza, Colandane; Nouira, Rafiaa; Denguezli, Mohamed; Ben Said, Moncef

    2010-05-01

    To determine the pattern of infectious agents causing tinea capitis (TC) in adult patients in the center of Tunisia. From January 1990 to December 2005, we have retrospectively collected all cases of adult TC, confirmed by the mycological examination. Sixty patients (18 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 34.5 years were diagnosed as having adult TC among a total number of 1137 cases of TC (5.27%). Clinical features were polymorphic and diagnosis was made on mycological examination. Culture identified Trichophyton violaceum in 36 cases (60%), Microsporum canis in 12 cases (20%), Trichophyton schoenleini in 7 cases (12%), Trichophyton verrucosum in two cases (3.5%), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum in one case (each 1.77%). Culture was negative in one case (1.77%). Treatment consisted of administration of Griseofulvin(20–25 mg/kg/d) during 6–8 weeks associated with antifungal topics. A complete recovery was noted in 55 cases (92%) and a relapse occurred in two patients (3.5%). A scary alopecia was observed in one patient (1.77%) and two patients were lost to follow-up. Trichophyton violaceum remains the most common etiological agent of adult TC in Tunisia. Microsporum canis is rising rapidly most notably due to the high frequency of asymptomatic carriage by domestic animals [corrected].

  1. Formation of 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid, Penicillins, and Penicillin Acylase by Various Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cole, M.

    1966-01-01

    Several penicillin-producing fungi were examined for ability to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and penicillin acylase. 6-APA was found in corn steep liquor fermentations of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus ochraceous, and three strains of Penicillium sp. 6-APA was not detected in fermentations of Epidermophyton floccosum although penicillins were produced. 6-APA formed a large part of the total antibiotic production of T. mentagrophytes. The types of penicillins produced by various fungi were identified by paper chromatography, and it was found that all cultures produced benzylpenicillin. T. mentagrophytes and A. ochraceous showed increased yields of benzylpenicillin and the formation of phenoxymethylpenicillin in response to the addition to the fermentation medium of phenylacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid, respectively. Washed mycelia of the three Penicillium spp. and two high penicillin-yielding strains of P. chrysogenum possessed penicillin acylase activity against phenoxymethylpenicillin. A. ochraceous, T. mentagrophytes, E. floccosum, and Cephalosporium sp. also had penicillin acylase activity against phenoxymethylpenicillin. Only two of the above fungi, T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum, showed significant penicillin acylase activity against benzylpenicillin; in both cases it was very low. The acylase activity of A. ochraceous was considerably increased by culturing in the presence of phenoxyacetic acid. It is concluded that 6-APA frequently but not invariably accompanies the formation of penicillin, and that penicillin acylase activity against phenoxymethylpenicillin is present in all penicillin-producing fungi. PMID:5950252

  2. Dermatophyte infections mimicking other skin diseases: a 154-person case survey of tinea atypica in the district of Cagliari (Italy).

    PubMed

    Atzori, Laura; Pau, Monica; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    Although usually simple, the diagnosis of dermatophyte infection is sometimes neglected. An observational study has been realized to evaluate the role of corticosteroid exposure (tinea incognito) and of other primary characteristics of the dermatophytosis that from onset mimic other diseases and mislead an unexperienced physician. Between 1990 and 2009, all cases of atypical dermatophytosis mimicking other skin diseases were collected from the more general number of dermatophyte infections diagnosed at the Dermatology Department of Cagliari University, Italy. One-hundred and fifty-four cases (71 male/83 female, 2-81 years old) were studied, with a median of 7 cases/year. The most observed clinical forms were those mimicking impetigo, eczematous dermatitis, lupus erythematosus, polymorphous light eruption, psoriasis, and rosacea. The identified dermatophytes were: Microsporum canis (70 cases), Trichophyton rubrum (43 cases), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (29 cases), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (six cases), Microsporum gypseum (three cases), Epidermophyton floccosum (two cases), and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). Diagnostic difficulties are discussed, with special attention to the origin of the pathomorphosis. In our experience, clinical atypia is not a mere consequence of corticosteroid therapy but present at the very onset of the illness, due to the variable dermatophyte invasive capacity, the site of invasion, physiological individual, and/or acquired condition, such as excessive washing or sun exposure. Therefore, we suggest using the term "tinea atypica" rather than "tinea incognito" to include all forms of dermatophytosis that do not present the classic features for both primary and secondary pathomorphosis. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Tinea atypica: report of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Zisova, Liliya Georgieva; Dobrev, Hristo Petrov; Tchernev, Georgi; Semkova, Kristina; Aliman, Anastasia Atanasova; Chorleva, Kristina Ivanova; Chapanova, Antonina Teneva; Vutova, Nina Ivanova; Wollina, Uwe

    2013-12-01

    Fungal infections of the skin are a common condition, usually easy to diagnose and treat. When the infection is clinically mimicking another cutaneous disorder or when the clinical presentation is modified by the use of inappropriate treatment, it is referred to as tinea atypica or tinea incognito.We report a series of nine cases of patients with tinea atypica, imitating and diagnosed initially as different skin diseases. Two patients were defined as pyoderma in the facial and pubic regions (caused respectively by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis) and one as herpes zoster ophthalmicus (caused by Trichophyton rubrum). Six additional patients were initially misdiagnosed: (1) Plaque-like formation of the skin misdiagnosed as an impetiginized eczema (with isolated agent Trichophyton verrucosum). (2) A rare form of skin infection of the hand caused by T. rubrum, imitating clinically cutaneous infection with tuberculum mulgentium. (3) Rosacea-like dermatitis with an isolated agent Fusarium. (4) A patient with the typical clinical symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis of the face (and with isolated T. rubrum as a causative agent). (5) Another patient presented with a widespread folliculitis by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (6) In a patient with bullous pemphigoid and immunosuppression pemphigoid-like eruptions were caused by Malassezia pachydermatis and T. rubrum. The diagnosis in the presented cases was based on direct microscopic examination with KOH and a culture on Sabouraud agar.After the diagnosis of tinea, treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents was administrated, followed by complete clinical remissions in all cases.The clinical manifestations of tinea atypica can mimic a large number of other dermatoses, which often leads to misdiagnosing, and as a consequence--to serious difficulties in the management of clinical symptoms and in offering appropriate therapy.

  4. Hydrogen-atom transfer in reactions of organic radicals with [Co(II)(por)]* (por = porphyrinato) and in subsequent addition of [Co(H)(por)] to olefins.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Bas; Dzik, Wojciech I; Li, Shan; Wayland, Bradford B

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for hydrogen-atom transfer from the cyanoisopropyl radical (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) (yielding [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))(CN); por = porphyrinato) and the insertion of vinyl acetate (CH(2)=CHOAc) into the Co-H bond of [Co(H)(por)] (giving [Co(III){CH(OAc)CH(3)}(por)]) were investigated by DFT calculations. The results are compared with experimental data. These reactions are relevant to catalytic chain transfer (CCT) in radical polymerization of olefins mediated by [Co(II)(por)](*), the formation and homolysis of organo-cobalt complexes that mediate living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, and cobalt-mediated hydrogenation of olefins. Hydrogen transfer from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) proceeds via a single transition state that has structural features resembling the products [Co(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. The separated radicals approach to form a close-contact radical pair and then pass through the transition state for hydrogen-atom transfer to form [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. This process provides a very low overall barrier for the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction (DeltaG(double dagger) = +3.8 kcal mol(-1)). The reverse reaction corresponding to the addition of [Co(H)(por)] to CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN has a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +8.9 kcal mol(-1)) as well. Insertion of vinyl acetate into the Co-H bond of [Co(III)(H)(por)] also proceeds over a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +11.4 kcal mol(-1)) hydrogen-transfer step from [Co(III)(H)(por)] to a carbon atom of the alkene to produce a close-contact radical pair. Dissociation of the radical pair, reorientation, and radical-radical coupling to form an organo-cobalt complex are the culminating steps in the net insertion of an olefin into the Co-H bond. The computed energies obtained for the hydrogen-atom transfer reactions from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) and from [Co(H)(por)] to olefins, as well as the organo-cobalt bond homolysis

  5. Molecular identification and phylogenesis of dermatophytes isolated from rabbit farms and rabbit farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Weigl, Stefania; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-27

    Little information is available on the molecular epidemiology of dermatophytoses in rabbit farms and farm workers. A total of 117 isolates belonging to the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and 21 isolates of Microsporum canis were collected from rabbits with or without skin lesions, air samples of farms known to harbour these pathogens, and from farm workers with skin lesions, and molecularly characterized. Sequencing of amplicons from the T. mentagrophytes complex and M. canis isolates revealed the presence of one sequence-type for both partial chitin synthase-1 gene (pchs-1) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS+), respectively. On the basis of comparative sequence analyses, isolated representing the T. mentagrophytes complex were molecularly identified as Trichophyton interdigitale (zoophilic) Priestley. The M. canis and T. interdigitale pchs-1 sequences herein analysed were 100% homologous to known sequences from different hosts (i.e., cats, dogs, humans and rabbits). Conversely, the ITS+ sequences of T. interdigitale from dogs, pigs and mice were identical, but displayed up to 8.6% difference with those from humans, guinea pigs and rabbits. The results of this study suggest that environmental and clinical isolates of T. interdigitale (zoophilic) and M. canis might share a common origin. Interestingly, the close phylogenetic relationship between T. interdigitale (zoophilic) strains and isolates from dogs, pigs and mice might indicate that these animals represented a reservoir of dermatophyte infection in rabbit farms. These animal species should therefore be considered when setting up control protocols to prevent infections by dermatophytes and their zoonotic transmission.

  6. Common dermatophytes and in vitro anti-fungal susceptibility testing in patients attending the Dermatological Clinic at the Hospital for Tropical Medicine, Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Muangkaew, Watcharamat; Wongsuk, Thanwa; Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2017-05-17

    Dermatophytes comprising the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton are important causes of superficial mycoses. The number of infected patients and the distribution of species of these organisms in our hospital were unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate the clinical pattern of dermatophyte infections and to identify the species of these dermatophytes at the Dermatological Clinic of the Hospital for Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok in a 1-year period. Twenty-six patients who had typical dermatophytosis lesions were recruited (27 specimens); 17 were female (65.38%) and 9 (34.62%) were male. The age range of the patients was 16-92 years. In total, nine dermatophyte isolates were identified by macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics. We found Microsporum canis (four isolates), Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex (one), Trichophyton rubrum (two), Trichophyton verrucosum (one), and Trichophyton tonsurans (one). The in vitro susceptibility profiles of seven antifungal agents against the nine dermatophytes were as follows (minimum inhibitory concentration ranges in μg/ml): The results were as follows (MIC ranges in μg/ml): ciclopirox, ≤0.06-0.5, griseofulvin ≤0.06-0.5, itraconazole ≤0.002-0.06, posaconazole ≤0.015-0.03, voriconazole ≤0.02-≥1, fluconazole ≤0.08-8, and terbinafine ≤0.01-0.125. This study represents the current state of dermatophyte infections in a metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand.

  7. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  8. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activities of two closely related species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Halijah; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Syamsir, Devi Rosmy; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits.

  9. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of Coleonema album and C. pulchellum against skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Fajinmi, Olufunke O; Grúz, Jiří; Tarkowski, Petr; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2017-12-01

    Coleonema album (Thunb) Bart. & H. L. Wendl (Rutaceae) has been used in the formulation of skincare products, and the Khoisan people rub it on their skin to add luster. Coleonema pulchellum I. Williams has received less attention in the South African traditional medicine. This study investigates the antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. album and C. pulchellum essential oil (EO) and leaf extracts; and analyzes the chemical components of their EOs. Antifungal activity of leaf extracts was determined using the microdilution method with griseofulvin and ketoconazole as controls. Antifungal capacity of EO was investigated using the 'Volatile release plate method'. Trichophyton rubrum (ATCC 28188) and T. mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) mycelia (0.3 cm diameter) were placed on fresh yeast malt agar in Petri dishes with filter paper (impregnated with 20 μL of EO) on the lid for direct exposure to EO volatiles while plates without EO were used as controls. The incubation time was seven days. Antioxidant activities of the leaf extracts were determined. Methanol leaf extract of C. pulchellum inhibited the growth of three fungi tested with MIC values of 195, 391 and 49 μg/mL for Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. Terpenes formed the major components of the EO. The EO from both plants inhibited the growth of T. rubrum in vitro. This study revealed the therapeutic value of C. pulchellum. Coleonema album and C. pulchellum should be considered as potential plants for skin ointment from natural origin.

  10. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  11. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  12. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  13. Antifungal activity of acetone extracts from Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L.

    PubMed

    Akroum, S

    2017-03-01

    Human and animal mycoses become more frequent and more resistant to traditional treatments. In this work, we tested the in vitro antifungal activity of acetonic extracts of Punica granatum L., Quercus suber L. and Vicia faba L. against seven pathogen fungi and the in vivo antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The phytochemical screening was also carried out and showed that the extracts contained mainly proanthocyanidins. Other polyphenols were also present but in low quantity. The acetone extract of V. faba L. gave a good in vitro inhibition of yeasts and was the most active for treating candidiasis in mice. It decreased the percentage of mortality with only 20μg. But the in vivo antifungal activity of this extract on T. mentagrophytes was low. It only showed a small diminution of crusting and erythema after the administration of 100μg. On the contrary, the acetone extracts of P. granatum L. had a poor activity against yeasts and a better one against moulds. It gave the best in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes by healing animals with 40μg. The extract of P. granatum L. gave also an interesting in vivo antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes with an active dose of 80μg.

  14. Dermatophytes from urban soils in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Pontes, Z B V; Oliveira, A C

    2008-01-01

    A total of 68 soil samples was collected from "favelas" (slums), schools, public squares, beaches and vacant lots in the city of João Pessoa-PB, Brazil. A search for dermatophytes in these soils was carried out by using the Vanbreuseghem technique. As a result, 48 strains and 6 dermatophytes species were isolated. Trichophyton terrestre (25.0%), Microsporum gypseum (20.8%) and Anthroderma gypsea (2.1%) were identified among the geophilic species, and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (37.5%) among the zoophilic species and T. tonsurans (4.2%), among the anthropophilic species. The growth of 75% of dermatophytes occurred in alkaline pH (7.02-9.00) and their presence in the soil should not be underestimated, since some of the identified species are aetiological agents of dermatophytoses in humans and animals.

  15. Tinea cutis glabrae: causes of diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz, Oliwia; Łuczkowska, Magdalena; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-12-01

    Dermatophytoses belong to the most common disease entities encountered in everyday dermatological practice. Despite the fact that their clinical presentation, course and treatment response remain rather typical, they often present a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of a 54-year-old male who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology in December 2012 with the diagnosis of erythema gyratum repens for further diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions gradually intensifying in the previous 2 years. The skin changes presented as spreading annular erythematous lesions, with papules and plaques located peripherally, and accompanying pruritus. Due to the clinical presentation and anamnesis, working conditions (poultry farm), and lack of response to previous treatment, mycological culture was performed. Epithelial scrapings of the trunk and the groins proved to be positive. After 3 weeks, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes was identified by epithelial cell culture.

  16. Tinea cutis glabrae: causes of diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Łuczkowska, Magdalena; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytoses belong to the most common disease entities encountered in everyday dermatological practice. Despite the fact that their clinical presentation, course and treatment response remain rather typical, they often present a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of a 54-year-old male who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology in December 2012 with the diagnosis of erythema gyratum repens for further diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions gradually intensifying in the previous 2 years. The skin changes presented as spreading annular erythematous lesions, with papules and plaques located peripherally, and accompanying pruritus. Due to the clinical presentation and anamnesis, working conditions (poultry farm), and lack of response to previous treatment, mycological culture was performed. Epithelial scrapings of the trunk and the groins proved to be positive. After 3 weeks, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes was identified by epithelial cell culture. PMID:25610361

  17. Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Jin; Gwak, Ki-Seob; Yang, In; Choi, Won-Sil; Jo, Hyun-Jin; Chang, Je-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the potential of using plant oils derived from Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. Et Perry as natural antifungal agents. The antifungal effects of essential oils at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/ml on the dermatophytes Microsporum canis (KCTC 6591), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (KCTC 6077), Trichophyton rubrum (KCCM 60443), Epidermophyton floccosum (KCCM 11667), and Microsporum gypseum were evaluated using the agar diffusion method. The major constituents of the active fraction against the dermatophytes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The antifungal activities of S. aromaticum oil (clove oil) against the dermatophytes tested were highest at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, with an effectiveness of more than 60%. Hyphal growth was completely inhibited in T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and M. gypseum by treatment with clove oil at a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml. Eugenol was the most effective antifungal constituent of clove oil against the dermatophytes T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. Morphological changes in the hyphae of T. mentagrophytes, such as damage to the cell wall and cell membrane and the expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum, after treatment with 0.11 mg/ml eugenol were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At a concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, L. petersonii oil (LPO) was more than 90% effective against all of the dermatophytes tested, with the exception of T. rubrum. Geranial was determined to be the most active antifungal constituent of L. petersonii oil. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that clove and tea tree oils exhibited significant antifungal activities against the dermatophytes tested in this study.

  18. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  19. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  20. Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties.

    PubMed

    Vlietinck, A J; Van Hoof, L; Totté, J; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D; Rwangabo, P C; Mvukiyumwami, J

    1995-04-01

    A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not less than 27% of the plant species exhibited prominent antiviral properties against one or more test viruses, more specifically 12% against poliomyelitis, 16% against coxsackie, 3% against Semliki forest, 2% against measles and 8% against herpes simplex virus.

  1. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. and thymol on experimentally induced dermatomycoses.

    PubMed

    Soković, M; Glamoclija, J; Cirić, A; Kataranovski, D; Marin, P D; Vukojević, J; Brkić, D

    2008-12-01

    The in vivo evaluation of the toxicological and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. and its main component thymol was made on 2-month-old male Wistar rats. We examined the therapeutic potency against experimentally induced dermatomycoses in rats, using the most frequent dermatomycetes, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and T. tonsurans. The therapeutic efficacy of a 1% solution of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris and thymol as well as the commercial preparation bifonazole was evaluated. During the 37-day observation period the oil-treated animals were cured.

  2. Tinea capitis in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Moore, M K; Suite, M

    1993-12-01

    Characteristics of clinically diagnosed cases of tinea capitis from Trinidad are described. Tinea capitis comprised 29.5% of all dermatophytoses seen at one general hospital out-patient dermatology clinic during a one-year period. Males were more often affected than females and there was a predominance of patients of African descent. Among the dermatophytes cultured Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent (52.9%), followed by Microsporum canis (20.0%) and M. audouinii (18.6%). Less frequent isolates included M. gypseum (1.9%), T. mentagrophytes var granulare (1.4%) and T. rubrum (1.4%).

  3. Mycology of Cutaneous Fungal Infections in Ambajogai: a Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Damle, A S; Fule, R P; Kaundinya, D V; Patoria, N K; Agarkar, R Y; Bagle, R T

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred and eithteen cases of fungal skin infections were studied. Tinea cruris was most common (34.4%), followed by tinea corporis (23.8%) znd tinea pedis (21.6%). Tinea versicolor (8.7%) tinea manum (4.6%) tinea ungaium (3.7%) and tinea capitis (3.2%) were also seen. The male: female ratio was 4:1. The total isolates were 117. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common isolate (35%). closely followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (31.6%). Trichphyton mentagrophytes (17.9%), Malassezia furfur (13.7%) and Microsporum audouini (1.7%) were the only other isolates.

  4. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981-95 in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagliotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Chaidemenos, G C; Theodoridou, M; Minas, A

    2001-11-01

    The mycological laboratory of our Hospital examined 31,073 patients between 1981 and 1995. Sex, age, the residence of patients, the clinical type of tinea and contacts with other persons and animals were investigated. All the patients were also examined under Wood's light. Tinea capitis was diagnosed in 35 adults. Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest aetiological agent (54.5%), especially in elderly women. The other anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (8.5%), T. schoenleinii (5.7%) and T. tonsurans (2.8%). The zoophilic fungi Microsporum canis (14.3%), T. terrucosum (8.5%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.7%) were also isolated.

  5. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kang, Si-Yong; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2012-06-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  6. [Occurrence of dermatophyte, in nails, feet and hands of university students].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Emersom Roberto; Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; Maffei, Claudia Maria Leite; Candido, Regina Celia

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the occurrence of dermatophytes, specifically in the nails, feet and hands of university students with and without lesions. Two hundred and eighty samples were collected; 31 (11.1%) were positive by direct examination, while only 20 (7.1%) showed dermatophyte growth in culture, as well as direct positive examination. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated (80%) dermatophyte followed by T. mentagrophytes (20%). Considering the sites analyzed, dermatophyte occurrence was: 10.4% in toenails, 5% in foot skin, 2.5% in fingernails and 0.4% in hand skin.

  7. [Treatment of 2 cases of kerions with griseofulvin and oral steroids].

    PubMed

    Annabel, M; Hubert, L; Jacques, C; Fabienne, L; Emmanuelle, L; Gérard, L

    2009-11-01

    We report on 2 cases of kerions in children: one of them was located on the pubis, an exceptional location; the second one was located on the scalp and presented like multiple abscess of the scalp, for which surgical drainage was performed. In both cases, Trichophyton mentagrophytes was involved. This dermatophyte is zoophilic, contrary to the dermatophytes usually involved in tinea capitis, which could explain the poor adaptation of the dermatophyte to the human host, who would therefore react by generating a severe inflammatory reaction. Antifungal drugs are recommended for the treatment of kerions, especially griseofuline for 6 to 8 weeks. The value of oral steroids and surgery continues to be debated.

  8. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Miranda, Karla Carvalho; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fatima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 masculineC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 microg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively.

  9. Widespread erosive tinea corporis by Arthroderma benhamiae in a renal transplant recipient: case report.

    PubMed

    Budihardja, Debby; Freund, Viviane; Mayser, Peter

    2010-11-01

    Superficial fungal infections are expected to be more prevalent in renal transplant recipients because of graft-preserving immunosuppressive therapy. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old patient with widespread erosive tinea corporis transmitted by domestic animals. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region identified Arthroderma benhamiae (teleomorph of Trichophyton mentagrophytes) in the patient, her husband and her domestic animals. A combination therapy with systemic terbinafine hydrochloride and topically applied ciclopiroxolamine was successful. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Starčević, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery.

  11. Antimicrobial terpenoids from Pterocarpus indicus.

    PubMed

    Ragasa, Consolacion Y; De Luna, Roderick D; Hofilena, Joy G

    2005-06-01

    A mixture of loliolide 1 (> 85%) and paniculatadiol 2 (< 15%) was obtained from the ethyl acetate leaf extract of Pterocarpus indicus by silica gel chromatography, while the air-dried flowers afforded lupeol 3 and phytol esters 4. The structures of 1-4 were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Antimicrobial tests on a mixture of 1 and 2 indicated that it has moderate activity against Candida albicans and low activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger. It was found inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  12. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifungal activity of extracts and prenylated coumarins isolated from Baccharis darwinii Hook & Arn. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Kurdelas, Rita R; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Gonzalez Sierra, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Zacchino, Susana; Enriz, Ricardo D; Freile, Monica L

    2010-07-13

    The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5'-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1), aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2) and 5'-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3). The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 microg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 microg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 microg/mL) against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii.

  14. Two antifungal components isolated from Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli by bioassay-guided purification.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kit-Man; Fu, Lai-Hong; Cheng, Ling; Wong, Chun-Wai; Wong, Yin-Lai; Lau, Ching-Po; Han, Simon Quan-Bin; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Hui, Mamie; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli have long been used as Chinese medicines to treat various ailments such as asthma, eczema and dermatomycosis. In previous studies, their antifungal activities were demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to isolate active antidermatophytic compounds from their ethanolic extracts by means of bioassay-guided purification. Guided by the inhibitory activities on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Paecilomyces variotii, bakuchiol was isolated from the n-hexane fraction of Fructus Psoraleae whilst macrocarpal C was isolated from the n-hexane fraction of Folium Eucalypti Globuli. Both pure compounds could effectively inhibit the growth of dermatophytes in vitro. This is the first paper to report the isolation and identification of active antidermatophytic compounds from Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli by the bioassay-guided purification.

  15. Oxygenated monoterpenes-rich volatile oils as potential antifungal agents for dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Dias, N; Dias, M C; Cavaleiro, C; Sousa, M C; Lima, N; Machado, M

    2017-02-01

    Essential oils (EOs) extracted from Lavandula luisieri and Cymbopogon citratus were tested for their antifungal activity against ten clinical isolates of dermatophytes isolated from cases of tinea pedis. Inhibition of conidial germination and antifungal drug/EO combination assay were tested on two ATCC reference strains of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. EOs were characterised by high amount of oxygenated monoterpenes in their composition. Strong antifungal activity was observed for the majority of clinical strains, and fungicidal activity was demonstrated. Positive interaction between L. luisieri EO combined with terbinafine was observed against terbinafine-resistant strain (Tr ATCC MYA-4438). Significative reduction of the germination was observed above 100 μg mL(-1). Both oils were safe to macrophage mammalian cells at tested concentration. This study describes the antifungal activity of L. luisieri and C. citratus EOs against dermatophytes, which could be useful in designing new formulations for topical treatments.

  16. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  17. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures.

    PubMed

    Rezusta, Antonio; de la Fuente, Sonia; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Vidal-García, Matxalen; Alcalá, Leticia; López-Calleja, Ana; Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Revillo, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    In general, it is recommended to incubate dermatophytes cultures for a minimum of 4 weeks. Several aspects of routine fungal cultures should be evaluated in order to implement appropriate and necessary changes. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time for routine dermatophytes cultures, analysing the time to find first fungal growth by visual observation. We recorded the time when the initial growth was detected for all dermatophyte isolates during a 4-year period. A total of 5459 dermatophyte cultures were submitted to our laboratory. From the total cultures, only 16 (1.42%) isolates were recovered over/after 17 days of incubation and only three dermatophyte species were recovered over 17 days. Fourteen isolates belong to Trichophyton rubrum, one isolate to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and one isolate to Epidermophyton floccosum. We concluded that an incubation period of 17 days is enough to establish a microbiological diagnosis of dermatophytosis. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Tinea genitalis: a new entity of sexually transmitted infection? Case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Bosshard, Philipp Peter; Kasper, Romano Silvio; Reinhardt, Dominic; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigation on recent cases of tinea genitalis after travelling to South East Asia. Methods Patients with tinea in the genital region, which emerged after sex in South East Asia, underwent further assessment including microscopy, cultures and DNA analyses. Results The case series includes seven patients. In six patients, Trichophyton interdigitale (former Trichophyton mentagrophytes) was detected. Three patients suffered from a severe inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue and two of them needed hospitalisation due to severe pain. In four patients, cicatrising healing was noticed. Five patients were declared incapacitated for work. Conclusions Sexual activity should be considered as a potentially important and previously underappreciated means of transmission of T. interdigitale. To avoid irreversible scarring alopecia, prompt initiation of antifungal treatment is essential and adequate isolation and identification of the pathogen is mandatory. PMID:26071391

  19. [Epidemiology and etiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Milce; Passos, Xisto Sena; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Miranda, André Thiago Borges; Lemos, Janine de Aquino; Oliveira, Juldásio Galdino de; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce infections called dermatophytosis. In order to review the etiology and epidemiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, 1955 specimens with diagnostic suspicion of dermatophytic lesions, were collected from January to December, 1999, from the Mycology Laboratory in the Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás. A total of 445 (22.8%) samples were positive for dermatophytes and Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated species (49.4%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (30.8%) and Microsporum canis (12.6%). Concerning the location of the lesions, the inferior limbs, feet and nails together with tinea capitis were the most frequently found clinical pattern in the majority of patients. Correlation between sex, age, location of the lesions and etiologic agents is considered in the study.

  20. Tinea genitalis: a new entity of sexually transmitted infection? Case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Isabelle; Bosshard, Philipp Peter; Kasper, Romano Silvio; Reinhardt, Dominic; Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Investigation on recent cases of tinea genitalis after travelling to South East Asia. Patients with tinea in the genital region, which emerged after sex in South East Asia, underwent further assessment including microscopy, cultures and DNA analyses. The case series includes seven patients. In six patients, Trichophyton interdigitale (former Trichophyton mentagrophytes) was detected. Three patients suffered from a severe inflammatory reaction of the soft tissue and two of them needed hospitalisation due to severe pain. In four patients, cicatrising healing was noticed. Five patients were declared incapacitated for work. Sexual activity should be considered as a potentially important and previously underappreciated means of transmission of T. interdigitale. To avoid irreversible scarring alopecia, prompt initiation of antifungal treatment is essential and adequate isolation and identification of the pathogen is mandatory. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  2. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  3. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Zane, L T; Plattner, J; Chanda, S; Coronado, D; Merchant, T; Alley, M R K; Gupta, A K

    2015-10-01

    Tavaborole topical solution, 5% (tavaborole) is a novel, boron-based, antifungal pharmaceutical agent indicated for treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In preclinical studies, tavaborole effectively penetrated through full-thickness, non-diseased cadaver fingernails, including those with up to four layers of nail polish. Limited systemic absorption was observed following topical application of tavaborole. In phase III clinical trials involving patients with distal subungual onychomycosis affecting 20-60% of a target great toenail, significantly more patients treated with tavaborole versus vehicle achieved completely clear nail with negative mycology following daily application for 48 weeks. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by at least 1% of patients treated with tavaborole and at a greater frequency versus vehicle included ingrown toenail, exfoliation, erythema and dermatitis. Treatment discontinuations were uncommon. Results from preclinical studies and phase III clinical trials establish tavaborole as a safe and efficacious treatment for toenail onychomycosis.

  4. Trichophyton dermatophytosis--a disease easily confused with pemphigus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Parker, W M; Yager, J A

    1997-08-01

    Trichophytosis is a rare diagnosis in dogs in Ontario, but recently 4 dogs with a scaling and crusting, alopecic, facial dermatitis have been so diagnosed. In all cases, the histopathological findings of severe epidermal and follicular interface dermatitis, accompanied by an acantholytic intraepidermal pustular dermatitis suggested an immune-mediated disease.

  5. COMPARISON OF THE ACTIVITIES OF FOUR ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF DERMATOPHYTE NAIL INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Nowrozi, Hossein; Nazeri, Golrokh; Adimi, Parvaneh; Bashashati, Mohsen; Emami, Masood

    2008-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a difficult condition to treat and cure rates are disappointing. Moreover fungicidal action of antifungal agents in NCCLS assays and their rapid accumulation in nails in vivo are not compatible with the duration of treatment. Aims: This study aimed to find the effectiveness of 4 different antifungal agents in an in vitro model with some similarities to in vivo conditions. Materials and Methods: Strains of Trichophyton rubrum I-III, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (usual form), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 73, Epidermophyton Flucosom, Microsporum Canis, and Trichophyton Schoenleini which were isolated from the nails of patients, were hired. Inocula suspensions were prepared from 7 to 14 day-old cultures of dermatophytes. Antifungal agents including fluconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin were obtained as standard powders. For each antifungal agent, initial MIC was calculated by registering the optical density for 10 two-fold serially diluted forms which was incubated with diluted fungal suspensions with RPMI 1640. Human nail powder inoculated with different strains and incubated in RPMI 1640 and different concentrations of antifungal drugs for 4 weeks. Final MIC at different steps of 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks were investigated. Results: The final MIC that resulted from the incubation of dermatophytes with nail powder was much more than the initial which was concluded from conventional MIC assay. Terbinafine had the lowest rate of initial and final MICs. Conclusion: The model described here may present more similar conditions to clinical fungal infections; therefore the results such as MIC may be more helpful for hiring the most effective antifungal agent. PMID:19882010

  6. 'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(por)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas

    2010-08-11

    The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(por)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(por) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(por) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate.

  7. Computational analysis of conserved coil functional residues in the mitochondrial genomic sequences of dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bulbul; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophyte is a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue of humans and other animals. The infection known as dermatophytosis, caused by members of the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton includes infection to the groin (tinea cruris), beard (tinea barbae), scalp (tinea capitis), feet (tinea pedis), glabrous skin (tinea corporis), nail (tinea unguium), and hand (tinea manuum). The identification of evolutionary relationship between these three genera of dermatophyte is epidemiologically important to understand their pathogenicity. Mitochondrial DNA evolves more rapidly than a nuclear DNA due to higher rate of mutation but is very less affected by genetic recombination, making it an important tool for phylogenetic studies. Thus, here we present a novel scheme to identify the conserved coil functional residues of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Protein coding sequences of the mitochondrial genome were aligned for their similar sequences and homology modelling was performed for structure and pocket identification. The results obtained from comparative analysis of the protein sequences revealed the presence of functionally active sites in all the species of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum. However in Epidermophyton floccosum it was observed in three protein sequences of the five studied. The absence of these conserved coil functional residues in E. floccusum may be correlated with lesser infectivity of this organism. The functional residues identified in the present study could be responsible for the disease and thus can act as putative target sites for drug designing. PMID:28149055

  8. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease.

  9. An ancient plant Lawsonia inermis (henna): determination of in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes species.

    PubMed

    Gozubuyuk, G S; Aktas, E; Yigit, N

    2014-12-01

    World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. There is a widespread belief that green medicines are healthier and more harmless or safer than synthetic ones. Medicinal plants have been used to cure a number of diseases. The ancient plant Lawsonia inermis or henna is used as medicinal plant because of its attributed strong fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, virucidal, antiparasitic, antiamoebiasis, astringent, antihemorrhagic, hypotensive, sedative, anticancer effect and possible anti-sweating properties. In this study, we investigated antifungal activity of L. inermis against clinical dermatophytes species. This study was carried out using 70 clinical isolates of dermatophytes representing six different species; 44 Trichophyton rubrum, 8 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 6 Microsporum canis, 6 Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 Epidermophyton floccosum, and 2 Trichophyton violaceum. The antifungal activity of L. inermis (henna) was determined by agar diffusion method and henna was used as paste form. Henna paste showed the high antifungal activity against all dermatophytes species (20 to 50mm inhibition zone). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Antidermatophytic Action of Resorcinol Derivatives: Ultrastructural Evidence of the Activity of Phenylethyl Resorcinol against Microsporum gypseum.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Baldisserotto, Anna; Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Vertuani, Silvia; Manfredini, Stefano

    2016-09-30

    In this work, we evaluated the antidermatophytic activities of three resorcinol derivatives that have a history of use in dermo-cosmetic applications to discover molecules with multiple dermatological activities (i.e., multi-target drugs), thereby reducing the cost and time necessary for new drug development. The antidermatophytic activities of the three skin lighteners were evaluated relative to the known antifungal drug fluconazole on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Arthroderma cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Nannizzia gypsea, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. Among the three tested resorcinols, only two showed promising properties, with the ability to inhibit the growth of all tested dermatophytes; additionally, the IC50 values of these two resorcinols against the nine dermatophytes confirmed their good antifungal activity, particularly for phenylethyl resorcinol against M. gypseum. Ultrastructural alterations exhibited by the fungus were observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and reflected a dose-dependent response to treatment with the activation of defence and self-preservation strategies.

  11. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development.

  12. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  13. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  14. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Alstonia macrophylla: a folklore of bay islands.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, D; Maiti, K; Kundu, A P; Chakraborty, M S; Bhadra, R; Mandal, S C; Mandal, A B

    2001-09-01

    The methanolic crude and methanol-aqueous extract of Alstonia macrophylla leaves and n-butanol part of the crude extract showed antimicrobial activity against various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranges from 64 to 1000 microg/ml for bacteria and 32-128 mg/ml for dermatophytes. However, the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp. and Vibrio cholerae showed resistance against in vitro treatment of the extracts up to 2000 microg/ml concentration, while the two yeast species were resistant even at 128 mg/ml concentration. The stem bark extract prepared similarly was found to be less active compared to the leaves. Phytochemical study indicates that the crude extract contains tannins, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, triterpene and reducing sugars. Further fractionation and purification of n-butanol part of the extract showed the presence of beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, beta-sitosterol glucoside and a mixture of minor compounds only detected in TLC.

  16. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  17. Expression and potential function of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides in dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor.

    PubMed

    López-García, Belén; Lee, Phillip H A; Gallo, Richard L

    2006-05-01

    This study was designed to characterize the role of the human cathelicidin LL-37 in fungal skin infections such as dermatophytosis and tinea versicolor. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of synthetic antimicrobial peptides including the human cathelicidin LL-37 against Malassezia furfur and several dermatophytes was determined. Immunostaining was performed to determine expression of cathelicidin in skin biopsies from patients with tinea pedis, tinea corporis and tinea versicolor. Cathelicidin peptide expression was evaluated by western blotting and mRNA expression was studied in keratinocytes exposed to M. furfur or Trichophyton rubrum. LL-37 inhibits the growth of fungi with an MIC of 20-30 microM for M. furfur and 12.5 microM for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. LL-37 also shows fungicidal activity with a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 12.5 and 25 microM for T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum, respectively. An increase in cathelicidin expression was observed in human skin tissue infected with fungi compared with healthy skin. Western blotting of skin scrapings demonstrated that human cathelicidin is processed from its precursor into an active peptide in both healthy and infected plantar skin. These findings support a hypothesis that antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidins can play a role in skin defence against dermatophytes and M. furfur.

  18. Interlaboratory Study of Quality Control Isolates for a Broth Microdilution Method (Modified CLSI M38-A) for Testing Susceptibilities of Dermatophytes to Antifungals▿

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, M. A.; Arthington-Skaggs, B.; Chaturvedi, V.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rennie, R.; Rinaldi, M. G.; Walsh, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI; formerly National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, or NCCLS) M38-A standard for the susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi does not specifically address the testing of dermatophytes. In 2003, a multicenter study investigated the reproducibility of the microdilution method developed at the Center for Medical Mycology, Cleveland, Ohio, for testing the susceptibility of dermatophytes. Data from that study supported the introduction of this method for testing dermatophytes in the future version of the CLSI M38-A standard. In order for the method to be accepted by CLSI, appropriate quality control isolates needed to be identified. To that end, an interlaboratory study, involving the original six laboratories plus two additional sites, was conducted to evaluate potential candidates for quality control isolates. These candidate strains included five Trichophyton rubrum strains known to have elevated MICs to terbinafine and five Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains. Antifungal agents tested included ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, posaconazole, terbinafine, and voriconazole. Based on the data generated, two quality control isolates, one T. rubrum isolate and one T. mentagrophytes isolate, were identified and submitted to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) for inclusion as reference strains. Ranges encompassing 95.2 to 97.9% of all data points for all seven drugs were established. PMID:17050812

  19. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  20. A survey of the etiological agents of scalp and nail dermatophytosis in Yazd, Iran in 2014-2015

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Tafti, H; Falahati, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M; Rashidian, S; Mahmoudi, S; Zaini, F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Tinea capitis and tinea unguium are regarded as global public health concerns. The purpose of the present study was to identify the etiological agents of tinea capitis and tinea unguium in patients, referring to the Central Laboratory of Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during 2014-2015. Skin scraping, scalp hair, and nail clipping specimens were collected from 134 patients (80 males and 54 females) with clinical features suggesting fungal involvement. Direct microscopic examinations were carried out, using potassium hydroxide 10%, while culture studies were performed on Sabouraud dextrose agar, containing chloramphenicol and cycloheximide at 28°C for four weeks. Fungal colonies were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as supplementary diagnostic tests. Results: Among 134 patients, 12 cases showed positive results on direct examination and culture studies. The frequency of infections was equal among male and female subjects. Among 12 affected cases, the frequency of tinea capitis and tinea unguium was 91.6% and 8.4%, respectively. Microsporum canis (50%) was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichophyton verrucosum (25%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (25%). Also, tinea unguium, caused by T. mentagrophytes, was found in a female patient. Conclusion: The etiological agents of scalp and nail dermatophytosis have changed in Yazd over the past 13 years. In the present study, replacement of anthropophilic dermatophytes by zoophilic species was noteworthy, highlighting the necessity of efficient surveillance for the management and prevention of infections. PMID:28680997

  1. Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro

    2010-01-13

    This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis.

  2. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  3. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  4. In vitro and in vivo activities of piritetrate (M-732), a new antidermatophytic thiocarbamate.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, K; Yamashita, T; Uehara, H

    1989-01-01

    Piritetrate (M-732), a new topical antifungal agent belonging chemically to the thiocarbamates, was demonstrated to possess a potent selective antidermatophytic activity. In terms of its MICs in susceptibility testing, mainly done by using Sabouraud dextrose agar plates, piritetrate exhibited several- to 10-fold-stronger antidermatophytic activity than tolnaftate, a reference thiocarbamate. Furthermore, piritetrate was found to show a broader antifungal spectrum than tolnaftate; relatively many species and strains of dematiaceous fungi, dimorphic fungi, and some other filamentous fungi as well as a few strains of Cryptococcus neoformans were fairly susceptible to piritetrate, while almost all the tested species and strains were resistant to tolnaftate. All the tested species of the genus Candida were, however, resistant to both compounds. Variables which can influence antimicrobial activity caused few changes in the MICs of either compound against Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, an increase in the inoculum size resulted in a significant increase in the MICs. The antidermatophytic activities of piritetrate and tolnaftate were fungistatic but not fungicidal. Piritetrate also exhibited a more potent in vitro anti-T. mentagrophytes activity than clotrimazole or tolciclate. Piritetrate and tolnaftate had no antibacterial activity. The in vivo activity of topically administered piritetrate against experimental dermal infection of guinea pigs with T. mentagrophytes was more effective than that of tolnaftate both mycologically and clinically. Piritetrate manifested no acute toxicity in laboratory animals when administered even in large quantities by the oral, intraperitoneal, and topical routes. PMID:2619275

  5. Antioxidant and antidermatophytic activities of essential oil and extracts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Yoon, Jung In; Chul Kang, Sun

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the antioxidant and antidermatophytic potential of the essential oil and extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol) of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The free radical scavenging activities of the oil and ethyl acetate extract were found to be superior (IC(50)=9.1 and 14.24 microg/ml, respectively) as compared to butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA), (IC(50)=18.27 microg/ml). Also the ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest phenolic contents (93.26 mg/g of dry wt) as compared to the other extracts. Further, oil (1250 microg/disc) and extracts (1750 microg/disc) revealed 35.33-67.66 and 18.0-53.3% antidermatophytic effect, respectively, along with their respective MIC values (62.5-500 and 250-4000 microg/ml) against Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, T. rubrum KCTC 6375, T. rubrum KCTC 6352, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6085, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6077, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6316, Microsporum canis KCTC 6591, M. canis KCTC 6348 and M. canis KCTC 6349. The oil also had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6591.

  6. Anti-dermatophytic activity of bakuchiol: in vitro mechanistic studies and in vivo tinea pedis-inhibiting activity in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kit-Man; Wong, Jack Ho; Wu, Yu-On; Cheng, Ling; Wong, Chun-Wai; To, Ming-Ho; Lau, Ching-Po; Yew, David Tai-Wai; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Hui, Mamie; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-06-15

    Bakuchiol was an active antifungal compound isolated from Psoraleae Fructus by means of bioassay-guided fractionation in our previous study. The present work aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and the therapeutic effect of bakuchiol in Trichophyton mentagrophytes-induced tinea pedis. After exposure to bakuchiol at 0.25-fold, 0.5-fold and 1-fold of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (3.91 μg/ml) for 24h, the fungal conidia of T. mentagrophytes demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in membrane permeability. Moreover, bakuchiol at 1-fold MIC elicited a 187% elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in fungal cells after a 3-h incubation. However, bakuchiol did not induce DNA fragmentation. In a guinea pig model of tinea pedis, bakuchiol at 1%, 5% or 10% (w/w) concentration in aqueous cream could significantly reduce the fungal burden of infected feet (p<0.01-0.05). In conclusion, this is the first report to demonstrate that bakuchiol is effective in relieving tinea pedis and in inhibiting the growth of the dermatophyte T. mentagrophytes by increasing fungal membrane permeability and ROS generation, but not via induction of DNA fragmentation.

  7. [Guinea pigs and dermatophytosis].

    PubMed

    Khettar, L; Contet-Audonneau, N

    2012-10-01

    The current trend of keeping "exotic" pets has led to the emergence of new types of fungal species that may be transmitted to humans [1]. We describe a form of dermatophytosis transmitted by a Guinea pig and caused by a new variety of dermatophyte. A 13-year-old girl developed multiple erythematosquamous and vesicular lesions with a highly inflammatory edge several weeks after acquiring a Guinea pig of apparently healthy appearance. Direct examination and culture tests demonstrated the presence of a dermatophyte closely related to the erinacei variant of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, from which it differed in terms of microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. The condition resolved on therapy with topical imidazole. This new type of dermatophyte has been identified in many patients coming into close contact with Guinea pigs in the region of Nancy. We would suggest the emergence of a novel variety of T. mentagrophytes, which has adapted to its new host following transmission to Guineas pigs from hedgehogs. We propose that it be named T. mentagrophytes var. porcellae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental guinea pig model of dermatophytosis: a simple and useful tool for the evaluation of new diagnostics and antifungals.

    PubMed

    Saunte, D M; Hasselby, J P; Brillowska-Dabrowska, A; Frimodt-Møller, N; Svejgaard, E L; Linnemann, D; Nielsen, S S; Haedersdal, M; Arendrup, M C

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a simple guinea pig model for the purpose of evaluating diagnostic principles and treatment modalities for dermatophytic infections. The following variables were evaluated; pre-treatment of the skin by shaving versus tape stripping, Microsporum canis or Trichophyton mentagrophytes test strains as etiologic agents, differences in inoculum concentrations, and inoculation with and without occlusion. The course of infection was evaluated clinically by redness and lesion scores and mycologically by microscopy, culture, and histopathology. The applicability of the model was evaluated with a recently developed diagnostic pan-dermatophyte PCR and antifungal treatment was tested with an oral solution of itraconazole, 10 mg/kg, once daily during days 3-14 of the test period. Pre-treatment of the skin with a manual razor was for practical reasons preferable to tape stripping. Inoculation under occlusion showed no advantage in the establishment of experimental infections. Infection severity showed some association with the inoculum concentration and subtype of T. mentagrophytes but not in studies involving M. canis. The establishment of dermatophytosis was confirmed by histopathology. Surprisingly, microscopy was found to be less sensitive than culture and the latter was as sensitive as pan-dermatophyte PCR. Itraconazole significantly reduced lesion and redness score, with M. canis infections responding better to itraconazole treatment than those caused by T. mentagrophytes. In conclusion, we established a dermatophytosis animal model, which was proven useful for evaluating diagnostic methods and antifungal susceptibility testing.

  9. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by petals extract of Rosa indica L., its formulation as nail paint and evaluation of antifungal activity against fungi causing onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Nikita; Pandit, Raksha; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2017-03-01

    Aim: The authors report the biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) from the petals extract of Rosa indica L. (rose). Its efficacy was evaluated against two dermatophytes: namely: Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis which cause onychomycosis. The activity of antibiotics against the tested dermatophytes was enhanced, when evaluated in combination with ZnO-NPs. Methods and results: The synthesised ZnO-NPs were preliminary detected by using ultraviolet UV visible spectroscopy, which showed specific absorbance. The ZnO-NPs were further characterised by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and Zetasizer. Moreover, nanoparticles containing nail paint (nanopaint) was formulated and its antifungal activity was also assessed against T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. ZnO-NPs and formulated nanopaint containing ZnO-NPs, both showed significant antifungal activity. The maximum activity was noted against M. canis and lesser against T. mentagrophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO-NPs was also determined against the dermatophytes causing onychomycosis infection. Conclusion: ZnO-NPs can be utilised as a potential antifungal agent for the treatment of onychomycosis after more experimental trials.

  10. Eastern cottontail (sylvilagus floridanus) as carrier of dermatophyte fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallo, M G; Tizzani, P; Peano, A; Rambozzi, L; Meneguz, P G

    2005-09-01

    Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae), introduced into Piedmont (Italy) in the 1960s, was studied as carrier of dermatophyte fungi. Of 216 hair samples collected from animals culled between September 1999 and July 2000 in the Province of Alessandria (Piedmont, Italy) during a pest control project, 57 (26.4%) yielded dermatophyte colonies. As two different species of dermatophytes grew from two samples, a total of 59 fungal isolates (26.5%) were obtained. Six dermatophyte species both geophilic (M. gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes) were identified. No sex-related differences were found but season-related differences were observed. The highest prevalence of dermatophyte-positive samples was recorded in May-September, due to the geophilic fungi whose prevalence decreased during colder and increased during warmer months (p < 0.001). The presence of zoophilic dermatophytes, T. mentagrophytes, commonly associated with rodents, small mammals and lagomorphs and M. canis, usually correlated with domestic environment, did not change the whole year round. As Eastern cottontail has been showed to be a carrier of dermatophytes transmissible to man (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum), it may represent a source of infection for gamekeepers, hunters and veterinarians.

  11. Synthesis and antifungal properties of certain 7-alkylaminopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Novinson, T; Robins, R K; Matthews, T R

    1977-02-01

    A series of 7-alkylaminopyrazolo[1,5-alpha]pyrimidines (5-25) and one 7-alkylthiopyrazolo[1,5-alpha]pyrimidine (4) were synthesized from the corresponding 7-chloro precursors 3, which were prepared in turn from the 7-hydroxy analogues 2, obtained via condensation of 3-aminopyrazoles with acetoacetate esters, malonate esters, or acetylenedicarboxylate ester. Compounds 4-25 were found to inhibit Trichophyton mentagrophytes (in vitro). The degree of inhibition increased with increasing 7-alkylamino chain length up to C8 units and then began to decrease with longer chain lengths. Unsaturated chains were more fungitoxic than saturated chains, 5-methyl-7-oleylaminopyrazolo[1,5alpha]pyrimidine [22, R7=NH(CH2)8CH=CH(CH2)7CH3] being four times more inhibitory and 16 times more fungicidal (against T. mentagrophytes) than 5-methyl-7-n-octylaminopyrazolo[1,5-alpha] pyrimidine [11, R7=NH(CH2)7CH3]. Although 11 and 22 appeared to have some efficacy as topical antifungeal agents, when applied to T. mentagrophytes infections in vivo, both caused irritation (of abraded and unabraded guinea pig skin) as did compound 4 (R5=Me; R7=SC8H17).

  12. Antifungal activity of Cleome gynandra L. aerial parts for topical treatment of Tinea capitis: an in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Imanirampa, Lawrence; Alele, Paul E

    2016-07-08

    Cleome gynandra L. (Capparaceae) is an edible weed used in Uganda topically for its presumed antifungal activity against Tinea capitis. The goal of this study was to determine if this plant possesses antifungal activity in vitro, since T. capitis is a pervasive infection among especially rural children. Antifungal activity assay was performed by Broth dilution method, and testing done on clinical isolates of three common Tinea capitis-causing fungal strains. Evaluation of in vitro antifungal activity of the ethanol and water extracts of C. gynandra was done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of the extracts. The MIC of C. gynandra ethanol extract ranged from 0.0313 to 0.0625 mg/ml for Trichophyton rubrum, and from 0.25 to 0.5 mg/ml for both Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The MICs of C. gynandra aqueous extract ranged between 0.125 to 0.25 mg/ml for T. rubrum, and 0.25 to 0.5 mg/ml for both M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. T. rubrum was more sensitive than M. canis (p < 0.002) and more sensitive than T. mentagrophytes (p < 0.035) to the antifungal activity of C. gynandra. T. rubrum was 6.9 times (95 % CL: 1.15 - 41.6) more likely to have a better outcome (more sensitive) than T. mentagrophytes. Cleome gynandra aqueous extract had MFC of ≥0.0313 mg/ml for M. canis, ≥0.0156 mg/ml for T. mentagropyhtes, and ≥0.0625 mg/ml for T. rubrum. Cleome gynandra ethanol extract showed MFCs of ≥0.5 mg/ml for M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, and ≥0.125 mg/ml for T. rubrum. Both plant extracts demonstrated antifungal activity, shown by the MIC and MFC for the different extracts, which varied with the type of organism of the clinical fungal isolates. The ethanol extract exhibited comparable antifungal activity to the aqueous extract indicated by the MIC values seen. Conversely, after subculturing the fungal isolates, MFCs were lower for the aqueous than for the

  13. Multilaboratory Evaluation of In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes for ME1111

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, V.; Diekema, D.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Rennie, R.; Walsh, T.; Wengenack, N.; Fothergill, A.; Wiederhold, N.

    2015-01-01

    ME1111 is a novel small molecule antifungal agent under development for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Standardization of the susceptibility testing method for this candidate antifungal is needed. Toward this end, 8 independent laboratories determined the interlaboratory reproducibility of ME1111 susceptibility testing. In addition, we subsequently identified 2 strains as quality control (QC) isolates for the method. In the reproducibility study, 5 blinded clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were tested, while the QC study tested 6 blinded T. rubrum or T. mentagrophytes ATCC strains. Testing was performed in frozen microtiter panels according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 methodology. In the reproducibility study, 9 of 15 clinical strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90% at the 80% inhibition endpoint, with a range of agreement of 76.2% to 100%. In the QC study, 4 of the 6 ATCC strains showed interlaboratory agreement of >90%. ME1111 demonstrated excellent interlaboratory agreement when tested against dermatophytes. Based on this data, the CLSI Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Tests approved the susceptibility testing of ME1111 against dermatophytes according to M38-A2 methodology, which stipulates RPMI 1640 as the test medium, an inoculum size of 1 to 3 × 103 CFU/ml, and an incubation time and temperature of 96 h at 35°C. The MIC endpoint should be 80% inhibition compared with the growth control. T. rubrum ATCC MYA-4438 and T. mentagrophytes ATCC 28185 were selected as QC isolates, with an acceptable range of 0.12 to 1 μg/ml for the two strains. PMID:26719434

  14. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  15. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic POR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239

  16. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  17. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-12-16

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment.

  18. Toward a Novel Multilocus Phylogenetic Taxonomy for the Dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, G Sybren; Dukik, Karolina; Monod, Michel; Packeu, Ann; Stubbe, Dirk; Hendrickx, Marijke; Kupsch, Christiane; Stielow, J Benjamin; Freeke, Joanna; Göker, Markus; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Gräser, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Type and reference strains of members of the onygenalean family Arthrodermataceae have been sequenced for rDNA ITS and partial LSU, the ribosomal 60S protein, and fragments of β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 3. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed a large degree of correspondence, and topologies matched those of earlier published phylogenies demonstrating that the phylogenetic representation of dermatophytes and dermatophyte-like fungi has reached an acceptable level of stability. All trees showed Trichophyton to be polyphyletic. In the present paper, Trichophyton is restricted to mainly the derived clade, resulting in classification of nearly all anthropophilic dermatophytes in Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, along with some zoophilic species that regularly infect humans. Microsporum is restricted to some species around M. canis, while the geophilic species and zoophilic species that are more remote from the human sphere are divided over Arthroderma, Lophophyton and Nannizzia. A new genus Guarromyces is proposed for Keratinomyces ceretanicus. Thirteen new combinations are proposed; in an overview of all described species it is noted that the largest number of novelties was introduced during the decades 1920-1940, when morphological characters were used in addition to clinical features. Species are neo- or epi-typified where necessary, which was the case in Arthroderma curreyi, Epidermophyton floccosum, Lophophyton gallinae, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes, T. quinckeanum, T. schoenleinii, T. soudanense, and T. verrucosum. In the newly proposed taxonomy, Trichophyton contains 16 species, Epidermophyton one species, Nannizzia 9 species, Microsporum 3 species, Lophophyton 1 species, Arthroderma 21 species and Ctenomyces 1 species, but more detailed studies remain needed to establish species borderlines. Each species now has a single valid name. Two new genera are introduced: Guarromyces and Paraphyton. The number of genera has increased, but

  19. [Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

    2012-11-01

    Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals.

  20. Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64 µL mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases.

  1. Inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on enzymatic activity of selected fungal strains causing skin infection.

    PubMed

    Ciebiada-Adamiec, Anna; Małafiej, Eugeniusz; Ciebiada, Ireneusz

    2010-05-01

    Pathogenicity of fungi is connected with their ability to easily penetrate the host tissues, survive in the infected host organism and use the elements of the host tissues as nutrients. Hence, the co-occurrence of pathogenic properties with the high enzymatic activity, which is manifested through the production of various enzymes including extracellular enzymes, was observed. It can be expected that it is possible to decrease fungal pathogenicity by lowering their enzymatic activity. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of nicotinamide on enzymatic activity of the fungi, which are most frequently isolated in cases of skin infection. Enzymatic activity was analysed using 15 Candida albicans, 15 Trichophyton rubrum and 15 Trichophyton mentagrophytes strains. The strains used for the study were collected from the current diagnostic material. API ZYM tests were used in diagnostic analysis. MICs of nicotinamide were determined by the macrodilution method in liquid medium. In the case of Candida strains, the presence of nicotinamide in the broth had a significant effect on the decrease of enzymatic activity (P < 0.05) of esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C-8), valin-arylamidase, acid phosphatase and alpha-glycosydase. A considerably stronger effect of nicotinamide was observed in the case of dermatophytes (P < 0.005). Its action led to a decrease in the activity of all the enzymes under study except alpha-glucosidase produced by T. rubrum strains. Thus, nicotinamide exhibited biological activity towards C. albicans, T. rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which resulted in a decrease in the activity of enzymes produced by the fungi.

  2. Comparison between the Standardized Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 Method and a 2,3-Bis(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-[(Sulphenylamino)Carbonyl]-2H-Tetrazolium Hydroxide- Based Method for Testing Antifungal Susceptibility of Dermatophytes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Atef S.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we determined the utility of a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT)-based assay for determining antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytes to terbinafine, ciclopirox, and voriconazole in comparison to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 method. Forty-eight dermatophyte isolates, including Trichophyton rubrum (n = 15), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 7), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 11), and Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 13), and two quality control strains, were tested. In the XTT-based method, MICs were determined spectrophotometrically at 490 nm after addition of XTT and menadione. For the CLSI method, the MICs were determined visually. With T. rubrum, the XTT assay revealed MIC ranges of 0.004 to >64 μg/ml, 0.125 to 0.25 μg/ml, and 0.008 to 0.025 μg/ml for terbinafine, ciclopirox, and voriconazole, respectively. Similar MIC ranges were obtained against T. rubrum by using the CLSI method. Additionally, when tested with T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, and E. floccosum isolates, the XTT and CLSI methods resulted in comparable MIC ranges. Both methods revealed similar lowest drug concentrations that inhibited 90% of the isolates for the majority of tested drug-dermatophyte combinations. The levels of agreement within 1 dilution between both methods were as follows: 100% with terbinafine, 97.8% with ciclopirox, and 89.1% with voriconazole. However, the agreement within 2 dilutions between these two methods was 100% for all tested drugs. Our results revealed that the XTT assay can be a useful tool for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. PMID:18832129

  3. Epidemiology of Superficial Fungal Infections in Guangdong, Southern China: A Retrospective Study from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenying; Lu, Changming; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Junmin; Zhan, Ping; Xi, Liyan; Sun, Jiufeng; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions. Of the 697 positive cultures, dermatophytes were the most prevalent isolates (84.36 %), followed by yeasts (14.92 %) and non-dermatophyte molds (0.72 %). Trichophyton rubrum (56.24 %) was the most common dermatophyte isolated from cases of tinea unguium (83.92 %), tinea pedis (71.19 %), tinea cruris (91.66 %), tinea corporis (91.81 %) and tinea manuum (65.00 %). Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.35 %) and Microsporum canis (10.19 %) were the predominant species associated with cases of tinea faciei (54.55 %) and tinea capitis (54.13 %), respectively. Yeasts and molds were identified primarily from other cases of superficial fungal infections. In conclusion, when compared to previous studies in the same area, the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Guangdong did not significantly change from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of causative agents and the spectrum of superficial fungal infections, particularly tinea caused by dermatophyte infection, are similar to reports from several specific regions in China and Europe, whereas increasing incidences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis occurred in Guangdong, China.

  4. Mechanism of Action of ME1111, a Novel Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Natsuki; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Mari; Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Abe, Shigeru; Tabata, Yuji; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Despite the existing treatment options for onychomycosis, there remains a strong demand for potent topical medications. ME1111 is a novel antifungal agent that is active against dermatophytes, has an excellent ability to penetrate human nails, and is being developed as a topical agent for onychomycosis. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism of action. Trichophyton mentagrophytes mutants with reduced susceptibility to ME1111 were selected in our laboratory, and genome sequences were determined for 3 resistant mutants. The inhibitory effect on a candidate target was evaluated by a spectrophotometric enzyme assay using mitochondrial fractions. Point mutations were introduced into candidate genes by a reverse genetics approach. Whole-genome analysis of the 3 selected mutants revealed point mutations in the structural regions of genes encoding subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II). All of the laboratory-generated resistant mutants tested harbored a mutation in one of the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SdhB, SdhC, or SdhD). Most of the mutants showed cross-resistance to carboxin and boscalid, which are succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors. ME1111 strongly inhibited the succinate-2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase reaction in Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] of 0.029 and 0.025 μg/ml, respectively) but demonstrated only moderate inhibition of the same reaction in human cell lines. Furthermore, the target protein of ME1111 was confirmed by the introduction of point mutations causing the amino acid substitutions in SdhB, SdhC, and SdhD found in the laboratory-generated resistant mutants, which resulted in reduced susceptibility to ME1111. Thus, ME1111 is a novel inhibitor of the succinate dehydrogenase of Trichophyton species, and its mechanism of action indicates its selective profile. PMID:26596944

  5. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  6. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Han

    2011-07-01

    To construct a fused expression vector of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, express the fusion protein in the prokaryotic system, and obtain a gene recombination protein, for the purpose of preparing the ground for further research on the pathopoiesis and immune protective response of PorB. A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequence of the PorB gene, and the PorB gene was amplified by PCR from the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29403 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-1 to generate pGEX-4T-PorB recombinants. The recombinant plasmid pGEX4T-PorB was transferred into competent cells E. coli BL21. After confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, the recombinant protein was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the PorB gene of 1 047 bp was amplified from Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and highly expressed in E. coli. The prokaryotic expression vector of pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and efficiently expressed in the prokaryotic system, which has provided a basis for further study on the biological activity of the PorB protein, as well as animal immune experiment and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and its application as a mucosal immune vaccine.

  7. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.

  8. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol.

  9. Detection of dermatophytes in human nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments in people without typical clinical signs of mycoses.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Danuta; Nawrot, Urszula; Włodarczyk, Katarzyna; Pajączkowska, Magdalena; Patrzałek, Anna; Pęcak, Anna; Mozdyniewicz, Paulina; Fleischer, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    Pedicures are the most common cosmetic foot treatment. Many pedicurists and podiatrists suffer from respiratory infections and diseases such as asthma, sinusitis, chronic cough and bronchitis. Skin and nail dust may play an important role in the development of occupational diseases and the transmission of mycosis to other clients. To examine the presence of dermatophytes in nail and skin dust produced during podiatric treatments of people without typical symptoms of mycosis and to assess the epidemiological hazards of tinea pedis for podiatrists as well as other clients. Seventy-seven samples underwent direct microscopy and culture. The results of direct microscopy were positive in 28/77 samples (36.36%) and doubtful in 3/77 (3.9%). Fungi were cultured from 36/77 samples (46.75%), including 8/77 (10.3%) positive for dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum-6 isolates and Trichophyton mentagrophytes-2). Material collected during podiatric treatments is potentially infected by pathogenic fungi; thus, there is a need to protect both workers who perform such treatments, as well as other clients, to prevent the transmission of pathogens in the Salon environment. Exposure to this occupational hazard may increase not only the risk of respiratory infections but also increase asthmatic or allergic reactions to Trichophyton.

  10. Dermatophytoses in animals.

    PubMed

    Chermette, René; Ferreiro, Laerte; Guillot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities, high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible for the majority of the cases, viz. Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton equinum and Trichophyton verrucosum, as also the geophilic species Microsporum gypseum. According to the host and the fungal species involved, the typical aspect of dermatophytic lesions may be modified. As a consequence, an accurate clinical examination, a good differential diagnosis and laboratory analyses are required for a correct identification. Few antifungal agents are available and licenced for use in veterinary practice, and the use of systemic drugs is limited in livestock due to the problems of residues in products intended for human consumption. The high resistance of the dermatophyte arthroconidia in the environment, the multiplicity of host species, and the confinement of animals in breedings are cause of an enzootic situation in many cases. Prevention is difficult, but research development on the immune response to dermatophytes and the use of vaccination, especially in cattle, have brought some interesting results.

  11. Frequency and aetiology of dermatophytosis in children age 12 and under in the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Ana Cláudia A; de Souza, João Vicente B; Sadahiro, Aya; de Oliveira, José Augusto A

    2012-01-01

    Few scientific studies have evaluated dermatophytosis among children in the state of Amazonas or in the greater northern region of Brazil. The aim of this study was to research the frequency and aetiology of dermatophytosis in children age 12 and under, who were seen between March 1996 and November 2005 at the Mycology Laboratory of the National Institute of Amazonian Research. For mycological diagnoses, epidermal scales and/or hairs were used. A portion of this material was treated with potassium hydroxide for direct examination, and another portion was cultivated in Mycobiotic Agar for the isolation of dermatophytes. Of the 590 samples analysed, 210 showed positive diagnoses by direct examination and cultivation. Tinea capitis (153 cases) was the most frequent type of dermatophytosis, and Trichophyton tonsurans (121 cases) was the most frequently isolated fungal agent. Tinea corporis was observed in 48 cases where the most frequently isolated fungal agent was also T. tonsurans (17 cases), and the corporal regions most affected were the face, arms and trunk. The laboratory confirmed tinea pedis in 6 cases, and the principal fungal agents isolated were Trichophyton rubrum (3) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3). The presence of tinea cruris was confirmed in 3 cases, and T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and Epidermophyton floccosum were isolated from these cases. The children examined were primarily affected by tinea capitis, and the main fungal agent for this dermatophytosis was T. tonsurans. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Dermatomycoses in the Rijeka area, Croatia, before, during and after the war 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Brajac, Ines; Prpic-Massari, L; Stojnic-Sosa, L; Gruber, F

    2003-06-01

    The frequency of dermatomycoses as well as the spectrum of causative agents in the Rijeka area, northwestern part of Croatia, in the periods before and during the war (1990-1994) and in the postwar period (1995-1999) were analyzed. A total of 20 463 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses referred to the Department of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Hospital Center Rijeka, was examined. In the period from 1990 till 1994, 2462 samples were positive, compared with 2250 positive samples during the period from 1995 to 1999. The most frequently isolated dermatophytes were in both periods Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis, followed by Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton verrucosum and in the first period T. rubrum. An intensive change in composition of the flora was observed in the postwar period, mainly connected to the migration of population from other regions to the Rijeka area. This was demonstrated by a disappearance of T. verrucosum and T. rubrum and by an eruptive occurrence of Trichophyton violaceum. This antropophilic species became third representative in the postwar period, followed by M. gypseum, and E. floccosum. Our data were compared with those obtained in the same area in previous studies, and with results obtained in other countries.

  13. Intra- and Interlaboratory Study of a Method for Testing the Antifungal Susceptibilities of Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, M. A.; Chaturvedi, V.; Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Pfaller, M. A.; Rinaldi, M. G.; Lee-Yang, W.; Warnock, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M38-A standard for the susceptibility testing of conidium-forming filamentous fungi does not explicitly address the testing of dermatophytes. This multicenter study, involving six laboratories, investigated the MIC reproducibility of seven antifungal agents tested against 25 dermatophyte isolates (5 blinded pairs of five dermatophyte species per site for a total of 300 tests), using the method of dermatophyte testing developed at the Center for Medical Mycology, Cleveland, Ohio. The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. Seven antifungals with activity against dermatophytes were tested, including ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, posaconazole, terbinafine, and voriconazole. Interlaboratory MICs for all isolates were in 92 to 100% agreement at a visual endpoint reading of 50% inhibition as compared to the growth control and 88 to 99% agreement at a visual endpoint reading of 80% inhibition as compared to the growth control. Intralaboratory MICs between blinded pairs were in 97% agreement at a visual endpoint reading of 50% inhibition as compared to the growth control and 96% agreement at a visual endpoint reading of 80% inhibition as compared to the growth control. Data from this study support consideration of this method as an amendment to the NCCLS M38-A standard for the testing of dermatophytes. PMID:15243047

  14. A 7-year survey of dermatophytoses in Crete, Greece.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis

    2007-11-01

    Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution.

  15. Epidemiological aspects of dermatophyte infections in horses and cattle.

    PubMed

    Moretti, A; Boncio, L; Pasquali, P; Fioretti, D P

    1998-05-01

    Ringworm infections in the principal domestic animals are a major public and veterinary health problem. The aetiology, epidemiology and symptomatology of these mycoses are quite heterogeneous and complex. In this context, the AA carried out an epidemiological study to investigate the prevalence of dermatophytes in two different animal species, horses (n = 200) belonging to 10 private stables and cattle (n = 1900) belonging to farms with different breeding purposes and management. With regard to horses the results showed a positive level of 9% and Trichophyton equinum was the major organism isolated. The results concerning the cattle showed positive values that varied both in relation to the type of animals and their management as well as to the productive objectives: 19% in intensive beef breeding, 4.5% in intensive dairy farms (the aetiologic agent isolated in both types of farms was Trichophyton verrucosum) and 8% in traditional-type farms (the species of fungi isolated were T. verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). The results are discussed both in clinical and in hygiene and management terms.

  16. Biomedical applications of green synthesized Nobel metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Amjad; Chen, Yongmei; Shah, Noor S; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Arif Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Murtaza, Behzad; Hassan, Sadaf Ul; Qaisrani, Saeed Ahmad; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-08-01

    Synthesis of Nobel metal nanoparticles, play a key role in the field of medicine. Plants contain a substantial number of organic constituents, like phenolic compounds and various types of glycosides that help in synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles by green method is one of the best and environment friendly methods. The major significance of the green synthesis is lack of toxic by-products produced during metal nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles, synthesized by green method show various significant biological activities. Most of the research articles report the synthesized nanoparticles to be active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Some of these bacteria include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The synthesized nanoparticles also show significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum as well as different types of cancer cells such as breast cancer cell line. They also exhibit significant antioxidant activity. The activities of these Nobel metal nano-particles mainly depend on the size and shape. The particles of small size with large surface area show good activity in the field of medicine. The synthesized nanoparticles are also active against leishmanial diseases. This research article explores in detail the green synthesis of the nanoparticles and their uses thereof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tinea cruris and tinea corporis masquerading as tinea indecisiva: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Sidharth; Singal, Archana; Das, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Tinea indecisiva is characterized by concentric scaly rings simulating tinea imbricata but caused by dermatophytes other than Trichophyton concentricum. Tinea indecisiva has been rarely reported. We report a unique case and review of the previously reported cases, pathogenesis, and management. An adult Indian man developed extensive tinea cruris and tinea corporis with concentric rings of scaly lesions over the groin, buttocks, and thighs following the use of oral corticosteroids and antifungal-steroid cream for 3 months. Mycologic and immunologic studies were performed for diagnosis. Diagnosis of tinea indecisiva was confirmed on the appearance of "ring-within-a-ring" lesions clinically and isolation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale as the etiologic agent on mycologic testing. Intradermal testing with Trichophyton extract showed fluctuating hypersensitivity responses. Four-week treatment with daily oral terbinafine resulted in complete resolution. Tinea indecisiva should be considered in a patient with tinea imbricata-like lesions with local immunosuppression caused by a non-concentricum dermatophyte. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  18. New antimicrobial anthraquinone 6,6(1)-bis (1,5,7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone) isolated from Streptomyces sp. isolate ERI-26.

    PubMed

    Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-11-01

    The present report is about Streptomyces sp. isolate ERI-26 isolated from the soil sample of Nilgiri forest, Western Ghats. The methanol extract of ERI-26 showed good antimicrobial activity against tested microbes. The antimicrobial novel anthraquinones were purified by bioactivity-guided fractionation using a silica gel column and preparative HPLC. The compound was characterized and identified by UV, IR, NMR and MASS spectral data. The compound named as 6,6(1)-bis (1,5,7-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone), showed significant antimicrobial activities against tested microbes. The isolated compound inhibited the tested bacterial growth, Staphylococcus aureus at 62.5 μg/ml, Staphylococcus epidermidis at 15.62 μg/m, Bacillus subtilis at 62.5 μg/ml, fungi; Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 15.62 μg/m Trichophyton simii at 15.62 μg/ml, Aspergillus niger at. 7.81 μg/ml, Aspergiller flavus at 3.90 μg/ml, Trichophyton rubrum 296 at 62.5 μg/ml, T. rubrum 57/01 at 7.81 μg/ml, Magnaporthe grisea at 15.62 μg/ml. and Botrytis cinerea at 3.90 μg/ml. Isolated anthraquinone compound and its antimicrobial activity were newly reported.

  19. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  20. Impact of POR*28 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Hesselink, Dennis A; Bouamar, Rachida; Budde, Klemens; de Fijter, Johannes W; De Meyer, Martine; Mourad, Michel; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2014-02-01

    The P450 oxidoreductase (POR)*28 variant allele has been associated with altered cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activities. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of calcineurin inhibitors and recent data show that POR*28 may explain part of the variability observed in tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the POR*28 allele on Tac and cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressive therapies. Kidney transplant recipients receiving either Tac (n = 184) or CsA (n = 174), participating in a prospective multicenter trial, were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3. CYP3A5 expressers that were carriers of at least 1 POR*28 allele had a 16.9% decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations when compared CYP3A5 expressers that carried the POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.03), indicating an increased CYP3A5 activity for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5, nonexpressers carrying 2 POR*28 alleles, a 24.1% (confidence interval95% = -39.4% to -4.9%; P = 0.02) decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations was observed for Tac, suggesting higher CYP3A4 activity. For CsA, POR*28/*28 patients not expressing CYP3A5 and not carrying the CYP3A4*22 decrease-of-function allele showed 15% lower CsA dose-adjusted predose concentrations (P = 0.01), indicating also increased CYP3A4 activity. In both cohorts (ie, Tac and CsA), the POR*28 allele was neither associated with the incidence of delayed graft function nor with biopsy-proven acute rejection. These results were further confirmed in 2 independent cohorts. Our results show that the POR*28 allele is associated with increased in vivo CYP3A5 activity for Tac in CYP3A5 expressers, whereas POR*28 homozygosity was associated with a significant higher CYP3A4 activity in CYP3A5 nonexpressers for both Tac and CsA.

  1. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  2. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  3. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  4. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  5. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  6. Tinea capitis in schoolchildren in southern Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Fulgence, Kassi Kondo; Abibatou, Konate; Vincent, Djohan; Henriette, Vanga; Etienne, Angora Kpongbo; Kiki-Barro, Pulchérie Christiane; Yavo, William; Koné, Moussa; Hervé Menan, Eby Ignace

    2013-04-01

    Fungal infections of the scalp commonly affect the pediatric population. These infections are caused by dermatophytes that are able to invade the keratinized structures of skin, hair, and nails. This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of fungal scalp infections in southern Ivory Coast during 2008-2009. From October 2008 to July 2009, 17,745 children ranging in age from 4-16 years, attending urban and rural primary schools in seven towns in Ivory Coast, were examined clinically for tinea capitis. Hair stumps and scales were collected from children who showed symptoms suggestive of scalp ringworm. Samples were exposed to direct microscopic examination using 30% potassium hydroxide solution and cultivation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with or without actidione. Of the 17,745 children who were clinically examined, a total of 2645 exhibited symptoms suggestive of scalp ringworm. Positive cultures for fungi were found in 2458, yielding an overall prevalence of tinea capitis of 13.9%. The majority of infections occurred in males (74.0%). The most commonly affected age group involved children ranging from 9-12 years (n = 1335, 54.3%), followed by those in the range of 4-8 years (n = 936, 38.1%). Trichophyton soudanense, Microsporum langeronii, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most prevalent etiologic agents (56.7%, 21.4% and 19.7%, respectively). Other species were occasionally isolated, including Trichophyton violaceum (1.4%) and Trichophyton rubrum (0.8%). Epidemiological surveys are an essential tool for developing strategies for infection control. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  8. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  9. Impact of POR*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2013-03-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The POR*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the POR*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4. To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3. In patients expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with POR*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, POR*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, POR*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism. Our data show that the POR*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.

  10. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  11. Hexacoordinate oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH3)(O2) react with NO to form only the nitrato analogs Fe(Por)(NH3)(η1-ONO2), even at ~100 K.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2010-12-07

    The oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH(3))(O(2)), prepared by sequential reactions of O(2) ((18)O(2)) and NH(3) with thin porous layers of Fe(II)(Por), react with NO ((15)NO) at 80-100 K to form only the low-spin nitrato complexes Fe(Por)(NH(3))(η(1)-ONO(2)), thus implying that peroxynitrite intermediates, if formed, must undergo very facile isomerization to the nitrato analog.

  12. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  13. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.

  14. [S-Acyl derivatives of thiosalicylamides having antifungal activity. II].

    PubMed

    Mazza, M; Modena, T; Montanari, L; Pavanetto, F

    1978-07-01

    Some S-acyl derivatives of N-alkylthiosalicylamides [Table I: substances (I leads to XXXI)] were prepared and tested for antifungal activity. The substances, most of which had not been previously reported, were prepared by condensation of 2-mercapto-N-alkylbenzamides with suitable acylating agents. The antifungal activity of the compounds was tested in vitro against Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For some compounds the was tested activity against the above strains fungicidal, Candida tropicalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Many of the compounds proved to have high antifungal activity comparable with that of Clotrimazol. The results extended knowledge on the structure-antifungal activity relationships of this class of compounds. The compounds with the highest antifungal activity were: 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-heptylbenzamide (XXVIII); 2-acetylmercapto-5-Cl-N,n-propylbenzamide (XIV); 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-octylbenzamide (XXXI); 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-pentylbenzamide (XXV); 2-acetylmercapto-N,n-hexylbenzamide (XXVII).

  15. [Benzenedithiol esters with antimycotic activity].

    PubMed

    Pavanetto, F; Montanari, L; Modena, T; Mazza, M

    1982-06-01

    Some diesters of benzen-1,2-dithiol wit aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids were prepared and tested for in vitro antifungal activity. The diacetate and dipropionate of benzen-1,3- and 1,4-dithiol were used as comparison compounds. The substances (Table I; substances I leads to X) were obtained by condensation of benzenedithiols with suitable acylating agents. The fungistatic activity of the products was tested in vitro against the following fungal strains: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The results show that the diester of benzen-1,2-dithiols with alkanoic acids (Table I) have marked antimycotic activity, much greater than that of clotrimazol. The diaroyl esters of benzen-1,2-dithiol and the diesters of benzen-1,3- and 1,4-dithiols are inactive or only slightly active.

  16. [Thiocarbamic and carbamic esters of benzenedithiols with antimycotic activity].

    PubMed

    Montanari, L; Mazza, M; Pavanetto, F; Modena, T

    1980-05-01

    o-, m- and p-phenylen esters of some dithio and thiol carbamic acids N-monosubstituted were prepared and tested for in vitro antifungal activity. The substances studied [Tables I leads to III; substances (I leads to XXI) were all new and were prepared by the reaction of benzenethiols with suitable isothiocyanates or isocyanates. The fungistatic activity of the products was tested in vitro against the four following strains: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The results show that the diesters of N-monosubstituted carbamic acids of benzen-1,2-dithhiol (Table I) have marked antimycotic activity, of the same order or greater than that of clotrimazol. Among the thiocarbamic and carbamic diesters of benzen-1,3- and 1,4-dithiol, the most active are the N-benzyl- and N-beta-phenyethyldithiocarbamic derivatives.

  17. Comparison of E-Test, disk diffusion and a modified CLSI broth microdilution (M 38-A) method for in vitro testing of itraconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Carmen Castro; Serrano, Maria Carmen; Valverde, Anastasio; Pemán, Javier; Almeida, Carmen; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella

    2008-03-01

    We compared two agar-based methods, the E-test and the disk diffusion method with the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution method (CLSI M38-A; MD). Forty six dermatophytes strains including 30 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 8 T. rubrum and 8 M. gypseum were tested against three antifungal agents, i.e., fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC) and voriconazole (VRC). The level of agreement between the E-test and MD (+/-2 dilutions) was 45.6% for fluconazole, 19.5% for itraconazole and 52.1% for voriconazole. The results obtained with disk diffusion had low correlation with the results obtained by the CLSI broth microdilution reference method with azoles.

  18. [Animal dermatophytosis. Recent advances].

    PubMed

    Cabañes, F J

    2000-03-01

    The proportion of positive samples in relation to the number of samples examined from cases of dog and cat dermatophytosis varies considerably from one investigation to another. In dogs, it ranges between 4% and 10% and few studies show higher prevalences. On the other hand, the percentages of positive cultures cited in the reviewed literature from dogs with or without suspected dermatophytosis are quite similar. In dogs with suspected lesions of dermatophytosis, with few exceptions, Microsporum canis is the most common species isolated. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum are less frequently isolated. In cats the prevalence of dermatophytes is usually higher than in dogs, and it is usually higher than 20%. However the frequency of positive findings is higher in cats with suspected dermatophytosis than in cats without visible lesions, with the exception of asymptomatic infected cats and transient carrier cats. Cats are accepted as the principal reservoir for M. canis. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice in canine and feline dermatophytosis.

  19. Medically important fungi found in hallux nails of university students from Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, María Inés; Caicedo, Luz Dary

    2007-06-01

    The presence of medically important fungi was studied in hallux nails scrapings obtained from 504 students (204 males, 300 females) of three universities in Cali. Specimens were examined by direct microscopic examination and fungal culture. Medically important fungi were found in 49 (9.7%) students, 24 (4.8%) had onychomycosis while the rest did not have nail lesions. Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly isolated fungi in students with lesions, where as T. mentagrophytes predominated in healthy nails. Most of the students with fungi were males. The prevalence of fungi was higher in individuals between 26 and 35 years. No association was observed between fungi and practicing sports or undergoing pedicures. These results suggest that dermatophytes can be found in healthy hallux nails, which can be reservoirs of pathogenic fungi.

  20. First Total Synthesis and Biological Screening of a Proline-Rich Cyclopeptide from a Caribbean Marine Sponge.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Rajiv; Singh, Sunil; Sharma, Ajay; Chennupati, Suresh V; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-12-15

    A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, ¹H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL.

  1. Evaluation of topical antifungal products in an in vitro onychomycosis model.

    PubMed

    Sleven, Reindert; Lanckacker, Ellen; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Many topical commercial products are currently available for the treatment of onychomycosis. However, limited data are available concerning their antifungal activity. Using an in vitro onychomycosis model, the daily application of seven nail formulations was compared to the antifungal reference drug amorolfine (Loceryl(®) ) and evaluated for inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes using an agar diffusion test. Of all commercial nail formulations, only Excilor(®) and Nailner(®) demonstrated inhibitory activity, which was much lower compared to the daily application of Loceryl(®) . However, Excilor(®) showed similar efficacy compared to the conventional weekly application of Loceryl(®) . These results suggest a role for organic acids in the antifungal effect of Excilor(®) (acetic acid, ethyl lactate) and Nailner(®) (lactic acid, citric acid, ethyl lactate) as all tested formulations without organic acids were inactive.

  2. Hyphal Growth in Human Fungal Pathogens and Its Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Most of the fungal species that infect humans can grow in more than one morphological form but only a subset of pathogens produce filamentous hyphae during the infection process. This subset is phylogenetically unrelated and includes the commonly carried yeasts, Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Malassezia spp., and the acquired pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus and dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes. The primary function of hypha formation in these opportunistic pathogens is to invade the substrate they are adhered to, whether biotic or abiotic, but other functions include the directional translocation between host environments, consolidation of the colony, nutrient acquisition and the formation of 3-dimensional matrices. To support these functions, polarised hyphal growth is co-regulated with other factors that are essential for normal hypha function in vivo. PMID:22121367

  3. Clinical evaluation of clotrimazole. A broad-spectrum antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Spiekermann, P H; Young, M D

    1976-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of the broad-spectrum, topically applied antifungal agent clotrimazole were evaluated in two double-blind, multicentric trials. Ten investigators reported on a total of 1,361 cases in which a 1% solution or a 1% cream formulation was compared with its respective vehicle. Clotrimazole was therapeutically effective, as confirmed by mycological cure (negative microscopy and culture) and clinical improvement, in tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, pityriasis versicolor, and cutaneous candidasis. Furthermore, species identification established the efficacy of clotrimazole against Trichophyton rubrum, T mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare), and Candida albicans. Safety was demonstrated by the low incidence of possibly drug-related adverse experiences, namely, 19 (2.7%) of 699 patients who were treated with clotrimazole, of whom four (0.6%) discontinued treatment.

  4. Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Allium ursinum L. and their cytostatic and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sobolewska, Danuta; Janeczko, Zbigniew; Kisiel, Wanda; Podolak, Irma; Galanty, Agnieszka; Trojanowska, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was the isolation and structural elucidation of steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of ramson Allium ursinum L. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based upon chromatographic methods and 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS and IR analyses. The mixture of two steroidal saponins: (25R)-spirost-5-en-3b-ol tetrasaccharide and (25R)-spirost-5, 25(27)-dien-3b-ol tetrasaccharide, along with a 3-hydroxypregna-5,16-dien-20-one glycoside were identified. The results of in vitro cytotoxic activity of the mixture of spirostanol saponins against cell lines melanoma B16 and sarcoma XC and human fibroblasts HSF are also reported. The spirostanol saponins mixture was investigated to determine its in vitro antimicrobal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis.

  5. Activity of terbinafine in experimental fungal infections of laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Petranyi, G; Meingassner, J G; Mieth, H

    1987-01-01

    The allylamine derivative terbinafine is the first antifungal agent with primary fungicidal properties against dermatophytes which acts systemically after oral application as well as locally after topical application. Comparative oral studies carried out with griseofulvin and ketoconazole in model infections such as guinea pig trichophytosis and microsporosis revealed terbinafine to be superior to the reference compounds both clinically and mycologically. An excellent antimycotic activity of terbinafine was also demonstrable after topical treatment of guinea pig dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis. Results of comparative chemotherapeutic studies carried out with econazole and tolnaftate demonstrated superior efficacy of terbinafine in the treatment of both trichophytosis and microsporosis. Skin infections of guinea pigs caused by Candida albicans and vaginal candidiasis in rats proved to be responsive to a topical application of terbinafine also. However, the reference compounds, clotrimazole and miconazole, exhibited activity superior to that of terbinafine in both models. PMID:3435103

  6. Incidence of Keratinophilic Fungi from the Selected Soils of Kaziranga National Park, Assam (India).

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sunil Kumar; Verekar, Shilpa Amit; Chavan, Yashwant G

    2017-04-01

    Seventy-eight soil samples were collected from the various locations in the vicinity of Kaziranga National Park (Assam), India, during April to October 2009 and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting techniques for isolation. Thirty-nine isolates were recovered and identified by recognition of their macro- and micromorphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/GenBank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose. Eleven species related to seven genera were recorded viz. Aphanoascus durus (1.28%), Arthroderma tuberculatum (3.84%), Arthroderma corniculatum (1.28%), Chrysosporium indicum (16.66%), C. tropicum (3.84%), Ctenomyces serratus (5.12%), Keratinophyton punsolae (1.28%), Microsporum appendiculatum (1.28%), Microsporum gypseum complex (11.53%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (11.28%) and T. terrestre (2.56%).

  7. First Total Synthesis and Biological Screening of a Proline-Rich Cyclopeptide from a Caribbean Marine Sponge

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Rajiv; Singh, Sunil; Sharma, Ajay; Chennupati, Suresh V.; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL. PMID:27983681

  8. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  9. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  10. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  11. Susceptibility of clinically important dermatophytes against statins and different statin-antifungal combinations.

    PubMed

    Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kocsubé, Sándor; Krizsán, Krisztina; Galgóczy, László; Papp, Tamás; Pesti, Miklós; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2014-02-01

    The investigation of the antifungal activities of drugs whose primary activities are not related to their antimicrobial potential is in the current forefront of research. Statin compounds, which are routinely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs, may also exert direct antimicrobial effects. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activities of various statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and pravastatin) were examined against one isolate each of four dermatophyte species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum). Basically, statins were effective in inhibiting all dermatophyte studied, but were particularly active against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. Fluvastatin and simvastatin were active against all of the tested fungi causing a complete inhibition of their growth at very low concentrations (6.25-12.5 μg/ml). Lovastatin and rosuvastatin had inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (25-128 μg/ml), while atorvastatin and pravastatin proved the less effective. The in vitro interactions between statins and different antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, griseofulvin, terbinafine and primycin) were also investigated using a standard chequerboard broth microdilution method. Synergetic interactions were observed in several cases, most of them were noticed when statins were combined with terbinafine and the different azoles. Some combinations were particularly active (ketoconazole-simvastatin or terbinafine-simvastatin), as they were found to exert synergistic effect against all of the investigated isolates. The other antifungals showed synergistic interactions with statins in only certain cases. These results suggest that statins exert substantial antifungal effects against dermatophyte fungi and they should be promising components in a combination therapy as they can act synergistically with a number of clinically used antifungal

  12. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of KP-103, a Novel Triazole Derivative, and Its Therapeutic Efficacy against Experimental Plantar Tinea Pedis and Cutaneous Candidiasis in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Arika, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, against pathogenic fungi that cause dermatomycoses and its therapeutic efficacy against plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs were investigated. MICs were determined by a broth microdilution method with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid-buffered RPMI 1640 medium for Candida species and with Sabouraud dextrose broth for dermatophytes and by an agar dilution method with medium C for Malassezia furfur. KP-103 was the most active of all the drugs tested against Candida albicans (geometric mean [GM] MIC, 0.002 μg/ml), other Candida species including Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata (GM MICs, 0.0039 to 0.0442 μg/ml), and M. furfur (GM MIC, 0.025 μg/ml). KP-103 (1% solution) was highly effective as a treatment for guinea pigs with cutaneous candidiasis and achieved mycological eradication in 8 of the 10 infected animals, whereas none of the imidazoles tested (1% solutions) was effective in even reducing the levels of the infecting fungi. KP-103 was as active as clotrimazole and neticonazole but was less active than lanoconazole and butenafine against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC at which 80% of isolates are inhibited [MIC80], 0.125 μg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC80, 0.25 μg/ml). However, KP-103 (1% solution) exerted therapeutic efficacy superior to that of neticonazole and comparable to those of lanoconazole and butenafine, yielding negative cultures for all samples from guinea pigs with plantar tinea pedis tested. This suggests that KP-103 has better pharmacokinetic properties in skin tissue than the reference drugs. Because the in vitro activity of KP-103, unlike those of the reference drugs, against T. mentagrophytes was not affected by hair as a keratinic substance, its excellent therapeutic efficacy seems to be attributable to good retention of its antifungal activity in skin tissue, in addition to its potency. PMID:11302816

  13. Epidemiological trends of dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran: A five-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zamani, S; Sadeghi, G; Yazdinia, F; Moosa, H; Pazooki, A; Ghafarinia, Z; Abbasi, M; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M

    2016-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most frequent fungal infection all over the world and its frequency is constantly increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical features and epidemiological trends of dermatophytosis over the years 2010 to 2014 in Tehran, Iran. A total of 13,312 patients clinically suspected of cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Skin scales, plucked hairs, nail clippings and sub-ungual debris were examined by direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophyte species were identified at the species level by a combination of morphological and physiological criteria. Direct microscopy confirmed a contamination rate of 19.7% (2622/13,312 cases) of which 1535 cases (58.5%) were culture positive distributed in male (1022 cases) and female (513 cases). The most commonly infected age group was the 30-39 years old. Tinea pedis (30.4%) was the most prevalent type of dermatophytosis followed by tinea cruris (29.8%) and tinea corporis (15.8%). Epidermophyton floccosum (31%) was the most prevalent causative agent, followed by Trichophyton rubrum (26.2%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (20.3%). Our results showed considerable distribution of dermatophytosis from zoophilic, anthropophilic and geophilic species among population with diverse age groups. Although anthropophilic fungi such as T. mentagrophytes, E. floccosum, and T. rubrum were the main etiologic agents of dermatophytosis, the prevalence of T. verrucosum showed a meaningful increase over the years, which highlights the importance of rural dermatophytosis mainly transmitted from large animals. This noticeable information improves our current knowledge about dermatophytosis and assists to establish effective prevention and therapeutic strategies to overcome the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Tinea Unguium and Tinea Pedis in the General Population in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Perea, Sofia; Ramos, Maria Jose; Garau, Margarita; Gonzalez, Alba; Noriega, Antonio R.; del Palacio, Amalia

    2000-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of tinea unguium and tinea pedis in the general adult population in Madrid, Spain. One thousand subjects were clinically examined, and samples of nails and scales from the interdigital spaces of the feet were taken from those patients presenting with signs or symptoms of onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis, respectively. In addition, a sample from the fourth interdigital space of both feet was collected from all individuals with a piece of sterilized wool carpet. Tinea unguium was defined as a positive direct examination with potassium hydroxide and culture of the etiological agent from subjects with clinically abnormal nails. Patients with positive dermatophyte cultures of foot specimens were considered to have tinea pedis. The prevalence of tinea unguium was 2.8% (4.0% for men and 1.7% for women), and the prevalence of tinea pedis was 2.9% (4.2% for men and 1.7% for women). The etiological agents of tinea unguium were identified as Trichopyton rubrum (82.1%), followed by Trichopyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.3%) and Trichopyton tonsurans (3.5%). Trichophyton rubrum (44.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (44.8%), followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (7%) and T. tonsurans (3.4%), were the organisms isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The percentage of subjects who suffered simultaneously from both diseases was 1.1% (1.7% for men and 0.6% for women). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (relative risk [RR], 1.03) and gender (RR, 2.50) were independent risk factors for tinea unguium, while only gender (RR, 2.65) was predictive for the occurrence of tinea pedis. In both analyses, the presence of one of the two conditions was associated with a higher risk for the appearance of the other disease (RR, >25). PMID:10970362

  15. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes.

  16. The Low Keratin Affinity of Efinaconazole Contributes to Its Nail Penetration and Fungicidal Activity in Topical Onychomycosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. PMID:24752277

  17. The low keratin affinity of efinaconazole contributes to its nail penetration and fungicidal activity in topical onychomycosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Keita; Sugimoto, Noriaki; Hosaka, Shinya; Katafuchi-Nagashima, Maria; Arakawa, Yoshio; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Jo Siu, William; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail disease that is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. Keratin affinity of topical drugs is an important physicochemical property impacting therapeutic efficacy. To be effective, topical drugs must penetrate the nail bed and retain their antifungal activity within the nail matrix, both of which are adversely affected by keratin binding. We investigated these properties for efinaconazole, a new topical antifungal for onychomycosis, compared with those of the existing topical drugs ciclopirox and amorolfine. The efinaconazole free-drug concentration in keratin suspensions was 14.3%, significantly higher than the concentrations of ciclopirox and amorolfine, which were 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.001). Efinaconazole was released from keratin at a higher proportion than in the reference drugs, with about half of the remaining keratin-bound efinaconazole removed after washing. In single-dose in vitro studies, efinaconazole penetrated full-thickness human nails into the receptor phase and also inhibited the growth of Trichophyton rubrum under the nail. In the presence of keratin, efinaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes comparable to that of amorolfine and superior to that of ciclopirox. In a guinea pig onychomycosis model with T. mentagrophytes infection, an efinaconazole solution significantly decreased nail fungal burden compared to that of ciclopirox and amorolfine lacquers (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the high nail permeability of efinaconazole and its potent fungicidal activity in the presence of keratin are related to its low keratin affinity, which may contribute to its efficacy in onychomycosis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. [The use of polymerase chain reaction in laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytosis].

    PubMed

    Tiryaki, Yasin; Gültekin Korkmazgil, Berna; Eyigör, Mete; Aydın, Neriman

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes are among the common causes of fungal infections in the community. Classical diagnostic tests for dermatophytosis have some disadvantages such as failure of direct microscopy in species differentiation and culture methods being time consuming and having low sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the identification of dermatophytes directly from the clinical samples and the cultures. A total of 123 samples that comprise 63 skin and 60 nail scrapings obtained from 110 patients (69 female, 41 male; age range: 4-82 years) who were prediagnosed as dermatophytosis, were included in the study. Samples were examined with routine direct microscopy, culture and two different nested PCR (nPCR) protocols. The first was a pan-dermatophyte nPCR protocol targeting chitin synthase gene (CHS-1) of dermatophytes and the second was a nPCR protocol which targets specific ITS-1 genes of Trichophyton rubrum and T.mentagrophytes. Similar PCR methods were also applied to cultivated strains. Sequence analysis was performed for the samples that yielded positive results in pan-dermatophyte nPCR and negative results in T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes - specific nPCR. Hyphae and/or spore structures were observed in 62 (50%) samples with direct microscopic examination and dermatophytes were isolated in 30 (24%) samples. Twenty-eight of the isolates grown in culture were identified as T.rubrum, and two as T.mentagrophytes with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR protocol. In direct application, 67 (55%) of the clinical samples were found positive with pan-dermatophyte nPCR and 65 (53%) were positive with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR. Samples which were negative in direct microscopic examination were also negative in culture. Nine of them were found positive with pan-dermatophyte nPCR and eight were positive with T.rubrum/T.mentagrophytes-specific nPCR. Two of the 30 samples which were positive in culture

  19. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of AS2077715 against experimental tinea pedis in guinea pigs in comparison with terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Ohsumi, Keisuke; Murai, Hidetsugu; Nakamura, Ikko; Watanabe, Masato; Fujie, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    AS2077715 is a novel antifungal metabolite produced by the newly isolated fungal strain Capnodium sp. 339855. This compound has potent inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III) and potent fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes, as measured in vitro. Here, we compared the effects of AS2077715 and terbinafine in a guinea pig model of tinea pedis. In a treatment regimen started from the day 7 after infection, 10 daily oral doses of 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 and 20 mg kg(-1) of terbinafine significantly decreased fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) in foot pad skin. In a treatment regimen started from the day 11 after infection, 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 significantly reduced fungal CFUs in foot pad skin after 7 daily doses in comparison with 20 mg kg(-1) terbinafine-treated guinea pigs. Our findings suggest that in vivo potency and efficacy of AS2077715 are equal to or greater than that of terbinafine, positioning AS2077715 as a good candidate for use in treating trichophytosis.

  1. Argentinean Andean propolis associated with the medicinal plant Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae). HPLC-MS and GC-MS characterization and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Agüero, María Belén; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Lima, Beatriz; López, María Liza; Zacchino, Susana; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    The chemical profile and botanical origin of Andean Argentinian propolis were studied by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques as well as the antifungal activity according to CLSI protocols. Dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by propolis extracts (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg/mL). The main antifungal compounds were: 3'methyl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid (MNDGA) 1, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) 2 and a NDGA derivative 3, showing strong activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum gypseum (MICs between 15.6 and 31.25 μg/mL). The lignans 1 and 2 showed activities against clinical isolates of Candidas spp., Cryptococcus spp., T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL). The lignan and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles from propolis matched with those of exudates of Larrea nitida providing strong evidences on its botanical origin. These results support that Argentinian Andean propolis are a valuable natural product with potential to improve human health. Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from propolis for the first time, while compounds 1 and 3-6 were reported for first time as constituents of L. nitida Cav.

  2. Superficial mycotic infections of the foot in a native pediatric population: a pathogenic role for Trichosporon cutaneum?

    PubMed

    Archer-Dubon, Carla; Orozco-Topete, Rocío; Leyva-Santiago, Jaime; Arenas, Roberto; Carbajosa, Josefina; Ysunza, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Superficial mycotic infections of the feet are usually caused by Tricophyton rubrum, predominantly affecting adults and resulting from the use of occlusive footwear. We carried out a mycologic study of superficial foot infections in a rural school in Mexico where most people wear a leather, nonocclusive sandal. Forty students had clinical signs of 50 fungal infections of the foot: 39 athlete's foot and 11 onychomycosis. Thirty-one boys and 9 girls were studied. Hyphae were seen in 11 cases of athlete's foot and 5 of onychomycosis. Twenty-one cultures were positive (42%). The most frequently isolated fungi were the opportunistic Trichosporon cutaneum in 42.8%, Candida sp. (23.8%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (23.8%), and Candida glabrata (9.5%). Superficial mycotic infections of the feet and nails were most frequent in children and adolescents who usually wear nonocclusive shoes. The most frequent pathogens were Candida sp. and T. mentagrophytes. It is interesting to note the prevalence of T. cutaneum that has recently been implicated in mycoses of the feet and nails. We did not isolate T. rubrum in any patient.

  3. Onychomycosis incidence in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Palacios-Morales, Yanni; Córdova-Martínez, Erika; Bazán-Mora, Elva; López-Martinez, Rubén

    2008-07-01

    The onychomycosis incidence was determined in 250 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who were registered at the Internal Medicine Service from a Mexico city General Hospital throughout a year (January-December 2006). Out of the total of studied T2DM patients, 93 (37.2%) showed ungual dystrophy and from these, in 75.3% a fungal etiology was corroborated. Out of 70 patients, 34 were men and 36 women, with an average of 63.5 years. Correlation between T2DM evolution time and onychomycosis was significant (P < 0.01). Distal-lateral subungual and total dystrophic onychomycosis were the most frequent clinical types (55.1% and 33.7%, respectively). Fifty-eight fungal isolates were obtained; 48.6% corresponded to dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum being the first species (37.1%). All these strains corresponded to two morphological varieties: "yellow" and typical downy. From the yeast-like isolates, 12 corresponded to Candida spp., firstly C. albicans and C. parapsilosis; three to Cryptococcus spp. (C. albidus, C. uniguttulatus and C. laurentii); two Trichosporon asahii; and only one to Pichia ohmeri. Six non-dermatophytic molds were isolated: two Chrysosporium keratinophylus, two Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, one Aspergillus fumigatus, and one Acremonium sp. The fungal mixture corresponded to T. mentagrophytes with C. guilliermondii; T. mentagrophytes with C. glabrata; T. rubrum with C. glabrata; T. rubrum with P. ohmeri.

  4. Epidemiology and clinical features of dermatomycoses and dermatophytoses.

    PubMed

    Svejgaard, E

    1986-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, candidosis and pityriasis versicolor account for the majority of fungal skin diseases in Denmark and are seen in 8% of patients with dermato-venerological problems. In children, zoophilic species like Microsporum canis (from cats), Trichophyton (T) verrucosum (from cattle) and T. mentagrophytes granulare (from rodents) are the common causes of dermatophytosis and are seen in approximately 15% of all cases. Anthropophilic species are the main cause of dermatophytosis in adults and are isolated more often in males than in females. T. rubrum (48%), T. mentagrophytes interdigitale (14%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (10%) are the species usually involved. The feet are the site of infection in about 50% of the cases, toenails, glabrous skin and inguinal folds equally often in 42%, palms in 6% and the scalp in 2%. The prevalence of tinea pedis in 15-year-old school children and 20-year-old males was found to be 4% and 6%, respectively. A relative risk of 3.1 for contracting tinea pedis when being an atopic or having an atopic family was demonstrated in the former group. Pityriasis versicolor and candidosis of skin and mucosal membranes are both secondary dermatomycoses caused by endosaphrophytic yeasts. Local or systemic predisposing disorders are usually required for the development of symptoms.

  5. SDS-PAGE separation of dermatophyte antigens, and western immunoblotting in feline dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Sparkes, A H; Stokes, C R; Gruffydd-Jones, T J

    1994-11-01

    Water-soluble antigens liberated from the disrupted mycelium of nine dermatophytes (seven isolates of Microsporum canis, one each of Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) were compared by analytical slab SDS-PAGE. No substantial differences were observed between the protein bands of the M. Canis isolates, but certain distinctive bands were apparent in the other two species examined. Western immunoblotting using M. canis-derived antigens separated by SDS-PAGE was used to investigate the humoral immune response in 79 cats with naturally-occurring dermatophytosis (72 with M. canis, six with M. gypseum and one with T. mentagrophytes) and this information was compared to results of immunoblots from 46 control (non-dermatophyte exposed) cats. Seven dominant bands (bands which occurred frequently and stained heavily) were identified in immunoblots from the dermatophyte-infected cats with apparent molecular weights varying between 39 and 120 kD. None of these bands were totally specific markers for dermatophytosis as a variable proportion of the control cats showed reactivity to all these proteins. However, most (73%) of the dermatophyte-infected cats showed reactivity to six or seven of the identified bands whereas most (80%) of the control cats showed reactivity to between zero and three of these bands (p < 0.005). Western immunoblotting could be used to select individual immunodominant antigens for further evaluation of protective (cell-mediated) immunity.

  6. In Vitro Nail Penetration and Antifungal Activity of Tavaborole, a Boron-Based Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Dina; Merchant, Tejal; Chanda, Sanjay; Zane, Lee T

    2015-06-01

    An effective topical antifungal medication must penetrate through the nail plate at sufficient concentrations to eradicate the fungal infection. Tavaborole topical solution, 5% is a novel boron-based pharmaceutical approved for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis due to Trichophyton rubrum or T mentagrophytes. Four in vitro studies assessed the antifungal activity and nail penetration of tavaborole. In Study 1, tavaborole demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.25-2 μg/mL against all fungi tested; addition of 5% keratin powder did not affect the MIC against T rubrum. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values for tavaborole against T rubrum and T mentagrophytes were 8 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. In Study 2, tavaborole effectively penetrated through the nail plate; mean concentrations in the ventral/intermediate nail layer were significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 3, mean cumulative tavaborole penetration through ex vivo human nails was significantly higher than ciclopirox at day 15. In Study 4, tavaborole demonstrated superior nail penetration and fungicidal activity, as measured by zones of inhibition. These studies demonstrated the superior penetration of tavaborole through the nail plate vs ciclopirox. Tavaborole demonstrated robust antifungal activity, with low MIC and MFC values, even in the presence of keratin.

  7. A 20-year survey of tinea faciei.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Aste; Laura, Atzori; Natalia, Aste; Monica, Pau

    2010-11-01

    Tinea faciei is an uncommon dermatophytosis affecting the glabrous skin of the face. Between 1988 and 2007 at the Dermatology Department of Cagliari University, 107 cases of tinea faciei have been diagnosed, involving 72 females and 35 males, aged 2-72 years. Incidence peaks were observed between 6 and 15 years (48.59%) and between 36 and 45 years (17.76%). Males below and females above 15 years of age were the most affected. In 61 patients (57.1%), typical forms of tinea faciei were observed, whereas in 46 (42.9%), atypical forms were observed, mainly mimicking discoid lupus erythematosus (nine cases), and polymorphous light eruption (eight cases). Typical cases were present in younger patients, aged between 2 and 15 years, while atypical forms were distributed in any of the decades, but mostly between 36 and 72 years. Of the 46 cases of atypical presentation, 33 were females. The isolated dermatophytes were Microsporum canis (63 cases), Trichophyton rubrum (24 cases) and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (20 cases). Seven males and two females aged 4-10 years were also affected by tinea capitis and eight patients (three males and five females) of various ages by tinea corporis. Eleven patients (two males and nine females) aged >35 years were affected by onychomycosis. All patients recovered after local and/or systemic antifungal therapy, without relapse or side effects.

  8. Nimesulide inhibits pathogenic fungi: PGE2-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    de Matos, Rafaelle Fonseca; Mendonça, Lúcia Carla Vasconcelos; da Silva Souza, Kaira Geiliane; Fonseca, Adriana Aparecida Durães; Costa, Elaine Mirla Souza; de Lima, Marcus Vinicius Dias; Vieira, José Maria Dos Santos; de Brito, Mioni Thielli Figueiredo Magalhães; Monteiro, Marta Chagas

    2017-03-01

    Certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can inhibit fungal growth, fungal prostaglandin E2 production, and enzyme activation. This study aims to investigate the antifungal effect of nimesulide against pathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast. The experiments detailed below were also designed to investigate whether the action is dependent on E2 fungal prostaglandins. Our data showed that nimesulide exhibited potent antifungal activity, mainly against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (ATCC 9533) and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC values of 2 and 62 μg/mL, respectively. This drug was also able to inhibit the growth of clinic isolates of filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, and dermatophytes, such as T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum, with MIC values ranging from 112 to 770 μg/mL. Our data also showed that the inhibition of fungal growth by nimesulide was mediated by a mechanism dependent on PGE2, which led to the inhibition of essential fungal enzymes. Thus, we concluded that nimesulide exerts a fungicidal effect against pathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast, involving the inhibition of fungal prostaglandins and fungal enzymes important to the fungal growth and colonization.

  9. Bioefficacy of Lantana camara L. against Some Human Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B; Kumar, P

    2009-09-01

    Antimicrobial efficacy of flavonoids (free and bound) and crude alkaloids of Lantana camara L. was determined by disc diffusion assay against three bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two fungi (Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). Minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration and total activity were also studied. Most susceptible microorganism in the present study was C. albicans followed by P. mirabilis, S. aureus, E. coli, and T. mentagrophytes. The range of minimum inhibitory concentration of tested extracts was 0.039-0.625 mg/ml while minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration ranged from 0.078-1.25 mg/ml. Six extracts out of eleven tested showed same values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration, while rest showed higher values of minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration. Highest total activity (120.51 ml/g) was observed for bound flavonoids of root against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Results of the present investigation indicate that Lantana camara has good antimicrobial activity with low range of minimum inhibitory concentration hence can be exploited for future plant based antimicrobial drugs.

  10. In vitro survival of human pathogenic fungi in Hawaiian beach sand.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J H

    1979-03-01

    In vitro studies utilizing 4 pathogenic fungi, Trichosporon cutaneum, Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, all known from Hawaiian beaches, indicate that they survive in the fluctuating beach habitat where they can serve as potential sources of infection for significant periods of time. Survival was measured by testing the viability of propagules at intervals for 6 months. All species survived 6 months under 1 or more experimental conditions. Survival patterns showed both increases and decreases depending upon the given parameters designed to simulate various beach conditions. Propagules inoculated on hair and horn (keratinized inoculum) did not remain viable longer than propagules from pure culture suspensions (non-keratinized). Microbial antagonism was not a major factor in survival. All species survived at least 1 month in non-sterile sand inoculated with keratinized propagules. This condition approximated the natural sand habitat. Alternate wetting and drying of sand caused an overall decrease in survival time except for M. gypseum (non-keratinized inoculum) at 37 degrees C in sterile sand and T. mentagrophytes (keratinized inoculum) at 37 degrees C in non-sterile sand. Temperature was important: increasing temperature resulted in a general decrease in survival time; 45 degrees C was definitely inhibitory, with the exception of T. cutaneum which survived that level for 6 months (keratinized inoculum). Salinity did not influence survival.

  11. In vitro activity of the protegrin IB-367 alone and in combination compared with conventional antifungal agents against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Oriana; Silvestri, Carmela; Arzeni, Daniela; Cirioni, Oscar; Kamysz, Wojciech; Conte, Irene; Staffolani, Silvia; Orsetti, Elena; Morciano, Angela; Castelli, Pamela; Scalise, Alessandro; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Offidani, Anna Maria; Giacometti, Andrea; Barchiesi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of resistance or side effects in patients receiving antifungal agents leads to failure in the treatment of mycosis. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the in vitro effects of IB-367 alone and in combination with three standard antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA) and terbinafine (TERB), against 20 clinical isolates of dermatophytes belonging to three species. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), synergy test, time-kill curves, fungal biomass (FB) and hyphal damage using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfenylamino carbonil)-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT) were performed to study the efficacy of IB-367. In this study, we observed that TERB and ITRA had MICs lower values for all the strains compared to IB-367 and FLU. Synergy was found in 35%, 30% and 25% of IB-367/FLU, IB-367/ITRA and IB-367/TERB interactions respectively. IB-367 exerted a fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum canis at concentrations starting from 1x MIC. At a concentration of 5x MIC, IB-367 showed the highest rates of hyphae damage for M. canis 53% and T. mentagrophytes 50%; against the same isolates it caused a reduction of 1 log of the total viable count cell hyphae damage. We propose IB-367 as a promising candidate for the future design of antifungal drugs.

  12. Anti-Dermatophyte and Anti-Malassezia Activity of Extracts Rich in Polymeric Flavan-3-ols Obtained from Vitis vinifera Seeds.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Antonacci, Donato; Angiolella, Letizia; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Valletta, Alessio; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur. Dried grape seed extracts analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS showed different quali-quantitative compositions in terms of monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and for M. furfur were inversely correlated with the amount of the polymeric fraction (r = -0.7639 and r = -0.7228, respectively). Differently, the antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes was not correlated to the content of flavan-3-ol monomers (r = 0.2920) and only weakly correlated for M. furfur (r = -0.53604). These results suggest that extracts rich in polymeric flavan-3-ols, recovered from V.  vinifera seeds, could be used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  14. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  15. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  16. Delayed diagnosis of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Koika, Vasiliki; Armeni, Anastasia K; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2016-04-01

    A 36-year old man, operated on for cryptorchidism at the age of 8 years, was referred to the Outpatient Clinic of Reproductive Endocrinology for investigation of infertility. Clinical examination revealed ambiguous genitalia: penis 4-5 cm, testicular volume 2-3 ml, hypospadias, hypertrophic foreskin and scrotum bifida. Mild hypertension was confirmed. No skeletal malformations were detected. Hormonal and electrolytic determinations as well as semen analysis were conducted. PCR of the coding regions of 17-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17) and of P450 oxidoreductase (POR) genes was also performed. Normal levels of electrolytes, low levels of androgens, high levels of gonadotropins and 17-hydroxyprogesterone as well as azoospermia were detected. Karyotype was shown to be 46,XY. Both hCG and ACTH stimulation significantly increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone with no increase in androgens. The diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450c17 and P450c21 deficiency due to mutations in the POR gene. Sequencing of the POR gene revealed: one deletion in exon 12 (Del 1696_1698delGTC >del531Valine) and one missense mutation in exon 7 (A259G) as well as two polymorphisms: rs1057868 (C/T A503V) and rs1057870 (G/A S572S) in exons 12 and 13, respectively. No nucleotide changes were detected in the 8 exons of P450c17. Molecular findings were consistent with the diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. Despite this severe deficiency, skeletal malformations simulating Antley-Bixler syndrome, which usually characterize the most severe forms, were not confirmed. This discrepancy could be attributed to the differential impact of a POR variant on each one of the P450 enzymes.

  17. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  18. Dermatophyte infections in free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Rotstein, D S; Thomas, R; Helmick, K; Citino, S B; Taylor, S K; Dunbar, M R

    1999-06-01

    Three free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi) were diagnosed with clinical dermatophytosis; two were infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and one was infected with Microsporum gypseum. Two of these panthers were juvenile males that were diagnosed with focal to focally coalescing dermatophytosis; one caused by M. gypseum and the other by T. mentagrophytes. These animals were not treated, and clinical signs resolved spontaneously over 6 mo. The third panther, an adult male from southern Florida, presented with a diffuse dermatophytosis due to T. mentagrophytes infection. Initially, the panther had alopecia, excoriations, ulcerations, and multifocal pyoderma of the head, ears, neck, rear limbs, and abdominal region that progressed to lichenification of the skin and loss of nails from two digits. When topical therapy applied in the field at 45-day intervals was ineffective in clearing the infection, the animal was placed in captivity for intensive oral therapy to prevent further development of dermal mycosis, loss of additional nails, and spread of infection to other panthers. The panther was treated orally with itraconazole (9.5 mg/ kg) in the food s.i.d. for 6 wk. After treatment, nail regrowth occurred but the multifocal areas of alopecia remained. The panther was released back into the wild after two skin biopsy cultures were negative for fungal growth. Temporary removal of a free-ranging animal of an endangered species from its habitat for systemic treatment of dermatophytosis requires consideration of factors such as age, reproductive potential, holding facilities, treatment regimen, and the potential for successful reintroduction of the animal.

  19. [Epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis in Spain (April-June 2001)].

    PubMed

    Monzón de la Torre, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2003-11-01

    A three-month (April-June 2001) cross-sectional study was designed to assess the epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis in Spain. Sixty-two medical centers belonging to 14 different autonomous regions of Spain took part in the survey. A total of 491 strains were sent the Mycology Unit of the National Microbiology Center together with a form containing information on each patient. Isolates were identified by routine methods. The average age of the patients was 38.7 years and 55.6% were men. The most frequent dermatophytoses were tinea unguium (39.1%), tinea corporis (25.1%), tinea pedis (12.6%), and tinea capitis (11.2%). Trichophyton rubrum (43%) was the most prevalent species. T. mentagrophytes (21.2%) and Microsporum canis (9.8%) were the second and third most common species, respectively. Tinea unguium was significantly associated with urban residence, and tinea corporis with rural residence and contact with animals. T. rubrum was related with urban dermatophytosis and T. mentagrophytes with rural cases. Tinea capitis due to T. tonsurans and T. violaceum was related with patients of North African origin. Tinea unguium was the most prevalent infection by autonomous region, except in Castilla-León, Asturias, Andalucía and Aragón, where tinea corporis was the most common dermatophytosis. Tinea capitis was the most frequent infection in Castilla-La Mancha and Extremadura. T. mentagrophytes was more prevalent than T. rubrum in Valencia, Castilla-La Mancha, Aragón and Murcia. This cross-sectional study shows regional differences in the clinical and microbiological features of dermatophytosis in Spain. Epidemiological surveys are an essential tool for developing strategies for infection control.

  20. A Lack of Significant Effect of POR*28 Allelic Variant on Tacrolimus Exposure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Vuillemin, Xavier; Etienne, Isabelle; Buchler, Mathias; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Choukroun, Gabriel; Colosio, Charlotte; Thierry, Antoine; Vigneau, Cécile; Moulin, Bruno; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Heng, Anne-Elizabeth; Subra, Jean-Francois; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie Anne; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    POR*28 is a recently newly described allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), which might be associated with an increased metabolic activity of P450 cytochromes (CYP) 3A5 and 3A4. Consequently, carriers of at least 1 allele of this polymorphism could require increased calcineurin inhibitors doses to reach the target residual concentrations (C0). The objective of this study was to test whether the allelic variant of POR, which is associated with an increased metabolic activity of CYP3A, impacts tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. We tested this hypothesis in a population of 229 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) from a large, multicenter, prospective and randomized study. We have analyzed the association between POR*28 genotype and the proportion of individuals reaching the target Tac residual concentration (Tac C0) 10 days after transplantation. We have also measured the association between POR*28 and the Tac C0, and adjusted Tac C0 (Tac C0/Tac dose) over time using generalized mixed linear models. Ten days after transplantation, there was no difference of frequencies of KTR within the target range of Tac C0 (C0 10-15 ng/mL) according to the POR*28 genotype (P = 0.8). The mean Tac C0 at day 10 in the POR*1/*1 group was 15.3 ± 9.7 ng/mL compared with 15.7 ± 7.8 ng/mL in the POR*1/*28 group and 14.2 ± 6.8 ng/mL, in the POR*28/*28 group, P = 0.8. The adjusted Tac C0 was not associated with POR*28 genotype over time (random effects model, P = 0.9). When restricted to KTR expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 genotype did not impact the proportion of individuals within the Tac C0 target range neither the adjusted Tac C0 (random effects model, P = 0.1). POR*28 does not significantly influence Tac pharmacokinetic parameters in a large cohort of KTR. This study does not confirm recent findings indicating that POR*28 carriers require more Tac to reach target C0.

  1. P450 oxidoreductase *28 (POR*28) and tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gijsen, Violette M G J; van Schaik, Ron H N; Soldin, Offie P; Soldin, Steven J; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2014-04-01

    Both age and CYP3A5 genotype are important determinants of tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In a recent study in adults, POR*28 was associated with increased dosing requirements early after transplant of CYP3A5-expressing kidney transplant recipients. The authors aimed to evaluate the additional contribution of POR*28 to early tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Retrospective data of 43 pediatric kidney transplant recipients up to 14 days posttransplant were evaluated on tacrolimus dose and tacrolimus predose blood concentrations. Recipient POR*28 and CYP3A5 genotype were determined. CYP3A5 expressers carrying at least 1 POR*28 allele had on average 18.3% lower tacrolimus predose concentrations and 20.2% lower concentration/dose ratios compared with CYP3A5 expressers with POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, tacrolimus disposition did not significantly differ between POR genotypes. In this small cohort of pediatric kidney transplant recipients, POR*28 genotype seems to explain part of the variability found in tacrolimus disposition, in addition to age and CYP3A5 genotype. This finding should be validated in a larger population, and it would be worthwhile to evaluate the clinical impact of this genotype.

  2. In vitro antifungal activity of organic compounds derived from amino alcohols against onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Caneschi, César Augusto; Almeida, Angelina Maria de; Martins, Francislene Juliana; Hyaric, Mireille Le; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Macedo, Gilson Costa; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa

    2017-02-09

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail caused by high densities of filamentous fungi and yeasts. Treatment for this illness is long-term, and recurrences are frequently detected. This study evaluated in vitro antifungal activities of 12 organic compounds derived from amino alcohols against standard fungal strains, such as Trichophyton rubrum CCT 5507 URM 1666, Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 11481, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antifungal compounds were synthesized from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4a-4f) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (9a-9f). Minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols M38-A2, M27-A3, and M27-S4. The amine series 4b-4e, mainly 4c and 4e compounds, were effective against filamentous fungi and yeast (MIC from 7.8 to 312μg/mL). On the other hand, the amide series (9a-9f) did not present inhibitory effect against fungi, except amide 9c, which demonstrated activity only against C. albicans. This allowed us to infer that the presence of amine group and intermediate carbon number (8C-11C) in its aliphatic side chain seems to be important for antifungal activity. Although these compounds present cytotoxic activity on macrophages J774, our results suggest that these aromatic compounds might constitute potential as leader molecules in the development of more effective and less toxic analogs that could have considerable implications for future therapies of onychomycosis.

  3. Fungal infection of the feet in soccer players and non-athlete individuals.

    PubMed

    Purim, Kátia Sheylla Malta; Bordignon, Gisele Pesquero Fernandes; Queiroz-Telles, Flávio de

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of mycoses affecting the feet of soccer players and to compare this results with those in non-athlete individuals of the same age and sex. Initial evaluation consisted of a dermatological examination of the foot in 22 Chinese athletes, 83 Brazilian athletes and 24 Brazilian non-athletes. Scales of plantar skin, interdigital and subungual areas of the foot were collected for mycological examination (direct and culture). Nail clippings were obtained for histopathologic analysis. Tinea pedis was diagnosed more frequently among the non-athlete individuals. None of the Chinese athletes had tinea pedis alone. However, in this group onychomycosis was frequently higher when compared to the other groups. The fungal microbiota comprised Trichophyton rubrum (40%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (36.4%) and Candida spp (20%). Candida spp was isolated only from Brazilian athletes. Results obtained with KOH wet mounts agreed with the results obtained in culture and with histopathologic examinations (50.5% vs 40.9%). The frequency of tinea pedis among soccer players was lower than the other groups in this study, possibly due to health education and professional feet care.

  4. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Antifungal Effect of Non-Woven Textiles Containing Polyhexamethylene Biguanide with Sophorolipid: A Potential Method for Tinea Pedis Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sanada, Hiromi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Goto, Taichi; Ishii, Nanase; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs) were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings. PMID:27429269

  6. Antifungal activity of Eugenia umbelliflora against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Machado, Karina E; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruz, Rosana C B; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cruz, Alexandre Bella

    2009-09-01

    Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL).

  7. Identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophyte isolates by repetitive-sequence-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting using the DiversiLab system in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koc, A Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa A; Inci, Melek; Sariguzel, Fatma M; Sav, Hafize

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophyte species, isolation and identification in clinical samples are still difficult and take a long time. The identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophytes commonly isolated in a clinical laboratory in Turkey by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were assessed by comparing the results with those of reference identification. A total of 44 dermatophytes isolated from various clinical specimens of 20 patients with superficial mycoses in Kayseri and 24 patients in Hatay were studied. The identification of dermatophyte isolates was based on the reference identification and rep-PCR using the DiversiLab System (BioMerieux). The genotyping of dermatophyte isolates from different patients was determined by rep-PCR. In the identification of dermatophyte isolates, agreement between rep-PCR and conventional methods was 87.8 % ( 36 of 41). The dermatophyte strains belonged to four clones (A -D) which were determined by the use of rep-PCR. The dermatophyte strains in Clone B, D showed identical patterns with respect to the region. In conclusion, rep-PCR appears to be useful for evaluation of the identification and clonal relationships between Trichophyton rubrum species complex and Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex isolates. The similarity and diversity of these isolates may be assessed according to different regions by rep-PCR. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. [Mycological view of dermatophytes in humans.].

    PubMed

    Rubio, M C; Rezusta, A; Gil Tomás, J; Ruesca, R B

    1999-03-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce an infection, dermatophytosis, commonly referred to as ringworm. Dermatophytoses are common of world wide: in the United States, Microsporum audouinii and Microsporum canis, once the major agents of tinea capitis, have been superseded by Trichophyton tonsurans. Since the 1950s, T. tonsuranshas advanced from Mexico and the Caribbean and is now the prevalent cause of tinea capitisin North America. M. canisis the prevalent agent of tinea capitis in many regions of the world, including Spain, at this moment. This could be related to close association of humans with their pets. M. canis is more prevalent in urban areas and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rural ones. The superficial dermatophyte infections of the skin do not represent a single disease, their clinical appearance is dependent largely on the region of the body affected. There are more antifungal preparations available today than at any other time in medical history. Oral antifungals are indicated or required to treat hyperkeratotic areas such as nails, palms, soles and tinea capitis, patients with disabling or extensive disease, patients intolerant to or who have failed topical therapy, tose with chronic infection, those with granulomatous lesions and patients immunosuppressed by disease or by therapy. A successfull eradication of the fungi is now possible with relatively short treatment regimens.

  9. Epidemiological trends in skin mycoses worldwide.

    PubMed

    Havlickova, Blanka; Czaika, Viktor A; Friedrich, Markus

    2008-09-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are a common global problem. The high prevalence of superficial mycotic infections shows that 20-25% of the world's population has skin mycoses, making these one of the most frequent forms of infection. Pathogens responsible for skin mycoses are primarily anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes from the genera Trichophyton (T.), Microsporum (M.) and Epidermophyton (E.). There appears to be considerable inter- and intra-continental variability in the global incidence of these fungal infections. Trichophyton rubrum, T. interdigitale (mentagrophytes var. interdigitale), M. canis, M. audouinii, T. tonsurans and T. verrucosum are the most common, but the attack rates and incidence of specific mycoses can vary widely. Local socio-economic conditions and cultural practices can also influence the prevalence of a particular infection in a given area. For example, tinea pedis (athlete's foot) is more prevalent in developed countries than in emerging economies and is likely to be caused by the anthropophilic germ T. rubrum. In poorer countries, scalp infections (tinea capitis) caused by T. soudanense or M. audouinii are more prevalent. This review summarises current epidemiological trends for fungal infections and focuses on dermatomycosis of glabrous skin on different continents.

  10. Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Updates on the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Claus; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Mignon, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The spectrum of dermatophytes isolated from skin lesions had changed in last 70 years. Before the Second World War in Germany, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum ranked the first, whereas Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte since the fifties of last century, accounting for 80-90% of the strains, followed by T. mentagrophytes. This evolution is typical for Central and North Europe and it needs to be connected with the increase in the incidence of tinea pedis. In contrast, in Southern Europe and in Arabic countries, zoophilic dermatophytes, such as Microsporum canis or Trichophyton verrucosum, are the most frequently isolated. In Europe, especially in Mediterranean countries, the incidence of M. canis infection has strongly increased during the recent years and this dermatophyte is now the most prevalent in tinea capitis in children. An analysis of the frequency and distribution of tinea pedis in different occupations and leisure-time activities as well as the routes of infection are reported. The spreading of this disease in most developed countries of the world represents a considerable economic problem, since it was accompanied by a parallel increase in the frequency of onychomycosis which implies, as tinea pedis, large financial charges. In poor developing countries, mycoses appear endemically, primarily with children, and their treatment often fails because of the lack of efficient antifungals. The particular epidemiological situations of dermatophytoses and the pathogenic spectrum of dermatophytes are examined at the example of numerous countries.

  12. Frequent isolation of Arthroderma benhamiae from dogs with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Sieklucki, Ursula; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-02-01

    Molecular analysis methods have led to many changes in the taxonomy of dermatophyte species. We hypothesized that fungi displaying morphology consistent with a traditional identification of 'Trichophyton mentagrophytes' represent multiple species, consistent with the new taxonomy. Fungal specimens (n = 20) were collected directly from animals with dermatophytosis, were among those submitted for diagnostic analysis or were part of historical teaching collections. Primers that amplified a portion of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene and primers specific for a fragment from the internal transcribed spacer region were used for PCR amplification of genomic DNA. The DNA sequences from the amplified products were compared with databases to identify the isolates. Of the 80% (n = 16) of the fungal isolates identified as Arthroderma benhamiae, eight were collected from dogs. One isolate was identified as Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, two were Trichophyton erinacei and one was Nannizziopsis (Chrysosporium) guarroi, which was probably present as a saprophyte. Frequent isolation of A. benhamiae from dogs suggests a greater host range for this fungus than reflected in the current literature. Our data also suggest the potential for geographical restriction of strain types within the species. Efforts to identify fungal isolates using molecular techniques create a better understanding of diversity and epidemiology of the dermatophytes. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Flippase (FLP) recombinase-mediated marker recycling in the dermatophyte Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yohko; Maeda, Mari; Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Monod, Michel; Staib, Peter; Yamada, Tsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Biological processes can be elucidated by investigating complex networks of relevant factors and genes. However, this is not possible in species for which dominant selectable markers for genetic studies are unavailable. To overcome the limitation in selectable markers for the dermatophyte Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii (anamorph: Trichophyton mentagrophytes), we adapted the flippase (FLP) recombinase-recombination target (FRT) site-specific recombination system from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a selectable marker recycling system for this fungus. Taking into account practical applicability, we designed FLP/FRT modules carrying two FRT sequences as well as the flp gene adapted to the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans (caflp) or a synthetic codon-optimized flp (avflp) gene with neomycin resistance (nptII) cassette for one-step marker excision. Both flp genes were under control of the Trichophyton rubrum copper-repressible promoter (PCTR4). Molecular analyses of resultant transformants showed that only the avflp-harbouring module was functional in A. vanbreuseghemii. Applying this system, we successfully produced the Ku80 recessive mutant strain devoid of any selectable markers. This strain was subsequently used as the recipient for sequential multiple disruptions of secreted metalloprotease (fungalysin) (MEP) or serine protease (SUB) genes, producing mutant strains with double MEP or triple SUB gene deletions. These results confirmed the feasibility of this system for broad-scale genetic manipulation of dermatophytes, advancing our understanding of functions and networks of individual genes in these fungi.

  14. [Superficial mycoses--analysis of mycological examinations from Mycology Laboratory in Krakow in years 2010-2014].

    PubMed

    Andres, Michał; Jaworek, Andrzej; Stec-Polak, Magdalena; Radzimowska, Joanna; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections are a major epidemiological issue with increasing prevalence. Mycological examination is crucial for proper diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological and etiological factors of superficial fungal infections in Malopolska and the incidence of superficial fungal infections in relation to sex and age. We analyzed 4608 results of mycological examinations taken from patients in 2010-2014 in Mycology Laboratory in Krakow. Materials were collected from affected areas: nails, skin of feet and hands, the smooth skin and hairy skin. The material was examined directly and cultured. Among 4608 collected materials culture was positive in 1765 cases. Dermatophytes were the most common isolates (865; 49%), followed by yeasts (702; 39.8%) and non-dermatophytic molds (161; 9.1%). There were 37 (2.1%) co-infections. Trichophyton rubrum (745; 86%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (90; 10%) were the most prevalent species among dermatophytes. Dermatophyte infections occurred significantly more frequent in males, whereas yeast and non-dermatophytic molds in females. The type, and change in etiological factors of fungal infections in patients is a reflection of social behavior modification and changes in the ecosystem of the region and may be an indication for the sanitary-epidemiological actions.

  15. Pramiconazole, a triazole compound for the treatment of fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Geria, Aanand N; Scheinfeld, Noah S

    2008-09-01

    Pramiconazole from Barrier Therapeutics Inc is a new addition to the family of triazole antifungal agents that act by inhibiting fungal cell membrane ergosterol synthesis, thereby leading to increased cell permeability and destruction. Barrier Therapeutics was developing an oral formulation of pramiconazole for the potential treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (erythematosquamous skin disease), onychomycosis and dermatomycosis (including tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and tinea cruris/corporis). In preclinical studies, pramiconazole exhibited similar or superior antifungal activity to ketoconazole and itraconazole, and selectively inhibited ergosterol synthesis with a broad spectrum activity. Pramiconazole was absorbed rapidly and had a long half-life, allowing for once-daily dosing. In phase I and II clinical trials, pramiconazole reduced the growth of Candida albicans, Malassezia globosa, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, and was generally well tolerated. At the time of publication, Barrier Therapeutics had suspended the development of pramiconazole as part of a series of cost-cutting initiatives; the company had also been acquired by Stiefel Laboratories Inc. No formal announcement had been made regarding the further development of pramiconazole. The results of studies performed to date suggest that pramiconazole may be useful in the treatment of dermatomycoses when oral treatment is mandated. Promising preclinical and early phase II clinical data warrant the further development of the drug in larger clinical trials.

  16. Onychomycosis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Martinez, Patricio; Nunes, Fabiane G; Tomimori-Yamashita, Jane; Urrutia, Milton; Zaror, Luis; Silva, Victor; Fischman, Olga

    2009-09-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails with broad aetiological scope, and it represents 18-40% of all onychopathies and 39% of all superficial mycotic infections. From July 1996 to December 1999, samples of nails were collected from 588 patients with presumptive diagnosis of onychomycosis at the Dermatology and Mycology Divisions EPM\\UNIFESP, Brazil, and the diagnosis was confirmed in 247 of these cases. The most common pathogens isolated in this study were yeasts in 52% of positive cultures (Candida albicans 18.3%, Candida parapsilosis 13.8%, other species of Candida 15.4% and other yeasts 4.6%), followed by dermatophytes in 40.6% of positive cultures (the most commonly isolated organisms were Trichophyton rubrum in 33.2%, followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 6.3% and others 1.2%). Non-dermatophyte moulds were isolated in 7.4% of positive cultures (Fusarium spp. 4.5%, Nattrassia mangiferae 2.3% and Aspergillus spp. 0.6%). Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (DLSO) was the commonest clinical pattern 44.6% followed by free edge onycholysis (FEO) 38.8% and others. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that T. rubrum is the main agent causing onychomycosis in toenails, and species of genus Candida were the main agents isolated in fingernail onychomycosis in our region.

  17. Antifungal Effect of Non-Woven Textiles Containing Polyhexamethylene Biguanide with Sophorolipid: A Potential Method for Tinea Pedis Prevention.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Hiromi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Goto, Taichi; Ishii, Nanase; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro

    2014-04-08

    Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs) were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings.

  18. Identification of Dermatophyte Species after Implementation of the In-House MALDI-TOF MS Database

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Motta, Federica; Montecchini, Sara; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Despite that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool in the clinical microbiology setting, few studies have till now focused on MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of dermatophytes. In this study, we analyze dermatophytes strains isolated from clinical samples by MALDI-TOF MS to supplement the reference database available in our laboratory. Twenty four dermatophytes (13 reference strains and 11 field isolated strains), identified by both conventional and molecular standard procedures, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the spectra obtained were used to supplement the available database, limited to a few species. To verify the robustness of the implemented database, 64 clinical isolates other than those used for the implementation were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The implementation allowed the identification of the species not included in the original database, reinforced the identification of the species already present and correctly identified those within the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex previously classified as Trichophyton. tonsurans by MALDI-TOF MS. The dendrogram obtained by analyzing the proteic profiles of the different species of dermatophytes reflected their taxonomy, showing moreover, in some cases, a different clusterization between the spectra already present in the database and those newly added. In this study, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool suitable for the identification of dermatophytes for diagnostic purpose. PMID:25216335

  19. [Dermatophyte colonization on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) kept in pet stores. First report from Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Thomson, Pamela; Monsalves, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Silva, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that can be present in the flora of mammals, such as dogs, cats and rodents, which can be a source and transmission vehicle to other hosts, including humans. In Chile, there is a steady increase of acquiring guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as pets, with no local studies on their colonization by dermatophytes. To determine the presence of dermatophytes on clinically healthy guinea pigs, kept in pet stores in Santiago, Chile. A total of 52 clinically healthy animals were studied using the method by Mariat and Tapia (1966). The specimen culture and identification of the dermatophytes were performed using classical mycological procedures. Four guinea pigs (7.7%) out of 52 were colonized by dermatophytes, and were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3 cases) and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). This study shows, for the first time in Chile, that guinea pigs can be colonized by dermatophytes, which should alert administrators of pet stores, veterinarians and physicians, to keep this in mind when purchasing or looking after this type of pet in a veterinary office. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity and chemical composition of essential oils from Smyrnium olusatrum L. (Apiaceae) from Italy and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Frau, M A; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils and supercritical CO₂ extracts of wild Smyrnium olusatrum L. growing in Sardinia (Italy) and in Portugal were investigated. For the study, oils were isolated from total plant aerial part (umbels containing seeds). The content of β-phellandrene (67.3% vs. 42.7%) and α-pinene (31.9% vs. 1.2%), respectively, the main components of Portuguese and Italian essential oils, declined during the maturation stage of the umbels. Contrarily, some other important components, particularly curzerene, germacrene B, germacrone, alexandrofuran, 1-β-acetoxyfurano-4(15)-eudesmene and 1-β-acetoxyfurano-3-eudesmene, increased in fruiting umbels. The chemical composition of the Sardinian oil is rather different from those of other origin. The composition of the supercritical extracts and the essential oils is markedly different, particularly due to the high amount of furanosesquiterpenoids in the supercritical fluid extraction. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oils were particularly active against dermatophyte strains and C. neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.32-0.64 µL mL⁻¹.

  1. Epidemiological and mycological data of onychomycosis in Goiania, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, L K H; Fernandes, O F L; Passos, X S; Costa, C R; Lemos, J A; Silva, M R R

    2010-01-01

    Onychomycosis defined as fungal infection of the nail represents more than 50% of all onychopathies. Epidemiological studies have shown that this mycosis is worldwide in occurrence, but with geographical variation in distribution. The direct microscopy and culture of the nail samples were performed to identify the causative agent. Out of 2273 patients with nail infection examined between January 2000 and December 2004 in Goiania, state of Goias, Brazil, diagnosis of onychomycosis was confirmed in 1282 cases, with dermatophytes and Candida species being the most common aetiological agents isolated. Dermatophyte onychomycosis was more common in toenails than in fingernails, while onychomycosis caused by yeast had a similar frequency in both toenails and fingernails. Among the species identified, Candida albicans was responsible for 492 cases (38.4%) of onychomycosis, Trichophyton rubrum was found in 327 cases (25.6%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 258 cases (20.1%). Other fungi isolated from nail infections included Aspergillus sp., Trichosporon sp., Geotrichum sp. and Fusarium sp. In our study, yeast of the genus Candida were the dominant cause of onychomycosis in women and dermatophytes were the principal cause of this condition in men.

  2. Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2010-11-01

    Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1).

  3. Dermatophytosis in zoo macropods: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry

    2013-09-01

    Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported.

  4. Stepwise design, synthesis, and in vitro antifungal screening of (Z)-substituted-propenoic acid derivatives with potent broad-spectrum antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Khedr, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are a main reason for the high mortality rate worldwide. It is a challenge to design selective antifungal agents with broad-spectrum activity. Lanosterol 14α-demethylase is an attractive target in the design of antifungal agents. Seven compounds were selected from a number of designed compounds using a rational docking study. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activity. In silico study results showed the high binding affinity to lanosterol 14α-demethylase (−24.49 and −25.83 kcal/mol) for compounds V and VII, respectively; these values were greater than those for miconazole (−18.19 kcal/mol) and fluconazole (−16.08 kcal/mol). Compound V emerged as the most potent antifungal agent among all compounds with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 7.01, 7.59, 7.25, 31.6, and 41.6 µg/mL against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, respectively. The antifungal activity for most of the synthesized compounds was more potent than that of miconazole and fluconazole. PMID:26309398

  5. Anti-dermatophyte efficacy and environmental safety of some essential oils commercial and in vitro extracted pure and combined against four keratinophilic pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sahar Yassin; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2015-07-01

    Establish new biocontrol practices with low persistence in the environment against dermatophyte causing mycosis. Antimycotic activity of twenty-six plant-derived commercial essential oils (EOs) was evaluated against four dermatophyte keratinophilic fungi (Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes). Commercial EOs which showed the strongest mycelial growth inhibitions were selected and re-extracted in vitro from fresh plant samples. Minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and antifungal index (AI) of pure and combined extracted oils and were evaluated. All samples were collected and examined during the year of 2014. The results revealed that commercial EOs of Prunus armeniaca, Prunus dulcis var. amara, Olea europaea and Mentha piperita were the most potent antidermatophyte. The mixture of the extracted four oils was the strongest fungicides followed by the alternative two-oil combined extractions then pure extracted oils. MIC was at 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/disc for pure oils, two-oil combinations and four-oil mixture, respectively. Achieved values of AI were found variable. Using of natural products like plant-derived EOs instead of chemotherapy on pathogens can be regarded as an environmental safety mode of diseases control.

  6. Poloxamer-hydroxyethyl cellulose-α-cyclodextrin supramolecular gels for sustained release of griseofulvin.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Xelhua; Pérez-Casas, Silvia; Llovo, José; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-03-16

    Supramolecular gels of poloxamer-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)-α-cyclodextrin (αCD) were developed aiming to obtain synergisms regarding solubilization and sustained release of griseofulvin for topical application. The effects of αCD concentration (0-10%w/w) on the phase behavior of aqueous dispersions of Pluronic(®) P123 (14%w/w) mixed with HEC (2%w/w) were evaluated at 4, 20 and 37°C. The cooperative effects of the inclusion complex formation between poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blocks and HEC with αCD prevented phase separation and led to supramolecular networks that solubilize the antifungal drug. Rheological and bioadhesive properties of gels with and without griseofulvin could be easily tuned modulating the polymers proportions. Supramolecular gels underwent sol-gel transition at lower temperature than P123 solely dispersions and enabled drug sustained release for at least three weeks. All gels demonstrated good biocompatibility in the HET-CAM test. Furthermore, the drug-loaded gels showed activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and thus may be useful for the treatment of tinea capitis and other cutaneous fungal infections.

  7. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of ME1111, a New Topical Agent for Onychomycosis, against Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Isham, N.; Long, L.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of onychomycosis has improved considerably over the past several decades following the introduction of the oral antifungals terbinafine and itraconazole. However, these oral agents suffer from certain disadvantages, including drug interactions and potential liver toxicity. Thus, there is a need for new topical agents that are effective against onychomycosis. ME1111 is a novel selective inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) of dermatophyte species, whose small molecular weight enhances its ability to penetrate the nail plate. In this study, we determined the antifungal activity of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains, most of which are known to cause nail infections, as measured by the MIC (n = 400) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) (n = 300). Additionally, we examined the potential for resistance development in dermatophytes (n = 4) following repeated exposure to ME1111. Our data show that the MIC90 of ME1111 against dermatophyte strains was 0.25 μg/ml, which was equivalent to that of the comparators amorolfine and ciclopirox (0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively). ME1111 was fungicidal at clinically achievable concentrations against dermatophytes, and its MFC90s against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were 8 μg/ml, comparable to those of ciclopirox. Furthermore, ME1111, as well as ciclopirox, did not induce resistance in 4 dermatophytes tested. Our studies show that ME1111 possesses potent antifungal activity and suggest that it has low potential for the development of resistance in dermatophytes. PMID:26055386

  8. Application of cosmetic nail varnish does not affect the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in the treatment of distal subungual toenail onychomycosis: results of a randomised active-controlled study and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Ghannoum, M A; Osman-Ponchet, H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F

    2016-05-01

    As onychomycosis is unsightly, this study clinically evaluated whether the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer (NL) was affected by a masking, natural-coloured, cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later; in vitro investigations were also performed. Subjects with mild-to-moderate distal subungual toenail onychomycosis were randomised to receive amorolfine 5% NL once weekly with or without cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later. After 12-week treatment, antifungal activity of affected toenail clippings was assessed by measurement of zones of inhibition (ZOIs) on Trichophyton mentagrophytes seeded agar plates. Mean diameters were 53.5 mm for the amorolfine 5% NL-alone group (n = 23) and 53.6 mm for amorolfine 5% NL plus cosmetic nail varnish group (n = 25). Also, mycological cultures of subungual debris at week 12 were negative for all subjects in both groups. Most subjects (88%) reported that cosmetic nail varnish masked their infected toenails. Additionally, cadaver human nails coated in vitro with or without cosmetic nail varnish 10 min or 24 h post amorolfine NL application all gave ZOIs on Trichophyton rubrum agar plates representing potent antifungal activity. In conclusion, cosmetic nail varnish applied post amorolfine had no effect on the subungual antifungal activity of amorolfine 5% NL or its penetration through toenails. © 2016 The Authors Mycoses published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Identification of Dermatophyte species after implementation of the in-house MALDI-TOF MS database.

    PubMed

    Calderaro, Adriana; Motta, Federica; Montecchini, Sara; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-09-11

    Despite that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool in the clinical microbiology setting, few studies have till now focused on MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of dermatophytes. In this study, we analyze dermatophytes strains isolated from clinical samples by MALDI-TOF MS to supplement the reference database available in our laboratory. Twenty four dermatophytes (13 reference strains and 11 field isolated strains), identified by both conventional and molecular standard procedures, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the spectra obtained were used to supplement the available database, limited to a few species. To verify the robustness of the implemented database, 64 clinical isolates other than those used for the implementation were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The implementation allowed the identification of the species not included in the original database, reinforced the identification of the species already present and correctly identified those within the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex previously classified as Trichophyton. tonsurans by MALDI-TOF MS. The dendrogram obtained by analyzing the proteic profiles of the different species of dermatophytes reflected their taxonomy, showing moreover, in some cases, a different clusterization between the spectra already present in the database and those newly added. In this study, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool suitable for the identification of dermatophytes for diagnostic purpose.

  10. Distinct characteristics of Scytalidium dimidiatum and non-dermatophyte onychomycosis as compared with dermatophyte onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Prasertworonun, Nuntida; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Chaiwanon, Onjuta; Muanprasat, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita

    2015-03-01

    Studies of demographic data, predisposing factors and clinical manifestations of non-dermatophyte mold (NDM) infection particularly in Scytalidium spp. have been limited. This study aimed to compare these data between dermatophytes (DMP) and NDM onychomycosis with statistical analysis. This was a retrospective chart review of outpatients with onychomycosis in the Nail Clinic of Department of Dermatology between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 237 patients who had presented with onychomycosis were included. One hundred and eighty patients (75.9%) were infected with DMP: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 46.8%; and Trichophyton rubrum, 28.3%. Of patients who had NDM onychomycosis, 17.3% were Scytalidium dimidiatum and 6.8% were Fusarium spp. Comparing the DMP and NDM groups, family history of superficial fungal infection was significantly demonstrated in the DMP group. Approximately 50% of patients in both groups had feet infections. However, no patients with NDM onychomycosis had fungal glabrous skin infection at other sites beyond the feet that was statistically different from cases with DMP onychomycosis. In conclusion, The distinct characteristic of patients with NDM onychomycosis was absence of fungal glabrous skin infection in areas other than the feet. This was statistically different from DMP.

  11. The association of fractional CO2 laser 10.600nm and photodynamic therapy in the treatment of onychomycosis*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Guilherme Bueno; Antonio, João Roberto; Antonio, Carlos Roberto; Tomé, Fernanda Alves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nails caused in most cases by dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Despite numerous available antifungal drugs for therapy of this infection, the cure rate is low, with high rates of relapse after treatment and side effects. OBJECTIVES To present a new option for the treatment of onychomycosis, in search of a more effective and rapid method than conventional ones. METHODS Patients underwent two sessions of CO2 fractional laser 10.600nm associated with photodynamic therapy. Mycological and digital photography were performed before and after the treatment. RESULTS McNemar test with continuity correction and degrees of freedom = 1: for clinical cure rate, 13.06, with p=0.00005; for mycological cure, 17.05, with p=0.00005; 72% felt fully satisfied with the procedure. CONCLUSIONS The use of fractional CO2 laser 10.600nm associated with photodynamic therapy can be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis, decreasing the risk of systemic lesions that may be triggered with prolonged use of oral antifungals. PMID:26375214

  12. Two NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase (POR) Isoforms Play Distinct Roles in Environmental Adaptation in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Kim, Suk-Hwan; Song, Giha; Kim, Dami; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2017-12-01

    NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. To investigate whether the function of OsPORA can complement that of OsPORB, we constitutively overexpressed OsPORA in fgl mutant. In the 35S:OsPORA/fgl (termed OPAO) transgenic plants, the necrotic lesions of the mutant disappeared and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and proteins, as well as plastid structure, were recovered in developing leaves under natural long days in the paddy field and under short days in an artificially controlled growth room. Under constant light conditions, however, total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in the developing leaves of OPAO plants were lower than those of wild type. Moreover, the OPAO plants exhibited mild defects in mature leaves beginning at the early reproductive stage in the paddy field. The physiological function of OsPORB in response to constant light or during reproductive growth cannot be completely replaced by constitutive activity of OsPORA, although the biochemical functions of OsPORA and OsPORB are redundant. Therefore, we suggest that the two OsPORs have differentiated over the course of evolution, playing distinct roles in the adaptation of rice to the environment.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of POR, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of POR for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population.

  14. Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Guise, Christopher P; Wilson, William R

    2013-12-27

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

  15. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  16. Trichophyton erinacei in pet hedgehogs in Spain: Occurrence and revision of its taxonomic status.

    PubMed

    Abarca, M L; Castellá, G; Martorell, J; Cabañes, F J

    2017-02-01

    Hedgehogs have increased in popularity as pets in Spain but there are no data of infection rates of this exotic animal with dermatophytes in our country. During the period of 2008-2011 a total of 20 pet hedgehogs (19 African pygmy hedgehogs and 1 Egyptian long-eared hedgehog) suspected of having dermatophytoses were studied. This is the first survey of the occurrence of T. erinacei in household hedgehogs in Spain. The T. erinacei infection rate was 50% (9 out of 19 African pygmy hedgehogs, and the one Egyptian long-eared hedgehog surveyed). Morphological identification of the isolates was confirmed by molecular analysis. All the strains had the same ITS sequence and showed 100% sequence similarity to T. erinacei type strain CBS 511.73 (AB 105793). The Spanish isolates were confirmed as T. erinacei urease positive. On the basis of ITS sequences, T. erinacei is a species close to but separate from the taxa included in the A. benhamiae complex. Review of the current literature on DNA-based methods for identification of species included in this complex has highlighted the urgent need to reach a consensus in species circumscription and classification system accepted by all mycologists.

  17. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  18. Comparison of Serologic and Genetic porB-Based Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Consequences for Future Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Unemo, Magnus; Olcén, Per; Albert, Jan; Fredlund, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Due to temporal changes in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, a precise characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study genetic heterogeneity in the porB genes of N. gonorrhoeae was examined, and serovar determination was compared to porB gene sequencing. Among 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, phylogenetic analysis of the entire porB alleles (924 to 993 bp) identified 87 unique sequences. By analyzing only the four to six most heterogeneous porB gene regions (174 to 363 bp), 86 out of these 87 genetic variants were identified. Consequently, analysis of shorter highly variable regions of the porB gene generates high-level discriminatory ability as well as fast, objective, reproducible, and portable data for epidemiological characterization of N. gonorrhoeae. Regarding putative antigenic epitopes of PorB for Genetic Systems monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), some of the previous findings were confirmed, but new findings were also observed. For several of the MAbs, however, the precise amino acid residues of PorB critical for single-MAb reactivity were difficult to identify. In addition, repeated serovar determination of 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates revealed discrepancies for 34 isolates, mostly due to nonreproducible reactivity with single MAbs. Thus, the prospects of a genetic typing system with congruent translation of the serovar determination seem to be limited. In conclusion, analysis of short highly variable regions of the porB gene could form the basis for a fast molecular epidemiological tool for the examination of emergence and transmission of N. gonorrhoeae strains within the community. PMID:12958238

  19. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  20. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  1. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  2. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  3. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of clinically isolated dermatophytes in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Mohammad Ali; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Dermatophytes possess a wide array of virulence factors and various antifungal susceptibility patterns which influence their pathogenesis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal susceptibility and keratinase and proteinase activity of 49 dermatophyte strains from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton which were isolated from human cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical samples were cultured on general and specific culture media. Keratinase and proteinase activity was screened on solid mineral media and confirmed in liquid cultures. Drug susceptibility toward azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole), griseofulvin and terbinafine was evaluated using disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using microbroth dilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Our results indicated that clinically isolated dermatophytes from 7 major species produced keratinase and proteinase at different extents. The mean keratinase and proteinase activity was reported as 6.69 ± 0.31 (U/ml) and 2.10 ± 0.22 (U/ml) respectively. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution (MIC) results of antifungal susceptibility testing showed that ketoconazole was the most effective drug against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, itraconazole against T. rubrum and E. floccosum, and griseofulvin and terbinafine against Trichophyton verrucosum. Our results showed that all dermatophyte isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Overall, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most effective drugs for all dermatophyte species tested. Conclusion: Our results showed that antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need to select drugs of choice for treatment of different types of dermatophytosis and further indicated the

  4. Surveillance of dermatophytosis in northeast of Iran (Mashhad) and review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2013-10-01

    Dermatophytoses are considered to be one of the major public health problems in the world and are among the most commonly diagnosed skin diseases in Iran. In spite of improved personal hygiene and living environment, dermatophytosis continues to spread and persist. To determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents in Mashhad (Iran), five hundred and sixty patients suspected to have fungal infection were studied. Subjects who participated in this study were 330 males and 230 females ranged in age from 4 months to 70 years with a mean age of about 25.5 years. Clinical materials including skin scraping, hair and scalp sample, nail clipping and subungual debris were collected. All of the specimens were assessed by direct examination and culture. Of 560 patients, 166 (29.6 %) had dermatophytosis. The types of tinea according to anatomical areas were as follows: tinea corporis (33.1 %), tinea capitis (32.5 %), tinea manuum (17.5 %), tinea cruris (10.2 %), tinea pedis (5.4 %), tinea unguium (0.6 %) and tinea barbae (0.6 %). Trichophyton verrucosum was the most prevalent species followed by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The prevalence of dermatophytosis in males was higher than in females. Based on a review of published studies from different parts of Iran, there are regional differences in the incidence of dermatophytosis. Epidermophyton floccosum has been the most prevalent species, and Microsporum canis has been isolated less than from the other countries.

  5. [Generalized exanthematous pustular dermatophytid, a rare clinical presentation of dermatophytid reaction].

    PubMed

    Ronjat, L; Ferneiny, M; Hadj-Rabia, S; Boccara, O; Bodemer, C

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytids are immunologically mediated dermatologic presentations secondary to sensitization to a dermatophyte infection. They are most frequently associated with toe-web intertrigo and usually present as localized, palmar, pruriginous vesicular eruptions. We report three original cases of generalized exanthematous pustular dermatophytid associated with kerions. Two boys aged 11 and 6 years, and one girl aged 6 years initially presented with kerion secondary to Trichophyton tonsurans (case 1), Trichophyton soudanense (case 2) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (case 3), respectively. Two to three days after initiation of griseofulvin treatment, all patients presented with a pustular eruption extending from the head to the trunk, associated in one case with fever of 39°C and inflammatory chondritis. Samples obtained from the pustular lesions were sterile, serum inflammatory markers were within the normal range and skin lesions resolved on oral corticosteroid treatment (prednisone 0.75 mg/kg, case 1) or high-potency topical steroids (cases 2 and 3) given as an adjunct to griseofulvin treatment (19 to 23 mg/kg/d). Dermatophytids occur during the acute phase of infection or within a few days of treatment initiation. Lesions are remote from the infection site, contain no dermatophyte, and resolve after treatment of the infection. We report three original cases of generalized exanthematous pustular dermatophytid, associated in one case with fever and inflammatory chondritis. The main differential diagnosis is acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis secondary to antifungal drugs. Differences in clinical presentation between the two enable the appropriate diagnosis to be made as well as continued use of the antifungal medication needed to cure the patient. General or topical steroids may also be used in combination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. [Tinea capitis: Main mycosis child. Epidemiological study on 10years].

    PubMed

    Kallel, A; Hdider, A; Fakhfakh, N; Belhadj, S; Belhadj-Salah, N; Bada, N; Chouchen, A; Ennigrou, S; Kallel, K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the changes in their epidemiology, and the improving level of hygiene of the population, tinea capitis is still considered a public health problem in our country, and is the most common type of dermatophytosis in our country. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and mycological features of tinea capitis in children encountered in the Tunis region. A retrospective study concerned 1600 children aged 6 months to 15 years suspected to have tinea capitis was conducted in Parasitology-Mycology laboratory, Rabta hospital, over a 10-years period (2005-2014). Dermatophyte infections were confirmed using scalp scrapings examinated with direct microscopy using potash at 30% and/or culture on Sabouraud medium agar. Tinea capitis diagnosis was confirmed in 947 cases (59.18%). The sex ratio was 2.61 and the average age of 6.28 years with predominance in the age group of 4 to 8 years (52.27%). The most common clinical presentation was ringworm (87.65%). Ringworm large plaque was predominant (65.9%). Direct examination was positive in 884 cases (93.35%). Microsporic tinea was the most frequent (63.25%) followed by trichophytic tinea (29.78%). Positive cultures of dermatophytes were obtained in 912 cases (96.30%). The following dermatophyte species were isolated: Microsporum canis (67%), Trichophyton violaceum (31.68%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (0.66%), Microsporum audouinii (0.22%), Trichophyton schoenleinii (0.22%) and Microsporum gypseum (0.22%). M. canis is currently the most frequently incriminated species in tinea capitis in Tunisia. This change is related to a change in behavior of our population, in fact the cat; main reservoir of M. canis cohabiting increasingly with Tunisian families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Mycological examinations on the fungal flora of the chicken comb.

    PubMed

    Gründer, S; Mayser, P; Redmann, T; Kaleta, E F

    2005-03-01

    A total of 500 combs of adult chickens from two different locations in Germany (Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein) were clinically and mycologically examined. The chickens came from three battery cages (n = 79), one voliere system (n=32), six flocks maintained on deep litter (n = 69) and 12 flocks kept on free outdoor range (n=320). Twenty-two of the 500 chicken combs (4.4%) were found to have clinical signs: only non-specific lesions neither typical of mycosis nor of avian pox such as desquamation with crust formation, yellow to brown or black dyschromic changes, alopecia in the surrounding area and moist inflammation. Only seven of the 22 clinically altered combs showed a positive mycological result; the non-pathogenic and geophilic Trichophyton terrestre in one case and non-pathogenic yeast in six cases. The following fungi were seen in the different housing systems: 13 dermatophytes (2.6% of 500 samples): 12 x T. terrestre, 1 x Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 11 isolates of Chrysosporium georgiae (2.2% of 500 samples) and 149 isolates of yeasts (29.8%): Malassezia sympodialis: n = 52, Kloeckera apiculata: n = 33, Trichosporon capitatum (syn. Geotrichum capitatum): n = 23, Trichosporon cutaneum/Trichosporon mucoides: n = 12, Trichosporon inkin (syn. Sarcinosporon inkin): n = 8 and Candida spp.: n = 21, including pathogenic or possibly pathogenic species: Candida albicans: n = 3, Candida famata: n = 4, Candida guilliermondii: n = 3, Candida lipolytica: n = 3, Candida dattila: n = 2 and one isolate each of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida aaseri, Candida catenulata sive brumpti, Candida fructus and Candida kefyr sive pseudotropicalis. There is no stringent correlation between the clinical symptoms diagnosed on the chicken combs and the species of yeasts isolated. The causative agent of favus in chickens, Trichophyton gallinae, and the saprophytic yeast in pigeons, Cr. neoformans were not isolated. The most frequently isolated yeasts M. sympodialis and

  8. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  10. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-05-01

    CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe(3+) and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe(3+) or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) or addition of 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). 5-ALA and Fe(3+) increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression.

  11. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  12. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  13. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  14. Interaction of nitrogen bases with iron-porphyrin nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Gulyan, Gurgen M; Ford, Peter C

    2007-08-20

    The reactions of the nitrogen Lewis bases (B) 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm), pyridine (Py), and NH3 as gases with sublimed layers containing the 5-coordinate nitrito iron(III)-porphyrinato complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1) are described (Por = meso-tetraphenyl-porphyrinato or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions). In situ FTIR and optical spectra are used to characterize the formation of the 6-coordinate nitro complexes formed by the reaction of 1 with B = 1-MeIm, Py, or NH3. These represent the first examples of 6-coordinate amino-nitro complexes with sterically unprotected iron-porphyrins. The interaction of ammonia with Fe(Por)(ONO) at 140 K initially led to the nitrito species Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-ONO), and this species isomerized to the nitro complexes Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-NO2) upon warming to 180 K. When the latter were warmed to room temperature under intense pumping, the initial nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) were restored. Assignments of vibrational frequencies for the coordinated nitro group in 6-coordinate iron-porphyrin complexes are given and confirmed using 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide to identify characteristic infrared bands. For M(Por)(B)(NO2) complexes (M = Fe or Co), an inverse correlation between the net charge transfer from the axial ligand B to the nitro group and the value of Deltanu = nua(NO2) - nus(NO2) is proposed. These observations are discussed in the context of growing interest in potential physiological roles of nitrite ion reactions with ferro- and ferri-heme proteins.

  15. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  16. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  17. Impact of PPARA and POR polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Malinowski, Damian; Dziewanowski, Krzysztof; Droździk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify genetic markers of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity within genes encoding for regulatory elements. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of polymorphism of PPARA and POR genes on tacrolimus (TAC) dose-adjusted trough concentration and risk of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). A total of 241 White kidney transplant patients were genotyped for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs1057868 (*28) in POR, rs4253728:G>A, and rs4823613:A>G in PPARA. No significant genotype-dependent differences in TAC dose-adjusted trough concentration were observed for either POR or PPARA variants. No significant differences in the incidence of NODAT were observed between patients stratified by PPARA and POR genotypes. The frequency of NODAT among PPARA rs4253728 AA homozygotes (42%) was higher compared with heterozygotes (22%) and GG homozygotes (19%), but the difference was not significant. Testing TAC-medicated renal transplant recipients for POR and PPARA variants seems to have limited clinical application.

  18. POR*28 SNP is associated with lipid response to atorvastatin in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Drogari, Euridiki; Ragia, Georgia; Mollaki, Vasiliki; Elens, Laure; Van Schaik, Ron H N; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G

    2014-12-01

    In children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) pharmacotherapy with statins is the cornerstone in the current regimen to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and premature coronary heart disease risk. There is, however, a great interindividual variation in response to therapy, partially attributed to genetic factors. The polymorphic enzyme POR transfers electrons from NADPH to CYP450 enzymes including CYP3A, which metabolize atorvastatin. POR*28 polymorphism is associated with increased CYP3A enzyme activity. We analyzed the association of POR*28 allele with response to atorvastatin. One hundred and five FH children and adolescents treated with atorvastatin at doses 10-40 mg were included in the study. Total cholesterol (TChol) and LDLc were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. POR*28 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay. CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G genotypes were also determined with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP methods. POR*28 carriers had significantly lower percent mean reduction of TChol (33.1% in *1/*1, 29.8% in *1/*28 and 25.9% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.045) and of LDLc (43.9% in *1/*1, 40.9% in *1/*28 and 30.8% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.013). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors, POR*28 genotypes, additionally to baseline cholesterol level, accounted for an estimated 8.3% and 7.3% of overall variability in % TChol and LDLc reduction (β: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.73-6.37; p = 0.001 and β: 5.08; 95% CI: 1.62-8.54; p = 0.004, respectively). CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G polymorphisms were not associated with lipid reductions and did not modify the effect of POR*28 on atorvastatin response. In children with FH, carriage of POR*28 allele is associated with reduced effect of atorvastatin on TChol and LDLc and therefore identifies FH children that may require higher atorvastatin doses to achieve full therapeutic benefits. Additional studies in

  19. Interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and lipid lowering response with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kan-kan; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-09-01

    The polymorphic enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme s, which metabolize atorvastatin. This suggests that variations in the CYP3A5 and POR genes may influence the response to statins. We aimed to investigate the association and interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by PCR with direct sequencing analysis for 179 hyperlipidaemic patients treated with atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after treatment. For the 179 patients (including 100 males), the variant allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 were 73.75 and 41.62 %, respectively. Among all patients, no significant association was found between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily for 4 weeks. Homozygotes for the POR*28 T allele showed a significantly lower mean concentration of LDL-C than homozygotes for the POR*28 C allele (POR*28 TT vs POR*28 CC: 2.46 ± 0.37 vs 2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P = 0.019) after treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg daily for 4 weeks. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, CYP3A5 non-expressors who were POR*28 wild-type homozygotes showed significantly higher mean TC and LDL-C levels than those who were POR*28 variant homozygotes, both at baseline (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 7.30 ± 0.73 vs 6.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L, P = 0.026; LDL-C: 3.88 ± 0.70 vs 3.47 ± 0.46 mmol/L, P = 0.009) and after atorvastatin treatment (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 6.03 ± 0.64 vs 5.69 ± 0.34 mmol/L, P = 0

  20. [Control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites with the program Recicla por tu bienestar in Merida, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.

  1. Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados por el Radiofisico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez

    Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, por lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta por medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC

  2. Mujeres felices por ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2003-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality among Latino women. Several behavioral factors such as early detection and dietary practices could help decrease morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this population. Unfortunately, there are few data regarding the efficacy of health-related interventions for young Latino women. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables is a randomized intervention project designed to assess breast cancer risk reduction behavior among Latino women ages 20-40 years. The primary objectives of the project were to determine whether an 8-month integrated dietary/breast health intervention could lead to a greater reduction in dietary fat, increase in dietary fiber, increase in the frequency and proficiency of breast self examination (BSE), and reduction in anxiety related to BSE compared to controls. Herein we describe the overall design of the project and present baseline characteristics of the 256 randomized women. Our results suggest that the average daily intake of dietary fat (percentage of total energy) was slightly below 30% (percentage of total energy) among the women randomized. While over half of these women reported that they practice BSE, and few reported anxiety related to BSE, less than 27% of women were proficient in the recommended BSE technique. There are few data on the dietary and breast health behaviors of young low-acculturated Latino women. This study documents the feasibility of recruiting, randomizing, and obtaining both baseline dietary and breast health data on this unique and underserved population.

  3. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  4. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  5. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  6. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  7. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  8. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-06-30

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer.

  9. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  10. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs.

  11. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  12. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    <