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Sample records for porcelain repair systems

  1. Bond strength of the porcelain repair system to all-ceramic copings and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang J; Cheong, Chan Wook; Wright, Robert F; Chang, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of the porcelain repair system on alumina and zirconia core ceramics, comparing this strength with that of veneering porcelain. Veneering ceramic (n = 12), alumina core (n = 24), and zirconia core (n = 24) blocks measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm(3) were fabricated. Veneering ceramic blocks were used as the control. Alumina and zirconia core blocks were divided into 2 groups (n = 12 each), and a slot (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) filled with veneering ceramics was prepared into one of the alumina and zirconia core groups (n = 12). Followed by surface treatments of micro-abrasion with 30 μm alumina particles, etching with 35% phosphoric acid and silane primer and bond, composite resin blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3)) were built up and light polymerized onto the treated surfaces by 3 configurations: (a) composite blocks bonded onto veneering ceramic surface alone, (b) composite blocks bonded onto alumina core or zirconia core surfaces, (c) a 50% surface area of the composite blocks bonded to veneering ceramics and the other 50% surface area of the composite blocks to alumina core or zirconia core surfaces. The shear bond strength of the composite to each specimen was tested by a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The shear bond strength was analyzed by unpaired t-tests for within the configuration groups and ANOVA for among the different configuration groups. When the mean shear bond strength was compared within groups of the same configuration, there were no statistically significant differences. Comparison of the shear bond strength among groups of different configurations revealed statistically significant differences. The mean shear bond strength of composite onto 100% veneering ceramic surface and composite onto 50% veneering 50% all-ceramic cores was statistically higher than that of composite onto 100% all-ceramic cores; however, the differences of the shear bond strength of composite bonded

  2. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically pleasing result in the long term. Bonded indirect partial restorations are highly dependent on their adhesive interface, as these thin restorations have a relatively low cohesive strength. Therefore, preservation of sound enamel, conditioning of the restorations and of the substrate, and luting procedures are of paramount importance for a successful outcome. Even when utmost care is taken during every step of the procedure, failures such as fractures, chipping, or marginal discoloration and defects sometimes occur. Only very few of these cases of failure are presented or are a subject of interest. In this case presentation, a fracture repair is performed using an infiltration technique with a resin composite material.

  3. Effect of water storage on the silanization in porcelain repair strength.

    PubMed

    Berry, T; Barghi, N; Chung, K

    1999-06-01

    This study examined the long-term water storage affect of silanization on shear bond strength of composite resin to porcelain. One hundred and sixty square-shaped specimens were fabricated and sanded flat sequentially with silicone carbide papers. The specimens were then placed into four groups and 16 subgroups of 10 specimens each randomly. Four commercially available silane systems, two one-mix and two two-mix, were tested in this study. Teflon tubes with an internal diameter of 2.97 mm and 2 mm in height were filled with a dual cure composite resin (Mirage FLC), placed on the silanated surfaces and light-cured for 120 s. Specimens were stored in room temperature water and subjected to shear bond strength testing after 24 h, 1 week, 1 month and 3 month periods of immersion. An Instron Universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min was used for the testing. The mean values of the shear bond strengths ranged from 4.38 MPa (24-h period) to 23.90 MPa (3-month period). ANOVA and Scheffe' tests were used to analyse data with confidence level at 95%. All groups recorded an increase in bond strength after one week as compared with the 24-h period (P<0.05). With the exception of a one-mix system, all systems showed significantly higher bond strength at 3 weeks as compared with the 24-h and 1-week water storage periods. In conclusion, bond strength of composite resin to porcelain resulting from silanization of porcelain increased during the experimental period. The bond strength also varied for different silanes used in this study.

  4. Effects of porcelain thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in a bilayered zirconia system.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Viviane Maria Gonçalves de; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Bressiani, Eduardo; Valera, Márcia Carneiro; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Zhang, Yu; Melo, Renata Marques de

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of porcelain (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany) thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in bilayered zirconia systems (YZ, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany). Thirty zirconia bars (20.0x4.0x1.0 mm) and six zirconia blocks (12.0x7.5x1.2 mm) were prepared and veneered with porcelain with different thickness: 1 mm, 2 mm, or 3 mm. The bars of each experimental group (n=10) were subjected to four-point flexural strength testing. In each ceramic block, a Vickers indentation was created under a load of 10 kgf for 10 seconds, for the propagation of cracks. The results of flexural strength were evaluated by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, with a significance level of 5%. The factor "thickness of the porcelain" was statistically significant (p=0.001) and the l-mm group presented the highest values of flexural strength. The cracks were predominant among the bending specimens with 1 and 2 mm of porcelain, and catastrophic failures were found in 50% of 3-mm-thick porcelain. After the indentation of blocks, the most severe defects were observed in blocks with 3-mm-thick porcelain. The smallest (1 mm) thickness of porcelain on the zirconia infrastructure presented higher values of flexural strength. Better resistance to defect propagation was observed near the porcelain/ zirconia interface for all groups. Higher flexural strength was found for a thinner porcelain layer in a bilayered zirconia system. The damage caused by a Vickers indentation near and far the interface with the zirconia shows that the stress profiles are different.

  5. Effects of porcelain thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in a bilayered zirconia system

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, Viviane Maria Gonçalves; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Bressiani, Eduardo; Valera, Márcia Carneiro; Bottino, Marco Antônio; Zhang, Yu; de Melo, Renata Marques

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study evaluated the influence of porcelain (VM9, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany) thickness on the flexural strength and crack propagation in bilayered zirconia systems (YZ, VITA Zahnfabrik, Germany). Material and Methods: Thirty zirconia bars (20.0x4.0x1.0 mm) and six zirconia blocks (12.0x7.5x1.2 mm) were prepared and veneered with porcelain with different thickness: 1 mm, 2 mm, or 3 mm. The bars of each experimental group (n=10) were subjected to four-point flexural strength testing. In each ceramic block, a Vickers indentation was created under a load of 10 kgf for 10 seconds, for the propagation of cracks. Results: The results of flexural strength were evaluated by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test, with a significance level of 5%. The factor “thickness of the porcelain” was statistically significant (p=0.001) and the l-mm group presented the highest values of flexural strength. The cracks were predominant among the bending specimens with 1 and 2 mm of porcelain, and catastrophic failures were found in 50% of 3-mm-thick porcelain. After the indentation of blocks, the most severe defects were observed in blocks with 3-mm-thick porcelain. Conclusion: The smallest (1 mm) thickness of porcelain on the zirconia infrastructure presented higher values of flexural strength. Better resistance to defect propagation was observed near the porcelain/ zirconia interface for all groups. Higher flexural strength was found for a thinner porcelain layer in a bilayered zirconia system. The damage caused by a Vickers indentation near and far the interface with the zirconia shows that the stress profiles are different. PMID:29069155

  6. [Preliminary evaluation on self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system].

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Lu, C; Li, X L; Zhu, X M; Zhang, S; Tan, J G

    2016-09-01

    To apply the self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system in the fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal-crown(PFMC), and to evaluate its accuracy in color-matching. Twenty upper central incisors were recruited according to preset criteria, and three PFMC were made for each tooth using three shade-matching techniques. Group A: PFMC were made according to the result of visual color selection; Group B: an spectrophotometer-based color-matching technique was used; Group C: PFMC were fabricated with dentin porcelain powder calculated by the prediction system according to the L(*), a(*), b(*) value measured by a spectrophotometer. Color differences(ΔE) (measured by spectrophotometer) of three groups of crowns were calculated in the cervical, middle, and incisal regions. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Mean color differences in body regions were: Group A: 3.53±1.80, Group B: 2.86±1.63, Group C: 3.77±1.40(P>0.05), and those in incisal regions were: Group A: 2.70 ± 1.13, Group B: 2.80 ± 0.90, Group C: 3.04 ± 1.03(P>0.05). In cervical region, Group C had greater color difference than Group B(2.78±1.14)(P<0.05). Group A(3.80±2.02) and Group B, Group A and Group C had similar color difference(P>0.05). PFMC fabricated using self-developed dentin porcelain color prediction system had similar color matching compared with conventional and instrument-based methods.

  7. Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory applied to porcelain veneer systems using a colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Davis, B K; Johnston, W M; Saba, R F

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ability of Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory to predict color parameters of veneer porcelain on various backings using colorimetric measurements. Tristimulus absorption and scattering coefficients were used to predict the respective tristimulus reflectance values of A1, D3, and translucent porcelain samples after they had been bonded to light and dark substrates using universal, opaque, and untinted shades of bonding resin. Observed and predicted reflectance values exhibited high correlation (r2 > or = 0.93 for each porcelain shade). Kubelka-Munk theory offers an accurate prediction for the resultant colorimetric reflectance parameters of veneer porcelain bonded to variously colored backings.

  8. [The influences of crystallized compositions in the porcelain on bonding strength of titanium to porcelain].

    PubMed

    Mo, A; Wang, J; Liao, Y; Cen, Y; Shi, X

    2001-12-01

    Sufficient porcelain-titanium bond is a vital factor determining the clinical performance of titanium-porcelain restorations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of self-preparation La-porcelain composition on the porcelain-titanium bonding strength and to compare with the Vita Titankeramik. The present study examines 5 different recipes of porcelain by weight%: SiO2, 12%-17%; LaO2, 7%-10%; Al2O3, 9%-14%; B2O3, 23%-31%; CaO, 6%-8%; K2O, 2%-3%; SrO, 2%-4%; Na2O, 1%-3%; SnO2, 8%-10%; ZrO2, 3%-5%; TiO2, 6%-8%. Specimens were tested in push type shear with a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) were employed to reveal the microstructures and diffusion of elements in the interfacial regions between the porcelain coating and titanium to the bond strength when fired at 800 degrees C. The ratios of crystallized compositions had significant influences on the porcelain-titanium bond strength (P < 0.05). La-porcelain had the highest shear bond strength (37.76 MPa). The shear bond strength of the Vita Titankeramik to titanium was 20.18 MPa. The results of SEM revealed integrity of porcelain-titanium joints in La-porcelain and a greater amount of porosity in the interface of Vita Titankeramik to titanium. EPMA analysis demonstrated the aggregation of Si and Sn in the interfacial regions and their diffusion into the titanium. Chemical compositions of porcelain and ratios of crystallized compositions play the important role in the titanium porcelain bond. La-porcelain had the highest shear bond strength and good porcelain-titanium joints. La-porcelain is a new-style low fusing porcelain/titanium system.

  9. Evolutionary morphology of the organ systems in squat lobsters and porcelain crabs (crustacea: Decapoda: Anomala): an insight into carcinization.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Jonas; Richter, Stefan; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae) are one of three taxa within anomuran crustaceans (Anomala) which possess a crab-like body form. Curiously, these three lineages evolved this shape independently from true crabs (Brachyura) in the course of the evolutionary process termed carcinization. The entire pleon in porcelain crabs is flexed under the cephalothorax and the carapace is approximately as broad as long. Despite their crab-like habitus, porcelain crabs are phylogenetically nested within squat lobsters (Munidopsidae, Munididae, Galatheidae). With a pleon which is only partly flexed under the cephalothorax and a cephalothorax which is longer than it is broad, squat lobsters represent morphologically intermediate forms between lobster-like and crab-like body shapes. Carcinization has so far mostly been studied with respect to outer morphology; however, it is evident that internal anatomical features are influenced through this change of body shape too. In this paper, the situation in Galatheoidea is elucidated by adding more taxa to existing descriptions of the hemolymph vascular systems and associated structures and organs. Micro-computer tomography and 3D reconstruction provide new insights. Autapomorphic states of various internal anatomical characters are present in nearly all the studied species, also reflecting some degree of anatomical disparity found within Galatheoidea. The ventral vessel system of porcelain crabs differs distinctly from that of squat lobsters. The differences in question are coherent (i.e. structural dependent) with morphological transformations in the integument, such as the shortening of the sternal plastron, which evolved in the course of carcinization. Shifts in the gonads and the pleonal neuromeres are coherent with the loss of the caridoid escape reaction, which in turn is a consequence of carcinization. The arterial transformations, however, are minor compared to other instances of carcinization in anomuran crustaceans since the last

  10. Luminescent Method for Porcelain Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platova, R. A.; Rassulov, V. A.; Platov, Yu. T.

    2018-05-01

    Porcelain identification according to the material type (hard, soft, and bone) was reduced to a system of classification functions that were constructed based on interrelationships of luminescence band intensities of optically active impurity centers (Fe3+ and Mn2+), a molecular center ({UO}_2^{2+}) , and intrinsic defects (O*, oxygen center). Porcelains with different compositions and calcination conditions had different combinations and intensity ratios of bands of optically active centers.

  11. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-13 Limitations on porcelain use. Porcelain must not be used...

  12. Interfacial characterization of ceramic core materials with veneering porcelain for all-ceramic bi-layered restorative systems.

    PubMed

    Tagmatarchis, Alexander; Tripodakis, Aris-Petros; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Zinelis, Spiros; Eliades, George

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the elemental distribution at the interface between all-ceramic core and veneering porcelain materials. Three groups of all-ceramic cores were selected: A) Glass-ceramics (Cergo, IPS Empress, IPS Empress 2, e-max Press, Finesse); B) Glass-infiltrated ceramics (Celay Alumina, Celay Zirconia) and C) Densely sintered ceramics (Cercon, Procera Alumina, ZirCAD, Noritake Zirconia). The cores were combined with compatible veneering porcelains and three flat square test specimens were produced for each system. The core-veneer interfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis. The glass-ceramic systems showed interfacial zones reach in Si and O, with the presence of K, Ca, Al in core and Ca, Ce, Na, Mg or Al in veneer material, depending on the system tested. IPS Empress and IPS Empress 2 demonstrated distinct transitional phases at the core-veneer interface. In the glassinfiltrated systems, intermixing of core (Ce, La) with veneer (Na, Si) elements occurred, whereas an abrupt drop of the core-veneer elemental concentration was documented at the interfaces of all densely sintered ceramics. The results of the study provided no evidence of elemental interdiffusion at the core-veneer interfaces in densely sintered ceramics, which implies lack of primary chemical bonding. For the glass-containing systems (glassceramics and glass-infiltrated ceramics) interdiffusion of the glass-phase seems to play a critical role in establishing a primary bonding condition between ceramic core and veneering porcelain.

  13. Improvements of gas-fired kiln by use of a microcomputer control system for the porcelain manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Loong, H.; Liang, C.C.; Tseng, K.T.

    1988-01-01

    The use of microcomputer control system to gas-fired kiln not only enhanced the porcelain kiln's productivity from 75% to 95% but also saved its operation cost around US$ 200,000 per year. The self-designed microcomputer control system can simultaneous set and control the firing conditions of the period kiln which was built up in our laboratory. Our period kiln having volume of 4 M/sup 3/ was insulated by ceramic fiber which is different from use of refractory in traditional kilns. At the bottom of the kiln is an off-gas tunnel connected with a chimney. Besides the auto start-up and continuous operationmore » of kiln, the main functions of this microcomputer control system are summarized.« less

  14. Shear Bond Strength of Repair Systems to New CAD/CAM Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Üstün, Özlem; Büyükhatipoğlu, Işıl Keçik; Seçilmiş, Aslı

    2016-11-23

    To evaluate the bond strength of repair systems (Ceramic Repair, Clearfil Repair) to computer-aided design/computer-assisted machining (CAD/CAM) restorative materials (IPS e.max CAD, Vita Suprinity, Vita Enamic, Lava Ultimate). Thermally aged CAD/CAM restorative material specimens (5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C) were randomly divided into two groups according to the repair system: Ceramic Repair (37% phosphoric acid + Monobond-S + Heliobond + Tetric N Ceram) or Clearfil Repair (40% phosphoric acid + mixture of Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator and Clearfil SE Bond Primer + Clearfil SE Bond + Filtek Z250). The resin composite was light-cured on conditioned specimens. All specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then additionally aged for 5000 thermal cycles. The shear bond strength test was performed using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Two-way ANOVA was used to detect significance differences according to the CAD/CAM material and composite repair system factors. Subgroup analyses were conducted using the least significant difference post-hoc test. The results of two-way ANOVA indicated that bond strength values varied according to the restorative materials (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the CAD/CAM restorative materials (p > 0.05), except in the Vita Suprinity group (p < 0.05). Moreover, no differences were observed between the repair systems. Both the Clearfil and Ceramic repair systems used in the study allow for successful repairs. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and pre-planned for the Skylab Mission, was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs include the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The Skylab experience proves conclusively that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools.

  16. Analysis of vertical marginal discrepancy in feldspathic porcelain crowns manufactured with different CAD/CAM systems: Closed and open.

    PubMed

    Kricheldorf, Fabio; Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Amaral, Wilson da Silva; Junior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; Filho, Hugo Nary

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the marginal adaptation of feldspathic porcelain crowns using two computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems, one of them is open and the other is closed. Twenty identical titanium abutments were divided into two groups: open system (OS), where ceramic crowns were created using varied equipment and software, and closed system (CS), where ceramic crowns were created using the CEREC system. Through optical microscopy analysis, we assess the marginal adaptation of the prosthetic interfaces. The data were subjected to the distribution of normality and variance. The t -test was used for the analysis of the comparison factor between the groups, and the one-way ANOVA was used to compare the variance of crown analysis regions within the group. A significance level of 5% was considered for the analyses. There was a significant difference between the systems ( P = 0.007), with the CS group having the higher mean (23.75 μm ± 3.05) of marginal discrepancy when compared to the open group (17.94 μm ± 4.77). Furthermore, there were no differences in marginal discrepancy between the different points between the groups ( P ≥ 0.05). The studied groups presented results within the requirements set out in the literature. However, the OS used presented better results in marginal adaptation.

  17. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  18. Pipe inspection and repair system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schempf, Hagen (Inventor); Mutschler, Edward (Inventor); Chemel, Brian (Inventor); Boehmke, Scott (Inventor); Crowley, William (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A multi-module pipe inspection and repair device. The device includes a base module, a camera module, a sensor module, an MFL module, a brush module, a patch set/test module, and a marker module. Each of the modules may be interconnected to construct one of an inspection device, a preparation device, a marking device, and a repair device.

  19. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and preplanned for the Skylab mission was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Tools and spares were provided accordingly. However, failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs included the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment, and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The repairs were conducted both inside the spacecraft and during extravehicular activities. Some of the repair tasks required team effort on the part of the crewmen including close procedural coordination between internal and extravehicular crewmen. The Skylab experience indicates that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools. Design of future spacecraft systems should acknowledge this capability and provide for more extensive in-flight repair and maintenance.

  20. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  1. Implant-supported fixed dental prostheses with CAD/CAM-fabricated porcelain crown and zirconia-based framework.

    PubMed

    Takaba, Masayuki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ishiura, Yuichi; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    Recently, fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with a hybrid structure of CAD/CAM porcelain crowns adhered to a CAD/CAM zirconia framework (PAZ) have been developed. The aim of this report was to describe the clinical application of a newly developed implant-supported FDP fabrication system, which uses PAZ, and to evaluate the outcome after a maximum application period of 36 months. Implants were placed in three patients with edentulous areas in either the maxilla or mandible. After the implant fixtures had successfully integrated with bone, gold-platinum alloy or zirconia custom abutments were first fabricated. Zirconia framework wax-up was performed on the custom abutments, and the CAD/CAM zirconia framework was prepared using the CAD/CAM system. Next, wax-up was performed on working models for porcelain crown fabrication, and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were fabricated. The CAD/CAM zirconia frameworks and CAD/CAM porcelain crowns were bonded using adhesive resin cement, and the PAZ was cemented. Cementation of the implant superstructure improved the esthetics and masticatory efficiency in all patients. No undesirable outcomes, such as superstructure chipping, stomatognathic dysfunction, or periimplant bone resorption, were observed in any of the patients. PAZ may be a potential solution for ceramic-related clinical problems such as chipping and fracture and associated complicated repair procedures in implant-supported FDPs. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  3. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    SMART is an interactive decision analysis and refinement software system that uses evaluation criteria for discrepant conditions to automatically provide and populate a document/procedure with predefined steps necessary to repair a discrepancy safely, effectively, and efficiently. SMART can store the tacit (corporate) knowledge merging the hardware specification requirements with the actual "how to" repair methods, sequences, and required equipment, all within a user-friendly interface. Besides helping organizations retain repair knowledge in streamlined procedures and sequences, SMART can also help them in saving processing time and expense, increasing productivity, improving quality, and adhering more closely to safety and other guidelines. Though SMART was developed for Space Shuttle applications, its interface is easily adaptable to any hardware that can be broken down by component, subcomponent, discrepancy, and repair.

  4. Tank Remote Repair System Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    2002-12-06

    This document describes two conceptual designs for a Tank Remote Repair System to perform leak site repairs of double shell waste tank walls (Types I, II, III, and IIIA) from the annulus space. The first concept uses a magnetic wall crawler and an epoxy patch system and the second concept uses a magnetic wall crawler and a magnetic patch system. The recommended concept uses the magnetic patch system, since it is simpler to deliver, easier to apply, and has a higher probability of stopping an active leak.

  5. Stochastic scheduling on a repairable manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Jinhua

    1995-08-01

    In this paper, we consider some stochastic scheduling problems with a set of stochastic jobs on a manufacturing system with a single machine that is subject to multiple breakdowns and repairs. When the machine processing a job fails, the job processing must restart some time later when the machine is repaired. For this typical manufacturing system, we find the optimal policies that minimize the following objective functions: (1) the weighed sum of the completion times; (2) the weighed number of late jobs having constant due dates; (3) the weighted number of late jobs having random due dates exponentially distributed, which generalize some previous results.

  6. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  7. Self-repair of cracks in brittle material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most effective uses for self repair is in material systems that crack because the cracks can allow the repair chemical to flow into the crack damage sites in all three dimensions. In order for the repair chemical to stay in the damage site and flow along to all the crack and repair there must be enough chemical to fill the entire crack. The repair chemical must be designed appropriately for the particular crack size and total volume of cracks. In each of the three examples of self repair in crackable brittle systems, the viscosity and chemical makeup and volume of the repair chemicals used is different for each system. Further the chemical delivery system has to be designed for each application also. Test results from self repair of three brittle systems are discussed. In "Self Repair of Concrete Bridges and Infrastructure" two chemicals were used due to different placements in bridges to repair different types of cracks- surface shrinkage and shear cracks, In "Airplane Wings and Fuselage, in Graphite" the composite has very different properties than the concrete bridges. In the graphite for airplane components the chemical also had to survive the high processing temperatures. In this composite the cracks were so definite and deep and thin that the repair chemical could flow easily and repair in all layers of the composite. In "Ceramic/Composite Demonstrating Self Repair" the self repair system not only repaired the broken ceramic but also rebounded the composite to the ceramic layer

  8. Shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to enamel, dentine and enamel-dentine complex bonded with different adhesive luting systems.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Elif; Bolay, Şükran; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers to 3 different surfaces by means of enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex. One hundred thirty-five extracted human maxillary central teeth were used, and the teeth were randomly divided into 9 groups (n=15). The teeth were prepared with 3 different levels for bonding surfaces of enamel (E), dentine (D), and enamel-dentine complex (E-D). Porcelain discs (IPS e.max Press, Ivoclar Vivadent) of 2mm in thickness and 4mm in diameter were luted to the tooth surfaces by using 2 light-curing (RelyX Veneer [RV], 3M ESPE; Variolink Veneer [VV], Ivoclar Vivadent) and a dual-curing (Variolink II [V2], Ivoclar Vivadent) adhesive systems according to the manufacturers' instructions. Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine at 0.5mm/min until bonding failure. Failure modes were determined under a stereomicroscope, and fracture surfaces were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. The data were statistically analysed (SPSS 17.0) (p=0.05). Group RV-D exhibited the lowest bond strength value (5.42±6.6MPa). There was statistically no difference among RV-D, V2-D (13.78±8.8MPa) and VV-D (13.84±6.2MPa) groups (p>0.05). Group VV-E exhibited the highest bond strength value (24.76±8.8MPa). The type of tooth structure affected the shear bond strength of the porcelain laminate veneers to the 3 different types of tooth structures (enamel, dentine, and enamel-dentine complex). When dentine exposure is necessary during preparation, enough sound enamel must be protected as much as possible to maintain a good bonding; to obtain maximum bond strength, preparation margins should be on sound enamel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Starting System 2. Repair the Starter Rewind Spring. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on repairing the starter rewind spring on a small gas engine is the third of three in an instructional package on the starting system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use in repairing the starter rewind spring and…

  10. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  11. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  12. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  13. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Qiu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Minhao; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains. Methods Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated. Results The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes. Significance Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings. PMID:26368532

  14. [Effect of thickness and shade of porcelain of ceramometal restorations on color of gingival porcelain].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun; Luo, Yun; Chao, Yong-Lie

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color changes of gingival porcelain through varying thickness and shade of porcelain of ceramometal restorations. In this study a spectrophotometer (PR-650) was used for color analysis. The color changes of dentin porcelain and gingival porcelain with three varied thickness (0.3 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.9 mm) were investigated. In addition, the color variances of Shofu vintage porcelain shade A2, A3 and B2 were tested. The results showed that decreased L * value of ceramometal restorations and increased a * value were due to the increase of the gingival porcelain thickness, color measurements showed the same trend as the increased dentin porcelain thickness and the opaque and dentin porcelain with different color affected the appearance of gingival porcelain. The color of gingival porcelain would be changed with the differences of thickness and shade of porcelain of ceramometal restorations.

  15. [Studies on sintering of dental porcelain. (Part 1) Binary system sintering of alumina and low fusing frit (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, N; Kon, M

    1981-04-01

    Dental porcelains were made from frit and glass powder with electro fused alumina powder addition in the range from 20 to 60 wt% using sintering method at the temperature from 500 degree C to 1 000 degree C, and the effects of alumina content and firing temperature on firing processes of sintered composite were investigated. Shrinkage curves of the powder compacts varied with kind of frit and content of alumina. Particulary, powder compact with alumina addition in the range from 50 to 55% was found to have a remarkable influence for extention of firing temperature range. The densification of the powder compacts was considered to be accelerated by the dissolution of a small a mount of alumina particle into the frit and glass above 900 degree C. Expansion coefficient value of sintered composite of alumina and Pyrex glass powder gradually increased with increase of alumina content. Inversely, expansion coefficient of soda-lime-silica glass showed the minimum value at 40 wt% alumina content and then had a tendency of slight increases with increase of alumina content.

  16. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Electrical Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, diagnosis, repair, and adjustment of automotive electrical systems. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Electrical Systems, (2) Battery Servicing, (3) Starting Systems, (4) Charging Systems, (5) Ignition Systems,…

  17. [Influence of repeated sintering on the color of two brands of porcelain-fused-to-titanium].

    PubMed

    Shu, Cheng-jun; Luo, Xiao-ping; Wu, Lie

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the influence of repeated sintering on the color of two porcelain-fused-to-titanium, and the differences between the two porcelains. Thirty samples were prepared and sintered for 9 times. The color of samples were measured following sintering 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 times by ShadeEye NCC colorimeter according to two brands of porcelains with CIE1976L*a*b* color system, and calculated relevant chrome, chromatism and hue, and statistical analysis. When two brands of porcelains were sintered 5 times, the color parameters had no significant change and sintered continuely, the color parameters of L* and a* had obvious changes, but can't be observed by eyes. The color parameters of titanium-porcelains have no significant change after repeated sintering.

  18. Chemical Expertise: Chemistry in the Royal Prussian Porcelain Manufactory.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century chemists defined chemistry as both a "science and an art." By "chemical art" they meant not merely experimentation but also parts of certain arts and crafts. This raises the question of how to identify the "chemical parts" of the arts and crafts in eighteenth-century Europe. In this essay I tackle this question with respect to porcelain manufacture. My essay begins with a brief discussion of historiographical problems related to this question. It then analyzes practices involved in porcelain manufacture that can be reasonably identified as chemical practices or a chemical art. My analysis yields evidence for the argument that chemical experts and expertise fulfilled distinct technical functions in porcelain manufacture and, by extension, in eighteenth-century "big industry," along with its system of division of labor.

  19. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Thermal protection system repair kit program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility and conceptual design aspects of repair materials and procedures for in orbit repair of the space shuttle orbiter TPS tiles are investigated. Material studies to investigate cure in place materials are described including catalyst and cure studies, ablation tests and evaluations, and support mixing and applicator design. The feasibility of the repair procedures, the storage of the TPS, dispensing, and cure problems are addressed.

  1. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Brake Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory, operation, and repair of drum brakes, disc brakes, and brake system components. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Brake Systems, (2) Master Cylinder, (3) Drum Brakes, (4) Disc Brakes, (5) Power Brakes, and (6)…

  2. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

  3. Porcelain monolayers and porcelain/alumina bilayers reinforced by Al2O3/GdAlO3 fibers.

    PubMed

    Sgura, Ricardo; Medeiros, Igor Studart; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Campos, Adeliani Almeida; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This work tested the effect of the addition of Al(2)O(3)/GdAlO(3) longitudinal fibers in different contents to veneering porcelain of two dental all ceramic systems. Fibers (0.5 mm diameter) obtained by the Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG) method were added to bar-shaped specimens made by veneer porcelain (monolayers) or both the veneer and the core ceramic (bilayers) of two all-ceramic systems: In-Ceram Alumina-glass infiltrated alumina composite (GIA) and In-Ceram 2000 AL Cubes-alumina polycrystal (AP) (VITA Zahnfabrik). The longitudinal fibers were added to veneering porcelain (VM7) in two different proportions: 10 or 17 vol%. The bars were divided into nine experimental conditions (n=10) according to material used: VM7 porcelain monolayers, VM7/GIA, VM7/AP; and according to the amount of fibers within the porcelain layer: no fibers, 10 vol% or 17 vol%. After grinding and polishing the specimens were submitted to a three point bending test (crosshead speed = 0.5 mm/min) with porcelain positioned at tensile side. Data were analyzed by means of one-way ANOVA and a Tukey's test (α=5%). Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was conducted for fractographic analysis. Regarding the groups without fiber addition, VM7/AP showed the highest flexural strength (MPa), followed by VM7/GIA and VM7 monolayers. The addition of fibers led to a numerical increase in flexural strength for all groups. For VM7/GIA bilayers the addition of 17 vol% of fibers resulted in a significant 48% increase in the flexural strength compared to the control group. Fractographic analysis revealed that the crack initiation site was in porcelain at the tensile surface. Cracks also propagated between fibers before heading for the alumina core. The addition of 17 vol% of Al(2)O(3)/GdAlO(3) longitudinal fibers to porcelain/glass infiltrated alumina bilayers significantly improved its flexural strength. 10 vol% or 17 vol% of fibers inclusion increased the flexural strength for all groups. Copyright

  4. Use of heat-pressed leucite reinforced porcelain in "difficult" veneer cases: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Rouse, J S

    1996-11-01

    Two clinical situations are presented where a heat-pressed leucite reinforced ceramic veneer system was used. For these situations the system was advantageous when veneers (1) required bulk or variable thicknesses or (2) were under load from function and parafunctional activity. This porcelain veneer system addressed some of the concerns associated with standard feldspathic porcelain and castglass systems. Practitioners should consider its use for situations that require a stronger veneer material.

  5. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  6. Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

  7. [Analysis of chromatic value of gingival porcelain].

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Jun; Chao, Yong-Lie

    2005-08-01

    To study the distribution of the chromatic value of gingival porcelains. The color change of Shofu VINTAGE and Vita VMK95 gingival porcelains on the black and white backings was determined with a spectrophotometer (PR-650). The results showed that the chromatic value of gingival porcelains was different on varying backings. The color space of gingival porcelain was L*: 41.85 - 50.64, a*: 12.46 - 19.46, b*: 1.33 - 4.62. The chromatic value distribution cannot cover the color region of natural gingiva.

  8. [Analysis of the unsuccessful cases of the porcelain-fused-to-metal-crowns and bridges].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Li-Yun; Zhao, Yu-Zhen; Wang, Shao-Ping; Yang, Yue-Hua

    2005-06-01

    To discuss the unsuccessful reasons and the preventive methods of the unsuccessful clinic cases. The retrospective analysis was carried on the 80 prosthesis in 70 patients from 1994 to 2001 which were suffered with unsuccessful results after the restoration of the metal crowns and bridges. There were 68 teeth which had collapsed or broken. 20 teeth had the post loosing or shedding. Root breaking, food impaction, unharmony colors of porcelain and the changing color of gingival were 3, 3, 6 and 2 teeth. It is necessary to select suitable repairing materials and operate correctly for preventing the occurring of the unsuccessful results in the porcelain-fused-to-metal-crowns and bridges.

  9. [Ubiquitin-proteasome system and sperm DNA repair: An update].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Wei; Cai, Hong-Cai; Shang, Xue-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a proteasome system widely present in the human body, which is composed of ubiquitin (Ub), ubiquitin activating enzymes (E1), ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2), ubiquitin protein ligases (E3), 26S proteasome, and deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and involved in cell cycle regulation, immune response, signal transduction, DNA repair as well as protein degradation. Sperm DNA is vulnerable to interference or damage in the progression of chromosome association and homologous recombination. Recent studies show that UPS participates in DNA repair in spermatogenesis by modulating DNA repair enzymes via ubiquitination, assisting in the identification of DNA damage sites, raising damage repair-related proteins, initiating the DNA repair pathway, maintaining chromosome stability, and ensuring the normal process of spermatogenesis.

  10. Repair systems for deteriorated bridge piles : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop a durable repair system for deteriorated steel bridge piles that : can be implemented without the need for dewatering. A rigorous survey of the relevant practice nationwide was : conducted to infor...

  11. Evaluation of Different Types of Lasers in Surface Conditioning of Porcelains: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Mirhashemi, Amirhossin; Sharifi, Nastaran; Moharrami, Mohammad; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    To achieve proper bond strength for porcelains, adequate surface roughness is essential, which is traditionally gained by sandblasting or acid etching with hydrofluoric (HF) acid. Nowadays with the development of laser systems, serious efforts were made to apply this new instrument for surface etching of porcelains due to easy usage, safety, and more efficiency. There are different kinds of lasers and porcelains, so choosing the ones which will be good match for each other is crucial. Besides that, changing the irradiation setting can be beneficial as well. This article reviewed 33 related studies and summarized results of etching accomplished by Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG and CO2 lasers on different types of porcelains considering different laser settings and evaluation methods to bring a comprehensive insight. PMID:29123628

  12. [A study on the color difference between Au-Pt alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Hong

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the color difference between Au-Pt alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain. 30 metal-ceramic specimens with different dentin porcelain thickness were fabricated with two types of metal-ceramic alloy, each type of alloy had 15 specimens. L*, a*, b* were measured after opaque porcelain was applied, and dentin porcelain was fired 1, 3, 5, 7 times by MINOLTA CR-100. Then delta E was calculated which reflected the color difference between high-gold alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain. Comparing with Ni-Cr alloy porcelain, the color of Au-Pt alloy porcelain was reddish, yellowish and less bright. The delta E between high-gold alloy porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy porcelain in shade A2 was largest when opaque porcelain was applied. It decreased when dentin porcelain was applied. It became smallest when fired 3 times, and increased along with the increase of fire times. It was larger than 1.5 except firing 3 times. When dentin porcelain was applied, delta E which was larger than 1.5 among different dentin porcelain thickness decreased along with the increase of dentin porcelain thickness. The color difference between the two types of metal-ceramic alloy should be carefully taken into account in order to improve the quality of color matching.

  13. System to Repair Deformations in Elastomeric Hoses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-05

    ability of the hose to transport liquid and gas as intended. Repairing and/or replacing these hoses can prove to be costly, time consuming, and labor...position, filling the hose with compressed gas and immersing the hose in the heated liquid . This can be performed on portions of the hose. [0022] Other...position against the buoyant gas -filled hose 12. Accordingly, cover 34 can be used to urge members 26 into the liquid with sufficient force to

  14. Porcelain-metal bonding: part I. Effects of repeated baking process.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, S; Yoshida, T; Mizoguchi, H; Ito, M; Oshida, Y

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of repeated porcelain-baking procedures are normally practiced in order to achieve the final adjustment metal-porcelain restorations. By increasing the number of baking cycles, the undesired internal strain would be built-up, causing the reduction of mechanical properties and deterioration of color characteristics. However the extensive studies on such deterioration have not been done. In this study, effects of numbers (up to 10 times) of repeated baking cycles on baking shrinkage, surface roughness, bend strength, color changes and internal microstructure were investigated when opaque, body and enamel was individually applied or when a triple-player comprising of these three porcelains was repeatedly applied. It was concluded that (1) the bend strengths increased by increasing baking cycles, (2) the average surface roughness decreased by increasing number of baking procedures, (3) changes in color characteristics was very small in the Vintage halo porcelain system, and (4) since the pores entrapped in the porcelain remained even by increasing baking cycles, it is recommended to remove the surface pores before forming the next layer when handling the high viscous opaque porcelain.

  15. Handbook for Repairing Nonconventional Roofing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    membrane. 61 PIMB (solvent) Figure 71. Apply welding solvent to the PIB patch. Figure 72. Work the solvent Into the P113 patch. Pila 62 (solvent) Figure 73...when exposed to flame but will not burn nor support combustion . PVC repair techniques are basically the same as for a new application of a PVC fully...granules (if desired) before the final coat dries. 83 PUF F4gue 102. Remove the damaged material and bevel the s! des of the hole. 4󈧵, Figure 103. Trim th

  16. Effect of porcelain and enamel thickness on porcelain veneer failure loads in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunling; Green, Chad C; Sederstrom, Dalene; McLaren, Edward A; White, Shane N

    2014-05-01

    Bonded porcelain veneers are widely used esthetic restorations. Although high success and survival rates have been reported, failures occur. Fracture is the most common failure mode. Fractures range from incomplete cracks to the catastrophic. Minimally invasive or thin partial veneers have gained popularity. The aim of this study was to measure the influences of porcelain veneer thickness and enamel substrate thickness on the loads needed to cause the initial fracture and catastrophic failure of porcelain veneers. Model discoid porcelain veneer specimens of varying thickness were bonded to the flattened facial surfaces of incisors, artificially aged, and loaded to failure with a small sphere. Individual fracture events were identified and analyzed statistically and fractographically. Fracture events included initial Hertzian cracks, intermediate radial cracks, and catastrophic gross failure. Increased porcelain, enamel, and their combined thickness had like effects in substantially raising resistance to catastrophic failure but also slightly decreased resistance to initial Hertzian cracking. Fractographic and numerical data demonstrated that porcelain and tooth enamel behaved in a remarkably similar manner. As porcelain thickness, enamel thickness, and their combined thickness increased, the loads needed to produce initial fracture and catastrophic failure rose substantially. Porcelain veneers withstood considerable damage before catastrophic failure. Increased enamel thickness, increased porcelain thickness, and increased combined enamel and porcelain thickness all profoundly raised the failure loads necessary to cause catastrophic failure. Enamel and feldspathic porcelain behaved in a like manner. Surface contact damage occurred initially. Final catastrophic failure followed flexural radial cracking. Bonded porcelain veneers were highly damage tolerant. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  17. Advanced Self-Calibrating, Self-Repairing Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony J. (Inventor); Angel, Lucena R. (Inventor); Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An improved self-calibrating and self-repairing Data Acquisition System (DAS) for use in inaccessible areas, such as onboard spacecraft, and capable of autonomously performing required system health checks, failure detection. When required, self-repair is implemented utilizing a "spare parts/tool box" system. The available number of spare components primarily depends upon each component's predicted reliability which may be determined using Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) analysis. Failing or degrading components are electronically removed and disabled to reduce power consumption, before being electronically replaced with spare components.

  18. Complex and elementary histological scoring systems for articular cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Orth, Patrick; Madry, Henning

    2015-08-01

    The repair of articular cartilage defects is increasingly moving into the focus of experimental and clinical investigations. Histological analysis is the gold standard for a valid and objective evaluation of cartilaginous repair tissue and predominantly relies on the use of established scoring systems. In the past three decades, numerous elementary and complex scoring systems have been described and modified, including those of O'Driscoll, Pineda, Wakitani, Sellers and Fortier for entire defects as well as those according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS-I/II) for osteochondral tissue biopsies. Yet, this coexistence of different grading scales inconsistently addressing diverse parameters may impede comparability between reported study outcomes. Furthermore, validation of these histological scoring systems has only seldom been performed to date. The aim of this review is (1) to give a comprehensive overview and to compare the most important established histological scoring systems for articular cartilage repair, (2) to describe their specific advantages and pitfalls, and (3) to provide valid recommendations for their use in translational and clinical studies of articular cartilage repair.

  19. [Effect of sintering gold paste coating on the bonding strength of pure titanium and three low-fusing porcelains].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-li; Luo, Xiao-ping; Zhou, Li

    2012-05-01

    To study the effect of sintering gold paste coating of pure titanium on the adhesion of three porcelains following the protocol ISO 9693, and to investigate the titanium-porcelains interfaces. Sixty machined pure titanium samples were prepared in a rectangular shape according to ISO 9693 and divided equally into six groups. Half of the strips were coated with gold paste (Deckgold) and sintered. Three ultra-low-fusing dental porcelains (I: Initial Ti, S: Super porcelain Ti-22, T: TitanKeramik) were fused onto the titanium surfaces. A thin layer of bonding agent was only applied on the surfaces of uncoated gold specimens. The interface of the porcelain and titanium was observed with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) after metallographic preparation and sputtered with a very thin carbon layer of the embedded titanium-porcelain interface. After three-point bending test was performed, optical stereomicroscope was used to characterize the titanium-porcelains adhesion and determine the mode of failure. FE-SEM illustrated intermetallic compounds of Au-Ti formed with some visible microcracks in the gold layer and the interface of gold layer and ceramic. All the uncoated gold titanium-porcelain system showed predominately adhesive fracture at the titanium oxidation, whereas the failure modes in all gold coated systems were cohesive and adhesive, mainly cohesive. The three-point-bending test showed that the bonding strength of GS and GI groups [(37.08 ± 4.32) and (36.20 ± 2.40) MPa] were higher than those in uncoated groups [(31.56 ± 3.74) and (30.88 ± 2.60) MPa, P < 0.05], while no significant difference was found between T group and GT group (P > 0.05). The gold paste intermediate coatings can improve bond strengths of Super porcelain Ti-22 system and Initial Ti system, which have potential applications in clinical fields.

  20. Inducible DNA-repair systems in yeast: competition for lesions.

    PubMed

    Mitchel, R E; Morrison, D P

    1987-03-01

    DNA lesions may be recognized and repaired by more than one DNA-repair process. If two repair systems with different error frequencies have overlapping lesion specificity and one or both is inducible, the resulting variable competition for the lesions can change the biological consequences of these lesions. This concept was demonstrated by observing mutation in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to combinations of mutagens under conditions which influenced the induction of error-free recombinational repair or error-prone repair. Total mutation frequency was reduced in a manner proportional to the dose of 60Co-gamma- or 254 nm UV radiation delivered prior to or subsequent to an MNNG exposure. Suppression was greater per unit radiation dose in cells gamma-irradiated in O2 as compared to N2. A rad3 (excision-repair) mutant gave results similar to wild-type but mutation in a rad52 (rec-) mutant exposed to MNNG was not suppressed by radiation. Protein-synthesis inhibition with heat shock or cycloheximide indicated that it was the mutation due to MNNG and not that due to radiation which had changed. These results indicate that MNNG lesions are recognized by both the recombinational repair system and the inducible error-prone system, but that gamma-radiation induction of error-free recombinational repair resulted in increased competition for the lesions, thereby reducing mutation. Similarly, gamma-radiation exposure resulted in a radiation dose-dependent reduction in mutation due to MNU, EMS, ENU and 8-MOP + UVA, but no reduction in mutation due to MMS. These results suggest that the number of mutational MMS lesions recognizable by the recombinational repair system must be very small relative to those produced by the other agents. MNNG induction of the inducible error-prone systems however, did not alter mutation frequencies due to ENU or MMS exposure but, in contrast to radiation, increased the mutagenic effectiveness of EMS. These experiments demonstrate

  1. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  2. Cross-contamination in Porcelain Mortars.

    PubMed

    Bauer-Brandl, A; Falck, A; Ingebrigtsen, L; Nilson, C

    2001-01-01

    Porcelain mortars and pestles are frequently used to comminute drug substances on a small scale and (in some cases) in the production of liquid and semisolid suspensions. Although it is generally accepted that removal of a drug substance from a rough surface by rinsing may be difficult and may lead to cross-contamination, no hard data support that theory. In this study, the amount of salicylic acid remaining on a porcelain mortar after different washing procedures was quantified and compared with the amount remaining on a plastic mortar. Drug residues in the "mg" range on the porcelain mortars made common rinsing procedures appear inappropriate, but no traces of drug were detected on plastic mortars. In addition, the quality of suspension ointments with respect to particle size and homogeneity produced by the two types of mortars was compared. Porcelain and plastic mortars appeared equally suitable for use in the production of semisolid suspensions.

  3. Iterative Repair Planning for Spacecraft Operations Using the Aspen System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, G.; Knight, R.; Chien, S.; Fukunaga, A.; Govindjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN). ASPEN encodes complex spacecraft knowledge of operability constraints, flight rules, spacecraft hardware, science experiments and operations procedures to allow for automated generation of low level spacecraft sequences. Using a technique called iterative repair, ASPEN classifies constraint violations (i.e., conflicts) and attempts to repair each by performing a planning or scheduling operation. It must reason about which conflict to resolve first and what repair method to try for the given conflict. ASPEN is currently being utilized in the development of automated planner/scheduler systems for several spacecraft, including the UFO-1 naval communications satellite and the Citizen Explorer (CX1) satellite, as well as for planetary rover operations and antenna ground systems automation. This paper focuses on the algorithm and search strategies employed by ASPEN to resolve spacecraft operations constraints, as well as the data structures for representing these constraints.

  4. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Hansen presented a course, Concepts and Models for Repairable Systems Reliability, at the 2009 Centro de Investigacion en Mathematicas ( CIMAT ). The...recurrent event by calculating the mean quantity of recurrent events of the population of systems at risk at that point in time. The number of systems at... risk is the number of systems that are operating and providing information. [9] Information can be obscured by data censoring and truncation. One

  5. Optimal inventories for overhaul of repairable redundant systems - A Markov decision model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A Markovian decision model was developed to calculate the optimal inventory of repairable spare parts for an avionics control system for commercial aircraft. Total expected shortage costs, repair costs, and holding costs are minimized for a machine containing a single system of redundant parts. Transition probabilities are calculated for each repair state and repair rate, and optimal spare parts inventory and repair strategies are determined through linear programming. The linear programming solutions are given in a table.

  6. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  7. Effect of cooling rate on leucite volume fraction in dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Mackert, J R; Evans, A L

    1991-02-01

    Prasad et al. (1988) have shown that slow cooling of dental porcelain produces increases in thermal expansion sufficient to make a compatible metal-porcelain system incompatible. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the increase in porcelain thermal expansion might be attributable to crystallization of additional leucite during slow cooling of the porcelain. Eight x-ray diffraction specimens for each of six commercial dental porcelains and for the Component No. 1 frit of the Weinstein and Weinstein (1962) and Weinstein et al. (1962) patents were fabricated and divided into two groups. Specimens in the first group (termed fast-cooled) were cooled in the conventional manner by removing them from the furnace at the maximum firing temperature immediately into room air. Specimens in the second group (termed slow-cooled) were cooled slowly by interrupting power to the furnace muffle and allowing them to cool inside the closed furnace. Quantitative x-ray diffraction was performed on the fast- and slow-cooled porcelain specimens with standards containing leucite volume fractions of 0.111, 0.223, 0.334, and 0.445. Unpaired, one-tailed t tests were performed on the fast- and slow-cool data, and a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in the amount of leucite (as a function of the slow cooling) was found for each of the porcelains. The increases in the leucite volume fractions resulting from the slow cooling ranged from a low of 8.5% to a high of 55.8%, with an average increase of 26.9%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. [Influence of different porcelain surface treatment method on the bonding of metal brackets to porcelain].

    PubMed

    Fan, Cun-Hui; Chen, Jie; Liu, Xin-Qiang; Ma, Xin

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the influence of different porcelain surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to porcelain. 80 porcelain facets were divided randomly into two groups according to different adhesive material that was used to bond metal brackets. Adhesive material were Jing-Jin enamel adhesive and light-cured composite resin. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to different surface treatment methods, which were acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF), deglazing by grinding and silanating the porcelain surface. All specimens were stored in 37 degrees C water for 24 hours and then the shear bond strength and the porcelain fracture after debonding was determined. The porcelain surfaces after HF etching, H3PO4 etching and deglazing by grinding were examined by scanning electron microscopy respectively. The shear bond strengths in the HF etching groups, the deglazing groups and the silanating groups were much greater than that in the phosphoric etching groups (P < 0.01). Adequate orthodontic bonding strength was achieved both when bonded with light-cured composite resin after deglazing by grinding and when bonded with either of these adhesives after HF etching or surface silanating. There were no differences in the rates of porcelain fractures among groups (P > 0.05). HF etching, deglazing by grinding and silanating can all increase the shear bond strength between metal bracket and porcelain. Surface silanating of porcelain is a better surface treatment when metal brackets bonded to porcelain.

  9. DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Estela; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2017-10-30

    Living organisms are usually exposed to various DNA damaging agents so the mechanisms to detect and repair diverse DNA lesions have developed in all organisms with the result of maintaining genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair machinery contribute to cancer, certain diseases, and aging. Therefore, conserving the genomic sequence in organisms is key for the perpetuation of life. The machinery of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar. Plants also share mechanisms for DNA repair with animals, although they differ in other important details. Plants have, surprisingly, been less investigated than other living organisms in this context, despite the fact that numerous lethal mutations in animals are viable in plants. In this manuscript, a worldwide bibliometric analysis of DDR systems and DDR research in plants was made. A comparison between both subjects was accomplished. The bibliometric analyses prove that the first study about DDR systems in plants (1987) was published thirteen years later than that for other living organisms (1975). Despite the increase in the number of papers about DDR mechanisms in plants in recent decades, nowadays the number of articles published each year about DDR systems in plants only represents 10% of the total number of articles about DDR. The DDR research field was done by 74 countries while the number of countries involved in the DDR & Plant field is 44. This indicates the great influence that DDR research in the plant field currently has, worldwide. As expected, the percentage of studies published about DDR systems in plants has increased in the subject area of agricultural and biological sciences and has diminished in medicine with respect to DDR studies in other living organisms. In short, bibliometric results highlight the current interest in DDR research in plants among DDR studies and can open new perspectives in the research field of DNA damage repair.

  10. [Study on the matching of the shade between beverage and modifying porcelain shade guide].

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiang-wu; Li, Shui-gen; Lin, Jin-ying

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the matching of the shade between beverage and modifying porcelain shade guide according to Munsell color order system, thus to provide the reference basis for selecting modifying porcelain to mimic the stain of natural tooth by technician. The shade of Vita Akzent, Vita Interno, Shofu Vintage & Unibond and Noritake Super Porcelain EX-3 shade tabs as well as 15 kinds of beverage were measured according to Munsell color order system on Color-Eye 7000A spectrophotometer. The difference of the frequency of approximate hue, value, and chroma between shade tabs and beverage were compared by calculating the Fisher exact probabilities. The frequency of approximate hue between 4 kinds of shade tabs and 15 kinds of bev-erage was significant different (P<0.05), while the frequency of approximate value, and chroma was not significant different (P>0.05). Except the hue, the color distribution of 4 kinds of shade tabs was similar to that of 15 kinds of beverage. But the color of beverage also can be approximately matched by any kind of modifying porcelain by mixing porcelain powder of appropriate hue, value, and chroma.

  11. A comparison between the shear bond strength of brackets bonded to glazed and deglazed porcelain surfaces with resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement and a bis-GMA resin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Abraham B; Cárdenas, Marianela

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the shear bond strength of a light-cure resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement with a bis-GMA light-cure resin system in the bonding of stainless steel brackets to glazed and deglazed porcelain surfaces. Porcelain surfaces were divided into 4 groups: group 1, deglazed porcelain surfaces with Transbond XT, group 2, glazed porcelain surfaces with Transbond XT; group 3, deglazed porcelain surfaces with Fuji Ortho LC; and group 4, porcelain surfaces with Fuji Ortho LC. Microetching with 50-microm aluminum oxide for 2 seconds at a distance of 5 mm deglazed the porcelain surfaces in groups 1 and 3. All brackets were bonded to the porcelain surfaces using the same procedure and light-cured for 40 seconds with a visible light. All samples were thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 300 cycles before testing for shear bond strength with a universal testing machine. The analysis of variance showed no significant difference (P < .05) among the 4 groups; ie, group 1, 10.12 MPa; group 2, 7.00 MPa; group 3, 6.78 MPa; and group 4, 11.15 MPa. The F test also failed to demonstrate any statistical difference among the groups. Conditioning the porcelain surfaces with 37% phosphoric acid immediately followed by a nonhydrolyzed silane coupling agent resulted in clinically adequate bond strength when using either a composite resin or a resin-reinforced glass-ionomer cement. Microetching of these porcelain surfaces apparently offers no bonding advantage.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6660 - Porcelain powder for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Porcelain powder for clinical use. 872.6660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6660 Porcelain powder for clinical use. (a) Identification. Porcelain powder for clinical use is a device consisting of a mixture of kaolin...

  13. Influence of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Zeng, Jishan; Wang, Shaoan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Qian; Chen, Pixiu; Zhou, Shujuan; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments after different storage time and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces. 128 disc-shaped porcelain specimens were randomly assigned to the following surface treatments: 9.6% HFA, 9.6% HFA combined with silane, 50 μ aluminum trioxide sandblasting followed by silane and application of silane after 37% phosphoric acid. Metal or ceramic brackets were bonded onto each treated porcelain facet with light cured resin. The samples were stored in 37 °C water 1 day or 7 days, thermocycled 500 times from 5 to 55 °C. The shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min), and statistically analyzed. The bond failure sites were classified according to ARI system. The surface of the glazed, sandblasted, hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid etched porcelain were examined with SEM. All groups achieved reasonable bond strengths to withstand the application of orthodontic forces. Water storage for 7 days caused lower shear bond strength than that of 1 day. But there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean shear bond strength provided by ceramic bracket with mechanical retention had no statistical difference with that of metal bracket. Therefore, the optimal treatment for orthodontic brackets bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid combined with silane.

  14. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: COST OF REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandates that EPA be concerned with the supply of potable water to the consumer. Although most emphasis has been placed on water quality as it leaves the treatment plant interest is increasing in the role of the distribution system in causing w...

  15. Improved bonding of adhesive resin to sintered porcelain with the combination of acid etching and a two-liquid silane conditioner.

    PubMed

    Kato, H; Matsumura, H; Ide, T; Atsuta, M

    2001-01-01

    This study determined the bond strengths of adhesive resins joined to a feldspathic porcelain (VMK 68) for the purpose of developing the most durable surface preparation for the porcelain. Three porcelain surfaces-ground, air-abraded with alumina, and etched with hydrofluoric acid-were prepared. A two-liquid porcelain conditioner that contained both 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META) and a silane coupler (Porcelain Liner M) was used as the priming agent. Each of the two liquid components of the conditioner was also used individually in order to examine the effects of the respective chemical ingredients on adhesive bonding. Two methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based resins initiated with tri-n-butylborane (TBB) either with or without 4-META (MMA-TBB and 4-META/MMA-TBB resins) were used as the luting agents. Shear bond strengths were determined both before and after thermocycling. Shear testing results indicated that thermocycling was effective for disclosing poor bonding systems, and that both mechanical and chemical retention were indispensable for bonding the porcelain. Of the combinations assessed, etching with hydrofluoric acid followed by two-liquid priming with the Porcelain Liner M material generated the most durable bond strength (33.3 MPa) for the porcelain bonded with the 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (Super-Bond C&B).

  16. Effect of tooth substrate and porcelain thickness on porcelain veneer failure loads in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunling; Green, Chad C; Sederstrom, Dalene A; McLaren, Edward A; Chalfant, James A; White, Shane N

    2017-12-19

    Bonded porcelain veneers are widely used esthetic restorations. High success and survival rates have been reported, but failures do occur. Fractures are the commonest failure mode. Minimally invasive or thin veneers have gained popularity. Increased enamel and porcelain thickness improve the strength of veneers bonded to enamel, but less is known about dentin or mixed substrates. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the influences of tooth substrate type (all-enamel, all-dentin, or half-dentin-half-enamel) and veneer thickness on the loads needed to cause initial and catastrophic porcelain veneer failure. Model discoid porcelain veneer specimens of varying thicknesses were bonded to the flattened facial surfaces of incisors with different enamel and dentin tooth substrates, artificially aged, and loaded to failure with a small sphere. Initial and catastrophic fracture events were identified and analyzed statistically and fractographically. Fracture events included initial Hertzian cracks, intermediate radial cracks, and catastrophic gross failure. All specimens retained some porcelain after catastrophic failure. Cement failure occurred at the cement-porcelain interface not at the cement-tooth interface. Porcelain veneers bonded to enamel were substantially stronger and more damage-tolerant than those bonded to dentin or mixed substrates. Increased porcelain thickness substantially raised the loads to catastrophic failure on enamel substrates but only moderately raised the loads to catastrophic failure on dentin or mixed substrates. The veneers bonded to half-dentin-half-enamel behaved remarkably like those bonded wholly to dentin. Porcelain veneers bonded to enamel were substantially stronger and more damage-tolerant than those bonded to dentin or half-enamel-half dentin. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Addition of platinum and silver nanoparticles to toughen dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have investigated toughening porcelain that is layered over a frame or a core. The introduction of residual compressive stress to the surface of porcelain has been shown to be effective to strengthen it. In the present study, nanoparticles of precious metals of silver and platinum (rather than non-precious metals) were used to evaluate if they could increase the fracture resistance of porcelain. The addition of silver and platinum nanoparticles was found to improve the mechanical properties of porcelain since it increased both the Young's modulus and the fracture toughness of commercial porcelain.

  18. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. K.; Yu, Y. C.; Wang, C. W.; Liu, T. Y.; Wu, C. M.; Chen, K. M.; Lin, S. S.

    1999-04-01

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  19. [Study on the reorganization of standards related to food contact ceramics and porcelains].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Shan; Wang, Zhutian

    2014-07-01

    To solve the problem of overlap, iterance and conflict among current standards related to food contact ceramics and porcelains. To collect all the current standards related to food contact ceramics and porcelains and reorganize them following the settled principles and method and list the standards that need to be revoked, revised, incorporated, or keep valid and excluded from the food safety standard system. 19 standards were collected in this study and reorganized. The main food safety indexes in these standards were the limits for lead and cadmium that released from food contact ceramics and porcelains. There were released limits for lead and cadmium in 10 standards, including 4 horizontal standards and 6 commodity standards. The provisions in these 10 standards were in conflict. And as a result of this, the 4 horizontal standards were suggested to be incorporated and revised to one food safety standard, while the 6 commodity standards were suggested to be revised and exclude the lead and cadmium provisions. Another 7 commodity standards only referenced provisions for lead and cadmium limits from horizontal standards, and these 7 standards were suggested to be excluded from food safety standard system. There were no food safety indexes in 2 standards of the 19 standards, these standards were considered not related to food safety and no need to be reorganized. There were conflicts about the released limits of lead and cadmium among the current standards related to food contact ceramics and porcelains. So, it is necessary to a set up a new food safety standard for released lead and cadmium permissible limits which can apply to all food contact ceramics and porcelains. This food safety standard should be based on food safety risk assessment and the actual situations of manufacture and usage of food contact ceramics and porcelains. The provisions in international standards and relative standards from other countries can also provide references to this standard.

  20. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bending fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a finite-element analysis taking into account stress-shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was considerably less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred via a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rehabilitation of the dominance of maxillary central incisors with refractory porcelain veneers requiring minimal tooth preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Saab, Rafaella; Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    Central dominance is an important element of an esthetic smile. Color, form, and size have been suggested as tools for assessing the dominance of maxillary teeth. A spectrophotometer can be used to determine the value, hue, and chroma. Correct sizing of restorations according to the central incisor dominance principle improves not only esthetics but also aspects of occlusion, such as anterior guidance. Refractory porcelain systems can effectively restore the color, shape, emergence profile, and incisal translucency. This report illustrates the esthetic and occlusal rehabilitation of the dominance of maxillary central incisors using fabricated minimal thickness refractory porcelain veneers.

  2. [An experimental research on the fabrication of the fused porcelain to CAD/CAM molar crown].

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Zhou, Yongyao; Liao, Wenhe; Yu, Qing; An, Tao; Jiao, Yiqun

    2007-02-01

    This paper introduced the fabrication process of the fused porcelain to molar crown with CAD/CAM technology. Firstly, preparation teeth data was retrieved by the 3D-optical measuring system. Then, we have reconstructed the inner surface designed the outer surface shape with the computer aided design software. Finally, the mini high-speed NC milling machine was used to produce the fused porcelain to CAD/CAM molar crown. The result has proved that the fabrication process is reliable and efficient. The dental restoration quality is steady and precise.

  3. Optimum Repair Level Analysis (ORLA) for the Space Transportation System (STS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    A repair level analysis method applied to a space shuttle scenario is presented. A determination of the most cost effective level of repair for reparable hardware, the location for the repair, and a system which will accrue minimum total support costs within operational and technical constraints over the system design are defined. The method includes cost equations for comparison of selected costs to completion for assumed repair alternates.

  4. [Study on content of nickel in saliva released from the nickel-chromium and the nickel-chromium-titanium porcelain alloy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Tai-Qiang; Wei, Hong

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the content of nickel (Ni) ion in patients' saliva after wearing the porcelain-fused-to nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) crown or the porcelain-fused-to nickel-chromium-titanium(Ni-Cr-Ti) crown. 50 patients who had one molar or premolar needed repairing were selected and divided into two groups randomly. Patients in one group were fabricated with porcelain-fused-to Ni-Cr crown and the patients in the other group were fabricated with porcelain-fused-to Ni-Cr-Ti crown. Collect the patients' saliva before wearing, 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after wearing. The content of Ni ion in saliva was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The content of Ni ion in both groups increased at the first week, and go back after 6 months. There were no significant differences before wearing, 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after wearing. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Wearing the porcelain-fused-to Ni-Cr crown or the porcelain-fused-to Ni-Cr-Ti crown has no significant influence on the content of Ni ion in saliva.

  5. Porcelain thickness and cement shade effects on the colour and translucency of porcelain veneering materials.

    PubMed

    Kürklü, Duygu; Azer, Shereen S; Yilmaz, Burak; Johnston, William M

    2013-11-01

    Purposes of this in vitro study include evaluating colour changes in combinations of feldspathic porcelain and cement resulting from different thicknesses of porcelain and different shades of composite luting agent, and evaluating relative translucency parameter (RTP) values. Porcelain discs of shade A1 at nominal thicknesses of 0.5 and 1.0mm were bonded to cements of three shades in a factorial design. Colours were calculated for CIE D65 Illuminant and Standard Human Observer on black, grey and white backings. A colour difference (CD) was calculated of each possible pair of different porcelain thickness values for the same cement shade and each possible pair of different cement shades for the same porcelain thickness. RTP was analyzed by ANOVA and selected pairwise comparisons. All mean CDs studied were perceptible and most were at or greater than the clinical acceptability threshold, with the notable exception that the mean CDs and their confidence limits were below the clinical acceptability threshold for a change in porcelain thickness when utilizing the Clear cement shade. Variation in the shade of the resin luting cement will result in CDs which are near or beyond clinical acceptability. A decrease in porcelain thickness did significantly increase RTP when bonded to the resin cement shades studied. Changes in porcelain thickness or cement shade may adversely affect basic aesthetic properties of these materials. Development of methods for analyzing aesthetic effects over greater ranges of thickness for these materials would improve the prognosis for using these materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Friction Stir Weld System for Welding and Weld Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Romine, Peter L. (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A friction stir weld system for welding and weld repair has a base foundation unit connected to a hydraulically controlled elevation platform and a hydraulically adjustable pin tool. The base foundation unit may be fixably connected to a horizontal surface or may be connected to a mobile support in order to provide mobility to the friction stir welding system. The elevation platform may be utilized to raise and lower the adjustable pin tool about a particular axis. Additional components which may be necessary for the friction stir welding process include back plate tooling, fixturing and/or a roller mechanism.

  7. Low absorptance porcelain-on-aluminum coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.

    1979-01-01

    Porcelain thermal-control coating for aluminum sheet and foil has solar absorptance of 0.22. Specially formulated coating absorptance is highly stable, changing only 0.03 after 1,000 hours of exposure to simulated sunlight and can be applied by standard commercial methods.

  8. [The bonding characteristic of titanium and RG experiment porcelain].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei-hong; Guo, Tian-wen; Tian, Jie-mo; Zhang, Yun-long

    2003-07-01

    To study the bonding characteristic of Titanium and RG experiment porcelain. 5 specimens with a size of 10 mm x 5 mm x 1.4 mm were cast from pure titanium. Then 1 mm of RG experiment opaque and body porcelain were fused on the surface of the titanium specimens. The interface of titanium and porcelain was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope with energy-despersive spectrometry; 6 metal specimens with the size of 25 mm x 3 mm x 0.5 mm were cast from Ni-Cr alloy and a uniform thickness of 1 mm of VMK 99 porcelain was veneered on the central area of 8 mm x 3 mm 18 metal specimens as the same size were cast from pure titanium. The uniform thickness of 1 mm of VITA TITANKERAMIK porcelain, of Noritake super porcelain Ti-22 and of RG experiment porcelain were veneered on every 6 specimens respectively in the central area of 8 mm x 3 mm. The specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test on a load-test machine with a span of 20 mm, then the failure loads were recorded and statistically analysised. The RG porcelain/titanium crown was fabricated by fusing RG opaque porcelain and body porcelain to cast titanium substrate crown. The SEM results show no porosity and crackle were found in the interface. The energy-dispersive spectrometry show that there are Si, Ti and O in the 1 micro m layer between porcelain and titanium, which suggesting titanium and experiment porcelain bonding well. The three point test showed the fracture force for the combinations of titanium/VITA TITANKERAMIK porcelain, titanium/Noritake super porcelain Ti-22 and titanium/RG experiment porcelain were (7.233 +/- 2.539) N, (5.533 +/- 1.199) N and (6.316 +/- 1.433) N respectively. There were not statistically significant differences among them (t test, P < 0.01). The fracture force for the Ni-Cr alloy/VMK99 porcelain combination (12.733 +/- 3.297) N was significantly greater than those of the cast titanium/porcelain (t test, P > 0.05). The crown was translucent with no crack. RG porcelain is

  9. Development of a robotic system of nonstripping pipeline repair by reinforced polymeric compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalkin, LA

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the possibility of creating a robotic system for pipeline repair. The pipeline repair is performed due to inner layer formation by special polyurethane compositions reinforced by short glass fiber strands. This approach provides the opportunity to repair pipelines without excavation works and pipe replacement.

  10. [Comparison of translucency between enamel, dentin and Vita veneer porcelain].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fang; Chao, Yong-lie; Zhu, Zhi-min

    2007-12-01

    To compare the translucency between enamel, dentin and dental porcelain. 32 newly extracted vital human central incisors were collected and cut into 0.8mm enamel slices and 1.0 mm dentin slices. 1.0 mm dental porcelain specimen were made with different Vita veneer porcelain, EN1, EN2, T4, Window, A1, A2, A3, A3.5, A4, B2, C2, D2, 3 samples for each kind. The transmittance and reflectance of tooth slices and porcelain specimen were measured by PR-650 spectra scan spectrocolorimeter. The transmittance coefficients were also calculated. The 95% confidence interval was obtained by SPSS 12.0 software package. SNK method was used to compare the transmittance coefficients of different dentin porcelains. The transmittance coefficient of tooth enamel ranged from 0.0817 mm(-1) to 0.1009 mm(-1), which was higher than that of two kinds of enamel porcelain (0.0507 mm(-1) for EN1 and 0.0408 mm(-1) for EN2). The transmittance coefficient of dentin (0.0418-0.0482 mm(-1)) was also higher than that of dentin porcelain (0.016-0.027 mm(-1)). The transmittance coefficient of dentin porcelain decreased with the increasing of chroma (P<0.05). Prominent difference exists between translucency of tooth tissue and dental porcelain, especially between enamel and enamel porcelain.

  11. Successful repair of a ventricular assist system percutaneous lead.

    PubMed

    Pantalos, G M; Marks, J D; Richardson, E E; Nelson, K E; Long, J W

    1999-01-01

    A patient with an implanted, electrically powered, ventricular assist device (Thermo Cardiosystems VE HeartMate) experienced a partial break of the percutaneous lead 5 months after implantation. The break (limited to the Silicone rubber tube) occurred at the junction of the lead with the Y-connector to the controller and vent, leaving approximately 5 cm of exposed lead from the skin exit site to the connector. Electronic and pumping functions of the pump continued, but the opening in the lead (which went more that half way around the circumference) prevented the use of pneumatic actuation as a back-up mode for pump operation, and placed the pump at risk for contamination. Repair of the lead without surgical intervention was desirable, with ease of repair and minimal risk to the patient being the top priorities. The use of multiple layers of heat-shrink tubing or external metal stents was ruled out in favor of a three stage repair procedure. The first stage involved the removal of the Dacron velour in-growth material from the lead to expose the underlying Silicone rubber tube. While the opening in the tube was held shut, a coating of medical grade Silicone rubber adhesive was applied to the tube, then wrapped with a woven Dacron mesh, followed by two layers of plastic wrapping material to protect the adhesive. This initial layer was secured by an external stent of tubing with cable ties. After several days to allow for complete curing of the adhesive, the adhesive coating with mesh was repeated. The final step involved a double layer wrap of a 1 mm thick Silicone rubber sheeting with mesh incorporation and adhesive secured in place with cable ties. After completion of the repair and verification of the ability to operate the device with pneumatic actuation, the patient was discharged with no recurrence of the problem after 8 months of weekly follow-up. This experience demonstrates the need to clinically anticipate component repair or replacement without total device

  12. Simplified Phased-Mission System Analysis for Systems with Independent Component Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somani, Arun K.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate analysis of reliability of system requires that it accounts for all major variations in system's operation. Most reliability analyses assume that the system configuration, success criteria, and component behavior remain the same. However, multiple phases are natural. We present a new computationally efficient technique for analysis of phased-mission systems where the operational states of a system can be described by combinations of components states (such as fault trees or assertions). Moreover, individual components may be repaired, if failed, as part of system operation but repairs are independent of the system state. For repairable systems Markov analysis techniques are used but they suffer from state space explosion. That limits the size of system that can be analyzed and it is expensive in computation. We avoid the state space explosion. The phase algebra is used to account for the effects of variable configurations, repairs, and success criteria from phase to phase. Our technique yields exact (as opposed to approximate) results. We demonstrate our technique by means of several examples and present numerical results to show the effects of phases and repairs on the system reliability/availability.

  13. [Effects of magnetron sputtered ZrN on the bonding strength of titanium porcelain].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shu; Zhang, Wen-yan; Guang, Han-bing; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Fei-min

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the effect of magnetron sputtered ZrN on the bonding strength between a low-fusing porcelain (Ti/Vita titankeramik system) and commercially pure cast titanium. Sixteen specimens were randomly assigned to test group and control group (n=8). The control group received no surface treated. Magnetron sputtered ZrN film was deposited on the surface of specimens in the test group. Then the sixteen titanium-porcelain specimens were prepared in a rectangular shape and went through three-point bending test on a universal test machine. The bond strength of Ti/porcelain was recorded. The phase composition of the specimens was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interface at titanium and porcelain and the titanium surface after debonding were observed with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed using energy depressive spectrum (EDS). New phase of ZrN was found with XRD in the test group. Statistical analysis showed higher bond strength following ZrN surface treatment in the test group [(45.991+/-0.648) MPa] than that in the control group [(29.483+/-1.007) MPa] (P=0.000). Bonded ceramic could be observed in test group, the amount of bonded ceramic was more than that in the control group. No obvious bonded ceramic in control group was found. Magnetron sputtered ZrN can improve bond strength of Ti/Vita titankeramik system significantly.

  14. [Effect of preparation methods on the metal-porcelain bond strength of Co-Cr alloys].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chi, Shuai; Xu, Jin; Wang, Yanyan; Zhan, Desong

    2014-04-01

    To compare the shear bond strength(SBS) of cast Co-Cr alloys and selective laser melting(SLM) Co-Cr alloys with those of dental porcelain. A dental porcelain (Vita) was applied on cast and SLM Co-Cr alloy specimens (n = 10). SBS test was conducted, and fracture mode analysis was determined. Student's t-test by SPSS 13.0 software was employed to analyze the data. The SLM Co-Cr alloy specimens had lower SBS values than the cast Co-Cr alloy specimens (P > 0.05). The metal-porcelain bond strength value of the cast group was (33.11 +/- 4.98) MPa, and that of the SLM group was (30.94 +/- 5.98) MPa. The specimens in both test groups exhibited mixed failure. The metal-porcelain system processed by SLM exhibit a bond strength that is similar to that of the cast group. This system also display a high precision.

  15. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  16. Hardness characteristic of dental porcelain synthesized from Indonesian natural sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, J.; Taufik, D.; Takarini, V.; Hasratiningsih, Z.; Ramelan, A.

    2018-02-01

    Porcelain has been one of dental biomaterials which can be used to restore tooth structure. Veneer and jacket crown were the examples of dental porcelain restoration. Since wear resistance is related to the strength on its surface, then Vickers Hardness Test of the synthesized porcelain was applied subsequently. If the porcelain hardness number is too high, it should be considered that an abrasion of the opposing teeth could occur. On previous research, dental porcelain had been successfully synthesized from Indonesian natural sand. In this experiment, 5 samples were prepared from a mixture of 65w/o Pangaribuan feldspar, 25w/o Belitung silica, 5w/o Sukabumi kaolinite, and 5w/o potassium salt. This synthesized porcelain samples were invested on 5 cm diameter resin each. A kilogram of load was placed on top of each sample for 10 seconds on 7 different indented areas using ZwickRoell Indentec ZHVμ Micro Vickers. The average hardness number of synthesized dental porcelain made from Indonesian natural sand was 936.06 VHN which was higher than the average hardness number of porcelain restoration. In conclusion of the hardness test, synthesized dental porcelain made from Indonesian natural sand can potentially be used as a core, which shall support hardness and strength of the crown restoration.

  17. [Effect of staining method and sintering temperature on the color of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yan, Wei-hao; Zhang, Xin-chun; Huang, Yue; Shen, Lin-han

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the effect of staining method and sintering temperature on the color of porcelain-fused-metal restorations. 40 cylindrical stained porcelain-metal specimens of 15 mm in diameter and 6 mm in height were fabricated with customized mould, consisting of 2 mm Ni-Cr metal, 1 mm opaque porcelain, 2 mm dentine porcelain and 1 mm enamel porcelain. The specimens were prepared by 5 techniques, 8 for each group. Group A: internal staining, Group B: external staining, 900 degrees centigrade sintering temperature was used in both A and B group; Group C to E: external staining, with the sintering temperature of 880 degrees centigrade, 900 degrees centigrade and 920 degrees centigrade respectively. Sofu A2 porcelain and Sofu 44 stain system were used for the study. Using standard white plate as a reference, colors (L*,a*,b* coordinates) of the specimens were measured with a computerized colorimeter. Student's t test and one way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. DeltaE, b* and Delta C(ab)* of Group B (external staining) and group A (internal staining) were 43.72 +/- 2.99/26.51 +/- 1.64/31.31 +/- 2.48 and 39.71 +/- 1.78/23.69 +/- 0.36/26.55 +/- 2.16, respectively. The values of the former group were significantly higher than that of the latter (P < 0.05); For Group C to E, there were no significant differences in all the color parameters. Staining method has a significant effect on the color parameters of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations; For external staining, within the clinically-used range, changing the sintering temperature does not have an obvious effect on the color.

  18. Viscoelastic finite element analysis of residual stresses in porcelain-veneered zirconia dental crowns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Dhital, Sukirti; Zhivago, Paul; Kaizer, Marina R; Zhang, Yu

    2018-06-01

    The main problem of porcelain-veneered zirconia (PVZ) dental restorations is chipping and delamination of veneering porcelain owing to the development of deleterious residual stresses during the cooling phase of veneer firing. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of cooling rate, thermal contraction coefficient and elastic modulus on residual stresses developed in PVZ dental crowns using viscoelastic finite element methods (VFEM). A three-dimensional VFEM model has been developed to predict residual stresses in PVZ structures using ABAQUS finite element software and user subroutines. First, the newly established model was validated with experimentally measured residual stress profiles using Vickers indentation on flat PVZ specimens. An excellent agreement between the model prediction and experimental data was found. Then, the model was used to predict residual stresses in more complex anatomically-correct crown systems. Two PVZ crown systems with different thermal contraction coefficients and porcelain moduli were studied: VM9/Y-TZP and LAVA/Y-TZP. A sequential dual-step finite element analysis was performed: heat transfer analysis and viscoelastic stress analysis. Controlled and bench convection cooling rates were simulated by applying different convective heat transfer coefficients 1.7E-5 W/mm 2 °C (controlled cooling) and 0.6E-4 W/mm 2 °C (bench cooling) on the crown surfaces exposed to the air. Rigorous viscoelastic finite element analysis revealed that controlled cooling results in lower maximum stresses in both veneer and core layers for the two PVZ systems relative to bench cooling. Better compatibility of thermal contraction coefficients between porcelain and zirconia and a lower porcelain modulus reduce residual stresses in both layers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental Porcelain Furnaces: Test and Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    D Q)L a ) a) C ) C C C C c *. . 3a)0. >4 a)->4 >4 -, Z 0 -a-’- 4-% a) ( nca )m m nU Cs C ) (3 ) 11) a) a) a3) Q) a) W) a2) C C~~ >4 L > > >1 >1 4 > 4...Fig. 1) is a computerized programmable porcelain furnace with 45 open programs. This unit has a large detachable cathode -ray tube (CRT) screen which

  20. Fracture resistance and marginal discrepancy of porcelain laminate veneers influenced by preparation design and restorative material in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tai-Min; Liu, Perng-Ru; Ramp, Lance C; Essig, Milton E; Givan, Daniel A; Pan, Yu-Hwa

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate marginal discrepancy and fracture resistance of two veneering materials using two preparation designs. Two veneer preparation designs (full and traditional) were restored with leucite-reinforced ceramic (ProCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) milled by CAD/CAM (Cerec 3D milling system, Serona Dental Systems), and conventional sintered feldspathic porcelain (Noritake Super Porcelain EX3, Noritake Dental Supply Co). Forty-eight specimens were analysed with a sample size of n=12 per group. The thickness of each veneer was measured on four specific surfaces. Marginal discrepancy was evaluated with a replica technique and cross-sectional view using a digital microscope. The fracture resistance of veneers cemented on standardised composite resin dies was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Results were analysed with ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer post hoc testing, and linear regression. The results of this investigation revealed no correlation between the thickness and marginal discrepancy of the veneers. The full preparation design with ProCAD and the traditional preparation design with feldspathic porcelain manifested smaller gap. Fracture resistance was decreased for the full preparation design with feldspathic porcelain. In terms of marginal discrepancy and fracture resistance, the most favourable combination was a traditional veneer preparation design with conventional sintered feldspathic porcelain. For the full veneer preparation, a stronger ceramic material such as ProCAD is suggested. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Using glass-graded zirconia to increase delamination growth resistance in porcelain/zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their tendency to delaminate along the P/Z interface remains a practical problem so that assessing and improving the interfacial strength are important design aspects. This work examines the effect of modifying the zirconia veneering surface with an in-house felspathic glass on the interfacial fracture resistance of fused P/Z. Three material systems are studied: porcelain fused to zirconia (control) and porcelain fused to glass-graded zirconia with and without the presence of a glass interlayer. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bend fixture with the porcelain veneer in tension. The evolution of damage is followed with the aid of a video camera. The interfacial fracture energy G C was determined with the aid of a FEA, taking into account the stress shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. Similarly to a previous study on PFZ specimens, the fracture sequence consisted of unstable growth of channel cracks in the veneer followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. However, the value of GC for the graded zirconia was approximately 3 times that of the control zirconia, which is due to the good adhesion between porcelain and the glass network structure on the zirconia surface. Combined with its improved bonding to resin-based cements, increased resistance to surface damage and good esthetic quality, graded zirconia emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Adhesion of oral microorganisms on dental porcelain polished and glazed].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-ning; Wen, Guo-jiang; Shi, Bin; Pan, Xin-hua

    2003-09-01

    This study compared the roughness of porcelain polished or glazed surfaces and the adhesion of oral streptococcus mutans to them in vitro. 30 porcelain samples were made. Porcelain samples in group A were polished with diamond paste. Porcelain samples were glazed in group B and were polished with Al2O3 (240#) bur in group C. Their roughness values were measured by profilometer. Standardized cell suspensions were incubated with test samples for one hour at 37 degrees C, then retained cells were counted by image analysis (percentage area of a microscopic field covered by cells). Roughness values of group A, B, C were respectively (0.1987 +/- 0.057) microm, (0.1990 +/- 0.091) microm, (0.4260 +/- 0.174) microm. There was no significantly difference between group A and group B. The roughness samples in group C were significantly rougher than that in the other groups. The amount of retained cells in group A, group B, group C was respectively (15.92 +/- 4.37)%, (16.39 +/- 6.31)% and (41.48 +/- 12.1)%. There was no significant difference between the cell adhesion on porcelain surface glazed and polished, but more bacteria adhered on the porcelain surface in group C. Porcelain surface polished treatment was clinically acceptable compared with its glazed. They all exhibited the least amount of bacteria adhesion. The more porcelain surface was rough, the more bacteria adhered on it.

  3. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Automotive Fuel Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, operation, and repair of the carburetor, fuel pump, and other related fuel system components and parts. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Fuel Systems, (2) Fuel Pumps, (3) Fuel Lines and Filters, (4) Carburetors,…

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Suspension Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, maintenance, and repair of front-end suspension and steering mechanisms. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Tire Balancing, (2) Manual Steering Gears, (3) Power Steering, (4) Fundamentals of Suspension, and (5) Front-End…

  5. Stochastic Availability of a Repairable System with an Age - and Maintenance - Dependent Failure Rate,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    STOCKATZC LV AaMIQ.YN 0gp M@lIm iii s m -r ANAs WgLMSZIb 940=04 WoeU-O PolytechnicInstitute June 1982 Stochastic Availability of a Repairable System ...STOCHASTIC AVAILABILITY OF A REPAIRABLE SYSTEM WITH AN AGE AND MAINTENANCE DEPENDENT FAILURE RATE by JACK-KANG CHAN June 1982 Report No..Poly EE/CS 82-004...1.1 Concepts of System Availability 1 1.2 Maintenance and Failure Rate 7 1.3 Summary Chapter 2 SYSTEM4 MODEL 2.1 A Repairable System with Lintenance

  6. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  7. Evaluation of zirconium-oxide-based ceramic single-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) generated with two CAD/CAM systems compared to porcelain-fused-to-metal single-unit posterior FDPs: a 5-year clinical prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to determine the success rate of single-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with zirconia copings generated with two CAD/CAM systems, compared to porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) single-unit posterior FDPs after 5 years of function. From 2005 to 2006, 60 patients who needed a single-unit FDP on a first molar in the mandibular jaw (left or right) in a private office setting were included in this study. The 60 first mandibular molars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): in the control group (group C), 20 PFM FDPs were included. In the other two groups CAD/CAM technology was used for the fabrication of the zirconium-oxide copings: 20 single-unit posterior FDPs with zirconia copings were generated with the Procera system (group P, Nobel Biocare); 20 single-unit posterior FDPs with zirconia copings were generated with the Lava system (group L, 3M ESPE). For the ANOVA follow-up data, the clinical life table method was applied. The statistical analysis was performed using two nonparametric tests, the log-rank test for k-groups and the Fisher exact test. No statistically significant difference in the clinical outcome of zirconia-ceramic FDPs of both groups (P and L) evaluated together and metal-ceramic posterior single FDPs was found at 5 years of function; however, clinical data showed that technical problems, such as extended fracture of the veneering ceramic, tended to occur more frequently in the zirconia-ceramic FDP groups. The difference in the frequency of failure was statistically significant only in the comparison of groups C and P. Even if no statistically significant difference in the clinical outcome of zirconia-ceramic FDPs of both groups (P and L) considered together and metal-ceramic posterior single FDPs was found at 5 years of function, clinical data showed that the two zirconia-ceramic FDP groups tended to have more frequent clinical problems: for this reason all the clinical and

  8. [Influence of different surface roughness of opaque porcelain on reflectance and L* value of porcelain fused to metal].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Xiong, Fang; Yu, Hai-yang; Luo, Zhen-hua

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different surface roughness of opaque porcelain influence reflectance and CIE L* value of porcelain fused to metal (PFM) restorations. 48 casted Ni-Cr alloy metal specimens (12.0 mm x 1.0 mm) were fabricated with ShoFu Vintage Halo porcelain and divided into six groups, eight pieces for each group. The specimens in the first group without polishing were used as control. Other groups were polished against 200-, 400-, 600-, 800-, and 1000-grit sandpaper after sintered, respectively. Surface roughness and color parameters of the specimens were measured with a Surface Roughometer EX2154-13 and a spectrocolorimeter, respectively. Ra (arithmetical mean deviation of the profile) was the main standard value to describe the surface roughness of many kinds of meatal or porcelain materials, and here we used it to express surface roughness of opaque porcelain. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (alpha = 0.05) in SPSS 13.0. The reflectance value increased from 72.386 +/- 3.953 to 78.671 +/- 3.408, and CIE L* value from 90.189 +/- 1.200 to 93.496 +/- 1.070 with the increasing of surface roughness (Ra) of opaque porcelain from (0.226 +/- 0.069) microm to (0.706 +/- 0.082) microm. The same magnitude were also observed after body porcelain and enamel porcelain were sintered on with reflectance increased from 76.301 +/- 3.097 to 81.529 +/- 4.028, and CIE L* value from 80.694 +/- 1.564 to 84.604 +/- 2.964. The surface roughness of opaque porcelain had effects on the reflectance and value of PFM restorations. Within the limitation of this study, the recommended Ra range of opaque porcelain was 0.23-0.50 microm.

  9. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  10. [Effect of niobium nitride on the bonding strength of titanium porcelain by magnetron sputtering].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-shu; Zhang, La-bao; Guang, Han-bing; Zhou, Shu; Zhang, Fei-min

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of magnetron sputtered niobium nitride (NbN) on the bonding strength of commercially pure cast titanium (Ti) and low-fusing porcelain (Ti/Vita titankeramik system). Sixty Ti specimens were randomly divided into four groups, group T1, T2, T3 and T4. All specimens of group T1 and T2 were first treated with 120 microm blasted Al2O3 particles, and then only specimens of group T2 were treated with magnetron sputtered NbN film. All specimens of group T3 and T4 were first treated with magnetron sputtered NbN film and then only specimens of group T4 were treated with 120 microm blasted Al2O3 particles. The composition of the deposits were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). A universal testing machine was used to perform the three-point bending test to evaluate the bonding strength of Ti and porcelain. The microstructure of NbN, the interface of Ti-porcelain and the fractured Ti surface were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy depressive spectrum (EDS), and the results were compared. The XRD results showed that the NbN deposits were cubic crystalline phases. The bonding strength of Ti and porcelain in T1 to T4 group were (27.2+/-0.8), (43.1+/-0.6), (31.4+/-1.0) and (44.9+/-0.6) MPa. These results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and differences between groups were compared using least significant difference test. Significant inter-group differences were found among all groups (P<0.05). The results of SEM showed that with treatment of Al2O3 or NbN, alone, pre-cracks were found in the interface of Ti-porcelain, while samples treated with both Al2O3 and NbN had better bond. EDS of Ti-porcelain interface showed oxidation occurred in T1, T2 and T3, but was well controlled in T4. Magnetron sputtered NbN can prevent Ti from being oxidized, and can improve the bonding strength of Ti/Vita titankeramik system. Al2O3 blast can also improve the bonding strength of Ti/Vita titankeramik system.

  11. In-Space Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Thermal Protection System Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2005-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the RCC-based thermal protection system of current space transportation system as well as for future Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV). The damage to these components could be caused by impact during ground handling or due to falling of ice or other objects during launch. In addition, in-orbit damage includes micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate adhesives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during simulated entry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, PLASTER (Patch Laminates and Sealant Technology for Exterior Repair) based systems have been developed. In this presentation, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges as well as various issues and complexities will be discussed along with the plasma performance and post test characterization of repaired RCC materials.

  12. In-Space Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Thermal Protection System Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2006-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation system as well as for future Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV). The damage to these components could be caused by impact during ground handling or due to falling of ice or other objects during launch. In addition, in-orbit damage includes micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during simulated entry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, integrated system for tile and leading edge repair (InSTALER) have been developed. In this presentation, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges as well as various issues and complexities will be discussed along with the plasma performance and post test characterization of repaired RCC materials.

  13. Service the Carburetor Air Cleaner. Fuel System. Student Manual 1. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing carburetor air cleaners. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  14. URV Flight Test of an ADA Implemented Self-Repairing Flight Control System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    USE ONLY(Leave blank) I2. REPORT DATE j3.REOTYPANDTSCVRD JAUG 1992 j FINAL 01/01/85--08/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE URV FL GHT TEST OF AN ADA IMPLEMESNT...History of the XBQM-106 2 2.0 Self-Repairing Flight Control System 4 Introduction 2.1 Control System Reconfiguration 5 Strategy 2.2 Failure Detection...ji * Ill ’ha A GJ s.d I I I C S U L 3 2.0 Self-Repairing Flight Control System Introduction Self-Repairing Flight Control Systems (SRFCS) are an

  15. [Fatigue damage analysis of porcelain in all-ceramic crowns].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-hong; Feng, Hai-lan; Liu, Guang-hua; Shen, Zhi-jian

    2010-02-18

    To investigate the fatigue damage mechanism of porcelain, and its relation with the microscopic defects in clinically failed all-ceramic crowns. Collecting the bilayered all-ceramic crowns failed in vivo. The fractured surfaces and occlusial surfaces of failed crowns were examined by an optical microscope followed by detailed fractography investigations using a field emission scanning electron microscope. When chemical impurities were of concern, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was performed to examine chemical composition. A standard practice for fractography failure analysis of advanced ceramics is applied to disclose the fracture mode, and damage character. Three types of fracture features are defined as breakdown of the entire crown, and porcelain chipping-off/delamination. Alumina crowns were usually characterized by breakdown of the entire crown, while zirconia crowns by porcelain chipping-off and delamination. The fatigue damage of porcelain was classified into surface wear, cone crack, and porcelain delamination. The observed microscopic defects in this study included air bubbles and impurity particles. The multi-point occlusial contacts were recommended in all-ceramic restorations clinically. The thickness of porcelain is important for the anti-fatigue ability of porcelain. Cautions have to be taken to avoid contaminations during the veneering processes.

  16. Temperature changes across porcelain during multiple exposure CO2 lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Peacocke, Larry

    1990-06-01

    Research indicates that laser energy may provide a useful method for glazing and fusing porcelain for intraoral prosthetic purposes. However, it is not known whether such lasing will result in the production of heat levels that may be damaging to adjacent vital tissues such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. This research is designed to measure the magnitude of temperature rise across porcelain observed during multiple exposure C02 lasing. Fifteen porcelain examples of 1000 jim (5), 1500 pm (5) and 2000 tm (5) x each received five C02 laser exposures on the same exposure site at 1.0 sec. intervals at 8.0 watts (0.2 sec. per exposure with a 1 mm focal spot). A YSI 144201 thermilinear precision thermistor was placed on the porcelain surface opposite each laser exposure site. Temperature rise above ambient was recorded by an HP3421A data acquisition unit and HP9816 technical microcomputer. Recording continued for sufficient time to allow temperatures to return to ambient. The mean temperature elevations ranged from a low of 2.97 0C (2000 pm) to a high of 7.77 °C (1000 μm). ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences in temperature rise by porcelain thickness. It would appear from the results of this research that temperature elevations adjacent to lased porcelain may be sufficiently controllable that safe intraoral porcelain lasing will be possible.

  17. Single-Molecule Methods for Nucleotide Excision Repair: Building a System to Watch Repair in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Kong, Muwen; Beckwitt, Emily C; Springall, Luke; Kad, Neil M; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule approaches to solving biophysical problems are powerful tools that allow static and dynamic real-time observations of specific molecular interactions of interest in the absence of ensemble-averaging effects. Here, we provide detailed protocols for building an experimental system that employs atomic force microscopy and a single-molecule DNA tightrope assay based on oblique angle illumination fluorescence microscopy. Together with approaches for engineering site-specific lesions into DNA substrates, these complementary biophysical techniques are well suited for investigating protein-DNA interactions that involve target-specific DNA-binding proteins, such as those engaged in a variety of DNA repair pathways. In this chapter, we demonstrate the utility of the platform by applying these techniques in the studies of proteins participating in nucleotide excision repair. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Qing dynasty porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huansheng; He, Wenquan; Tang, Jiayong; Yang, Fujia; Wang, Jianhua

    1996-09-01

    The major and minor chemical compositions and trace element content of white glaze made in Qing dynasty at kuan kiln have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that trace element contents RbSrZr are useful to distinguish the place of production of ancient porcelain. In the porcelain from different kilns situated in a same province, the trace element contents can be different from each other. Determining and comparing the major and minor compositions and trace elemental concentrations in white glaze by PIXE technique, we can distinguish a precious Qing dynasty porcelain made at kuan kiln from a fake.

  19. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Cheng, H. S.; Lin, J. W.; Yang, F. J.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE.

  20. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xun-liang; Feng, Song-lin; Cheng, Huang-sheng; Zhang, Wen-Jiang; Fan, Chang-Sheng

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  1. [Research progress of bonding strength between porcelain veneer and enamel].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Fu-qiang

    2014-02-01

    Porcelain veneer had gained more and more attention in dental clinical applications due to its advantages such as good esthetic effects and minor invasiveness. The reliable and consistent adhesive bonding were the key to success. The enamel which featured high mineralization and low moisture would be the ideal bonding part for porcelain veneer. This article was aimed to summarize the research progress regarding to those factors that might had effect on the bonding strength between the porcelain veneer and the enamel including the restoration types of resin adhesives and bonding surface preparations.

  2. [Clinical analysis of laser welding on porcelain bonded metal surface].

    PubMed

    Weng, Jia-wei; Dai, Wen-an; Wu, Xue-ying

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of laser-welded crowns and bridges. Two hundred defective crowns and bridges were welded by using Heraplus laser welding machine, and then restored by porcelain. After being welded ,those defective crowns and bridges of different materials fit well and their marginal areas were also satisfactory. During the follow up period of one year, no fractured porcelain and crack were found at welding spots. The technology of laser welding has no direct effect on welding spots between metal and porcelain and could be used to deal with the usual problems of the crowns and bridges.

  3. [Effects of three types of veneering porcelain on bending strength of KAVO(TM) Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting-ting; Yi, Yuan-fu; Shao, Long-quan; Tian, Jie-mo; Hou, Kang-lin; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wen, Ning; Deng, Bin

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the effect of three types of veneering porcelain on the bending strength of KAVO Y-TZP/porcelain layered structure. KAVO zirconia ceramics were used as the substructure. To form Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure, a leucite-based veneering porcelain was fired on the zirconia substructures by slip-casting technique with dentin washbake, and two nano-fluorapatite-based veneering porcelains were fired on the zirconia substructures by either slip-casting or pressed-on technique with or without liner coverage. The bending strength was tested according to ISO 6872 standard, and the veneered surfaces of the fracture samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For covering KAVO zirconia core material, the conventional veneering slurry-porcelain combined with liner or wash firing had significant higher bending strength than pressed-on porcelain. SEM showed that the main failure type at the interface was adhesive failure. Thin layer sintering using washbake program or liner on KAVO zirconia surface increases the surface wettability, and this procedure may be indispensable when veneering on the surface of dental zirconia.

  4. Building Maintenance and Repair Data for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses: Electrical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Repair Data for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses: Electrical Systems by Edgar S. Neely Robert D. Neathammer James R. Stirn Robert P. Winkler This research...systems have been developed to assist planners in preparing DD Form 1391 documentation, designers in life-cycle cost component selection, and maintainers...Maintenance and Repair Data for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses: RDTE dated 1980 Electrical Systems REIMB 1984 - 1989 6. AUTH4OR(S) Edgar S. Neely, Robert D

  5. [A comparative study of marginal microleakage using different cements in porcelain-fused-to-metal crown].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming-Xin; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Xiu-Qiu; Li, Chun-Shan

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the marginal microleakage of porcelain-fused-to-metal crown using four different cements. Sixteen porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns were built and randomly divided into 4 group, luted onto standard prepared human forward molars using four different cements (glass ionomer cement, resin-modified glass ionomer cement, PanaviaF, Super-Bond C&B adhesive luting system). After temperature cycling test, all the crowns were then submerged in 2% fuchsin for 24 h. The marginal microleakage at tooth cement interfaces was observed using light stereomicroscopy and evaluated in classification index. The marginal microleakage grade of 4 groups were analyzed by SPSS 13.0. The PanaviaF demonstrated the least marginal microleakage, Super-Bond C&B adhesive luting system, resin-modified glass ionomer cement showed an intermediate level of marginal microleakage, glass ionomer cement was associated with severe marginal microleakage (total, Chi2 = 157.60, P < 0.01; among the different groups, P<0.05). Adhesive resin luting system which is the first selection in clinical is better than glass ionomer cement and is good at porcelain-fused-to-metal crown.

  6. Comparison of the bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to crown porcelains.

    PubMed

    Chay, Siew Han; Wattanapayungkul, Pranee; Yap, Adrian U Jin; Loh, Poey Ling; Chung, Sew Meng

    2005-05-01

    The bond strengths and mode of failure of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to the newer all-ceramic crown systems has not been fully investigated. To compare the shear-peel bond strengths and modes of failure of stainless steel Begg orthodontic brackets bonded to all-ceramic crown systems (Finesse, Empress II) and a conventional feldsphatic crown porcelain (Vita Omega 900). Fifteen flat-surface discs of three crown porcelains (Finesse, Vita Omega 900, Empress II) were made and mounted in acrylic moulds. The discs were pumiced, etched with phosphoric acid, primed with silane, and a flat stainless steel Begg bracket bonded to each disc with a chemical cure composite resin (Unite Bond). The discs were stored for one week in water and debonded with a sheer-peel load in an Instron uniaxial testing system with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The composite remnants on the ceramic surfaces were classified using the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The bond strength of Finesse (15.03 +/- 1.90 MPa) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than Vita Omega 900 11.51 +/- 2.35 MPa) and Empress II (11.12 +/- 1.78 MPa). There were no significant differences among the ARI scores. The mode of failure was a mixture of adhesive and cohesive failure. The results indicate that the bond strengths of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded to Finesse and Empress II porcelains are clinically acceptable.

  7. Effect of Porcelain Surface Pretreatments on Composite Resin-Porcelain Shear Bond Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Presented to the Faculty of The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at San Antonio in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements...Breckner III The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at San Antonio Supervising Professor: Barry K. Norling, Ph.D. The bond between...necessary to pretreat the porcelain prior to luting. The samples were not, however, hydrated or thermally stressed . Sheth et al. (1988) supported the

  8. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  9. Part Repairing Using A Hybrid Manufacturing System (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    laser . The laser processing parameters for cladding steel H13 powder were 600W with a stand-off distance from the nozzle to the top of the clad of 0.5...Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2002:122, 63-68. [11]Richter, K., Orban, S., and Nowotny, S., Laser cladding of the titanium alloy TI6242...was used to repair the corroded steam generator tubes in nuclear plants [9], and turbine blades were repaired using the laser cladding process [10

  10. Molecular mechanism of central nervous system repair by the Drosophila NG2 homologue kon-tiki.

    PubMed

    Losada-Perez, Maria; Harrison, Neale; Hidalgo, Alicia

    2016-08-29

    Neuron glia antigen 2 (NG2)-positive glia are repair cells that proliferate upon central nervous system (CNS) damage, promoting functional recovery. However, repair is limited because of the failure of the newly produced glial cells to differentiate. It is a key goal to discover how to regulate NG2 to enable glial proliferation and differentiation conducive to repair. Drosophila has an NG2 homologue called kon-tiki (kon), of unknown CNS function. We show that kon promotes repair and identify the underlying mechanism. Crush injury up-regulates kon expression downstream of Notch. Kon in turn induces glial proliferation and initiates glial differentiation by activating glial genes and prospero (pros). Two negative feedback loops with Notch and Pros allow Kon to drive the homeostatic regulation required for repair. By modulating Kon levels in glia, we could prevent or promote CNS repair. Thus, the functional links between Kon, Notch, and Pros are essential for, and can drive, repair. Analogous mechanisms could promote CNS repair in mammals. © 2016 Losada-Perez et al.

  11. Molecular mechanism of central nervous system repair by the Drosophila NG2 homologue kon-tiki

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Neale

    2016-01-01

    Neuron glia antigen 2 (NG2)–positive glia are repair cells that proliferate upon central nervous system (CNS) damage, promoting functional recovery. However, repair is limited because of the failure of the newly produced glial cells to differentiate. It is a key goal to discover how to regulate NG2 to enable glial proliferation and differentiation conducive to repair. Drosophila has an NG2 homologue called kon-tiki (kon), of unknown CNS function. We show that kon promotes repair and identify the underlying mechanism. Crush injury up-regulates kon expression downstream of Notch. Kon in turn induces glial proliferation and initiates glial differentiation by activating glial genes and prospero (pros). Two negative feedback loops with Notch and Pros allow Kon to drive the homeostatic regulation required for repair. By modulating Kon levels in glia, we could prevent or promote CNS repair. Thus, the functional links between Kon, Notch, and Pros are essential for, and can drive, repair. Analogous mechanisms could promote CNS repair in mammals. PMID:27551055

  12. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems

    PubMed Central

    Luković, Mladena; Šavija, Branko; Schlangen, Erik; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions, type of repair material, etc. Numerical simulations combined with experimental observations can be of great use when determining the influence of these parameters on the performance of repair systems. In this work, a lattice type model was used to simulate first the moisture transport inside a repair system and then the resulting damage as a function of time. 3D simulations were performed, and damage patterns were qualitatively verified with experimental results and cracking tendencies in different brittle and ductile materials. The influence of substrate surface preparation, bond strength between the two materials, and thickness of the repair material were investigated. Benefits of using a specially tailored fibre reinforced material, namely strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC), for controlling the damage development due to drying shrinkage in concrete repairs was also examined. PMID:28773696

  13. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems.

    PubMed

    Luković, Mladena; Šavija, Branko; Schlangen, Erik; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2016-07-14

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions, type of repair material, etc. Numerical simulations combined with experimental observations can be of great use when determining the influence of these parameters on the performance of repair systems. In this work, a lattice type model was used to simulate first the moisture transport inside a repair system and then the resulting damage as a function of time. 3D simulations were performed, and damage patterns were qualitatively verified with experimental results and cracking tendencies in different brittle and ductile materials. The influence of substrate surface preparation, bond strength between the two materials, and thickness of the repair material were investigated. Benefits of using a specially tailored fibre reinforced material, namely strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC), for controlling the damage development due to drying shrinkage in concrete repairs was also examined.

  14. Possible Muscle Repair in the Human Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Sommese, Linda; Zullo, Alberto; Schiano, Concetta; Mancini, Francesco P; Napoli, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    The regenerative potential of tissues and organs could promote survival, extended lifespan and healthy life in multicellular organisms. Niches of adult stemness are widely distributed and lead to the anatomical and functional regeneration of the damaged organ. Conversely, muscular regeneration in mammals, and humans in particular, is very limited and not a single piece of muscle can fully regrow after a severe injury. Therefore, muscle repair after myocardial infarction is still a chimera. Recently, it has been recognized that epigenetics could play a role in tissue regrowth since it guarantees the maintenance of cellular identity in differentiated cells and, therefore, the stability of organs and tissues. The removal of these locks can shift a specific cell identity back to the stem-like one. Given the gradual loss of tissue renewal potential in the course of evolution, in the last few years many different attempts to retrieve such potential by means of cell therapy approaches have been performed in experimental models. Here we review pathways and mechanisms involved in the in vivo repair of cardiovascular muscle tissues in humans. Moreover, we address the ongoing research on mammalian cardiac muscle repair based on adult stem cell transplantation and pro-regenerative factor delivery. This latter issue, involving genetic manipulations of adult cells, paves the way for developing possible therapeutic strategies in the field of cardiovascular muscle repair.

  15. Developing Exemplar Interactive Multimedia Instruction for Unmanned Aircraft System Repairers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    material and also compared the effectiveness of two different IMI design approaches used to progress the learner through the various training modules...instruction. For the Hydraulics Theory and Components, we compared the learner-controlled Interactive Multimedia Instruction and the designer ... Design Three UAS Repairer IMI modules were developed, and the effectiveness of each was compared to the current live instruction covering the

  16. Building Component Maintenance and Repair Data Base: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Building Component Maintenance and Repair Data Base: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems by Edgar S. Neely Robert D. Neathammer...Repair Data Base: Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems RDTE dated 1980EIMB 1984 - 1989 6. AUTHOR(S) Edgar S. Neely, Robert D...Laboratory (USACERL). The Principal Investigators were Dr. Edgar Neely and Mr. Robert Neathammer (USACERL-FS). The primary contractor for much of the

  17. The Porcelain Crab Transcriptome and PCAD, the Porcelain Crab Microarray and Sequence Database

    SciTech Connect

    Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Wang, Mei; Lindquist, Erika

    2010-01-27

    Background: With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Methodology/Principal Findings: A set of ~;;30K unique sequences (UniSeqs) representing ~;;19K clusters were generated from ~;;98K high quality ESTs from a set ofmore » tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66percent of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD), a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases.Conclusions/Significance: The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the transcriptome as can reasonably be

  18. A clinical trial of Empress II porcelain inlays luted to vital teeth with a dual-curing adhesive system and a self-curing resin cement.

    PubMed

    Fabianelli, Andrea; Goracci, Cecilia; Bertelli, Egidio; Davidson, Carel L; Ferrari, Marco

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to clinically evaluate Empress II inlays cemented with a dual-curing bonding agent and a self-curing luting system. Forty patients were selected to receive one Empress II inlay. Empress II is a heat-pressed glass ceramic containing lithium disilicate and lithium orthophosphate crystals, purported to provide higher stress resistance and improved strength. The restorations were placed between March and May 2000. Recalls were performed after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. At the 3-year recall, 7 patients were lost to follow-up. Inlays were evaluated for postoperative sensitivity, marginal integrity, marginal leakage, color stability, surface staining, retention, and surface crazing (microcracks). At the 3-year recall, all the restorations were in place and only one showed postoperative sensitivity (at the first recall, 1 week after placement). Only 3 inlays showed slight marginal staining, and 4 inlays showed gaps, with little surface staining or microcracks. No inlay debonded or fractured during theobservation period. All the evaluated inlays were in place and acceptable.

  19. Evaluation of shear bond strength of porcelain bonded to laser welded titanium surface and determination of mode of bond failure.

    PubMed

    Patil, Narendra P; Dandekar, Minal; Nadiger, Ramesh K; Guttal, Satyabodh S

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of porcelain to laser welded titanium surface and to determine the mode of bond failure through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS). Forty five cast rectangular titanium specimens with the dimension of 10 mm x 8 mm x 1 mm were tested. Thirty specimens had a perforation of 2 mm diameter in the centre. These were randomly divided into Group A and B. The perforations in the Group B specimens were repaired by laser welding using Cp Grade II titanium wire. The remaining 15 specimens were taken as control group. All the test specimens were layered with low fusing porcelain and tested for shear bond strength. The debonded specimens were subjected to SEM and EDS. Data were analysed with 1-way analysis of variance and Student's t-test for comparison among the different groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no statistically significant difference in shear bond strength values at a 5% level of confidence. The mean shear bond strength values for control group, Group A and B was 8.4 +/- 0.5 Mpa, 8.1 +/- 0.4 Mpa and 8.3 +/- 0.3 Mpa respectively. SEM/EDS analysis of the specimens showed mixed and cohesive type of bond failure. Within the limitations of the study laser welding did not have any effect on the shear bond strength of porcelain bonded to titanium.

  20. [Compatibility between high-strength dental ceramic (type A) and vintage AL veneering porcelain].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jun; Chao, Yong-lie; Meng, Yu-kun

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the interface bond strength and compatibility between High-Strength Dental Ceramic (type A) and Vintage AL veneering porcelain. Twenty bar-shape specimens (ten Vintage AL and ten Vitadur alpha) were fabricated, and shear test was conducted to determine the bond strength. A bilayered composite (1 mm core ceramic and 0.8 mm Vintage AL) was prepared and then fractured for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Ten all-ceramic anterior crowns were fabricated and the temperatures of thermal shock resistance were tested. The mean values of the bond strength measured were (55.52 +/- 14.64) MPa and (59.37 +/- 13.93) MPa for Vintage AL and Vitadur alpha respectively (P>0.05). SEM showed tight connection between the High-Strength Dental Ceramic (type A) and the veneering porcelain. Element diffusion was also confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The temperature of thermal shock resistance of this system was (179 +/- 15) degrees C. Vintage AL veneering porcelain has good thermal and chemical compatibility with High-Strength Dental Ceramic (type A).

  1. Hijacking of the mismatch repair system to cause CAG expansion and cell death in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Cynthia T

    2008-07-01

    Mammalian cells have evolved sophisticated DNA repair systems to correct mispaired or damaged bases and extrahelical loops. Emerging evidence suggests that, in some cases, the normal DNA repair machinery is "hijacked" to become a causative factor in mutation and disease, rather than act as a safeguard of genomic integrity. In this review, we consider two cases in which active MMR leads to mutation or to cell death. There may be similar mechanisms by which uncoupling of normal MMR recognition from downstream repair allows triplet expansions underlying human neurodegenerative disease, or cell death in response to chemical lesion.

  2. Room Temperature Curing Resin Systems for Graphite/Epoxy Composite Repair.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    ROOM TEMPERATURE CURING RESIN SYSTEMS FOR GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOS--ETC(UI DEC 79 0 J CRABTREE N62269-79-C-G224 UNCLASSIFIE O80-46 NADC -781 1-6 NL END...Room Temperature Curing Resin Sys-U3 linal for Graphite/Epoxy Composite Repair •.Dec *79 NOR- -46h: V111IT NUM8ER(s) 4362269-79- ,722 S. PERFORMING...repair, composite repair room temperature cure resin , moderate temperature cure resins , epoxies, adhesives, vinyl eater polymers, anaerobic curing polymers

  3. In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength between Ceramic Repair Systems and Ceramic Materials and Evaluation of the Wettability.

    PubMed

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan; Manav, Taha; Albayrak, Haydar

    2017-04-01

    When fracture of an all-ceramic restoration occurs, it can be necessary to repair without removing the restoration. Although there are many studies about the repair of metal-ceramic restorations, there are few about all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between ceramic repair systems and esthetic core materials and to evaluate the wettability of all-ceramic core materials. Disk-like specimens (N = 90) made of three dental ceramic infrastructure materials (zirconia ceramic, alumina ceramic, glass ceramic) were polished with silicon carbide paper, prepared for bonding (abrasion with 30 μm diamond rotary cutting instrument). Thirty specimens of each infrastructure were obtained. Each infrastructure group was divided into three subgroups; they were bonded using 3 repair systems: Bisco Intraoral Repair Kit, Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System, and Clearfil Repair System. After 1200 thermocycles, shear bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. In addition, the contact angle values of the infrastructures after surface treatments were examined for wettability. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Although there were no significant differences among the repair systems (p > 0.05) in the glass ceramic and zirconia groups, a significant difference was found among the repair systems in alumina infrastructure (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences among the infrastructures (p > 0.05); however, a statistically significant difference was found among the repair systems (p < 0.05). No difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems in terms of contact angle values. Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System had higher bond strength values than the other repair systems. Although no difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems, contact wettability angle was decreased by surface treatments compared with

  4. A single double-strand break system reveals repair dynamics and mechanisms in heterochromatin and euchromatin

    DOE PAGES

    Janssen, Aniek; Breuer, Gregory A.; Brinkman, Eva K.; ...

    2016-07-15

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) must be properly orchestrated in diverse chromatin regions to maintain genome stability. The choice between two main DSB repair pathways, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), is regulated by the cell cycle as well as chromatin context. Pericentromeric heterochromatin forms a distinct nuclear domain that is enriched for repetitive DNA sequences that pose significant challenges for genome stability. Heterochromatic DSBs display specialized temporal and spatial dynamics that differ from euchromatic DSBs. Although HR is thought to be the main pathway used to repair heterochromatic DSBs, direct tests of this hypothesis are lacking. Here,more » we developed an in vivo single DSB system for both heterochromatic and euchromatic loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Live imaging of single DSBs in larval imaginal discs recapitulates the spatio-temporal dynamics observed for irradiation (IR)-induced breaks in cell culture. Importantly, live imaging and sequence analysis of repair products reveal that DSBs in euchromatin and heterochromatin are repaired with similar kinetics, employ both NHEJ and HR, and can use homologous chromosomes as an HR template. This direct analysis reveals important insights into heterochromatin DSB repair in animal tissues and provides a foundation for further explorations of repair mechanisms in different chromatin domains.« less

  5. A single double-strand break system reveals repair dynamics and mechanisms in heterochromatin and euchromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Aniek; Breuer, Gregory A.; Brinkman, Eva K.

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) must be properly orchestrated in diverse chromatin regions to maintain genome stability. The choice between two main DSB repair pathways, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), is regulated by the cell cycle as well as chromatin context. Pericentromeric heterochromatin forms a distinct nuclear domain that is enriched for repetitive DNA sequences that pose significant challenges for genome stability. Heterochromatic DSBs display specialized temporal and spatial dynamics that differ from euchromatic DSBs. Although HR is thought to be the main pathway used to repair heterochromatic DSBs, direct tests of this hypothesis are lacking. Here,more » we developed an in vivo single DSB system for both heterochromatic and euchromatic loci in Drosophila melanogaster. Live imaging of single DSBs in larval imaginal discs recapitulates the spatio-temporal dynamics observed for irradiation (IR)-induced breaks in cell culture. Importantly, live imaging and sequence analysis of repair products reveal that DSBs in euchromatin and heterochromatin are repaired with similar kinetics, employ both NHEJ and HR, and can use homologous chromosomes as an HR template. This direct analysis reveals important insights into heterochromatin DSB repair in animal tissues and provides a foundation for further explorations of repair mechanisms in different chromatin domains.« less

  6. Cyclic testing of porcelain laminiate veneers on superficial enamel and dentin: Pressed vs. conventional layered porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawde, Shweta

    Statement of Problem: Clinicians are inclined towards more aggressive teeth preparations to accommodate the thickness of the veneering material. The principle of conservative tooth preparation is compromised. Purpose: By using a conservative approach to treatment with porcelain veneers, long-lasting, esthetic and functional results may be achieved. Sacrificing as little tooth structure as possible and conserving the supporting tissues will facilitate prospective patients. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary and mandibular canines were selected. The teeth were divided into one of two groups (pressable and stackable) and further subdivided according to tooth substrate (all-enamel or mixed enamel-dentin exposure). Twenty canine teeth were allotted to the pressable veneer group and 20 were allotted to the stackable veneer group. Of the 20 teeth in the pressable group, all were pressed with a lithium disilicate ceramic system (IPS e.max Press), 10 with labial tooth reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (PEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (PDN). Of the 20 teeth in the stackable group, all were stacked/ layered with conventional feldspathic porcelain (Fortune; Williams/ Ivoclar); with labial veneer reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (SEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (SDN). Silicon putty matrix was fabricated prior to teeth preparation to estimate the teeth reduction. The prepared facial reduction was limited to the incisal edge. No incisal or palatal/lingual reduction was performed. Impressions of the prepared teeth were taken in medium/light-bodied PVS. Master casts were made in Resin Rock. The stackable group specimens were made with fabricating refractory dies and after following the recommended steps of laboratory procedure, stackable veneers were processed. The pressable group

  7. Development of Friction Stir Processing for Repair of Nuclear Dry Cask Storage System Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Kenneth A.; Sutton, Ben; Grant, Glenn J.

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has identified chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (CISCC) of austenitic stainless steel dry cask storage systems (DCSS) as an area of great concern. Friction Stir Processing (FSP) was used to repair laboratory-generated stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in representative stainless steel 304 coupons. Results of this study show FSP is a viable method for repair and mitigation CISCC. This paper highlights lessons learned and developed techniques relative to FSP development for crack repair in sensitized thick section stainless steel 304. These include: development of process parameters, welding at low spindle speed, use of weld power and temperature controlmore » and optimization of these controls. NDE and destructive analysis are also presented to demonstrate effectiveness of the developed methods for SCC crack repair.« less

  8. Reliability of a k—out—of—n : G System with Identical Repairable Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, M.; Nia, A. Torabi; Shafie, P.; Norozi-Zare, F.; Sabet-Ghadam, A.

    2009-09-01

    k—out—of—n models, are one of the most useful models to calculate the reliability of complex systems like electrical and mechanical devices. In this paper, we consider a k—out—of—n : G system with identical elements. The failure rate of each element is constant. The elements are repairable and the repair rate of each element is constant. The system works when at least k elements work. The system of equations are established and sought for the parameters like MTTF in real time situation. It seems that this model can tackle more realistic situations.

  9. Automation tools for demonstration of goal directed and self-repairing flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of expert systems and control design and analysis techniques are documented to provide a realizable self repairing flight control system. Key features of such a flight control system are identified and a limited set of rules for a simple aircraft model are presented.

  10. [Preliminary analysis about influence of porcelain thickness on interfacial crack of PFM].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ziyuan; Zhang, Baowei; Zhang, Xiuyin; Xu, Kan; Fang, Ruhua; Wang, Dongmei

    2002-01-01

    This study was about the influence of porcelain thickness on crack at interface. The effect of porcelain thickness on the flaw at the interface between porcelain and metal was studied in three groups with porcelain thickness of 0.5 mm, 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm (metal thickness of 0.5 mm) by means of moire interferometre and interfacial fracture mechanics. The parameter Jc was compared among the three groups and the growing of the flaw was observed. Jc and the extreme strength of group with porcelain thickness of 0.5 mm (2.813 N/m and 9.979 N) were lower than those of the groups with porcelain thickness of 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm (5.395 N/m, 19.134 N and 5.429 N/m, 19.256 N). Flaws extend along the interface in the groups with porcelain thickness of 1.5 mm and 0.5 mm. (1) Fracture resistance of the interface in the groups with porcelain thickness of 1.5 mm and 2.5 mm is similar and it decreases in the group with 0.5 mm thick porcelain. (2) When porcelain is 1.5 mm or 0.5 mm thick, flaws will extend along the interface. When porcelain is 2.5 mm thick, flaws will extend into the porcelain layer.

  11. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel drum; (2) 6PA2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel crate or box... good quality materials free from any defect that could impair their strength, and be firmly secured in...

  12. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel drum; (2) 6PA2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel crate or box... good quality materials free from any defect that could impair their strength, and be firmly secured in...

  13. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel drum; (2) 6PA2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel crate or box... good quality materials free from any defect that could impair their strength, and be firmly secured in...

  14. Effects of flux concentrations and sintering temperature on dental porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Polash; Gafur, Md. Abdul; Das, Sujan Kumar; Ranjan Chakraborty, Shyamal; Mohsin, Md.; Deb, Arun Kumar; Rakibul Qadir, Md.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, samples of dental porcelain bodies have been made by using the materials collected from selected deposits employing different mixing proportions of clay, quartz and feldspar. Dental porcelain ceramics have been successfully fabricated by using the sintering technique together with some Na2CO3 additive. The dental porcelain powder has been pressed into pellets at first and subsequently sintered at 700, 800, 900, 1000 and 1100 °C for 2 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the prepared samples have been investigated. The sintering behavior of the fired samples has been evaluated by bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and apparent porosity measurements. This study includes the evaluation of the Vickers's microhardness by microhardness tester. Phase analysis and microstructural study have been performed by XRD and optical microscope respectively. Optical properties have been investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy. Influence of firing conditions on leucite formation, densification and microstructural development of the sintered samples has been investigated. It has been found that the choice of sintering temperature is one of the key factors in controlling leucite crystallization in dental porcelain ceramics. It has also been found that the flux concentration of material and the effect of temperature on preparation of dental porcelain contribute to the firing shrinkage and hardness, which has been found to increase with the increase of treatment temperature.

  15. Angiogenic therapy for cardiac repair based on protein delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Formiga, F R; Tamayo, E; Simón-Yarza, T; Pelacho, B; Prósper, F; Blanco-Prieto, M J

    2012-05-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries and are a major problem not only in the western nations but also in developing countries. Current standard approaches for treating patients with ischemic heart disease include angioplasty or bypass surgery. However, a large number of patients cannot be treated using these procedures. Novel curative approaches under investigation include gene, cell, and protein therapy. This review focuses on potential growth factors for cardiac repair. The role of these growth factors in the angiogenic process and the therapeutic implications are reviewed. Issues including aspects of growth factor delivery are presented in relation to protein stability, dosage, routes, and safety matters. Finally, different approaches for controlled growth factor delivery are discussed as novel protein delivery platforms for cardiac regeneration.

  16. Reuse of ornamental rock-cutting waste in aluminous porcelain.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Paes, H R; Holanda, J N F

    2011-03-01

    Large amounts of solid wastes are discarded in the ornamental rocks industry. This work investigates the incorporation of ornamental rock-cutting waste as a raw material into an aluminous porcelain body, replacing natural feldspar material by up to 35 wt.%. Formulations containing rock-cutting waste were pressed and sintered at 1350 °C. The porcelain pieces were tested to determine their properties (linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, mechanical strength, and electrical resistivity). Development of the microstructure was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results showed that ornamental rock-cutting waste could be used in aluminous porcelains, in the range up to 10 wt.%, as a partial replacement for traditional flux material, resulting in a valid route for management of this abundant waste. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A historical perspective of synthetic ceramic and traditional feldspathic porcelain.

    PubMed

    Chu, Stephen; Ahmad, Irfan

    2005-10-01

    Ceramics were invented by the Chinese during the T'ang Dynasty, where they quickly became a precious commodity. By the early 18th Century, ceramics found its way into dentistry due to its high strength, biocompatibility, and malleability. Today, ceramic materials are a staple in dentistry, available in both naturally based and partially synthetic formulas. Most recently they have become available as quartz-glass synthetic materials manufactured under controlled conditions to eliminate the inconsistencies and impurities inherent in the naturally based counterpart. This article details the discovery of porcelain and its role as a precious substance throughout the world and time, from its initial use as ornamental earthenware to its practical application in modern dentistry. Upon reading this article, the reader should: Understand the historical significance of porcelain. Recognize the fundamental constituents and physical properties of both natural feldspathic porcelains and fully synthetic ceramics used in dentistry.

  18. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, D.; Yang, F. J.; Sun, X. M.; Guo, M. S.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  19. Probing the substrate specificity of the bacterial Pnkp/Hen1 RNA repair system using synthetic RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Can; Chan, Chio Mui; Wang, Pei; Huang, Raven H.

    2012-01-01

    Ribotoxins cleave essential RNAs involved in protein synthesis as a strategy for cell killing. RNA repair systems exist in nature to counteract the lethal actions of ribotoxins, as first demonstrated by the RNA repair system from bacteriophage T4 25 yr ago. Recently, we found that two bacterial proteins, named Pnkp and Hen1, form a stable complex and are able to repair ribotoxin-cleaved tRNAs in vitro. However, unlike the well-studied T4 RNA repair system, the natural RNA substrates of the bacterial Pnkp/Hen1 RNA repair system are unknown. Here we present comprehensive RNA repair assays with the recombinant Pnkp/Hen1 proteins from Anabaena variabilis using a total of 33 different RNAs as substrates that might mimic various damaged forms of RNAs present in living cells. We found that unlike the RNA repair system from bacteriophage T4, the bacterial Pnkp/Hen1 RNA repair system exhibits broad substrate specificity. Based on the experimental data presented here, a model of preferred RNA substrates of the Pnkp/Hen1 repair system is proposed. PMID:22190744

  20. Meta-analysis of Prolene Hernia System mesh versus Lichtenstein mesh in open inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Watt, David G; Ogston, Simon A; Alijani, Afshin; Windsor, John A

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to systematically analyse all published randomized clinical trials comparing the Prolene Hernia System (PHS) mesh and Lichtenstein mesh for open inguinal hernia repair. A literature search was performed using the Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase and Science Citation Index Expanded. Randomized trials comparing the Lichtenstein Mesh repair (LMR) with the Prolene Hernia System were included. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager Version 5.1 software. The primary outcome measures were hernia recurrence and chronic pain after operation. Secondary outcome measures included surgical time, peri-operative complications, time to return to work, early and long-term postoperative complications. Six randomized clinical trials were identified as suitable, containing 1313 patients. There was no statistical difference between the two types of repair in operation time, time to return to work, incidence of chronic groin pain, hernia recurrence or long-term complications. The PHS group had a higher rate of peri-operative complications, compared to Lichtenstein mesh repair (risk ratio (RR) 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.93, P=0.01). The use of PHS mesh was associated with an increased risk of peri-operative complications compared to LMR. Both mesh repair techniques have comparable short- and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DR-GAS: a database of functional genetic variants and their phosphorylation states in human DNA repair systems.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Manika; Singh, Tiratha Raj

    2014-04-01

    We present DR-GAS(1), a unique, consolidated and comprehensive DNA repair genetic association studies database of human DNA repair system. It presents information on repair genes, assorted mechanisms of DNA repair, linkage disequilibrium, haplotype blocks, nsSNPs, phosphorylation sites, associated diseases, and pathways involved in repair systems. DNA repair is an intricate process which plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the genome by eradicating the damaging effect of internal and external changes in the genome. Hence, it is crucial to extensively understand the intact process of DNA repair, genes involved, non-synonymous SNPs which perhaps affect the function, phosphorylated residues and other related genetic parameters. All the corresponding entries for DNA repair genes, such as proteins, OMIM IDs, literature references and pathways are cross-referenced to their respective primary databases. DNA repair genes and their associated parameters are either represented in tabular or in graphical form through images elucidated by computational and statistical analyses. It is believed that the database will assist molecular biologists, biotechnologists, therapeutic developers and other scientific community to encounter biologically meaningful information, and meticulous contribution of genetic level information towards treacherous diseases in human DNA repair systems. DR-GAS is freely available for academic and research purposes at: http://www.bioinfoindia.org/drgas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Lukovic, Mladena; Ye, Guang

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c). This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice. PMID:28787801

  3. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    PubMed

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (P<.001) according to the following rank: VM9>PM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (P<.001). Different ceramic systems designed for porcelain veneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Challenges of Sensing and Repairing Software Defects in Autonomous Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    From - To) 28 Nov 2012 – 24 Feb 2014 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Challenges of Sensing and Repairing Software Defects in Autonomous Systems 5a...fault localization to focus edit locations; (3) existing code to provide the seed of new repairs; ( 4 ) fitness approximation to reduce required test...Assumptions, and Procedures…………………………………………………...….1 4 . Results and Discussion………………………………………………………………………..3 4.1 Technical Approach

  5. A new technique for repair of a dislocated sternoclavicular joint using a sternal tension cable system.

    PubMed

    Janson, Jacques T; Rossouw, Gawie J

    2013-02-01

    An unstable anterior or posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation can cause severe morbidity with poor shoulder movement and strength. These dislocations need to be repaired, which can be challenging. Many different procedures have been described to obtain a stable joint fixation with varying results. We report a new technique for repairing a sternoclavicular joint dislocation by using a figure-of-eight sternal cable system. This procedure is relatively simple and reproducible to create a stable and functional sternoclavicular joint. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Things for You to Know. Fuel System. Student Manual--Introduction. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. Information covered in this manual is considered to be the minimum that students need to know about fuel systems in order to get small-engine repair jobs. The manual introduces students to small-engine fuel…

  7. Lubrication System 2. Service the Crankcase Breather. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on servicing the crankcase breather is the third of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  8. Designing and Implementing an "Intelligent" Multimedia Tutoring System for Repair Tasks: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this document is the final report of a research project (1984-1989) on designing and implementing an intelligent multimedia tutoring system for repair tasks. The problem/goal and approach, equipment and implementation, experimental work, and results are discussed for three phases of research: (1) developing and testing an…

  9. Adaptable Holders for Arc-Jet Screening Candidate Thermal Protection System Repair Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccio, Joe; Milhoan, Jim D.

    2010-01-01

    Reusable holders have been devised for evaluating high-temperature, plasma-resistant re-entry materials, especially fabrics. Typical material samples tested support thermal-protection-system damage repair requiring evaluation prior to re-entry into terrestrial atmosphere. These tests allow evaluation of each material to withstand the most severe predicted re-entry conditions.

  10. DELTA: An Expert System for Diesel Electric Locomotive Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Rules and Inference Mechanisms. AD-P003 943 The ACE (Automated Cable Expert) Exlpelient: Initial Evaluation of an Expert System for Preventive...tions. The first field prototype expert system, designated CATS -i (Computer-Aided Troubleshooting System - Version 1), was delivered in July 1983 and is

  11. The necessity of a theory of biology for tissue engineering: metabolism-repair systems.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, Suman; Hunt, C Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Since there is no widely accepted global theory of biology, tissue engineering and bioengineering lack a theoretical understanding of the systems being engineered. By default, tissue engineering operates with a "reductionist" theoretical approach, inherited from traditional engineering of non-living materials. Long term, that approach is inadequate, since it ignores essential aspects of biology. Metabolism-repair systems are a theoretical framework which explicitly represents two "functional" aspects of living organisms: self-repair and self-replication. Since repair and replication are central to tissue engineering, we advance metabolism-repair systems as a potential theoretical framework for tissue engineering. We present an overview of the framework, and indicate directions to pursue for extending it to the context of tissue engineering. We focus on biological networks, both metabolic and cellular, as one such direction. The construction of these networks, in turn, depends on biological protocols. Together these concepts may help point the way to a global theory of biology appropriate for tissue engineering.

  12. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC... for lamp sockets, switches, receptacles, fuse blocks, or other electric equipment where the item is...

  13. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC... for lamp sockets, switches, receptacles, fuse blocks, or other electric equipment where the item is...

  14. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC... for lamp sockets, switches, receptacles, fuse blocks, or other electric equipment where the item is...

  15. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC... for lamp sockets, switches, receptacles, fuse blocks, or other electric equipment where the item is...

  16. Elemental analyses on porcelains of Tang and Song Dynasties excavated from Yongjinwan zone at Jinsha site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, C. D.; Ge, L. J.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2018-02-01

    The work presented here carried out elemental analyses on 60 porcelain shards of Tang and Song Dynasties, unearthed from Yongjinwan zone at Jinsha site, Sichuan, China, using a combination of PIXE and RBS methods. Six shards from Liulichang kiln site and 6 from Shifangtang kiln site were also analyzed as reference materials. The factor analyses for the elemental compositions in the bodies and glazes of the total 72 porcelain shards have been performed to explore their similarities and differences. Combining the results of factor analyses on elements in bodies and glazes and the classification by traditional archaeological criteria, the provenances for most of shards unearthed from Yongjinwan zone in Jinsha site could be determined. Majority of shards with a Qiong-kiln style were found as products of Liulichang kiln, this is consistent with Yongjinwan's geographical location and social environment, i.e., Yongjinwan was a suburban settlement nearest to Liulichang kiln in ancient times. Although both products of Liulichang kiln and Shifangtang kiln belonged to Qiong-kiln system and they shared a similar appearance such as red body and celadon glaze, there were distinct differences in chemical composition which could be unraveled by PIXE-RBS measurements and factor analysis. There were no apparent differences of chemical compositions for the same kinds of body and glaze between Tang and Song Dynasties, which may suggest that raw materials and production techniques for the same kinds of body and glaze continued between Tang and Song Dynasties. The chemical characteristics for each kind of body and glaze and the correlations between element composition and porcelain appearance were also obtained in this work.

  17. Motorcycle Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  18. [A study on the bond interface between low-fusing dental porcelain and pure titanium].

    PubMed

    Mo, A; Cen, Y; Liao, Y; Wang, J; Shi, X

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the bond interface between low fusing dental porcelain and pure titanium by observing the topography and detecting the ionic diffusion in the interface area. The low fusing-porcelain La-porcelain produced by the authors or Vita Titankeramik porcelain was fused to the surfaces of pure titanium. The topography of the interface between pure titanium and porcelain, and the structure of experimental materials were observed with SEM. The state of ionic diffusion in the interface area was investigated with EPMA. Excellent permeation and diffusion of La-porcelain were observed on the surfaces of pure titanium. The diffusion of ions of stannum and silicon was discovered in the interface area. The microstructure of La-porcelain to pure titanium bond interface was finer than that of Vita Titankeramik porcelain. Excellent bond can be produced in the interface between La-porcelain and pure titanium. The bonding mechanism may involve mechanical bond and chemical bond. The ionic diffusion of stannum plays an important role in the bonding of porcelain to pure titanium.

  19. [Influence of manufacture technique on translucency and color of dental porcelain].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fang; Chao, Yong-Lie; Zhu, Zhi-Min

    2007-12-01

    To study the influence of manufacture technique on the translucency and color of dental porcelain. Specimens were made of VITA VMK 95 dentin porcelain and enamel porcelain and divided into 3 groups: Sintering times group (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 times), sintering temperature group (910, 920, 930, 940 and 950 degrees C), sintering vacuum group (95, 65, 35 and 0 kPa). Transmittance, Y, dominant wavelength and saturation were measured by PR-650 spectra scan spectrocolorimeter. Transmittance of dentin porcelain increased after 6 times repeated sintering. Transmittance of enamel porcelain increased first after the second sintering, and then became decreasing when sintering more than 2 times. Transmittance of enamel porcelain deceased when sintering temperature was lower than standard. Decrease of sintering vacuum caused the transmittance of dentin and enamel porcelain decreased. The changing of value was coordinated with transmittance. Dominant wavelength and saturation had negative correlation with sintering times and temperature, and positive correlation with vacuum. Sintering times, temperature and vacuum all had prominent effects on the translucency and color of dental porcelain. Comparing with dentin porcelain, enamel porcelain was more sensitive with the modification of manufacture technique.

  20. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    PubMed

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  1. RNA damage in biological conflicts and the diversity of responding RNA repair systems

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Aravind, L.

    2016-01-01

    RNA is targeted in biological conflicts by enzymatic toxins or effectors. A vast diversity of systems which repair or ‘heal’ this damage has only recently become apparent. Here, we summarize the known effectors, their modes of action, and RNA targets before surveying the diverse systems which counter this damage from a comparative genomics viewpoint. RNA-repair systems show a modular organization with extensive shuffling and displacement of the constituent domains; however, a general ‘syntax’ is strongly maintained whereby systems typically contain: a RNA ligase (either ATP-grasp or RtcB superfamilies), nucleotidyltransferases, enzymes modifying RNA-termini for ligation (phosphatases and kinases) or protection (methylases), and scaffold or cofactor proteins. We highlight poorly-understood or previously-uncharacterized repair systems and components, e.g. potential scaffolding cofactors (Rot/TROVE and SPFH/Band-7 modules) with their respective cognate non-coding RNAs (YRNAs and a novel tRNA-like molecule) and a novel nucleotidyltransferase associating with diverse ligases. These systems have been extensively disseminated by lateral transfer between distant prokaryotic and microbial eukaryotic lineages consistent with intense inter-organismal conflict. Components have also often been ‘institutionalized’ for non-conflict roles, e.g. in RNA-splicing and in RNAi systems (e.g. in kinetoplastids) which combine a distinct family of RNA-acting prim-pol domains with DICER-like proteins. PMID:27536007

  2. Multisensor robotic system for autonomous space maintenance and repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abidi, M. A.; Green, W. L.; Chandra, T.; Spears, J.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of realistic autonomous space manipulation tasks using multisensory information is demonstrated. The system is capable of acquiring, integrating, and interpreting multisensory data to locate, mate, and demate a Fluid Interchange System (FIS) and a Module Interchange System (MIS). In both cases, autonomous location of a guiding light target, mating, and demating of the system are performed. Implemented visio-driven techniques are used to determine the arbitrary two-dimensional position and orientation of the mating elements as well as the arbitrary three-dimensional position and orientation of the light targets. A force/torque sensor continuously monitors the six components of force and torque exerted on the end-effector. Both FIS and MIS experiments were successfully accomplished on mock-ups built for this purpose. The method is immune to variations in the ambient light, in particular because of the 90-minute day-night shift in space.

  3. Inhibition of NHEJ repair by type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Aude; Calvo-Villamañán, Alicia; Basier, Clovis; Cui, Lun; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Touchon, Marie; Bikard, David

    2017-12-12

    Type II CRISPR-Cas systems introduce double-strand breaks into DNA of invading genetic material and use DNA fragments to acquire novel spacers during adaptation. These breaks can be the substrate of several DNA repair pathways, paving the way for interactions. We report that non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems only co-occur once among 5563 fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes. We investigated experimentally the possible molecular interactions using the NHEJ pathway from Bacillus subtilis and the type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems from Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Our results suggest that the NHEJ system has no effect on CRISPR immunity. On the other hand, we provide evidence for the inhibition of NHEJ repair by the Csn2 protein. Our findings give insights on the complex interactions between CRISPR-Cas systems and repair mechanisms in bacteria, contributing to explain the scattered distribution of CRISPR-Cas systems in bacterial genome.

  4. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  5. Crewmember repairing the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System wiring.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Ken Bowersox, busy at work on the wiring harness for the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System located under the mid deck floor. Photo shows Bowersox splicing wires together to 'fool' a faulty sensor that caused the 'air conditioner' to shut down.

  6. The Refrigeration System; Appliance Repair--Advanced: 9027.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course outline provides students with an understanding of the observation of basic refrigeration system components, the techniques used in working with copper tubing, and practice demonstrations to show what they have learned. Course content includes specific block objectives, orientation, refrigeration components (evaporator, compressor,…

  7. Glial kon/NG2 gene network for central nervous system repair.

    PubMed

    Losada-Perez, Maria; Harrison, Neale; Hidalgo, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The glial regenerative response to central nervous system (CNS) injury, although limited, can be harnessed to promote regeneration and repair. Injury provokes the proliferation of ensheathing glial cells, which can differentiate to remyelinate axons, and partially restore function. This response is evolutionarily conserved, strongly implying an underlying genetic mechanism. In mammals, it is elicited by NG2 glia, but most often newly generated cells fail to differentiate. Thus an important goal had been to find out how to promote glial differentiation following the proliferative response. A gene network involving Notch and prospero (pros) controls the balance between glial proliferation and differentiation in flies and mice, and promotes CNS repair at least in fruit-flies. A key missing link had been how to relate the function of NG2 to this gene network. Recent findings by Losada-Perez et al., published in JCB, demonstrated that the Drosophila NG2 homologue kon-tiki (kon) is functionally linked to Notch and pros in glia. By engaging in two feedback loops with Notch and Pros, in response to injury, Kon can regulate both glial cell number and glial shape homeostasis, essential for repair. Drosophila offers powerful genetics to unravel the control of stem and progenitor cells for regeneration and repair.

  8. Crewmember repairing the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System wiring.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    STS050-20-012 (26 June 1992) --- Astronaut Kenneth D. Bowersox, pilot, performs in-flight maintenance (IFM) on the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System (RCRS) on the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. Bowersox was joined by four other astronauts and two scientists from the private sector for a record-setting 14-day stay aboard the Space Shuttle in support of the United States Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1).

  9. Effectiveness of Combination of Dentin and Enamel Layers on the Masking Ability of Porcelain.

    PubMed

    Boscato, Noéli; Hauschild, Fernando Gabriel; Kaizer, Marina da Rosa; De Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the masking ability of different porcelain thicknesses and combination of enamel and/or dentin porcelain layers over simulated background dental substrates with higher (A2) and lower (C4) color values. Combination of the enamel (E) and dentin (D) monolayer porcelain disks with different thicknesses (0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1 mm) resulted in the following bilayer groups (n=10): D1E1, D1E0.8; D1E0.5; D0.8E0.8; D0.8E0.5, and D0.5E0.5. CIELAB color coordinates were measured with a spectrophotometer. The translucency parameter of mono and bilayer specimens and the masking ability estimated by color variation (ΔE*ab) of bilayer specimens over simulated dental substrates were evaluated. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships translucency parameter × ΔE*, translucency parameter × porcelain thickness, and ΔE* × porcelain thickness. Data were analyzed statistically (α= 0.05). Thinner porcelain disks were associated with higher translucency. Porcelain monolayers were considerably more translucent than bilayers (enamel + dentin). Dentin porcelain was less translucent than enamel porcelain with same thickness. ΔE* was always lower when measured over A2 background. Higher ΔE* was observed for the C4 background, indicating poorer masking ability. Increased ΔE* was significantly associated with increased translucency for both backgrounds. Decreased translucency and ΔE* were associated with increased total porcelain thickness or increased dentin thickness for both backgrounds. In conclusion, increased porcelain thickness (particularly increased dentin layer) and increased porcelain opacity resulted in better masking ability of the dental backgrounds.

  10. Non-Gold Base Dental Casting Alloys. Volume 2. Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    of the tooth . At the same time, enamel porcelains can be applied from the incisal one-third, through the middle one-third, and be subtly blended into...alumina (aluminum oxide) in a glass matrix. 1 Natural tooth color and opacification are obtained by the addition of metallic oxides to the porcelain...are classified as opaque, dentin (or body), and enamel (or incisal) porcelain powders with numerous color concentrates, such s opaque and dentin color

  11. Non-destructive analysis and appraisal of ancient Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Xia, H. N.; Jiang, J. C.; Yang, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports the results of the PIXE analysis on ancient Chinese blue and white porcelain fired at Kuan Kiln (Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province) during 13-19th century. The major, minor and trace element of porcelain body, white glaze and blue glaze were determined by PIXE. In this paper the chemical compositions of porcelain body, white glaze and blue glaze measured from Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) and Qing (AD 1616-1911) blue and white porcelain are present. The cobalt blue pigment used in Yuan, Ming and Qing are also discussed.

  12. Mössbauer study of the Ru porcelain of Chinese Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyao, Gao; Songhua, Chen; Xiande, Chen

    1994-12-01

    The Mössbauer spectra from the glazes of the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelains and the imitative ancient Ru porcelain are compared and analyzed. It is determined that the original firing atmosphere of the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelain was reductive. The firing temperature was 1250±20 ‡C. The original firing atmosphere of the Song Dynasty Ru porcelain was also reductive; the firing temperature was above 1200 ‡C. The coloring mechanism of these glazes is discussed.

  13. Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Tear Transosseous Repair System: The Sharc-FT Using the Taylor Stitcher.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Andrea; Lunini, Enricomaria; Rebuzzi, Manuela; Verdano, Michele; Baudi, Paolo; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Transosseous rotator cuff tear repair was first described in 1944. Over the years, it has represented the gold standard for such lesions. Through open and mini-open approaches, as well as the arthroscopic approach, the transosseous repair system represents one of the most reliable surgical techniques from a biological and mechanical perspective. Nevertheless, further improvements are required. This article describes an arthroscopic rotator cuff tear transosseous repair system, developed in collaboration with NCS Lab (Carpi, Italy): the Sharc-FT using the Taylor Stitcher. Our first experience in the clinical application of the arthroscopic technique using the transosseous suture system has shown encouraging clinical outcomes, confirming its efficacy. The patient satisfaction rate was high, and no patient expressed concern about the implant. The complication rate was very low. By improving the suture technique in the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a remarkable increase in the success rate in the treatment of this pathology could be reached; nevertheless, complications such as retears of the rotator cuff still occur.

  14. Influence of bruxism on survival of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Granell-Ruíz, Maria; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether bruxism and the use of occlusal splints affect the survival of porcelain laminate veneers in patients treated with this technique. Restorations were made in 70 patients, including 30 patients with some type of parafunctional habit. A total of 323 veneers were placed, 170 in patients with bruxism activity, and the remaining 153 in patients without it. A clinical examination determined the presence or absence of ceramic failure (cracks, fractures and debonding) of the restorations; these incidents were analyzed for association with bruxism and the use of splints. Analysis of the ceramic failures showed that of the 13 fractures and 29 debonding that were present in our study, 8 fractures and 22 debonding were related to the presence of bruxism. Porcelain laminate veneers are a predictable treatment option that provides excellent results, recognizing a higher risk of failure in patients with bruxism activity. The use of occlusal splints reduces the risk of fractures.

  15. Gingival health associated with porcelain veneers on maxillary incisors.

    PubMed

    Reid, J S; Kinane, D F; Adonogianaki, E

    1991-12-01

    The possible detrimental effect of acid-etched resin-bonded prostheses and porcelain veneers on plaque accumulation and gingival health is currently disputed. Some workers recommend no tooth preparation prior to veneering whilst others recommend tooth preparation to prevent adverse gingival soft tissue reactions. In order to test the possible gingival effects of veneers placed without tooth preparation, this study was set up to compare gingival health on veneered and non-veneered maxillary incisors within the same individual during periods of normal tooth cleaning and of no tooth cleaning. No significant differences were noted in plaque or gingival indices, or in gingival crevicular fluid volume, between the 72 veneered and non-veneered sites during either study period. The results of this study suggest that placing porcelain veneers on unprepared teeth does not increase the risk of gingivitis.

  16. Resistance to abrasion of extrinsic porcelain esthetic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Chi, Woo J; Browning, William; Looney, Stephen; Mackert, J Rodway; Windhorn, Richard J; Rueggeberg, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    A novel esthetic porcelain characterization technique involves mixing an appropriate amount of ceramic colorants with clear, low-fusing porcelain (LFP), applying the mixture on the external surfaces, and firing the combined components onto the surface of restorations in a porcelain oven. This method may provide better esthetic qualities and toothbrush abrasion resistance compared to the conventional techniques of applying color-corrective porcelain colorants alone, or applying a clear glaze layer over the colorants. However, there is no scientific literature to support this claim. This research evaluated toothbrush abrasion resistance of a novel porcelain esthetic characterization technique by subjecting specimens to various durations of simulated toothbrush abrasion. The results were compared to those obtained using the conventional characterization techniques of colorant application only or colorant followed by placement of a clear over-glaze. Four experimental groups, all of which were a leucite reinforced ceramic of E TC1 (Vita A1) shade, were prepared and fired in a porcelain oven according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group S (stain only) was characterized by application of surface colorants to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group GS (glaze over stain) was characterized by application of a layer of glaze over the existing colorant layer as used for Group S. Group SL (stain+LFP) was characterized by application of a mixture of colorants and clear low-fusing add-on porcelain to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group C (Control) was used as a control without any surface characterization. The 4 groups were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing using a 1:1 water-to-toothpaste solution for a simulated duration of 32 years of clinical use. The amount of wear was measured at time intervals simulating every 4 years of toothbrushing. These parameters were evaluated longitudinally for all groups as well as compared at similar time points among

  17. Characterization of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M.

    This Dissertation investigates a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping. Numerous techniques exist for the repair of high-pressure steel piping. One repair technology that is widely gaining acceptance is composite over-wraps. Thermal analytical evaluations of the epoxy matrix material produced glass transition temperature results, a cure kinetic model, and a workability chart. These results indicate a maximum glass transition temperature of 80°C (176°F) when cured in ambient conditions. Post-curing the epoxy, however, resulted in higher glass-transition temperatures. The accuracy of cure kinetic model presented is temperature dependent; its accuracy improves with increased cure temperatures. Cathodic disbondment evaluations of the composite over-wrap show the epoxy does not breakdown when subjected to a constant voltage of -1.5V and the epoxy does not allow corrosion to form under the wrap from permeation. Combustion analysis of the composite over-wrap system revealed the epoxy is flammable when in direct contact with fire. To prevent combustion, an intumescent coating was developed to be applied on the composite over-wrap. Results indicate that damaged pipes repaired with the carbon fiber composite over-wrap withstand substantially higher static pressures and exhibit better fatigue characteristics than pipes lacking repair. For loss up to 80 percent of the original pipe wall thickness, the composite over-wrap achieved failure pressures above the pipe's specified minimum yield stress during monotonic evaluations and reached the pipe's practical fatigue limit during cyclical pressure testing. Numerous repairs were made to circular, thru-wall defects and monotonic pressure tests revealed containment up to the pipe's specified minimum yield strength for small diameter defects. The energy release rate of the composite over-wrap/steel interface was obtained from these full-scale, leaking pipe evaluations and results

  18. An Injectable, Self-Healing Hydrogel to Repair the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ting-Chen; Tao, Lei; Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Wei, Yen; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-06-17

    An injectable, self-healing hydrogel (≈1.5 kPa) is developed for healing nerve-system deficits. Neurosphere-like progenitors proliferate in the hydrogel and differentiate into neuron-like cells. In the zebrafish injury model, the central nervous system function is partially rescued by injection of the hydrogel and significantly rescued by injection of the neurosphere-laden hydrogel. The self-healing hydrogel may thus potentially repair the central nervous system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Diminutive Porcelain Ascending Aorta With Supravalvular Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Houmsse, Mustafa; McDavid, Asia; Kilic, Ahmet

    2018-05-01

    This report describes the case of a 49-year-old man with a medical history significant for congenital aortic stenosis. The patient presented with progressive shortness of breath and decreased stamina and was found to have a concentric, diminutive porcelain ascending aorta with diffuse supravalvular aortic stenosis. We describe treatment with an aortic root augmentation and Bentall procedure using hypothermic circulatory arrest. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dry Arthroscopy With a Retraction System for Matrix-Aided Cartilage Repair of Patellar Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sadlik, Boguslaw; Wiewiorski, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several commercially available cartilage repair techniques use a natural or synthetic matrix to aid cartilage regeneration (e.g., autologous matrix–induced chondrogenesis or matrix-induced cartilage implantation). However, the use of matrix-aided techniques during conventional knee joint arthroscopy under continuous irrigation is challenging. Insertion and fixation of the matrix can be complicated by the presence of fluid and the confined patellofemoral joint space with limited access to the lesion. To overcome these issues, we developed a novel arthroscopic approach for matrix-aided cartilage repair of patellar lesions. This technical note describes the use of dry arthroscopy assisted by a minimally invasive retraction system. An autologous matrix–induced chondrogenesis procedure is used to illustrate this novel approach. PMID:24749035

  1. Bioactive Molecule-loaded Drug Delivery Systems to Optimize Bone Tissue Repair.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Joao Augusto; Sato, Mariana Rillo; Scardueli, Cassio Rocha; Lopes de Oliveira, Guilherme Jose Pimentel; Abucafy, Marina Paiva; Chorilli, Marlus

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive molecules such as peptides and proteins can optimize the repair of bone tissue; however, the results are often unpredictable when administered alone, owing to their short biological half-life and instability. Thus, the development of bioactive molecule-loaded drug delivery systems (DDS) to repair bone tissue has been the subject of intense research. DDS can optimize the repair of bone tissue owing to their physicochemical properties, which improve cellular interactions and enable the incorporation and prolonged release of bioactive molecules. These characteristics are fundamental to favor bone tissue homeostasis, since the biological activity of these factors depends on how accessible they are to the cell. Considering the importance of these DDS, this review aims to present relevant information on DDS when loaded with osteogenic growth peptide and bone morphogenetic protein. These are bioactive molecules that are capable of modulating the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells in bone tissue cells. Moreover, we will present different approaches using these peptide and protein-loaded DDS, such as synthetic membranes and scaffolds for bone regeneration, synthetic grafts, bone cements, liposomes, and micelles, which aim at improving the therapeutic effectiveness, and we will compare their advantages with commercial systems. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Evidence for an Inducible Repair-Recombination System in the Female Germ Line of Drosophila Melanogaster. III. Correlation between Reactivity Levels, Crossover Frequency and Repair Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Laurencon, A.; Gay, F.; Ducau, J.; Bregliano, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    We previously reported evidence that the so-called reactivity level, a peculiar cellular state of oocytes that regulates the frequency of transposition of I factor, a LINE element-like retrotransposon, might be one manifestation of a DNA repair system. In this article, we report data showing that the reactivity level is correlated with the frequency of crossing over, at least on the X chromosome and on the pericentromeric region of the third chromosome. Moreover, a check for X-chromosome losses and recessive lethals produced after gamma irradiation in flies with different reactivity levels, but common genetic backgrounds, brings more precise evidence for the relationship between reactivity levels and DNA repair. Those results support the existence of a repair-recombination system whose efficiency is modulated by endogenous and environmental factors. The implications of this biological system in connecting genomic variability and environment may shed new lights on adaptative mechanisms. We propose to call it VAMOS for variability modulation system. PMID:9258678

  3. Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

  4. [Effects of different surface conditioning agents on the bond strength of resin-opaque porcelain composite].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjia; Fu, Jing; Liao, Shuang; Su, Naichuan; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between Ceramco3 opaque porcelain and indirect composite resin. Five groups of Co-Cr metal alloy substrates were fabricated according to manufacturer's instruction. The surface of metal alloy with a layer of dental opaque porcelain was heated by fire. After the surface of opaque porcelain was etched, five different surface treatments, i.e. RelyX Ceramic Primer (RCP), Porcelain Bond Activator and SE Bond Primer (mixed with a proportion of 1:1) (PBA), Shofu Porcelain Primer (SPP), SE bond primer (SEP), and no primer treatment (as a control group), were used to combine P60 and opaque porcelain along with resin cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested in a universal testing machine. The failure modes of specimens in all groups were observed and classified into four types. Selected specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy to reveal the relief of the fracture surface and to confirm the failure mode of different types. The experimental results showed that the values of the tested items in all the tested groups were higher than that in the control group. Group PBA exhibited the highest value [(37.52 +/- 2.14) MPa] and this suggested a fact that all of the specimens in group PBA revealed combined failures (failure occurred in metal-porcelain combined surface and within opaque porcelain). Group SPP and RCP showed higher values than SEP (P < 0.05) and most specimens of SPP and RCP performed combined failures (failure occurred in bond surface and within opaque porcelain or composite resin) while all the specimens in group SEP and control group revealed adhesive failures. Conclusions could be drawn that silane coupling agents could reinforce the bond strength of dental composite resin to metal-opaque porcelain substrate. The bond strength between dental composite resin and dental opaque porcelain could

  5. Role of the immune system in cardiac tissue damage and repair following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Saparov, Arman; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Nurgozhin, Talgat; Chen, William C W; Mansurov, Nurlan; Issabekova, Assel; Zhakupova, Jamilya

    2017-09-01

    The immune system plays a crucial role in the initiation, development, and resolution of inflammation following myocardial infarction (MI). The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes the death of cardiomyocytes and leads to the exposure of danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by the immune system to initiate inflammation. At the initial stage of post-MI inflammation, the immune system further damages cardiac tissue to clear cell debris. The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by immune cells and the inability of the anti-oxidant system to neutralize ROS cause oxidative stress that further aggravates inflammation. On the other hand, the cells of both innate and adaptive immune system and their secreted factors are critically instrumental in the very dynamic and complex processes of regulating inflammation and mediating cardiac repair. It is important to decipher the balance between detrimental and beneficial effects of the immune system in MI. This enables us to identify better therapeutic targets for reducing the infarct size, sustaining the cardiac function, and minimizing the likelihood of heart failure. This review discusses the role of both innate and adaptive immune systems in cardiac tissue damage and repair in experimental models of MI.

  6. Influence of porcelain firing and cementation on the marginal adaptation of metal-ceramic restorations prepared by different methods.

    PubMed

    Kaleli, Necati; Saraç, Duygu

    2017-05-01

    Marginal adaptation plays an important role in the survival of metal-ceramic restorations. Porcelain firings and cementation may affect the adaptation of restorations. Moreover, conventional casting procedures and casting imperfections may cause deteriorations in the marginal adaptation of metal-ceramic restorations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal adaptation after fabrication of the framework, porcelain application, and cementation of metal-ceramic restorations prepared by using the conventional lost-wax technique, milling, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and LaserCUSING, a direct process powder-bed system. Alterations in the marginal adaptation of the metal frameworks during the fabrication stages and the precision of fabrication methods were evaluated. Forty-eight metal dies simulating prepared premolar and molar abutment teeth were fabricated to investigate marginal adaptation. They were divided into 4 groups (n=12) according to the fabrication method used (group C serving as the control group: lost-wax method; group M: milling method; group LS: DMLS method; group DP: direct process powder-bed method). Sixty marginal discrepancy measurements were recorded separately on each abutment tooth after fabrication of the framework, porcelain application, and cementation by using a stereomicroscope. Thereafter, each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to the measurements recorded in each fabrication stage: subgroup F (framework), subgroup P (porcelain application), and subgroup C (cementation). Data were statistically analyzed with univariate analysis of variance (followed by 1-way ANOVA and Tamhane T2 test (α=.05). The lowest marginal discrepancy values were observed in restorations prepared by using the direct process powder-bed method, and this was significantly different (P<.001) from the other methods. The highest marginal discrepancy values were recorded after the cementation procedure in all groups. The results

  7. Oxidative DNA damage background estimated by a system model of base excision repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, B A; Wilson, III, D M

    Human DNA can be damaged by natural metabolism through free radical production. It has been suggested that the equilibrium between innate damage and cellular DNA repair results in an oxidative DNA damage background that potentially contributes to disease and aging. Efforts to quantitatively characterize the human oxidative DNA damage background level based on measuring 8-oxoguanine lesions as a biomarker have led to estimates varying over 3-4 orders of magnitude, depending on the method of measurement. We applied a previously developed and validated quantitative pathway model of human DNA base excision repair, integrating experimentally determined endogenous damage rates and model parametersmore » from multiple sources. Our estimates of at most 100 8-oxoguanine lesions per cell are consistent with the low end of data from biochemical and cell biology experiments, a result robust to model limitations and parameter variation. Our results show the power of quantitative system modeling to interpret composite experimental data and make biologically and physiologically relevant predictions for complex human DNA repair pathway mechanisms and capacity.« less

  8. An Inducible, Isogenic Cancer Cell Line System for Targeting the State of Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bailis, Julie M.; Gordon, Marcia L.; Gurgel, Jesse L.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.; Kirsch, Ilan R.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) maintains genome stability through recognition and repair of single-base mismatches and small insertion-deletion loops. Inactivation of the MMR pathway causes microsatellite instability and the accumulation of genomic mutations that can cause or contribute to cancer. In fact, 10-20% of certain solid and hematologic cancers are MMR-deficient. MMR-deficient cancers do not respond to some standard of care chemotherapeutics because of presumed increased tolerance of DNA damage, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic drugs. Toward this goal, we generated isogenic cancer cell lines for direct comparison of MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells. We engineered NCI-H23 lung adenocarcinoma cells to contain a doxycycline-inducible shRNA designed to suppress the expression of the mismatch repair gene MLH1, and compared single cell subclones that were uninduced (MLH1-proficient) versus induced for the MLH1 shRNA (MLH1-deficient). Here we present the characterization of these MMR-inducible cell lines and validate a novel class of rhodium metalloinsertor compounds that differentially inhibit the proliferation of MMR-deficient cancer cells. PMID:24205301

  9. A Novel Repair Technique for the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Patel, Vipul; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2005-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas trap was designed to last for the entire lifetime of the ISS, and therefore was not designed to be repaired. However, repair of these gas traps is now a necessity due to contamination from the on-orbit ITCS fluid and other sources on the ground as well as a limited supply of flight gas traps. This paper describes a novel repair technique that has been developed that will allow the refurbishment of contaminated gas traps and their return to flight use.

  10. [Influence of different designs and porcelain/glaze firing on the marginal and internal fit of implant-supported zirconia crowns].

    PubMed

    Cuiling, Liu; Xu, Gao; Yuping, Qi; Liyuan, Yang

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of different designs and porcelain/glaze firing on the marginal and internal fit of three kinds of computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns. Three groups of zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns with different designs were produced from copings by using a Cercon CAD/CAM system (n = 8). The first two groups comprised double-layer crowns (zirconia coping + veneer) with regular (Group A) and full circumferential zirconia-collar marginal designs (Group B). The third group was composed of anatomic single-layer zirconia crowns without cores (Group C). Initially, the marginal and internal gaps of the copings and crowns were individually replicated by light-body silicon and then measured by micro-computed tomography scanning before and after porcelain/glaze firing. Five measurements were employed: vertical marginal gap (MG); horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD); chamfer area (CA); axial wall (AW); and axial-occlusal transition area (AOT). Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS 17.0. HMD measurements in Group A were statistically higher than those in Groups B and C (P < 0.05), regardless of whether the values were obtained before or after porcelain/glaze firing. By contrast, the HIMD measurements in Groups B and C showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Moreover, no differences were noted in MG, CA, AW, and AOT among the three groups (P > 0.05). All the measurements in the three groups showed no significant change after porcelain/glaze firing (P > 0.05), except for MG in Group A, which significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The marginal fits of the double-layer crowns with full circumferential zirconia-collar and the anatomic single-layer zirconia crowns were superior to that of the double-layer crowns with regular margins. The MG of the crowns with regular margins was obviously influenced by porcelain firing.

  11. Outboard Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardway, Jack

    This consortium-developed instructor's manual for small engine repair (with focus on outboard motors) consists of the following nine instructional units: electrical remote control assembly, mechanical remote control assembly, tilt assemblies, exhaust housing, propeller and trim tabs, cooling system, mechanical gearcase, electrical gearcase, and…

  12. The neonate versus adult mammalian immune system in cardiac repair and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Susanne; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    The immune system is a crucial player in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. A sophisticated cascade of events triggered upon injury ensures protection from infection and initiates and orchestrates healing. While the neonatal mammal can readily regenerate damaged tissues, adult regenerative capacity is limited to specific tissue types, and in organs such as the heart, adult wound healing results in fibrotic repair and loss of function. Growing evidence suggests that the immune system greatly influences the balance between regeneration and fibrotic repair. The neonate mammalian immune system has impaired pro-inflammatory function, is prone to T-helper type 2 responses and has an immature adaptive immune system skewed towards regulatory T cells. While these characteristics make infants susceptible to infection and prone to allergies, it may also provide an immunological environment permissive of regeneration. In this review we will give a comprehensive overview of the immune cells involved in healing and regeneration of the heart and explore differences between the adult and neonate immune system that may explain differences in regenerative ability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance analysis of complex repairable industrial systems using PSO and fuzzy confidence interval based methodology.

    PubMed

    Garg, Harish

    2013-03-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to propose a methodology for analyzing the behavior of the complex repairable industrial systems. In real-life situations, it is difficult to find the most optimal design policies for MTBF (mean time between failures), MTTR (mean time to repair) and related costs by utilizing available resources and uncertain data. For this, the availability-cost optimization model has been constructed for determining the optimal design parameters for improving the system design efficiency. The uncertainties in the data related to each component of the system are estimated with the help of fuzzy and statistical methodology in the form of the triangular fuzzy numbers. Using these data, the various reliability parameters, which affects the system performance, are obtained in the form of the fuzzy membership function by the proposed confidence interval based fuzzy Lambda-Tau (CIBFLT) methodology. The computed results by CIBFLT are compared with the existing fuzzy Lambda-Tau methodology. Sensitivity analysis on the system MTBF has also been addressed. The methodology has been illustrated through a case study of washing unit, the main part of the paper industry. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  15. Reliability analysis of repairable systems using Petri nets and vague Lambda-Tau methodology.

    PubMed

    Garg, Harish

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to developed a methodology, named as vague Lambda-Tau, for reliability analysis of repairable systems. Petri net tool is applied to represent the asynchronous and concurrent processing of the system instead of fault tree analysis. To enhance the relevance of the reliability study, vague set theory is used for representing the failure rate and repair times instead of classical(crisp) or fuzzy set theory because vague sets are characterized by a truth membership function and false membership functions (non-membership functions) so that sum of both values is less than 1. The proposed methodology involves qualitative modeling using PN and quantitative analysis using Lambda-Tau method of solution with the basic events represented by intuitionistic fuzzy numbers of triangular membership functions. Sensitivity analysis has also been performed and the effects on system MTBF are addressed. The methodology improves the shortcomings of the existing probabilistic approaches and gives a better understanding of the system behavior through its graphical representation. The washing unit of a paper mill situated in a northern part of India, producing approximately 200 ton of paper per day, has been considered to demonstrate the proposed approach. The results may be helpful for the plant personnel for analyzing the systems' behavior and to improve their performance by adopting suitable maintenance strategies. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of a novel IGS system in atrial septal defect repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefleh, Fuad N.; Baker, G. Hamilton; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2013-03-01

    Congenital heart disease occurs in 107.6 out of 10,000 live births, with Atrial Septal Defects (ASD) accounting for 10% of these conditions. Historically, ASDs were treated with open heart surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass, allowing a patch to be sewn over the defect. In 1976, King et al. demonstrated use of a transcatheter occlusion procedure, thus reducing the invasiveness of ASD repair. Localization during these catheter based procedures traditionally has relied on bi-plane fluoroscopy; more recently trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) and intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE) have been used to navigate these procedures. Although there is a high success rate using the transcatheter occlusion procedure, fluoroscopy poses radiation dose risk to both patient and clinician. The impact of this dose to the patients is important as many of those undergoing this procedure are children, who have an increased risk associated with radiation exposure. Their longer life expectancy than adults provides a larger window of opportunity for expressing the damaging effects of ionizing radiation. In addition, epidemiologic studies of exposed populations have demonstrated that children are considerably more sensitive to the carcinogenic effects radiation. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses pre-operative and intra-operative images to guide surgery or an interventional procedure. Central to every IGS system is a software application capable of processing and displaying patient images, registration between multiple coordinate systems, and interfacing with a tool tracking system. We have developed a novel image-guided surgery framework called Kit for Navigation by Image Focused Exploration (KNIFE). In this work we assess the efficacy of this image-guided navigation system for ASD repair using a series of mock clinical experiments designed to simulate ASD repair device deployment.

  17. [Preliminary study of bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramic and veneering porcelains].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-li; Gao, Mei-qin; Cheng, Yu-ye; Zhang, Fei-min

    2015-04-01

    In order to choose the best veneering porcelain for diatomite-based dental ceramic substrate, the bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramics and veneering porcelains was measured, and the microstructure and elements distribution of interface were analyzed. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of diatomite-based dental ceramics was detected by dilatometry. Three veneering porcelain materials were selected with the best CTE matching including alumina veneering porcelain (group A), titanium porcelain veneering porcelain (group B), and E-max veneering porcelain (group C). Shear bonding strength was detected. SEM and EDS were used to observe the interface microstructure and element distribution. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. The CTE of diatomite-based dental ceramics at 25-500 degrees centigrade was 8.85×10-6K-1. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combined best with group C. Shear bonding strength between group A and C and group B and C both showed significant differences(P<0.05). SEM and EDS showed that the interface of group C sintered tightly and elements permeated on both sides of the interface. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combines better with E-max porcelain veneer.

  18. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. (a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of glass...

  19. [The influence of surface conditioning on the shear bond strength of La-Porcelain and titanium].

    PubMed

    Mo, Anchun; Cen, Yuankun; Liao, Yunmao

    2003-04-20

    To determine the influence of different surface conditioning methods on bonding strength of low fusing porcelain (La-Porcelain) and titanium. The surface of the samples were sandblasted for 2 min with 80-250 microns Al2O3 or coated for two times with Si-couple agent or conditioned by pre-oxidation. The shear bond strength was examined by push-type shear test with a speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) were employed to explore the relationship between bonding strength and microstructures, as well as the element diffusion at the interface between porcelain coating and titanium when heated at 800 degrees C. Bonding strength was not statistically different (P > 0.05) after sandblasting with Al2O3 in particle size ranged from 80 microns to 250 microns. When a Si-couple agent was used, bond of porcelain to titanium was significantly lower (P < 0.05). The shear bond strength of the porcelain to the pre-oxidized titanium surface remained unchanged after heating (P > 0.05). The SEM results revealed integrity of porcelain and titanium. La-Porcelain showed a small effect of surface coarseness. Sandblasting the titanium surface with 150-180 microns Al2O3 can be recommended as a method for better bonding between La-Porcelain and titanium. The Si-couple agent coating and pre-oxidation of titanium surface is unnecessary.

  20. 76 FR 2920 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Cooking Ware From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of an expedited five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from... revocation of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China would be likely to...

  1. Influence of surface treatment and cyclic loading on the durability of repaired all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    ATTIA, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the durability of repaired all-ceramic crowns after cyclic loading. Material and methods Eighty In-ceram zirconia crowns were fabricated to restore prepared maxillary premolars. Resin cement was used for cementation of crowns. Palatal cusps were removed to simulate fracture of veneering porcelain and divided into 4 groups (n = 20). Fracture site was treated before repair as follows: roughening with diamond bur, (DB); air abrasion using 50 µm Al2O3, (AA) and silica coating using Cojet system followed by silane application, (SC). Control group (CG) 20 specimens were left without fracture. Palatal cusps were repaired using composite resin. Specimens were stored in water bath at 37°C for one week. Ten specimens of each group were subjected to cyclic loading. Fracture load (N) was recorded for each specimen using a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test (α=.05) were used for statistical analysis. Results There was statistically significant difference between control and tested groups, (p<0.001). Post Hoc analysis with the Tukey HSD test showed that cyclic loading fatigue significantly decreased means fracture load of control and test groups as follows (CG, 950.4±62.6 / 872.3±87.4, P = 0.0004), (DB, 624.2 ±38 / 425.5± 31.7, P <.001), (AA, 711.5 ±15.5 / 490 ± 25.2, p <0.001) and (SC, 788.7 ± 18.1 / 610.2 ± 25.2, P <.001), while silica coating and silane application significantly increased fracture load of repaired crowns (p<0.05). Conclusion Repair of fractured Inceram zirconia crowns after chairside treatment of the fracture site by silica coating and silane application could improve longevity of repaired In-ceram zirconia crowns. PMID:20485932

  2. Human Factors and Safety Evaluation of the Automatic Test and Repair System (AN/MSM-105(V)1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    box and the main breaker box In both the ETF and ERF did not conform to military standards In that they consisted of black letters on a gold ...transportable test and repair system for electronic equipment that consists of an electronic test facility ( ETF ) and an electronic repair facility (ERF...personal gear in both the ETF and the ERF, and in the ETF there was not nearly enough room for the storage of the interconnect devices, tapes and manuals

  3. [Measurement and comparison of the spectral transmittance of cerinate porcelain and human enamel].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Hua; Zhou, Guo-Feng; Wei, Zhang-Rui; Wang, Hui; Zhao, San-Jun

    2006-12-01

    To measure the spectral transmittance of Cerinate porcelain veneer and enamel in different color and different thickness. Samples of Cerinate porcelain veneers were prepared in different thickness (0.50 mm, 0.75 mm, 1.00 mm) and different Vita shade (A1, A2, A3). Enamel samples in shade A2 were made with three thickness (0.50 mm, 0.75 mm, 1.00 mm). A spectrophotometer with spectra range (380-800 nm) was employed to measure the spectral transmittance. Spectral transmittance decreased with the increasing in the thickness of specimens and decreasing in the color darkness. The transmittance of Cerinate porcelain veneer material and enamel in the same color and same thickness hadn't significant difference. The key factor to spectral transmittance of porcelain veneer materials is veneer's thickness, and the color of the materials has also some influence on it. Cerinate porcelain veneers can properly recover the transparency of teeth.

  4. Effect of laser parameters on the microstructure of bonding porcelain layer fused on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Litong; Liu, Xuemei; Feng, Wei; Li, Baoe; Tao, Xueyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2017-09-01

    Bonding porcelain layer was fused on Ti surface by laser cladding process using a 400 W pulse CO2 laser. The specimens were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and bonding tests. During the laser fusion process, the porcelain powders were heated by laser energy and melted on Ti to form a chemical bond with the substrate. When the laser scanning speed decreased, the sintering temperature and the extent of the oxidation of Ti surface increased accordingly. When the laser scanning speed is 12.5 mm/s, the bonding porcelain layers were still incomplete sintered and there were some micro-cracks in the porcelain. When the laser scanning speed decreased to 7.5 mm/s, vitrified bonding porcelain layers with few pores were synthesized on Ti.

  5. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Wells, Russell P.; Craven, Glen E.

    1996-01-01

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ion because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile.

  6. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Wells, R.P.; Craven, G.E.

    1996-12-24

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ions because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile. 8 figs.

  7. Intraatrial baffle repair of anomalous systemic venous return without hepatic venous drainage in heterotaxy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turkoz, Riza; Ayabakan, Canan; Vuran, Can; Omay, Oğuz

    2010-08-01

    A 7-month-old boy with heterotaxy syndrome had partial atrioventricular septal defect and interrupted inferior vena cava with hemiazygos continuation to a left superior vena cava. The left side of the common atrium receiving all the venous drainage was in connection with the left ventricle and the aorta. The small atrium and the proximity of the pulmonary and hepatic vein orifices precluded complete baffling. This report describes an intraatrial baffle repair of anomalous systemic venous return without hepatic venous drainage. This resulted in good oxygenation postoperatively, with oxygen saturation ranging from 93% to 98%.

  8. Flight demonstration of a self repairing flight control system in a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James M.; Stewart, James; Eslinger, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Battle damage causing loss of control capability can compromise mission objectives and even result in aircraft loss. The Self Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) flight development program directly addresses this issue with a flight control system design that measures the damage and immediately refines the control system commands to preserve mission potential. The system diagnostics process detects in flight the type of faults that are difficult to isolate post flight, and thus cause excessive ground maintenance time and cost. The control systems of fighter aircraft have the control power and surface displacement to maneuver the aircraft in a very large flight envelope with a wide variation in airspeed and g maneuvering conditions, with surplus force capacity available from each control surface. Digital flight control processors are designed to include built-in status of the control system components, as well as sensor information on aircraft control maneuver commands and response. In the event of failure or loss of a control surface, the SRFCS utilizes this capability to reconfigure control commands to the remaining control surfaces, thus preserving maneuvering response. Correct post-flight repair is the key to low maintainability support costs and high aircraft mission readiness. The SRFCS utilizes the large data base available with digital flight control systems to diagnose faults. Built-in-test data and sensor data are used as inputs to an Onboard Expert System process to accurately identify failed components for post-flight maintenance action. This diagnostic technique has the advantage of functioning during flight, and so is especially useful in identifying intermittent faults that are present only during maneuver g loads or high hydraulic flow requirements. A flight system was developed to test the reconfiguration and onboard maintenance diagnostics concepts on a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft.

  9. Retrospective analysis of porcelain failures of metal ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures supported by 729 implants in 152 patients: patient-specific and implant-specific predictors of ceramic failure.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, Richard P; Lin, Dongming

    2009-06-01

    Porcelain fracture associated with an implant-supported, metal ceramic crown or fixed partial denture occurs at a higher rate than in tooth-supported restorations, according to the literature. Implant-specific and patient-specific causes of ceramic failure have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the potential statistical predictors for porcelain fracture of implant-supported, metal ceramic restorations. Over a 6-month period, a consecutive series of patients having previously received implant-supported, metal ceramic fixed restorations were examined during periodic recall appointments. The number of supporting implants, number of dental units, type of restoration, date of prosthesis insertion, location in the dental arch, opposing dentition, type of occlusion, presence of parafunctional habits, use of an occlusal protective device, presence or absence of ceramic fractures, gender, and age were recorded for each patient. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used for the intrasubject correlated measurements analysis of categorical outcomes (presence or absence of ceramic fractures) to determine which patient- and implant-specific factors would predict porcelain fracture (alpha=.05). Data were collected from 152 patients representing 998 dental units (390 single crowns and 94 fixed partial dentures) supported by 729 implants. Porcelain fractures of 94 dental units occurred in 35 patients. The fractures were significantly (P<.05) associated with opposing implant-supported metal ceramic restorations, bruxism, and not wearing a protective occlusal device. Metal ceramic prostheses (single crown or fixed partial dentures) had approximately 7 times higher odds of porcelain fracture (odds ratio (OR)=7.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.57 to 19.37) and 13 times greater odds of a fracture requiring either repair or replacement (OR=13.95; 95% CI: 2.25 to 86.41) when in occlusion with another implant

  10. Discrepancies between patterns of potentially lethal damage repair in the RIF-1 tumor system in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rasey, J.S.; Nelson, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was studied in the RIF-1 tumor system in several different growth states in vivo. Exponentially growing, fed plateau, and unfed plateau cells in cell culture as well as small and large subcutaneous or intramuscular tumors were investigated. Large single doses of radiation followed by variable repair times as well as graded doses of radiation to generate survival curves immediately after irradiation or after full repair were investigated. All repair-promoting conditions studied in vitro (delayed subculture, exposure of cells to depleted growth medium after irradiation) increased surviving fraction after a single dose. The D/sub 0/more » of the cell survival curve was also increased by these procedures. No PLD repair was observed for any tumors irradiated in vivo and maintained in the animal for varying times prior to assay in vitro. The nearly 100% cell yield obtained when this tumor is prepared as a single-cell suspension for colony formation, the representative cell sample obtained, and the constant cell yield per gram as a function of time postirradiation suggest that this discrepancy is not an artifact of the assay system. The most logical explanation of these data and information on radiocurability of this neoplasm is that PLD repair, which is so frequently demonstrated in vitro, may not be a major factor in the radioresponse of this tumor when left in situ.« less

  11. Discrepancies between patterns of potentially lethal damage repair in the RIF-1 tumor system in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rasey, J.S.; Nelson, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) was studied in the RIF-1 tumor system in several different growth states in vivo and in vitro. Exponentially growing, fed plateau, and unfed plateau cells in cell culture as well as small and large subcutaneous or intramuscular tumors were investigated. Large single doses of radiation followed by variable repair times as well as graded doses of radiation to generate survival curves immediately after irradiation or after full repair were investigated. All repair-promoting conditions studied in vitro (delayed subculture, exposure of cells to depleted growth medium after irradiation) increased surviving fraction after a single dose.more » The D0 of the cell survival curve was also increased by these procedures. No PLD repair was observed for any tumors irradiated in vivo and maintained in the animal for varying times prior to assay in vitro. The nearly 100% cell yield obtained when this tumor is prepared as a single-cell suspension for colony formation, the representative cell sample obtained, and the constant cell yield per gram as a function of time postirradiation suggest that this discrepancy is not an artifact of the assay system. The most logical explanation of these data and information on radiocurability of this neoplasm is that PLD repair, which is so frequently demonstrated in vitro, may not be a major factor in the radioresponse of this tumor when left in situ.« less

  12. [The quality of patient care under the German DRG system using as example the inguinal hernia repair].

    PubMed

    Rudroff, C; Schweins, M; Heiss, M M

    2008-02-01

    The DRG system in Germany was introduced to improve and at the same time simplify the reimbursement of costs in German hospitals. Cost effectiveness and economic efficiency were the declared goals. Structural changes and increased competition among different hospitals were the consequences. The effect on the qualitiy of patient care has been discussed with some concern. Furthermore, doubts have been expressed about the correct representation of the various diagnoses and treatments in the coding system and the financial revenue. Inguinal hernia repair serves as an example to illustrate some common problems with the reimbursement in the DRG system. Virtual patients were grouped using a "Web Grouper" and analysed using the cost accounting from the G-DRG-Browser of the InEK. Additionally, the reimbursement for ambulant hernia repair was estimated. The DRG coding did not differentiate the various operative procedures for inguinal hernia repair. They all generated the same revenues. For example, the increased costs for bilateral inguinal hernia repair are not represented in the payment. Furthermore, no difference is made between primary and recurrent inguinal hernia. In the case of a short-term hospital stay, part of the revenue is retained. In the case of ambulatory treatment of inguinal hernia, the reimbursement is by far not a real compensation for the actual costs. The ideal patient in the DRG system suffers from a primary inguinal hernia, undergoes an open hernia repair without mesh, and remains for 2-3 days in hospital. Minimally invasive procedures, repair of bilateral inguinal hernia and ambulant operation are by far less profitable--if at all. The current revenues for inguinal hernia repair require improvement and adjustment to reality in order to accomplish the goals which the DRG system in Germany aims at.

  13. [Computer aided design and manufacture of the porcelain fused to metal crown].

    PubMed

    Nie, Xin; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Dai, Ning; Yu, Qing; Hao, Guodong; Sun, Quanping

    2009-04-01

    In order to satisfy the current demand for fast and high-quality prosthodontics, we have carried out a research in the fabrication process of the porcelain fused to metal crown on molar with CAD/CAM technology. Firstly, we get the data of the surface mesh on preparation teeth through a 3D-optical grating measuring system. Then, we reconstruct the 3D-model crown with the computer-aided design software which was developed by ourselves. Finally, with the 3D-model data, we produce a metallic crown on a high-speed CNC carving machine. The result has proved that the metallic crown can match the preparation teeth ideally. The fabrication process is reliable and efficient, and the restoration is precise and steady in quality.

  14. Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 μs at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 μm diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was

  15. XRD and SEM study of alumina silicate porcelain insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duddi, Dharmender; Singh, G. P.; Kalra, Swati; Shekhawat, M. S.; Tak, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Higher strength electrical porcelain is a requirement of industry. This will be achieved by a specific composition of raw materials, which is consisted of clays and feldspars. Water absorption, particle size and insulating properties are of special interest now a day. China clay, Ball clay and Quartz are widely used by ceramic industries in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. Sample for present study were prepared by mixing of above clay, feldspar with MnO2, then shrinkage is observed. Bar shaped samples were prepared and heated up to a temperature of about 1185° C to observe shrinkage. For phase study of XRD and SEM are observed.

  16. Maximizing functional axon repair in the injured central nervous system: Lessons from neuronal development.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Andrew; Bueno, Mardja; Hua, Luyang; Fournier, Alyson E

    2018-01-01

    The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors; however, it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviors. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system. Here we discuss our current understanding of axonal behavior after injury and prospects for the development of drugs to optimize axon regeneration and functional recovery after CNS injury. Developmental Dynamics 247:18-23, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Influence of coping material selection and porcelain firing on marginal and internal fit of computer-aided design/computer- aided manufacturing of zirconia and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns].

    PubMed

    Cuiling, Liu; Liyuan, Yang; Xu, Gao; Hong, Shang

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of coping material and porcelain firing on the marginal and internal fit of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) of zirconia ceramic implant- and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns. Zirconia ceramic implant (group A, n = 8) and titanium metal ceramic implant-supported crowns (group B, n = 8) were produced from copings using the CAD/CAM system. The marginal and internal gaps of the copings and crowns were measured by using a light-body silicone replica technique combined with micro-computed tomography scanning to obtain a three-dimensional image. Marginal gap (MG), horizontal marginal discrepancy (HMD), and axial wall (AW) were measured. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0. Prior to porcelain firing, the measurements for MG, HMD, and AW of copings in group A were significantly larger than those in group B (P < 0.05). After porcelain firing, the measurements for MG of crowns in group A were smaller than those in group B (P < 0.05), whereas HMD and AW showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Porcelain firing significantly reduced MG (P < 0.05) in group A but significantly increased MG, HMD, and AW in group B (P < 0.05) HMD and AW were not influenced by porcelain firing in group A (P > 0.05). The marginal fits of CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic implant-supported crowns were superior to those of CAD/CAM titanium ceramic-supported crowns. The fits of both the CAD/CAM zirconia ceramic implant- and titanium ceramic implant-supported crowns were obviously influenced by porcelain firing.

  18. A real-time expert system for self-repairing flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaither, S. A.; Agarwal, A. K.; Shah, S. C.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated environment for specifying, prototyping, and implementing a self-repairing flight-control (SRFC) strategy is described. At an interactive workstation, the user can select paradigms such as rule-based expert systems, state-transition diagrams, and signal-flow graphs and hierarchically nest them, assign timing and priority attributes, establish blackboard-type communication, and specify concurrent execution on single or multiple processors. High-fidelity nonlinear simulations of aircraft and SRFC systems can be performed off-line, with the possibility of changing SRFC rules, inference strategies, and other heuristics to correct for control deficiencies. Finally, the off-line-generated SRFC can be transformed into highly optimized application-specific real-time C-language code. An application of this environment to the design of aircraft fault detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithms is presented in detail.

  19. Building an adaptive agent to monitor and repair the electrical power system of an orbital satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tecuci, Gheorghe; Hieb, Michael R.; Dybala, Tomasz

    1995-01-01

    Over several years we have developed a multistrategy apprenticeship learning methodology for building knowledge-based systems. Recently we have developed and applied our methodology to building intelligent agents. This methodology allows a subject matter expert to build an agent in the same way in which the expert would teach a human apprentice. The expert will give the agent specific examples of problems and solutions, explanations of these solutions, or supervise the agent as it solves new problems. During such interactions, the agent learns general rules and concepts, continuously extending and improving its knowledge base. In this paper we present initial results on applying this methodology to build an intelligent adaptive agent for monitoring and repair of the electrical power system of an orbital satellite, stressing the interaction with the expert during apprenticeship learning.

  20. Thymosin β4: Roles in Development, Repair, and Engineering of the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Marks, E D; Kumar, A

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cardiovascular disease is a growing worldwide issue that demands attention. While many clinical trials are ongoing to test therapies for treating the heart after myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, there are few options doctors able to currently give patients to repair the heart. This eventually leads to decreased ventricular contractility and increased systemic disease, including vascular disorders that could result in stroke. Small peptides such as thymosin β4 (Tβ4) are upregulated in the cardiovascular niche during fetal development and after injuries such as MI, providing increased neovasculogenesis and paracrine signals for endogenous stem cell recruitment to aid in wound repair. New research is looking into the effects of in vivo administration of Tβ4 through injections and coatings on implants, as well as its effect on cell differentiation. Results so far demonstrate Tβ4 administration leads to robust increases in angiogenesis and wound healing in the heart after MI and the brain after stroke, and can differentiate adult stem cells toward the cardiac lineage for implantation to the heart to increase contractility and survival. Future work, some of which is currently in clinical trials, will demonstrate the in vivo effect of these therapies on human patients, with the goal of helping the millions of people worldwide affected by cardiovascular disease. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Space Transportation System (STS)-117 External Tank (ET)-124 Hail Damage Repair Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Barth, Timothy S.; Minute, Stephen A.; Flowers, Cody P.; Hamilton, David A.; Null, Cynthia H.; Schafer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms with associated hail and high winds struck the STS-117 stack on February 26, 2007. Peak winds were recorded at 62 knots with hail sizes ranging from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch in diameter. As a result of the storm, the North Carolina Foam Institute (NCFI) type 24-124 Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam on the liquid oxygen (LO2) ogive acreage incurred significant impact damage. The NCFI on the ET intertank and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) acreage sustained hail damage. The Polymer Development Laboratory (PDL)-1034 foam of the LO2 ice frost ramps (IFRs) and the Super-Lightweight Ablator (SLA) of the LO2 cable tray also suffered minor damage. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to assess the technical feasibility of repairing the ET TPS, the reasonableness of conducting those repairs with the vehicle in a vertical, integrated configuration at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assemble Building (VAB), and to address attendant human factors considerations including worker fatigue and the potential for error. The outcome of the assessment is recorded in this document.

  2. Drug-Induced by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Recurrent Pericardial Effusion After Mitral Valve Repair.

    PubMed

    Haydari, Aghigh; Sabzi, Feridoun; Dabiri, Samsam; Poormotaabed, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    We report a patient presented with recurrent pericardial effusion caused by drug-induced systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE) following mitral valve repair. The surgery was complicated by hemiparesis and convulsion in early postoperative period. The patient had been received carbamazepine for a paroxysmal seizure that occurred following mitral valve repair. The post operative computed tomography showed embolic stroke and its sequel (seizure) that treated with carbamazepine. In the 3rd month of follow-up, however, hemiparesis recovered by physiotherapy but carbamazepine was not discontinued as by request of neurologist. In the 6th month of surgery, the patient admitted by dyspnea and massive pericardial effusion that treated by subxiphoid drainage. This event was re occurred in two times in a short time frame and each event treated by surgical approach. The serologic exam in the last admission revealed drug-induced lupus erythematosus. The carbamazepine as an anti convulsive drug has been described to cause LE like disease in multiple case reports. Laboratory exam exhibited the possibility of carbamazepine-induced lupus in our case, with the extremely rare presentation of recurrent massive pericardial effusion.

  3. Evaluation of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament Repair System® in Surgery for Laryngeal Hemiplegia in Heavy Draft Horses

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Naoki; MORITA, Yoshinori; MORIYAMA, Tomoe; YAMADA, Haruo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the canine cranial cruciate ligament repair system on laryngeal hemiplegia in heavy draft horses. Twenty-four heavy draft horses diagnosed with grade 4 laryngeal hemiplegia were allocated to either the prosthetic laryngoplasty (PL) group (n=14) or a canine cranial cruciate ligament repair system (CCCLRS) group (n=10). Right to left angle quotients (RLQs) of abductions of the arytenoid cartilages were endoscopically evaluated before and after surgery. Post-operative RLQs in the CCCLRS group were significantly lower than those of the PL group (P<0.01). The canine cranial cruciate ligament repair system was revealed to be a good surgical procedure for laryngeal hemiplegia in heavy draft horses. PMID:24833966

  4. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  5. Weld joint concepts for on-orbit repair of Space Station Freedom fluid system tube assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is an independent satellite, not depending upon another spacecraft for power, attitude control, or thermal regulation, it has a variety of tubular, fluid-carrying assemblies on-board. The systems of interest in this analysis provide breathing air (oxygen and nitrogen), a working fluid (two-phase anhydrous ammonia) for thermal control, and a monopropellant (hydrazine) for station reboost. The tube assemblies run both internally and externally with respect to the habitats. They are found in up to 50 ft. continuous lengths constructed of mostly AISI 316L stainless steel tubing, but also including some Inconel 625 nickel-iron and Monel 400 nickel-copper alloy tubing. The outer diameters (OD) of the tubes range from 0.25-1.25 inches, and the wall thickness between 0.028-.095 inches. The system operational pressures range from 377 psi (for the thermal control system) to 3400 psi (for the high pressure oxygen and nitrogen supply lines in the ECLSS). SSF is designed for a fifteen to thirty year mission. It is likely that the tubular assemblies (TA's) will sustain damage or fail during this lifetime such that they require repair or replacement. The nature of the damage will be combinations of punctures, chips, scratches, and creases and may be cosmetic or actually leaking. The causes of these hypothetical problems are postulated to be: (1) faulty or fatigued fluid joints--both QD's and butt-welds; (2) micro-meteoroid impacts; (3) collison with another man-made object; and (4) over-pressure strain or burst (system origin). While the current NASA baseline may be to temporarily patch the lines by clamping metal c-sections over the defect, and then perform high pressure injection of a sealing compound, it is clear that permanent repair of the line(s) is necessary. This permanent repair could be to replace the entire TA in the segment, or perhaps the segment itself, both alternatives being extremely expensive and risky. The former would likely

  6. Four chemical methods of porcelain conditioning and their influence over bond strength and surface integrity

    PubMed Central

    Stella, João Paulo Fragomeni; Oliveira, Andrea Becker; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Marquezan, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess four different chemical surface conditioning methods for ceramic material before bracket bonding, and their impact on shear bond strength and surface integrity at debonding. METHODS: Four experimental groups (n = 13) were set up according to the ceramic conditioning method: G1 = 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application; G2 = 37% liquid phosphoric acid etching, no rinsing, followed by silane application; G3 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching alone; and G4 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application. After surface conditioning, metal brackets were bonded to porcelain by means of the Transbond XP system (3M Unitek). Samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine and the surfaces were later assessed with a microscope under 8 X magnification. ANOVA/Tukey tests were performed to establish the difference between groups (α= 5%). RESULTS: The highest shear bond strength values were found in groups G3 and G4 (22.01 ± 2.15 MPa and 22.83 ± 3.32 Mpa, respectively), followed by G1 (16.42 ± 3.61 MPa) and G2 (9.29 ± 1.95 MPa). As regards surface evaluation after bracket debonding, the use of liquid phosphoric acid followed by silane application (G2) produced the least damage to porcelain. When hydrofluoric acid and silane were applied, the risk of ceramic fracture increased. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable levels of bond strength for clinical use were reached by all methods tested; however, liquid phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application (G2) resulted in the least damage to the ceramic surface. PMID:26352845

  7. [Influence of different surface treatments on porcelain surface topography].

    PubMed

    Tai, Yinxia; Zhu, Xianchun; Sen, Yan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xian; Shi, Xueming

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of different surface treatments on porcelain surface topography. Metal ceramic prostheses in 6 groups were treated according to the different surface treatment methods, and the surface topography was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). Group A was the control one (untreated), group B was etched by 9.6% hydrofluoric acid(HF), group C was deglazed by grinding and then etched by 9.6% HF, group D was treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation(0.75 W) and HF etching, group E was treated with Nd: YAG laser irradiation (1.05 W) and HF etching, and group F was treated with laser irradiation (1.45 W) and HF etching. Surface topography was different in different groups. A lot of inerratic cracks with the shapes of rhombuses and grid, and crater with a shape of circle were observed on the ceramic surface after treatment with energy parameters of 1.05 W Nd: YAG laser irradiation and 9.6% HF etching (group E). Surface topography showed a lot of concaves on the inner wall of the cracks, and the concaves with diameter of 1-5 microm could be observed on the inner wall of the holes, which had a diameter of 20 microm under SEM. The use of Nd: YAG laser irradiation with the energy parameters of 1.05 W and the HF with a concentration of 9.6% can evenly coarsen the porcelain surface, that is an effective surface treatment method.

  8. Influence of bruxism on survival of porcelain laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Solá-Ruíz, María F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to determine whether bruxism and the use of occlusal splints affect the survival of porcelain laminate veneers in patients treated with this technique. Material and Methods: Restorations were made in 70 patients, including 30 patients with some type of parafunctional habit. A total of 323 veneers were placed, 170 in patients with bruxism activity, and the remaining 153 in patients without it. A clinical examination determined the presence or absence of ceramic failure (cracks, fractures and debonding) of the restorations; these incidents were analyzed for association with bruxism and the use of splints. Results: Analysis of the ceramic failures showed that of the 13 fractures and 29 debonding that were present in our study, 8 fractures and 22 debonding were related to the presence of bruxism. Conclusions: Porcelain laminate veneers are a predictable treatment option that provides excellent results, recognizing a higher risk of failure in patients with bruxism activity. The use of occlusal splints reduces the risk of fractures. Key words:Veneer, fracture, debonding, bruxism, occlusal splint. PMID:23986018

  9. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  10. [Color stability of porcelain-fused-to-titanium restorations after repeated firings].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-min; Zhou, Zheng

    2004-08-01

    To study the effect of repeated firings on color of porcelain-fused-to-titanium restorations. Twenty standard porcelain-fused-to-titanium specimens were made with Dentsply DETREY TiBond C3 and Dentaurum rematitan Til. Then they were fired 1, 2, 4, 7, and 10 times. Color measurement was done after each firing. Most of the color parameters had no significant difference after firing except for a* and Hab. All the color difference among groups were smaller than 1.0 (deltaE < 1.0). Repeated firings will not affect the color stability of porcelain-fused-to-titanium restorations.

  11. Robot-assisted fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) using the Magellan system.

    PubMed

    Riga, Celia V; Bicknell, Colin D; Rolls, Alexander; Cheshire, Nicholas J; Hamady, Mohamad S

    2013-02-01

    A 67-year-old man underwent robot-assisted three-vessel fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) for a 7.3-cm juxtarenal aneurysm. The 6-F robotic catheter was manipulated from a remote workstation, away from the radiation source. Robotic cannulation of the left renal artery was achieved within 3 minutes. System setup time was 5 minutes. There were no postoperative complications. Computed tomography angiography performed at discharge and at 4-month follow-up confirmed target vessel patency with no evidence of an endoleak. Selective cannulation of target vessels during FEVAR using this novel technology is feasible. Endovascular robotics may have a role in simplifying complex endovascular tasks and potentially reducing radiation exposure to the operator. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The study of chemical composition and elemental mappings of colored over-glaze porcelain fired in Qing Dynasty by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng; Meitian, Li; Youshi, Kim; Changsheng, Fan; Shanghai, Wang; Qiuli, Pan; Zhiguo, Liu; Rongwu, Li

    2011-02-01

    It is very difficult to measure the chemical composition of colored pigments of over-glaze porcelain by X-ray fluorescence because it contains high concentration of Pb. One of the disadvantages of our polycapillary optics is that it has low transmission efficiency to the high energy X-ray. However, it is beneficial to measure the chemical compositions of rich Pb sample. In this paper, we reported the performances of a tabletop setup of micro-X-ray fluorescence system base on slightly focusing polycapillary and its applications for analysis of rich Pb sample. A piece of Chinese ancient over-glaze porcelain was analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The experimental results showed that the Cu, Fe and Mn are the major color elements. The possibilities of the process of decorative technology were discussed in this paper, also.

  13. In vitro Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage by Human Nucleotide Excision Repair System: Possible Explanation for Neurodegeneration in Xeroderma Pigmentosum Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Kung, Hsiang Chuan; Bolton, Philip H.; Sancar, Aziz

    1997-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients fail to remove pyrimidine dimers caused by sunlight and, as a consequence, develop multiple cancers in areas exposed to light. The second most common sign, present in 20-30% of XP patients, is a set of neurological abnormalities caused by neuronal death in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neural tissue is shielded from sunlight-induced DNA damage, so the cause of neurodegeneration in XP patients remains unexplained. In this study, we show that two major oxidative DNA lesions, 8-oxoguanine and thymine glycol, are excised from DNA in vitro by the same enzyme system responsible for removing pyrimidine dimers and other bulky DNA adducts. Our results suggest that XP neurological disease may be caused by defective repair of lesions that are produced in nerve cells by reactive oxygen species generated as by-products of an active oxidative metabolism.

  14. Effect of thermal tempering on strength and crack propagation behavior of feldspathic porcelains.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Hojjatie, B

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that tempering stress can retard the growth of surface cracks in layered porcelain discs with variable levels of contraction mismatch. Porcelain discs, 16 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were prepared with a 0.5-mm-thick layer of opaque porcelain (O) and a 1.5-mm-thick layer of body porcelain (B). The materials were selected to produce contraction coefficient differences, alpha O-alpha B, of +3.2, +0.7, -0.9, and -1.5 ppm/degrees C. Body porcelain discs with a thickness of 2 mm were used as the thermally compatible control specimens (delta alpha = 0). The discs were fired to the maturing temperature of body porcelain (982 degrees C) and were then subjected to three cooling procedures: slow cooling (SC) in a furnace, fast cooling (FC) in air, and tempering (T) by blasting the surface of the body porcelain with compressed and dried air for 90 s. The dimensions of cracks induced by a Vickers microhardness indenter under a load of 4.9 N were measured at baseline and six months after indentation at 80 points along diametral lines within the surface of body porcelain. In addition, biaxial flexure tests were performed to determine the influence of mismatch and tempering on flexure strength. The results of ANOVA indicate that crack dimensions were influenced significantly by the interaction of cooling rate and contraction mismatch (p less than 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Thermoluminescence and X-ray diffraction studies on sliced ancient porcelain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, P. L.; Yang, B.

    1999-09-01

    The thermal activation characteristics (TACs) of the sensitivity of the '110°C' peak in 14 sliced ancient Chinese porcelain samples are studied. Comparing with the TACs of natural quartz and synthetic mullite, the relation between the TACs and the composition of the sample is discussed with reference to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. It is suggested that in some cases, contribution of the porcelain components other than quartz to the TACs is not negligible.

  16. Effect of Thickness and Brand of Metal Ceramic Porcelain on Color

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Wasson, Captain 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFIT Student Attending: University of...device. Three Vita Lumin shades (A3.5, B1, and C3) of three commercially available dental porcelains that reportedly use shade- matched opaques...Microbond, Ceramco II, and Jelenko) and one commercially available dental porcelain that does not use shade- matched opaques (Vita VMK 68) were used to

  17. Starting System 1. Check and Replace the Starter Rewind Rope. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and replacing the starter rewind rope is the second of three in an instructional package on the starting system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use in checking and replacing the starter rewind rope…

  18. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  19. Value engineering and cost effectiveness of various fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) repair systems : final report, June 2007.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-06-01

    This report is an extension to the final report for NCDOT project 2004-15 Value Engineering and Cost-Effectiveness of : Various Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) Repair Systems, submitted in June 2005. In that report, seventeen 30-ft long : prest...

  20. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  1. Randomized controlled trial comparing prolene hernia system and lichtenstein method for inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Harris, Dean; Jones, Philippa; Woodward, Alan

    2006-07-01

    There are no data regarding the long-term outcomes of prolene hernia system (PHS) mesh in the published reports. The aim of the study was to compare the short-term and long-term outcomes of the PHS mesh with the Lichtenstein mesh technique. Sixty-four patients with inguinal hernia were randomized to undergo either a PHS or a Lichtenstein repair under local anaesthesia as a day case. Early outcome measures were duration of surgery, pain scores, analgesic requirements, time to return to work, driving and full activity. Long-term outcome measures were chronic groin pain and recurrence. Mean duration of surgery in the PHS group was 36 min (SD +/- 11) versus 34 min in the Lichtenstein group (SD +/- 8; P = 0.3). There was no significant difference in analgesic requirements (P = 0.65). Overall mean pain score was 3.5/10 versus 2.5/10 (P = 0.1). Mean time to return to work was 42 versus 30 days (P = 0.3), returning to driving was 20 versus 14 days (P = 0.2) and full activity was 21 versus 22 days (P = 0.8). Chronic groin pain developed in four patients in the PHS group (12.9%) and in five patients in the Lichtenstein group (15.1%; P > 0.05). One patient developed recurrent herniation in the PHS group. The median follow up was 4.2 years (range, 4-4.6 years). Patient satisfaction was very high with both the techniques. There is no significant difference in the early and long-term outcomes between PHS and Lichtenstein hernia repairs. The PHS technique involving preperitoneal dissection is well tolerated and easy to carry out under local anaesthesia.

  2. [Interface bond and compatibility between Mark II machining ceramic and vita VM9 veneering porcelain].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Shuang; Li, Zhen-Chun; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the interface bond and thermal compatibility between Mark II machining ceramic and Vita VM9 veneering porcelain. A bar shaped specimen (30 mm x 15 mm x 1 mm in size) of Mark II block was prepared, with 0.5 mm-deep notch (vertical to the long axis of specimen) at the middle of the bottom surface. The upper surface was veneered with 0.3 mm VM9 dentin base porcelain. Then the specimen was fractured from the notching site and the fracture surface was examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA) with electron beam of 1 microm in diameter. Another ten specimens (30 mm x 15 mm x 1.5 mm in size) were fabricated and the temperature of thermal shock resistance were tested. SEM observation showed tight bond between these two materials and EMPA results showed penetration of Al element from Mark II block into veneering porcelain and Ca element from veneering porcelain into Mark II block occurred after sintering baking. The average temperature of thermal shock resistance for specimens in this study was (194.0+/-10.3) degrees C. Cracks were mainly distributed in veneering porcelain. Chemical bond exists between the Mark II machining ceramic and Vita VM9 veneering porcelain, and there is good thermal compatibility between them.

  3. Provenance study of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. X.; Y Gao, Z.; Li, R. W.; Zhao, W. J.; Xie, J. Z.; Feng, S. L.; Zhuo, Z. X.; Y Fan, D.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z. F.; Liu, H.

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports our study of the provenance of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain. The content of 29 elements in the Yaozhou porcelain samples was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analysed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the trend fuzzy cluster diagrams. These samples with different glaze colour, ranging over more than 700 years, were fired in different kilns. Our analysis indicates the relatively concentrated distribution of the sources of the raw material for the Yaozhou porcelain body samples. They can be classified into two independent periods, i.e. the Tang (AD 618-907) and the Five Dynasties (AD 907-960) period, and the Song (AD 960-1279) and Jin (AD 1115-1234) period. Our analysis also indicates that the sources of the raw material for the ancient Yaozhou porcelain glaze samples are quite scattered and those for the black glaze in the Tang Dynasty are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the celadon glaze and the white glaze in the Tang Dynasty are widely distributed and those for the celadon glaze in the Song Dynasty are close to those of the bluish white glaze in the Jin Dynasty, and they are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the porcelain glazes cover those of the porcelain bodies.

  4. Characteristics and porcelain bond strength of (Ti,Al)N coating on dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kwok-Hung; Duh, Jeng-Gong; Shin, Daehwan; Cagna, David R; Cronin, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a novel titanium-aluminum nitride film, or (Ti,Al)N film, on the bond strength between a dental porcelain and two nickel-based dental alloy substrates was investigated. A thin layer of (Ti,Al)N film was deposited on flat metal samples using a reactive radio-frequency sputtering method. A uniform thickness of porcelain was applied to the film- coated metal samples. Metal-ceramic specimens were subjected to three-point bending, and failure loads were recorded. Bond strengths between the porcelain and (Ti,Al)N-coated metal alloys ranged from 159.0 +/- 11.7 N to 278.0 +/- 12.3 N. These values were significantly greater (p< 0.05) than bond strengths recorded for control samples that did not incorporate the (Ti,Al)N film. An electron probe microanalyzer with a line profile mode was used to characterize the interface between the (Ti,Al)N film and the porcelain. Results of this investigation suggest that the (Ti,Al)N film (1) increases the flexural bond strength between dental porcelain and nickel-based alloy substrates by permitting elemental diffusion, (2) interferes with the surface oxide formation that characteristically originates from the nickel-based metal alloy substrate, and (3) provides an appropriate oxide layer for porcelain application. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 63: 516-521, 2002

  5. [Effects of laser welding on bond of porcelain fused cast pure titanium].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Juan-fang; He, Hui-ming; Gao, Bo; Wang, Zhong-yi

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the influence of the laser welding on bond of porcelain fused to cast pure titanium. Twenty cast titanium plates were divided into two groups: laser welded group and control group. The low-fusing porcelain was fused to the laser welded cast pure titanium plates at fusion zone. The bond strength of the porcelain to laser welded cast pure titanium was measured by the three-point bending test. The interface of titanium and porcelain was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy depressive X-ray detector (EDX). The non-welded titanium plates were used as comparison. No significant difference of the bond strength was found between laser-welded samples [(46.85 +/- 0.76) MPa] and the controls [(41.71 +/- 0.55) MPa] (P > 0.05). The SEM displayed the interface presented similar irregularities with a predominance. The titanium diffused to low-fusing porcelain, while silicon and aluminum diffused to titanium basement. Laser welding does not affect low-fusing porcelain fused to pure titanium.

  6. Cracking of porcelain surfaces arising from abrasive grinding with a dental air turbine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chee W; Waddell, J Neil; Lyons, Karl M; Swain, Michael V

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate porcelain cracking induced by abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and abrasive diamond burs. Four commercially available porcelains were examined-Wieland ALLUX, Wieland ZIROX, IPS e.max Ceram, and IPS Empress Esthetic Veneering porcelain. Sixty discs of each porcelain type were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions, followed by an auto-glaze cycle. Abrasive grinding using fine, extra-fine, and ultra-fine diamond burs was carried out, using a conventional dental air turbine. The grinding parameters were standardized with regard to the magnitude of the force applied, rotational speed of the diamond bur, and flow rate of the water coolant. A testing apparatus was used to control the magnitude of force applied during the grinding procedure. The ground surfaces were then examined under scanning electron microscope. Cracking was seen for all porcelain types when ground with the fine bur. Cracking was not seen for specimens ground with the extra-fine or the ultra-fine bur. Wet abrasive grinding with a conventional dental air turbine and fine grit diamond burs has the potential to cause cracking in the four porcelain types tested. Similar abrasive grinding with smaller grit size particles does not cause similar observable cracking. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. New insights into the role of Mn and Fe in coloring origin of blue decorations of blue-and-white porcelains by XANES spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Luo, Wugan; Chen, Dongliang; Xu, Wei; Ming, Chaofang; Wang, Changsui; Wang, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    Blue and white porcelain is one of the most valuable ancient ceramics varieties in ancient China. It is well known for its beautiful blue decorations. However, the origin of its blue color has not been very clear till now. In this research, two blue and white porcelains from Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province were selected and Mn and Fe K-edge XANES spectra were recorded from blue decorations with or without transparent glaze. Results showed that Mn K-edge XANES features were almost identical between different samples while that of iron changed. The above findings indicated the positive role of iron in the variation of blue decorations. As for manganese, although more system researches were need, its negative role on the variations of the tone of blue decorations was obtained. On the other hand, the paper also revealed the XAFS results will be affect by the glaze layer above the pigment. These findings provided us more information to understand the coloring origin of blue decorations of blue-and-white porcelain by means of XANES spectroscopy.

  8. Novel High Integrity Bio-Inspired Systems with On-Line Self-Test and Self-Repair Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samie, Mohammad; Dragffy, Gabriel; Pipe, Tony

    2011-08-01

    Since the beginning of life nature has been developing some remarkable solutions to the problem of creating reliable systems that can operate under difficult environmental and fault conditions. Yet, no matter how sophisticated our systems are, we are still unable to match the high degree of reliability that biological organisms posses. Since the early '90s attempts have been made to adapt biological properties and processes to the design of electronic systems but the results have always been unduly complex.This paper, proposes a novel model using a radically new approach to construct highly reliable electronic systems with online fault repair properties. It uses the characteristics and behaviour of unicellular bacteria and bacterial communities to achieve this. The result is a configurable bio-inspired cellular array architecture that, with built-in self-diagnostic and self-repair properties, can implement any application specific electronic system but is particularly suited for safety critical environments, such as space.

  9. Evolution and Adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Driven by Mismatch Repair System-Deficient Mutators

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Molin, Søren; Oliver, Antonio; Smania, Andrea M.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities. PMID:22114708

  10. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    PubMed

    Luján, Adela M; Maciá, María D; Yang, Liang; Molin, Søren; Oliver, Antonio; Smania, Andrea M

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  11. The zebrafish as a gerontology model in nervous system aging, disease, and repair.

    PubMed

    Van Houcke, Jessie; De Groef, Lies; Dekeyster, Eline; Moons, Lieve

    2015-11-01

    Considering the increasing number of elderly in the world's population today, developing effective treatments for age-related pathologies is one of the biggest challenges in modern medical research. Age-related neurodegeneration, in particular, significantly impacts important sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, seriously constraining life quality of many patients. Although our understanding of the causal mechanisms of aging has greatly improved in recent years, animal model systems still have much to tell us about this complex process. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained enormous popularity for this research topic over the past decade, since their life span is relatively short but, like humans, they are still subject to gradual aging. In addition, the extensive characterization of its well-conserved molecular and cellular physiology makes the zebrafish an excellent model to unravel the underlying mechanisms of aging, disease, and repair. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in zebrafish gerontology, with special emphasis on nervous system aging. We review the evidence that classic hallmarks of aging can also be recognized within this small vertebrate, both at the molecular and cellular level. Moreover, we illustrate the high level of similarity with age-associated human pathologies through a survey of the functional deficits that arise as zebrafish age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel wound management system reduction of surgical site morbidity after ventral hernia repairs: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Kevin C; Baltodano, Pablo A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cooney, Carisa M; Olorundare, Israel O; Cornell, Peter; Burce, Karen; Eckhauser, Frederic E

    2015-02-01

    Prophylactic incisional negative-pressure wound therapy use after ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) remains controversial. We assessed the impact of a modified negative-pressure wound therapy system (hybrid-VAC or HVAC) on outcomes of open VHR. A 5-year retrospective analysis of all VHRs performed by a single surgeon at a single institution compared outcomes after HVAC versus standard wound dressings. Multivariable logistic regression compared surgical site infections, surgical site occurrences, morbidity, and reoperation rates. We evaluated 199 patients (115 HVAC vs 84 standard wound dressing patients). Mean follow-up was 9 months. The HVAC cohort had lower surgical site infections (9% vs 32%, P < .001) and surgical site occurrences (17% vs 42%, P = .001) rates. Rates of major morbidity (19% vs 31%, P = .04) and 90-day reoperation (5% vs 14%, P = .02) were lower in the HVAC cohort. The HVAC system is associated with optimized outcomes following open VHR. Prospective studies should validate these findings and define the economic implications of this intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbial water quality before and after the repair of a failing onsite wastewater treatment system adjacent to coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Habteselassie, M.Y.; Denene, Blackwood A.; Noble, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective was to assess the impacts of repairing a failing onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS, i.e., septic system) as related to coastal microbial water quality. Methods and Results: Wastewater, groundwater and surface water were monitored for environmental parameters, faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and the viral tracer MS2 before and after repairing a failing OWTS. MS2 results using plaque enumeration and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) often agreed, but inhibition limited the qRT-PCR assay sensitivity. Prerepair, MS2 persisted in groundwater and was detected in the nearby creek; postrepair, it was not detected. In groundwater, total coliform concentrations were lower and E.??coli was not detected, while enterococci concentrations were similar to prerepair levels. E.??coli and enterococci surface water concentrations were elevated both before and after the repair. Conclusions: Repairing the failing OWTS improved groundwater microbial water quality, although persistence of bacteria in surface water suggests that the OWTS was not the singular faecal contributor to adjacent coastal waters. A suite of tracers is needed to fully assess OWTS performance in treating microbial contaminants and related impacts on receiving waters. Molecular methods like qRT-PCR have potential but require optimization. Significance and Impact of Study: This is the first before and after study of a failing OWTS and provides guidance on selection of microbial tracers and methods. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology ?? 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. NAXE Mutations Disrupt the Cellular NAD(P)HX Repair System and Cause a Lethal Neurometabolic Disorder of Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Laura S; Danhauser, Katharina; Herebian, Diran; Petkovic Ramadža, Danijela; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Seibt, Annette; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang; Haack, Tobias B; Płoski, Rafał; Lohmeier, Klaus; Schneider, Dominik; Klee, Dirk; Rokicki, Dariusz; Mayatepek, Ertan; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas; Pronicka, Ewa; Mayr, Johannes A; Baric, Ivo; Distelmaier, Felix; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-10-06

    To safeguard the cell from the accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic intermediates, specific repair mechanisms have evolved. APOA1BP, now renamed NAXE, encodes an epimerase essential in the cellular metabolite repair for NADHX and NADPHX. The enzyme catalyzes the epimerization of NAD(P)HX, thereby avoiding the accumulation of toxic metabolites. The clinical importance of the NAD(P)HX repair system has been unknown. Exome sequencing revealed pathogenic biallelic mutations in NAXE in children from four families with (sub-) acute-onset ataxia, cerebellar edema, spinal myelopathy, and skin lesions. Lactate was elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of all affected individuals. Disease onset was during the second year of life and clinical signs as well as episodes of deterioration were triggered by febrile infections. Disease course was rapidly progressive, leading to coma, global brain atrophy, and finally to death in all affected individuals. NAXE levels were undetectable in fibroblasts from affected individuals of two families. In these fibroblasts we measured highly elevated concentrations of the toxic metabolite cyclic-NADHX, confirming a deficiency of the mitochondrial NAD(P)HX repair system. Finally, NAD or nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) supplementation might have therapeutic implications for this fatal disorder. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic characterization of cells of homocystinuria patients with disrupted DNA repair system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinel'shchikova, T.A.; L'vova, G.N.; Shoniya, N.N.

    1986-08-01

    Fibroblasts obtained from biopsy material and lymphocytes of patients with homocystinuria were investigated for repair activity according to the following criteria: rejoined DNA breaks, induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and ..gamma..-radiation; indices of reactivation and induced mutagenesis of smallpox vaccine virus treated with these mutagens. In lymphocytes a defect of DNA repair was observed according to all criteria investigated. During passage of fibroblast cultures, inhibition of repair activity of cells was preserved according to ..gamma..-type. Increase in the number of spontaneous and ..gamma..-induced mutations of virus was noted according to degree of passage of fibroblasts.

  16. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  17. Defective Bone Repair in C57Bl6 Mice With Acute Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Behrends, D A; Hui, D; Gao, C; Awlia, A; Al-Saran, Y; Li, A; Henderson, J E; Martineau, P A

    2017-03-01

    Bone repair is initiated with a local inflammatory response to injury. The presence of systemic inflammation impairs bone healing and often leads to malunion, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Our research objective was to use a mouse model of cortical bone repair to determine the effect of systemic inflammation on cells in the bone healing microenvironment. QUESTION/PURPOSES: (1) Does systemic inflammation, induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration affect the quantity and quality of regenerating bone in primary bone healing? (2) Does systemic inflammation alter vascularization and the number or activity of inflammatory cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts in the bone healing microenvironment? Cortical defects were drilled in the femoral diaphysis of female and male C57BL/6 mice aged 5 to 9 months that were treated with daily systemic injections of LPS or physiologic saline as control for 7 days. Mice were euthanized at 1 week (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), 2 weeks (Control, n = 7; LPS, n = 8), and 6 weeks (Control, n = 9; LPS, n = 8) after surgery. The quantity (bone volume per tissue volume [BV/TV]) and microarchitecture (trabecular separation and thickness, porosity) of bone in the defect were quantified with time using microCT. The presence or activity of vascular endothelial cells (CD34), macrophages (F4/80), osteoblasts (alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and osteoclasts (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP]) were evaluated using histochemical analyses. Only one of eight defects was bridged completely 6 weeks after surgery in LPS-injected mouse bones compared with seven of nine defects in the control mouse bones (odds ratio [OR], 0.04; 95% CI, 0.003-0.560; p = 0.007). The decrease in cortical bone in LPS-treated mice was reflected in reduced BV/TV (21% ± 4% vs 39% ± 10%; p < 0.01), increased trabecular separation (240 ± 36 μm vs 171 ± 29 μm; p < 0.01), decreased trabecular thickness (81 ± 18 μm vs 110 ± 22 μm; p = 0

  18. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-02-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events.

  19. Evidence for participation of the methionine sulfoxide reductase repair system in plant seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Châtelain, Emilie; Satour, Pascale; Laugier, Edith; Ly Vu, Benoit; Payet, Nicole; Rey, Pascal; Montrichard, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are in a natural oxidative context leading to protein oxidation. Although inevitable for proper progression from maturation to germination, protein oxidation at high levels is detrimental and associated with seed aging. Oxidation of methionine to methionine sulfoxide is a common form of damage observed during aging in all organisms. This damage is reversible through the action of methionine sulfoxide reductases (MSRs), which play key roles in lifespan control in yeast and animal cells. To investigate the relationship between MSR capacity and longevity in plant seeds, we first used two Medicago truncatula genotypes with contrasting seed quality. After characterizing the MSR family in this species, we analyzed gene expression and enzymatic activity in immature and mature seeds exhibiting distinct quality levels. We found a very strong correlation between the initial MSR capacities in different lots of mature seeds of the two genotypes and the time to a drop in viability to 50% after controlled deterioration. We then analyzed seed longevity in Arabidopsis thaliana lines, in which MSR gene expression has been genetically altered, and observed a positive correlation between MSR capacity and longevity in these seeds as well. Based on our data, we propose that the MSR repair system plays a decisive role in the establishment and preservation of longevity in plant seeds. PMID:23401556

  20. A collaborative inventory model for vendor-buyer system with inspection errors, unequal sized shipment, and repairable item

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdani, Irfan Hilmi; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This paper develops an integrated inventory model consisting of single-vendor and single-buyer system. The demand in buyer side is deterministic and the production process is imperfect and produces a certain number of defective items. The delivery within a single production batch from vendor to buyer is increasing by a fixed factor. After the delivery arrives at the buyer, an inspection process is conducted. The inspection process in not perfect. Errors may occur when the inspector is misclassifies a non-defective item as defective ne, or incorrectly classifies a defective item as non-defective. All the product which defective will be repair by repair-shop. After the defective arrives at repair shop, will perfect inspection. The defective item will repair and back to buyer. This model provides an optimal solution for the expected integrated total annual cost of the vendor and the buyer. The result from numerical examples shows that the integrated model will result in lower joint total cost in comparison with the equal-sized policy.

  1. Improving the Repair Planning System for Mining Equipment on the Basis of Non-destructive Evaluation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drygin, Michael; Kuryshkin, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    The article tells about forming a new concept of scheduled preventive repair system of the equipment at coal mining enterprises, based on the use of modem non-destructive evaluation methods. The approach to the solution for this task is based on the system-oriented analysis of the regulatory documentation, non-destructive evaluation methods and means, experimental studies with compilation of statistics and subsequent grapho-analytical analysis. The main result of the work is a feasible explanation of using non-destructive evaluation methods within the current scheduled preventive repair system, their high efficiency and the potential of gradual transition to condition-based maintenance. In practice wide use of nondestructive evaluation means w;ill allow to reduce significantly the number of equipment failures and to repair only the nodes in pre-accident condition. Considering the import phase-out policy, the solution for this task will allow to adapt the SPR system to Russian market economy conditions and give the opportunity of commercial move by reducing the expenses for maintenance of Russian-made and imported equipment.

  2. Effect of different high-palladium metal-ceramic alloys on the color of opaque and dentin porcelain.

    PubMed

    Stavridakis, Minos M; Papazoglou, Efstratios; Seghi, Robert R; Johnston, William M; Brantley, William A

    2004-08-01

    The color of dental porcelain depends on the type of metal substrate. Little research has been done to document the effects of different types of high-palladium alloys on the color of dental porcelain. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different high-palladium alloys on the resulting color of dentin porcelain, as well as on that of opaque porcelain after simulated dentin and glazing firing cycles. Three Pd-Cu-Ga alloys, Spartan Plus (S), Liberty (B), and Freedom Plus (F), and 5 Pd-Ga alloys, Legacy (L), IS 85 (I), Protocol (P), Legacy XT (X), and Jelenko No.1 (N), were examined. A Pd-Ag alloy, Super Star (T), was included for comparison to the high-palladium alloys, and the Au-Pd alloy, Olympia (O), served as the control. Six cast discs (16 x 1 mm) were prepared from each of the alloys. Shade B1 opaque porcelain (Vita-Omega) was applied at a final thickness of 0.1 mm. After 2 opaque porcelain firing cycles, the surfaces were airborne-particle abraded, and the specimens were divided into 2 groups. In the first group, 0.9 mm of B1 dentin porcelain was applied. The other group of specimens with only opaque porcelain underwent the same dentin porcelain and glazing firing cycles. Color differences (DeltaE) were determined with a colorimeter between the control and each experimental group, after the second opaque porcelain, second dentin porcelain, and glazing firing cycles. One-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's multiple range test were performed on the DeltaE data (alpha=.05). After the application of dentin porcelain, the 3 Pd-Cu-Ga alloys showed significantly different (P<.05) DeltaE values (S=2.3 +/- 0.5, B=1.4 +/- 0.3, and F=1.3 +/- 0.7) than the control group. After the glazing cycle of this group, the 3 Pd-Cu-Ga alloys and the Pd-Ag alloy exhibited significantly different (P<.05) DeltaE values (S=2.8 +/- 0.8, B=2.2 +/- 0.3, F=1.9 +/- 1.0, and T=1.4 +/- 0.5) than the control group. After the simulated dentin porcelain firing

  3. [Role of HMGB1 in Inflammatory-mediated Injury Caused by Digestive System Diseases and Its Repair].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fucai; Xie, Yong

    2015-08-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a damage-associated molecular pattern, exists ubiquitously in the cells of mammals. It contributes to maintaining the structure of nucleosome and modulating transcription of gene in nuclei. Extracellular HMGB1 plays two-way roles in promoting inflammatory and tissue repair. Released actively as well as passively following cytokine stimulation during cell death, HMGB1 may act as a late inflammatory factor and an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern recognized by its receptors. And it may mediate the occurrence, development and outcome of the inflammatory injury of digestive system diseases, such as gastric mucosal injury, inflammatory bowel-disease, liver injury, pancreatitis, and so on. This review mainly concerns the research progresses of HMGB1 in the inflammatory injury of digestive system diseases. At the same time, HMGB1 itself, or as a therapeutic target, can promote tissue repair.

  4. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. Themore » assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.« less

  5. An Analysis of Performance Measurements Systems in the Air Force Logistics Command’s Aircraft Repair Depots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    aircraft it repairs, LA tracks negotiated flow versus actual flow by tail number and the number of days delivered early or late. This directorate, as...elements are defined as follows: Performance criterion: The relative element used to evaluate macro, micro, long -term, short-term, flow, static, functional...constraint is defined as "anything that limits the system from achieving higher performance versus its goal" (Goldratt, 1989, p. 1). The following

  6. Self-repairing systems based on ionomers and epoxidized natural rubber blends.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Penco, Maurizio; Peroni, Isabella; Ramorino, Giorgio; Grande, Antonio Mattia; Di Landro, Luca

    2011-12-01

    The development of materials with the ability of intrinsic self-repairing after damage in a fashion resembling that of living tissues has important scientific and technological implications, particularly in relation to cost-effective approaches toward damage management of materials. Natural rubbers with epoxy functional groups in the macromolecular chain (ENR) and ethylene-methacrylic acid ionomers having acid groups partially neutralized with metal ions possess self-repairing behavior following high energy impacts. This research investigates the self-repairing behavior of both ENR and ionomers during ballistic puncture test on the basis of their thermal and mechanical properties. Heterogeneous blending of ionomers and ENR have also been used here as a strategy to tune the thermal and mechanical properties of the materials. Interestingly, blends of sodium ion containing ionomer exhibit complete self-repairing behavior, whereas blends of zinc ion containing ionomer show limited mending. The chemical structure studied by FTIR and thermal analysis shows that both ion content of ionomer and functionality of ENR have significant influence on the self-repairing behavior of blends. The mobility of rubbery phases along with its interaction to ionomer phase in the blends significantly changes the mending capability of materials. The healing behavior of the materials has been discussed on the basis of their thermal, mechanical, and rheological tests for each materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. [Evaluation of labial surface root filling combined with porcelain dental restoration].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-qiao; Huang, Zhi-hua; Hu, Huan-yu

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the effect of porcelain dental restoration combined with labial surface root filling for the anterior teeth. One hundred cases with anterior teeth protrusion treated in our department from January 2010 to January 2014 underwent porcelain dental restoration combined with labial surface root filling. The measurements in cephalometric X-ray films before and after treatment were compared, and porcelain dental appearance and function were evaluated. The data was statistically analyzed with SPSS18.0 software package. After treatment, U1-SN, U1-X, U1-Y were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.01). U1-L1 was significantly higher after treatment (P<0.01). The incidence of gingivitis after treatment decreased significantly (X(2)=16.2749,P=0.0000<0.01). The excellent rate of outline of porcelain teeth after treatment, correction of protruding anterior teeth, fitting with adjacent teeth and alleviation of deep overbite and deep cover was 96.00%, 95.00%, 98.00% and 91.00%, respectively. Porcelain dental restoration after root canal treatment can effectively improve anterior teeth protrusion and increase the aesthetic appearance, which is worthy of clinical application.

  8. [Evaluation of bond strength between low fusing porcelain with goldplated cobalt-chromium alloys].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Zhu, Jia; Zhu, Hong-shui

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of Vita OMEGA 900 low fusing porcelain fused with the goldplated Wirobond cobalt-chrome metalt ceramic alloy. Low fusing porcelain was fused with the cobalt-chromium alloy strips(group A) and the goldplated cobalt-chromium alloy strips(group B) respectively according to ISO9693 (A:8,B:10). 8 specimens of each group were submitted to three point bending test. Two more test pieces fused with gold plated cobalt-chromium alloys were made (group B'). One test piece of both group B and group B' were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) randomly. The data was analyzed with SPSS 16.0 software package. The bond strength (MPa) of group A and group B was 29.92±4.28 and 28.20±5.21, respectively (P>0.05), both higher than 25 MPa required by ISO9693. SEM showed that Vita OMEGA 900 low fusing porcelain and the goldplated Wirobond cobalt-chrome metalt ceramic alloy combined together closely without cracks. Much gold was fused to the cobalt-chrome alloy surface of breaking porcelain specimen after testing. Vita OMEGA 900 low fusing porcelain can match with the goldplated Wirobond cobalt-chrome metalt ceramic alloy. Supported by Foundation of Education Department of Jiangxi Province (GJJ10367).

  9. [Research of the surface oxide film on anodizing Ni-Cr porcelain alloy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Song; Sun, Hong-Chen; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Li, Zong-Hui

    2006-08-01

    To study the shape, thickness and oxide percentage of major metal element of oxide film on Ni-Cr porcelain alloy after anodizing pretreatment. 10 samples were made and divided into 2 groups at random. Then after surface pretreatment, the oxide films of two samples of each group were analyzed using electronic scanning microscope. The rest 3 samples were measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Lightly selective solution appeared because the different component parts of the alloy have dissimilar electrode, whose dissolve velocity were quite unlike. The sample's metal surface expanded, so the mechanical interlocking of porcelain and metal increased bond strength. The thickness of oxide film was 1.72 times of the control samples. The oxide percentage of major metal elements such as Cr, Ni and Mo were higher, especially Cr. It initially involved the formation of a thin oxide bound to the alloy and second, the ability of the formed oxide to saturate the porcelain, completing the chemical bond of porcelain to metal. The method of anodizing Ni-Cr porcelain alloy can easily control the forming of oxide film which was thin and its surface pattern was uniform. It is repeated and a good method of surface pretreatment before firing cycle.

  10. Surface topography and bond strengths of feldspathic porcelain prepared using various sandblasting pressures.

    PubMed

    Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Moravej-Salehi, Elahe; Valian, Azam

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bond strength of composite resin to feldspathic porcelain and its surface topography after sandblasting at different pressures. In this in vitro study, 68 porcelain disks were fabricated and randomly divided into four groups of 17. The porcelain surface in group 1 was etched with hydrofluoric acid. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were sandblasted at 2, 3 and 4 bars pressure, respectively. Surface topography of seven samples in each of the four groups was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The remaining 40 samples received the same silane agent, bonding agent, and composite resin and they were then subjected to 5000 thermal cycles and evaluated for shear bond strength. Data were analyzed using one-way anova. The mode of failure was determined using stereomicroscope and SEM. The highest shear bond strength was seen in group 4. however, statistically significant differences were not seen between the groups (P = 0.780). The most common mode of failure was cohesive in porcelain. The SEM showed different patterns of hydrofluoric acid etching and sandblasting. Increasing the sandblasting pressure increased the surface roughness of feldspathic porcelain but no difference in bond strength occurred. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. PMID:28869512

  12. 76 FR 13602 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-506] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking... cooking ware (``POS cookware'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would likely lead to a... should the order be revoked. See Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China...

  13. 75 FR 81967 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-508] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking... duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (POS cooking ware) from Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c... the antidumping duty order on POS cooking ware from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date: November 22, 2010...

  14. Composite Structure Repair. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    room temperature curing systems . For permanent repairs no reduction in " serciveability with regard to the maximum design temperature and the design...pressure for ply compaction and conformation of bonding surfaces. In certain instances, ambient temperature cure systems may be sufficient. - Noisture...than those placed on radomes. Some of ,the resins used for the repairs were ambient curing systems which also required no additional pressure for

  15. Repair of restorations--criteria for decision making and clinical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hickel, Reinhard; Brüshaver, Katrin; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, repair of restorations has become more and more popular while teaching repair of restorations is now included in most universities in Europe and North America. The aim of this paper was therefore to systematically review the clinical and the in vitro aspects of repair of restorations by considering different restorative materials--resin-based composites, amalgam, glass-ionomer cements, ceramics or metals. The paper gives also an overview of the occurrences of teaching repair in different universities. Furthermore, the paper outlines criteria for decision making when to treat a defect restoration with refurbishment, repair, replacement or no treatment. The database search strategy for resin based composite restoration repair (n=360) and the following hand search (n=95) retrieved 455 potentially eligible studies. After de-duplication, 260 records were examined by the titles and abstracts. 154 studies were excluded and 106 articles were assessed for eligibility by analyzing the full texts. Following the same search and selection process, 42 studies for amalgam repair, 51 studies for cast, inlay or porcelain restoration repair and 8 studies for teaching were assessed for eligibility by analysis of the full texts. Following databases were analyzed: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and PUBMED. Papers were selected if they met the following criteria: replacement, refurbishment or repair of resin composite restorations or amalgam restorations or inlay, cast restoration or porcelain repair. Clinical studies, in vitro studies and reports about teaching were included. Repair of restoration is a valuable method to improve the quality of restorations and is accepted, practiced and taught in many universities. However, there is a need for methodologically sound randomized controlled long-term clinical trials to be able to give an evidence based recommendation. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Effect of feldspathic porcelain layering on the marginal fit of zirconia and titanium complete-arch fixed implant-supported frameworks.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Alshahrani, Faris A; Kale, Ediz; Johnston, William M

    2018-02-06

    -framework interface at the maxillary right canine (gap 3) and right first molar (gap 4) abutments without prosthetic screws. The facial or buccal aspects of the teeth on frameworks were layered with corresponding porcelain (Initial Dental Ceramic System; GC) and CT-scanned again using the same protocol. Marginal fit measurements were made for 4 groups: titanium (Ti) (control), porcelain-layered titanium (Ti-P) (control), zirconia (Zr), and porcelain-layered zirconia (Zr-P). 3D discrepancy mean values were computed and calculated, and the results were analyzed with a repeated measures 3-way ANOVA using the maximum likelihood estimation method and Bonferroni adjustments for selected pairwise comparison t-tests (α=.05). The 3D fit was measured at gap 3 and gap 4. Statistically significant differences in mean 3D discrepancies were observed between Zr-P (175 μm) and Zr (89 μm) and between Zr-P and Ti-P (71 μm) (P<.001). Porcelain layering had a significant effect on the marginal fit of CAD-CAM-fabricated complete-arch implant-supported, screw-retained FDPs with partially sintered zirconia frameworks. 3D marginal discrepancy mean values for all groups were within clinically acceptable limits (<120 μm), except for the layered zirconia framework. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Application of modified adjustable skin stretching and secure wound-closure system in repairing of skin and soft tissue defect].

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiqiang; Gu, Guojun; Wang, Lijun; Fu, Keda; Xie, Shuqiang; Zhang, Songjian; Zhang, Huafeng; Wu, Zhaosen

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the application of modified adjustable skin stretching and secure wound-closure system in repairing of skin and soft tissue defect. Between March 2016 and April 2017, 21 cases of skin and soft tissue defects were repaired with the modified adjustable skin stretching and secure wound-closure system (the size of regulating pressure and the times of adjustment were determined according to the color, temperature, capillary response, and swelling degree of the skin edge). There were 11 males and 10 females, with an average age of 49.2 years (range, 21-67 years). Among them, 1 case was the residual wound after amputation of leg; 18 cases were the wounds after traumatic injury operation, including 4 cases in the lower leg, 3 cases in the knee joint, 7 cases in the upper limb, and 4 cases in the foot; and 2 cases were diabetic feet. The skin defect area ranged from 4.0 cm×2.5 cm to 21.0 cm×10.0 cm. Skin defect wounds closed directly in one stage in 4 cases; 12 cases were closed after continuously stretching for 5-14 days (mean, 10 days); 5 cases were reduced to less than one-half area, and the wound healed after the second skin grafting or flap repairing. All the 21 patients were followed up 3-12 months (mean, 5.2 months). The wound was linear healing with small scar, and no invasive margin, poor blood flow, necrosis, and poor sensory function happened. The modified adjustable skin stretching and secure wound-closure system can reduce the skin and soft tissue defects or close the wound directly, and even replace the skin graft and skin flap repairing. It was a good method for the treatment of skin and soft tissue defect.

  18. Development of porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.; Buettner, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    A white porcelain enamel coating was developed for application to high temperature metallic alloy substrates on spacecraft. The coating consists of an optically opacifying zirconia pigment, a lithia-zirconia-silica frit, and an inorganic pigment dispersant. The coating is fired at 1000 to 1150 C to form the enamel. The coating has a solar absorptance of 0.22 and a total normal emittance of 0.82 for a 0.017 cm thick coating. The coating exhibits excellent adhesion, cleanability, and integrity and is thermal shock resistant to 900 C. Capability to coat large panels has been demonstrated by successful coating of 30 cm x 30 cm Hastelloy X alloy panels. Preliminary development of low temperature enamels for application to aluminum and titanium alloy substrates was initiated. It was determined that both leaded and leadless frits were feasible when applied with appropriate mill fluxes. Indications were that opacification could be achieved at firing temperatures below 540 C for extended periods of time.

  19. Impact of graft composition on the systemic inflammatory response after an elective repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Kwan; Kwon, Hyunwook; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Min Joo; Han, Youngjin; Chung, Young Soo; Park, Hojong; Kwon, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and the role of graft material in the development of an acute phase systemic inflammatory response, and the clinical outcome in patients who undergo endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) or open surgical repair (OSR) of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods We retrospectively evaluated the risk factors and the role of graft material in an increased risk of developing systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and the clinical outcome in patients who underwent EVAR or OSR of an AAA. Results A total of 308 consecutive patients who underwent AAA repair were included; 178 received EVAR and 130 received OSR. There was no significant difference in the incidence of SIRS between EVAR patients and OSR patients. Regardless of treatment modality, SIRS was observed more frequently in patients treated with woven polyester grafts. Postoperative hospitalization was significantly prolonged in patients that experienced SIRS. In multivariate analyses, the initial white blood cell count (P = 0.001) and the use of woven polyester grafts (P = 0.005) were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing SIRS in patients who underwent EVAR. By contrast, the use of woven polyester grafts was the only factor associated with an increased risk of developing SIRS in patients who underwent OSR, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.052). Conclusion The current study shows that the graft composition plays a primordial role in the development of SIRS, and it leads to prolonged hospitalization in both EVAR and OSR patients. PMID:25553321

  20. PMS2 gene mutation results in DNA mismatch repair system failure in a case of adult granulosa cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-03-27

    Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable indolent growth with malignant potential and late recurrence. Approximately 95% are of adult type. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C > G mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor. Our previous case report showed that unique FOXL2 402C > G mutation and defective DNA mismatch repair system are associated with the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. In this study, the DNA sequences of four genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2, in the DNA mismatch repair system were determined via direct sequencing to elucidate the exact mechanism for the development of this granulosa cell tumor. The results showed that two missense germline mutations, T485K and N775L, inactivate the PMS2 gene. The results of this case study indicated that although FOXL2 402C > G mutation determines the development of granulosa cell tumor, PMS2 mutation may be the initial driver of carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemistry-based tumor testing for mismatch repair gene expression may be necessary for granulosa cell tumors to determine their malignant potential or if they are part of Lynch syndrome.

  1. An in vitro study of the effect of different restorative materials on the reliability of a veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew R; Chung, Kwok-Hung; Flinn, Brian D; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2013-12-01

    Implant-supported, porcelain veneered restorations experience a greater rate of porcelain fracture than tooth-supported restorations. For completely edentulous patients, one approach to minimizing porcelain fracture is to use acrylic resin in the mandible, although its efficacy is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a veneering porcelain fatigued with different restorative materials in vitro. Fifty-nine veneering porcelain disk specimens were fabricated by layering veneering porcelain on nickel-chromium base metal alloy disks. Four groups of different indenter materials fatigued the porcelain specimens: group WC, tungsten carbide served as a control; group FC, pressed leucite glass ceramic; group NHC, nanohybrid composite resin denture tooth; and group AR, unfilled acrylic resin denture tooth. Porcelain specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=14). A step-stress accelerated life-testing model was used. Use-level probability Weibull plots were generated, and the reliability of each group was estimated for a theoretical completion of 50 000 cycles at 150 N. Nanohybrid composite resin and unfilled acrylic resin denture tooth groups had higher reliability than tungsten carbide and leucite glass ceramic groups. No significant differences existed between the reliability of the tungsten carbide and leucite glass ceramic groups and the nanohybrid composite resin and acrylic resin denture tooth groups. Veneering porcelain disk specimens fatigued with the unfilled acrylic resin and nanohybrid composite resin denture tooth indenters exhibited higher reliability than the specimens fatigued with either the tungsten carbide or leucite glass ceramic indenters. All of the veneering porcelain disk specimens failed with the same mode of fracture, although the surface posttest exhibited different fracture characteristics among specimens fatigued with the 4 different materials. Copyright © 2013 Editorial Council for the Journal of

  2. [Long-term observation of 920 porcelain fused to metal prostheses].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Lin; Sun, Jian; Weng, Wei-Min; Zhang, Fu-Qiang

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term clinical results of porcelain fused to metal prostheses. Since January 1995, 920 porcelain fused to metal prostheses were fabricated. The long-term outcome were evaluated according to the condition of the prosthese, abutment and the periodontal tissue in the respects of successful rate and causes of failure. 74 patients were found to be during the follow up period, including 36 anterior crowns (46 units), 18 posterior crowns (22 units), 12 percentage of anterior bridges and 8 posterior bridges. The overall failure rate was 8.04%, 4.84% for crown, 8.77% for bridge. The failed prostheses was 5.39%. Porcelain fused to metal prostheses is an ideal method for restoration. The standard process both for the clinician and the technician must be obeyed to improve the success rate.

  3. Evaluation of Porcelain Cup Soil Water Samplers for Bacteriological Sampling1

    PubMed Central

    Dazzo, Frank B.; Rothwell, Donald F.

    1974-01-01

    The validity of obtaining soil water for fecal coliform analyses by porcelain cup soil water samplers was examined. Numbers from samples of manure slurry drawn through porcelain cups were reduced 100- to 10,000,000-fold compared to numbers obtained from the external manure slurry, and 65% of the cups yielded coliform-free samples. Fecal coliforms adsorbed to cups apparently were released, thus influencing the counts of subsequent samples. Fecal coliforms persisted in soil water samplers buried in soil and thus could significantly influence the coliform counts of water samples obtained a month later. These studies indicate that porcelain cup soil water samplers do not yield valid water samples for fecal coliform analyses. Images PMID:16349998

  4. Apico-brachiocephalic artery bypass for aortic stenosis with porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Nakai, Mikizo; Itoh, Atsushi; Yoshizumi, Ko; Ochi, Yoshiki; Okada, Masahiro; Sano, Shunji

    2010-02-01

    Apicoaortic bypass for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction has been performed with acceptable mid-term mortality. However, sometimes it is difficult to anastomose the distal end of the conduit to the calcified descending aorta in patients with a porcelain aorta. We report an aortic non-touch modification of the apicoaortic bypass in an 80-year-old woman with valvular aortic stenosis and a porcelain aorta extending from the ascending to abdominal aorta. We performed apico-brachiocephalic artery bypass under circulatory arrest with deep hypothermia. This procedure may become a useful surgical option for patients with a severe porcelain aorta. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Candida albicans formation on feldspathic porcelain subjected to four surface treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Karayazgan, Banu; Atay, Arzu; Saracli, Mehmet Ali; Gunay, Yumushan

    2010-03-01

    Candida albicans, known for its adhesion on prosthetic materials and oral tissues, is the most frequently encountered fungal infection in dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of four different surface treatment methods and immersion in artificial saliva on the surface roughness of and candida adhesion on dental porcelains. The four surface treatment methods were namely: natural glaze, overglaze, dual ion exchange, and polishing. Surface roughness of porcelain was evaluated using a surface profilometer and by SEM. Candida adhesion was examined by culturing two Candida strains on porcelain specimens followed by a colorimetric method using XTT/Coenzyme Q0. It became evident that Candida adhesion was found more in the specimens treated with natural glaze and polishing. Further, by the visual inspection of SEM images and comparison of surface roughness, polished and natural-glazed specimens showed rougher surface characteristics than overglazed and dual-ion-exchanged specimens.

  6. Double-arterial cannulation for aortic valve replacement with porcelain aorta.

    PubMed

    De Paulis, Ruggero; Maselli, Daniele; Scaffa, Raffaele; Nardella, Saverio

    2009-10-01

    We describe a new technique of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with porcelain aorta. Three patients (mean age 75 years) were treated. The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was established after side-graft right axillary artery and direct femoral artery cannulation. Venous drainage was obtained by atrio-caval cannulation. The procedures were performed in mild hypothermia (30 degrees C). Cerebral perfusion was carried out by clamping the innominate artery and all epiaortic vessels. The aorta was endoclamped by a Foley balloon inserted into the isthmus. The aorta was then opened longitudinally for 10 cm to expose and replace the aortic valve. Near-infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) and bilateral radial artery pressure were used to monitor effective cerebral perfusion. Operative mortality was absent. The mean time of CPB was 73 min. NIRS-derived tissue oxygenation was maintained above 55%. Postoperative course was uneventful. This technique has several advantages: first, the cannulation of right axillary and the common femoral artery allows simultaneous cerebral and systemic perfusion. Second, any form of cross-clamp is avoided and the aorta is occluded away from the epiaortic vessels. Third, there is an increased freedom to choose the best place for aortotomy.

  7. Experimental and analytical studies on multiple tuned mass dampers for seismic protection of porcelain electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Wen; Dai, Junwu; Zhou, Huimeng; Yang, Yongqiang; Ning, Xiaoqing

    2017-10-01

    Porcelain electrical equipment (PEE), such as current transformers, is critical to power supply systems, but its seismic performance during past earthquakes has not been satisfactory. This paper studies the seismic performance of two typical types of PEE and proposes a damping method for PEE based on multiple tuned mass dampers (MTMD). An MTMD damping device involving three mass units, named a triple tuned mass damper (TTMD), is designed and manufactured. Through shake table tests and finite element analysis, the dynamic characteristics of the PEE are studied and the effectiveness of the MTMD damping method is verified. The adverse influence of MTMD redundant mass to damping efficiency is studied and relevant equations are derived. MTMD robustness is verified through adjusting TTMD control frequencies. The damping effectiveness of TTMD, when the peak ground acceleration far exceeds the design value, is studied. Both shake table tests and finite element analysis indicate that MTMD is effective and robust in attenuating PEE seismic responses. TTMD remains effective when the PGA far exceeds the design value and when control deviations are considered.

  8. International Space Station/Shuttle "Flip" Maneuver for Thermal Protection System Repair Consultation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Bauer, Frank; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Dillman, Dennis B.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Hagopian, Michael; Hua, Tuyen; Legget, Jay; Maghami, Peiman G.; Mangus, David J.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The intent of this Technical Consultation Report is to document the finding and recommendations of the NESC Orbiter Repair Maneuver (ORM) Peer Review conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) with the ORM Working Group (WG) over the period 8-10 June 2005.

  9. Complex catalysts from self-repairing ensembles to highly reactive air-based oxidation systems

    Treesearch

    Craig L. Hill; Laurent Delannoy; Dean C. Duncan; Ira A. Weinstock; Roman F. Renneke; Richard S. Reiner; Rajai H. Atalla; Jong Woo Han; Daniel A. Hillesheim; Rui Cao; Travis M. Anderson; Nelya M. Okun; Djamaladdin G. Musaev; Yurii V. Geletii

    2007-01-01

    Progress in four interrelated catalysis research efforts in our laboratory are summarized: (1) catalytic photochemical functionalization of unactivated CeH bonds by polyoxometalates (POMs); (2) self-repairing catalysts; (3) catalysts for air-based oxidations under ambient conditions; and (4) terminal oxo complexes of the late-transition metal elements and their...

  10. Color management of porcelain veneers: influence of dentin and resin cement colors.

    PubMed

    Dozic, Alma; Tsagkari, Maria; Khashayar, Ghazal; Aboushelib, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Porcelain veneers have become an interesting treatment option to correct the shape and color of anterior teeth. Because of their limited thickness and high translucency, achieving a good color match is influenced by several variables. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of natural dentin and resin cement colors on final color match of porcelain veneers. A preselected shade tab (A1) was chosen as the target color for a maxillary central incisor, and its color parameters (L*a*b*) were measured using a digital spectrophotometer (SpectroShade, MHT). Nine natural dentin colors (Natural Die Material, Ivoclar Vivadent) representing a wide range of tooth colors were used to prepare resin replicas of the maxillary central incisor with a standard preparation for porcelain veneers. The prepared porcelain veneers (IPS Empress Esthetic, A1, 0.6 mm thick, Ivoclar Vivadent) were cemented on the resin dies (nine groups of natural dentin colors) using seven shades of resin cement (Variolink Veneers, Ivoclar Vivadent). The L*a*b* values of the cemented veneers were measured, and DE values were calculated against the preselected target color (A1). DE greater than 3.3 was considered as a significant color mismatch detectable by the human eye. The seven shades of resin cement had no significant influence on the final color of the veneers, as the measured DE values were almost identical for every test group. On the other hand, the color of natural dentin was a significant factor that influenced final color match. None of the 63 tested combinations (nine natural dentin colors and seven resin cement colors) produced an acceptable color match. Thin porcelain veneers cannot mask underlying tooth color even when different shades of resin cement are used. Incorporation of opaque porcelain (high chroma) may improve final color match.

  11. A comparative study on the bond strength of porcelain to the millingable Pd-Ag alloy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The porcelain fused to gold has been widely used as a restoration both with the natural esthetics of the porcelain and durability and marginal fit of metal casting. However, recently, due to the continuous rise in the price of gold, an interest towards materials to replace gold alloy is getting higher. This study compared the bond strength of porcelain to millingable palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy, with that of 3 conventionally used metal-ceramic alloys. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four types of metal-ceramic alloys, castable nonprecious nickel-chrome alloy, castable precious metal alloys containing 83% and 32% of gold, and millingable Pd-Ag alloy were used to make metal specimens (n=40). And porcelain was applied on the center area of metal specimen. Three-point bending test was performed with universal testing machine. The bond strength data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe's tests (α=.05). RESULTS The 3-point bending test showed the strongest (40.42 ± 5.72 MPa) metal-ceramic bond in the nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy, followed by millingable Pd-Ag alloy (37.71 ± 2.46 MPa), precious metal alloy containing 83% of gold (35.89 ± 1.93 MPa), and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold (34.59 ± 2.63 MPa). Nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold showed significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION The type of metal-ceramic alloys affects the bond strength of porcelain. Every metal-ceramic alloy used in this study showed clinically applicable bond strength with porcelain (25 MPa). PMID:25352959

  12. Involvement of the DNA mismatch repair system in cisplatin sensitivity of testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Christiane; Melau, Cecilie; Nielsen, John E; Vile Jensen, Kristina; Liu, Dekang; Pena-Diaz, Javier; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Jørgensen, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but patients with tumours containing differentiated teratoma components are less responsive to this treatment. The cisplatin sensitivity in TGCT has previously been linked to the embryonic phenotype in the majority of tumours, although the underlying mechanism largely remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in the cisplatin sensitivity of TGCT. The expression pattern of key MMR proteins, including MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2, were investigated during testis development and in the pathogenesis of TGCT, including germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). The TGCT-derived cell line NTera2 was differentiated using retinoic acid (10 μM, 6 days) after which MMR protein expression and activity, as well as cisplatin sensitivity, were investigated in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Finally, the expression of MSH2 was knocked down by siRNA in NTera2 cells after which the effect on cisplatin sensitivity was examined. MMR proteins were expressed in proliferating cells in the testes, while in malignant germ cells MMR protein expression was found to coincide with the expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4, with no or low expression in the more differentiated yolk sac tumours, choriocarcinomas and teratomas. In differentiated NTera2 cells we found a significantly (p < 0.05) lower expression of the MMR and pluripotency factors, as well as a reduced MMR activity and cisplatin sensitivity, compared to undifferentiated NTera2 cells. Also, we found that partial knockdown of MSH2 expression in undifferentiated NTera2 cells resulted in a significantly (p < 0.001) reduced cisplatin sensitivity. This study reports, for the first time, expression of the MMR system in fetal gonocytes, from which GCNIS cells are derived. Our findings in primary TGCT specimens and TGCT-derived cells suggest that a reduced

  13. Esthetic restorations of maxillary anterior teeth with orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jai-Bong

    2010-06-01

    If orthodontists and restorative dentists establish the interdisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry, the esthetic and functional outcome of their combined efforts will be greatly enhanced. This article describes satisfying esthetic results obtained by the distribution of space for restoration by orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers in uneven space between maxillary anterior teeth. It is proposed that the use of orthodontic treatment for re-distribution of the space and the use of porcelain laminate veneers to alter crown anatomy provide maximum esthetic and functional correction for patients with irregular interdental spacing.

  14. Shear bond strength between an indirect composite layering material and feldspathic porcelain-coated zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Fushiki, Ryosuke; Komine, Futoshi; Blatz, Markus B; Koizuka, Mai; Taguchi, Kohei; Matsumura, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of both feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks and priming agents on shear bond strength between an indirect composite material and zirconia frameworks. A total of 462 airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks were divided into three groups: untreated disks (ZR-AB), airborne-particle-abraded zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain, (ZR-PO-AB), and hydrofluoric acid-etched zirconia disks coated with feldspathic porcelain (ZR-PO-HF). Indirect composite (Estenia C&B) was bonded to zirconia specimens with no (CON) or one of four priming agents--Clearfil Photo Bond (CPB), Clearfil Photo Bond with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (CPB + activator), Estenia Opaque primer, or Porcelain Liner M Liquid B (PLB)--with or without an opaque material (Estenia C&B Opaque). All specimens were tested for shear bond strength before and after 20,000 thermocycles. The Steel-Dwass test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare shear bond strength. In ZR-AB specimens, the initial bond strength of the CPB and CPB + Activator groups was significantly higher as compared with the other three groups (P < 0.05), whereas the PLB and CPB + Activator groups had the highest pre- and post-thermocycling bond strengths in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens. Among CON disks without opaque material, bond strength was significantly lower in ZR-AB specimens than in ZR-PO-AB and ZR-PO-HF specimens (P < 0.05). Feldspathic porcelain coating of a Katana zirconia framework enhanced the bond strength of Estenia C&B indirect composite to zirconia independent of surface treatment. The use of a silane coupling agent and opaque material yields durable bond strength between the indirect composite and feldspathic-porcelain-coated zirconia. The results of the present study suggest that feldspathic porcelain coating of zirconia frameworks is an effective method to obtain clinically acceptable bond strengths of a layering indirect

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, undermore » congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections

  16. The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Therapy on the DNA Base Excision Repair System of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Czarny, Piotr; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Szemraj, Janusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz; Karwowski, Bolesław

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect extrahepatic tissues, including lymphocytes, creating reservoir of the virus. Moreover, HCV proteins can interact with DNA damage response proteins of infected cells. In this article we investigated the influence of the virus infection and a new ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) anti-HCV therapy on the PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes) DNA base excision repair (BER) system. BER protein activity was analyzed in the nuclear and mitochondrial extracts (NE and ME) of PBMC isolated from patients before and after therapy, and from subjects without HCV, using modeled double-strand DNA, with 2'-deoxyuridine substitution as the DNA damage. The NE and ME obtained from patients before therapy demonstrated lower efficacy of 2'-deoxyuridine removal and DNA repair polymerization than those of the control group or patients after therapy. Moreover, the extracts from the patients after therapy had similar activity to those from the control group. However, the efficacy of apurinic/apyrimidinic site excision in NE did not differ between the studied groups. We postulate that infection of lymphocytes by the HCV can lead to a decrease in the activity of BER enzymes. However, the use of novel therapy results in the improvement of glycosylase activity as well as the regeneration of endonuclease and other crucial repair enzymes.

  17. Bone repair in mandibular body osteotomy after using 2.0 miniplate system – histological and histometric analysis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Lucas, Marina Amaral; Sverzut, Alexander Tadeu; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias; Beloti, Marcio Mateus; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the bone repair along a mandibular body osteotomy after using a 2.0 miniplate system. Nine adult mongrel dogs were subjected to unilateral continuous defect through an osteotomy between the mandibular 3rd and 4th premolars. Two four-hole miniplates were placed in accordance with the Arbeitgeimeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen Manual. Miniplates adapted to the alveolar processes were fixed monocortically with 6.0-mm-length titanium alloy self-tapping screws, whereas miniplates placed near the mandible bases were fixed bicortically. At 2, 6 and 12 weeks, three dogs were sacrificed per period, and the osteotomy sites were removed, divided into three thirds (Tension Third, TT; Intermediary Third, IT; Compression Third, CT) and prepared for conventional and polarized light microscopy. At 6 weeks, while the CT repaired faster and showed bone union by woven bone formation, the TT and IT exhibited a ligament-like fibrous connective tissue inserted in, and connecting, newly formed woven bone overlying the parent lamellar bone edges. At 12 weeks, bone repair took place at all thirds. Histometrically, proportions of newly formed bone did not alter at TT, IT and CT, whereas significantly enhanced bone formation was observed for the 12-week group, irrespective of the third. The results demonstrated that although the method used to stabilize the mandibular osteotomy allowed bone repair to occur, differences in the dynamics of bone healing may take place along the osteotomy site, depending on the action of tension and compression forces generated by masticatory muscles. PMID:18336526

  18. Systemic inflammatory response after endoscopic (TEP) vs Shouldice groin hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Schwab, R; Eissele, S; Brückner, U B; Gebhard, F; Becker, H P

    2004-08-01

    Endoscopic techniques are commonly used for many different types of surgery. It is claimed that videoendoscopic procedures have the advantage of being less traumatic and of offering higher postoperative patient comfort than conventional open techniques. The extent of tissue trauma can be evaluated on the basis of the inflammatory response observed in the wake of surgery. Available studies that have compared endoscopic and conventional techniques suggest that endoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic colorectal resection, and thoracoscopic pulmonary resection have immunologic advantages over conventional approaches. The objective of this prospective study was to determine whether endoscopic hernia repair techniques are also preferable to conventional procedures and to what extent the anesthetic technique (local or general anesthesia) influences the postoperative inflammatory response. For this purpose, biochemical monitoring of cytokine activity [C-reactive protein (CRP), prostaglandin F1alpha (PGF1alpha), neopterin, interleukin-6 (IL-6)] was done prospectively in 101 patients [totally extraperitoneal approach (TEP) n=32, unilateral n=12, bilateral n=20; Shouldice n=69, local anesthesia (LA) n=23, general anesthesia (GA) n=46] before and until 3 days after surgery. The parameters IL-6 and PGF1alpha suggested that the immune trauma immediately after surgery was significantly higher in the group of patients with endoscopic hernia repair than in the group of patients who received a Shouldice repair. No significant differences were observed after the first postoperative day. A comparison between the TEP group and the patients who received conventional surgery under local anesthesia showed that the TEP approach was also associated with a higher postoperative neopterin level. Within the first 3 days after surgical intervention, bilateral endoscopic hernia repair induced no significantly higher inflammatory response than the surgical treatment of unilateral conditions. The

  19. Comparison of porcelain bond strength of different metal frameworks prepared by using conventional and recently introduced fabrication methods.

    PubMed

    Kaleli, Necati; Saraç, Duygu

    2017-07-01

    Most studies evaluating dental laser sintering systems have focused on the marginal accuracy of the restorations. However, the bond strength at the metal-ceramic interface is another important factor that affects the survival of restorations, and currently, few studies focus on this aspect. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) metal frameworks prepared by using the conventional lost-wax technique, milling, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and laser cusing, a direct process powder-bed system. A total of 96 metal frameworks (n=24 in each group) were prepared by using conventional lost-wax (group C), milling (group M), DMLS (group LS), and direct process powder-bed (group LC) methods according to International Organization for Standardization standard ISO 9693-1. After porcelain application, a 3-point bend test was applied to each specimen by using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using 1-way ANOVA and Tukey honest significant difference tests (α=.05). Failure types at the metal-ceramic interfaces were examined using stereomicroscopy. Additionally, 1 specimen from each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis to evaluate the surface topography of metal frameworks. The mean bond strength was 38.08 ±3.82 MPa for group C, 39.29 ±3.51 MPa for group M, 40.73 ±3.58 MPa for group LS, and 41.24 ±3.75 MPa for group LC. Statistically significant differences were observed among the 4 groups (P=.016). All groups, except for LS, exhibited adhesive and mixed type bond failure. Both of the laser sintering methods were found to be successful in terms of metal-ceramic bond strength. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, undermore » congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections

  1. Evaluation of Precast Panels for Airfield Pavement Repair. Phase 1: System Optimization and Test Section Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    boundary was also considered. The panel must be slightly smaller than the repair area to allow the panel to be installed easily with little resistance ...beam between simple supports that offer no resistance and is more flexible. The actual support conditions are somewhere in between since the...slenderness of the keyway components, and thin bolt tab were not sufficient to resist rotation. The keyway was removed since it offered little structural

  2. Molecular dialogs between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: dualistic roles in injury and repair.

    PubMed

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A; Leak, Rehana K; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialog between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Repair of long-bone fractures in cats and small dogs with the Unilock mandible locking plate system.

    PubMed

    Voss, K; Kull, M; Hässig, M; Montavon, P

    2009-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate stabilisation of long-bone fractures in cats and small dogs using the Unilock system. Medical histories and radiographs of consecutive patients with long-bone fractures stabilised with the Unilock system were reviewed. Cases with follow-up radiographs taken at least four weeks postoperatively were included. Signalment of the patient, fracture localisation and type, primary fracture repair or revision surgery, single or double plating, and complications for each patient were noted. Additionally, implant size, number of screws, number of cortices engaged with screws, and number of empty holes across the fracture were evaluated in fractures where a single plate had been applied. Eighteen humeral, 18 radial, 20 femoral, and 10 tibial fractures were treated. The Unilock system was used for primary repair in 44 fractures and for revision surgery in 22 fractures. Two plates were applied in 17 fractures, and a single plate was applied in 49 fractures. Follow-up radiographs were taken four to 109 weeks postoperatively. Complications were seen in 12 animals and 13 fractures (19.7%). Fixation failure occurred in seven fractures (10.6%). Cases with a single plate that suffered fixation failure had thinner screws in relation to bone diameter than cases with double plates, and more screws in a main fragment than those without fixation failure. The Unilock system is a suitable implant for fracture fixation of long bones in cats and small dogs.

  4. Comparison of the Tendon Damage Caused by Four Different Anchor Systems Used in Transtendon Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing-Song; Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Xue, Yun; Ge, Dongxia; O'Brien, Michael J.; Savoie, Felix H.; You, Zongbing

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to compare the damage to the rotator cuff tendons caused by four different anchor systems. Methods. 20 cadaveric human shoulder joints were used for transtendon insertion of four anchor systems. The Healix Peek, Fastin RC, Bio-Corkscrew Suture, and Healix Transtend anchors were inserted through the tendons using standard transtendon procedures. The areas of tendon damage were measured. Results. The areas of tendon damage (mean ± standard deviation, n = 7) were 29.1 ± 4.3 mm2 for the Healix Peek anchor, 20.4 ± 2.3 mm2 for the Fastin RC anchor, 23.4 ± 1.2 mm2 for the Bio-Corkscrew Suture anchor, 13.7 ± 3.2 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted directly, and 9.1 ± 2.1 mm2 for the Healix Transtend anchor inserted through the Percannula system (P < 0.001 or P < 0.001, compared to other anchors). Conclusions. In a cadaver transtendon rotator cuff repair model, smaller anchors caused less damage to the tendon tissues. The Healix Transtend implant system caused the least damage to the tendon tissues. Our findings suggest that smaller anchors should be considered when performing transtendon procedures to repair partial rotator cuff tears. PMID:22811923

  5. Molecular dialogues between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: Dualistic roles in injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A.; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialogue between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. PMID:24374228

  6. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial

  7. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, undermore » congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  8. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070–c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula. PMID:26535583

  9. [Effect of Ti bonder on the bond strength between porcelain and titanium].

    PubMed

    Yao, Hai; Luo, Xiao-ping

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the influence of GC Initial Ti Bonder on bond strength between Vita Titankeramik porcelain and titanium. Forty titanium samples were prepared and randomly assigned to 4 groups with 10 samples in each group. Samples in each group were subjected to one of the following surface treatments, burnishing (Group B), sandblasting (Group S), firing GC Initial Ti Bonder after burnishing (Group BG) and firing GC Initial Ti Bonder after sandblasting (Group SG). Vita Titankeramik porcelain were fired on the surface of each sample in the middle. Three-point bending tests were conducted on each sample according to the ISO 9693. The fracture patterns of all specimens were recorded using zoom stereo microscope (ZSM) and the fracture surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). With fired GC Initial Ti Bonder, the bond strength of Vita Titankeramik porcelain to titanium in Group BG and Group SG were (32.72 +/- 4.46) and (34.25 +/- 6.52) MPa respectively, which reach the ISO 9693 standard for clinical use and were significantly higher than those in Group B [(20.70 +/- 3.15) MPa] and Group S [(23.92 +/- 5.02) MPa]. GC Initial Ti Bonder can significantly improve bond strength between Vita Titankeramik porcelain and titanium.

  10. [Effect of porcelain firing cycle on microstructure and corrosion resistance of 4 metal ceramic alloys].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Cai, Hui; Xu, Guo-fu; Fang, Chang-yun

    2006-06-01

    To determine the effect of porcelain firing cycle on microstructure of 4 metal ceramic alloys, and to analyze the changes of their corrosion resistance in the artificial saliva. We simulated the process of firing and repolishing when fabricating porcelain-fused-to-metal restoration in clinic,and then observed the microstructures of Ni-Cr, Ni-Cr-Ti, Co-Cr alloys and high gold alloy by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of alloys in artificial saliva was analyzed by polarization curves and corrview 2 corrosion analysis software. The data of self-corrosion potential and transpassive potential were obtained and analyzed. After the porcelain firing cycle, the surface composition changed slightly, and the morphological in the 3 predominate base metal alloys also changed. The self-corrosion potential turned to more negative, and the transpassive potential declined. The procedure of porcelain firing cycle can affect the surface microstructure and increase the corrosion of 4 metal-ceramic alloys.

  11. Principal Component Analysis of Chinese Porcelains from the Five Dynasties to the Qing Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, C. T.; Hua, Younan

    1992-10-01

    This is a study of the possibility of identifying antique Chinese porcelains according to the period or dynasty, using major and minor chemical components (SiO2 , Al2O3 , Fe2O3 , K2O, Na2O, CaO and MgO) from the body of the porcelain. Principal component analysis is applied to published data on 66 pieces of Chinese procelains made in Jingdezhen during the Five Dynasties and the Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties. It is shown that porcelains made during the Five Dynasties and the Yuan (or Ming) and Qing Dynasties can be segregated completely without any overlap. However, there is appreciable overlap between the Five Dynasties and the Song Dynasty, some overlap between the Song and Ming Dynasties and also between the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Interestingly, Qing procelains are well separated from all the others. The percentage of silica in the porcelain body decreases and that of alumina increases with recentness with the exception of the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, where this trend is reversed.

  12. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes.

  13. [Infinite optical thickness of dentine porcelain of IPS E.max A color series].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Shao, Long-quan; Yi, Yuan-fu; Deng, Bin; Wen, Ning; Zhang, Wei-wei

    2011-02-01

    To determine the infinite optical thickness of dentine porcelain of IPS E.max A color series. Cylindrical dentine porcelain specimens of the IPS E.max A color series were prepared with a diameter of 13 mm and thickness of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 mm. The chromatic value of all the specimens was determined with CM-5 spectrometer against standard black and white background. The chromatic aberration (deltaE) was calculated by regression equation. The infinite optical thickness of dentine porcelain of the IPS E.max A color series ranged from 2.341 to 3.333 mm for a deltaE of 1.0, and from 2.064 to 2.904 mm for a deltaE of 1.5. As the chromaticity or thickness increased, the influence by the background color decreased, and the color of specimens became gradually close to the intrinsic color. The thickness of the background dentine porcelain specimens must exceed its infinite optical thickness to represent the intrinsic color and avoid the influence by the extrinsic color.

  14. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guoxi; Feng, Songlin; Feng, Xiangqian; Li, Yongqiang; Han, Hongye; Wang, Yanqing; Zhu, Jihao; Yan, Lingtong; Li, Li

    2009-03-01

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  15. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  16. [Differential study of the bonding characterization of dental porcelain to Ni-Cr alloys].

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Zhan, De-song; Wang, Yan-yan

    2008-10-01

    To study the bonding capability when Ni-Cr porcelain alloy was added with Ti, compound rare earth metals and removed the element of Be. Ni-Cr-Ti porcelain alloys manufactured by Institute of Metal Research of Chinese Academy of Sciences were tested. The test alloys were divided into three groups according to whether containing Be and compound rare earth metals or not. And HI BOND Ni-Cr base-metal alloy was chosen as control. The metal-ceramic specimens were prepared for shear test, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy spectrum analysis. The shear bond strength of the four groups were analyzed. No significant difference were observed among them (P > 0.05). No crackle was found and they were contacted tightly between the porcelain and metal. The composition and contents of the four groups' interfaces were closed. The shear bond strength of the self-made Ni-Cr-Ti porcelain alloys all can satisfy the clinical requirements. Experimental groups containing Ti, compound rare earth metals and removing the element of Be can be used as better recommendation for clinical practice.

  17. 76 FR 12369 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Cooking Ware From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Cooking Ware from China: Investigation No. 731-TA- 298 (Third Review). Issued: February 28, 2011. By order...

  18. Clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers: outcomes of the aesthetic pre-evaluative temporary (APT) technique.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Galip; Morimoto, Susana; Calamita, Marcelo A; Coachman, Christian; Sesma, Newton

    2012-12-01

    This article evaluates the long-term clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneers bonded to teeth prepared with the use of an additive mock-up and aesthetic pre-evaluative temporary (APT) technique over a 12-year period. Sixty-six patients were restored with 580 porcelain laminate veneers. The technique, used for diagnosis, esthetic design, tooth preparation, and provisional restoration fabrication, was based on the APT protocol. The influence of several factors on the durability of veneers was analyzed according to pre- and postoperative parameters. With utilization of the APT restoration, over 80% of tooth preparations were confined to the dental enamel. Over 12 years, 42 laminate veneers failed, but when the preparations were limited to the enamel, the failure rate resulting from debonding and microleakage decreased to 0%. Porcelain laminate veneers presented a successful clinical performance in terms of marginal adaptation, discoloration, gingival recession, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity, and satisfaction with restoration shade at the end of 12 years. The APT technique facilitated diagnosis, communication, and preparation, providing predictability for the restorative treatment. Limiting the preparation depth to the enamel surface significantly increases the performance of porcelain laminate veneers.

  19. In vitro rapid intraoral adjustment of porcelain prostheses using a high-speed dental handpiece.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Fei; Yin, Ling; Han, Yi-Gang; Wang, Hui

    2008-03-01

    In vitro rapid intraoral adjustment of porcelain prostheses was conducted using a high-speed dental handpiece and diamond bur. The adjustment process was characterized by measurement of removal forces and energy, with scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation of porcelain debris, surfaces and subsurface damage produced as a function of operational feed rate. Finite element analysis (FEA) was applied to evaluate subsurface stress distributions and degrees of subsurface damage. The results show that an increase in feed rate resulted in increases in both tangential and normal forces (analysis of variance (ANOVA), P<0.01). When the feed rate approached the highest rate of 60mm min(-1) at a fixed depth of cut of 100microm, the tangential force was nearly seven times that at the lowest feed rate of 15mm min(-1). Consequently, the specific removal energy increased significantly (ANOVA, P<0.01), and the maximum depth of subsurface damage obtained was approximately 110 and 120microm at the highest feed rate of 60mm min(-1) using SEM and FEA, respectively. The topographies of both the adjusted porcelain surfaces and the debris demonstrate microscopically that porcelain was removed via brittle fracture and plastic deformation. Clinicians must be cautious when pursuing rapid dental adjustments, because high operational energy, larger forces and severe surface and subsurface damage can be induced.

  20. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for composite packagings with inner... Packaging Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. (a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of...

  1. Reuse of solid petroleum waste in the manufacture of porcelain stoneware tile.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, B C A; Holanda, J N F

    2013-03-30

    This study investigates the incorporation of solid petroleum waste as raw material into a porcelain stoneware tile body, in replacement to natural kaolin material by up to 5 wt.%. Tile formulations containing solid petroleum waste were pressed and fired at 1240 °C by using a fast-firing cycle. The tile pieces were tested to determine their properties (linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength), sintered microstructure, and leaching toxicity. The results therefore indicated that the growing addition of solid petroleum waste into tile formulations leads to a decrease of linear shrinkage, apparent density, and flexural strength, and to an increase of water absorption of the produced tile materials. It was also found that the replacement of kaolin with solid petroleum waste, in the range up to 2.5 wt.%, allows the production of porcelain stoneware tile (group BIa, ISO 13006 standard). All concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr (total), Hg, and Pb of the fired porcelain stoneware tile pieces in the leachate comply with the current regulatory limits. These results indicate that the solid petroleum waste could be used for high-quality porcelain stoneware tile production, thus giving rise to a new possibility for an environmentally friendly management of this abundant waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    PubMed

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  3. Application of Rapid Prototyping Technique and Intraoperative Navigation System for the Repair and Reconstruction of Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Lee, Yong Hae; Ruy, Wan Chul; Roe, Young; Moon, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Restoring the orbital cavity in large blow out fractures is a challenge for surgeons due to the anatomical complexity. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes and orbital volume after orbital wall fracture repair using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique and intraoperative navigation system. Methods This prospective study was conducted on the medical records and radiology records of 12 patients who had undergone a unilateral blow out fracture reconstruction using a RP technique and an intraoperative navigation system from November 2014 to March 2015. The surgical results were assessed by an ophthalmic examination and a comparison of the preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. Results All patients had a successful treatment outcome without complications. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant decrease in the mean OVR from 1.0952±0.0662 (ranging from 0.9917 to 1.2509) preoperatively to 0.9942±0.0427 (ranging from 0.9394 to 1.0680) postoperatively. Conclusion The application of a RP technique for the repair of orbital wall fractures is a useful tool that may help improve the clinical outcomes by understanding the individual anatomy, determining the operability, and restoring the orbital cavity volume through optimal implant positioning along with an intraoperative navigation system. PMID:28913272

  4. Effect of metal conditioner on bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Yutaro; Takenouchi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takuo; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different metal conditioners for non-precious metal alloys for the bonding of porcelain to a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shaped specimens (2.5×10.0 mm) were cast with Co-Cr alloy and used as adherend materials. The bonding surfaces were polished with a 600-grid silicon carbide paper and airborne-particle abraded using 110 µm alumina particles. Bonding specimens were fabricated by applying and firing either of the metal conditioners on the airborne-particle abraded surface, followed by firing porcelain into 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. Specimens without metal conditioner were also fabricated. Shear bond strength for each group (n=8) were measured and compared (α=.05). Sectional view of bonding interface was observed by SEM. EDS analysis was performed to determine the chemical elements of metal conditioners and to determine the failure modes after shear test. RESULTS There were significant differences among three groups, and two metal conditioner-applied groups showed significantly higher values compared to the non-metal conditioner group. The SEM observation of the sectional view at bonding interface revealed loose contact at porcelain-alloy surface for non-metal conditioner group, however, close contact at both alloy-metal conditioner and metal conditioner-porcelain interfaces for both metal conditioner-applied groups. All the specimens showed mixed failures. EDS analysis showed that one metal conditioner was Si-based material, and another was Ti-based material. Si-based metal conditioner showed higher bond strengths compared to the Ti-based metal conditioner, but exhibited more porous failure surface failure. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the application of metal conditioner is recommended for the bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys. PMID:26949481

  5. Porcelain surface alterations and refinishing after use of two orthodontic bonding methods.

    PubMed

    Herion, Drew T; Ferracane, Jack L; Covell, David A

    2010-01-01

    To compare porcelain surfaces at debonding after use of two surface preparation methods and to evaluate a method for restoring the surface. Lava Ceram feldspathic porcelain discs (n = 40) underwent one of two surface treatments prior to bonding orthodontic brackets. Half the discs had sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid, and silane (SB + HF + S), and the other half, phosphoric acid and silane (PA + S). Brackets were debonded using bracket removing pliers, and resin was removed with a 12-fluted carbide bur. The surface was refinished using a porcelain polishing kit, followed by diamond polishing paste. Measurements for surface roughness (Ra), gloss, and color were made before bonding (baseline), after debonding, and after each step of refinishing. Surfaces were also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD tests (alpha = 0.05). The SB + HF + S bonding method increased Ra (0.160 to 1.121 microm), decreased gloss (41.3 to 3.7) and altered color (DeltaE = 4.37; P < .001). The PA + S method increased Ra (0.173 to 0.341 microm; P < .001), but the increase in Ra was significantly less than that caused by the SB + HF + S bonding method (P < . 001). The PA + S method caused insignificant changes in gloss (41.7 to 38.0) and color (DeltaE = 0.50). The measurements and SEM observations showed that changes were fully restored to baseline with refinishing. The PA + S method caused significantly less damage to porcelain than the SB + HF + S method. The refinishing protocol fully restored the porcelain surfaces.

  6. Distortion of three-unit implant frameworks during casting, soldering, and simulated porcelain firings.

    PubMed

    Zervas, P J; Papazoglou, E; Beck, F M; Carr, A B

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess distortion inherent in casting, soldering, and simulated porcelain firings of screw-retained, implant-supported three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs). Ten wax patterns were fabricated on a die-stone cast containing two implants, 20 mm apart from center to center. Five specimens were cast in a high-palladium alloy, exposed to simulated porcelain firings, sectioned, and then soldered with low-fusing solder. Five specimens were cast, sectioned, soldered with high-fusing solder, and then exposed to simulated porcelain firings. For each specimen, two horizontal and six vertical distances between appropriately scribed reference points were measured with a traveling microscope. Comparisons were made among the various measurements taken after wax-pattern fabrication, casting, high- and low-fusing soldering, and each porcelain firing. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures factorial ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). Significant difference was detected in the amount of horizontal distortion during casting (53 +/- 24 microns) and high-fusing soldering (-49 +/- 50 microns), as well as in the amount of horizontal distortion during high-fusing soldering (-49 +/- 50 microns) and low-fusing soldering (17 +/- 26 microns). However, no clinically significant difference was found in the amount of horizontal distortion during casting, low-fusing, and high-fusing soldering. The greatest amount of distortion during the simulated porcelain firings took place during the oxidizing cycle. Soldering did not improve the casting misfit of a three-unit implant-retained FPD model. Metal-ceramic implant frameworks should be oxidized before intraoral fit evaluation.

  7. Influence of leucite content on slow crack growth of dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Paulo F; Soki, Fabiana N; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Gonzaga, Carla C; Styopkin, Victor

    2008-08-01

    To determine the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient, n, of seven dental porcelains (A: Ceramco I; B: Ceramco-II; C: Ceramco-III; D: d.Sign; E: Cerabien; F: Vitadur-Alpha; and G: Ultropaline) after aging in air or artificial saliva, and correlate results with leucite content (LC). Bars were fired according to manufacturers' instructions and polished before induction of cracks by a Vickers indenter (19.6N, 20s). Four specimens were stored in air/room temperature, and three in saliva/37 degrees C. Five indentations were made per specimen and crack lengths measured at the following times: approximately 0; 1; 3; 10; 30; 100; 300; 1000 and 3000 h. The stress corrosion coefficient n was calculated by linear regression analysis after plotting crack length as a function of time, considering that the slope of the curve was [2/(3n+2)]. Microstructural analysis was performed to determine LC. LC of the porcelains were 22% (A and B); 6% (C); 15% (D); 0% (E and F); and 13% (G). Except for porcelains A and D, all materials showed a decrease in their n values when stored in artificial saliva. However, the decrease was more pronounced for porcelains B, F, and G. Ranking of materials varied according to storage media (in air, porcelain G showed higher n compared to A, while in saliva both showed similar coefficients). No correlation was found between n values and LC in air or saliva. Storage media influenced the n value obtained for most of the materials. LC did not affect resistance to slow crack growth regardless of the test environment.

  8. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforcedmore » composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be

  9. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, produce modified schedules, quickly, and exhibits 'anytime' behavior. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. We also show the anytime characteristics of the system. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  10. Clubfoot repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... need include: Osteotomy : Removing part of the bone. Fusion or arthrodesis : Two or more bones are fused ... Patient Instructions Preventing falls Surgical wound care - open Images Clubfoot repair - series References Kelly DM. Congenital anomalies ...

  11. Pothole repair

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    The primary objective of the pothole experiment was to determine which combinations of materials and patching procedures provide the most cost-effective repair of potholes in asphalt concrete-surfaced pavements. This technical summary summarizes the ...

  12. Hydrocele repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... is excellent. However, another hydrocele may form over time, or if there was also a hernia present. Alternative Names Hydrocelectomy Images Hydrocele repair - series References Aiken JJ, Oldham KT. Inguinal hernias. In: ...

  13. Annexins in plasma membrane repair.

    PubMed

    Boye, Theresa Louise; Nylandsted, Jesper

    2016-10-01

    Disruption of the plasma membrane poses deadly threat to eukaryotic cells and survival requires a rapid membrane repair system. Recent evidence reveal various plasma membrane repair mechanisms, which are required for cells to cope with membrane lesions including membrane fusion and replacement strategies, remodeling of cortical actin cytoskeleton and vesicle wound patching. Members of the annexin protein family, which are Ca2+-triggered phospholipid-binding proteins emerge as important components of the plasma membrane repair system. Here, we discuss the mechanisms of plasma membrane repair involving annexins spanning from yeast to human cancer cells.

  14. [Line scanning analysis of white porcelain from Gong Kiln in early Tang dynasty by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xue; Mao, Zhen-wei; Feng, Min; Hu, Yao-wu; Wang, Chang-sui; Liu, Hong-miao

    2005-07-01

    Gong kiln, for its long porcelain-firing history, was one of three representative white porcelain kilns in northern China. In order to improve the quality and whiteness of white porcelain, a decorating layer or cosmetic earth was laid on the body surface in Gong kiln during early Tang dynasty, which was able to blot out rough surface and weaken the influence of fuscous body upon surface color. In this paper the main chemical composition of the white porcelain's profile was analyzed by using energy disperse X-Ray fluorescence. The result showed that different materials were used as cosmetic earth during early Tang dynasty, in accordance with the phenomenon under optical microscope. In addition, the glaze belongs to calcium glaze in which plant ash was added.

  15. Effect of sandblasting on surface roughness of zirconia-based ceramics and shear bond strength of veneering porcelain.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Zhang, Zutai; Zheng, Dongxiang; Ding, Ning; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of sandblasting on the surface roughness of zirconia and the shear bond strength of the veneering porcelain. Pre-sintered zirconia plates were prepared and divided into four groups. Group A were not treated at all; group B were first sandblasted under 0.2 MPa pressure and then densely sintered; group C and D were sintered first, and then sandblasted under 0.2 MPa and 0.4 MPa pressures respectively. Surface roughness was measured and 3D roughness was reconstructed for the specimens, which were also analyzed with X-ray diffractometry. Finally after veneering porcelain sintering, shear bond tests were conducted. Sandblasting zirconia before sintering significantly increased surface roughness and the shear bond strength between zirconia and veneering porcelain (p<0.05). Sandblasting zirconia before sintering is a useful method to increase surface roughness and could successfully improve the bonding strength of veneering porcelain.

  16. Evaluation of an optimized shade guide made from porcelain powder mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Wei, Jiaqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Yining

    2014-12-01

    Color errors associated with current shade guides and problems with color selection and duplication are still challenging for restorative dentists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an optimized shade guide for visual shade duplication. Color distributions (L*, a*, and b*) of the maxillary left central incisors of 236 participants, whose ages ranged from 20 to 60, were measured with a spectrophotometer. Based on this color map, an optimized shade guide was designed with 14 shade tabs evenly distributed within the given color range of the natural incisors. The shade tabs were fabricated with porcelain powder mixtures and conventional laboratory procedures. A comparison of shade duplication by using the optimized and Vitapan Classical shade guides was conducted. Thirty Chinese participants were involved, and the colors of the left maxillary incisors were selected by using 2 shade guides. Metal ceramic crowns were fabricated according to the results of the shade selection. The colors of the shade tabs, natural teeth, and the ceramic crowns were measured with a spectrophotometer. The color differences among the natural teeth, the shade tabs, and the corresponding metal ceramic crowns were calculated and analyzed (α=.017). Significant differences were found in both phases of shade determination and shade duplication (P<.017). The total number of color errors with the optimized shade guide was 3.5, which was significantly less than that of Vitapan, 5.1 (P<.001). The optimized shade guide system improved performance not only in the color selection phase but also in the color of the fabricated crowns. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Left atrial remodeling in patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system: an advanced echocardiography study.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Cuneyt; Kahveci, Gokhan; Kilicgedik, Alev; Pala, Selcuk; Kirma, Cevat; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Inanir, Mehmet; Esen, Ali Metin

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine changes in left atrial (LA) function with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) and real-time full-volume three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system. Furthermore, we investigated whether baseline and/or changes in LA function after MitraClip repair had any impact on prognosis. A total of 25 consecutive patients (age: 57±12 years, 76% male) with moderate-to-severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were included. Patients underwent 2DSTE and RT3DE before the clip implantation and after the 12-month follow-up. Prognostic data were also recorded via the use of telephone calls and follow-up visits for 12 months after the procedure. Compared with the baseline, the LA reservoir strain (LA-Res) (7.66±4.3% vs 11.15±7.5%, P<.001) and LA contraction strain (LA-Pump) (4.64±4.3% vs 7.63±5.8%, P=.001) improved significantly after MitraClip repair; significant improvements were also seen in three-dimensional (3D) minimum LA volume index (LAV min) and maximum LA volume index (LAV max). On the other hand, conventional LA indices did not change. In total, eleven major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were observed at the 1-year follow-up. In univariate analyses, the preprocedural echocardiographic parameters that were associated with the MACE within 1 year after MitraClip repair were 3D-LAV min and LA-Res. Furthermore, these indices significantly correlated with improved functional parameters and MR reduction. In conclusion, a successful MitraClip procedure can reverse the process of LA remodeling within 12 months, and this can be detected by 2DSTE and RT3DE. Also, patients with preprocedural lower LA-Res and higher 3D-LAV min had the worst prognoses at the 1-year follow-up. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to rescheduling called constraint-based iterative repair. This approach gives our system the ability to satisfy domain constraints, address optimization concerns, minimize perturbation to the original schedule, and produce modified schedules quickly. The system begins with an initial, flawed schedule and then iteratively repairs constraint violations until a conflict-free schedule is produced. In an empirical demonstration, we vary the importance of minimizing perturbation and report how fast the system is able to resolve conflicts in a given time bound. These experiments were performed within the domain of Space Shuttle ground processing.

  19. Influence of the processing route of porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces on shear bond strength.

    PubMed

    Toptan, Fatih; Alves, Alexandra C; Henriques, Bruno; Souza, Júlio C M; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Ariza, Edith

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at evaluating the two-fold effect of initial surface conditions and dental porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy joining processing route on the shear bond strength. Porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V samples were processed by conventional furnace firing (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and hot pressing. Prior to the processing, Ti-6Al-4V cylinders were prepared by three different surface treatments: polishing, alumina or silica blasting. Within the firing process, polished and alumina blasted samples were subjected to two different cooling rates: air cooling and a slower cooling rate (65°C/min). Metal/porcelain bond strength was evaluated by shear bond test. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's test (p<0.05). Before and after shear bond tests, metallic surfaces and metal/ceramic interfaces were examined by Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Shear bond strength values of the porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy interfaces ranged from 27.1±8.9MPa for porcelain fused to polished samples up to 134.0±43.4MPa for porcelain fused to alumina blasted samples. According to the statistical analysis, no significant difference were found on the shear bond strength values for different cooling rates. Processing method was statistically significant only for the polished samples, and airborne particle abrasion was statistically significant only for the fired samples. The type of the blasting material did not cause a statistically significant difference on the shear bond strength values. Shear bond strength of dental porcelain to Ti-6Al-4V alloys can be significantly improved from controlled conditions of surface treatments and processing methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Interface bond and compatibility between GI-II glass/alumina composite and Vitadur alpha veneering porcelain].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yukun; Chao, Yonglie; Liao, Yunmao

    2002-01-01

    Multiple layer techniques were commonly employed in fabricating all-ceramic restorations. Bond and compatibility between layers were vitally important for the clinical success of the restorations. The purposes of this study were to investigate the bond of the interface between the GI-II glass/alumina composite and Vitadur alpha veneering porcelain, and to study the thermal compatibility between them. Prepared a bar shaped specimen of GI-II glass/alumina composite 25 mm x 5 mm x 1 mm in size, with bottom surface pre-notched. The upper surface was veneered with Vitadur alpha veneering porcelain (0.2 mm opaque dentin and 0.6 mm dentin porcelain), then fractured and the fracture surface were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA) with electron beam of 10 micrometer in diameter; ten all-ceramic single crowns for an upper right central incisor were fabricated and the temperatures of thermal shock resistance were tested. SEM observation showed tight bond between the composite and the porcelain; The results of EMPA showed that penetration of Na, Al elements from glass/alumina into veneering porcelain and Si, K, Ca elements from veneering porcelain into glass/alumina occurred after sintering baking; The temperature of thermal shock resistance for anterior crowns in this study was 158 +/- 10.3 degrees C, cracks were mainly distributed in veneering porcelain with thicker layer. Chemical bond exists between the GI-II glass/alumina composite and Vitadur alpha veneering porcelain, and there is good thermal compatibility between them.

  1. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-01-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle. PMID:26898711

  2. TPhP exposure disturbs carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhongkun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Guowei; Peng, Jianbiao; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-02-01

    Triphenyl phosphate is a high production volume organophosphate flame retardant that has been detected in multiple environmental media at increasing concentrations. The environmental and health risks of triphenyl phosphate have drawn attention because of the multiplex toxicity of this chemical compound. However, few studies have paid close attention to the impacts of triphenyl phosphate on liver metabolism. We investigated hepatic histopathological, metabolomic and transcriptomic responses of zebrafish after exposure to 0.050 mg/L and 0.300 mg/L triphenyl phosphate for 7 days. Metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in the contents of glucose, UDP-glucose, lactate, succinate, fumarate, choline, acetylcarnitine, and several fatty acids. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that related pathways, such as the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, PPAR signaling pathway and fatty acid elongation, were significantly affected. These results suggest that triphenyl phosphate exposure markedly disturbs hepatic carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Moreover, DNA replication, the cell cycle, and non-homologous end-joining and base excision repair were strongly affected, thus indicating that triphenyl phosphate hinders the DNA damage repair system in zebrafish liver cells. The present study provides a systematic analysis of the triphenyl phosphate-induced toxic effects in zebrafish liver and demonstrates that low concentrations of triphenyl phosphate affect normal metabolism and cell cycle.

  3. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Bright, Arthur A [Croton-on-Hudson, NY; Crumley, Paul G [Yorktown Heights, NY; Dombrowa, Marc B [Bronx, NY; Douskey, Steven M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Oakland, Steven F [Colchester, VT; Ouellette, Michael R [Westford, VT; Strissel, Scott A [Byron, MN

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  4. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Bright, Arthur A [Croton-on-Hudson, NY; Crumley, Paul G [Yorktown Heights, NY; Dombrowa, Marc B [Bronx, NY; Douskey, Steven M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Oakland, Steven F [Colchester, VT; Ouellette, Michael R [Westford, VT; Strissel, Scott A [Byron, MN

    2008-07-08

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  5. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc B.; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Ouellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2007-12-18

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  6. Design structure for in-system redundant array repair in integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Quellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-11-25

    A design structure for repairing an integrated circuit during operation of the integrated circuit. The integrated circuit comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The design structure provides the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The design structure further passes the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  7. The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; Te Riele, Hein; Pook, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. Studies of mouse models for other trinucleotide repeat (TNR) disorders have revealed an important role of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in TNR instability. To explore the potential role of MMR proteins on intergenerational GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed the transmission of unstable GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2. We find in all cases that absence of parental MMR protein not only maintains transmission of GAA expansions and contractions, but also increases GAA repeat mutability (expansions and/or contractions) in the offspring. This indicates that Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 and Pms2 proteins are not the cause of intergenerational GAA expansions or contractions, but act in their canonical MMR capacity to protect against GAA repeat instability. We further identified differential modes of action for the four MMR proteins. Thus, Msh2 and Msh3 protect against GAA repeat contractions, while Msh6 protects against both GAA repeat expansions and contractions, and Pms2 protects against GAA repeat expansions and also promotes contractions. Furthermore, we detected enhanced occupancy of Msh2 and Msh3 proteins downstream of the FXN expanded GAA repeat, suggesting a model in which Msh2/3 dimers are recruited to this region to repair mismatches that would otherwise produce intergenerational GAA contractions. These findings reveal substantial differences in the intergenerational dynamics of expanded GAA repeat sequences compared with expanded CAG/CTG repeats, where Msh2 and Msh3 are thought to actively promote repeat expansions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The mismatch repair system protects against intergenerational GAA repeat instability in a Friedreich ataxia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ezzatizadeh, Vahid; Pinto, Ricardo Mouro; Sandi, Chiranjeevi; Sandi, Madhavi; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; te Riele, Hein; Pook, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene. Studies of mouse models for other trinucleotide repeat (TNR) disorders have revealed an important role of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in TNR instability. To explore the potential role of MMR proteins on intergenerational GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed the transmission of unstable GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice which have been crossed with mice that are deficient for Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 or Pms2. We find in all cases that absence of parental MMR protein not only maintains transmission of GAA expansions and contractions, but also increases GAA repeat mutability (expansions and/or contractions) in the offspring. This indicates that Msh2, Msh3, Msh6 and Pms2 proteins are not the cause of intergenerational GAA expansions or contractions, but act in their canonical MMR capacity to protect against GAA repeat instability. We further identified differential modes of action for the four MMR proteins. Thus, Msh2 and Msh3 protect against GAA repeat contractions, while Msh6 protects against both GAA repeat expansions and contractions, and Pms2 protects against GAA repeat expansions and also promotes contractions. Furthermore, we detected enhanced occupancy of Msh2 and Msh3 proteins downstream of the FXN expanded GAA repeat, suggesting a model in which Msh2/3 dimers are recruited to this region to repair mismatches that would otherwise produce intergenerational GAA contractions. These findings reveal substantial differences in the intergenerational dynamics of expanded GAA repeat sequences compared with expanded CAG/CTG repeats, where Msh2 and Msh3 are thought to actively promote repeat expansions. PMID:22289650

  9. A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Owens, Daniel J; Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Alwan, Nura; Donovan, Timothy; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Stewart, Claire; Close, Graeme L

    2015-12-15

    Skeletal muscle is a direct target for vitamin D. Observational studies suggest that low 25[OH]D correlates with functional recovery of skeletal muscle following eccentric contractions in humans and crush injury in rats. However, a definitive association is yet to be established. To address this gap in knowledge in relation to damage repair, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 20 males with insufficient concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (45 ± 25 nmol/l). Prior to and following 6 wk of supplemental vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/day) or placebo (50 mg of cellulose), participants performed 20 × 10 damaging eccentric contractions of the knee extensors, with peak torque measured over the following 7 days of recovery. Parallel experimentation using isolated human skeletal muscle-derived myoblast cells from biopsies of 14 males with low serum 25(OH)D (37 ± 11 nmol/l) were subjected to mechanical wound injury, which enabled corresponding in vitro studies of muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy in the presence and absence of 10 or 100 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3. Supplemental vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D and improved recovery of peak torque at 48 h and 7 days postexercise. In vitro, 10 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3 improved muscle cell migration dynamics and resulted in improved myotube fusion/differentiation at the biochemical, morphological, and molecular level together with increased myotube hypertrophy at 7 and 10 days postdamage. Together, these preliminary data are the first to characterize a role for vitamin D in human skeletal muscle regeneration and suggest that maintaining serum 25(OH)D may be beneficial for enhancing reparative processes and potentially for facilitating subsequent hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. [Determination of the dynamic levels of interleukin-8 in gingival crevicular fluid of porcelain teeth with three different alloys].

    PubMed

    Xu, Weixing; Su, Jiansheng

    2012-06-01

    To study the interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy at different time periods, and to uncover the degree of stimulation by these alloys on gingiva at different time periods. 45 cases of porcelain teeth coated with Ni-Cr, Co-Cr or gold alloy were selected randomly, with 15 cases in each group. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the concentration and total amount of IL-8 in GCF. The assay was done before treatment, as well as at 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. The total amounts of IL-8 and GCF volume in the Ni-Cr alloy coated porcelain teeth were higher in different time period than those before treatment (P<0.05). However, the IL-8 levels in Co-Cr and gold alloy coated porcelain teeth returned to pre-dental restoration after 3 months. Otherwise, the levels of IL-8 concentration in GCF showed no significant difference among the three different alloys coating at different time periods. IL-8 is an important cytokine during tissue inflammation. Therefore, the level of IL-8 in GCF is a useful criteria for the evaluation of stimulation degree on gingiva by different alloy coating materials in porcelain teeth. The clinical choice of different alloy coating for porcelain teeth should be considered accordingly.

  11. Effects of different electrolytes for micro-arc oxidation on the bond strength between titanium and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Tan, Fei; Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Shaojun; Qu, Fuzhen; Liu, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different electrolytes on the titanium-porcelain bond strength after micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment. Three electrolytes at the same concentration were used as MAO reaction solutions: Na 2 SiO 3 , KF, and MgSiF 6 . Blasting treatment was chosen as a control. After MAO treatment in each electrolyte, the titanium-porcelain bond strengths were measured by the three-point bending test, as described in ISO 9693. The morphologies and elemental compositions of the MAO coating on the titanium substrate were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The interface between the titanium and porcelain was also observed by SEM and EDS. The MAO coatings created in different electrolytes exhibited completely different morphologies and compositions. The bond strengths of the Na 2 SiO 3 and MgSiF 6 groups were significantly higher than those of the other groups (p<0.05). Additionally, the titanium-porcelain interfaces were compact in the former two groups, whereas pores and cracks were visible at the interfaces in the other groups. These results indicate that MAO treatment with an appropriate electrolyte could be an effective method to increase the titanium-porcelain bonding strength. According to ISO 9693, titanium-porcelain restorations subjected to MAO treatment with an appropriate electrolyte could be appropriate for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis using a pedicle screw-laminar hook system by paramedian approach].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Tang, Yong-hua; Tang, Hong-chao; Jin, Cai-yi

    2011-08-01

    To discuss the indication and clinical effect of direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis by screw-laminar hook system. From August 2003 to December 2008, 28 patients (13 males and 15 females,ranging in age from 15 and 26 years, averaged 21.6 years) with lumbar spondylolysis were treated with isthmic bone grafting and internal fixation with a pedicle screw-laminar hook system. Three patients had spondylolysis at L3, L4; 5 patients had spondylolysis at L4, L5; 8 patients had spondylolysis at L4; and 12 patients had spondylolysis at L5. All the patients had low back pain and lasted over 6 months. According to preoperative and postoperative plain radiograph, CT scan and Macnab criteria, the fusion rate and clinical effect of this technique were evaluated. All the patients were followed up with a mean period of 14.9 months, ranging from 9 to 24 months. All the patients had bony union according to the X-rays and CT scan. According to the calculation results of Macnab criteria, 22 patients got an excellent result, 5 good and 1 fair. The direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis with pedicle screw-laminar hook system can shorten length of operation,decrease blood loss, preserve more posterior structures of spine and avoid iatrogenic instability of spine. The postoperative immediate stability of vertebral segment is acquired and the mobility of adjacent intervertebral discs is reserved. The screw-laminar hook system for the treatment of adolescent spondylolisthesis can get satisfactory clinical results.

  13. Effect of fiber addition on slow crack growth of a dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Maico Dutra; Miranda, Ranulfo Benedito de Paula; Fredericci, Catia; Yoshimura, Humberto Naoyuki; Cesar, Paulo Francisco

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of the processing method (conventional sintering, S, and heat-pressing, HP) and addition of potassium titanate fibers, PTF, on the microstructure, mechanical properties (flexural strength, σf, and Weibull parameters, m and σ5%), slow crack growth parameters n (stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient), and optical properties (translucency parameter, TP, and opalescence index, OI) of a feldsphatic dental porcelain. Disks (n = 240, Ø12 × 1 mm) of porcelain (Vintage-Halo, Shofu) were produced using S and HP methods with and without addition of 10 wt% (conventional sintering) or 5 wt% (heat-pressing) of PTF. For the S method, porcelain was sintered in a conventional furnace. In the HP technique, refractory molds were produced by lost wax technique. The porcelain slurry was dry-pressed (3t/30s) to form a cylinder with 12 mm (diameter) and 20mm (height), which was heat-pressed for 5 min/3.5 bar into the mold. Specimens were tested for biaxial flexural strength in artificial saliva at 37°C. Weibull analysis was used to determine m and σ5%. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameters were determined by the dynamic fatigue test, and specimens were tested in biaxial flexure at five stress rates: 10(-2), 10(-1), 10(0), 10(1) and 10(2)MPa/s (n=10), immersed in artificial saliva at 37°C. Parameter n was calculated and statistically analyzed according to ASTM F394-78. Optical properties were determined in a spectrophotometer in the diffuse reflectance mode. The highest n value was obtained by the combination of heat-pressing with fiber addition (37.1) and this value was significantly higher than those obtained by both sintered groups (26.2 for control group and 27.7 for sintered with fiber). Although heat-pressing alone also resulted in higher n values compared to the sintered groups, there were no significant differences among them. Fiber addition had no effect on mechanical strength, but it resulted in decreased TP values and increased OI values for

  14. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins.

    PubMed

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G

    2014-11-01

    Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P < 0.05 was selected as the level of statistical significance in this study. The results showed that for enamel (24 h), the μ-SBS of the Wave MV and Wave HV groups were significantly lower than the Margin Bond group. Tukey test indicated the absence of a significant difference between the μ-SBS of the Wave group and the Margin Bond group. However, the μ-SBS of the Grandioflow group was significantly higher than the one for the Margin Bond as a bonding agent. In enamel (9 months), there was a significant difference between the Grandioflow and Margin Bond groups. Regarding bonding to the porcelain the one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant difference among the groups. This study revealed that flowable composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates.

  15. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  16. Parasympathetic nervous system activity predicts mood repair use and its effectiveness among adolescents with and without histories of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Bylsma, Lauren M.; Jennings, J. Richard; George, Charles; Baji, Ildikó; Benák, István; Dochnal, Roberta; Halas, Kitti; Kapornai, Krisztina; Kiss, Enikő; Makai, Attila; Varga, Hedvig; Vetró, Ágnes; Kovacs, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders that onset in the juvenile years have been linked to far reaching adverse consequences, making it imperative to elucidate key mechanisms and contributory factors. Excessive use of regulatory responses that exacerbate sadness (maladaptive mood repair) or insufficient use of regulatory responses that reduce it (adaptive mood repair) may reflect behavioral mechanisms of depression risk. Cardiac vagal control, indexed by patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has received attention as a putative physiological risk factor for depression. Although mood repair and RSA are related, the nature of this relationship is not well characterized in the context of depression risk. Therefore, we tested alternative models of the relationships between RSA patterns (at rest and in response to a sad film), trait mood repair, and the effectiveness of a mood repair response in the laboratory (state mood repair) among adolescents with depression histories (n=210) and emotionally healthy peers (n=161). In our data, a mediation model best explained the association between the key constructs: Adolescents with normative RSA patterns exhibited lower levels of depression and trait maladaptive mood repair, and benefited more from instructed (state) mood repair in the laboratory. By contrast, adolescents with atypical RSA patterns exhibited higher levels of depression and dispositional maladaptive mood repair, which, in turn, mediated the relations of RSA patterns and depression symptoms. Atypical RSA patterns also predicted reduced benefits from laboratory mood repair. PMID:26950752

  17. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  18. Plasma membrane repair in plants.

    PubMed

    Schapire, Arnaldo L; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Botella, Miguel A

    2009-12-01

    Resealing is the membrane-repair process that enables cells to survive disruption, preventing the loss of irreplaceable cell types and eliminating the cost of replacing injured cells. Given that failure in the resealing process in animal cells causes diverse types of muscular dystrophy, plasma membrane repair has been extensively studied in these systems. Animal proteins with Ca(2+)-binding domains such as synaptotagmins and dysferlin mediate Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis to repair plasma membranes after mechanical damage. Until recently, no components or proof for membrane repair mechanisms have been discovered in plants. However, Arabidopsis SYT1 is now the first plant synaptotagmin demonstrated to participate in Ca(2+)-dependent repair of membranes. This suggests a conservation of membrane repair mechanisms between animal and plant cells.

  19. The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni depends on the AddAB DNA repair system to defend against bile in the intestinal environment.

    PubMed

    Gourley, Christopher R; Negretti, Nicholas M; Konkel, Michael E

    2017-10-31

    Accurate repair of DNA damage is crucial to ensure genome stability and cell survival of all organisms. Bile functions as a defensive barrier against intestinal colonization by pathogenic microbes. Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness, possess strategies to mitigate the toxic components of bile. We recently found that growth of C. jejuni in medium with deoxycholate, a component of bile, caused DNA damage consistent with the exposure to reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that C. jejuni must repair DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species to restore chromosomal integrity. Our efforts focused on determining the importance of the putative AddAB DNA repair proteins. A C. jejuni addAB mutant demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to deoxycholate and was impaired in DNA double strand break repair. Complementation of the addAB mutant restored resistance to deoxycholate, as well as function of the DNA double strand break repair system. The importance of these findings translated to the natural host, where the AddAB system was found to be required for efficient C. jejuni colonization of the chicken intestine. This research provides new insight into the molecular mechanism utilized by C. jejuni, and possibly other intestinal pathogens, to survive in the presence of bile.

  20. Concise Review: Dental Pulp Stem Cells: A Novel Cell Therapy for Retinal and Central Nervous System Repair.

    PubMed

    Mead, Ben; Logan, Ann; Berry, Martin; Leadbeater, Wendy; Scheven, Ben A

    2017-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are neural crest-derived ecto-mesenchymal stem cells that can relatively easily and non-invasively be isolated from the dental pulp of extracted postnatal and adult teeth. Accumulating evidence suggests that DPSC have great promise as a cellular therapy for central nervous system (CNS) and retinal injury and disease. The mode of action by which DPSC confer therapeutic benefit may comprise multiple pathways, in particular, paracrine-mediated processes which involve a wide array of secreted trophic factors and is increasingly regarded as the principal predominant mechanism. In this concise review, we present the current evidence for the use of DPSC to repair CNS damage, including recent findings on retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection and regeneration in optic nerve injury and glaucoma. Stem Cells 2017;35:61-67. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  1. International Space Station US. GN&C Momentum Manager Controller Design for Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the ISS Momentum Manager controllers for the Orbiter Repair Maneuver (ORM) and Orbiter Tile Repair operations. Momentum Manager Controllers provide non-propulsive attitude control via CMGs. Non-propulsive control is required at the beginning and the middle of the ORM and at the tile repair position. This paper first reviews the design issues and requirements, then presents the design methodology, and concludes with analysis results that verify the design.

  2. A conservative approach for treating young adult patients with porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Wei; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2008-01-01

    Controversy persists regarding the treatment planning criteria for young adult patients in need of esthetic restorations. The trend of conservative treatment modalities continues to become widely acknowledged. One of the conservative treatment modalities is porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs). PLVs not only provide suitable esthetics but also reliable functional strength. This article presents two anterior esthetic cases to demonstrate a conservative treatment planning approach and its application as a nontraditional solution for young adult patients. It is recommended that a conservative approach be used wherever possible as an alternative to treatment options that may aggressively sacrifice tooth structure as well as the health of the supporting tissues. By using a conservative approach to treatment with porcelain veneers, long-lasting, esthetic, and functional results may be achieved. Sacrificing as little tooth structure as possible and conserving the supporting tissues will facilitate prospective treatments for young adult patients.

  3. Further studies on gold alloys used in fabrication of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations.

    PubMed

    Civjan, S; Huget, E F; Dvivedi, N; Cosner, H J

    1975-03-01

    Composition, microstructure, castability, mechanical properties, and heat treatment characteristics of two gold-palladium-silver-based alloys were studied. The materials exhibited compositional as well as microstructural differences. Clinically acceptable castings could not be obtained when manufacturers' recommended casting temperatures were used. Ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, modulus of elasticity, and Brinell hardness values for the alloys were comparable. The elastic limit of Cameo, however, was significantly higher than that of vivo-star. Maximum rehardening of annealed castings occurred on reheat treatment at temperatures between 1,200 and 1,300 F. As-cast specimens, however, were not heat hardenable. The sequence of heat treatments used in the application of porcelain reduced slightly the hardness of both alloys. Hardness of the metal substructures was not increased by return of porcelain-coated specimens to a 1,250 F oven for final heat treatment.

  4. Gingival-colored Porcelain: A Clinical Report of an Esthetic-prosthetic Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Sonune, Shital Jalandar; Kumar, Shiv; Jadhav, Manish Shivaji; Martande, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, periodontics has been instrumental in treating hard- and soft-tissue defect. Surgical and regenerative periodontal procedures can reconstruct the three-dimensional architecture of the hard- and soft-tissue defect. However, at times, these invasive procedures leave the patients with an esthetic problem. In such situations, the defects can be treated by the prosthetic approach. A predictable esthetically pleasing and functional outcome without any surgical procedure is being a choice of treatment for many. This article discusses about the treatment for the defect of excessive hard and soft tissue, using porcelain fused to a metal restoration with gingival-colored porcelain for both tooth-supported and implant-supported fixed prosthesis. PMID:29308371

  5. Repair process and a repaired component

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.

    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component,more » and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.« less

  6. Use of polysialic acid in repair of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    El Maarouf, Abderrahman; Petridis, Athanasios K.; Rutishauser, Urs

    2006-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA), a large cell-surface carbohydrate that regulates cell interactions, is used during vertebrate development to promote precursor cell migration and axon path-finding. The induction of PSA expression in damaged adult CNS tissues could help them to rebuild by creating conditions permissive for architectural remodeling. This possibility has been explored in two contexts, the regeneration of axons and the recruitment of endogenous neural precursors to a lesion. Glial scars that form at CNS injury sites block axon regeneration. It has been found that transfection of scar astrocytes by a viral vector encoding polysialyltransferase leads to sustained expression of high levels of PSA. With this treatment, a substantial portion of severed corticospinal tract axon processes were able to grow through a spinal injury site. In the studies of precursor cell migration to a cortical lesion, it was found that induced PSA expression in a path extending from the subventricular zone to a lesion near the cortical surface increased recruitment of BrdU/nestin-positive cells along the path and into the injury site. These displaced precursors were able to differentiate in a regionally appropriate manner. These findings suggest that induced PSA expression can be used as a strategy for promoting tissue repair involving both replacement of cells and rebuilding of neural connections. PMID:17075041

  7. Initial clinical application of a robotically steerable catheter system in endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Riga, Celia; Bicknell, Colin; Cheshire, Nicholas; Hamady, Mohamad

    2009-04-01

    To report the initial clinical use of a robotically steerable catheter during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in order to assess this novel and innovative approach in a clinical setting. Following a series of in-vitro studies and procedure rehearsals using a pulsatile silicon aneurysm model, a 78-year-old man underwent robot-assisted EVAR of a 5.9-cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. During the standard procedure, a 14-F remotely steerable robotic catheter was used to successfully navigate through the aneurysm sac, cannulate the contralateral limb of a bifurcated stent-graft under fluoroscopic guidance, and place stiff wires using fine and controlled movements. The procedure was completed successfully. There were no postoperative complications, and computed tomographic angiography prior to discharge and at 3 months confirmed that the stent-graft remained in good position, with no evidence of an endoleak. EVAR using robotically-steerable catheters is feasible. This technology may simplify more complex procedures by increasing the accuracy of vessel cannulation and perhaps reduce procedure times and radiation exposure to the patient and operator.

  8. Repair of Segmental Bone Defect Using Totally Vitalized Tissue Engineered Bone Graft by a Combined Perfusion Seeding and Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ya-Fei; Li, Xiang; Hu, Yun-Yu; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Zhen-Sheng; Lei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG) is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D) scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the “Totally Vitalized TEBG” (TV-TEBG) which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. Methods In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP) technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC) method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC) method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC) method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. Results Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and maxillofacial

  9. Effects of metal surface grinding at the porcelain try-in stage of fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Kesim, Bülent; Gümüş, Hasan Önder; Dinçel, Mehmet; Erkaya, Selçuk

    2014-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of grinding of the inner metal surface during the porcelain try-in stage on metal-porcelain bonding considering the maximum temperature and the vibration of samples. Ninety-one square prism-shaped (1 × 1 × 1.5 mm) nickel-chrome cast frameworks 0.3 mm thick were prepared. Porcelain was applied on two opposite outer axial surfaces of the frameworks. The grinding was performed from the opposite axial sides of the inner metal surfaces with a low-speed handpiece with two types of burs (diamond, tungsten-carbide) under three grinding forces (3.5 N, 7 N, 14 N) and at two durations (5 seconds, 10 seconds). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed with universal testing machine. Statistical analyzes were performed at 5% significance level. The samples subjected to grinding under 3.5 N showed higher SBS values than those exposed to grinding under 7 N and 14 N (P<.05). SBS values of none of the groups differed from those of the control group (P>.05). The types of bur (P=.965) and the duration (P=.679) did not affect the SBS values. On the other hand, type of bur, force applied, and duration of the grinding affected the maximum temperatures of the samples, whereas the maximum vibration was affected only by the type of bur (P<.05). Grinding the inner metal surface did not affect the metal-porcelain bond strength. Although the grinding affected the maximum temperature and the vibration values of the samples, these did not influence the bonding strength.

  10. Effects of metal surface grinding at the porcelain try-in stage of fixed dental prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Bülent; Gümüş, Hasan Önder; Dinçel, Mehmet; Erkaya, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study was to evaluate the effect of grinding of the inner metal surface during the porcelain try-in stage on metal-porcelain bonding considering the maximum temperature and the vibration of samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety-one square prism-shaped (1 × 1 × 1.5 mm) nickel-chrome cast frameworks 0.3 mm thick were prepared. Porcelain was applied on two opposite outer axial surfaces of the frameworks. The grinding was performed from the opposite axial sides of the inner metal surfaces with a low-speed handpiece with two types of burs (diamond, tungsten-carbide) under three grinding forces (3.5 N, 7 N, 14 N) and at two durations (5 seconds, 10 seconds). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed with universal testing machine. Statistical analyzes were performed at 5% significance level. RESULTS The samples subjected to grinding under 3.5 N showed higher SBS values than those exposed to grinding under 7 N and 14 N (P<.05). SBS values of none of the groups differed from those of the control group (P>.05). The types of bur (P=.965) and the duration (P=.679) did not affect the SBS values. On the other hand, type of bur, force applied, and duration of the grinding affected the maximum temperatures of the samples, whereas the maximum vibration was affected only by the type of bur (P<.05). CONCLUSION Grinding the inner metal surface did not affect the metal-porcelain bond strength. Although the grinding affected the maximum temperature and the vibration values of the samples, these did not influence the bonding strength. PMID:25177476

  11. The effect of a ceramic coating on the cpTi-porcelain bond strength.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Triantafillos D; Spyropoulos, Konstantin D

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the bond strength between cpTi and low fusing porcelains after different treatments. 72 patterns were covered with a ceramic coating and invested with phosphate-bonded material (group A), another 72 were invested with magnesia material (group B) and all cast with cpTi. 31 solid castings were selected from each group. The castings of group B were ground and sandblasted, while the castings of group A were only sandblasted. Aluminum content of the metal surface was determined by EDS and castings were submitted to a 3-point bending test to determine the modulus of elasticity (E). The porcelains Duceratin Plus, Noritake Ti22 and Triceram were applied respectively and specimens were submitted to a 3-point bending test. The fracture mode and the remaining porcelain were determined by optical microscopy and SEM/EDS. Bond strength and fracture mode were calculated by two-way ANOVA. The E of groups A and B was 98.3 GPa and 98.6 GPa respectively. The bond strength was 26+/-3 MPa (Duceratin Plus), 28+/-3 MPa (Noritake Ti22), 27+/-2 MPa (Triceram) for group A and 24+/-1 MPa, 29+/-2 MPa, 27+/-1 MPa for group B respectively. No significant differences were found for the same porcelain between the two groups (p<0.05). A significant difference was found between Duceratin Plus and Noritake Ti22, for group B (p<0.05). The mode of failure was mainly adhesive for all specimens. A significant reduction in aluminum was recorded in all subgroups. The special coating of patterns makes the Ti casting procedure inexpensive, without reducing the metal-ceramic bond strength.

  12. Snowmobile Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbling, Wayne

    This guide is designed to provide and/or improve instruction for occupational training in the area of snowmobile repair, and includes eight areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  13. Relationship Between Radiation Response and the Deoxyribonucleic Acid Replication Cycle in Bacteria: Dependence on the Excision-Repair System

    PubMed Central

    Billen, Daniel; Bruns, Laura

    1970-01-01

    Prestarvation of Escherichia coli for required amino acids results in a marked enhancement in both ultraviolet light (UV) or X-ray resistance for selective strains. Preventing protein synthesis by starvation for required amino acids results in completion of the cycle of chromosomal replication then underway. We have investigated the relationship between starvation-induced resistance enhancement (SIRE) and the excision-repair (Hcr) system in several E. coli strains including E. coli B/r hcr+ and its isogenic mutant E. coli B/r hcr−. The following observations were made. (i) The Hcr system is the major component of SIRE in UV-irradiated strain B/r. By using the Hcr+ strain, SIRE increases the 10% survival dose from ∼400 ergs to ∼1,200 ergs/mm2. With the Hcr cells, the increase is from ∼45 ergs to 60 ergs/mm2. (ii) Although prestarvation leads to a moderate enhancement of resistance to X irradiation, this effect is not dependent on the Hcr system. (iii) The double mutant, E. coli Bs–1 (hcr−exr−) is completely unable to express SIRE whether studied with UV or X irradiation. It is concluded that the Hcr system is the major system responsible for SIRE in UV-treated cells, whereas Exr (resistance to X rays) may be involved to a minor extent. The Exr character appears to be required for SIRE expression in X-ray exposed cells. PMID:4914566

  14. Influence of ultraviolet irradiation treatment on porcelain bond strength of titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kumasaka, Tomonari; Ohno, Akinori; Hori, Norio; Hoshi, Noriyuki; Maruo, Katsuichiro; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Seimiya, Kazuhide; Toyoda, Minoru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko

    2018-01-26

    To determine the effect of titanium (Ti) surface modification by ultraviolet irradiation (UVI) on the bond strength between Ti and porcelain. Grade 2 Ti plates were allotted to five groups: sandblasted (SA), 15 min UVI (UV), SA+5 min UVI (SA+UV5), SA+10 min UVI (SA+UV10), and SA+15 min UVI (SA+UV15). After surface treatment, porcelain was added. A precious metal (MC) was used for comparison with Ti. The effects of 24-h storage at room temperature versus thermal cycling only at 5 and 55°C in water were evaluated. Subsequently, the tensile strength of each sample was tested. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. In both the room temperature and thermal cycling groups, the MC and SA+15 min UVI samples showed significantly greater bond strengths than the other samples (p<0.05). UVI processing efficiently increases the bond strength between porcelain and the Ti surface.

  15. Indentation fracture toughness and dynamic elastic moduli for commercial feldspathic dental porcelain materials.

    PubMed

    Rizkalla, Amin S; Jones, Derek W

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the indentation fracture toughness, true hardness and dynamic elastic moduli for 14 commercial dental porcelain materials. The specimens were fired according to manufacturer instructions. The density of the specimens (n=3) was measured by means of the water displacement technique. Dynamic Young's shear and bulk moduli and Poisson's ratio (n=3) were measured using a non-destructive ultrasonic technique using 10 MHz lithium niobate crystals. The true hardness (n=3) was measured using a Knoop indenter and the fracture toughness (n=3) was determined using a Vickers indenter and a Tukon hardness tester. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted using ANOVA and a Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) rank order multiple comparative test. The SNK rank test analysis for the mean dynamic Young's modulus and fracture toughness was able to separate 14 dental porcelain materials into seven and nine groups, respectively, at p=0.05. The elastic moduli, true hardness and indentation fracture toughness for opaque porcelains were significantly higher than incisal; and body materials at p=0.05. The indentation fracture toughness and the ultrasonic test methods exhibit lower coefficient of variation compared to conventional methods and have considerable advantage for ceramic dental materials in that only small specimens are required to produce an acceptable number of data for statistical analysis.

  16. [Effect of pigmentation on the strength of dental Y-TZP/porcelain bilayered structure].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting-ting; Yi, Yuan-fu; Shao, Long-quan; Liu, Hong-chen; Tian, Jie-mo; Hou, Kang-lin; Zhang, Wei-wei; Wen, Ning; Deng, Bin

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of two methods of pigmentation on the flexural strength of dental Y-TZP/porcelain layered structure. KaVo zirconia substructures were pigmented by dipping presintered blocks in the coloring solution VITA LL1 and LL5, and colored TZ-3YS zirconia substructures were fabricated by adding pigments before isostatic pressing. The colors No.1 and No.5 were used for the test. The specimens were made in monolithic or bilayered forms, and the flexural strength was tested. XRD and SEM with EDX were used to analyze the characteristics of the surface structure. In KaVo group, no significant differences were found in the flexural strength between white and LL1 and LL5 colored monoclinic materials, nor in bilayered structures. While in TZ-3YS group, significant differences were noted in the flexural strength between color No.5 white and color No.1 monoclinic materials, but not between the latter two subgroups. The flexural strength was significantly lowered by veneering with porcelain in both zirconia groups, and similar findings were observed with the monoclinic materials. Only the tetragonal phase was detected in both of the zirconia groups. Pigmentation has no apparent effects on the bonding strength between the veneering porcelain and zirconia. Both coloring methods are appropriate when the concentration of the pigments is under deliberate control.

  17. [Cr-Ti-Al-N complex coating on titanium to strengthen Ti/porcelain bonding].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Guo, Tian-wen; Li, Jun-ming; Pan, Jing-guang; Dang, Yong-gang; Tong, Yu

    2006-02-01

    To study the feasibility of magnetron sputtering Cr-Ti-Al-N complex coating as an interlayer on titanium to enhance the titanium-ceramic binding strength. With a three-point bending test according to ISO 9693, the binding strength of Duceratin (Degussa) to titanium substrate prepared with 4 different surface treatments (polishing, polishing and megnetron sputtering Cr, Ti, Al, and N complex coating, sandblasting, sandblasting and coating) was evaluated. Ti/porcelain interface and fractured Ti surface were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The binding strength of polished and coated titanium/Duceratin was significantly higher than polished titanium group (P<0.05). The binding strength of sandblasted and coated titanium/Duceratin did not differ significantly from that of sandblasted titanium group (P>0.05), and the strength in the two sandblasted titanium groups was significantly higher than that in polished and coated titanium group (P<0.05). Megnetron sputtering Cr-Ti-Al-N complex on polished titanium can increase the titanium/porcelain binding strength. Megnetron sputtering coating is a promising Ti/porcelain interlayer.

  18. Radiological impact assessment to the environment due to waste from disposal of porcelain.

    PubMed

    Morsi, Tarek; Hegazy, Rehab; Badawy, Wael

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to assess the radiological parameters from gamma rays due to the uncontrolled disposal of porcelain waste to the environment. Qualitative and quantitative identification of radionuclides in the investigated samples was carried out by means of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentrations of the local porcelain samples were measured as 208.28 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 125.73 Bq/kg for 238 U, 84.94 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1033.61 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. The imported samples had an average activity of 240.57 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 135.56 Bq/kg for 238 U, 115.74 Bq/kg for 232 Th and 1312.49 Bq/kg for 40 K, respectively. Radiological parameters and the radium equivalent Ra eq for the investigated samples were calculated. The external and internal hazard indices, representative level index (I γ ), alpha index (I α ), and the exemption level (I x ), were estimated to be higher than the recommended value (unity), while the average activity concentrations for the studied samples were higher than recommended levels. In conclusion, we are concerned that disposal of porcelain in the environment might be a significant hazard.

  19. Retrospective study on the performance of porcelain laminate veneers delivered by undergraduate dental students.

    PubMed

    Murphy, E; Ziada, H M; Allen, P F

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical performance of porcelain laminate veneer restorations delivered by undergraduate students at the Department of Restorative Dentistry, University Dental School and Hospital Cork and to analyze the factors that influence their prognosis and their effect on periodontal health. Patients who had veneers fitted over a period of 5 yrs. were recalled for evaluation. The recall protocol took the form of a questionnaire and a full clinical examination of the teeth involved and contra lateral control teeth. In all, 29 patients with 62 porcelain veneers were examined, only 2 of which were in the mandible. 77% of patients had veneers fitted due to discolouration, 13% in order to alter the shape or size of teeth and 10% due to palatal erosion. On the date of recall 89% of veneers had never debonded or fractured, 6% had to be rebonded since the date of insertion and 5% presented with a fracture. From this study it appears that porcelain laminate veneers are successful in the treatment of discoloured and irregular configured anterior teeth. It shows that undergraduate students can deliver satisfactory veneer restorations.

  20. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    DOEpatents

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  1. Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine E; Bowen, Nikki; Graham, William J; Goellner, Eva M; Srivatsan, Anjana; Kolodner, Richard D

    2015-08-28

    Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5' nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3' nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine E.; Bowen, Nikki; Graham, William J.; Goellner, Eva M.; Srivatsan, Anjana; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5′ nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3′ nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg2+ and Mn2+ for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR. PMID:26170454

  3. Nanovector-based prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 silencing system enhances the efficiency of stem cell transplantation for infarcted myocardium repair.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kai; Lai, Hao; Guo, Changfa; Li, Jun; Wang, Yulin; Wang, Lingyan; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation has attracted much attention in myocardial infarction therapy. One of the limitations is the poor survival of grafted cells in the ischemic microenvironment. Small interfering RNA-mediated prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) silencing in MSCs holds tremendous potential to enhance their survival and paracrine effect after transplantation. However, an efficient and biocompatible PHD2 silencing system for clinical application is lacking. Herein, we developed a novel PHD2 silencing system based on arginine-terminated generation 4 poly(amidoamine) (Arg-G4) nanoparticles. The system exhibited effective and biocompatible small interfering RNA delivery and PHD2 silencing in MSCs in vitro. After genetically modified MSC transplantation in myocardial infarction models, MSC survival and paracrine function of IGF-1 were enhanced significantly in vivo. As a result, we observed decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, scar size, and interstitial fibrosis, and increased angiogenesis in the diseased myocardium, which ultimately attenuated ventricular remodeling and improved heart function. This work demonstrated that an Arg-G4 nanovector-based PHD2 silencing system could enhance the efficiency of MSC transplantation for infarcted myocardium repair.

  4. A Big Bang versus a Small Bang Approach: A Case Study of the Expeditionary Combat Support System (ECSS) and the Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul Initiative (MROi)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    resource planning (ERP) solution called the Expeditionary Combat Support System (ECSS), a big - bang approach. In early 2012, the ECSS program was cancelled...Repair, and Overhaul initiative (MROi), a small- bang approach, to increase enterprise visibility and efficiency across all three Air Logistics

  5. The INNOVATION Trial: four-year safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System for endovascular repair.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Giovanni; Pratesi, Carlo; Chiesa, Roberto; Coppi, Gioacchino; Scheinert, Dierk; Brunkwall, Jan S; van der Meulen, Stefaan; Torsello, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the 4-year safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System (Cordis Corp., Milpitas, CA, USA), an ultra-low-profile device for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The INNOVATION Trial is the prospective, first-in-human, multicenter trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® System. Patients underwent annual clinical and computed tomography angiography examination as part of the study protocol. The INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System is a customizable tri-modular design, with an ultra-low profile (14-Fr) delivery system. Patient were treated under approved protocol, the prescribed clinical and imaging follow-up at annually through 5 years. Results analyzed and adjudicated by a clinical events committee, independent core laboratory, and a data safety and monitoring board. This manuscript reports results through 4 years of follow-up. A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the trial, all of whom were successfully treated. Follow-up rates at 1 and 4 years were 93% (56/60) and 85% (51/60), respectively. All-cause mortality at 4 years was 17.6% and no death was AAA-, device-, or procedure-related. The secondary reintervention rate at 1 year was 4.6%, primarily the result of stent thrombosis. In total, 10 patients required 13 post-procedure interventions within 4-years of follow-up (2 to repair a type I endoleak, 4 to repair a type II endoleak, 1 for stent thrombosis, 1 for renal stenosis, 1 for aneurysm enlargement, 2 for limb migration and 2 for prosthesis stenosis or occlusion). There were 4 cases (10%) of aneurysm enlargement reported at the 4 year follow-up. At 4 years, 38 out of 39 patients were free from type I and III endoleaks. There were no proximal type I or type III endoleaks at 4-year follow-up. Core laboratory evaluation of the postoperative imaging studies indicated absence of endograft migration while a single fracture was demonstrated without any clinical sequelae. The INCRAFT® AAA Stent

  6. Macroscopic cartilage repair scoring of defect fill, integration and total points correlate with corresponding items in histological scoring systems - a study in adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Goebel, L; Orth, P; Cucchiarini, M; Pape, D; Madry, H

    2017-04-01

    To correlate osteochondral repair assessed by validated macroscopic scoring systems with established semiquantitative histological analyses in an ovine model and to test the hypothesis that important macroscopic individual categories correlate with their corresponding histological counterparts. In the weight-bearing portion of medial femoral condyles (n = 38) of 19 female adult Merino sheep (age 2-4 years; weight 70 ± 20 kg) full-thickness chondral defects were created (size 4 × 8 mm; International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade 3C) and treated with Pridie drilling. After sacrifice, 1520 blinded macroscopic observations from three observers at 2-3 time points including five different macroscopic scoring systems demonstrating all grades of cartilage repair where correlated with corresponding categories from 418 blinded histological sections. Categories "defect fill" and "total points" of different macroscopic scoring systems correlated well with their histological counterparts from the Wakitani and Sellers scores (all P ≤ 0.001). "Integration" was assessed in both histological scoring systems and in the macroscopic ICRS, Oswestry and Jung scores. Here, a significant relationship always existed (0.020 ≤ P ≤ 0.049), except for Wakitani and Oswestry (P = 0.054). No relationship was observed for the "surface" between histology and macroscopy (all P > 0.05). Major individual morphological categories "defect fill" and "integration", and "total points" of macroscopic scoring systems correlate with their corresponding categories in elementary and complex histological scoring systems. Thus, macroscopy allows to precisely predict key histological aspects of articular cartilage repair, underlining the specific value of macroscopic scoring for examining cartilage repair. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  8. Inactivation of the Mismatch Repair System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Attenuates Virulence but Favors Persistence of Oropharyngeal Colonization in Cystic Fibrosis Mice▿

    PubMed Central

    Mena, Ana; Maciá, María D.; Borrell, Nuria; Moya, Bartolomé; de Francisco, Teresa; Pérez, José L.; Oliver, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The inactivation of the mismatch repair (MMR) system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa modestly reduced in vitro fitness, attenuated virulence in murine models of acute systemic and respiratory infections, and decreased the initial oropharyngeal colonization potential. In contrast, the inactivation of the MMR system favored long-term persistence of oropharyngeal colonization in cystic fibrosis mice. These results may help in understanding the reasons for the low and high prevalences, respectively, of hypermutable P. aeruginosa strains in acute and chronic infections. PMID:17307847

  9. Effectiveness and Safety of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Aortic Stenosis in Patients With "Porcelain" Aorta.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Del Val, Fernando; Hirji, Sameer A; Yammine, Maroun; Ejiofor, Julius I; McGurk, Siobhan; Norman, Anthony; Shekar, Prem; Aranki, Sary; Bhatt, Deepak L; Shah, Pinak; Cohn, Lawrence H; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with porcelain aorta is considered a high-risk procedure. Hence, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is emerging as the intervention of choice. However, there is a paucity of data directly comparing TAVI with SAVR in patients with porcelain aorta. We compared outcomes of TAVI versus SAVR in high-risk patients with porcelain between March 2012 and June 2015. The TAVI group included 54 patients, whereas 130 SAVR patients with porcelain aorta were identified (operated on between 2004 and 2015). Both groups were matched 1:1 based on the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS-PROM) score with a 0.5% a priori caliper, resulting in 52 matched pairs. The mean STS-PROM was 7.3 ± 3.9 for both groups (p = 0.98), whereas mean age was 77.5 years for TAVI and 78.8 years for SAVR (p = 0.46). Compared with SAVR, TAVI patients had lower operative mortality (3.8% vs 17.3%; p = 0.052), significantly shorter median intensive care unit (40 vs 107 hours; p < 0.001) and hospital (5 vs. 7 days; p < 0.001) length of stay (LOS), but similar postoperative stroke rates (7.7% vs 11.5%; p = 0.74). One-year unadjusted survival was 81.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69.8% to 93.5%) in the TAVI group versus 71.2% (95% CI: 61.0% to 85.1%) in the SAVR group, p = 0.093. Cox proportional hazard modeling identified preoperative chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio: 2.63 [95% CI: 1.03 to 6.70]; p = 0.043) and SAVR (hazard ratio: 2.641 [95% CI: 1.07 to 6.51]; p = 0.035) as significant predictors for decreased survival. Overall, TAVI was associated with reduced operative mortality, increased survival, and shorter intensive care unit and hospital length of stay compared with SAVR in patients with porcelain aorta. This study demonstrates that TAVI is a safe intervention in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Resin cements formulated with thio-urethanes can strengthen porcelain and increase bond strength to ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Atais; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro; de Oliveira, Gabriel Rodrigues; Pfeifer, Carmem; Cesar, Paulo Francisco

    2018-06-01

    The use of thio-urethane oligomers has been shown to significantly improve the mechanical properties of resin cements (RCs). The aim of this study was to use thio-urethane-modified RC to potentially reinforce the porcelain-RC structure and to improve the bond strength to zirconia and lithium disilicate. Six oligomers were synthesized by combining thiols - pentaerythritol tetra-3-mercaptopropionate (PETMP, P) or trimethylol-tris-3-mercaptopropionate (TMP, T) - with di-functional isocyanates - 1,6-Hexanediol-diissocyante (HDDI) (aliphatic, AL) or 1,3-bis(1-isocyanato-1-methylethyl)benzene (BDI) (aromatic, AR) or Dicyclohexylmethane 4,4'-Diisocyanate (HMDI) (cyclic, CC). Thio-urethanes (20 wt%) were added to a BisGMA/UDMA/TEGDMA organic matrix. Filler was introduced at 60 wt%. The microshear bond strength (μSBS), Weibull modulus (m), and failure pattern of RCs bonded to zirconia (ZR) and lithium disilicate (LD) ceramics was evaluated. Biaxial flexural test and fractographic analysis of porcelain discs bonded to RCs were also performed. The biaxial flexural strength (σ bf ) and m were calculated in the tensile surfaces of porcelain and RC structures (Z = 0 and Z = -t 2 , respectively). The μSBS was improved with RCs formulated with oligomers P_AL or T_AL bonded to LD and P_AL, P_AR or T_CC bonded to zirconia in comparison to controls. Mixed failures predominated in all groups. σ bf had superior values at Z = 0 with RCs formulated with oligomers P_AL, P_AR, T_AL, or T_CC in comparison to control; σ bf increased with all RCs composed by thio-urethanes at Z = -t 2 . Fractographic analysis revealed all fracture origins at Z = 0. The use of specific thio-urethane oligomers as components of RCs increased both the biaxial flexural strength of the porcelain-RC structure and the μSBS to LD and ZR. The current investigation suggests that it is possible to reinforce the porcelain-RC pair and obtain higher bond strength to LD and ZR with RCs

  11. Reliability and coverage analysis of non-repairable fault-tolerant memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. W.; Carroll, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed for the construction of probabilistic state-space models for nonrepairable systems. Models were developed for several systems which achieved reliability improvement by means of error-coding, modularized sparing, massive replication and other fault-tolerant techniques. From the models developed, sets of reliability and coverage equations for the systems were developed. Comparative analyses of the systems were performed using these equation sets. In addition, the effects of varying subunit reliabilities on system reliability and coverage were described. The results of these analyses indicated that a significant gain in system reliability may be achieved by use of combinations of modularized sparing, error coding, and software error control. For sufficiently reliable system subunits, this gain may far exceed the reliability gain achieved by use of massive replication techniques, yet result in a considerable saving in system cost.

  12. Mitek Anchor System: a new technique for tenodesis and ligamentous repair of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    Pederson, B; Tesoro, D; Wertheimer, S J; Coraci, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors present an alternative method for securing tendon and ligaments to bone, utilizing the Mitek Anchor System. The description of the Mitek system and technique of application is presented. Technical simplicity and ease of adaptability within the foot and ankle are distinct advantages of this System.

  13. Effect of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding characterization between porcelain and metal.

    PubMed

    Huang, H-H; Lin, M-C; Lee, T-H; Yang, H-W; Chen, F-L; Wu, S-C; Hsu, C-C

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chemical composition of Ni-Cr dental casting alloys on the bonding behaviour between porcelain and metal. A three-point bending test was used to measure the fracture load of alloy after porcelain firing. A scanning electron microscope, accompanied by an energy dispersion spectrometer, was used to analyse the morphology and chemical composition of the fracture surface. An X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and glow discharge spectrometer were used to identify the structure and cross-sectional chemical composition, respectively, of oxide layers on Ni-Cr alloys after heat treatment at 990 degrees C for 5 min. Results showed that the oxide layers formed on all Ni-Cr alloys contained mainly Cr2O3, NiO, and trace MoO3. The Ni-Cr alloy with a higher Cr content had a thicker oxide layer, as well as a weaker bonding behaviour of porcelain/metal interface. The presence of Al (as Al2O3) and Be (as BeO) on the oxide layer suppressed the growth of the oxide layer, leading to a better porcelain/metal bonding behaviour. However, the presence of a small amount of Ti (as TiO2) on the oxide layer did not have any influence on the bonding behaviour. The fracture propagated along the interface between the opaque porcelain and metal, and exhibited an adhesive type of fracture morphology.

  14. The effect of porcelain firing and type of finish line on the marginal fit of zirconia copings.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Mahroo; Safari, Anahita; Mohaghegh, Mina; Pardis, Soheil; Mahdavi, Farideh

    2015-06-01

    Although all-ceramic restorations are broadly used, there is a lack of information concerning how their fit is affected by fabrication procedure and marginal configuration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal fit of zirconia CAD/CAM ceramic crowns before and after porcelain firing. The influence of finish line configuration on the marginal fit was also evaluated. Twenty standardized zirconia CAD/CAM copings were fabricated for chamfer and shoulder finish line designs (n=10). The marginal fit of specimens was measured on 18 points, marked on the master metal die by using a digital microscope. After the crowns were finalized by porcelain veneering, the measurements of marginal fit were performed again. The means and standard deviations were calculated and data were analyzed using student's t-test and paired t-test (α=0.05). There were significant differences between marginal fit of chamfer and shoulder finish line groups before and after porcelain firing (p= 0.014 and p= 0.000, respectively). The marginal gap of copings with shoulder finish line was significantly smaller than those with chamfer configuration (p= 0.000), but there were no significant differences between the two marginal designs, after porcelain firing (p= 0.341). Porcelain veneering was found to have a statistically significant influence on the marginal fit of zirconia CAD/CAM crowns. Both margin configurations showed marginal gaps that were within a reported clinically acceptable range of marginal discrepancy.

  15. Small Engines Care, Operation, Maintenance and Repair. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard

    Developed by teacher educators and agricultural engineers, this teacher and student reference is for use in a course in small engine operation and maintenance. Content includes: (1) Principles of Good Workmanship, (2) Repairing Starters, (3) Maintaining and Repairing Ignition Systems, (4) Repairing Fuel Systems, (5) Repairing Governors, (6)…

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Arthroscopic International Cartilage Repair Society Classification System: Correlation With Histological Assessment of Depth.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Martin, C Ryan; Kendra, Rita; Sermer, Corey; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell; Whelan, Daniel; Murnaghan, Lucas; Nauth, Aaron; Theodoropoulos, John

    2017-06-01

    To determine the interobserver reliability of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grading system of chondral lesions in cadavers, to determine the intraobserver reliability of the ICRS grading system comparing arthroscopy and video assessment, and to compare the arthroscopic ICRS grading system with histological grading of lesion depth. Eighteen lesions in 5 cadaveric knee specimens were arthroscopically graded by 7 fellowship-trained arthroscopic surgeons using the ICRS classification system. The arthroscopic video of each lesion was sent to the surgeons 6 weeks later for repeat grading and determination of intraobserver reliability. Lesions were biopsied, and the depth of the cartilage lesion was assessed. Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlations. The interobserver reliability was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.89) for the arthroscopic grading, and the intraobserver reliability with the video grading was 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.9). A high correlation was seen between the arthroscopic grading of depth and the histological grading of depth (0.91); on average, surgeons graded lesions using arthroscopy a mean of 0.37 (range, 0-0.86) deeper than the histological grade. The arthroscopic ICRS classification system has good interobserver and intraobserver reliability. A high correlation with histological assessment of depth provides evidence of validity for this classification system. As cartilage lesions are treated on the basis of the arthroscopic ICRS classification, it is important to ascertain the reliability and validity of this method. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-Compatible Polymer Concrete Materials for use in Rapid Repair Systems for Airport Runways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    resin systems, resorcinol phenol- formaldehyde (RPF), urea - formaldehyde (UF), melamine - formaldehyde (MF), and furfuryl alcohol (FA), were selected for...type polymer systems. Phenol- formaldehyde (PF), melamine - formaldehyde (MF), urea -formalde- hyde (UF), and furfuryl alcohol (FA) monomers contain OH and...1-1.5) (1-2) Urea - formaldehyde NH2 CONH2 - HCHO Liquid 7150 (1.0) (1.5-2.5) Melamine - formaldehyde NH2 C:NC(NH2 ):NC(N’H2

  18. [Efficacy of E-max porcelain laminate veneer on esthetic restoration for anterior teeth over 2 years].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tao, Lin-shuai; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of E-max porcelain laminate veneer on esthetic restoration for anterior teeth over 2 years. E-max porcelain laminate veneer was used in 45 patients with 120 defective anterior teeth. Improved Ryge veneer reexamination standards including the integrity of ceramic veneer, marginal adaptation, gingival health and color match were adopted to evaluate the of clinical effect during 2 years of follow-up. The average satisfaction rate instantly after treatment, 1 year after treatment and 2 years after treatment was 93%, 95% and 94%, respectively. E-max porcelain laminate veneer has fewer side effects, better aesthetics and biological characteristics. The treatment is cost-efficient, safe and long-lasting.

  19. [Clinical study of the application of non-invasive porcelain veneer to improve the aesthetic effects in maxillary anterior area].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-hui; DI, Ping; Hu, Xiu-lian; Qiu, Li-xin; Cui, Hong-yan; Lin, Ye

    2010-02-18

    To evaluate the clinical results of application of non-invasive porcelain veneer to reduce the black triangle of implant and adjacent teeth and to improve the aesthetic effect in the maxillary anterior area. The study included 10 patients (Male: 4, Female: 6; average age: 41.5) accessioned during May 2007 to August 2009 in Peking University School of Stomatology. The provisional restorations were delivery on implant after 3-6 months healing period of the implant. The non-invasive porcelain veneers were used in the round tip adjacent teeth with gingival recession in the indicated patients. Main measured parameters on the model included horizontal distance and vertical distance. The Horizontal distance refers to the black triangle bottom which is from adjacent surface of the natural teeth to the implant restoration at the gingival level. The vertical distance is from mid-point of the triangle bottom to the contact point. Clinical observed items included bleeding index (BI), integrity of porcelain veneer and degree of satisfaction of the patients. A total of 14 adjacent natural teeth in 10 patients were cemented with porcelain veneer. No porcelain veneer was lost or fracture during follow-up period (range 6 to 27 months, mean of 10.4 months). Mean bleeding index 0-1. The horizontal distance was reduced from (3.1 + or - 0.8) mm before restoration to (1.1 + or - 0.5) mm after restoration. Vertical distance from (5.3 + or - 1.1) mm to (2.9 + or - 0.7) mm. All patients were satisfied with the clinical result. The data and the experience described in this study indicate that improvement of aesthetic effects by using no-invasive porcelain veneer techniques can be a predictable technique for patients with periodontal disease. Further study is needed to determine the long-term result of the technique.

  20. Effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Chun; Waddell, J Neil; Prior, David J; Ting, Stephanie; Girvan, Liz; van Vuuren, Ludwig Jansen; Swain, Michael V

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effect of autoclave induced low-temperature degradation on the adhesion energy between yttria-stabilized zirconia veneered with porcelain. The strain energy release rate using a four-point bending stable fracture test was evaluated for two different porcelains [leucite containing (VM9) and glass (Zirox) porcelain] veneered to zirconia. Prior to veneering the zirconia had been subjected to 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 autoclave cycles. The specimens were manufactured to a total bi-layer dimension of 30 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. Subsequent scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry, electron backscatter diffraction and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed to identify the phase transformation and fracture behavior. The strain energy release rate for debonding of the VM9 specimens were significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the Zirox specimens across all test groups. Increasing autoclave cycles lowered the strain energy release rate significantly (p<0.05) from 18.67 J/m(2) (control) to the lowest of 12.79 J/m(2) (cycle 10) for only the VM9 specimens. SEM analyses showed predominant cohesive fracture within the porcelain for all cycle groups. XRD analysis of the substrate prior to veneering confirmed a tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation with increasing the number of autoclave cycles between 5 and 20. The monoclinic phase reverted back to tetragonal phase after undergoing conventional porcelain firing cycles. EBSD data showed significant changes of the grain size distribution between the control and autoclaved specimen (cycle 20). Increasing autoclave cycles only significantly decreased the adhesion of the VM9 layered specimens. In addition, a conventional porcelain firing schedule completely reverted the monoclinic phase back to tetragonal. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporating Flexibility in the Design of Repairable Systems - Design of Microgrids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    MICROGRIDS Vijitashwa Pandey1 Annette Skowronska1,2...optimization of complex systems such as a microgrid is however, computationally intensive. The problem is exacerbated if we must incorporate...flexibility in terms of allowing the microgrid architecture and its running protocol to change with time. To reduce the computational effort, this paper

  2. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, Thomas R.; Peter, William H.

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spraymore » coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.« less

  3. Transapical aortic valve implantation – a rescue procedure for patients with aortic stenosis and “porcelain aorta”

    PubMed Central

    Czerwinska, Katarzyna; Orłowska-Baranowska, Ewa; Witkowski, Adam; Demkow, Marcin; Abramczuk, Elżbieta; Michałek, Piotr; Greszata, Lidia; Stoklosa, Patrycjusz; Kuśmierski, Krzysztof; Kowal, Jaroslaw; Stepinska, Janina

    2011-01-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) still remains the treatment of choice in symptomatic significant aortic stenosis (AS). Due to technical problems, extensive calcification of the ascending aorta (“porcelain aorta”) is an additional risk factor for surgery and transapical aortic valve implantation (TAAVI) is likely to be the only rescue procedure for this group of patients. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman with severe AS and “porcelain aorta”, in whom the only available life-saving intervention was TAAVI. PMID:22295040

  4. Expedient Repair of Structural Facilities (ERSF). Volume 1. ERSF System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    slabs, will require a different vehicle for transportation; for example a flatbed truck. Specialized equipment, such as the shotcrete machine described in...1) glued, laminated timber (glulam) column insertion and (2) mechanical shoring jack insertion. Both systems were ranked essentially equally after...gage wire mesh; - (optional) 100 rebar ties; and - in some cases, a bulldozer, front-end loader, and flatbed truck. c. Training Since a new piece of

  5. Effect of grinding and fluoride-gel exposure on strength of ion-exchanged porcelain.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Hojjatie, B; Chang, T C

    1994-08-01

    Strengthening of dental porcelain through a diffusion heat treatment at 450 degrees C of a potassium-enriched, ion-exchange surface coating has been demonstrated in several recent studies. However, little attention has been focused on the potential strength reduction of these materials when the treated surfaces are ground or etched under clinically simulated conditions. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that partial removal of the surface layers of ion-exchanged porcelains by grinding or exposure to acidulated fluoride gel will significantly reduce their flexure strength. Nine groups of body porcelain disks were ion-exchanged at 450 degrees C for 30 min. One of these groups was subjected to ion exchange and no further surface treatment. Eight specimen groups were subjected to the following procedures after ion exchange: grinding to depths of 50 microns, 100 microns, 150 microns, 200 microns, and 250 microns, and exposure to acidulated fluoride for 30 min, 60 min, and 300 min. A tenth group (FC) was fired at 960 degrees C and fast-cooled in air, but the disks were not subjected to the ion-exchange treatment. Surface stress was calculated from measured values of cracks induced in the treated surfaces. Fluoride exposure for up to 60 min resulted in a significant decrease in surface compression (P < or = 0.05), although this treatment had no effect on strength. Grinding to a depth of from 100 microns to 250 microns caused a significant decrease in strength, while removal of a 50-microns layer caused no significant change (P > 0.05).

  6. Influence of Alkali Resistant (Ar) Fibreglass in Porcelain Clay for Manufacturing Vitrified Clay Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhmal Hanapi, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sufizar; Taib, Hariati; Ismail, Al Emran; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Salleh, Salihatun Md; Sadikin, Azmahani; Mahzan, Shahruddin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the characteristics of porcelain ceramic with influence of milled Alkali Resistant (AR) fiberglass for manufacturing vitrified clay pipes. In this study, raw materials consist of porcelain clay and AR fiberglass were refined into powders less than 90μm. Subsequently, these samples were compacted into cylindrical pellet for chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). The ceramic sample was produced by mixing different weight percentage of AR glass to porcelain ceramic with 3 wt%, 6 wt%, 9 wt% and 12 wt%. Subsequently, the sample was compacted with 3 ton of pressure load and sintered at 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C. The phase identification by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and microstructural analysis were performed for the sintered sample. Chemical analysis revealed that the significant element for all raw material are SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O. Phase identification analysis shown that sample sintered at 1000 °C produces quartz (SiO2), berlinite (AlPO4), albite (NaAlSi3O8) and calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CaMgAlSiO). The formation of primary mullite was observed in sample sintered at 1100 °C. The image of microstructural morphology denoted that the formation of glassy phase with decreasing amount of void when sintering temperature and addition of AR glass were increased, which correspond well to phase identification analysis.

  7. Effect of ion exchange on strength and slow crack growth of a dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Vinicius; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Pinto, Marcelo M; Fredericci, Catia; Cesar, Paulo F

    2009-06-01

    To determine the effect of ion exchange on slow crack growth (SCG) parameters (n, stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient, and sigma(f0), scaling parameter) and Weibull parameters (m, Weibull modulus, and sigma(0), characteristic strength) of a dental porcelain. 160 porcelain discs were fabricated according to manufacturer's instructions, polished through 1 microm and divided into two groups: GC (control) and GI (submitted to an ion exchange procedure using a KNO3 paste at 470 degrees C for 15 min). SCG parameters were determined by biaxial flexural strength test in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C using five constant stress rates (n=10). 20 specimens of each group were tested at 1 MPa/s to determine Weibull parameters. The SPT diagram was constructed using the least-squares fit of the strength data versus probability of failure. Mean values of m and sigma(0) (95% confidence interval), n and sigma(f0) (standard deviation) were, respectively: 13.8 (10.1-18.8) and 60.4 (58.5-62.2), 24.1 (2.5) and 58.1 (0.01) for GC and 7.4 (5.3-10.0) and 136.8 (129.1-144.7), 36.7 (7.3) and 127.9 (0.01) for GI. Fracture stresses (MPa) calculated using the SPT diagram for lifetimes of 1 day, 1 year and 10 years (at a 5% failure probability) were, respectively, 31.8, 24.9 and 22.7 for GC and 71.2, 60.6 and 56.9 for GI. For the porcelain tested, the ion exchange process improved strength and resistance to SCG, however, the material's reliability decreased. The predicted fracture stress at 5% failure probability for a lifetime of 10 years was also higher for the ion treated group.

  8. Porcelain Enamel Material Testing Procedures to Determine the Damping Properties and the Results of Selected Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AFWAL-TR-80-41 16 a N0946 6 6 PORCELAIN ENAMEL MATERIAL TESTING PROCEDURES TO DETERMINE THE DAMPINGi l PROPERTIES AND THE RESULTS OF ,= SELECTED...15..DECLASSI FtCATION/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE N.A(U~~~~ ~N A. 7~ ~&:’? 16 . DISThmBUTTUSTATEMENT (o1 this Report) Approved for public release...Damping Fixture 15 Number One 6 High Temperature Enamels Damping Fixture 16 Number Two 7 Schematic of the Enamels Testing Furnace Showing 18 the

  9. The perceval S aortic valve implantation in patients with porcelain aorta; is this ideal option?

    PubMed

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Prappa, Efstathia; Argiriou, Michalis

    2017-01-01

    We would like to present in this paper a patient with severe aortic valve stenosis referred to our department for surgical aortic valve replacement. In this patient, it was intraoperatively detected an unexpected heavily calcified porcelain ascending aorta. We present the treatment options in this situation, the difficulties affronted intraoperatively, the significance of the preoperative chest computed tomography scan and the use of the Perceval S aortic valve as ideal bioprosthesis implantation. This is a self-expanding, self-anchoring, and sutureless valve with a wide indication in all patients requiring aortic bioprosthesis.

  10. Cytokines in the central nervous system: regulatory roles in neuronal function, cell death and repair.

    PubMed

    Sei, Y; Vitković, L; Yokoyama, M M

    1995-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that neurons and glia can synthesize and secrete cytokines, which play critical roles in maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) by mediating the interaction between cells via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. Circulating cytokines and soluble receptors also regulate neuronal function via endocrine mechanisms. Disturbance of the cytokine-mediated interaction between cells may lead to neuronal dysfunction and/or cell death and contribute to the pathogenesis of the CNS diseases (e.g., ischemia, Alzheimer's disease and HIV encephalopathy). Defining the molecular pathways of cytokine dysregulation and neurotoxicity may help to elucidate potential therapeutic interventions for many devastating CNS diseases.

  11. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations and...

  12. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations and...

  13. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations and...

  14. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations and...

  15. A Combined Brazing and Aluminizing Process for Repairing Turbine Blades by Thermal Spraying Using the Coating System NiCrSi/NiCoCrAlY/Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, M.; Möhwald, K.; Maier, H. J.

    2017-10-01

    The repair and maintenance of components in the aerospace industry play an increasingly important role due to rising manufacturing costs. Besides welding, vacuum brazing is a well-established repair process for turbine blades made of nickel-based alloys. After the coating of the worn turbine blade has been removed, the manual application of the nickel-based filler metal follows. Subsequently, the hot gas corrosion-protective coating is applied by thermal spraying. The brazed turbine blade is aluminized to increase the hot gas corrosion resistance. The thermal spray technology is used to develop a two-stage hybrid technology that allows shortening the process chain for repair brazing turbine blades and is described in the present paper. In the first step, the coating is applied on the base material. Specifically, the coating system employed here is a layer system consisting of nickel filler metal, NiCoCrAlY and aluminum. The second step represents the combination of brazing and aluminizing of the coating system which is subjected to a heat treatment. The microstructure, which results from the combined brazing and aluminizing process, is characterized and the relevant diffusion processes in the coating system are illustrated. The properties of the coating and the ramifications with respect to actual applications will be discussed.

  16. Sensors Systems for the Automation of Operations in the Ship Repair Industry

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Pedro Javier; Muro, Juan Suardíaz; Alcover, Pedro María; Fernández-Isla, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and realistic approach to this problem, which has resulted in the development of several solutions that have been designed with different automation and operation range degrees. These solutions are fitted with most of the elements already available in many shipyards, so the installation of additional machinery in the workplace would not be necessary. This paper describes the evolutionary development of sensor systems for the automation of the preparation process of ship hull surfaces before the painting process is performed. Such evolution has given rise to the development of new technologies for coating removal. PMID:24064601

  17. Sensors systems for the automation of operations in the ship repair industry.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Pedro Javier; Muro, Juan Suardíaz; Alcover, Pedro María; Fernández-Isla, Carlos

    2013-09-13

    Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and realistic approach to this problem, which has resulted in the development of several solutions that have been designed with different automation and operation range degrees. These solutions are fitted with most of the elements already available in many shipyards, so the installation of additional machinery in the workplace would not be necessary. This paper describes the evolutionary development of sensor systems for the automation of the preparation process of ship hull surfaces before the painting process is performed. Such evolution has given rise to the development of new technologies for coating removal.

  18. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    MedlinePlus

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... to guide the stent graft up into your aorta, to where the aneurysm is located. Next open ...

  19. Rotator cuff repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... techniques are used to repair a rotator cuff tear: During open repair, a surgical incision is made ... repair is done for large or more complex tears. During arthroscopy, the arthroscope is inserted through small ...

  20. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  1. Design and preliminary validation of a mobile application-based expert system to facilitate repair of medical equipment in resource-limited health settings.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alison L; Lacob, Kelly M; Wilson, Madeline G; Zwolski, Stacie M; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2018-01-01

    One of the greatest barriers to safe surgery is the availability of functional biomedical equipment. Biomedical technicians play a major role in ensuring that equipment is functional. Following in-field observations and an online survey, a mobile application was developed to aid technicians in troubleshooting biomedical equipment. It was hypothesized that this application could be used to aid technicians in equipment repair, as modeled by repair of a pulse oximeter. To identify specific barriers to equipment repair and maintenance for biomedical technicians, an online survey was conducted to determine current practices and challenges. These findings were used to guide the development of a mobile application system that guides technicians through maintenance and repair tasks. A convenience sample of technicians in Ethiopia tested the application using a broken pulse oximeter task and following this completed usability and content validity surveys. Fifty-three technicians from 13 countries responded to the initial survey. The results of the survey showed that technicians find equipment manuals most useful, but these are not easily accessible. Many do not know how to or are uncomfortable reaching out to human resources. Thirty-three technicians completed the broken pulse oximeter task using the application. All were able to appropriately identify and repair the equipment, and post-task surveys of usability and content validity demonstrated highly positive scores (Agree to Strongly Agree) on both scales. This research demonstrates the need for improved access to resources for technicians and shows that a mobile application can be used to address a gap in the access to knowledge and resources in low- and middle-income countries. Further research will include prospective studies to determine the impact of an application on the availability of functional equipment in a hospital and the effect on the provision and safety of surgical care.

  2. GLI1 interferes with the DNA mismatch repair system in pancreatic cancer through BHLHE41-mediated suppression of MLH1.

    PubMed

    Inaguma, Shingo; Riku, Miho; Hashimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Murakami, Hideki; Saga, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kenji

    2013-12-15

    The mismatch repair (MMR) system is indispensable for the fidelity of DNA replication, the impairment of which predisposes to the development and progression of many types of cancers. To date, GLI1 transcription factor, a key molecule of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, has been shown to regulate the expression of several genes crucial for a variety of cancer cell properties in many types of cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but whether GLI1 could control the MMR system was not known. Here, we showed that GLI1 and GLI2 indirectly suppressed the expression of MLH1 in PDAC cells. Through GLI1 target gene screening, we found that GLI1 and GLI2 activated the expression of a basic helix-loop-helix type suppressor BHLHE41/DEC2/SHARP1 through a GLI-binding site in the promoter. Consistent with a previous report that BHLHE41 suppresses the MLH1 promoter activity, we found that the activation of GLI1 led to the BHLHE41-dependent suppression of MLH1, and a double knockdown of GLI1 and GLI2 conversely increased the MLH1 protein in PDAC cells. Using TALEN-based modification of the MLH1 gene, we further showed that GLI1 expression was indeed associated with an increased tolerance to a methylating agent, methylnitrosourea cooperatively with a lower copy number status of MLH1. Finally, GLI1 expression was immunohistochemically related positively with BHLHE41 and inversely with MLH1 in PDAC cells and precancerous lesions of the pancreas. On the basis of these results, we propose that GLI1 depresses the MMR activity and might contribute to the development and progression of PDAC. ©2013 AACR.

  3. Injectable graphene oxide/hydrogel-based angiogenic gene delivery system for vasculogenesis and cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Paul, Arghya; Hasan, Anwarul; Kindi, Hamood Al; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Shin, Su Ryon; Krafft, Dorothee; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Shum-Tim, Dominique; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-08-26

    The objective of this study was to develop an injectable and biocompatible hydrogel which can efficiently deliver a nanocomplex of graphene oxide (GO) and vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF) pro-angiogenic gene for myocardial therapy. For the study, an efficient nonviral gene delivery system using polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized GO nanosheets (fGO) complexed with DNAVEGF was formulated and incorporated in the low-modulus methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogel to promote controlled and localized gene therapy. It was hypothesized that the fGOVEGF/GelMA nanocomposite hydrogels can efficiently transfect myocardial tissues and induce favorable therapeutic effects without invoking cytotoxic effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, a rat model with acute myocardial infarction was used, and the therapeutic hydrogels were injected intramyocardially in the peri-infarct regions. The secreted VEGF from in vitro transfected cardiomyocytes demonstrated profound mitotic activities on endothelial cells. A significant increase in myocardial capillary density at the injected peri-infarct region and reduction in scar area were noted in the infarcted hearts with fGOVEGF/GelMA treatment compared to infarcted hearts treated with untreated sham, GelMA and DNAVEGF/GelMA groups. Furthermore, the fGOVEGF/GelMA group showed significantly higher (p < 0.05, n = 7) cardiac performance in echocardiography compared to other groups, 14 days postinjection. In addition, no significant differences were noticed between GO/GelMA and non-GO groups in the serum cytokine levels and quantitative PCR based inflammatory microRNA (miRNA) marker expressions at the injected sites. Collectively, the current findings suggest the feasibility of a combined hydrogel-based gene therapy system for ischemic heart diseases using nonviral hybrid complex of fGO and DNA.

  4. Scheduling and rescheduling with iterative repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Davis, Eugene; Daun, Brian; Deale, Michael

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the GERRY scheduling and rescheduling system being applied to coordinate Space Shuttle Ground Processing. The system uses constraint-based iterative repair, a technique that starts with a complete but possibly flawed schedule and iteratively improves it by using constraint knowledge within repair heuristics. In this paper we explore the tradeoff between the informedness and the computational cost of several repair heuristics. We show empirically that some knowledge can greatly improve the convergence speed of a repair-based system, but that too much knowledge, such as the knowledge embodied within the MIN-CONFLICTS lookahead heuristic, can overwhelm a system and result in degraded performance.

  5. Tamoxifen accelerates the repair of demyelinated lesions in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ginez A.; Hofer, Matthias P.; Syed, Yasir A.; Amaral, Ana I.; Rundle, Jon; Rahman, Saifur; Zhao, Chao; Kotter, Mark R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing central nervous system (CNS) myelin regeneration is recognized as an important strategy to ameliorate the devastating consequences of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Previous findings have indicated that myelin proteins, which accumulate following demyelination, inhibit remyelination by blocking the differentiation of rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) via modulation of PKCα. We therefore screened drugs for their potential to overcome this differentiation block. From our screening, tamoxifen emerges as a potent inducer of OPC differentiation in vitro. We show that the effects of tamoxifen rely on modulation of the estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ, and GPR30. Furthermore, we demonstrate that administration of tamoxifen to demyelinated rats in vivo accelerates remyelination. Tamoxifen is a well-established drug and is thus a promising candidate for a drug to regenerate myelin, as it will not require extensive safety testing. In addition, Tamoxifen plays an important role in biomedical research as an activator of inducible genetic models. Our results highlight the importance of appropriate controls when using such models. PMID:27554391

  6. Nanowired Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Central Nervous System Injury and Repair.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Lafuente, José V; Sharma, Hari S

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within narrow limits. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the CNS fluid microenvironment healthy. However, noxious insults to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins alter the BBB function to small as well as large molecules e.g., proteins. When proteins enter the CNS fluid microenvironment, development of brain edema occurs due to altered osmotic balance between blood and brain. On the other hand, almost all neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic insults to the CNS and subsequent BBB dysfunction lead to edema formation and cell injury. To treat these brain disorders suitable drug therapy reaching their brain targets is needed. However, due to edema formation or only a focal disruption of the BBB e.g., around brain tumors, many drugs are unable to reach their CNS targets in sufficient quantity. This results in poor therapeutic outcome. Thus, new technology such as nanodelivery is needed for drugs to reach their CNS targets and be effective. In this review, use of nanowires as a possible novel tool to enhance drug delivery into the CNS in various disease models is discussed based on our investigations. These data show that nanowired delivery of drugs may have superior neuroprotective ability to treat several CNS diseases effectively indicating their role in future therapeutic strategies.

  7. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  8. [Effect of vacuum deposition technology on the metal-porcelain bond strength of a new type of CO-CR ceramic and framework dental alloy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-ling; Chao, Yong-lie; Ji, Ping; Gao, Xu

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effect of a new engineering technique of vacuum deposition-plasma magnetron reactive sputter deposition technique on the metal-porcelain bond strength of a new type of Co-Cr ceramic and framework dental alloy. Before porcelain painted on the specimens, the standardized metal strips made from DA9-4 dental alloy were coated with a thin Al2O3 ceramic film by plasma magnetron reactive sputter deposition technique. The conformation, structure and thickness of the ceramic film were analyzed. The specimens for three-point bending test made from DA9-4 alloy and VMK95 porcelain were used for metal-porcelain bond strength measurement, in the same time the interface of metal-porcelain and element distribution were also observed. The flexural bonding strength of metal-porcelain of sputtering group and control group were (180.55+/-16.45) MPa and (143.80+/-24.49) MPa. The flexural bonding strength of metal-porcelain of sputtering group was higher than control group significantly through statistical analysis (P<0.01). The plasma magnetron reactive sputter deposition technique has a positive effect in improving the bonding strength of DA9-4 dental alloy and ceramic.

  9. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  10. Repairing pipes on the fly

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    When piping develops leaks, the natural instinct is to shut the process down, purge the lines and call in maintenance crews to make the repairs. There is, however, an alternative: on-the-fly repairs. Through the use of specialized tools, equipment and technicians, shut-off valves can be installed and leaks repaired without interrupting production. The split sleeve offers one of the simpler approaches to on-the-fly repairs. Two half cylinders with inside diameter slightly larger than the outside diameter slightly larger than the outside diameter of the pipe to be repaired are slipped over the latter some distance form the leak and looselymore » bolted together. The cylinder is then slid over the leaking area and the bolts tightened. Gaskets inside the half cylinders provide the needed seal between the pipe and the cylinder. Installing a shut-off valve in an operating pipeline requires much more specialized equipment and skills than does repairing a leak with a split sleeve. A device available from International Piping Services Co. allows a trained crew to isolate a section of pipe, drill out the isolated portion, install a blocking valve and then remove the isolation system--all while continuing to operate the pipeline at temperatures to 700 F and pressures to 700 psi. But Herb Porter, CEO of Ipsco, cautions that unlike the repairing leaks with a split sleeve, installing a blocking valve on-the-fly always demands the services of a highly trained crew.« less

  11. 3D bioprinting of neural stem cell-laden thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane hydrogel and potential in central nervous system repair.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Lin, Hsin-Hua; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2015-12-01

    The 3D bioprinting technology serves as a powerful tool for building tissue in the field of tissue engineering. Traditional 3D printing methods involve the use of heat, toxic organic solvents, or toxic photoinitiators for fabrication of synthetic scaffolds. In this study, two thermoresponsive water-based biodegradable polyurethane dispersions (PU1 and PU2) were synthesized which may form gel near 37 °C without any crosslinker. The stiffness of the hydrogel could be easily fine-tuned by the solid content of the dispersion. Neural stem cells (NSCs) were embedded into the polyurethane dispersions before gelation. The dispersions containing NSCs were subsequently printed and maintained at 37 °C. The NSCs in 25-30% PU2 hydrogels (∼680-2400 Pa) had excellent proliferation and differentiation but not in 25-30% PU1 hydrogels. Moreover, NSC-laden 25-30% PU2 hydrogels injected into the zebrafish embryo neural injury model could rescue the function of impaired nervous system. However, NSC-laden 25-30% PU1 hydrogels only showed a minor repair effect in the zebrafish model. In addition, the function of adult zebrafish with traumatic brain injury was rescued after implantation of the 3D-printed NSC-laden 25% PU2 constructs. Therefore, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique involving NSCs embedded in the thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane ink offers new possibilities for future applications of 3D bioprinting in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of proteins interacting with lactate dehydrogenase in claw muscle of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes

    PubMed Central

    Cayenne, Andrea P.; Gabert, Beverly; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical adaptation of enzymes involves conservation of activity, stability and affinity across a wide range of intracellular and environmental conditions. Enzyme adaptation by alteration of primary structure is well known, but the roles of protein-protein interactions in enzyme adaptation are less well understood. Interspecific differences in thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in porcelain crabs (genus Petrolisthes) are related to intrinsic differences among LDH molecules and by interactions with other stabilizing proteins. Here, we identified proteins that interact with LDH in porcelain crab claw muscle tissue using co-immunoprecipitation, and showed LDH exists in high molecular weight complexes using size exclusion chromatography and Western blot analyses. Co-immunoprecipitated proteins were separated using 2D SDS PAGE and analyzed by LC/ESI using peptide MS/MS. Peptide MS/MS ions were compared to an EST database for Petrolisthes cinctipes to identify proteins. Identified proteins included cytoskeletal elements, glycolytic enzymes, a phosphagen kinase, and the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Our results support the hypothesis that LDH interacts with glycolytic enzymes in a metabolon structured by cytoskeletal elements that may also include the enzyme for transfer of the adenylate charge in glycolytically produced ATP. Those interactions may play specific roles in biochemical adaptation of glycolytic enzymes. PMID:21968246

  13. Toxicity of porcelain-fused-to-metal substrate to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Libo; Si, Jing; Wei, Yuan; Li, Sirui; Jiang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Rong; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong

    2018-06-15

    Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns are a standard restoration technique in dentistry, but toxicity of PFM in vivo has not been systematically evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of various metal alloy shells of PFM crowns on the development of zebrafish embryos and larvae in order to determine the safety of these materials. Gold palladium (Au-Pd), silver palladium (Ag-Pd), Nickel chromium (Ni-Cr), cobalt chromium (Co-Cr), titanium (Ti) alloy porcelain crowns were immersed in artificial saliva for 1, 4, and 7 weeks, and the leach solution was collected and used to treat zebrafish embryos at 4-144 h PFM. Toxicity was assessed based on mortality, spontaneous movement, heart rate, hatchability, malformation, and swimming behavior. The 1-week leachates of the five PFMs were not toxic to zebrafish. The rates of mortality and malformation of zebrafish in the Ni-Cr alloy group were increased whereas spontaneous movement, heart rate, and swimming behavior were decreased for 4- and 7-week leachates. Among metal substrates commonly used in dental work, Ni-Cr alloy was most toxic, followed by Co-Cr and Ag-Pd alloys. Ti and Au-Pd alloys showed good biocompatibility and are therefore the most suitable materials for clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Study on corrosion resistance of three non-noble porcelain alloys].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhikai; Xu, Sheng; Li, Wei; Teng, Jin; Li, Ning

    2011-10-01

    To study the electrochemical corrosion behavior of Co-Cr, Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Be based porcelain alloys in NaCl solution. Five samples of each alloy were made respectively, electric polarization curve of each alloy was obtained using potentiodynamic polarization technique. Self-corrosion potential (E(corr)), self-corrosion current density (I(corr), passive region and transpassivation potential were tested. Microstructure and constituent was examined using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Co-Cr alloy possessed the most desirable corrosion resistance because of its integrated, homogeneous and compact passive film. The poor compactness of Ni-Cr alloy's passive film decreased its corrosion resistance. Ni-Cr-Be alloy exhibited the worst corrosion resistance due to the Cr and Mo depleted Ni-Be eutectic phases in the alloy. Taking biological security into consideration, it is necessary to avoid the application of porcelain alloys with Be element. Co-Cr alloy with better biocompatibility possesses much broader prospect in the field of dental restoration.

  15. Relation Between Roughness of Interface and Adherence of Porcelain Enamel to Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J C; Moore, D G; Kirkpatrick, H B; Harrison, W N

    1954-01-01

    Porcelain-enamel ground coats were prepared and applied under conditions that gave various degrees of adherence between enamel and a low-carbon steel (enameling iron). The variations in adherence were produced by (a) varying the amount of cobalt-oxide addition in the frit, (b) varying the type of metallic-oxide addition in the frit, keeping the amount constant at 0.8 weight percent, (c) varying the surface treatment of the metal before application of the enamel, by pickling, sandblasting, and polishing, and (d) varying the time of firing of the enamel containing 0.8 percent of cobalt oxide. Specimens of each enamel were given the standard adherence test of the Porcelain Enamel Institute. Metallographic sections were made on which the roughness of interface was evaluated by counting the number of anchor points (undercuts) per centimeter of specimen length and also by measuring the length of the interface and expressing results as the ratio of this length to the length of a straight line parallel to the over-all direction of the interface.

  16. Porcelain surface conditioning protocols and shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lestrade, Ashley M; Ballard, Richard W; Xu, Xiaoming; Yu, Qingzhao; Kee, Edwin L; Armbruster, Paul C

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine which of six bonding protocols yielded a clinically acceptable shear bond strength (SBS) of metal orthodontic brackets to CAD/CAM lithium disilicate porcelain restorations. A secondary aim was to determine which bonding protocol produced the least surface damage at debond. Sixty lithium disilicate samples were fabricated to replicate the facial surface of a mandibular first molar using a CEREC CAD/CAM machine. The samples were split into six test groups, each of which received different mechanical/chemical pretreatment protocols to roughen the porcelain surface prior to bonding a molar orthodontic attachment. Shear bond strength testing was conducted using an Instron machine. The mean, maximum, minimal, and standard deviation SBS values for each sample group including an enamel control were calculated. A t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance between the groups. No significant differences were found in SBS values, with the exception of surface roughening with a green stone prior to HFA and silane treatment. This protocol yielded slightly higher bond strength which was statistically significant. Chemical treatment alone with HFA/silane yielded SBS values within an acceptable clinical range to withstand forces applied by orthodontic treatment and potentially eliminates the need to mechanically roughen the ceramic surface.

  17. The effect of heat treatment simulating porcelain firing processes on titanium corrosion resistance.

    PubMed

    Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Rylska, Dorota; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of titanium used in metal-ceramic restorations in manufacturing is based on the presence of oxide layer on the metal surface. The procedures used during combining metallic material with porcelain may affect the changes in oxide layers structure, and thus anticorrosive properties of metallic material. The aim of the study was an evaluation of potential changes in the structure and selected corrosion properties of titanium after sandblasting and thermal treatment applicable to the processes of ceramics fusion. Milled titanium elements were subjected to a few variants of the processes typical of ceramics fusion and studied in terms of resistance to electrochemical corrosion. The study included the OCP changes over time, measurements of Icorr, Ecorr and Rp as well as potentiodynamic examinations. Surface microstructure and chemical composition were analyzed using SEM and EDS methods. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the processes corresponding to ceramic oxidation and fusion on titanium in the variants used in the study do not cause deterioration of its anticorrosive properties, and partially enhance the resistance. This depends on the quality of oxide layers structure. Titanium elements treated by porcelain firing processes do not lose their corrosion resistance.

  18. Strain gauge analysis of the effect of porcelain firing simulation on the prosthetic misfit of implant-supported frameworks.

    PubMed

    De Vasconcellos, Diego Klee; Özcan, Mutlu; Maziero Volpato, Cláudia Ângela; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Yener, Esra Salihoğlu

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of porcelain firing on the misfit of implant-supported frameworks and analyzed the influence of preheat treatment on the dimensional alterations. Four external-hex cylindrical implants were placed in polyurethane block. Ten frameworks of screw-retained implant-supported prostheses were cast in Pd-Ag using 2 procedures: (1) control group (CG, n = 5): cast in segments and laser welded; and test group (TG, n = 5): cast in segments, preheated, and laser welded. All samples were subjected to firing to simulate porcelain veneering firing. Strain gauges were bonded around the implants, and microstrain values (με = 10⁻⁶ε) were recorded after welding (M1), oxidation cycle (M2), and glaze firing (M3). Data were statistically analyzed (2-way analysis of variance, Bonferroni, α = 0.05). The microstrain value in the CG at M3 (475.2 με) was significantly different from the values observed at M1 (355.6 με) and M2 (413.9 με). The values at M2 and M3 in the CG were not statistically different. Microstrain values recorded at different moments (M1: 361.6 με/M2: 335.3 με/M3: 307.2 με) did not show significant difference. The framework misfit deteriorates during firing cycles of porcelain veneering. Metal distortion after porcelain veneering could be controlled by preheat treatment.

  19. Analysis of elemental maps from glaze to body of ancient Chinese Jun and Ru porcelain by micro-X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lin; Li, Rongwu; Pan, Qiuli; Li, Guoxia; Zhao, Weijuan; Liu, Zhiguo

    2009-01-01

    The reasons how the middle layer of Ru and Jun porcelain between the glaze and body came into being are still not completely understood. Here, elemental maps from the glaze to the body of pieces of ancient Chinese Ru and Jun porcelain were analyzed by micro-X-ray fluorescence. The results show the middle layer was probably formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and undergoing complex physical-chemical reactions with the body. However, the middle layer of Jun porcelain was formed by the chemical composition of the glaze turning into glassy states and then infiltrating the body at high temperatures during the firing process.

  20. 49 CFR 236.555 - Repaired or rewound receiver coil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.555 Repaired...

  1. 49 CFR 236.555 - Repaired or rewound receiver coil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.555 Repaired...

  2. All-Arthroscopic Autologous Matrix-Induced Chondrogenesis-Aided Repair of a Patellar Cartilage Defect Using Dry Arthroscopy and a Retraction System.

    PubMed

    Sadlik, Boguslaw; Puszkarz, Mariusz; Kosmalska, Lidia; Wiewiorski, Martin

    2017-11-01

    The technique of all-arthroscopic autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC)-aided repair of patellar cartilage lesions using a retraction system and dry arthroscopy has been recently described. We report the first clinical and radiological data at a short-term follow-up. Twelve patients underwent AMIC-aided cartilage repair for a patellar lesion. All steps of the procedure were performed arthroscopically, which include the use of an intra-articularly placed retraction plate for distraction of the patellofemoral joint and evacuation of saline solution for collagen matrix insertion and fixation. Clinical assessment performed before surgery and at a mean follow-up time of 38 months (range: 24-70) included the following scores: Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and visual analog scale (VAS). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at the follow-up examination, including the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score. The mean KOOS and IKDC scores increased significantly ( p  < 0.01) from 50.3 and 37.4 points preoperatively to 90.1 and 79.4 postoperatively. The VAS score decreased from 7.8 to 2.3 points. Mean MOCART score at follow-up was 58.3 points. Cartilage repair of patellar lesions aided by a retraction system in a dry arthroscopy setup is a promising approach. Further studies are needed to evaluate this procedure and compare it to existing matrix implantation techniques. The level of evidence for the study is 4 (case series). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. High levels of BRC4 induced by a Tet-On 3G system suppress DNA repair and impair cell proliferation in vertebrate cells

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takuya; Branzei, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Transient induction or suppression of target genes is useful to study the function of toxic or essential genes in cells. Here we apply a Tet-On 3G system to DT40 lymphoma B cell lines, validating it for three different genes. Using this tool, we then show that overexpression of the chicken BRC4 repeat of the tumor suppressor BRCA2 impairs cell proliferation and induces chromosomal breaks. Mechanistically, high levels of BRC4 suppress double strand break-induced homologous recombination, inhibit the formation of RAD51 recombination repair foci, reduce cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents and induce a G2 damage checkpoint-mediated cell-cycle arrest. The above phenotypes are mediated by BRC4 capability to bind and inhibit RAD51. The toxicity associated with BRC4 overexpression is exacerbated by chemotherapeutic agents and reversed by RAD51 overexpression, but it is neither aggravated nor suppressed by a deficit in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double strand break repair. We further find that the endogenous BRCA2 mediates the cytotoxicity associated with BRC4 induction, thus underscoring the possibility that BRC4 or other domains of BRCA2 cooperate with ectopic BRC4 in regulating repair activities or mitotic cell division. In all, the results demonstrate the utility of the Tet-On 3G system in DT40 research and underpin a model in which BRC4 role on cell proliferation and chromosome repair arises primarily from its suppressive role on RAD51 functions. PMID:25218467

  4. High levels of BRC4 induced by a Tet-On 3G system suppress DNA repair and impair cell proliferation in vertebrate cells.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takuya; Branzei, Dana

    2014-10-01

    Transient induction or suppression of target genes is useful to study the function of toxic or essential genes in cells. Here we apply a Tet-On 3G system to DT40 lymphoma B cell lines, validating it for three different genes. Using this tool, we then show that overexpression of the chicken BRC4 repeat of the tumor suppressor BRCA2 impairs cell proliferation and induces chromosomal breaks. Mechanistically, high levels of BRC4 suppress double strand break-induced homologous recombination, inhibit the formation of RAD51 recombination repair foci, reduce cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents and induce a G2 damage checkpoint-mediated cell-cycle arrest. The above phenotypes are mediated by BRC4 capability to bind and inhibit RAD51. The toxicity associated with BRC4 overexpression is exacerbated by chemotherapeutic agents and reversed by RAD51 overexpression, but it is neither aggravated nor suppressed by a deficit in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double strand break repair. We further find that the endogenous BRCA2 mediates the cytotoxicity associated with BRC4 induction, thus underscoring the possibility that BRC4 or other domains of BRCA2 cooperate with ectopic BRC4 in regulating repair activities or mitotic cell division. In all, the results demonstrate the utility of the Tet-On 3G system in DT40 research and underpin a model in which BRC4 role on cell proliferation and chromosome repair arises primarily from its suppressive role on RAD51 functions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Book Repair Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milevski, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    This book repair manual developed for the Illinois Cooperative Conservation Program includes book structure and book problems, book repair procedures for 4 specific problems, a description of adhesive bindings, a glossary, an annotated list of 11 additional readings, book repair supplies and suppliers, and specifications for book repair kits. (LRW)

  6. Effect of metal selection and porcelain firing on the marginal accuracy of titanium-based metal ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Shokry, Tamer E; Attia, Mazen; Mosleh, Ihab; Elhosary, Mohamed; Hamza, Tamer; Shen, Chiayi

    2010-01-01

    Titanium is the most biocompatible metal used for dental casting; however, there is concern about its marginal accuracy after porcelain application since this aspect has direct influence on marginal fit. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect that metal selection and the porcelain firing procedure have on the marginal accuracy of metal ceramic prostheses. Cast CP Ti, milled CP Ti, cast Ti-6Al-7Nb, and cast Ni-Cr copings (n=5) were fired with compatible porcelains (Triceram for titanium-based metals and VITA VMK 95 for Ni-Cr alloy). The Ni-Cr alloy fired with its porcelain served as the control. Photographs of metal copings placed on a master die were made. Marginal discrepancy was determined on the photographs using an image processing program at 8 predetermined locations before airborne-particle abrasion for porcelain application, after firing of the opaque layer, and after firing of the dentin layer. Repeated-measures 2-way ANOVA was used to investigate the effect of metal selection and firing stage, and paired t tests were used to determine the effect of each firing stage within each material group (alpha=.05). ANOVA showed that both metal selection and firing stage significantly influenced the measured marginal discrepancy (P<.001), and there was interaction between the 2 variables (P<.001). Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison tests showed that there were significant differences between any 2 metals compared, at each stage of measurement. Paired t tests showed that significant changes in marginal discrepancy occurred with opaque firing on milled CP Ti (P=.017) and cast Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy (P=.003). Titanium copings fabricated by CAD/CAM demonstrated the least marginal discrepancy among all groups, while the base metal (Ni-Cr) groups exhibited the most discrepancy of all groups tested. Copyright 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the Whitening and Microstructural Effects of a Novel Whitening Strip on Porcelain and Composite Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Takesh, Thair; Sargsyan, Anik; Lee, Matthew; Anbarani, Afarin; Ho, Jessica; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this project was to evaluate the effects of 2 different whitening strips on color, microstructure and roughness of tea stained porcelain and composite surfaces. Methods 54 porcelain and 72 composite chips served as samples for timed application of over-the-counter (OTC) test or control dental whitening strips. Chips were divided randomly into three groups of 18 porcelain and 24 composite chips each. Of these groups, 1 porcelain and 1 composite set served as controls. The remaining 2 groups were randomized to treatment with either Oral Essentials® Whitening Strips or Crest® 3D White Whitestrips™. Sample surface structure was examined by light microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Additionally, a reflectance spectrophotometer was used to assess color changes in the porcelain and composite samples over 24 hours of whitening. Data points were analyzed at each time point using ANOVA. Results In the light microscopy and SEM images, no discrete physical defects were observed in any of the samples at any time points. However, high-resolution SEM images showed an appearance of increased surface roughness in all composite samples. Using profilometry, significantly increased post-whitening roughness was documented in the composite samples exposed to the control bleaching strips. Composite samples underwent a significant and equivalent shift in color following exposure to Crest® 3D White Whitestrips™ and Oral Essentials® Whitening Strips. Conclusions A novel commercial tooth whitening strip demonstrated a comparable beaching effect to a widely used OTC whitening strip. Neither whitening strip caused physical defects in the sample surfaces. However, the control strip caused roughening of the composite samples whereas the test strip did not. PMID:29226023

  8. The Effect of Porcelain Firing and Type of Finish Line on the Marginal Fit of Zirconia Copings

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Mahroo; Safari, Anahita; Mohaghegh, Mina; Pardis, Soheil; Mahdavi, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Although all-ceramic restorations are broadly used, there is a lack of information concerning how their fit is affected by fabrication procedure and marginal configuration. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal fit of zirconia CAD/CAM ceramic crowns before and after porcelain firing. The influence of finish line configuration on the marginal fit was also evaluated. Materials and Method Twenty standardized zirconia CAD/CAM copings were fabricated for chamfer and shoulder finish line designs (n=10). The marginal fit of specimens was measured on 18 points, marked on the master metal die by using a digital microscope. After the crowns were finalized by porcelain veneering, the measurements of marginal fit were performed again. The means and standard deviations were calculated and data were analyzed using student’s t-test and paired t-test (α=0.05). Results There were significant differences between marginal fit of chamfer and shoulder finish line groups before and after porcelain firing (p= 0.014 and p= 0.000, respectively). The marginal gap of copings with shoulder finish line was significantly smaller than those with chamfer configuration (p= 0.000), but there were no significant differences between the two marginal designs, after porcelain firing (p= 0.341). Conclusion Porcelain veneering was found to have a statistically significant influence on the marginal fit of zirconia CAD/CAM crowns. Both margin configurations showed marginal gaps that were within a reported clinically acceptable range of marginal discrepancy. PMID:26046107

  9. The effect of enamel porcelain thickness on color and the ability of a shade guide to prescribe chroma.

    PubMed

    Jarad, F D; Moss, B W; Youngson, C C; Russell, M D

    2007-04-01

    To test the null hypothesis that there is no color change when enamel porcelain thickness is changed and to evaluate the ability of a shade guide to prescribe chroma. Three shades (3M1, 3M2 and 3M3) were selected from a Vitapan 3D master shade guide. Five disk specimens were prepared for each shade, consisting of three layers (opacious dentin, dentin and enamel) at thicknesses of 0.6, 0.8 and 0.6mm, respectively. The color of each disk was measured using a spectrophotometer. Enamel porcelain was reduced in thickness to 0.3mm and porcelain disks were remeasured. Reducing the enamel thickness of porcelain disk specimens significantly increased L) (p<0.05), b*, metric chroma and hue angle (p<0.001). For the three shades studied (3M1, 3M2 and 3M3) L* values were not significantly different (p>0.05) and chroma increased for 3M1 with the lowest chroma to 3M3 with the highest chroma, which is in line with the shade guide specifications. Although statistically significant (p<0.001) changes in hue angle between the three shades were small (less than 3 degrees overall). The difference in chroma between the three shades 3M1, 3M2 and 3M3 was greatest for the thin enamel layer than the thick enamel layer. A change in enamel thickness from 0.6 to 0.3mm resulted in a three-unit change in L* and metric chroma and a 4 degrees change in hue angle. A change in enamel porcelain thickness will have a greater effect on higher chromatic shades than those with lower chroma. The ability of the shade guide to prescribe chroma was demonstrated but this could be offset by an anomalous enamel thickness.

  10. Draft of a general stochastic theory of cancer and its possible experimental verification with monoclonal multiplication of repairing and immunological systems.

    PubMed

    Agrell, U

    1986-07-01

    A general stochastic theory of cancer is outlined by applying to cancer the laws of quantum mechanics instead of the laws of traditional physics, especially with regard to the concept of cause. This theory is combined with the evolutionary theory on the one hand and the mutation theory of aging/death of multicellular beings consisting of somatic cells on the other. The cancer theory centers around the phenomenon of DNA mutating randomly by quantal steps. Because of mutations in the DNA in general as well as in the special DNA which codes for the DNA repairing systems the body is permeated in the course of time - via increasing losses of information in the DNA - with increasingly altered proteins which is observed as aging process. From this process of entropy the concept of the cancer cell is deduced: When the losses of information in a certain cell and also in the repairing and immunological systems have random concordances, cancer as a type of antigens comes into existence. Here the concept of CONCORDANCE OF "BLURRING" is introduced. This CONCORDANCE OF "BLURRING" occurs randomly approximately once among three times 60 000 billion cells, i.e. three human beings. The so-called "oncogenes" are integrated into this theory. It is proposed to test this theory using monozygotic twins both suffering from cancer: By injecting monoclonally multiplied immunological systems, eventually also repair-systems, from the respective other twin, the proposition is that the cancer would be cured in both twins. If this critical experiment is successful, one can cure human beings suffering from cancer by the same procedure, using those systems of their relatives. This treatment would cure the cancer to the extent to which there is a genetic correspondence in the sections of genes coding for these systems.

  11. Prolene hernia system compared with mesh plug technique: a prospective study of short- to mid-term outcomes in primary groin hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Huang, C S; Huang, C C; Lien, H H

    2005-05-01

    Two types of anterior tension-free hernioplasty, prolene hernia system (PHS) repair and mesh plug technique (MPT), were introduced to Taiwan in 2001. This study compared the short- to mid-term outcomes following primary groin hernia repair with PHS and MPT. From January 2001 to December 2003, 393 patients with 426 primary groin hernias were operated on by a single surgeon using MPT (n=192) and PHS (n=234). Baseline perioperative details and follow-up information were compared. Demographic characteristics of both groups were similar. The laterality, types of anesthesia, postoperative stay, postoperative wound pain scores, wound complications and days to return to activities of daily life were equally distributed between the two groups. However, the distribution of Gilbert types in the PHS group was shifted a little to the right compared with that of the MPT group. PHS repair had longer operative time (34+/-17 vs 25+/-9 minutes, p<0.01). No recurrence was noted in both groups during the follow-up from 5 to 41 months. Chronic non-disabling groin pains were noted in 2.8% (6/218) of patients in the PHS group and 8.9% (14/175) in the MPT group (p=0.01). Our results show that both PHS and MPT repairs can be performed with short operation time, minor wound pain and quick return to activities of daily life without short- to mid-term recurrences, but postoperatively the MPT group had higher incidence of chronic non-disabling groin pain. Although the MPT is less invasive, the additional protective patch in the preperitoneal space of the PHS may provide a further safeguard against recurrences, especially for those patients with attenuated inguinal floor. Long-term follow-up is needed.

  12. Repair-Resistant DNA Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) pathway is the major mechanism that removes most bulky and some nonbulky lesions from cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that certain DNA lesions are repaired slowly or are entirely resistant to repair in cells, tissues, and in cell extract model assay systems. It is well established that the eukaryotic DNA lesion-sensing proteins do not detect the damaged nucleotide, but recognize the distortions/destabilizations in the native DNA structure caused by the damaged nucleotides. In this article, the nature of the structural features of certain bulky DNA lesions that render them resistant to NER, or cause them to be repaired slowly, is compared to that of those that are good-to-excellent NER substrates. Understanding the structural features that distinguish NER-resistant DNA lesions from good NER substrates may be useful for interpreting the biological significance of biomarkers of exposure of human populations to genotoxic environmental chemicals. NER-resistant lesions can survive to replication and cause mutations that can initiate cancer and other diseases. Furthermore, NER diminishes the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic drugs, and the design of more potent pharmaceuticals that resist repair can be advanced through a better understanding of the structural properties of DNA lesions that engender repair-resistance. PMID:28750166

  13. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia: Effect of surface treatment by CNC-milling and composite layer deposition on zirconia.

    PubMed

    Santos, R L P; Silva, F S; Nascimento, R M; Souza, J C M; Motta, F V; Carvalho, O; Henriques, B

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering feldspathic porcelain to zirconia substrates modified by CNC-milling process or by coating zirconia with a composite interlayer. Four types of zirconia-porcelain interface configurations were tested: RZ - porcelain bonded to rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZ - porcelain bonded to zirconia substrate with surface holes (n=16); RZI - application of a composite interlayer between the veneering porcelain and the rough zirconia substrate (n=16); PZI - application of a composite interlayer between the porcelain and the zirconia substrate treated by CNC-milling (n=16). The composite interlayer was composed of zirconia particles reinforced porcelain (30%, vol%). The mechanical properties of the ceramic composite have been determined. The shear bond strength test was performed at 0.5mm/min using a universal testing machine. The interfaces of fractured and untested specimens were examined by FEG-SEM/EDS. Data was analyzed with Shapiro-Wilk test to test the assumption of normality. The one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test was used to compare shear bond strength results (α=0.05). The shear bond strength of PZ (100±15MPa) and RZI (96±11MPa) specimens were higher than that recorded for RZ (control group) specimens (89±15MPa), although not significantly (p>0.05). The highest shear bond strength values were recorded for PZI specimens (138±19MPa), yielding a significant improvement of 55% relative to RZ specimens (p<0.05). This study shows that it is possible to highly enhance the zirconia-porcelain bond strength - even by ~55% - by combining surface holes in zirconia frameworks and the application of a proper ceramic composite interlayer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  17. A Simple and Universal System for Gene Manipulation in Aspergillus fumigatus: In Vitro-Assembled Cas9-Guide RNA Ribonucleoproteins Coupled with Microhomology Repair Templates.

    PubMed

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Ge, Wenbo; Fortwendel, Jarrod R

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a novel genome-editing system that has been successfully established in Aspergillus fumigatus . However, the current state of the technology relies heavily on DNA-based expression cassettes for delivering Cas9 and the guide RNA (gRNA) to the cell. Therefore, the power of the technology is limited to strains that are engineered to express Cas9 and gRNA. To overcome such limitations, we developed a simple and universal CRISPR-Cas9 system for gene deletion that works across different genetic backgrounds of A. fumigatus . The system employs in vitro assembly of dual Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) for targeted gene deletion. Additionally, our CRISPR-Cas9 system utilizes 35 to 50 bp of flanking regions for mediating homologous recombination at Cas9 double-strand breaks (DSBs). As a proof of concept, we first tested our system in the Δ akuB (Δ akuB ku80 ) laboratory strain and generated high rates (97%) of gene deletion using 2 µg of the repair template flanked by homology regions as short as 35 bp. Next, we inspected the portability of our system across other genetic backgrounds of A. fumigatus , namely, the wild-type strain Af293 and a clinical isolate, A. fumigatus DI15-102. In the Af293 strain, 2 µg of the repair template flanked by 35 and 50 bp of homology resulted in highly efficient gene deletion (46% and 74%, respectively) in comparison to classical gene replacement systems. Similar deletion efficiencies were also obtained in the clinical isolate DI15-102. Taken together, our data show that in vitro -assembled Cas9 RNPs coupled with microhomology repair templates are an efficient and universal system for gene manipulation in A. fumigatus . IMPORTANCE Tackling the multifactorial nature of virulence and antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus requires the mechanistic interrogation of a multitude of genes, sometimes across multiple genetic backgrounds. Classical fungal gene

  18. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization. PMID:26251592

  19. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization.

  20. Esthetic Rehabilitation of the Smile with No-Prep Porcelain Laminates and Partial Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Farias-Neto, Arcelino; Gomes, Edna Maria da Cunha Ferreira; Sánchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ayala, Alejandro; Vilanova, Larissa Soares Reis

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients with anterior conoid teeth may present a challenge for the clinician, especially when trying to mimic the nature with composite resins. This clinical report exemplifies how a patient with conoid upper lateral incisors was rehabilitated with minimally invasive adhesive restorations. Following diagnostic wax-up and cosmetic mock-up, no-prep veneers and ceramic fragments (partial veneers) were constructed with feldspathic porcelain. This restorative material presents excellent reproduction of the optical properties of the dental structure, especially at minimal thicknesses. In this paper, the details about the treatment are described. A very pleasing outcome was achieved, confirming that minimally invasive adhesive restorations are an excellent option for situations in which the dental elements are healthy, and can be modified exclusively by adding material and the patient does not want to suffer any wear on the teeth. PMID:26568893

  1. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Chemical Disinfectants on the Color of a Porcelain Shade Guide

    PubMed Central

    ArRejaie, Aws S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of long term utilization of chemical disinfectants on the color of porcelain shade guides. Methodology three chemical disinfectants were used in this study: Minuten spray, Lysol ICQuaternary Disinfectant Cleaner (QDC), and Lysol IC Ready to Use Disinfectant Cleaner (RDC). Simulation of disinfecting cycles for one year, two years, and three years were done on Vita 3D master shade guide. Color differences were determined by visual inspection and analyzing ΔE. Results ΔE values were significantly below the perceptible (ΔE=1) and the clinically acceptable (ΔE=3.7) thresholds. Conclusions Simulated utilization of Minuten Spray, Lysol IC (QDC), and Lysol (RDC) disinfectants for up to three years didn’t cause a clinically significant difference in the color of VITA Toothguide 3D-Master Shade Guide. PMID:25505865

  3. The effect of chemical disinfectants on the color of a porcelain shade guide.

    PubMed

    ArRejaie, Aws S

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of long term utilization of chemical disinfectants on the color of porcelain shade guides. three chemical disinfectants were used in this study: Minuten spray, Lysol ICQuaternary Disinfectant Cleaner (QDC), and Lysol IC Ready to Use Disinfectant Cleaner (RDC). Simulation of disinfecting cycles for one year, two years, and three years were done on Vita 3D master shade guide. Color differences were determined by visual inspection and analyzing ΔE. ΔE values were significantly below the perceptible (ΔE=1) and the clinically acceptable (ΔE=3.7) thresholds. Simulated utilization of Minuten Spray, Lysol IC (QDC), and Lysol (RDC) disinfectants for up to three years didn't cause a clinically significant difference in the color of VITA Toothguide 3D-Master Shade Guide.

  4. Comparing Maintenance Costs of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems with other HVAC Systems in Lincoln Public Schools: Repair, Service, and Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.; Durfee, D.J.; Hughes, P.J.

    1999-06-19

    The Lincoln Public School District, in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently installed vertical-bore geothermal heat pump systems in four, new, elementary schools. Because the district has consistent maintenance records and procedures, it was possible to study repair, service and corrective maintenance requests for 20 schools in the district. Each school studied provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and uses one of the following heating and cooling systems: vertical-bore geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACUGHWB), water-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (WCCYGHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCUGSB). Preventative maintenancemore » and capital renewal activities were not included in the available database. GHP schools reported average total costs at 2.13 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, followed by ACC/GHWB schools at 2.88 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, WCC/GSB schools at 3.73 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, and WCC/GHWB schools at 6.07 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr. Because of tax-exemptions on material purchases, a reliance on in-house labor, and the absence of preventative maintenance records in the database, these costs are lower than those reported in previous studies. A strong relationship (R{sup 2}=O.52) was found between costs examined and cooling system age: the newer the cooling equipment, the less it costs to maintain.« less

  5. Comparing maintenance costs of geothermal heat pump systems with other HVAC systems in Lincoln public schools: Repair, service, and corrective actions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.; Durfee, D.J.; Hughes, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    The Lincoln Public School District, in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently installed vertical-bore geothermal heat pump systems in four new elementary schools. Because the district has consistent maintenance records and procedures, it was possible to study repair, service, and corrective maintenance requests for 20 schools in the district. Each school studied provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and uses one of the following heating and cooling systems: vertical-bore geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACC/GHWB), water-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (WCC/GHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCC/GSB). Preventative maintenancemore » and capital renewal activities were not included in the available database. GHP schools reported average total costs at 2.13{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr, followed by ACC/GHWB schools at 2.884{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr, WCC/GSB schools at 3.73{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr, and WCC/GHWB schools at 6.07{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr. Because of tax exemptions on material purchases, a reliance on in-house labor, and the absence of preventative maintenance records in the database, these costs are lower than those reported in previous studies. A strong relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.52) was found between costs examined and cooling system age: the newer the cooling equipment, the less it costs to maintain.« less

  6. [Esthetic restoration for anterior teeth with the hot pressed porcelain laminate veneers].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shao-ping; Luo, Xiao-ping; Shi, Yu-juan

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the esthetic effect of anterior porcelain veneers fabricated with the heat pressed glass ceramic. Thirty-two patients, who wanted to receive a aesthetic restorative treatment for 206 anterior teeth were selected. Among them, 20 were for dental fluorosis, 8 were for light tetracycline stained teeth, the other 4 were labial enamel hypoplasia or obvious crack on the surface of enamel. According to the color of adjacent teeth,skin and lips, heat pressed IPS e.max ingots of different color were chosen to mold the restorations. Afterwards, special straining technique was conducted on the marginal ridge and incisor ridge of the veneers after carefully trimmed in the mouth. Restorations were them bonded with Variolink II resin cement. After 7 years of follow-up, a modified USPHS criterion was used to evaluate the esthetic effect. The translucency of veneers was superior. Marginal integrity of the veneers was perfect and it docked well with the marginal terminate line of the abutment. There was no edge coloring after the veneers were used for 7 years, and the veneers produce an excellent chameleon effect by absorbing the color of adjacent teeth and gums, at the same time, veneers could produce a feature of surface morphology of natural enamel after careful carve. In the long-term clinical observation, 5 of the 206 veneers were fractured or fell off. This porcelain laminate veneers fabricated from the heat pressed IPS e.max Press ingots include the following advantages, such as simple operating procedure, high mechanical strength, very little dental tissue was ground off and nice aesthetic effect. Ultra-thin veneers are especially suitable for aesthetic practice to dental fluorosis, light tetracycline and natural worn teeth.

  7. Metformin treatment prevents gallstone formation but mimics porcelain gallbladder in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Dorvash, Mohammad Reza; Khoshnood, Mohammad Javad; Saber, Hossein; Dehghanian, Amirreza; Mosaddeghi, Pouria; Firouzabadi, Negar

    2018-06-05

    Gallstone disease (GD) is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome and its related illnesses including type II diabetes (DMII) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While previous studies claimed that metformin decreases the chance of developing GD in PCOS patients, this phenomenon has not been investigated in animal models to date. Here we fed a high fat diet (HFD) containing 2% of cholesterol and 1% of cholic acid to ten-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice for 105 days. The groups were as follows: Low fat diet; HFD; HFD + Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (Met) (day 64-105). All drugs were administered by oral gavage (Met = 300 mg/kg & UDCA = 750 mg/kg). Serum lipid profile and gross organ examination were performed after euthanasia. A microscopic evaluation of the paraffin-embedded gallbladders was done after hematoxylin & eosin and Von Kossa staining. HFD successfully induces gallstone (4 out of 4 of the HFD members). While both UDCA and metformin (d 1-105) prevented gallstone formation and cholecystitis, Metformin (d 64-105) group had a few small stones. Additionally, metformin induces mucosal calcification in gallbladder (porcelain GB) of more than 80% of the HFD + Met (day 1-105) and HFD + Met (day 64-105) groups, collectively, which can be a potential problem by itself. While metformin shows a noticeable benefit towards GB health by reducing the chance for gallstone formation, if it induces porcelain gallbladder in humans as well, it might inflict patients with preventable medical charges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of tooth brushing on adhesion strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain.

    PubMed

    Durgesh, Bangalore H; Alhijji, Saleh; Hashem, Mohamed I; Al Kheraif, AbdulAziz A; Durgesh, Pavithra; Elsharawy, Mohamed; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-09-28

    Adhesive resin composite, which is used to bond orthodontic bracket to tooth surface is exposed to the influence of wear by tooth brushing and wear may influence loosening of the bracket. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of tooth brushing on the adhesion strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to surface treated porcelain. A total of 90 glazed porcelain fused to metal facets (PFM) were randomly assigned into 3 groups according to the surface treatment to be received. Group 1 was conditioned with hydrofluoric acid (HF), group 2 conditioned with grit-blasting (GB) and group 3 conditioned with tribochemical silica coating (RC). The groups were evaluated for surface roughness (Ra) before and after surface treatment. Next, 15 samples from each group were subjected to brushing and remaining 15 samples served as the baseline (n=15). Adhesion strength (shear bond strength)was recorded using a universal testing machine. Data collected were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison post hoc analysis. Tooth brushing decreased the bond strength in all groups. The highest adhesion strength (baseline and after brushing) was observed in group 3 (26.8 ± 1.77 MPa and 23.57 ± 1.02 MPa) and the lowest was found in group 1 (9.6 ± 1.5 MPa and 5.87 ± 0.77 MPa). Group 3 specimens exhibited the highest Ra (1.24 ± 0.08). It was found that tooth brushing of the exposed adhesive resin composite at the bracket-bonding substrate interface lowers the bonding strength regardless of the surface treatment of the substrate.

  9. Evaluation of the mechanical properties and porcelain bond strength of cobalt-chromium dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Zhu, Haiting; Gai, Xiuying; Wang, Yanyan

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the microstructure and mechanical properties of dental alloy fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) dental alloy fabricated by SLM and to determine the correlation between its microstructure and mechanical properties and its porcelain bond strength. Five metal specimens and 10 metal ceramic specimens were fabricated to evaluate the mechanical properties of SLM Co-Cr dental alloy (SLM alloy) with a tensile test and its porcelain bond strength with a 3-point bending test. The relevant properties of the SLM alloy were compared with those of the currently used Co-Cr dental alloy fabricated with conventional cast technology (cast alloy). The Student t test was used to compare the results of the SLM alloy and the cast alloy (α=.05). The microstructure of the SLM alloy was analyzed with a metallographic microscope; the metal ceramic interface of the SLM porcelain bonded alloy was studied with scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and an electron probe microanalyzer. Both the mean (standard deviation) yield strength (884.37 ± 8.96 MPa) and tensile strength (1307.50 ±10.65 MPa) of the SLM alloy were notably higher than yield strength (568.10 ± 30.94 MPa) and tensile strength (758.73 ± 25.85 MPa) of the currently used cast alloy, and the differences were significant (P<.05). The porcelain bond strength of the SLM alloy was 55.78 ± 3.02 MPa, which was similar to that of the cast alloy, 54.17 ± 4.96 MPa (P>.05). Microstructure analysis suggested that the SLM alloy had a dense and obviously orientated microstructure, which led to excellent mechanical properties. Analysis from scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the electron probe microanalyzer indicated that the SLM alloy had an intermediate layer with elemental interpenetration between the alloy and the

  10. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371.118 Section 1371.118 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause...

  11. 48 CFR 1352.271-87 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1352.271-87 Section 1352.271-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND...—ship repair. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.118, insert the following clause: Changes—Ship Repair (APR...

  12. 48 CFR 1352.271-87 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1352.271-87 Section 1352.271-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND...—ship repair. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.118, insert the following clause: Changes—Ship Repair (APR...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.271-87 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1352.271-87 Section 1352.271-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND...—ship repair. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.118, insert the following clause: Changes—Ship Repair (APR...

  14. 48 CFR 1352.271-87 - Changes-ship repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1352.271-87 Section 1352.271-87 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND...—ship repair. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.118, insert the following clause: Changes—Ship Repair (APR...

  15. Optimal control of M/M/1 two-phase queueing system with state-dependent arrival rate, server breakdowns, delayed repair, and N-policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Hanumantha; Kumar, Vasanta; Srinivasa Rao, T.; Srinivasa Kumar, B.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we examine a two-stage queueing system where the arrivals are Poisson with rate depends on the condition of the server to be specific: vacation, pre-service, operational or breakdown state. The service station is liable to breakdowns and deferral in repair because of non-accessibility of the repair facility. The service is in two basic stages, the first being bulk service to every one of the customers holding up on the line and the second stage is individual to each of them. The server works under N-policy. The server needs preliminary time (startup time) to begin batch service after a vacation period. Startup times, uninterrupted service times, the length of each vacation period, delay times and service times follows an exponential distribution. The closed form of expressions for the mean system size at different conditions of the server is determined. Numerical investigations are directed to concentrate the impact of the system parameters on the ideal limit N and the minimum base expected unit cost.

  16. Technology of Double Thermal Insulation for the Repair and Energy Optimization of Existing Thermal Insulation Composite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belániová, Barbora; Antošová, Naďa

    2017-06-01

    The theme of improvement thermal proprieties of external cladding according to the New EU Directive is still a hot topic, which needs to be answered necessarily till December 2020. Maintenance and repair of existing ETICS became to also an actual open theme in search solutions for existing constructions. The aim of the research in this review is to analyze influence of layers the alternative thermal materials in technology "double thermal insulation". Humidity and temperature conditions will be further examined in connection with the development and colonization of microorganisms on surface construction.

  17. Collision Repair Campaign

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Collision Repair Campaign targets meaningful risk reduction in the Collision Repair source category to reduce air toxic emissions in their communities. The Campaign also helps shops to work towards early compliance with the Auto Body Rule.

  18. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000158.htm Hypospadias repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which ...

  19. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: twomore » with composite liners and two without.« less

  20. Self repairing composites for drone air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to demonstrate the feasibility of impact-initiated delivery of repair chemicals through hollow fiber architectures embedded within graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, representative of advanced drone aircraft component material systems. Self-repairing structures through coupon and elements were demonstrated, and evaluated.