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Sample records for porcelain tile part

  1. The effect of manufacturing variables on radiation doses from porcelain tiles.

    PubMed

    Selby, J H; Strydom, R

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the radiological properties of glazed ceramic tiles. This study was conducted to describe the radiological properties of porcelain tiles and how they were affected by variations in the manufacturing parameters. The data showed that the majority of the uranium in the tiles was attributable to the addition of zircon while less than half of the thorium in the tile was attributable to the added zircon, and the remainder came from other minerals in the formulation. The effects of firing temperatures and compressive strengths of the tiles are presented and show that higher firing temperatures increase radon emanation, while higher compressive strengths reduce radon emanation. The study also described how the addition of zircon to the tile formulation affected the radiological exposures that could be received by a member of the public from the use of such porcelain tiles. A dose assessment was conducted based on 23 different types of tile formulation. Screening procedures for building materials have been described in European Commission documents, and these limit the addition of zircon in a porcelain tile to approximately 9% by mass. The dose assessment reported in this study showed that 20% zircon could be added to a porcelain tile without exceeding the prescribed dose limits.

  2. Reuse of solid petroleum waste in the manufacture of porcelain stoneware tile.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, B C A; Holanda, J N F

    2013-03-30

    This study investigates the incorporation of solid petroleum waste as raw material into a porcelain stoneware tile body, in replacement to natural kaolin material by up to 5 wt.%. Tile formulations containing solid petroleum waste were pressed and fired at 1240 °C by using a fast-firing cycle. The tile pieces were tested to determine their properties (linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength), sintered microstructure, and leaching toxicity. The results therefore indicated that the growing addition of solid petroleum waste into tile formulations leads to a decrease of linear shrinkage, apparent density, and flexural strength, and to an increase of water absorption of the produced tile materials. It was also found that the replacement of kaolin with solid petroleum waste, in the range up to 2.5 wt.%, allows the production of porcelain stoneware tile (group BIa, ISO 13006 standard). All concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr (total), Hg, and Pb of the fired porcelain stoneware tile pieces in the leachate comply with the current regulatory limits. These results indicate that the solid petroleum waste could be used for high-quality porcelain stoneware tile production, thus giving rise to a new possibility for an environmentally friendly management of this abundant waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-performance and anti-stain coating for porcelain stoneware tiles based on nanostructured zirconium compounds.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Moira; Santoni, Sergio; Giorgi, Rodorico; Fratini, Emiliano; Toccafondi, Nicola; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-10-15

    The technological characteristics of porcelain stoneware tiles make them suitable for a wide range of applications spanning far beyond traditional uses. Due to the high density, porcelain stoneware tiles show high bending strength, wear resistance, surface hardness, and high fracture toughness. Nevertheless, despite being usually claimed as stain resistant, the surface porosity renders porcelain stoneware tiles vulnerable to dirt penetration with the formation of stains that can be very difficult to remove. In the present work, we report an innovative and versatile method to realize stain resistant porcelain stoneware tiles. The tile surface is treated by mixtures of nanosized zirconium hydroxide and nano- and micron-sized glass frits that thanks to the low particle dimension are able to penetrate inside the surface pores. The firing step leads to the formation of a glass matrix that can partially or totally close the surface porosity. As a result, the fired tiles become permanently stain resistant still preserving the original esthetical qualities of the original material. Treated tiles also show a remarkably enhanced hardness due to the inclusion of zirconium compounds in the glass coating.

  4. Environmental and human health assessment of life cycle of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile.

    PubMed

    Pini, Martina; Bondioli, Federica; Montecchi, Rita; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria

    2017-01-15

    Recently, there has been a rise in the interest in nanotechnology due to its enormous potential for the development of new products and applications with higher performance and new functionalities. However, while nanotechnology might revolutionize a number of industrial and consumer sectors, there are uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding toxicological effects of this emerging science. The goal of this research concerns the implementation into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of preliminary frameworks developed to evaluate human toxicity and exposure factors related to the potential nanoparticle releases that could occur during the life cycle steps of a functionalized building material. The present LCA case study examines the ecodesign of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile production. The aim of this investigation is to manufacture new eco-friendly products in order to protect human health and ecosystem quality and to offer the market, materials with higher technological properties obtained by the addition of specific nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South front, west part, showing wrought iron gates and tiling at the former main entrance. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Recycling of porcelain tile polishing residue in portland cement: hydration efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pelisser, Fernando; Steiner, Luiz Renato; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-02-21

    Ceramic tiles are widely used by the construction industry, and the manufacturing process of ceramic tiles generates as a major residue mud derived from the polishing step. This residue is too impure to be reused in the ceramic process and is usually discarded as waste in landfills. But the analysis of the particle size and concentration of silica of this residue shows a potential use in the manufacture of building materials based on portland cement. Tests were conducted on cement pastes and mortars using the addition of 10% and 20% (mass) of the residue. The results of compressive strength in mortars made up to 56 days showed a significant increase in compressive strength greater than 50%. The result of thermogravimetry shows that portlandite is consumed by the cement formed by the silica present in the residue in order to form calcium silicate hydrate and featuring a pozzolanic reaction. This effect improves the performance of cement, contributes to research and application of supplementary cementitious materials, and optimizes the use of portland cement, reducing the environmental impacts of carbon dioxide emissions from its production.

  7. Micro-sized TiO2 as photoactive catalyst coated on industrial porcelain grès tiles to photodegrade drugs in water.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudia L; Sacchi, Benedetta; Capelli, Sofia; Pirola, Carlo; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Morandi, Sara; Capucci, Valentino

    2017-04-27

    Pharmaceutical compounds and their metabolites raise worrying questions because of their continuous release and lack of efficient removal by conventional wastewater treatments; therefore, they are being detected in groundwater, surface water and drinking water in increasing concentrations. Paracetamol and aspirin are two of the most commonly used drugs employed as fever reducer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. They and their metabolites are very often found in river water, so their degradation is necessary in order to render water suitable for human consumption. The present work is focused on the comparison of the photocatalytic performance of industrial active grés porcelain tiles covered with a commercial micro-sized TiO2 by industrial process using either conventional spray deposition or innovative digital printing methods. The photodegradation of two commonly used drugs, namely aspirin and paracetamol, was investigated both individually and as a mixture, in both deionized and tap water. The results reveal the full conversion of the drugs and the significant role of the photocatalytic tiles in the mineralization processes leading to harmless inorganic species. In particular, the digitally printed tiles exhibited better photodegradation performance for both drugs compared to the spray deposited tiles. No deactivation was observed on both photocatalytic tiles.

  8. Beautiful Math, Part 5: Colorful Archimedean Tilings from Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Peichang; Zhao, Weiguo; Huang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The art of tiling originated very early in the history of civilization. Almost every known human society has made use of tilings in some form or another. In particular, tilings using only regular polygons have great visual appeal. Decorated regular tilings with continuous and symmetrical patterns were widely used in decoration field, such as mosaics, pavements, and brick walls. In science, these tilings provide inspiration for synthetic organic chemistry. Building on previous CG&A “Beautiful Math” articles, the authors propose an invariant mapping method to create colorful patterns on Archimedean tilings (1-uniform tilings). The resulting patterns simultaneously have global crystallographic symmetry and local cyclic or dihedral symmetry.

  9. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  10. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  11. Porcelain-metal bonding: part I. Effects of repeated baking process.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, S; Yoshida, T; Mizoguchi, H; Ito, M; Oshida, Y

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of repeated porcelain-baking procedures are normally practiced in order to achieve the final adjustment metal-porcelain restorations. By increasing the number of baking cycles, the undesired internal strain would be built-up, causing the reduction of mechanical properties and deterioration of color characteristics. However the extensive studies on such deterioration have not been done. In this study, effects of numbers (up to 10 times) of repeated baking cycles on baking shrinkage, surface roughness, bend strength, color changes and internal microstructure were investigated when opaque, body and enamel was individually applied or when a triple-player comprising of these three porcelains was repeatedly applied. It was concluded that (1) the bend strengths increased by increasing baking cycles, (2) the average surface roughness decreased by increasing number of baking procedures, (3) changes in color characteristics was very small in the Vintage halo porcelain system, and (4) since the pores entrapped in the porcelain remained even by increasing baking cycles, it is recommended to remove the surface pores before forming the next layer when handling the high viscous opaque porcelain.

  12. Porcelain Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman O.

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder calcification, also referred to as porcelain gallbladder, has received significant attention in the medical literature due to its perceived role in increasing the risk of developing a gallbladder carcinoma. However, recent reports raise questions challenging this purported high risk. While previous studies reported a concomitant incidence of gallbladder cancer in porcelain gallbladder ranging from 7–60%, more recent analyses indicate the incidence to be much lower (6%). Based on evidence in the current literature, a prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely recommended for all patients with porcelain gallbladder and should be restricted to those with conventional indications, such as young patients. However, it is important to note that a nonoperative approach may require prolonged follow-up. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a feasible therapeutic option for patients with porcelain gallbladder, although some researchers have indicated a higher incidence of complications and conversion due to technical difficulties. PMID:28003886

  13. Task 4 supporting technology. Part 1: Detailed test plan for leading edge tile development. Leading edge material development and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogenson, P. A.; Staszak, Paul; Hinkle, Karrie

    1995-01-01

    This task develops two alternative candidate tile materials for leading edge applications: coated alumina enhanced thermal barrier (AETB) tile and silicone impregnated reusable ceramic ablator (SIRCA) tile. Upon reentry of the X-33/RLV space vehicle, the leading edges experience the highest heating rates and temperatures. The wing leading edge and nose cap experience peak temperatures in the range 2000 to 2700 F. Replacing reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) with tile-based thermal protection system (TPS) materials is the primary objective. Weight, complexity, coating impact damage, and repairability are among the problems that this tile technology development addresses. The following subtasks will be performed in this development effort: tile coating development; SIRCA tile development; robustness testing of tiles; tile repair development; tile operations/processing; tile leading edge configuration; and life cycle testing.

  14. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 1: SPRAY-BUFFING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to ealuate airborne asbestos concentrations during spray-uffing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing residient floor tile under three levels of floor conditions (poor, medium, and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by transmission e...

  15. Defective dental restorations: to repair or not to repair? Part 2: All-ceramics and porcelain fused to metal systems.

    PubMed

    Blum, Igor R; Jagger, Daryll C; Wilson, Nairn H F

    2011-04-01

    With the increasing use of ceramics in restorative dentistry, and trends to extend restoration longevity through the use of minimal interventive techniques, dental practitioners should be familiar with the factors that may influence the decision either to repair or replace fractured metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations and, also, the materials and techniques available to repair these restorations. This second of two papers addresses the possible modes of failure of ceramic restorations and outlines indications and techniques in this developing aspect of restoration repair in clinical practice. The repair of metal-ceramic and all-ceramic restorations is a reliable low-cost, low-risk technique that may be of value for the management of loss or fracture of porcelain from a crown or bridge in clinical practice.

  16. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Henriques, A.

    2015-07-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  17. Adhesion to porcelain and metal.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, Raymond L

    2007-04-01

    Some compelling clinical benefits of porcelain and metal adhesion are presented. Current concepts for metal adhesion are reviewed, including modifications of metal surface and resin chemistry. Porcelain adhesion is reviewed, including little-known methods that use silane but no hydrofluoric acid etching. Clinical protocols for use of metal and porcelain adhesives are presented.

  18. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 2: ULTRA HIGH SPEED BURNISHING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during ultra high speed (UHS) burnishing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under two levels of floor care condition (poor and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by...

  19. ASBESTOS EXPOSURES DURING ROUTINE FLOOR TILE MAINTENANCE. PART 2: ULTRA HIGH SPEED BURNISHING AND WET-STRIPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during ultra high speed (UHS) burnishing and wet-stripping of asbestos-containing resilient floor tile under two levels of floor care condition (poor and good). Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured by...

  20. Programmable DNA tile self-assembly using a hierarchical sub-tile strategy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaolong; Lu, Wei; Wang, Zhiyu; Pan, Linqiang; Cui, Guangzhao; Xu, Jin; LaBean, Thomas H

    2014-02-21

    DNA tile based self-assembly provides a bottom-up approach to construct desired nanostructures. DNA tiles have been directly constructed from ssDNA and readily self-assembled into 2D lattices and 3D superstructures. However, for more complex lattice designs including algorithmic assemblies requiring larger tile sets, a more modular approach could prove useful. This paper reports a new DNA 'sub-tile' strategy to easily create whole families of programmable tiles. Here, we demonstrate the stability and flexibility of our sub-tile structures by constructing 3-, 4- and 6-arm DNA tiles that are subsequently assembled into 2D lattices and 3D nanotubes according to a hierarchical design. Assembly of sub-tiles, tiles, and superstructures was analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and atomic force microscopy. DNA tile self-assembly methods provide a bottom-up approach to create desired nanostructures; the sub-tile strategy adds a useful new layer to this technique. Complex units can be made from simple parts. The sub-tile approach enables the rapid redesign and prototyping of complex DNA tile sets and tiles with asymmetric designs.

  1. Precision porcelain jacket crown technique.

    PubMed

    Riley, E J; Sozio, R B; Casthely, F; Wilcko, M T; Sotera, A J

    1975-09-01

    A simple technique for construction of an aluminous porcelain crown has been described. An aluminous core is fabricated without platinum foil on a ceramic refractory die and, when retrieved, serves as a coping on the master cast. The technique and accuracy of fit are illustrated with the fabrication of an aluminous porcelain crown on the Bureau of Standards' full-crown die.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  7. Interlocking wettable ceramic tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Tabereaux, Jr., Alton T.; Fredrickson, Guy L.; Groat, Eric; Mroz, Thomas; Ulicny, Alan; Walker, Mark F.

    2005-03-08

    An electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum having a layer of interlocking cathode tiles positioned on a cathode block. Each tile includes a main body and a vertical restraining member to prevent movement of the tiles away from the cathode block during operation of the cell. The anode of the electrolytic cell may be positioned about 1 inch from the interlocking cathode tiles.

  8. Preassembly Of Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izu, Y. D.; Yoshioka, E. N.; Rosario, T.

    1988-01-01

    Concept for preassembling high-temperature insulating tiles speeds and simplifies installation and repair and reduces damage from handling. Preassembly concept facilitates placement of tiles on gently contoured surfaces as well as on flat ones. Tiles bonded to nylon mesh with room-temperature-vulcanizing silicon rubber. Spacing between tiles is 0.03 in. Applications include boilers, kilns, and furnaces.

  9. Influence of powder/liquid mixing ratio on porosity and translucency of dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlong; Griggs, Jason A; Benham, Adam W

    2004-02-01

    Dental technicians use a variety of techniques when condensing dental porcelains. It is unclear whether these techniques affect the total porosity and translucency of dental porcelains. The objective of this study was to determine whether varying the powder/liquid ratio during condensation affects porosity and translucency of porcelains. Material and methods Duceram LFC dentin, Duceram LFC incisal, IPS Eris dentin, and IPS Eris incisal porcelains were studied. For each specimen, 1.0 g of porcelain powder was mixed with 1 of 3 different volumes of deionized water to form a slurry with a thin, medium, or thick consistency. The slurries were condensed in a plastic syringe mold, fired, and polished to a 3-microm finish to form 12 groups of 4 specimens each (14-mm diameter, 1.10-mm thickness). The apparent density (g/mL) of each specimen was measured using Archimedes method, and the porosity (%) calculated. Each specimen was coupled to standard ceramic tiles using an immersion liquid, and the color shade was measured in CIE Yxy coordinates using a tristimulus colorimeter. Translucency was assessed by calculating the contrast ratio of shade value (Y) in front of black versus white backgrounds. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (alpha = .05) were used to test for significant effects of factors. Porcelain type and powder/liquid ratio had a significant interactive effect on the apparent density (P < .001) and on total porosity (P = .003); however, there was no consistent trend. The powder/liquid ratio did not significantly affect translucency (P = .28), but porcelain type had a significant effect on translucency (P < .001). In this in vitro study, total porosity of specimens prepared using 4 porcelains was found to be sensitive to powder/liquid ratio; whereas translucency was found to be insensitive to powder/liquid ratio.

  10. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-02-06

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  11. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  12. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOEpatents

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  13. Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Radz, Gary M

    2011-04-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.

  14. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  15. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  16. Two Views of Islam: Ceramic Tile Design and Miniatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Sara Grove

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project focusing on Islamic art that consists of two parts: (1) ceramic tile design; and (2) Islamic miniatures. Provides background information on Islamic art and step-by-step instructions for designing the Islamic tile and miniature. Includes learning objectives and resources on Islamic tile miniatures. (CMK)

  17. Handmade Tile Mosaics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Just like the classroom, children's outdoor environments should be filled with artistic creations that add sparkle and imagination to the space. One of the author's favorite ways to add art to the outdoors is by installing a mosaic mural of child-made tiles. The process of making the tiles is fun for all; each tile is a charming work of art in…

  18. Generalized quasiperiodic Rauzy tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Julien; Mosseri, Rémy

    2001-05-01

    We present a geometrical description of new canonical d-dimensional codimension one quasiperiodic tilings based on generalized Fibonacci sequences. These tilings are made up of rhombi in 2d and rhombohedra in 3d as the usual Penrose and icosahedral tilings. Thanks to a natural indexing of the sites according to their local environment, we easily write down, for any approximant, the sites coordinates, the connectivity matrix and we compute the structure factor.

  19. 39. West tile gauge on south pier. Each square tile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. West tile gauge on south pier. Each square tile is 4' in size. Bottom left hand corner of west tile - Duluth Ship Canal, South Pier, North end of Minnesota Point & Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  20. 40. West tile gauge on south pier. Each square tile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. West tile gauge on south pier. Each square tile is 4' in size. Bottom right hand corner of west tile - Duluth Ship Canal, South Pier, North end of Minnesota Point & Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  1. Distributed graph visualization on tiled displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sangwon

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed force-directed layout algorithm in order to handle large graph data on tiled display that consists of multiple computing machines and multiple displays connected to each computing machine through Ethernet. The distributed tiled display makes one big screen using multiple displays in order to discern data obviously. Besides, multiple computing devices on tiled displays share the parts of an entire dataset. Therefore, it can dramatically reduce the processing time to visualize data on screen compared with the processing time on a single machine.

  2. Application of porcelain enamel as an ultra-high-vacuum-compatible electrical insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Biscardi, C.; Hseuh, H.; Mapes, M.

    2000-07-01

    Many accelerator vacuum system components require electrical insulation internal to the vacuum system. Some accelerator components at Brookhaven National Laboratory are installed in ultra-high-vacuum systems which require the insulation to have excellent vacuum characteristics, be radiation resistant, and be able to withstand high temperatures when used on baked systems. Porcelain enamel satisfies all these requirements. This article describes the process and application of coating metal parts with porcelain enamel to provide electrical insulation. The mechanical and vacuum testing of Marman flanges coated with porcelain and using metal Helicoflex seals to form a zero-length electrical break are detailed. The use of porcelain enameled parts is attractive since it can be done quickly, is inexpensive and environmentally safe, and most of all satisfies stringent vacuum system requirements. (c) 2000 American Vacuum Society.

  3. Modelling the viscoelasticity of ceramic tiles by finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Ana; Fragassa, Cristiano

    2016-05-01

    This research details a numerical method aiming at investigating the viscoelastic behaviour of a specific family of ceramic material, the Grès Porcelain, during an uncommon transformation, known as pyroplasticity, which occurs when a ceramic tile bends under a combination of thermal stress and own weight. In general, the theory of viscoelasticity can be considered extremely large and precise, but its application on real cases is particularly delicate. A time-depending problem, as viscoelasticity naturally is, has to be merged with a temperature-depending situation. This paper investigates how the viscoelastic response of bending ceramic materials can be modelled by commercial Finite Elements codes.

  4. Rewaterproofing Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lleger, L. J.; Wade, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Waterproofing agent, vaporized in bubbler transported by gas flowing in system and deposits in pores of tiles. Vapor carried through hole of approximately 1/16 inch (1.6.mm) diameter made in tile coating. Technique used to waterproof buildups (concrete and brick) and possibly fabrics.

  5. Rewaterproofing Silica Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lleger, L. J.; Wade, D. C.

    1983-01-01

    Waterproofing agent, vaporized in bubbler transported by gas flowing in system and deposits in pores of tiles. Vapor carried through hole of approximately 1/16 inch (1.6.mm) diameter made in tile coating. Technique used to waterproof buildups (concrete and brick) and possibly fabrics.

  6. Porcelain enameling furnaces retrofitted with ceramic fiber to increase fuel savings and production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Appliance manufacturers and companies supplying porcelainized parts have done considerable revamping and modernizing of their furnaces. As a result, economy of production has been improved through either substantial fuel savings or increased productivity or both. Coinciding with this industry furnace upgrading, a refractory engineering and contracting firm, Ronalco Inc., Louisville, KY has emerged, within a few years, as experts in porcelain enameling furnace renovations devising their own innovative methodology for lining and heating these units.

  7. Effect of Porcelain Surface Pretreatments on Composite Resin-Porcelain Shear Bond Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    composite resin and dental porcelain has drawn much attention in recent years. This bond’is important in dentistry because without it, porcelain...of this research were to determine the effects that six dental porcelain surface pretreatments, two types of silane , and thermocycling had on...used in the principal study. The principal study compared six porcelain surface pretreatments, two silanes , and two specimen aging protocols. The six

  8. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, A. S. A.; Sousa, F. J. P.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2016-02-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed.

  9. Enamel wear of modified porcelains.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Suzuki, S; Fukushima, S

    2000-12-01

    To evaluate the wear of three different modified ceramics along with a conventional porcelain and the wear of opposing enamel at initial wear cycle on a two-body and a three-body wear simulation. Modified ceramics used in this study included a low fusing/low crystal porcelain (Finesse), a high fusing/low crystal porcelain (Softspar), and a heat-pressable ceramic (IPS Empress). A conventional porcelain (Ceramco II) was used as the control material. Hemispherical shaped ceramic styli (1/8 inch in diameter) made of respective materials were fabricated according to the manufacturers' directions. Proximal surfaces of non-carious human molars were ground flat within the enamel with a silicon carbide paper to 600 grit with copious irrigation. They were perpendicularly opposed to each other with or without intermediate material as a food bolus and subjected to in vitro wear test by a UAB wear simulator. A 75.6 N load was applied vertically onto the surface at 1.2 Hz. The surface was duplicated after respective wear cycles. Seven specimens were tested for each group of both simulations. The enamel wear loss when opposing the modified ceramics was less than the Ceramco II control which exhibited the greatest values. The IPS Empress material showed the least amount of wear among them. Statistically significant differences were seen between the IPS Empress and the Ceramco II for every cycle interval evaluated (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Although the enamel wear loss when opposing the IPS Empress was significantly less (ANOVA, P < 0.05) than the others until 20,000 wear cycles, no significant differences were found among the modified ceramics at the end of 50,000 wear cycles. The concentric wear patterns were already prominent at 5,000 wear cycles on two-body wear, however, the wear facet of the three-body wear was smaller (the wear depth of 0-5 microm) than the two-body wear test, as it was quite similar to the one of the two-body wear test at 100 wear cycles. On the other hand

  10. Regulating the working properties of porcelain slip

    SciTech Connect

    Karpilovskii, L.P.; Kralinina, L.N.; Makarov, V.A.; Sidorenko, Z.I.

    1986-05-01

    It was decided to introduce changes in the recipe of the clay part of the raw material to provide a reduction in the density and a restoration of the Prosyyanovsk kaolin (PK) slip's fluidity, the volume of the PK batch would be maintained, and the working properties of the body could be insured within the same limits as prevailed before recipe of the stone materials and the chemical composition of the porcelain would be left unchanged. The results indicate the effectiveness of using the analytical method for clay suspensions for operational assessment of the technical properties of raw materials and regulating the working properties of the body. The method of filtration analysis and determination of the elastic properties of the suspension can also be recommended for use in benefication combines. The advantage of the methods consists in the rapidity of carrying out the analysis which means where necessary can operationally intervene in the technological process.

  11. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-13 Limitations on porcelain use. Porcelain must not be used... solidly mounted by machine screws or their equivalent, unless the porcelain piece is resiliently mounted....

  12. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-13 Limitations on porcelain use. Porcelain must not be used... solidly mounted by machine screws or their equivalent, unless the porcelain piece is resiliently mounted....

  13. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-13 Limitations on porcelain use. Porcelain must not be used... solidly mounted by machine screws or their equivalent, unless the porcelain piece is resiliently mounted....

  14. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General § 111.01-13 Limitations on porcelain use. Porcelain must not be used... solidly mounted by machine screws or their equivalent, unless the porcelain piece is resiliently mounted....

  15. Tiled Multicore Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael B.; Lee, Walter; Miller, Jason E.; Wentzlaff, David; Bratt, Ian; Greenwald, Ben; Hoffmann, Henry; Johnson, Paul R.; Kim, Jason S.; Psota, James; Saraf, Arvind; Shnidman, Nathan; Strumpen, Volker; Frank, Matthew I.; Amarasinghe, Saman; Agarwal, Anant

    For the last few decades Moore’s Law has continually provided exponential growth in the number of transistors on a single chip. This chapter describes a class of architectures, called tiled multicore architectures, that are designed to exploit massive quantities of on-chip resources in an efficient, scalable manner. Tiled multicore architectures combine each processor core with a switch to create a modular element called a tile. Tiles are replicated on a chip as needed to create multicores with any number of tiles. The Raw processor, a pioneering example of a tiled multicore processor, is examined in detail to explain the philosophy, design, and strengths of such architectures. Raw addresses the challenge of building a general-purpose architecture that performs well on a larger class of stream and embedded computing applications than existing microprocessors, while still running existing ILP-based sequential programs with reasonable performance. Central to achieving this goal is Raw’s ability to exploit all forms of parallelism, including ILP, DLP, TLP, and Stream parallelism. Raw approaches this challenge by implementing plenty of on-chip resources - including logic, wires, and pins - in a tiled arrangement, and exposing them through a new ISA, so that the software can take advantage of these resources for parallel applications. Compared to a traditional superscalar processor, Raw performs within a factor of 2x for sequential applications with a very low degree of ILP, about 2x-9x better for higher levels of ILP, and 10x-100x better when highly parallel applications are coded in a stream language or optimized by hand.

  16. Tiling motion patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-11-01

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a nontrivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieve the level of interaction complexity far beyond the current state of the art that animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions.

  17. Tiling Motion Patches.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Kyunglyul; Kim, Manmyung; Hwang, Youngseok; Lee, Jehee

    2013-05-08

    Simulating multiple character interaction is challenging because character actions must be carefully coordinated to align their spatial locations and synchronized with each other. We present an algorithm to create a dense crowd of virtual characters interacting with each other. The interaction may involve physical contacts, such as hand shaking, hugging, and carrying a heavy object collaboratively. We address the problem by collecting deformable motion patches, each of which describes an episode of multiple interacting characters, and tiling them spatially and temporally. The tiling of motion patches generates a seamless simulation of virtual characters interacting with each other in a non-trivial manner. Our tiling algorithm uses a combination of stochastic sampling and deterministic search to address the discrete and continuous aspects of the tiling problem. Our tiling algorithm made it possible to automatically generate highly-complex animation of multiple interacting characters. We achieved the level of complexity far beyond the current state-of-the-art animation techniques could generate, in terms of the diversity of human behaviors and the spatial/temporal density of interpersonal interactions.

  18. Seamless tiled display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, Matthew B. (Inventor); Larson, Brent D. (Inventor); Kolosowsky, Aleksandra (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A modular and scalable seamless tiled display apparatus includes multiple display devices, a screen, and multiple lens assemblies. Each display device is subdivided into multiple sections, and each section is configured to display a sectional image. One of the lens assemblies is optically coupled to each of the sections of each of the display devices to project the sectional image displayed on that section onto the screen. The multiple lens assemblies are configured to merge the projected sectional images to form a single tiled image. The projected sectional images may be merged on the screen by magnifying and shifting the images in an appropriate manner. The magnification and shifting of these images eliminates any visual effect on the tiled display that may result from dead-band regions defined between each pair of adjacent sections on each display device, and due to gaps between multiple display devices.

  19. Evaluation of an experimental dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M; El-Waseffy, Noha A; Hasan, Ahmed M; El-Falal, Abeer A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture toughness, hardness, ceramic/metal bond strength and microstructure of experimental dental porcelain and compare it with commercial type. Specimens of specific dimensions were prepared. Fracture toughness was assessed by a three-point bending test. The Vickers hardness was measured using a microhardness tester. The ceramometal bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. The load was applied at the porcelain/metal interface via a chisel edged blade with a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min until fracture. The polished specimens of dental porcelain were chemically etched and the microstructure was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. The results showed comparable fracture toughness and bond strength for both materials, while the experimental porcelain exhibited higher hardness. The experimental porcelain showed uniform cohesive failure while the commercial type showed mixed mode of failure. The microstructure of the experimental porcelain was tetragonal leucite crystals dispersed randomly in a glass matrix. The leucite crystals exist in two forms, acicular and rod like structures. It was concluded that the experimental porcelain has adequate fracture toughness and ceramic/metal bond strength that can resist the rapid crack propagation and its consequent catastrophic failure, which indicates a material serviceability in the oral cavity.

  20. Effect of porcelain and enamel thickness on porcelain veneer failure loads in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunling; Green, Chad C; Sederstrom, Dalene; McLaren, Edward A; White, Shane N

    2014-05-01

    Bonded porcelain veneers are widely used esthetic restorations. Although high success and survival rates have been reported, failures occur. Fracture is the most common failure mode. Fractures range from incomplete cracks to the catastrophic. Minimally invasive or thin partial veneers have gained popularity. The aim of this study was to measure the influences of porcelain veneer thickness and enamel substrate thickness on the loads needed to cause the initial fracture and catastrophic failure of porcelain veneers. Model discoid porcelain veneer specimens of varying thickness were bonded to the flattened facial surfaces of incisors, artificially aged, and loaded to failure with a small sphere. Individual fracture events were identified and analyzed statistically and fractographically. Fracture events included initial Hertzian cracks, intermediate radial cracks, and catastrophic gross failure. Increased porcelain, enamel, and their combined thickness had like effects in substantially raising resistance to catastrophic failure but also slightly decreased resistance to initial Hertzian cracking. Fractographic and numerical data demonstrated that porcelain and tooth enamel behaved in a remarkably similar manner. As porcelain thickness, enamel thickness, and their combined thickness increased, the loads needed to produce initial fracture and catastrophic failure rose substantially. Porcelain veneers withstood considerable damage before catastrophic failure. Increased enamel thickness, increased porcelain thickness, and increased combined enamel and porcelain thickness all profoundly raised the failure loads necessary to cause catastrophic failure. Enamel and feldspathic porcelain behaved in a like manner. Surface contact damage occurred initially. Final catastrophic failure followed flexural radial cracking. Bonded porcelain veneers were highly damage tolerant. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  2. Crosslinking in viral capsids via tiling theory.

    PubMed

    Twarock, R; Hendrix, R W

    2006-06-07

    A vital part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence protects the viral genome. It has been shown in Twarock [2004. A tiling approach to vius capsids assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477-482] that the surface structures of viruses with icosahedrally symmetric capsids can be modelled in terms of tilings that encode the locations of the protein subunits. This theory is extended here to multi-level tilings in order to model crosslinking structures. The new framework is demonstrated for the case of bacteriophage HK97, and it is shown, how the theory can be used in general to decide if crosslinking, and what type of crosslinking, is compatible from a mathematical point of view with the geometrical surface structure of a virus.

  3. Porcelain Gallbladder: Decoding the malignant truth.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman O

    2016-11-01

    Gallbladder calcification, also referred to as porcelain gallbladder, has received significant attention in the medical literature due to its perceived role in increasing the risk of developing a gallbladder carcinoma. However, recent reports raise questions challenging this purported high risk. While previous studies reported a concomitant incidence of gallbladder cancer in porcelain gallbladder ranging from 7-60%, more recent analyses indicate the incidence to be much lower (6%). Based on evidence in the current literature, a prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely recommended for all patients with porcelain gallbladder and should be restricted to those with conventional indications, such as young patients. However, it is important to note that a nonoperative approach may require prolonged follow-up. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a feasible therapeutic option for patients with porcelain gallbladder, although some researchers have indicated a higher incidence of complications and conversion due to technical difficulties.

  4. New raw material for electrical porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Portnova, I.G.; Omel'chenko, Yu.A.

    1986-09-01

    Research is described in finding new raw materials for the fabrication of porcelain electrical insulators for power transmission lines. The materials tested come from several deposits in the Soviet Union and include alumina minerals, quartz, feldspars, pegmatites, clays, and two kaolins, as well as waste materials recovered from porcelain production. Comparative electrical and mechanical properties, grain sizes, sinterabilities, and mineral compositions are tabulated for the candidate materials.

  5. Porcelain shoulder adaptation using direct refractory dies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D M; Levi, M S; Mori, D F

    1976-11-01

    Eleven direct refractory dies were made from separate polysulfide rubber impressions of two Dentoform teeth which had been prepared for porcelain-fused-to-gold veneer crowns with labial porcelain shoulders. Porcelain veneer crowns were built and fired directly on the dies, following the manufacturer's instructions and using a common laboratory technique. The finished crowns were seated on the Dentoform teeth, and the porcelain-tooth adaptation was measured with a micrometer eyepiece in a dissecting microscope. In general, the study indicated that by use of a direct refractory die, the porcelain adaptation of an average porcelain shoulder veneer crown could be made to fall within the tolerances of a clinically acceptable gold margin (39 mu).21 The crown could likewise be made to adapt closer than the normal thickness of cement film may allow (20 to 40 mu).22 However the adaptation of many crowns was more uneven than the above statements would tend to indicate. The study also showed that with great care and a limited number of firings, margins of a lesser thickness than a piece of 0.001 inch (25.4 mu) platinum foil could be attained. There appears to be promise in the use of a direct refractory die material. However, more studies are needed to overcome some of the problems in the technique described.

  6. Planar tilings by polyominoes, polyhexes, and polyiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Glenn C.

    2005-02-01

    Using computer programs, we enumerate and classify the tiling behavior of small polyominoes (n[less-than-or-equals, slant]9), polyhexes (n[less-than-or-equals, slant]7), and polyiamonds (n[less-than-or-equals, slant]10). For tiles that tile the Euclidean plane, we give diagrams illustrating how they tile. We also show several larger tiles whose minimal fundamental domain in any admitted (periodic) tiling is significantly larger than for any previously known tile.

  7. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, Luis A M; Facio, Dario S; Mosquera, Maria J

    2016-03-04

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a 'green' product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  8. Producing superhydrophobic roof tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Luis A. M.; Facio, Dario S.; Mosquera, Maria J.

    2016-03-01

    Superhydrophobic materials can find promising applications in the field of building. However, their application has been very limited because the synthesis routes involve tedious processes, preventing large-scale application. A second drawback is related to their short-term life under outdoor conditions. A simple and low-cost synthesis route for producing superhydrophobic surfaces on building materials is developed and their effectiveness and their durability on clay roof tiles are evaluated. Specifically, an organic-inorganic hybrid gel containing silica nanoparticles is produced. The nanoparticles create a densely packed coating on the roof tile surface in which air is trapped. This roughness produces a Cassie-Baxter regime, promoting superhydrophobicity. A surfactant, n-octylamine, was also added to the starting sol to catalyze the sol-gel process and to coarsen the pore structure of the gel network, preventing cracking. The application of ultrasound obviates the need to use volatile organic compounds in the synthesis, thereby making a ‘green’ product. It was also demonstrated that a co-condensation process effective between the organic and inorganic species is crucial to obtain durable and effective coatings. After an aging test, high hydrophobicity was maintained and water absorption was completely prevented for the roof tile samples under study. However, a transition from a Cassie-Baxter to a Wenzel state regime was observed as a consequence of the increase in the distance between the roughness pitches produced by the aging of the coating.

  9. A clinical evaluation of porcelain inlays.

    PubMed

    Isidor, F; Brøndum, K

    1995-08-01

    Sparse data are available concerning the survival rate of porcelain inlays or onlays to inform the dentist and address the expectations of patients. A total of 25 posterior porcelain inlays were inserted by two dentists at a private Danish clinic; the time elapsed since cementation was 20 to 57 months (average 40.4 months). Tooth preparations for MOD porcelain inlays were completed for 13 premolars and 12 molars but most did not include cuspal coverage. All inlays were constructed at the same commercial dental laboratory and according to the manufacturer's recommendations; they were etched and treated with silane before they were cemented. The cementation included etching of cavosurface enamel and treatment of the dentin with a dentinal bonding system. A thin layer of composite resin luting agent was applied to the tooth preparation before the porcelain inlays were cemented. The first 10 porcelain inlays were cemented with a light-curing composite resin cement and the remaining 11 with a dual-curing composite resin cement. Twelve of the 25 porcelain inlays failed and were replaced during the observation period. Ten failures were due to a fracture of the inlay, one was caused by secondary caries, and the final failure was attributed to a marginal gap between the inlay and proximal tooth surface. Porcelain inlays cemented with light-curing composite resin exhibited more failures (p = 0.05) than those cemented with dual-curing composite resin. In addition, more failures (p = 0.07) were recorded among inlays inserted in molars than among those in premolars.

  10. Universal adhesive (glue composition) for electrical porcelain products

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Belen'kaya, E.S.; Omel'chenko, Y.A.; Vinogradova, T.K.

    1986-05-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an adhesive for porcelain insulators that exhibits high physicomechanical properties and increased resistance to the simultaneous action of heat and moisture. One method of solving this problem is to introduce special additives possessing hydrophobic (waterrepelling) properties into the adhesive composition during the process of its preparation. The adhesive based on the ED-20 epoxy resin and TEA hardened with 5 parts of AF-2 additive possesses higher resistance to the action of heat and moisture as compared to the adhesive used at the present time for assembling insulators. The improved and stable physiomechanical properties of the developed adhesive permit its use in any climactic conditions.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6660 - Porcelain powder for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Porcelain powder for clinical use. 872.6660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6660 Porcelain powder for clinical use. (a) Identification. Porcelain powder for clinical use is a device consisting of a mixture of...

  12. Arithmetic theory of brick tilings

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A V; Prikhod'ko, A A

    1998-12-31

    A new, 'arithmetic', approach to the algebraic theory of brick tilings is developed. This approach enables one to construct a simple classification of brick tilings in Z{sup d} and to find new proofs of several classical results on brick packing and tilings in Z{sup d}. In addition, possible generalizations of results on integer brick packing to the Euclidean plane R{sup 2} are investigated.

  13. Stress intensity factor threshold in dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Humberto Naoyuki; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Soki, Fabiana Naomi; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2008-05-01

    The stress intensity factor threshold (KI0) is related to the stress level at which cracks start to grow stably, causing the weakening of porcelain prostheses during their use. The values of KI0 of seven dental porcelains (with and without reinforcing leucite crystal, KAlSi2O6) stored in air (22 degrees C, 60% relative humidity) and artificial saliva (37 degrees C) were determined by measuring the crack growth velocity of radial cracks generated at the corner of Vickers indentations. The results of KI0 were correlated with the leucite content, fracture toughness (KIc), and chemical composition of the porcelains. It was observed that KI0 increased with the increase of leucite content (only for the leucite-based porcelains) and with the increase of KIc. The increase in Al2O3 content or the decrease in the alkali oxide (K2O and Na2O) content of the material's glassy matrix tended to increase the KI0 values. Storage media (air and saliva) did not significantly affect the KI0 of porcelains tested, indicating that the control parameter of KI0 value was not the water content of the storage media.

  14. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, B.

    1995-04-11

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow there between. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow. 8 figures.

  15. Ceramic tile expansion engine housing

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Blake

    1995-01-01

    An expandable ceramic tile housing for a high temperature engine is disclosed wherein each tile is independently supported in place in an interlocking matrix by retention mechanisms which mechanically couple the individual ceramic tiles to an outer metal support housing while maintaining thermal isolation of the metal housing from the ceramic tiles. The ceramic tiles are formed with either an octagonal front face portion and a square shank portion or a square front face portion with an octagonal shank portion. The length of the sides of the octagonal front face portion on one tile is equal to the length of the sides of the square front face portion of adjoining tiles to permit formation of an interlocking matrix. Fibrous ceramic sealing material may be placed between radial and tangential facing surfaces of adjacent tiles to limit radial gas flow therebetween. Labyrinth-sealed pressure-controlled compartments may be established between the tile housing and the outer metal support housing to control radial gas flow.

  16. 57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ORIGINAL TILE PRESS AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL KILN, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING, HENRY MERCER USED THE KILN FOR HIS EARLIEST GLAZE TESTS. THE PRESS WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH METAL CASED MOLDS. SINCE ONLY THE EARLIEST TILE DESIGNS ARE IN METAL CASES. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS PROBABLY DISCONTINUED. THIS PRESS WAS, THEREFORE, PROBABLY NOT USED EXTENSIVELY AT THIS SITE. THE UPPER PART OF GLAZE KILN No. 2 IS AT THE LEFT REAR. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  17. Hot-pressed porcelain process for porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations.

    PubMed

    McPhee, E R

    1975-05-01

    A technique has been described that simplifies the production of full-coverage, porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. The process utilizes a furnace-flask system in which the restoration is invested in a high-temperature refractory material and processed at an elevated temperature (1,850 degrees F.) under pressure. Shrinkage of 0.001 to 0.005 inch at the supporting cusp tips and fossae has been recorded. Tests indicate that the porcelain produced has a tensile strength and wear rate similar to those of porcelain processed by conventional methods.

  18. Addition of platinum and silver nanoparticles to toughen dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have investigated toughening porcelain that is layered over a frame or a core. The introduction of residual compressive stress to the surface of porcelain has been shown to be effective to strengthen it. In the present study, nanoparticles of precious metals of silver and platinum (rather than non-precious metals) were used to evaluate if they could increase the fracture resistance of porcelain. The addition of silver and platinum nanoparticles was found to improve the mechanical properties of porcelain since it increased both the Young's modulus and the fracture toughness of commercial porcelain.

  19. Covering the Plane with Rep-Tiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosnaugh, Linda S.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students use geometric figures, rep-tiles, to design a tile floor. Rep-tiles are geometric figures of which copies can fit together to form a larger similar figure. Includes reproducible student worksheet. (MKR)

  20. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. K.; Yu, Y. C.; Wang, C. W.; Liu, T. Y.; Wu, C. M.; Chen, K. M.; Lin, S. S.

    1999-04-01

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  1. Effects of dental porcelain containing silver nanoparticles on static fatigue.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Kamemizu, Hideo; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of silver nanoparticles on the behavior of subcritical crack growth (SCG) in dental porcelains. Prior to occurrence of fast fracture in dental porcelains, SCG occurs and leads to strength degradation over time. SCG in dental porcelains can be characterized by the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient, n. A higher n value means a higher resistance to SCG. In this study, porcelain disks were prepared by mixing a commercial dental porcelain powder with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles, and then air-dried and fired according to manufacturer's instructions. Stress corrosion susceptibility coefficients of powder compacts were determined using a post-indentation method. A Vickers indenter was applied to the porcelain surface, and lengths of median cracks were measured at fixed time intervals over a 24-h period to calculate n. Addition of silver nanoparticles significantly increased the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient of dental porcelain.

  2. Strength and fracture origins of a feldspathic porcelain.

    PubMed

    Quinn, George D; Hoffman, Kathleen; Quinn, Janet B

    2012-05-01

    To identify the strength limiting flaws in in vitro test specimens of a fine-grained feldspathic dental porcelain. Four-point flexural strengths were measured for 26 test specimens. The fracture origin site of every test specimen was studied using stereoptical and scanning electron microscopy. A fractographically labeled Weibull strength distribution graph was prepared. The complex microstructure of the feldspathic dental porcelain included a variety of feldspars, tridymite, and a feldspathoid as well as pores/bubbles and residual glass. The relatively high flexural strength is due in part to the fine grain size. Fractography revealed five flaw types that controlled strength: baseline microstructural flaws, pores/bubbles, side wall grinding damage, corner machining damage, and inclusions. The baseline microstructural flaws probably were clusters of particular crystalline phases. Each flaw type probably has a different severity and size distribution, and hence has a different strength distribution. The Weibull strength distribution graph blended the strength distributions of the five flaw types and the apparent good fit of the combined data to a unimodal strength distribution was misleading. Polishing failed to eliminate deeper transverse grinding cracks and corner damage from earlier preparation steps in many of the test pieces. Bend bars should be prepared carefully with longitudinal surface grinding whenever possible and edge chamfers should be carefully applied. If the grinding and preparation flaws were eliminated, the Weibull modulus for this feldspathic porcelain would be greater than 30. Pores/bubbles sometimes controlled strength, but only if they touched each other or an exposed surface. Isolated interior bubble/pores were harmless. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strength and Fracture Origins of a Feldspathic Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, George D.; Hoffman, Kathleen; Quinn, Janet B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify the strength limiting flaws in in-vitro test specimens of a fine-grained feldspathic dental porcelain. Methods Four-point flexural strengths were measured for 26 test specimens. The fracture origin site of every test specimen was studied using stereoptical and scanning electron microscopy. A fractographically-labeled Weibull strength distribution graph was prepared. Results The complex microstructure of the feldspathic dental porcelain included a variety of feldspars, tridymite, and a feldspathoid as well as pores/bubbles and residual glass. The relatively high flexural strength is due in part to the fine grain size. Fractography revealed five flaw types that controlled strength: baseline microstructural flaws, pores/bubbles, side wall grinding damage, corner machining damage, and inclusions. The baseline microstructural flaws probably were clusters of particular crystalline phases. Significance Each flaw type probably has a different severity and size distribution, and hence has a different strength distribution. The Weibull strength distribution graph blended the strength distributions of the five flaw types and the apparent good fit of the combined data to a unimodal strength distribution was misleading. Polishing failed to eliminate deeper transverse grinding cracks and corner damage from earlier preparation steps in many of the test pieces. Bend bars should be prepared carefully with longitudinal surface grinding whenever possible and edge chamfers should be carefully applied. If the grinding and preparation flaws were eliminated, the Weibull modulus for this feldspathic porcelain would be greater than 30. Pores/bubbles sometimes controlled strength, but only if they touched each other or an exposed surface. Isolated interior bubble/pores were harmless. PMID:22217606

  4. Detecting Filler Spaces Under Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Paul; Shinkevich, David; Scheuer, John

    1991-01-01

    Eddy-current probe nondestructively and indirectly indicates whether screed present under ceramic tile on aluminum substrate. Transducer coil excites eddy currents in aluminum substrate material. Response appears on oscilloscope or meter. Changes in response indicate spatially abrupt changes in substrate. Intended for use on insulating tiles on Space Shuttle, potential terrestrial applications in nondestructive testing.

  5. Kinetics of DNA tile dimerization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuoxing; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-24

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile-tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency.

  6. Effect of porcelain shape for strain behavior of strengthened porcelain in impact test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Akemi; Kurachi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Masatoshi; Ota, Toshitaka

    2011-10-01

    Four types of strengthened porcelains were evaluated by an impact examination machine based on ASTM C368-88. The waveform of strain developed on impact was measured by a strain gauge pasted on the inside surface and the outside surface, vertical and horizontal direction of porcelain. In minute scales, procelain deformed into an oval shape as a whole by an impact onto the rim, where the higher tensile strain occurred in the horizontal direction on the inside surface of porcelain. The maximum tensile strain occurred at the impact point. The waveform of strain, that showed two remarkable peaks, was greatly affected by porcelain shape. In addition it was more or less affected by measurement conditions such as impact energy, weight or speed of hammer, weight for holding, and position of backstops.

  7. Porcelain thickness and cement shade effects on the colour and translucency of porcelain veneering materials.

    PubMed

    Kürklü, Duygu; Azer, Shereen S; Yilmaz, Burak; Johnston, William M

    2013-11-01

    Purposes of this in vitro study include evaluating colour changes in combinations of feldspathic porcelain and cement resulting from different thicknesses of porcelain and different shades of composite luting agent, and evaluating relative translucency parameter (RTP) values. Porcelain discs of shade A1 at nominal thicknesses of 0.5 and 1.0mm were bonded to cements of three shades in a factorial design. Colours were calculated for CIE D65 Illuminant and Standard Human Observer on black, grey and white backings. A colour difference (CD) was calculated of each possible pair of different porcelain thickness values for the same cement shade and each possible pair of different cement shades for the same porcelain thickness. RTP was analyzed by ANOVA and selected pairwise comparisons. All mean CDs studied were perceptible and most were at or greater than the clinical acceptability threshold, with the notable exception that the mean CDs and their confidence limits were below the clinical acceptability threshold for a change in porcelain thickness when utilizing the Clear cement shade. Variation in the shade of the resin luting cement will result in CDs which are near or beyond clinical acceptability. A decrease in porcelain thickness did significantly increase RTP when bonded to the resin cement shades studied. Changes in porcelain thickness or cement shade may adversely affect basic aesthetic properties of these materials. Development of methods for analyzing aesthetic effects over greater ranges of thickness for these materials would improve the prognosis for using these materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Polishing of dental porcelain by polycrystalline diamond.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Sato, Hideaki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Hojo, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) exhibits excellent abrasive characteristics and is commonly used as loose grains for precision machining of hard ceramics and other materials that are difficult to grind and polish. In the present study, we investigated using bonded PCD for polishing dental porcelain, for which a lustrous surface is difficult to obtain by polishing. We compared the surface texture and characteristics of dental porcelain after polishing with bonded PCD with that obtained using bonded monocrystalline diamond (MCD), which is commonly used for this purpose. Polishing was performed at various pressures and rotational speeds on a custom-built polishing apparatus using bonded PCD or MCD with grain sizes of 3.92 μm on specimens consisting of VITA Omega 900 dentin porcelain after firing and then glazing to a specified surface roughness. The surface roughness of the polished porcelain and the abrasion quantity in terms of its polishing depth were measured, and its surface texture and characteristics were investigated. At low polishing pressures, PCD yielded a finer polished surface than MCD. The polishing depth after polishing for 20-30 min was approximately 2-3 μm with PCD and 1-2 μm with MCD. The polished surface was more uniform and smooth with PCD than with MCD.

  9. Low absorptance porcelain-on-aluminum coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.

    1979-01-01

    Porcelain thermal-control coating for aluminum sheet and foil has solar absorptance of 0.22. Specially formulated coating absorptance is highly stable, changing only 0.03 after 1,000 hours of exposure to simulated sunlight and can be applied by standard commercial methods.

  10. Low absorptance porcelain-on-aluminum coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.

    1979-01-01

    Porcelain thermal-control coating for aluminum sheet and foil has solar absorptance of 0.22. Specially formulated coating absorptance is highly stable, changing only 0.03 after 1,000 hours of exposure to simulated sunlight and can be applied by standard commercial methods.

  11. Kinetics of DNA Tile Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Investigating how individual molecular components interact with one another within DNA nanoarchitectures, both in terms of their spatial and temporal interactions, is fundamentally important for a better understanding of their physical behaviors. This will provide researchers with valuable insight for designing more complex higher-order structures that can be assembled more efficiently. In this report, we examined several spatial factors that affect the kinetics of bivalent, double-helical (DH) tile dimerization, including the orientation and number of sticky ends (SEs), the flexibility of the double helical domains, and the size of the tiles. The rate constants we obtained confirm our hypothesis that increased nucleation opportunities and well-aligned SEs accelerate tile–tile dimerization. Increased flexibility in the tiles causes slower dimerization rates, an effect that can be reversed by introducing restrictions to the tile flexibility. The higher dimerization rates of more rigid tiles results from the opposing effects of higher activation energies and higher pre-exponential factors from the Arrhenius equation, where the pre-exponential factor dominates. We believe that the results presented here will assist in improved implementation of DNA tile based algorithmic self-assembly, DNA based molecular robotics, and other specific nucleic acid systems, and will provide guidance to design and assembly processes to improve overall yield and efficiency. PMID:24794259

  12. Stress relaxation behavior of dental porcelains at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, P H; Vontivillu, S B; Wang, Z; Anusavice, K J

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the stress relaxation behavior at elevated temperatures of three experimental opaque porcelains and three experimental body porcelains. Feldspathic porcelain formulations covering a range of thermal contraction coefficients were supplied by a dental ceramics manufacturer. Six specimens, 11 mm in diameter by 22 mm long, were fabricated for each porcelain. The specimens were tested in compression at five temperatures controlled to +/- 1 degree C in a hot stage furnace attached to a screw-type uni-axial testing machine. Mean values of relaxation time, tau u, and the b function were determined by a regression fit to the relation: psi (t) = exp [-(t/tau u)b]. Values of b ranged from 0.23 to 0.53 for opaque porcelain and 0.47 to 0.64 for body porcelain. Relaxation times ranged from 2.6 s to 4 x 10(4) s for the opaque porcelains and 1.5 s to 5.5 x 10(2) s for the body porcelains. A statistically significant variation of b with temperature for three of the experimental porcelains is an indication that these porcelains do not satisfy the theoretical requirements for the porcelains to be classified as thermorheologically simple. A knowledge of the relaxation behavior of dental porcelains is necessary so that dental researchers can identify metal/porcelain combinations that will result in low stress values and, therefore, reduce the potential for failure from thermally induced stresses. These properties can be used in the optimization of prosthesis design to reduce the destruction of healthy tissue to accommodate the placement of the dental prosthesis.

  13. Effect of quartz sand replacement by agate rejects in triaxial porcelain.

    PubMed

    Correia, Sivaldo L; Dienstmann, Gracieli; Folgueras, Marilena V; Segadaes, Ana M

    2009-04-15

    The ceramics industry, given the high volume of materials processed, stands as one of the largest consumers of natural raw materials but has also the capacity and potential to make significant contributions to solving environmental problems associated with other industries rejects. This work investigates the effects of quartz sand replacement by agate rejects (scrap) in a traditional triaxial porcelain composition. The study was carried out using the design of experiments (DoE) method. Characterization results were used to calculate statistically significant and valid regression equations, relating dried and fired body properties with clay, feldspar and agate scrap contents in the unfired mixture. The regression models were then discussed against X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy results and used simultaneously to delimit the combinations of those three raw materials most adequate to produce a porcelainized stoneware floor tile with specified properties. Thus, an alternative use of an otherwise waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic benefits and an important and welcome relief on environmental and waste disposal concerns.

  14. Shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to porous zirconia.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Sugano, Tsuyoshi; Usami, Hirofumi; Wakabayashi, Kazumichi; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Sekino, Tohru; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two types of porous zirconia and dense zirconia were used. The flexural strength of non-layered zirconia specimens and those of the layered zirconia specimens with veneering porcelain were examined. Furthermore, the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia was examined. The flexural strength of the non-layered specimens was 1,220 MPa for dense zirconia and 220 to 306 MPa for porous zirconia. The flexural strength of the layered specimens was 360 MPa for dense zirconia and 132 to 156 MPa for porous zirconia, when a load was applied to the porcelain side. The shear bond strength of porcelain veneered to dense zirconia was 27.4 MPa and that of porcelain veneered to porous zirconia was 33.6 to 35.1 MPa. This suggests that the veneering porcelain bonded strongly to porous zirconia although porous zirconia has a lower flexural strength than dense zirconia.

  15. Gel route preparation of low fusing dental porcelain frit.

    PubMed

    Mabie, C P; Menis, D L; Whitenton, E P; Trout, R L; Metherate, R S; Ferry, C H

    1983-07-01

    Dental porcelain frits have been prepared by the gel route, a procedure involving solubilization of alkalies, boron, rare earth, and other compounds in an alumina-silica sol. Using this procedure, porcelain frits suitable for metal-ceramic application have been prepared that fire to maturity at temperatures lower than current commercial porcelains. Solubilities, translucencies, thermal expansion coefficients, dilatometric softening temperatures, and flexure strengths are within the ranges of current commercial porcelains. The high degree of dispersion of pigments and phosphors made possible by gel route technology and the technology's ability to disperse crystalline phases to strengthen porcelain offers many processing advantages. Gel route technology also offers a great degree of freedom in modifying porcelain properties.

  16. Difference in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the differences in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composites. The colors of three shades (A2, A3, A3.5) of one brand of dental porcelain, three original shades (A2, A3, A3.5), and three combinations (A2/A3, A3/3.5, A2/A3.5) of three brands of porcelain-repairing resin composites (ABT, FSP, TCR) were measured. The specimens were 2 mm thick, and 1 mm of each shade was layered to make combined shades. Differences in color (DeltaE(ab) (*)), lightness (DeltaL*), chroma (DeltaC(ab) (*)), and hue (DeltaH(*)) between porcelain and resin composite were calculated. Color difference was calculated as DeltaE(ab) (*) = (DeltaL*(2) + Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), chroma difference was calculated as DeltaC(ab) (*) = (Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), and hue difference was calculated as DeltaH(ab) (*) = (DeltaE(ab) (*2) - DeltaL*(2) - DeltaC(ab) (*2))(1/2). The influence of porcelain shade, brand of resin composites, and shade of resin composites were analyzed by three-way analyses of variance, and the differential influence of color parameters on color difference was analyzed with multiple regression analysis (alpha = 0.05). Differences in color and color parameters were influenced by the porcelain shade, brand and shade of resin composites. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was in the range of 2.2-16.9. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was correlated with DeltaC(ab) (*) (standardized correlation coefficient, beta = - 0.85), DeltaL* (beta = - 0.52), and DeltaH(ab) (*) (beta = 0.08). Between the same shade designated pairs of porcelain and repairing composite, color difference was perceptible. Therefore, studies to improve the color matching between porcelain and repairing resin are recommended.

  17. A hadronic tile calorimeter report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, Gianluigi; Gourlay, S.; Chung, Yeon Sei; Lee, Kyoung-Beom; Malvezzi, S.; Sala, A.; Arena, V.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Merlo, M.; Ratti, S.; Riccardi, C.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.

    1998-02-01

    The design and first performances of a new hadronic calorimeter for the experiment Focus (E831) at Fermilab are presented. It is a sampling calorimeter, with 28 iron (passive) and scintillator (active) planes. The active planes are composed of tiles read out by WaveLength Shifter fibers spliced to clear fibers. This is the first tile calorimeter actually used (1997)in a running experiment.

  18. Hydrothermally prepared inorganic siliceous wastes: Hydrothermal reaction of calcareous and steatite ceramic tile wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Maenami, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Takeyuki; Ishida, Hideki

    1996-12-31

    Possibility of solidification of various ceramic wastes by hydrothermal processing was investigated. The starting materials were feldspathic porcelain tile waste, steatite ceramic tile waste, and calcareous ceramic tile waste. These were mixed with CaO so as to obtain a Ca/Si molar ratio of 0.5. After forming, they were cured for 2 to 20 h under the saturated steam pressure at 200{degrees}C. Although the SiO{sub 2} content of these ceramic wastes was about 70 mass% and they contain various alkaline ions and alkaline earth ions, solidified specimens with flexural strength up to 35MPa were obtained. This is within the range of strengths when quartz or fused silica is used as pure SiO{sub 2} sources. Formation of tobermorite, which was detected in all systems after 2 h of curing, was considered to affect the increase of the strength. It was found that there is a possibility of aluminum and alkali ions being included in the structure of the formed tobermorite. In the case of using steatite ceramic tile waste containing Mg, magnesium silicate hydrates were also formed. The modal pore diameter shifted to 0.01 {mu} m with the formation of these hydrates and there was correlation between the flexural strength and the pore size distribution.

  19. Water-enhanced crystallization of leucite in dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mackert, J R; Williams, A L; Ergle, J W; Russell, C M

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term exposure of dental porcelain to saliva during temporary cementation of a porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restoration could enhance leucite crystallization if the restoration is refired. Such water-enhanced leucite crystallization in dental porcelains could lead to porcelain-metal thermal incompatibility problems. Six commercial dental body porcelains and the Component No. 1 (leucite-containing) frit of the Weinstein et al. [13] patent were studied. For each porcelain, 30 coupon specimens were randomly assigned to a treatment group. Ten specimens were placed in artificial saliva, 10 in distilled water, and 10 in a desiccator and were stored for six months. At the end of the six months, an additional 10 coupons of each porcelain were prepared to serve as a control. All 40 specimens of each porcelain were randomized and subjected to one additional firing. Leucite weight fraction was determined by quantitative X-ray powder diffraction analysis via an internal standard technique. Comparisons among the treatments via the least-squares-means test-adjusting for porcelain showed that the saliva group mean leucite weight fraction was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The change in porcelain thermal expansion that would be associated with a leucite change in this range would be between 0.2 x 10(-6) K-1 and 0.3 x 10(-6) K-1. The results of this work constitute the first demonstration that moisture absorbed by a porcelain can act as a glass modifier and enhance the crystallization of the glass during subsequent firing. The effect was sufficiently large to generate thermal expansion changes that would exceed the maximum safe mismatch between porcelain and metal.

  20. Orion Tile Fitting

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-24

    Tile blocks have been prefitted around the heat shield for the Orion crew module inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building high bay at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The heat shield is one of the most critical elements of Orion and protects it and the future astronauts inside from searing temperatures experienced during reentry through Earth’s atmosphere when they return home. For Exploration Mission-1, the top layer of Orion’s heat shield that is primarily responsible for helping the crew module endure reentry heat will be composed of approximately 180 blocks, which are made of an ablative material called Avcoat designed to wear away as it heats up. Orion is being prepared for its flight on the agency’s Space Launch System for Exploration Mission-1 in late 2018. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and NASA’s Journey to Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/orion.

  1. Component analysis of dental porcelain for assisting dental identification.

    PubMed

    Aboshi, H; Takahashi, T; Komuro, T

    2006-12-01

    The fluorescence of porcelain crowns recovered from the mouth of an unknown murder victim, and several control porcelain samples, were examined by fluorescent examination lamps. The fluorescence from two of the control samples was quite similar to that from the porcelain crowns recovered from the victim. To increase the objectivity of the results by quantitative analysis, the composition of each porcelain crown and control sample was also evaluated by wave dispersion X-ray microanalyser. The elements detected from the porcelain crowns of the victim matched those of two of the porcelain samples. Later, the antemortem dental records and radiographs of the victim were obtained through a dentist, who had recognized the name of the porcelain manufacturer in a postmortem dental information request placed on the Japanese Dental Association web page. Although component analysis of dental porcelain may be an effective means of assisting dental identification, a more rapid and non-destructive analysis for detecting the elements is required. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer was used for a pilot study of identification of porcelain composition.

  2. Fracture of porcelain-veneered structures in fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kim, B; Zhang, Y; Pines, M; Thompson, V P

    2007-02-01

    Porcelain-veneered crowns are widely used in modern dentistry, and their fracture remains problematic, especially in all-ceramic systems. We hypothesized that substructure properties have a significant effect on the longevity of porcelain-veneered crowns. Flat porcelain/metal or porcelain/ceramic structures were cemented to dentin-like composite, and a mouth-motion cyclic load of 200 N was delivered by means of a tungsten carbide spherical indenter (r = 3.18 mm), emulating occlusal loading on crowns supported by dentin. Findings indicated that porcelain on a low-hardness gold-infiltrated alloy was vulnerable to both occlusal surface contact damage and porcelain lower surface radial fracture, while porcelain on a higher-hardness palladium-silver alloy fractured chiefly from occlusal surface damage. The advantage of a high-modulus metal substructure was less pronounced. Fracture in the porcelain/zirconia system was limited to surface damage in the veneer layer, similar to that in the porcelain/palladium-silver system. Bulk fracture, observed in veneered alumina layers, was not found for zirconia.

  3. SEM/EDS evaluation of porcelain adherence to gold-coated cast titanium.

    PubMed

    Lee, K M; Cai, Z; Griggs, J A; Guiatas, L; Lee, D J; Okabe, T

    2004-02-15

    The adhesion between titanium and dental porcelain is related to the diffusion of oxygen to the reaction layer formed on cast-titanium surfaces during porcelain firing. The diffusion of oxygen could be suppressed by coating the titanium surface with a thin gold layer. This study characterized the effects of gold coating on titanium-ceramic adhesion. ASTM grade II CP titanium was cast into a MgO-based investment (Selevest CB, Selec). The specimen surfaces were air abraded with 110-microm Al(2)O(3) particles. Gold coating was applied on titanium surfaces by three methods: gold-paste (Deck Gold NF, Degussa-Ney) coating and firing at 800 degrees C for three times, single gold-paste coating and firing followed by sputter coating (40 mA, 500 s), and sputter coating (40 mA, 1000 s). Surfaces only air abraded with Al(2)O(3) particles were used as controls. An ultra-low-fusing dental porcelain (Vita Titankeramik, Vident) was fused on titanium surfaces. Specimen surfaces were characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD. The titanium-ceramic adhesion was evaluated by a biaxial flexure test (N = 8), and area fraction of adherent porcelain (AFAP) was determined by EDS. Numerical results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test at alpha = 0.05. SEM fractography showed a substantial amount of porcelains remaining on the gold-sputter-coated titanium surfaces. A new Au(2)Ti phase was found on gold-coated titanium surface after the firing. Significantly higher (p <.05) AFAP values were determined for the gold-sputter-coated specimens compared to the others. No significant differences were found among the other groups and the control. Results suggested that gold coatings used in this study are not effective barriers to completely protect titanium from oxidation during the porcelain firing, and porcelain adherence to cast titanium can be improved by gold-sputter coating used in the present study. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part

  4. Aperiodic compression and reconstruction of real-world material systems based on Wang tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doškář, Martin; Novák, Jan; Zeman, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents a concept to compress and synthesize complex material morphologies that is based on Wang tilings. Specifically, a microstructure is stored in a set of Wang tiles and its reconstruction is performed by means of a stochastic tiling algorithm. A substantial part of the study is devoted to the setup of optimal parameters of the automatic tile design by means of parametric studies with statistical descriptors at heart. The performance of the method is demonstrated on four two-dimensional two-phase target systems, monodisperse media with hard and soft disks, sandstone, and high porosity metallic foam.

  5. Aperiodic compression and reconstruction of real-world material systems based on Wang tiles.

    PubMed

    Doškář, Martin; Novák, Jan; Zeman, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents a concept to compress and synthesize complex material morphologies that is based on Wang tilings. Specifically, a microstructure is stored in a set of Wang tiles and its reconstruction is performed by means of a stochastic tiling algorithm. A substantial part of the study is devoted to the setup of optimal parameters of the automatic tile design by means of parametric studies with statistical descriptors at heart. The performance of the method is demonstrated on four two-dimensional two-phase target systems, monodisperse media with hard and soft disks, sandstone, and high porosity metallic foam.

  6. Photocatalytic, highly hydrophilic porcelain stoneware slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, M.; Guarini, G.; Zanelli, C.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.; Dondi, M.

    2011-10-01

    Photocatalytic, highly hydrophilic industrial porcelain stoneware large slabs were realized by deposition of nanostructured TiO2 coatings. Different surface finishing and experimental conditions were considered in order to assess the industrial feasibility. Photocatalytic and wetting behaviour of functionalized slabs mainly depends on surface phase composition in terms of anatase/rutile ratio, this involving - as a key issue - the deposition of TiO2 on industrially sintered products with an additional annealing step to strengthen coatings' performances and durability.

  7. Isothermal phase transformations of a dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Twiggs, S Warren; Mackert, J Rodway; Oxford, Amalia L; Ergle, Janet W; Lockwood, Petra E

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the change in the leucite weight fraction during an isothermal heat treatment could be estimated by observing the deformation of PFM strips in a high-heating-rate, computer-controlled bending beam viscometer (BBV). Specimens of a commercial body porcelain were fired according to the manufacturer's instructions-50 disk specimens for quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and 100 bimaterial strip specimens for BBV. The XRD specimens were annealed at temperatures between 650 and 1000 degrees C, and leucite weight fraction was measured using an alumina internal standard. The BBV specimens were annealed in the BBV using time-temperature schedules designed to elucidate the leucite crystallization behavior between 700 and 1000 degrees C. Timoshenko's equation for a bimaterial thermostat was used to estimate the change in the thermal expansion of the porcelain near room temperature. Changes in leucite weight fraction were determined from these thermal expansion changes. The means and SDs were compared to values obtained by quantitative XRD. Good agreement was obtained between values of leucite weight fraction derived from beam deformation and those determined by quantitative XRD (p> or =0.45). The anneal sequence showed that the increase in leucite weight fraction at 800 or 900 degrees C is reversible by an anneal at 1000 degrees C. The BBV technique yields comparable results to quantitative XRD and provides the opportunity to efficiently monitor porcelain leucite changes nondestructively over multiple heat treatments. This technique could prove useful for testing firing schedules designed to stabilize the leucite content in dental porcelain.

  8. TileMap: create chromosomal map of tiling array hybridizations.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongkai; Wong, Wing Hung

    2005-09-15

    Tiling array is a new type of microarray that can be used to survey genomic transcriptional activities and transcription factor binding sites at high resolution. The goal of this paper is to develop effective statistical tools to identify genomic loci that show transcriptional or protein binding patterns of interest. A two-step approach is proposed and is implemented in TileMap. In the first step, a test-statistic is computed for each probe based on a hierarchical empirical Bayes model. In the second step, the test-statistics of probes within a genomic region are used to infer whether the region is of interest or not. Hierarchical empirical Bayes model shrinks variance estimates and increases sensitivity of the analysis. It allows complex multiple sample comparisons that are essential for the study of temporal and spatial patterns of hybridization across different experimental conditions. Neighboring probes are combined through a moving average method (MA) or a hidden Markov model (HMM). Unbalanced mixture subtraction is proposed to provide approximate estimates of false discovery rate for MA and model parameters for HMM. TileMap is freely available at http://biogibbs.stanford.edu/~jihk/TileMap/index.htm. http://biogibbs.stanford.edu/~jihk/TileMap/index.htm (includes coloured versions of all figures).

  9. Orbiter thermal pressure drop characteristics for shuttle orbiter thermal protection system components: High density tile, low density tile, densified low density tile, and strain isolation pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Nystrom, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure drop tests were conducted on available samples of low and high density tile, densified low density tile, and strain isolation pads. The results are presented in terms of pressure drop, material thickness and volume flow rate. Although the test apparatus was only capable of a small part of the range of conditions to be encountered in a Shuttle Orbiter flight, the data serve to determine the type of flow characteristics to be expected for each material type tested; the measured quantities also should serve as input for initial venting and flow through analysis.

  10. Analysis of tempering stresses in bilayered porcelain discs.

    PubMed

    DeHoff, P H; Anusavice, K J

    1992-05-01

    Previous studies of opaque-porcelain/body-porcelain discs have shown that compressive stresses which develop in the porcelain surface by being tempered in air can inhibit the sizes of cracks induced within the surface. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretical model for analysis of transient and residual stresses in opaque-porcelain/body-porcelain discs which were produced under variable cooling conditions. The model incorporates the effects of stress and structural relaxation. Transient and residual stresses were calculated for bilayered porcelain discs 16 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness for three opaque-porcelain/body-porcelain combinations. Transient temperature distributions in the discs for simulated convective cooling were calculated by finite-element analysis. Data from microhardness indentations reported by Anusavice et al. (1989) indicate that crack lengths measured for bilayered porcelain discs subjected to slow cooling conditions, for which the model predicted residual tensile stresses, were greater than those combinations for which residual compressive stresses were calculated. Calculated values of residual compressive stress for tempered specimens were considerably higher than those for specimens that were slowly cooled and those that were cooled by free convection. In general, residual stress levels calculated by use of the analytical model were in fairly good agreement with the trends observed for crack lengths and bi-axial flexural strengths reported by Anusavice and Hojjatie (1991). The results of the present study indicate that a visco-elastic model is a viable approach for determination of transient and residual stresses in opaque-porcelain/body-porcelain discs.

  11. Supporting Students' Understanding of Linear Equations with One Variable Using Algebra Tiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraswati, Sari; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students' understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students…

  12. Dissolved organic carbon loading from the field to watershed scale in tile-drained landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an integral part to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems; yet, there is a paucity of data on DOC delivery and management in tile-drained agricultural headwater watersheds. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of subsurface tile drains to wat...

  13. Calibration of the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of ATLAS at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumediene, Djamel; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. The TileCal provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by means of wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read by two PMTs. A brief description of the individual calibration systems (Cs radioactive source, laser, charge injection, minimum bias) is provided. Their combination allows to calibrate each part of the data acquisition chain (optical part, photomultiplier, readout electronics) and to monitor its stability to better than 1%. The procedure for setting and preserving the electromagnetic energy scale during Run 1 data taking is discussed. The issues of linearity and stability of the response, as well as the timing adjustment are also shown.

  14. Spectrophotometric analysis of color differences between porcelain systems.

    PubMed

    Seghi, R R; Johnston, W M; O'Brien, W J

    1986-07-01

    Spectrophotometric measuring techniques were used to determine the color of four corresponding shades of three brands of metal-fusing porcelain systems. The color was expressed in terms of CIE L*a*b* color coordinates. The relationship of these values to the more commonly used attributes of Hue, lightness (Value), and saturation (Chroma) respectively were discussed. The location of the porcelain shades in the color space and the direction of the color differences found between the different brands of porcelain were evaluated. Color differences for each paired comparison within each shade group were determined from the color data. These values represent the magnitude of color differences found between brands and have a direct relationship to visual perceptibility. For the brands and shades measured, the following conclusions can be made: The CIELAB color system provides an objective technique for evaluating the color of dental porcelains. Corresponding shades of different brands of porcelain can produce perceivably different colors. The perceived color differences between the brands were mostly a result of differences in all three color directions. Greater color differences were found to exist between the corresponding opaque porcelains than between the corresponding layered samples. The addition of 1 mm of body porcelain to the opaque compensated to a large extent for the greater color differences found between the corresponding opaques. The results of this study have significant clinical ramifications. Variations in optical characteristics of porcelains produced by different manufacturers add to the problem of color control in ceramic crown fabrication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Porcelain three-dimensional shape reconstruction and its color reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoyang; Wu, Haibin; Yang, Xue; Yu, Shuang; Wang, Beiyi; Chen, Deyun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, structured light three-dimensional measurement technology was used to reconstruct the porcelain shape, and further more the porcelain color was reconstructed. So the accurate reconstruction of the shape and color of porcelain was realized. Our shape measurement installation drawing is given. Because the porcelain surface is color complex and highly reflective, the binary Gray code encoding is used to reduce the influence of the porcelain surface. The color camera was employed to obtain the color of the porcelain surface. Then, the comprehensive reconstruction of the shape and color was realized in Java3D runtime environment. In the reconstruction process, the space point by point coloration method is proposed and achieved. Our coloration method ensures the pixel corresponding accuracy in both of shape and color aspects. The porcelain surface shape and color reconstruction experimental results completed by proposed method and our installation, show that: the depth range is 860 ˜ 980mm, the relative error of the shape measurement is less than 0.1%, the reconstructed color of the porcelain surface is real, refined and subtle, and has the same visual effect as the measured surface.

  16. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles..., porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective...

  17. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles..., porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective...

  18. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles..., porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective...

  19. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles..., porcelain, or stoneware: (1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective...

  20. Tiling spaces are inverse limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadun, Lorenzo

    2003-11-01

    Let M be an arbitrary Riemannian homogeneous space, and let Ω be a space of tilings of M, with finite local complexity (relative to some symmetry group Γ) and closed in the natural topology. Then Ω is the inverse limit of a sequence of compact finite-dimensional branched manifolds. The branched manifolds are (finite) unions of cells, constructed from the tiles themselves and the group Γ. This result extends previous results of Anderson and Putnam, of Ormes, Radin, and Sadun, of Bellissard, Benedetti, and Gambaudo, and of Gähler. In particular, the construction in this paper is a natural generalization of Gähler's.

  1. The Porcelain Crab Transcriptome and PCAD, the Porcelain Crab Microarray and Sequence Database

    SciTech Connect

    Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Wang, Mei; Lindquist, Erika; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Teranishi, Kristen S.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Wong, Mike; Stillman, Jonathon H.

    2010-01-27

    Background: With the emergence of a completed genome sequence of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, construction of genomic-scale sequence databases for additional crustacean sequences are important for comparative genomics and annotation. Porcelain crabs, genus Petrolisthes, have been powerful crustacean models for environmental and evolutionary physiology with respect to thermal adaptation and understanding responses of marine organisms to climate change. Here, we present a large-scale EST sequencing and cDNA microarray database project for the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Methodology/Principal Findings: A set of ~;;30K unique sequences (UniSeqs) representing ~;;19K clusters were generated from ~;;98K high quality ESTs from a set of tissue specific non-normalized and mixed-tissue normalized cDNA libraries from the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes. Homology for each UniSeq was assessed using BLAST, InterProScan, GO and KEGG database searches. Approximately 66percent of the UniSeqs had homology in at least one of the databases. All EST and UniSeq sequences along with annotation results and coordinated cDNA microarray datasets have been made publicly accessible at the Porcelain Crab Array Database (PCAD), a feature-enriched version of the Stanford and Longhorn Array Databases.Conclusions/Significance: The EST project presented here represents the third largest sequencing effort for any crustacean, and the largest effort for any crab species. Our assembly and clustering results suggest that our porcelain crab EST data set is equally diverse to the much larger EST set generated in the Daphnia pulex genome sequencing project, and thus will be an important resource to the Daphnia research community. Our homology results support the pancrustacea hypothesis and suggest that Malacostraca may be ancestral to Branchiopoda and Hexapoda. Our results also suggest that our cDNA microarrays cover as much of the transcriptome as can reasonably be captured in

  2. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  3. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  4. Treatment of extended anterior crown fractures using Type IIIA bonded porcelain restorations.

    PubMed

    Magne, Pascal; Magne, Michel

    2005-05-01

    Novel-design bonded porcelain restorations, the so-called Type IIIA BPRs, represent a reliable and effective procedure when restoring large parts of the coronal volume and length in the anterior dentition. While traditional treatment approaches involve the removal of large amounts of sound tooth substance (with adverse effects on the pulp, gingivae and crown biomechanics, as well as serious financial consequences), the use of adhesive technology instead can provide maximum preservation of tissues and limited costs. Considerable advantages, such as the economical and noninvasive treatment of crown-fractured teeth, are inherent to Type IIIA bonded porcelain restorations, reducing the need for preprosthetic interventions (e.g., root canal therapy and crown-lengthening) and the use of intraradicular posts. This article, illustrated with cases with up to eight and 10 years' follow-up, sets the scientific foundations of this concept, as well as important considerations about function, strength, tooth preparation, laboratory technique, and bonding optimization.

  5. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  6. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  7. Advances in Natural Quasicrystals and Quasicrystal Tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chaney C.

    The first part of this dissertation reports recent progress on natural quasicrystals. We present new evidence from a fragment of the quasicrystal-bearing CV3 carbonaceous chondritic meteorite Khatyrka that shows cross-cutting relationships and redox reaction between Al-Cu-bearing alloys and silicate phases. The new evidence establishes that the Al-Cu-bearing alloys (including quasicrystals) formed in outer space during a complex, multi-stage process. Some Al-bearing grains (including some quasicrystals) formed as a direct result of an impact in space a few 100 Ma. Most other Al-bearing grains (including quasicrystals) existed prior to the impact and thus formed in space at an earlier time. We also present the discovery of two new quasicrystals, including a second distinct Al-Cu-Fe icosahedral phase in Khatyrka--the first quasicrystal found in nature prior to discovery in the lab--and a synthetic Al-Fe-Cu-Cr-Ni icosahedral phase--the first quasicrystal to be synthesized in a laboratory shock experiment. In the second part of this dissertation, we explore how different local isomorphism (LI) classes of quasicrystals vary in their structural and physical properties. We examine the continuum of LI classes of pentagonal quasicrystal tilings obtained by direct projection from a five-dimensional hypercubic lattice. Our initial focus is on hyperuniformity, the suppression of long-wavelength density fluctuations relative to typical structurally disordered systems. We study how the degree of hyperuniformity depends on LI class. The results show that the degree of hyperuniformity is dominantly determined by the local distribution of vertex environments, and also exhibits a non-negligible dependence on the restorability. Among the pentagonal quasicrystal tilings, the Penrose tiling is the most hyperuniform. The difference in the degree of hyperuniformity is expected to affect physical characteristics, such as transport properties. We then turn to a study of photonic

  8. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  9. Porcelain gallbladder: ultrasound and CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.A.; Jacobs, R.; Katz, J.; Costello, P.

    1984-07-01

    Nine patients with calcification of the gallbladder wall (porcelain gallbladder) were analyzed by ultrasound and the appearance correlated with the CT, radiographic, clinical, and surgical findings. Three distinct patterns were identified: (a) a hyperechoic similunar structure with acoustic shadowing posteriorly, simulating a stone-filled gallbladder devoid of bile, which was seen in 5 patients; (b) a biconvex, curvilinear echogenic structure with variable acoustic shadowing, seen in all 3 patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder; and (c) an irregular clump of echoes with posterior acoustic shadowing, seen in 1 patient. Potential pitfalls in the diagnosis of gallbladder calcification are presented, and the association between calcification and cancer is emphasized.

  10. Porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, H.; King, H. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a highly adherent, low solar absorptance, porcelain enamel thermal control coating applied to 6061 and 1100 aluminum for space vehicle use. The coating consists of a low index of refraction, transparent host frit and a high volume fraction of titania as rutile, crystallized in-situ, as the scattering medium. Solar absorptance is 0.21 at a coating thickness of 0.013 cm. Hemispherical emittance is 0.88. The change in solar absorptance is 0.03, as measured in-situ, after an exposure of 1000 equivalent sun hours in vacuum.

  11. Structural clay tile component behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Columber, Christopher Eugene

    1994-12-18

    The basic properties of structural clay tile walls were determined through component and composite testing of structural clay tile and mortar. The fundamental material parameters and strengths of clay tile coupons were determined through compression, tension, modulus of rupture and absorption tests. Mortar cylinders were tested in both compression and split cylinder fashion. Stress-strain curves for mortar under compression were determined. Four miniature prisms were tested in compression. These prisms were made from two 8 inches x 12 inches x 12 inches structural clay tiles, using a stack bond with a 3/4 inches mortar joint. Stress strain curves as well as material property values were obtained. These results were compared with previous tests on larger (2 feet x 4 feet) prisms. Twenty five bond wrench samples were tested. Two series of bond wrench samples were run. The first series (six tests) were fitted with LVDTs so that load deflection curves as well as flexural strengths could be obtained. A shifting of the neutral axis towards the compression face was observed. The second series were made with different mortar types: type N masonry cement mortar, type S masonry cement mortar, type N portland cement lime (PCL) mortar, and type S PCL mortar. Type S mortar and portland cement lime mortar were found to improve the bond strength.

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of Shuttle Columbia tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard M.; Moslehy, Faissal A.; Clarke, Margaret M.; Mauceri, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The NDE of Orbiter Vehicle-102 tile bonds, performed in August 1991, is described. The evaluation was carried out in order to help NASA develop fast, reliable methods to diagnose problems in tile bonding other than the present 'pull' and 'wiggle' tests. The NDE did not find any indication of bond problems, and all bonds were classified as 'nominal'. The feasibility of using NDE techniques in a dynamic, real-world environment without interfering with Shuttle rework schedules is shown. The data will be useful in verifying analytical models of tile behavior developed at the University of Central Florida. The need for a tile test bed containing known tile misbonds is suggested.

  13. Microstructure and homogeneity of dental porcelain frits.

    PubMed

    Ban, S; Matsuo, K; Mizutani, N; Iwase, H; Kani, T; Hasegawa, J

    1998-12-01

    The microstructure and homogeneity of three commercial dentin and incisal unfired porcelain frits (one conventional and two ultra-low fusing types, fused-to metal were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microspectroscopy, and wavelength- and energy dispersive X-ray microspectroscopy. The average contents of tetragonal and cubic leucite for the conventional and one of the ultra-low fusing type frits were 20.1-22.6 wt% and 0-2.6 wt%, respectively, whereas those of another of the ultra-low fusing type frits were about 11.5-11.6 wt% and 2.9-4.6 wt%, respectively. The conventional type frits seemed to be admixtures of three kinds of glass frits. One of the ultra-low fusing type frits seemed to be an admixture of four kinds of glass frits. Another ultra-low fusing frits seemed to be only one kind of glass frit dispersed with small size, less than 1 micron, leucite crystals. There were no remarkable differences in microstructure and homogeneity between dentin and incisal porcelain frits in each brand.

  14. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xun-liang; Feng, Song-lin; Cheng, Huang-sheng; Zhang, Wen-Jiang; Fan, Chang-Sheng

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  15. [Clinical analysis of laser welding on porcelain bonded metal surface].

    PubMed

    Weng, Jia-wei; Dai, Wen-an; Wu, Xue-ying

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of laser-welded crowns and bridges. Two hundred defective crowns and bridges were welded by using Heraplus laser welding machine, and then restored by porcelain. After being welded ,those defective crowns and bridges of different materials fit well and their marginal areas were also satisfactory. During the follow up period of one year, no fractured porcelain and crack were found at welding spots. The technology of laser welding has no direct effect on welding spots between metal and porcelain and could be used to deal with the usual problems of the crowns and bridges.

  16. 2D tritium distribution on tungsten tiles used in JET ITER-like wall project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Y.; Widdowson, A.; Bekris, N.; Ayres, C.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Likonen, J.; Koivuranta, S.; Ikonen, J.; Yumizuru, K.

    2015-08-01

    Post-mortem measurements of 2-dimensional tritium (T) distribution using an imaging plate (IP) technique were performed for tungsten (W) divertor tiles (W-coated CFC) used in JET-ITER like wall (ILW) project. The observed T distributions were clearly inhomogeneous, and there were band-like regions with high T concentrations that extended in the toroidal direction on tiles 1, 3, 4 and 6. The concentrations of T in the band-like regions were higher by an order of magnitude than the concentrations in other parts. The inhomogeneous T distributions were explained by non-uniform co-deposition with other elements such as beryllium. The concentrations of T on the outboard vertical tiles (tiles 7 and 8) were low and relatively uniform in comparison with other tiles.

  17. Impacts of Space Shuttle thermal protection system tile on F-15 aircraft vertical tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Impacts of the space shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile on the leading edge and the side of the vertical tail of the F-15 aircraft were analyzed under different TPS tile orientations. The TPS tile-breaking tests were conducted to simulate the TPS tile impacts. It was found that the predicted tile impact forces compare fairly well with the tile-breaking forces, and the impact forces exerted on the F-15 aircraft vertical tail were relatively low because a very small fraction of the tile kinetic energy was dissipated in the impact, penetration, and fracture of the tile. It was also found that the oblique impact of the tile on the side of the F-15 aircraft vertical tail was unlikely to dent the tail surface.

  18. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  19. A simple model for predicting solute concentration in agricultural tile lines shortly after application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuis, T. S.; Bodnar, M.; Geohring, L. D.; Aburime, S.-A.; Wallach, R.

    Agricultural tile drainage lines have been implicated as a source of pesticide contamination of surface waters. Field experiments were conducted and a simple model was developed to examine preferential transport of applied chemicals to agricultural tile lines. The conceptual model consists of two linear reservoirs, one near the soil surface and one near the tile drain. The connection between the two reservoirs is via preferential flow paths with very little interaction with the soil matrix. The model assumes that only part of the field contributes solutes to the tile drain. The model was evaluated with data from the field experiments in which chloride, 2,4-D, and atrazine concentrations were measured on eight tile-drained plots that were irrigated twice. Atrazine was applied two months prior to the experiment, 2,4-D was sprayed just before the first irrigation, and chloride before the second irrigation. All three chemicals were found in the tile effluent shortly after the rainfall began. Generally, the concentration increased with increased flow rates and decreased exponentially after the rainfall ceased. Although the simple model could simulate the observed chloride concentration patterns in the tile outflow for six of the eight plots, strict validation was not possible because of the difficulty with independent measurement of the data needed for a preferential flow model applied to field conditions. The results show that, to simulate pesticide concentration in tile lines, methods that can measure field averaged preferential flow characteristics need to be developed.

  20. Developing tiled projection display systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hereld, M.; Judson, I. R.; Paris, J.; Stevens, R. L.

    2000-06-08

    Tiled displays are an emerging technology for constructing high-resolution semi-immersive visualization environments capable of presenting high-resolution images from scientific simulation [EVL, PowerWall]. In this way, they complement other technologies such as the CAVE [Cruz-Niera92] or ImmersaDesk, [Czernuszenko97], which by design give up pure resolution in favor of width of view and stereo. However, the largest impact may well be in using large-format tiled displays as one of possibly multiple displays in building ''information'' or ''active'' spaces that surround the user with diverse ways of interacting with data and multimedia information flows [IPSI, Childers00, Raskar98, ROME, Stanford, UNC]. These environments may prove to be the ultimate successor of the desktop metaphor for information technology work.

  1. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  2. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  3. Tin oxide coating of aluminous porcelain by reactive ion plating.

    PubMed

    McCrory, P V; Tinston, S; Piddock, V; Kelly, P; Combe, E C; Arnell, R D

    1991-06-01

    Alumina reinforced dental porcelain has been coated directly with tin oxide by reactive ion plating. Samples were prepared at different distances from the tin source in the ion plating rig. Tensile bond strengths of treated and untreated porcelain discs to a commercially available phosphate-methacrylate based dental cement were determined. Bond strengths of certain coated samples were found to be in excess of the cohesive strength of the porcelain substrates (greater than 7.8 MPa), whereas untreated porcelain achieved an average bond strength of only 3.4 MPa. The microstructures of coatings produced under conditions similar to those which yielded the maximum bond strength were examined in a scanning electron microscope and were found to be approximately 0.5 microns thick. It is believed that ion plating has great potential for rendering inert ceramic surfaces capable of direct bonding to dental cements.

  4. A LINE POLE 2, DETAIL OF MODERN BROWN PORCELAIN SUSPENSIONTYPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A LINE POLE 2, DETAIL OF MODERN BROWN PORCELAIN SUSPENSION-TYPE INSULATORS. VIEW TO WEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  5. Bonding of an opaque resin to silane-treated porcelain.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Sun, Ying Chun; Wang, Chen; Gao, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The repair of a fractured porcelain surface with a resin composite was investigated. The effects of applying an opaque resin to porcelain surfaces, which were silanated by a ceramic primer from a repair kit or by an experimental silane coupling agent, were studied. The porcelain surfaces were silanated for 10 sec and 60 min. Three types of adherents were evaluated: opaque resin with light irradiation (OWL), opaque resin without light irradiation (ONL), and no opaque resin (NAO). The shear bond strengths of the resins to the porcelain surfaces were measured before and after thermocycling. The maximum shear bond strength (6.7 MPa) after thermocycling was observed when the silanating period of the ceramic primer was 60 min. The opaque resin had no effect on the bond strength. Moreover, the bond strength obtained with the experimental silane coupling agent was found to be reduced by only 2 MPa, even after thermocycling.

  6. Correlation between fracture toughness and leucite content in dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Paulo F; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Miranda Júnior, Walter G; Okada, Cristina Y

    2005-10-01

    To determine the correlation between fracture toughness and leucite content in dental porcelains. The mechanisms by which leucite influences the fracture toughness of dental porcelains were also investigated. Six porcelains were tested: A (Ceramco I/Dentsply), B (Ceramco II/Dentsitply), C (Finesse/Dentsply), D (d.Sign/Ivoclar), Cb (Cerabien/Noritake) and V (Vitadur Alpha/Vita). Bar-shaped specimens were produced, and their fracture toughness was determined by means of the single-edge precracked beam (SEPB) method. The test consisted of fracturing the specimen after a precrack was generated by a bridge-anvil device. KIc was calculated based on fracture force and size of the precrack. Microstructural analysis and determination of the leucite volume fraction were performed on polished specimens etched with 2% HF for 15s by means of scanning electron microscopy. Fractographic analysis was performed on fracture surfaces. Porcelains A and B presented the highest leucite contents (22%) and similar KIc values (1.23 and 1.22 MPa m1/2, respectively), significantly higher than the other materials. Porcelains C and D presented similar K(Ic) values (0.81 and 0.93 MPa m1/2, respectively), but different leucite contents (6 and 15%, respectively). Porcelain D presented higher KIc compared to porcelains Cb and V (0.71 and 0.75 MPa m1/2, respectively), which presented similar values and the lowest leucite contents (0%). Fractographic analysis showed that porcelains with higher leucite content presented higher incidence of crack deflection. For the materials evaluated in this study, the leucite content was directly related to KIc. The main toughening mechanism observed was crack deflection around leucite particles and clusters.

  7. Repair of porcelain/metal restoration with resin bonded overcasting.

    PubMed

    Wood, M; Litkowski, L J; Thompson, V P; Church, T

    1992-01-01

    Porcelain occasionally fractures from ceramometal fixed partial dentures following final cementation. Repair of these porcelain fractures can be a challenging task. When the problem occurs on anterior teeth, it is especially difficult because the repair must not only be durable, but esthetically pleasing as well. Although composite resins can be used for some repairs, it is often difficult to match the color and texture to the surrounding intact porcelain. In addition, the bonding between the resin and porcelain is susceptible to margin leakage, which may ultimately cause an esthetic failure. Techniques involving a cemented porcelain-fused-to-metal overcasting have often been successful in restoring the fixed partial denture to form and function. Although the esthetic result of a porcelain/metal overcasting can be quite successful, retention of the overcasting is sometimes poor. The compromised retention and resistance form is due to lack of interproximal walls on the underlying fractured unit. To improve the retention of the overcasting, the following technique of tin plating the overcasting and fractured unit prior to cementing with a composite resin cement is presented.

  8. Positive feedback fishery: Population consequences of `crab-tiling' on the green crab Carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Thompson, R. C.; Coleman, R. A.; Attrill, M. J.

    2008-11-01

    Collection of marine invertebrates for use as fishing bait is a substantial activity in many parts of the world, often with unknown ecological consequences. As new fisheries develop, it is critical for environmental managers to have high quality ecological information regarding the potential impacts, in order to develop sound management strategies. Crab-tiling is a largely unregulated and un-researched fishery, which operates commercially in the south-west UK. The target species is the green crab Carcinus maenas. Those crabs which are pre-ecdysis and have a carapace width greater than 40 mm are collected to be sold to recreational anglers as bait. Collection involves laying artificial structures on intertidal sandflats and mudflats in estuaries. Crabs use these structures as refugia and are collected during low tide. However, the effect that this fishery has on populations of C. maenas is not known. The impact of crab-tiling on C. maenas population structure was determined by sampling crabs from tiled estuaries and non-tiled estuaries using baited drop-nets. A spatially and temporarily replicated, balanced design was used to compare crab abundance, sizes and sex ratios between estuaries. Typically, fisheries are associated with a reduction in the abundance of the target species. Crab-tiling, however, significantly increased C. maenas abundance. This was thought to be a result of the extra habitat in tiled estuaries, which probably provides protection from natural predators, such as birds and fish. Although crabs were more abundant in tiled estuaries than non-tiled estuaries, the overall percentage of reproductively active crabs in non-tiled estuaries was greater than in tiled estuaries. As with most exploited fisheries stocks, crabs in exploited (tiled) estuaries tended to be smaller, with a modal carapace width of 20-29 mm rather than 30-39 mm in non-tiled estuaries. The sex ratio of crabs however; was not significantly different between tiled and non-tiled

  9. Global Swath and Gridded Data Tiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Charles K.

    2012-01-01

    This software generates cylindrically projected tiles of swath-based or gridded satellite data for the purpose of dynamically generating high-resolution global images covering various time periods, scaling ranges, and colors called "tiles." It reconstructs a global image given a set of tiles covering a particular time range, scaling values, and a color table. The program is configurable in terms of tile size, spatial resolution, format of input data, location of input data (local or distributed), number of processes run in parallel, and data conditioning.

  10. Tetromino tilings and the Tutte polynomial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper

    2007-02-01

    We consider tiling rectangles of size 4m × 4n by T-shaped tetrominoes. Each tile is assigned a weight that depends on its orientation and position on the lattice. For a particular choice of the weights, the generating function of tilings is shown to be the evaluation of the multivariate Tutte polynomial ZG(Q, v) (known also to physicists as the partition function of the Q-state Potts model) on an (m - 1) × (n - 1) rectangle G, where the parameter Q and the edge weights v can take arbitrary values depending on the tile weights.

  11. Multilayer Impregnated Fibrous Thermal Insulation Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Szalai, Christine e.; Hsu, Ming-ta; Carroll, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    The term "secondary polymer layered impregnated tile" ("SPLIT") denotes a type of ablative composite-material thermal- insulation tiles having engineered, spatially non-uniform compositions. The term "secondary" refers to the fact that each tile contains at least two polymer layers wherein endothermic reactions absorb considerable amounts of heat, thereby helping to prevent overheating of an underlying structure. These tiles were invented to afford lighter-weight alternatives to the reusable thermal-insulation materials heretofore variously used or considered for use in protecting the space shuttles and other spacecraft from intense atmospheric-entry heating.

  12. Evolutionary morphology of the organ systems in squat lobsters and porcelain crabs (crustacea: Decapoda: Anomala): an insight into carcinization.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Jonas; Richter, Stefan; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae) are one of three taxa within anomuran crustaceans (Anomala) which possess a crab-like body form. Curiously, these three lineages evolved this shape independently from true crabs (Brachyura) in the course of the evolutionary process termed carcinization. The entire pleon in porcelain crabs is flexed under the cephalothorax and the carapace is approximately as broad as long. Despite their crab-like habitus, porcelain crabs are phylogenetically nested within squat lobsters (Munidopsidae, Munididae, Galatheidae). With a pleon which is only partly flexed under the cephalothorax and a cephalothorax which is longer than it is broad, squat lobsters represent morphologically intermediate forms between lobster-like and crab-like body shapes. Carcinization has so far mostly been studied with respect to outer morphology; however, it is evident that internal anatomical features are influenced through this change of body shape too. In this paper, the situation in Galatheoidea is elucidated by adding more taxa to existing descriptions of the hemolymph vascular systems and associated structures and organs. Micro-computer tomography and 3D reconstruction provide new insights. Autapomorphic states of various internal anatomical characters are present in nearly all the studied species, also reflecting some degree of anatomical disparity found within Galatheoidea. The ventral vessel system of porcelain crabs differs distinctly from that of squat lobsters. The differences in question are coherent (i.e. structural dependent) with morphological transformations in the integument, such as the shortening of the sternal plastron, which evolved in the course of carcinization. Shifts in the gonads and the pleonal neuromeres are coherent with the loss of the caridoid escape reaction, which in turn is a consequence of carcinization. The arterial transformations, however, are minor compared to other instances of carcinization in anomuran crustaceans since the last

  13. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2003-01-01

    on the wings of the orbiter. Tiles used on the Wing Acreage, the Main Landing Gear Door, and the Carrier Panels near the front edge of the wing were modeled. Foam impacts shot for the CAB investigation were modeled, as well as impacts at larger angles, including rapid rotation of the projectile, and with varying foam properties. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rapid (17 rps) rotation failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases in which the rotational energy might lead to an increase in tile damage, but suggests that in most cases rotation will not be an important factor. Similar models will be applied for other impacting materials, other velocities, and other geometries as part of the Return to Flight process.

  14. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2003-01-01

    on the wings of the orbiter. Tiles used on the Wing Acreage, the Main Landing Gear Door, and the Carrier Panels near the front edge of the wing were modeled. Foam impacts shot for the CAB investigation were modeled, as well as impacts at larger angles, including rapid rotation of the projectile, and with varying foam properties. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rapid (17 rps) rotation failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases in which the rotational energy might lead to an increase in tile damage, but suggests that in most cases rotation will not be an important factor. Similar models will be applied for other impacting materials, other velocities, and other geometries as part of the Return to Flight process.

  15. Thermal Characterization of TPS Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kacmar, C. J.; LaCivita, K. J.; Jata, K. V.; Sathish, S.

    2006-03-06

    The Thermal Protection System (TPS) used on space shuttles protects the metallic structure from the large amounts of heat created during travel through the atmosphere, both on takeoff and reentry. The shuttle experiences high thermo-acoustic loading and impact damage from micro-meteorites, which can cause disbonds, delaminations, chips, cracks, and other defects to the TPS system. To enhance durability and damage tolerance, new TPS tiles with an added protective ceramic-matrix-composite layer are being developed. This paper explores the use of pulsed thermography as a quick, diverse, non-destructive technique, to characterize the TPS system. The pulsed thermography images obtained are presented and analyzed.

  16. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; Calderon, J.; De Barbaro, P.; Eno, S. C.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hirschauer, J.; Jeng, G. Y.; Pastika, N. J.; Pedro, K.; Rumerio, Paolo; Samuel, J.; Sharp, E.; Shin, Y. H.; Tiras, E.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Wetzel, J.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Youn, S. W.

    2016-11-01

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. The light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity, and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.

  17. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; Calderon, J.; Barbaro, P. De; Eno, S. C.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hirschauer, J.; Jeng, G. Y.; Pastika, N. J.; Pedro, K.; Rumerio, Paolo; Samuel, J.; Sharp, E.; Shin, Y. H.; Tiras, E.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Wetzel, J.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Youn, S. W.

    2016-11-28

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. Also, the light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity, and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.

  18. Parametric Multi-Level Tiling of Imperfectly Nested Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Hartono, Albert; Baskaran, Muthu M.; Bastoul, Cedric; Cohen, Albert; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Norris, Boyana; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2009-05-18

    Tiling is a critical loop transformation for generating high-performance code on modern architectures. Efficient generation of multilevel tiled code is essential to exploit several levels of parallelism and/or to maximize data reuse in deep memory hierarchies. Tiled loops with parameterized tile sizes (not compile time constants) facilitate runtime feedback and dynamic optimizations used in iterative compilation and automatic tuning. The existing parametric multilevel tiling approach has focused on transformation for perfectly nested loops, where all assignment statements are contained inside the innermost loop of a loop nest. Previous solutions to tiling for imperfect loop nests are limited to the case where tile sizes are fixed. In this paper, we present an approach to parameterized multilevel tiling for imperfectly nested loops. Our tiling algorithm generates loops that iterate over full rectangular tiles that are amenable for potential compiler optimizations such as register tiling. Experimental results using a number of computational benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our tiling approach.

  19. Bond strength of the porcelain repair system to all-ceramic copings and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang J; Cheong, Chan Wook; Wright, Robert F; Chang, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of the porcelain repair system on alumina and zirconia core ceramics, comparing this strength with that of veneering porcelain. Veneering ceramic (n = 12), alumina core (n = 24), and zirconia core (n = 24) blocks measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm(3) were fabricated. Veneering ceramic blocks were used as the control. Alumina and zirconia core blocks were divided into 2 groups (n = 12 each), and a slot (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) filled with veneering ceramics was prepared into one of the alumina and zirconia core groups (n = 12). Followed by surface treatments of micro-abrasion with 30 μm alumina particles, etching with 35% phosphoric acid and silane primer and bond, composite resin blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3)) were built up and light polymerized onto the treated surfaces by 3 configurations: (a) composite blocks bonded onto veneering ceramic surface alone, (b) composite blocks bonded onto alumina core or zirconia core surfaces, (c) a 50% surface area of the composite blocks bonded to veneering ceramics and the other 50% surface area of the composite blocks to alumina core or zirconia core surfaces. The shear bond strength of the composite to each specimen was tested by a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The shear bond strength was analyzed by unpaired t-tests for within the configuration groups and ANOVA for among the different configuration groups. When the mean shear bond strength was compared within groups of the same configuration, there were no statistically significant differences. Comparison of the shear bond strength among groups of different configurations revealed statistically significant differences. The mean shear bond strength of composite onto 100% veneering ceramic surface and composite onto 50% veneering 50% all-ceramic cores was statistically higher than that of composite onto 100% all-ceramic cores; however, the differences of the shear bond strength of composite bonded

  20. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    Gold and other alloys have long been used for the production of crowns and bridges as replacements for damaged or lost teeth. However, doubts have arisen on the suitability of using these materials for dental restorations, as gold has also shown a capacity to cause side-effects such as allergic reactions. This is especially valid for alloys, which during the last decades have been used as porcelain-fused-to metal restorations. This fact has led to an interest in using titanium instead of these alloys. Trials to use titanium for this purpose were initiated in Japan in the early 1980s. Titanium as an unalloyed metal differs in two aspects from the above named alloys: it has a phase transformation at 882 degrees C, which changes its outer and inner properties, and it has an expansion that lies between that of the porcelain types available on the market at the time. In Japan a technique for casting titanium was developed, where the after-treatment of the casting was elaborate, to re-establish the original properties of titanium. The porcelain developed for veneering had shortcomings as the rendering produced a rough surface and non satisfactory esthetics. In Sweden a new concept was introduced in 1989. Here the processing of titanium was performed by industrial methods such as milling, spark erosion and laser welding. The idea behind this was to avoid phase transformation. During the 1990s a number of porcelain products were launched and a vast number of both laboratory and clinical studies were performed and published, with varying results. In the first study of this thesis a prospective clinical trial was performed at a public dental health clinic in Sweden. Twenty-five patients were provided with 40 copings of pure titanium, which were veneered with porcelain. After 2 years 36 of these crowns were evaluated and the patients were also interviewed regarding problems such as shooting pains or difficulties in cleaning around the teeth that were crowned. This evaluation

  1. Garuda: a scalable tiled display wall using commodity PCs.

    PubMed

    Nirnimesh; Harish, Pawan; Narayanan, P J

    2007-01-01

    Cluster-based tiled display walls can provide cost-effective and scalable displays with high resolution and a large display area. The software to drive them needs to scale too if arbitrarily large displays are to be built. Chromium is a popular software API used to construct such displays. Chromium transparently renders any OpenGL application to a tiled display by partitioning and sending individual OpenGL primitives to each client per frame. Visualization applications often deal with massive geometric data with millions of primitives. Transmitting them every frame results in huge network requirements that adversely affect the scalability of the system. In this paper, we present Garuda, a client-server-based display wall framework that uses off-the-shelf hardware and a standard network. Garuda is scalable to large tile configurations and massive environments. It can transparently render any application built using the Open Scene Graph (OSG) API to a tiled display without any modification by the user. The Garuda server uses an object-based scene structure represented using a scene graph. The server determines the objects visible to each display tile using a novel adaptive algorithm that culls the scene graph to a hierarchy of frustums. Required parts of the scene graph are transmitted to the clients, which cache them to exploit the interframe redundancy. A multicast-based protocol is used to transmit the geometry to exploit the spatial redundancy present in tiled display systems. A geometry push philosophy from the server helps keep the clients in sync with one another. Neither the server nor a client needs to render the entire scene, making the system suitable for interactive rendering of massive models. Transparent rendering is achieved by intercepting the cull, draw, and swap functions of OSG and replacing them with our own. We demonstrate the performance and scalability of the Garuda system for different configurations of display wall. We also show that the

  2. 76 FR 12369 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from China would be likely to lead to continuation... 2011), entitled Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from China: Investigation No. 731-TA- 298 (Third...

  3. 49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... expanded plastic packaging; and (11) 6PH2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a... glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles. 178.523 Section 178.523 Transportation Other Regulations... Packaging Standards § 178.523 Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or...

  4. Fibonacci words, hyperbolic tilings and grossone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margenstern, Maurice

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we study the contribution of the theory of grossone to the study of infinite Fibonacci words, combining this tool with the help of a particular tiling of the hyperbolic plane: the tiling { 7, 3 } , called the heptagrid. With the help of the numeral system based on grossone, we obtain a richer family of infinite Fibonacci words compared with the traditional approach.

  5. Wind-Resistant Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellavia, J.; Quigley, I. A.; Callahan, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    Filler developed for gaps between insulating tiles on Space Shuttle finds application in industries that use tiles for thermal or environmental protection. Filler consists of tight-fitting ceramic tubes and fibrous alumina. Combination resists high wind loads while providing requisite heat protection. Quartz-thread stitching holds envelope together.

  6. Bonding Heat-Resistant Fabric to Tile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Smiser, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Acid etching, densification, and silica cement ensure strong bond. Key step in preparation for bonding to glazed tile is etching quartz fabric and tile with acid. This increases adhesion of silica cement used to form bond. Procedures use high-temperature materials exclusively and therefore suitable for securing flexible seals and heat barriers around doors and viewing ports in furnaces and kilns.

  7. Fast linear transformation for tiled images.

    PubMed

    Rao, A; Perens, B

    1996-01-01

    This work describes an efficient algorithm for linear coordinate transformation developed specifically for a tiled image processing system. A detailed description of the algorithm is presented, and its performance is compared with that of other techniques. The effect of image size on relative performance is analyzed and correlated with the tile-based storage technique.

  8. The Sad Case of the Columbine Tiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes free-speech challenge to school district's guidelines for acceptable expressions on ceramic tiles painted by Columbine High School students to express their feelings about the massacre. Tenth Circuit found that tile painting constituted school-sponsored speech and thus district had the constitutional authority under "Hazelwood School…

  9. The Sad Case of the Columbine Tiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes free-speech challenge to school district's guidelines for acceptable expressions on ceramic tiles painted by Columbine High School students to express their feelings about the massacre. Tenth Circuit found that tile painting constituted school-sponsored speech and thus district had the constitutional authority under "Hazelwood School…

  10. Performance of the Tile PreProcessor Demonstrator for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Moreno, P.; Valero, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Tile Calorimeter PreProcessor demonstrator is a high performance double AMC board based on FPGA resources and QSFP modules. This board has been designed in the framework of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator project for the Phase II Upgrade as the first stage of the back-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator has been conceived to receive and process the data coming from the front-end electronics of the TileCal Demonstrator module, as well as to configure it. Moreover, the TilePPr demonstrator handles the communication with the Detector Control System to monitor and control the front-end electronics. The TilePPr demonstrator represents 1/8 of the final TilePPr that will be designed and installed into the detector for the ATLAS Phase II Upgrade.

  11. Effects of flux concentrations and sintering temperature on dental porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Polash; Gafur, Md. Abdul; Das, Sujan Kumar; Ranjan Chakraborty, Shyamal; Mohsin, Md.; Deb, Arun Kumar; Rakibul Qadir, Md.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, samples of dental porcelain bodies have been made by using the materials collected from selected deposits employing different mixing proportions of clay, quartz and feldspar. Dental porcelain ceramics have been successfully fabricated by using the sintering technique together with some Na2CO3 additive. The dental porcelain powder has been pressed into pellets at first and subsequently sintered at 700, 800, 900, 1000 and 1100 °C for 2 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the prepared samples have been investigated. The sintering behavior of the fired samples has been evaluated by bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and apparent porosity measurements. This study includes the evaluation of the Vickers's microhardness by microhardness tester. Phase analysis and microstructural study have been performed by XRD and optical microscope respectively. Optical properties have been investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy. Influence of firing conditions on leucite formation, densification and microstructural development of the sintered samples has been investigated. It has been found that the choice of sintering temperature is one of the key factors in controlling leucite crystallization in dental porcelain ceramics. It has also been found that the flux concentration of material and the effect of temperature on preparation of dental porcelain contribute to the firing shrinkage and hardness, which has been found to increase with the increase of treatment temperature.

  12. Systematics and biogeography of Cuban porcelain crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Porcellanidae).

    PubMed

    Diez, Yander L; Lira, Carlos

    2017-01-10

    Marine crustaceans are a well-known invertebrates group in Cuban waters, but some taxa are not well catalogued and the literature about them is scattered. In this work, we present the checklist of porcelain crabs of Cuban Archipelago, including the literature registers and unpublished author's data. A key to the identification of 8 genera and 23 species of the Cuban porcelain crabs is provided. Information about the local distribution of species is presented. In addition, we analyzed the porcelain crab faunal affinities between the ecoregions of the Cuban platform, Greater Antilles islands and the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic (TNA) province. For the first time, we record the presence of the monotypic genus Parapetrolisthes Haig in Cuba. On the Cuban platform, the highest similarities are between the Southcentral and Northwestern ecoregions (50%) and between Northcentral and Northeastern (40%). In the Greater Antilles, Cuba and Puerto Rico are the most similar (54%), but in general, the porcelain crab composition shows a high variation (e. g. 19% between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico). In the Tropical Northwestern Atlantic, five homogeneous groups of porcelain crab species are distinguished. Cuban fauna is most similar to that of Floridian, Western Caribbean and Southern Gulf of Mexico ecoregions. The decrease in species richness is evident from south to north in the TNA Province.

  13. Mechanical properties of alumina porcelain during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šín, Peter; Podoba, Rudolf; ŠtubÅa, Igor; Trník, Anton

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical strength and Young's modulus of green alumina porcelain (50 wt. % of kaolin, 25 wt. % of Al2O3, and 25 wt. % of feldspar) were measured during heating up to 900 °C and 1100 °C, respectively. To this end, we used the three point-bending method and modulated force thermomechanical analysis (mf-TMA). The loss liberation - of the physically bound water (20 - 250 °C) strengthens the sample and Young's modulus increases its values significantly. The dehydroxylation that takes place in the range of 400 - 650 °C causes a slight decrease in Young's modulus. On the other hand, the mechanical strength slightly increases in this temperature range, although it has a sudden drop at 420 °C. Beyond the dehydroxylation range, above 650 °C, both Young's modulus and mechanical strength increase. Above 950 °C, a sharp increase of Young's modulus is caused by the solid-state sintering and the new structure created by the high-temperature reactions in metakaolinite.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, STS-114 crew members look at the tiles underneath Atlantis. From left (in flight suits) are Mission Specialists Stephen Robinson and Andy Thomas, Commander Eileen Collins and, at right, Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi, who is with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA. Accompanying them is Glenda Laws, EVA Task Leader, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. The STS-114 crew is at KSC to take part in crew equipment and orbiter familiarization.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, STS-114 crew members look at the tiles underneath Atlantis. From left (in flight suits) are Mission Specialists Stephen Robinson and Andy Thomas, Commander Eileen Collins and, at right, Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi, who is with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA. Accompanying them is Glenda Laws, EVA Task Leader, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. The STS-114 crew is at KSC to take part in crew equipment and orbiter familiarization.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, STS-114 crew members look at the tiles underneath Atlantis. From center, left to right (in uniform), are Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialists Wendy Lawrence and Stephen Robinson. Accompanying them at left Glenda Laws, EVA Task Leader, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. Noguchi is with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA. The STS-114 crew is at KSC to take part in crew equipment and orbiter familiarization.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, STS-114 crew members look at the tiles underneath Atlantis. From center, left to right (in uniform), are Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi, Mission Specialists Wendy Lawrence and Stephen Robinson. Accompanying them at left Glenda Laws, EVA Task Leader, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. Noguchi is with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA. The STS-114 crew is at KSC to take part in crew equipment and orbiter familiarization.

  16. Low-Fusing Porcelain Glaze Application on 3Y-TZP Surfaces can Enhance Zirconia-Porcelain Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Lígia Tiaki; Rodrigues, Vinícius Anéas; Dornelles, Lucio Strazzabosco; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Melo, Renata Marques de

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether surface treatment improves zirconia-porcelain adhesion. The 3Y-TZP blocks were cut into squares, then polished and sintered. The zirconia surface treatments were performed as follows: no treatment (C); tribochemical silica coating (TBS); glaze application + hydrofluoric acid etching (GA); glaze application + hydrofluoric acid etching + silanization (GAS); deposition of silica nanofilm (NF). After treatments, veneering porcelain cylinders (3.3 x 3.3 mm) were built up on all specimens and fired. Then the specimens were subjected to thermal cycling (6000 cycles), and subjected to shear test. Fractures were analyzed by stereomicroscopy and SEM. Data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). Zirconia-porcelain bond strength was affected by the ceramic surface treatments (p=0.0001). GA (19.5±3 MPa) and GAS (16.2±4 MPa) recorded the highest bond strength values, while control group had the lowest bond value (10.1±4 MPa). Adhesive failure of the samples predominated. Therefore, glaze application as 3Y-TZP treatment before veneering porcelain stratification may enhance zirconia-porcelain adhesion.

  17. A historical perspective of synthetic ceramic and traditional feldspathic porcelain.

    PubMed

    Chu, Stephen; Ahmad, Irfan

    2005-10-01

    Ceramics were invented by the Chinese during the T'ang Dynasty, where they quickly became a precious commodity. By the early 18th Century, ceramics found its way into dentistry due to its high strength, biocompatibility, and malleability. Today, ceramic materials are a staple in dentistry, available in both naturally based and partially synthetic formulas. Most recently they have become available as quartz-glass synthetic materials manufactured under controlled conditions to eliminate the inconsistencies and impurities inherent in the naturally based counterpart. This article details the discovery of porcelain and its role as a precious substance throughout the world and time, from its initial use as ornamental earthenware to its practical application in modern dentistry. Upon reading this article, the reader should: Understand the historical significance of porcelain. Recognize the fundamental constituents and physical properties of both natural feldspathic porcelains and fully synthetic ceramics used in dentistry.

  18. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, D.; Yang, F. J.; Sun, X. M.; Guo, M. S.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  19. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    DOE PAGES

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; ...

    2016-11-28

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. Also, the light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity,more » and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.« less

  20. Damage to JET beryllium tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deksnis, E.; Cheetham, A.; Hwang, A.; Lomas, P.; Pick, M.; Summers, D. D. R.

    1990-12-01

    JET has operated with beryllium limiters such that up to 180 MJ could be coupled to the plasma. Approximately 2-4% of the surface of the limiter has been melted near the plasma contact point. Another 10-15% of the surface shows evidence of edge heating. Some 5% of tiles have been subjected to abnormal loads at points distant from the contact area. Damage shows strong correlation of localised heating of the limiter with toroidal field ripple. Edge heating rates of 260 Mw/m 2 have not caused gross mechanical failure of the limiter. The mechanical damage comprises fatigue cracks analogous to those due to sustained loading at low power levels.

  1. Toughening of dental porcelain by tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/ additions

    SciTech Connect

    Morena, R.; Lockwood, P.E.; Evans, A.L.; Fairhurst, C.W.

    1986-04-01

    The effect of mechanical behavior of ZrO/sub 2/ additions to a dental porcelain was investigated. The ZrO/sub 2/ was introduced into the glassy matrix phase of the porcelain by refritting the all-glass porcelain constituent. X-ray diffraction indicated that a sizeable fraction of the ZrO/sub 2/ was retained in the tetragonal from after the porcelain was fired. Zirconia additions to the porcelain produced substantial improvements in fracture toughness, strength, and thermal shock resistance.

  2. X-ray spectrometric technique for measuring porcelain-metal adherence

    SciTech Connect

    Ringle, R.D.; Mackert, J.R. Jr.; Fairhurst, C.W.

    1983-08-01

    This study demonstrated a correlation between silicon x-ray counts and area fractions of adherent porcelain as determined by point-counting. This correlation has allowed a method to be devised for measuring area fractions of porcelain adherent to porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) fracture surfaces. The described method, after controlled destruction of the porcelain mass, uses silicon x-rays excited by the electron beam in a scanning electron microscope. Under the conditions employed in these studies, the x-ray technique has shown that this gold alloy retains more porcelain than does either of two particular nickel-chromium alloys.

  3. Failure modes and fracture origins of porcelain veneers on bilayer dental crowns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihong; Liu, Guanghua; Wang, Yong; Shen, James Zhijian; Feng, Hailan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the fracture origins and crack paths in the porcelain of clinically failed bilayer ceramic restorations and to reveal the correlation between the porcelain failures and material properties. Three clinically failed crowns of each material (bilayer zirconia crowns, galvano-ceramic crowns, and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns) were collected and underwent failure analysis. The fractures found in porcelain veneers showed several characteristics including wear, Hertzian cone crack, chipping off, and delamination. The results indicated that the fracture origins and features of the porcelain in bilayer ceramic restorations might be affected by the rigidity of core materials and thickness of copings.

  4. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (<1 mm thick) to one surface and fired under manufacturer's recommended protocol. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with integrated electron dispersive X-ray (EDAX) was used for microstructural and elemental analysis. EDAX, for chemical analysis and transmission electron diffraction (TED) for structural analysis were both performed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Additionally, in order to spatially resolve Y-rich precipitates, micro-CT scans were conducted at varying depths within the porcelain veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ.

  5. Self assembly of rectangular shapes on concentration programming and probabilistic tile assembly models.

    PubMed

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2012-06-01

    Efficient tile sets for self assembling rectilinear shapes is of critical importance in algorithmic self assembly. A lower bound on the tile complexity of any deterministic self assembly system for an n × n square is [Formula: see text] (inferred from the Kolmogrov complexity). Deterministic self assembly systems with an optimal tile complexity have been designed for squares and related shapes in the past. However designing [Formula: see text] unique tiles specific to a shape is still an intensive task in the laboratory. On the other hand copies of a tile can be made rapidly using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) experiments. This led to the study of self assembly on tile concentration programming models. We present two major results in this paper on the concentration programming model. First we show how to self assemble rectangles with a fixed aspect ratio (α:β), with high probability, using Θ(α + β) tiles. This result is much stronger than the existing results by Kao et al. (Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008) and Doty (Randomized self-assembly for exact shapes. In: proceedings of the 50th annual IEEE symposium on foundations of computer science (FOCS), IEEE, Atlanta. pp 85-94, 2009)-which can only self assembly squares and rely on tiles which perform binary arithmetic. On the other hand, our result is based on a technique called staircase sampling. This technique eliminates the need for sub-tiles which perform binary arithmetic, reduces the constant in the asymptotic bound, and eliminates the need for approximate frames (Kao et al. Randomized self-assembly for approximate shapes, LNCS, vol 5125. Springer, Heidelberg, 2008). Our second result applies staircase sampling on the equimolar concentration programming model (The tile complexity of linear assemblies. In: proceedings of the 36th international colloquium automata, languages and programming: Part I on ICALP '09, Springer-Verlag, pp 235-253, 2009

  6. Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. N.; Clayton, M. E.

    1981-12-01

    The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 450 intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired titles were tested for flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. The major problems encountered are: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions.

  7. Wear performance of substructure ceramics and veneering porcelains.

    PubMed

    Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Kolbeck, Carola; Hahnel, Sebastian; Handel, Gerhard; Rosentritt, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the two-body wear resistance of substructure zirconia and veneering porcelain versus steatite and human enamel antagonists, respectively. Two-body wear tests were performed in a chewing simulator with steatite and enamel antagonists (enamel cusps). A pin-on-block design with a vertical load of 50 N for 1.2 × 10(5) cycles; (f=1.6 Hz; lateral movement: 1mm, mouth opening: 2mm) was used for the wear test. For quantification of the wear resistance, wear tests were performed with standardized steatite spheres. Human enamel was used as a reference. Five zirconia ceramics and four veneering porcelains were investigated. One zirconia ceramic was tested with superficial glaze, which was applied after polishing or sandblasting, respectively. Surface roughness R(a) (SP6, Perthen-Feinprüf, G) and wear depth were determined using a 3D-Profilometer (Laserscan 3D, Willytec, G). SEM (Quanta FEG 400, FEI, USA) pictures were used for evaluating wear performance of both, ceramics and antagonists. No wear was found for zirconia substructures. Veneering porcelain provided wear traces between 186.1±33.2 μm and 232.9±66.9 μm (steatite antagonist) and 90.6±3.5 μm and 123.9±50.7 μm (enamel). Wear of the steatite antagonists varied between 0.812±0.256 mm(2) and 1.360±0.321 mm(2) for zirconia and 1.708±0.275 mm(2) and 2.568±0.827 mm(2) for porcelain. Enamel generally showed wear, cracks or even fractures at the ridge, regardless whether opposed by zirconia or porcelain/glaze. Enamel was polished, when opposed to zirconia, or plowed, provoked and grinded, when opposed to porcelain/glaze. The results of the wear test with steatite or enamel antagonists indicated no measurable wear on zirconia surfaces. Porcelain showed higher wear than zirconia, but comparable or lower wear than an enamel reference. Antagonistic wear against zirconia was found to be lower than wear against porcelain. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials

  8. Porcelain enamelled absorbers, coated by spectral selective tin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Simonis, F.; Faber, A.J.; Hoogendoorn, C.J.

    1987-02-01

    The use of porcelain enamelled absorbers in flat plate collectors features longevity thanks to the durability and thermal stability of the enamel finish. The porcelain enamel can be made spectral selective by coating with doped tin oxide or indium oxide. The application procedure involves an enamelling step followed by a pyrosol process with tin or indium compounds. The optical properties of tin oxide coated enamel yield values of 0.90-0.92 absorptance and 0.13-0.18 hemispherical emittance. The temperature dependence of the emittance is very small. The thermal stability has been proved up to 400/sup 0/C in air.

  9. Porcelain veneers as an alternative for esthetic treatment: clinical report.

    PubMed

    Rotoli, B T; Lima, D A N L; Pini, N P; Aguiar, F H B; Pereira, G D S; Paulillo, L A M S

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes the restoration of the anterior dentition with porcelain laminate veneers. The advances in bonding of porcelain to tooth structure make this treatment a feasible alternative to restore teeth with alteration in shape and position in cases in which the esthetic demand is high. The rationale for various choices in this treatment protocol is detailed with reference to the pertinent literature. Thus, the clinical success of the technique depends on the correct identification of a case for which this treatment is appropriate and the successful execution of the clinical steps involved.

  10. Fibrous-Ceramic/Aerogel Composite Insulating Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan M.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Fibrous-ceramic/aerogel composite tiles have been invented to afford combinations of thermal-insulation and mechanical properties superior to those attainable by making tiles of fibrous ceramics alone or aerogels alone. These lightweight tiles can be tailored to a variety of applications that range from insulating cryogenic tanks to protecting spacecraft against re-entry heating. The advantages and disadvantages of fibrous ceramics and aerogels can be summarized as follows: Tiles made of ceramic fibers are known for mechanical strength, toughness, and machinability. Fibrous ceramic tiles are highly effective as thermal insulators in a vacuum. However, undesirably, the porosity of these materials makes them permeable by gases, so that in the presence of air or other gases, convection and gas-phase conduction contribute to the effective thermal conductivity of the tiles. Other disadvantages of the porosity and permeability of fibrous ceramic tiles arise because gases (e.g., water vapor or cryogenic gases) can condense in pores. This condensation contributes to weight, and in the case of cryogenic systems, the heat of condensation undesirably adds to the heat flowing to the objects that one seeks to keep cold. Moreover, there is a risk of explosion associated with vaporization of previously condensed gas upon reheating. Aerogels offer low permeability, low density, and low thermal conductivity, but are mechanically fragile. The basic idea of the present invention is to exploit the best features of fibrous ceramic tiles and aerogels. In a composite tile according to the invention, the fibrous ceramic serves as a matrix that mechanically supports the aerogel, while the aerogel serves as a low-conductivity, low-permeability filling that closes what would otherwise be the open pores of the fibrous ceramic. Because the aerogel eliminates or at least suppresses permeation by gas, gas-phase conduction, and convection, the thermal conductivity of such a composite even at

  11. Aerogel: Tile Composites Toughen a Brittle Superinsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Rasky, Daniel; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Pure aerogels, though familiar in the laboratory for decades as exotic lightweight insulators with unusual physical properties, have had limited industrial applications due to their low strength and high brittleness. Composites formed of aerogels and the ceramic fiber matrices like those used as space shuttle tiles bypass the fragility of pure aerogels and can enhance the performance of space shuttle tiles in their harsh operating environment. Using a layer of aerogel embedded in a tile may open up a wide range of applications where thermal insulation, gas convection control and mechanical strength matter.

  12. The TileCal Laser Calibration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangiobbe, Vincent; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    TileCal is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector operating at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter whose active material is made of scintillating plastic tiles. Scintillation light is read by photomultipliers. A Laser system is used to monitor their gain stability. During dedicated calibration runs the Laser system sends via long optical fibers, a monitored amount of light simultaneously to all the ≈10000 photomultipliers of TileCal. This note describes two complementary methods to measure the stability of the photomultipliers gain using the Laser calibration runs. The results of validation tests are presented for both methods and theirrespective performances and limitations are discussed.

  13. Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    DOEpatents

    Gallix, R.

    1987-12-09

    U-shaped tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners have two rods which engage L-shaped slots. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the wall. Resilient contact strips under the parallel sides of the U-shaped tile assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall. 6 figs.

  14. Triangulations (tilings) and certain block triangular matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Dantzig, G.B.; Hoffman, A.J.; Hu, T.C.

    1983-09-01

    The problem is to find a tiling (triangularization) of a convex n polytope (or combinatorially an n-gon) such that the partition uses the minimum number of tiles. We show that a certain linear program can be formulated whose optimal solution is always in integers and corresponds to a tiling. Moreover the system is in the form of a block-triangular Leontief-Substitution System that is readily solved by a O(n/sup 3/) algorithm consisting of a single forward and backward pass through data.

  15. The challenging scales of the bird: Shuttle tile structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, W. C.; Miller, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The principal design issues, tests, and analyses required to solve the tile integrity problem on the space shuttle orbiters are addressed. Proof testing of installed tiles is discussed along with an airflow test of special tiles. Orbiter windshield tiles are considered in terms of changes necessary to ensure acceptable margins of safety for flight.

  16. Effect of liner and porcelain application on zirconia surface structure and composition

    PubMed Central

    Alghazzawi, Tariq F; Janowski, Gregg M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is an effect of liner and porcelain application (layering and pressing techniques) on the surface of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP), which were exposed to permutations of liner, layered porcelain, and pressed porcelain. Scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) was used to identify changes in composition and microstructure after removing liner and porcelain with hydrofluoric acid. Simulated aging was also conducted to determine the effect of liner and porcelain on low-temperature degradation. The control group had a typical equiaxed grain structure, referred to as unaffected. When covered with liner or porcelain, some areas changed in structure and composition and were termed affected. The frequency of affected structure decreased when liner was covered with either layered porcelain or pressed porcelain. There were statistical differences (P<0.05) in the composition between affected and unaffected for zirconium (layered porcelain with liner: affected=60% (0.8%) (m/m), unaffected=69% (4%), layered porcelain without liner: affected=59% (3%), unaffected=65% (3%)) and oxygen (layered porcelain with liner: affected=35% (2%), unaffected=26% (4%), layered porcelain without liner: affected=35% (3%), unaffected=30% (2%)). However, there were statistical differences (P<0.05) in the composition for zirconium and oxygen of the aged layered porcelain without liner only. The liner should not be used before porcelain application, especially when using the layering technique for zirconia restorations. Furthermore, pressing should be considered the technique of choice over layering. PMID:27445089

  17. High-Strength, Low-Shrinkage Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, W. H.; Creedon, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of refractory fibers and whiskers to insulating tiles composed primarily of fibrous silica, such as those used on the skin of Space Shuttle orbiter, greatly improves properties. New composition suitable for lightweight, thermally-stable mirror blanks and as furnace and kiln insulation. Improved tiles made with current tile-fabrication processes. For given density, tiles containing silicon carbide and boron additives stronger in flexure than tiles made from silica alone. In addition, tiles with additives nearly immune to heat distortion, whereas pure-silica tiles shrink and become severely distorted.

  18. A comprehensive survey of brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; He, Yang-Hui; Sun, Chuang; Xiao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    An infinite class of 4d 𝒩 = 1 gauge theories can be engineered on the worldvolume of D3-branes probing toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds. This kind of setup has multiple applications, ranging from the gauge/gravity correspondence to local model building in string phenomenology. Brane tilings fully encode the gauge theories on the D3-branes and have substantially simplified their connection to the probed geometries. The purpose of this paper is to push the boundaries of computation and to produce as comprehensive a database of brane tilings as possible. We develop efficient implementations of brane tiling tools particularly suited for this search. We present the first complete classification of toric Calabi-Yau 3-folds with toric diagrams up to area 8 and the corresponding brane tilings. This classification is of interest to both physicists and mathematicians alike.

  19. Notch sensitivity of space shuttle tile materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the notch sensitivity of the thermal protection tile for the space shuttle. Two types of RSI tile were studied: LI-900 and LI-2200. Three point bend specimens were cut from discarded tiles in the in-plane (ip) and through-the-thickness (ttt) directions. They were tested with or without a sharp notch. The LI-900 (ip and ttt) specimens were not very notch sensitive, but the LI-2200 (ip and ttt) specimens were. The LI-2200 material showed about a 35 percent reduction in strength due to the presence of the notch. This reduction in strength should be considered in the design of mechanically fastened tile concepts.

  20. VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    VB Platinum Tile & Carpet, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristow, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Washington, DC.

  1. Radioactivity in zircon and building tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Deng; Kaizhen Tian; Daifu Chen; Yiyun Zhang

    1997-08-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) is commonly used in The manufacture of glazed tiles. In this study we found high concentrations of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}tH, {sup 40}k in zircon sand. The average radium equivalent (A{sub Ra} + 1.26 A{sub Th} + 0.086 A{sub k}) in zircon sand is 17,500 Bq kg{sup -1}, which is 106 times as much as that in ordinary building materials. The external radiation ({gamma} + {beta}) dose rates from 1.1 to 4.9 x 10{sup -2} mGy h{sup -1} with an average of 2.1 x 10{sup -2} mGy h{sup -1}. Although no elevated {gamma}-ray radiation or radon exhalation rate was detected in rooms decorated with glazed tiles, which is characteristic of combined {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} emitting thin materials, the average {gamma} radiation dose rate at the surface of the tile stacks in shops is 1.5 times as much as the indoor background level. The average area density of total {beta} emitting radionuclides in glazed floor tiles and glazed wall tiles is 0.30 Bq cm{sup -2} and 0.28 Bq cm{sup -2}, respectively. It was estimated that the average {beta} dose rates in tissue at a depth 7 mg cm{sup -2} with a distance 20-100 cm from the floor tiles were 3.2 to 0.9 x 10{sup -7} Gy h{sup -1}. The study indicates that the {beta}-rays from glazed tiles might be one of the main factors leading to an increase in ionizing radiation received by the general public. Workers in glazed tile manufacturing factories and in tile shops or stores may be exposed to elevated levels of both {beta}-rays and {gamma}-rays from zircon sand or glazed tile stacks. No elevated radiation from unglazed tiles was detected. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Radioactivity in zircon and building tiles.

    PubMed

    Deng, W; Tian, K; Zhang, Y; Chen, D

    1997-08-01

    Zircon (ZrSiO4) is commonly used in the manufacture of glazed tiles. In this study we found high concentrations of the radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, 40K in zircon sand. The average radium equivalent (A(Ra) + 1.26 A(Th) + 0.086 A(k)) in zircon sand is 17,500 Bq kg(-1), which is 106 times as much as that in ordinary building materials. The external radiation (gamma + beta) dose rates in air at 5 cm from the surface of piles of zircon sand sacks range from 1.1 to 4.9 x 10(-2) mGy h(-1) with an average of 2.1 x 10(-2) mGy h(-1). Although no elevated gamma-ray radiation or radon exhalation rate was detected in rooms decorated with glazed tiles, which is characteristic of combined alpha, beta and gamma emitting thin materials, the average gamma-ray radiation dose rate at the surface of the tile stacks in shops is 1.5 times as much as the indoor background level. The average area density of total beta emitting radionuclides in glazed floor tiles and glazed wall tiles is 0.30 Bq cm(-2) and 0.28 Bq cm(-2), respectively. It was estimated that the average beta dose rates in tissue at a depth 7 mg cm(-2) with a distance 20-100 cm from the floor tiles were 3.2 to 0.9 x 10(-7) Gy h(-1). The study indicates that the beta-rays from glazed tiles might be one of the main factors leading to an increase in ionizing radiation received by the general public. Workers in glazed tile manufacturing factories and in tile shops or stores may be exposed to elevated levels of both beta-rays and gamma-rays from zircon sand or glazed tile stacks. No elevated radiation from unglazed tiles was detected.

  3. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Hnat, James G.; Mathur, Akshay; Simpson, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  4. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  5. Laser Scanner for Tile-Cavity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, Stanley Y.; Wykes, Donald H.; Hagen, George R.; Lotgering, Gene E.; Gaynor, Michael B.; Westerlund, Paul G.; Baal, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Irregular surfaces mapped and digitized for numerical-control machinery. Fast, accurate laser scanning system measures size and shape of cavity without making any physical contact with cavity and walls. Measurements processed into control signals for numerically controlled machining of tile or block to fit cavity. System generates map of grid points representing cavity and portion of outer surface surrounding cavity. Map data used to control milling machine, which cuts tile or block to fit in cavity.

  6. Laser Scanner for Tile-Cavity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, Stanley Y.; Wykes, Donald H.; Hagen, George R.; Lotgering, Gene E.; Gaynor, Michael B.; Westerlund, Paul G.; Baal, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Irregular surfaces mapped and digitized for numerical-control machinery. Fast, accurate laser scanning system measures size and shape of cavity without making any physical contact with cavity and walls. Measurements processed into control signals for numerically controlled machining of tile or block to fit cavity. System generates map of grid points representing cavity and portion of outer surface surrounding cavity. Map data used to control milling machine, which cuts tile or block to fit in cavity.

  7. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  8. Cutting Symmetrical Recesses In Soft Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesotas, Tony C.; Tyler, Brent

    1989-01-01

    Simple tool cuts hemispherical recesses in soft ceramic tiles. Designed to expose wires of thermocouples embedded in tiles without damaging leads. Creates neat, precise holes around wires. End mill includes axial hole to accommodate thermocouple wires embedded in material to be cut. Wires pass into hole without being bent or broken. Dimensions in inches. Used in place of such tools as dental picks, tweezers, spatulas, and putty knives.

  9. SEM observations of porcelain Y-TZP interface.

    PubMed

    Tholey, Michael J; Swain, Michael V; Thiel, Norbert

    2009-07-01

    The metastability of the tetragonal phase of yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics is a cause for concern in dental crown and bridge applications. One specific problematic area is the nature of the interface between the veneering porcelain and the Y-TZP framework and whether the associated preparation procedures and reactions result in a reduction of the stability of the zirconia. To investigate this aspect, high-resolution SEM observations were made of polished and etched (HF content gel) cross-sections of the interface area. Dry and moist veneering porcelain powders were built up on the zirconia base. In some instances the zirconia grains at the interface appear to show multiplicity of subgrain faceting whereas in other instances they do not. The latter indicate destabilisation of the tetragonal phase occurs and in addition that the porcelain veneering material wets and some dissolution of the Y-TZP occurs. These results and their relevance to the long-term stability of the interface adhesion to the veneering porcelain as well as possible tetragonal to monoclinic crystal transformations at the interface are discussed.

  10. Thermal oxidation effect on porcelain-titanium restoration.

    PubMed

    Horng, C J; Okazaki, M; Takahashi, J; Kimura, H

    1989-09-01

    Titanium has good corrosion resistance, light density, high strength and excellent biocompatibility. Conventional ceramicmetal restorations were used extensively in dentistry because of their esthetic appearance and good strength properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of various thermal treatments on the bond strength and physical properties of the porcelain-titanium system. Pure titanium was treated in a porcelain furnace at temperatures ranging from 600 to 1000 degrees C, under vacuum and in air, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha-Ti was decreased, while the TiO2 was increased when raising the firing temperature. The vickers hardness number was increased at elevated temperatures, especially over 900 degrees C, and firing in air was harder than under vacuum. The tension-shear bond strength was highest in the green stage and lowest in the 1000 degrees C treated group. The metallographic microscopic of the porcelaintitanium interface revealed a thick band-like zone in the 1000 degrees C treated sample. Therefore it seems that the excess oxidation layer of TiO2 weakened the bond strength of porcelain-titanium. Contrary to the conventional ceramic-gold alloys system, the recommended degassing procedure was not suitable for the porcelain-titanium restoration.

  11. 21 CFR 872.6660 - Porcelain powder for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Porcelain powder for clinical use. 872.6660 Section 872.6660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., felspar, quartz, or other substances intended for use in the production of artificial teeth in fixed or...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6660 - Porcelain powder for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Porcelain powder for clinical use. 872.6660 Section 872.6660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., felspar, quartz, or other substances intended for use in the production of artificial teeth in fixed or...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6660 - Porcelain powder for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Porcelain powder for clinical use. 872.6660 Section 872.6660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., felspar, quartz, or other substances intended for use in the production of artificial teeth in fixed or...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6660 - Porcelain powder for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Porcelain powder for clinical use. 872.6660 Section 872.6660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., felspar, quartz, or other substances intended for use in the production of artificial teeth in fixed or...

  15. Clinical discrimination between autoglazed and polished porcelain surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J D; Garlapo, D A; Chipps, E A; Tedesco, L A

    1990-12-01

    Precementation refinements of porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns often require reglazing or polishing of the porcelain surface. This study was done to determine whether visual inspection differences exist between glazed and polished porcelain surfaces. Prosthodontists, general dentists, and students (six in each group) rated esthetic properties of 12 porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns. All crowns were initially autoglazed. For phase 1 observations, six crowns were air abraded and polished and six retained their glazed surface. For phase 2 observations, the surface treatments were reversed. At both observations, crowns were rated on 5-point Likert scales for outline form, porosity, smoothness, reflectance, texture, dullness, defects, and general esthetic appearances. Phase 1 polished and glazed crowns had different means for outline form sharpness, porosity, reflectance, dullness, and general esthetic appearance. Phase 2 crowns were different for dullness. Polished and glazed crowns alike were more dull at phase 1 than at phase 2. Glazed crowns were different between phases for reflectance and general esthetic appearance. All reported differences were significant at p less than .01. Significant differences occurred among raters with polished and glazed crowns for several variables.

  16. 46 CFR 111.01-13 - Limitations on porcelain use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on porcelain use. 111.01-13 Section 111.01-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC... for lamp sockets, switches, receptacles, fuse blocks, or other electric equipment where the item is...

  17. Development of dental casting and porcelainizing techniques for titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, M.

    1986-01-01

    Casting of titanium metals has been difficult due to their high chemical reactivity at elevated temperatures. Thus, special melting and mold materials are needed. This study investigated molds, Ti alloys, and porcelain applications, utilizing a new dental casting machine, Castmatic. It involved argon-arc melting and subsequent argon/vacuum pressurized casting. Special refractory oxides such as yttria or Zirconia A were utilized for a face coat under phosphate bonded silica investment. Studies of Ti alloys (Ti, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-15V, Ti-20Cu and Ti-30Pd) involved metallography, phase identification (XRD), hardness, tensile tests, and electrochemical-corrosion tests. Preliminary porcelain studies included an experimental low fusing porcelain along with commercial low fusing porcelains. The bond was evaluated by three-point bending tests and SEM/EDX observations. The yttria face coat was inert, but lacked the necessary mechanical and thermal stability. The face coat, consisting of Zirconia A and zirconium acetate binder, was stable and resulted in less mold reactivity, good internal soundness, but slightly rough surfaces. Metallographs revealed quite larger grains in the cast structure, than in the wrought forms. XRD analysis showed that quasi-equilibrium phases present.

  18. Porcelain veneer fabrication. Platinum foil and refractory model techniques.

    PubMed

    Williams, T

    1994-05-01

    A quality porcelain veneer restoration can be made by either the refractory die method or by platinum foil. The platinum foil method produces excellent results with more traditional means. The refractory method can produce equally excellent results as well, but requires more effort in model making.

  19. Characterizing DNA Star-Tile-Based Nanostructures Using a Coarse-Grained Model.

    PubMed

    Schreck, John S; Romano, Flavio; Zimmer, Matthew H; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K

    2016-04-26

    We use oxDNA, a coarse-grained model of DNA at the nucleotide level, to simulate large nanoprisms that are composed of multi-arm star tiles, in which the size of bulge loops that have been incorporated into the tile design is used to control the flexibility of the tiles. The oxDNA model predicts equilibrium structures for several different nanoprism designs that are in excellent agreement with the experimental structures as measured by cryoTEM. In particular we reproduce the chiral twisting of the top and bottom faces of the nanoprisms, as the bulge sizes in these structures are varied due to the greater flexibility of larger bulges. We are also able to follow how the properties of the star tiles evolve as the prisms are assembled. Individual star tiles are very flexible, but their structures become increasingly well-defined and rigid as they are incorporated into larger assemblies. oxDNA also finds that the experimentally observed prisms are more stable than their inverted counterparts, but interestingly this preference for the arms of the tiles to bend in a given direction only emerges after they are part of larger assemblies. These results show the potential for oxDNA to provide detailed structural insight as well as to predict the properties of DNA nanostructures and hence to aid rational design in DNA nanotechnology.

  20. Internal defect inspection in magnetic tile by using acoustic resonance technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luofeng; Yin, Ming; Huang, Qinyuan; Zhao, Yue; Deng, Zhenbo; Xiang, Zhaowei; Yin, Guofu

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on the validity of a nondestructive methodology for magnetic tile internal defect inspection based on acoustic resonance. The principle of this methodology is to analyze the acoustic signal collected from the collision of magnetic tile with a metal block. To accomplish the detection process, the separating part of the detection system is designed and discussed in detail in this paper. A simplified mathematical model is constructed to analyze the characteristics of the impact of magnetic tile with a metal block. The results demonstrate that calculating the power spectrum density (PSD) can diagnose the internal defect of magnetic tile. Two different data-driven multivariate algorithms are adopted to obtain the feature set, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical nonlinear principal component analysis (h-NLPCA). Three different classifiers are then performed to deal with magnetic tile classification problem based on features extracted by PCA or h-NLPCA. The classifiers adopted in this paper are fuzzy neural networks (FNN), variable predictive model based class discrimination (VPMCD) method and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results show that all six methods are successful in identifying the magnetic tile internal defect. In this paper, the effect of environmental noise is also considered, and the classification results show that all the methods have high immunity to background noise, especially PCA-SVM and h-NLPCA-SVM. Considering the accuracy rate, computation cost problem and the ease of implementation, PCA-SVM turns out to be the best method for this purpose.

  1. A bipedal DNA motor that travels back and forth between two DNA origami tiles.

    PubMed

    Liber, Miran; Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Berger, Yaron; Nir, Eyal

    2015-02-04

    In this work, the successful operation of a dynamic DNA device constructed from two DNA origami building blocks is reported. The device includes a bipedal walker that strides back and forth between the two origami tiles. Two different DNA origami tiles are first prepared separately; they are then joined together in a controlled manner by a set of DNA strands to form a stable track in high yield as confirmed by single-molecule fluorescence (SMF). Second, a bipedal DNA motor, initially attached to one of the two origami units and operated by sequential interaction with "fuel" and "antifuel" DNA strands, moves from one origami tile to another and then back again. The operational yield, measured by SMF, was similar to that of a motor operating on a similar track embedded in a single origami tile, confirming that the transfer across the junction from one tile to the other does not result in dissociation that is any more than that of steps on a single tile. These results demonstrate that moving parts can reliably travel from one origami unit to another, and it demonstrates the feasibility of dynamic DNA molecular machines that are made of more than a single origami building block. This study is a step toward the development of motors that can stride over micrometer distances. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Human perception of dental porcelain translucency correlated to spectrophotometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Chieh; Aquilino, Steven A; Lund, Peter S; Vargas, Marcos A; Diaz-Arnold, Ana M; Gratton, David G; Qian, Fang

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between instrumental measurements and subjective visual assessment of differences in dental porcelain translucency. Unshaded feldspathic porcelain was used with controlled amounts of tin oxide to create two groups of 12-mm diameter disks with incremental changes in opacity. Contrast ratio (CR = Yb/Yw) was determined with a spectrophotometer, and used as a measure of porcelain translucency (Group A = 0.20 to 0.40; Group B = 0.6-0.8). Within each group, there were 14 specimens with 11 CRs. Three observer groups (first year dental students, residents, faculty with >10 years of shade matching experience) were recruited to assess the translucency between porcelain disks under two lighting conditions (reflected light, transmitted light). Each subject's ability to distinguish between specimens of differing translucency was determined. Descriptive statistics and three-way ANOVA followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test were used to evaluate the translucency perception threshold (TPT) of subjects (alpha= 0.05). The overall mean TPT (DeltaC) was 0.07, while 50% of the subjects could perceive a 0.06 CR difference between porcelain specimens. Three-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in translucency perception among the observer groups (p < 0.0001), whereas the main effects for porcelain opacity (p= 0.3038) and lighting condition (p= 0.0645) were not significant, and no significant interactions were found. Post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test indicated that the mean TPT observed in the faculty group (DeltaC = 0.04) was significantly lower than those observed in student (DeltaC = 0.09) and resident groups (DeltaC = 0.08), while there was no significant difference between students and residents. The overall mean TPT of all subjects was 0.07, and 50% of the study population perceived a 0.06 CR difference in translucency. Increased shade matching experience (> or =10 years) significantly improved the ability to perceive differences in

  3. Performance of the TFTR moveable limiter tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrickson, M.; Cecchi, J. L.; Doyle, B. L.; Dylla, H. F.; Medley, S. S.; Owens, D. K.; Trester, P.

    1985-08-01

    The movable limiter for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is composed of an Inconel X-750 backing plate covered with titanium carbide coated graphite tiles. It has been used for ohmic heating discharges at input powers up to about 2 MW for durations up to 3 s. Even though these levels were well within the design requirements, discharges showed high levels (up to 1%) of titanium contamination. It was observed that certain tiles were showing substantial coating removal which became progressively worse as more discharges were made. After about 800 discharges the tiles were removed. A few of the tiles were examined in the Sandia external beam facility. This analysis showed that the TiC coating was completely removed over large areas. There was also evidence of plasma deposited material on the tiles. The thickness of the remaining coating from this beam analysis agreed with the thickness determined from sectioning control coupons from the production runs. There was a weak correlation between damage and coating thickness. The correlation was such that there was a higher probability of coating failure as the coating thickness increased from 15 μm to 40 μm. Test were done using the ASTM-C-633 procedure for measuring coating bond strength. The adhesion strength agreed well with the behavior observed in TFTR. The coating has been removed, and the tiles reinstalled.

  4. Quasicrystalline tilings with nematic colloidal platelets.

    PubMed

    Dontabhaktuni, Jayasri; Ravnik, Miha; Žumer, Slobodan

    2014-02-18

    Complex nematic fluids have the remarkable capability for self-assembling regular colloidal structures of various symmetries and dimensionality according to their micromolecular orientational order. Colloidal chains, clusters, and crystals were demonstrated recently, exhibiting soft-matter functionalities of robust binding, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, entanglement, shape-driven and topological driven assembly, and even memory imprinting. However, no quasicrystalline structures were found. Here, we show with numerical modeling that quasicrystalline colloidal lattices can be achieved in the form of original Penrose P1 tiling by using pentagonal colloidal platelets in layers of nematic liquid crystals. The tilings are energetically stabilized with binding energies up to 2500 kBT for micrometer-sized platelets and further allow for hierarchical substitution tiling, i.e., hierarchical pentagulation. Quasicrystalline structures are constructed bottom-up by assembling the boat, rhombus, and star maximum density clusters, thus avoiding other (nonquasicrystalline) stable or metastable configurations of platelets. Central to our design of the quasicrystalline tilings is the symmetry breaking imposed by the platelet shape and the surface anchoring conditions at the colloidal platelets, which are misaligning and asymmetric over two perpendicular mirror planes. Finally, the design of the quasicrystalline tilings as platelets in nematic liquid crystals is inherently capable of a continuous variety of length scales of the tiling, ranging over three orders of magnitude in the typical length (from ~ 10 nm to ~ 10 μm), which could allow for the design of quasicrystalline photonics at multiple frequency ranges.

  5. Quasicrystalline tilings with nematic colloidal platelets

    PubMed Central

    Dontabhaktuni, Jayasri; Ravnik, Miha; Žumer, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Complex nematic fluids have the remarkable capability for self-assembling regular colloidal structures of various symmetries and dimensionality according to their micromolecular orientational order. Colloidal chains, clusters, and crystals were demonstrated recently, exhibiting soft-matter functionalities of robust binding, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, entanglement, shape-driven and topological driven assembly, and even memory imprinting. However, no quasicrystalline structures were found. Here, we show with numerical modeling that quasicrystalline colloidal lattices can be achieved in the form of original Penrose P1 tiling by using pentagonal colloidal platelets in layers of nematic liquid crystals. The tilings are energetically stabilized with binding energies up to 2500 kBT for micrometer-sized platelets and further allow for hierarchical substitution tiling, i.e., hierarchical pentagulation. Quasicrystalline structures are constructed bottom-up by assembling the boat, rhombus, and star maximum density clusters, thus avoiding other (nonquasicrystalline) stable or metastable configurations of platelets. Central to our design of the quasicrystalline tilings is the symmetry breaking imposed by the platelet shape and the surface anchoring conditions at the colloidal platelets, which are misaligning and asymmetric over two perpendicular mirror planes. Finally, the design of the quasicrystalline tilings as platelets in nematic liquid crystals is inherently capable of a continuous variety of length scales of the tiling, ranging over three orders of magnitude in the typical length (from to ), which could allow for the design of quasicrystalline photonics at multiple frequency ranges. PMID:24550269

  6. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  7. The effect of different surface treatment techniques on the surface roughness of feldspathic porcelain.

    PubMed

    Alakus Sabuncuoglu, Fidan; Erturk, Ergul

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the effect of five different techniques on the surface roughness of feldspathic porcelain. 100 feldspathic porcelain disk samples mounted in acrylic resin blocks were divided into five groups (n=20) according to type of surface treatment: I, hydrofluoric acid (HFA); II, Deglazed surface porcelain treated with Neodymium:yttrium- aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser; III, Deglazed porcelain surface treated with Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser; IV, Glazed porcelain surface treated with Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, V; Glazed porcelain surface treated with Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser. The surface roughness of porcelain was measured with a noncontact optical profilometer. For each porcelain sample, two readings were taken across the sample, before porcelain surface treatment (T1) and after porcelain surface treatment (T2). The roughness parameter analyzed was the average roughness (Ra). Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Mean Ra values for each group were as follows: I, 12.64±073; II, 11.91±0.74; III, 11.76±0.59; IV, 3.82±0.65; V, 2.77±0.57. For all porcelain groups, the lowest Ra values were observed in Group V. The highest Ra values were observed for Group I, with a significant difference with the other groups. Kolmogorov-Smirnov showed significant differences among groups (p<0.001). Surface treatment of porcelain with HFA resulted in significantly higher Ra than laser groups. Both Er:YAG laser or Nd:YAG laser on the deglaze porcelain surface can be recommended as viable treatment alternatives to acid etching.

  8. Effects of core characters and veneering technique on biaxial flexural strength in porcelain fused to metal and porcelain veneered zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ju-Won; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Ahn, Seung-Geun; Park, Ju-Mi; Lee, Min-Ho

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the core materials, thickness and fabrication methods of veneering porcelain on prosthesis fracture in the porcelain fused to metal and the porcelain veneered zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty nickel-chrome alloy cores and 40 zirconia cores were made. Half of each core group was 0.5 mm-in thickness and the other half was 1.0 mm-in thickness. Thus, there were four groups with 20 cores/group. Each group was divided into two subgroups with two different veneering methods (conventional powder/liquid layering technique and the heat-pressing technique). Tensile strength was measured using the biaxial flexural strength test based on the ISO standard 6872:2008 and Weibull analysis was conducted. Factors influencing fracture strength were analyzed through three-way ANOVA (α≤.05) and the influence of core thickness and veneering method in each core materials was assessed using two-way ANOVA (α≤.05). RESULTS The biaxial flexural strength test showed that the fabrication method of veneering porcelain has the largest impact on the fracture strength followed by the core thickness and the core material. In the metal groups, both the core thickness and the fabrication method of the veneering porcelain significantly influenced on the fracture strength, while only the fabrication method affected the fracture strength in the zirconia groups. CONCLUSION The fabrication method is more influential to the strength of a prosthesis compared to the core character determined by material and thickness of the core. PMID:26576250

  9. Effects of core characters and veneering technique on biaxial flexural strength in porcelain fused to metal and porcelain veneered zirconia.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ju-Won; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Ahn, Seung-Geun; Park, Ju-Mi; Lee, Min-Ho; Seo, Jae-Min

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the core materials, thickness and fabrication methods of veneering porcelain on prosthesis fracture in the porcelain fused to metal and the porcelain veneered zirconia. Forty nickel-chrome alloy cores and 40 zirconia cores were made. Half of each core group was 0.5 mm-in thickness and the other half was 1.0 mm-in thickness. Thus, there were four groups with 20 cores/group. Each group was divided into two subgroups with two different veneering methods (conventional powder/liquid layering technique and the heat-pressing technique). Tensile strength was measured using the biaxial flexural strength test based on the ISO standard 6872:2008 and Weibull analysis was conducted. Factors influencing fracture strength were analyzed through three-way ANOVA (α≤.05) and the influence of core thickness and veneering method in each core materials was assessed using two-way ANOVA (α≤.05). The biaxial flexural strength test showed that the fabrication method of veneering porcelain has the largest impact on the fracture strength followed by the core thickness and the core material. In the metal groups, both the core thickness and the fabrication method of the veneering porcelain significantly influenced on the fracture strength, while only the fabrication method affected the fracture strength in the zirconia groups. The fabrication method is more influential to the strength of a prosthesis compared to the core character determined by material and thickness of the core.

  10. Tile drainage as karst: Conduit flow and diffuse flow in a tile-drained watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.

    2008-01-01

    The similarity of tiled-drained watersheds to karst drainage basins can be used to improve understanding of watershed-scale nutrient losses from subsurface tile drainage networks. In this study, short-term variations in discharge and chemistry were examined from a tile outlet collecting subsurface tile flow from a 963 ha agricultural watershed. Study objectives were to apply analytical techniques from karst springs to tile discharge to evaluate water sources and estimate the loads of agricultural pollutants discharged from the tile with conduit, intermediate and diffuse flow regimes. A two-member mixing model using nitrate, chloride and specific conductance was used to distinguish rainwater versus groundwater inputs. Results indicated that groundwater comprised 75% of the discharge for a three-day storm period and rainwater was primarily concentrated during the hydrograph peak. A contrasting pattern of solute concentrations and export loads was observed in tile flow. During base flow periods, tile flow consisted of diffuse flow from groundwater sources and contained elevated levels of nitrate, chloride and specific conductance. During storm events, suspended solids and pollutants adhered to soil surfaces (phosphorus, ammonium and organic nitrogen) were concentrated and discharged during the rapid, conduit flow portion of the hydrograph. During a three-day period, conduit flow occurred for 5.6% of the time but accounted for 16.5% of the total flow. Nitrate and chloride were delivered primarily with diffuse flow (more than 70%), whereas 80-94% of total suspended sediment, phosphorus and ammonium were exported with conduit and intermediate flow regimes. Understanding the water sources contributing to tile drainage and the manner by which pollutant discharge occurs from these systems (conduit, intermediate or diffuse flow) may be useful for designing, implementing and evaluating non-point source reduction strategies in tile-drained landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Symmetry groups associated with tilings on a flat torus.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Mark L; De Las Peñas, Ma Louise Antonette N; Estrada, Grace M; Santoso, Eko Budi

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates symmetry and color symmetry properties of Kepler, Heesch and Laves tilings embedded on a flat torus and their geometric realizations as tilings on a round torus in Euclidean 3-space. The symmetry group of the tiling on the round torus is determined by analyzing relevant symmetries of the planar tiling that are transformed to axial symmetries of the three-dimensional tiling. The focus on studying tilings on a round torus is motivated by applications in the geometric modeling of nanotori and the determination of their symmetry groups.

  12. Dynamic Moire methods for detection of loosened space shuttle tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, W. L.; Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1981-09-01

    Moire fringe methods for detecting loose space shuttle tiles were investigated with a test panel consisting of a loose tile surrounded by four securely bonded tiles. The test panel was excited from 20 to 150 Hz with in-plane sinusoidal acceleration of 2 g (peak). If the shuttle orbiter can be subjected to periodic excitation of 1 to 2 g (peak) and rigid-body periodic displacements do not mask the change in the Moire pattern due to tile looseness, then the use of projected Moire fringes to detect out-of-plane rockin appears to be the most viable indicator of tile looseness since no modifications to the tiles are required.

  13. Tiled WMS/KML Server V2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2012-01-01

    This software is a higher-performance implementation of tiled WMS, with integral support for KML and time-varying data. This software is compliant with the Open Geospatial WMS standard, and supports KML natively as a WMS return type, including support for the time attribute. Regionated KML wrappers are generated that match the existing tiled WMS dataset. Ping and JPG formats are supported, and the software is implemented as an Apache 2.0 module that supports a threading execution model that is capable of supporting very high request rates. The module intercepts and responds to WMS requests that match certain patterns and returns the existing tiles. If a KML format that matches an existing pyramid and tile dataset is requested, regionated KML is generated and returned to the requesting application. In addition, KML requests that do not match the existing tile datasets generate a KML response that includes the corresponding JPG WMS request, effectively adding KML support to a backing WMS server.

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  15. Non-Gold Base Dental Casting Alloys. Volume 2. Porcelain-Fused-to-Metal Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    kaolin , and/or alumina. a. Quartz Quartz has a high fusion temperature , and acts as the frimeworK around which the other ingredients can flow.7 Quartz...until it has cooled to room temperature . The metal and the - porcelain retain heat differently , and thus will cool at different rates. Rushing the case at...dental porcelain to a recommended temperature for a specific period of time. SINTERING - Another term to describe the "firing" of dental porcelain

  16. Effectiveness of Combination of Dentin and Enamel Layers on the Masking Ability of Porcelain.

    PubMed

    Boscato, Noéli; Hauschild, Fernando Gabriel; Kaizer, Marina da Rosa; De Moraes, Rafael Ratto

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the masking ability of different porcelain thicknesses and combination of enamel and/or dentin porcelain layers over simulated background dental substrates with higher (A2) and lower (C4) color values. Combination of the enamel (E) and dentin (D) monolayer porcelain disks with different thicknesses (0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, and 1 mm) resulted in the following bilayer groups (n=10): D1E1, D1E0.8; D1E0.5; D0.8E0.8; D0.8E0.5, and D0.5E0.5. CIELAB color coordinates were measured with a spectrophotometer. The translucency parameter of mono and bilayer specimens and the masking ability estimated by color variation (ΔE*ab) of bilayer specimens over simulated dental substrates were evaluated. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships translucency parameter × ΔE*, translucency parameter × porcelain thickness, and ΔE* × porcelain thickness. Data were analyzed statistically (α= 0.05). Thinner porcelain disks were associated with higher translucency. Porcelain monolayers were considerably more translucent than bilayers (enamel + dentin). Dentin porcelain was less translucent than enamel porcelain with same thickness. ΔE* was always lower when measured over A2 background. Higher ΔE* was observed for the C4 background, indicating poorer masking ability. Increased ΔE* was significantly associated with increased translucency for both backgrounds. Decreased translucency and ΔE* were associated with increased total porcelain thickness or increased dentin thickness for both backgrounds. In conclusion, increased porcelain thickness (particularly increased dentin layer) and increased porcelain opacity resulted in better masking ability of the dental backgrounds.

  17. High-temperature behavior of a Pd-Ag alloy for porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mackert, J R; Ringle, R D; Fairhurst, C W

    1983-12-01

    The mechanism of formation of nodular material on the surface of a Pd-Ag-based alloy for porcelain during pre-porcelainization heat treatment was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, quantitative metallography, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The nodules were found to form by a Nabarro-Herring creep mechanism driven by the internal oxidation of tin and indium. Implications of this process with regard to porcelain bonding and discoloration are discussed.

  18. [Strength and transparency of dental porcelain consisting of high refractive germanate-glass and alumina crystal].

    PubMed

    Kon, M

    1990-07-01

    A translucent aluminous porcelain was developed for dentistry. The effects of refractive indexes and sintering behaviors on transparency and strength of the aluminous porcelains consisting of high refractive germanate-glass (Na2O-TiO2-GeO2) and alumina crystal powders were examined. The various germanate-glass specimens with a high refractive index were made by fusion at about 1,300 degrees C. The refractive indexes of fused Na2O-TiO2-GeO2 glass specimens were 1.64-1.76, heightened with an increasing TiO2 content. The sintered aluminous porcelains were made from the mixed compacts consisting of 80 wt% germanate-glass and 20 wt% alumina at the densification temperature of 580-820 degrees C. Sintered aluminous porcelains prepared with high refractive germante-glass had a high transparency compared with the other aluminous porcelains, with almost the same transparency as a commercial feldspathic porcelain (body). Aluminous porcelains had lower transparency with different refractive index due to generation of crystals following the crystallization of glass matrix than that without crystallizing property. Bending strength value was 120 MPa, which is similar to that for the glass-alumina ceramics with the same content of alumina volume as germanate-glass aluminous porcelains. Non-crystallized aluminous porcelain had a higher strength compared with the crystallized one.

  19. Mechanically strengthened new Hagi porcelain developed by controlling the chemical environment of iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubuki, Shiro; Iwanuma, Jun; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Mikuni, Akira; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance the mechanical strength of Hagi Porcelain (Hagiyaki), one of the oldest and famous potteries in Japan, new preparation condition was examined. Tempered Hagi porcelain, denominated as ` Hagi Porcelain B', was prepared with the Porcelain clay originating from Daido district, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Structural change of ` Hagi Porcelain B' was investigated by means of 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and three-point bending test. Mechanical strength of the ` original Hagi Porcelain B' was estimated to be 43.1 MPa by means of the three-point bending test, while much larger value of 104.5 MPa could be achieved when tempered by a chemical modification. Mössbauer spectrum of the ` original Hagi porcelain B' was composed of a paramagnetic doublet and a magnetic sextet due to Fe(III) of γ-Fe2O3(maghemite), while only one paramagnetic doublet due to to octahedral Fe(II)O6 was observed for the ` tempered Hagi Porcelain B' with isomer shift and quadrupole splitting values of 1.13 and 2.15 mm s-1, respectively. It is considered that the absence of magnetic phase causes an increase of the mechanical strength because the maghemite phase has a defect spinel structure. These results indicate that mechanical strength of the ` Hagi porcelain B' could be enhanced by controlling the sintering condition.

  20. Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory applied to porcelain veneer systems using a colorimeter.

    PubMed

    Davis, B K; Johnston, W M; Saba, R F

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ability of Kubelka-Munk reflectance theory to predict color parameters of veneer porcelain on various backings using colorimetric measurements. Tristimulus absorption and scattering coefficients were used to predict the respective tristimulus reflectance values of A1, D3, and translucent porcelain samples after they had been bonded to light and dark substrates using universal, opaque, and untinted shades of bonding resin. Observed and predicted reflectance values exhibited high correlation (r2 > or = 0.93 for each porcelain shade). Kubelka-Munk theory offers an accurate prediction for the resultant colorimetric reflectance parameters of veneer porcelain bonded to variously colored backings.

  1. Investigation on the Tribological Behavior and Wear Mechanism of Five Different Veneering Porcelains

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jie; Zhang, Qianqian; Qiu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Minhao; Yu, Haiyang; Gao, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this research was to investigate the wear behavior and wear mechanism of five different veneering porcelains. Methods Five kinds of veneering porcelains were selected in this research. The surface microhardness of all the samples was measured with a microhardness tester. Wear tests were performed on a ball-on-flat PLINT fretting wear machine, with lubrication of artificial saliva at 37°C. The friction coefficients were recorded by the testing system. The microstructure features, wear volume, and damage morphologies were recorded and analyzed with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The wear mechanism was then elucidated. Results The friction coefficients of the five veneering porcelains differ significantly. No significant correlation between hardness and wear volume was found for these veneering porcelains. Under lubrication of artificial saliva, the porcelain with higher leucite crystal content exhibited greater wear resistance. Additionally, leucite crystal size and distribution in glass matrix influenced wear behavior. The wear mechanisms for these porcelains were similar: abrasive wear dominates the early stage, whereas delamination was the main damage mode at the later stage. Furthermore, delamination was more prominent for porcelains with larger crystal sizes. Significance Wear compatibility between porcelain and natural teeth is important for dental restorative materials. Investigation on crystal content, size, and distribution in glass matrix can provide insight for the selection of dental porcelains in clinical settings. PMID:26368532

  2. Remotely replaceable tokamak plasma limiter tiles

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Simon , Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    U-shaped limiter tiles placed end-to-end over a pair of parallel runners secured to a wall have two rods which engage L-shaped slots in the runners. The short receiving legs of the L-shaped slots are perpendicular to the wall and open away from the wall, while long retaining legs are parallel to and adjacent the wall. A sliding bar between the runners has grooves with clips to retain the rods pressed into receiving legs of the L-shaped slots in the runners. Sliding the bar in the direction of retaining legs of the L-shaped slots latches the tiles in place over the runners. Resilient contact strips between the parallel arms of the U-shaped tiles and the wall assure thermal and electrical contact with the wall.

  3. Influence of bruxism on survival of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Granell-Ruíz, Maria; Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Román-Rodríguez, Juan-Luis; Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether bruxism and the use of occlusal splints affect the survival of porcelain laminate veneers in patients treated with this technique. Restorations were made in 70 patients, including 30 patients with some type of parafunctional habit. A total of 323 veneers were placed, 170 in patients with bruxism activity, and the remaining 153 in patients without it. A clinical examination determined the presence or absence of ceramic failure (cracks, fractures and debonding) of the restorations; these incidents were analyzed for association with bruxism and the use of splints. Analysis of the ceramic failures showed that of the 13 fractures and 29 debonding that were present in our study, 8 fractures and 22 debonding were related to the presence of bruxism. Porcelain laminate veneers are a predictable treatment option that provides excellent results, recognizing a higher risk of failure in patients with bruxism activity. The use of occlusal splints reduces the risk of fractures.

  4. Resistance to abrasion of extrinsic porcelain esthetic characterization techniques.

    PubMed

    Chi, Woo J; Browning, William; Looney, Stephen; Mackert, J Rodway; Windhorn, Richard J; Rueggeberg, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    A novel esthetic porcelain characterization technique involves mixing an appropriate amount of ceramic colorants with clear, low-fusing porcelain (LFP), applying the mixture on the external surfaces, and firing the combined components onto the surface of restorations in a porcelain oven. This method may provide better esthetic qualities and toothbrush abrasion resistance compared to the conventional techniques of applying color-corrective porcelain colorants alone, or applying a clear glaze layer over the colorants. However, there is no scientific literature to support this claim. This research evaluated toothbrush abrasion resistance of a novel porcelain esthetic characterization technique by subjecting specimens to various durations of simulated toothbrush abrasion. The results were compared to those obtained using the conventional characterization techniques of colorant application only or colorant followed by placement of a clear over-glaze. Four experimental groups, all of which were a leucite reinforced ceramic of E TC1 (Vita A1) shade, were prepared and fired in a porcelain oven according to the manufacturer's instructions. Group S (stain only) was characterized by application of surface colorants to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group GS (glaze over stain) was characterized by application of a layer of glaze over the existing colorant layer as used for Group S. Group SL (stain+LFP) was characterized by application of a mixture of colorants and clear low-fusing add-on porcelain to provide a definitive shade of Vita A3.5. Group C (Control) was used as a control without any surface characterization. The 4 groups were subjected to mechanical toothbrushing using a 1:1 water-to-toothpaste solution for a simulated duration of 32 years of clinical use. The amount of wear was measured at time intervals simulating every 4 years of toothbrushing. These parameters were evaluated longitudinally for all groups as well as compared at similar time points among

  5. A simplified approach to the complete porcelain margin.

    PubMed

    Vryonis, P

    1979-11-01

    The technique described produces a metal-ceramic crown exhibiting excellent esthetic qualities and marginal accuracy superior to that achieved on the cast metal margin. A platinum foil apron or refractory dies are not necessary. A precise shoulder preparation, preferably with two master dies, is required. A chamfer with a bevel, a shoulder with a bevel, or chamfer preparations are not suited to this technique. Quantitative evaluation using a measuring microscope showed that a marginal gap on a crown fabricated on an International Bureau of Standards crown die measured 6 microns at the porcelain shoulder and from 17 to 34 microns on a gold margin of the same crown. On a prepared-tooth, rubber-base compression densite die, the marginal gap on the porcelain shoulder was 10 microns.

  6. Dealing with a Porcelain Aorta during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Adesanya, T. M. Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    We report a complex case of multivessel CAD in a patient with a porcelain aorta and high-grade left subclavian artery stenosis. Utilizing a staged left subclavian artery stent placement with a next-day plan for a four-vessel, on-pump CABG and ascending aortic replacement, this case highlights an organized approach to diagnosing and dealing with a heavily calcified aorta while describing a stepwise algorithm to deal with aortic calcifications prior to initiating cardiac surgery. PMID:25610695

  7. Microstructure Study For Optimization Of Dielectric Property Of Electrical Porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2010-06-29

    Five sample mixtures of kaolin, ball clay, feldspar and Quartz were formulated and porcelain samples fabricated. Crystalline phases and mullite morphology were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. A composition of 30% kaolin, 15% ball clay, 30% feldspar and 25% quartz yielded a body with high dielectric strength of 19 kV/mm compare to an ISO graded product having dielectric strength 14.6 KV/mm after firing at 1225 deg. C.

  8. Evaluation of a new protective coating for porcelain insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.; Orbeck, T.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a new elastomeric coating made from a silicone rubber compound for use on porcelain insulators. Field experience has shown that coated insulators have a lower flashover probability under wet contaminated operation than uncoated insulators. Laboratory fog tests also show significant improvements in the wet electrical behavior of clean and contaminated insulators. The Room Temperature Vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coating offers both technical and economical advantages for high voltage system operation and maintenance.

  9. Degenerate polygonal tilings in simple animal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Primoz; Hocevar, Ana

    2009-03-01

    We study 2D polygonal tilings as models of the en-face structure of single-layer biological tissues. Using numerical simulations, we explore the phase diagram of equilibrium tilings of equal-area, equal-perimeter convex polygons whose energy is independent of their shape. We identify 3 distinct phases, which are all observed in simple epithelial tissues: The disordered phase of polygons with 4-9 sides, the hexatic phase, and the hexagonal phase with perfect 6-fold coordination. We quantify their structure using Edwards' statistical mechanics of cellular systems.

  10. Improvement of PVC floor tiles by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Plessis, T. A.; Badenhorst, F.

    Gamma radiation presents a unique method of transforming highly plasticized PVC floor tiles, manufactured at high speed through injection moulding, into a high quality floor covering at a cost at least 30% less than similarly rated rubber tiles. A specially formulated PVC compound was developed in collaboration with a leading manufacturer of floor tiles. These tiles are gamma crosslinked in its shipping cartons to form a dimensionally stable product which is highly fire resistant and inert to most chemicals and solvents. The crosslinked tiles are more flexible than the highly filled conventional PVC floor tiles, scratch resistant and have a longer lifespan and increased colour fastness. These tiles are also less expensive to install than conventional rubber tiles.

  11. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1. SHOWING ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN TILE FLOOR, TILE WAINSCOT AND SHOWER SURROUND, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 2. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. INDIAN HOUSE WING AT THE LEFT. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  13. 37. PRESSING TILES FROM PLASTER MOLDS, USING A HAND PRESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. PRESSING TILES FROM PLASTER MOLDS, USING A HAND PRESS CONSTRUCTED IN 1986. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  14. Phase identification in dental porcelains for ceramo-metallic restorations.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, M M; Riesgo, O; Vicente, E E

    1989-01-01

    Most commercial dental porcelains designed for ceramo-metallic restorations are partially crystallized feldspathic glasses (glass-ceramics) that consist of low (tetragonal) leucite (K2O.Al2O3.4SiO2) crystals embedded in a glassy matrix. In this work, we have identified the crystalline phases in eight commercial dental porcelains (four enamels and four dentin bodies) in both powder (unfired) and sintered forms, by x-ray diffraction, emission spectroscopy analysis, reflection optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Besides low leucite and glass, we have found a second crystalline phase in the sintered and slow-cooled porcelains that we propose to be potash feldspar (K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2). It was impossible to ascertain whether these synthetic crystals may be sanidine, orthoclase, or microcline. The precipitation of feldspar during cooling is explained in terms of the crystallization behavior of typical body compositions in the ternary-phase diagram K2O-Al2O3-SiO2. Ceramography confirms the martensitic (displacive) nature of the transformation from high (cubic) to low (tetragonal) leucite upon cooling.

  15. [Effects of different surface conditioning agents on the bond strength of resin-opaque porcelain composite].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjia; Fu, Jing; Liao, Shuang; Su, Naichuan; Wang, Hang; Liao, Yunmao

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the effects of different silane coupling agents on the bond strength between Ceramco3 opaque porcelain and indirect composite resin. Five groups of Co-Cr metal alloy substrates were fabricated according to manufacturer's instruction. The surface of metal alloy with a layer of dental opaque porcelain was heated by fire. After the surface of opaque porcelain was etched, five different surface treatments, i.e. RelyX Ceramic Primer (RCP), Porcelain Bond Activator and SE Bond Primer (mixed with a proportion of 1:1) (PBA), Shofu Porcelain Primer (SPP), SE bond primer (SEP), and no primer treatment (as a control group), were used to combine P60 and opaque porcelain along with resin cement. Shear bond strength of specimens was tested in a universal testing machine. The failure modes of specimens in all groups were observed and classified into four types. Selected specimens were subjected to scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy to reveal the relief of the fracture surface and to confirm the failure mode of different types. The experimental results showed that the values of the tested items in all the tested groups were higher than that in the control group. Group PBA exhibited the highest value [(37.52 +/- 2.14) MPa] and this suggested a fact that all of the specimens in group PBA revealed combined failures (failure occurred in metal-porcelain combined surface and within opaque porcelain). Group SPP and RCP showed higher values than SEP (P < 0.05) and most specimens of SPP and RCP performed combined failures (failure occurred in bond surface and within opaque porcelain or composite resin) while all the specimens in group SEP and control group revealed adhesive failures. Conclusions could be drawn that silane coupling agents could reinforce the bond strength of dental composite resin to metal-opaque porcelain substrate. The bond strength between dental composite resin and dental opaque porcelain could

  16. Effect of Glaze Cooling Rate on Mechanical Properties of Conventional and Pressed Porcelain on Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Longhini, Diogo; Rocha, Cibele Oliveira de Melo; Medeiros, Igor Studart; Fonseca, Renata Garcia; Adabo, Gelson Luis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a conventional and a pressed porcelain for zirconia core as to biaxial flexural strength (BFS), apparent fracture toughness (FT) and microstructure composition, and to investigate the effect of glaze cooling rate on the BFS of the zirconia/porcelain bilayers. Monolayers of conventional porcelain Vita VM9 and pressed porcelain Vita PM9 (n=15) (12 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thick) were prepared for the BFS test (MPa). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured by indentation technique (n=15). t-Student test was performed for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to analyze the porcelain's microstructure. For the BFS of bilayers, zirconia discs (12 mm diameter x 1 mm thick) (Vita In-Ceram YZ) were veneered with the two porcelains (1 mm thick). After the glaze firing simulation, the specimens were submitted to fast or slow cooling (n=15). Apparent fracture toughness (MPa.m1/2) was measured on the porcelain surface of bilayers (n=15) and residual stress was calculated. Two-way ANOVA (porcelain and cooling method) was used for the bilayer analysis (a=0.05). Vita PM9 monolayer exhibited significantly higher BFS (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference (p=0.41) in the FT between the porcelains. For bilayer specimens, the two-way ANOVA for BFS was significant for the porcelain variable only (p<0.01) better for Vita PM9/zirconia. Two-way ANOVA for the FT for the bilayers was not significant for any variable. All groups showed compressive residual stresses. The pressed porcelain seems to be mechanically more effective for zirconia veneering.

  17. Polyethylene ribbon and fixed orthodontic retention and porcelain veneers: solving an esthetic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Iniguez, I; Strassler, H E

    1998-01-01

    The patient, a 58-year-old woman, had started orthodontic treatment to correct spacing between the maxillary anterior teeth 6 year prior to presentation with a chief complaint of tooth discoloration and spacing. The treatment had consisted of the use of a removable appliance to retract the maxillary anterior teeth. The patient continued to wear the appliance sporadically. When she presented, the maxillary incisors were in primary occlusal trauma with Grade 2 mobility. The patient discontinued wearing the appliance. The periodontal condition was addressed with initial therapy. As part of the treatment plan to stabilize the maxillary anterior teeth and provide the patient with an esthetic result, it was decided to do a limited occlusal adjustment of the maxillary anterior teeth to control fremitus, and to place a fixed, composite resin, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced splint, using a facial approach. The esthetic restoration of these teeth was accomplished with bonded porcelain veneers.

  18. Process Development of Porcelain Ceramic Material with Binder Jetting Process for Dental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyanaji, Hadi; Zhang, Shanshan; Lassell, Austin; Zandinejad, Amirali; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Custom ceramic structures possess significant potentials in many applications such as dentistry and aerospace where extreme environments are present. Specifically, highly customized geometries with adequate performance are needed for various dental prostheses applications. This paper demonstrates the development of process and post-process parameters for a dental porcelain ceramic material using binder jetting additive manufacturing (AM). Various process parameters such as binder amount, drying power level, drying time and powder spread speed were studied experimentally for their effect on geometrical and mechanical characteristics of green parts. In addition, the effects of sintering and printing parameters on the qualities of the densified ceramic structures were also investigated experimentally. The results provide insights into the process-property relationships for the binder jetting AM process, and some of the challenges of the process that need to be further characterized for the successful adoption of the binder jetting technology in high quality ceramic fabrications are discussed.

  19. Solar-energy treatment of ceramic tile. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.N.; Clayton, M.E.

    1981-12-01

    The 400 kW Advanced Components Test Facility was used to provide a concentrated source of solar energy for firing ceramic wall tile. A domed top cylindrical cavity with a white refractory fiber lining provided diffuse reflection of the concentrated solar beam directly onto the upper surface of the unfired wall tile. The tile were placed directly on the cavity floor in a circular pattern, centered at 45/sup 0/ intervals so that eight tile could be fired at one time. The tile and cavity walls were instrumented with thermocouples, and pyrometric cones were used to determine temperature distribution within the cavity. The glazed and unglazed solar fired tiles were subjected to standard ceramic testing procedures to determine: flatness, modulus of rupture, water absorption, porosity, bulk density, apparent specific gravity, percent linear thermal expansion and crystalline phases present in the fired bodies. These data were compared with the same data for commercial fired tiles from the same batch of raw materials. The glazed tile surfaces were compared with commercially fired tile for reflectance and color match. The major problems encountered were: cracking by thermal shock, and uneven shrinkage and glaze maturity across individual tile. The cavity also failed to provide even heating at all eight tile positions. An alternate air heat exchanger system is recommended to fire the tile by convection rather than direct radiation.

  20. 90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-21. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  1. 21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. TILES OF THE NEW WORLD PANEL, NORTH WALL OF THE INDIAN HOUSE. THE RELIEF BROCADE TILES ILLUSTRATE SCENES OF NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE, AND THE EARLY EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE NEW WORLD. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  2. On the Penrose and Taylor–Socolar hexagonal tilings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Yup; Moody, Robert V.

    2017-01-01

    The intimate relationship between the Penrose and the Taylor–Socolar tilings is studied, within both the context of double hexagon tiles and the algebraic context of hierarchical inverse sequences of triangular lattices. This unified approach produces both types of tilings together, clarifies their relationship and offers straightforward proofs of their basic properties. PMID:28447596

  3. Production and characterization of glazed tiles containing incinerated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, D F; Chang, W C; Yuan, C; Luo, H L

    2008-01-01

    In this article, glaze with different colorants was applied to tile specimens manufactured by incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and clay. Improvements using different amounts of colorants, and glaze components and concentrations on tile bodies were investigated. Four different proportions of clay (by weight ratio) were replaced by ISSA. Tiles of size 12 cm x 6 cm x 1 cm were made and left in an electric furnace to make biscuit tiles at 800 degrees C. Afterwards, four colorants, Fe2O3 (red), V2O5 (yellow), CoCO3 (blue), and MnO2 (purple), and four different glaze concentrations were applied on biscuit tile specimens. These specimens were later sintered into glazed tiles at 1050 degrees C. The study shows that replacement of clay by sludge ash had adverse effects on properties of tiles. Water absorption increased and bending strength reduced with increased amounts of ash. However, both water absorption and bending strength improved for glazed ash tiles. Abrasion of grazed tiles reduced noticeably from 0.001 to 0.002 g. This implies glaze can enhance abrasion resistance of tiles. Effects like lightfastness and acid-alkali resistance improved as different glazes were applied on tiles. In general, red glazed tiles showed the most stable performance, followed by blue, yellow, and purple.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Tile Shop, members of the Stafford-Covey Return to Flight Task Group (SCTG) learn about PU-tiles, part of an orbiter’s Thermal Protection System. At left is Martin Wilson, with United Space Alliance. Others (left to right) around the table are James Adamson, Dr. Kathryn Clark, William Wegner, Richard Covey and Joe Engle. Covey, former Space Shuttle commander, is co-chair of the SCTG, along with Thomas P. Stafford, Apollo commander. Chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe, the task group will perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-08-06

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - On a tour of the Tile Shop, members of the Stafford-Covey Return to Flight Task Group (SCTG) learn about PU-tiles, part of an orbiter’s Thermal Protection System. At left is Martin Wilson, with United Space Alliance. Others (left to right) around the table are James Adamson, Dr. Kathryn Clark, William Wegner, Richard Covey and Joe Engle. Covey, former Space Shuttle commander, is co-chair of the SCTG, along with Thomas P. Stafford, Apollo commander. Chartered by NASA Administrator Sean O’Keefe, the task group will perform an independent assessment of NASA’s implementation of the final recommendations by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  5. CFD-Predicted Tile Heating Bump Factors Due to Tile Overlay Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessard, Victor R.

    2006-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics investigation of the Orbiter's Tile Overlay Repair (TOR) is performed to assess the aeroheating Damage Assessment Team's (DAT) existing heating correlation method for protuberance interference heating on the surrounding thermal protection system. Aerothermodynamic heating analyses are performed for TORs at the design reference damage locations body points 1800 and 1075 for a Mach 17.9 and a=39deg STS-107 flight trajectory point with laminar flow. Six different cases are considered. The computed peak heating bump factor on the surrounding tiles are below the DAT's heating bump factor values for smooth tile cases. However, for the uneven tiles cases the peak interference heating is shown to be considerably higher than the existing correlation prediction.

  6. Jagged Tiling for Intra-tile Parallelism and Fine-Grain Multithreading

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.; Gao, Guang R.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we have developed a novel methodology that takes into consideration multithreaded many-core designs to better utilize memory/processing resources and improve memory residence on tileable applications. It takes advantage of polyhedral analysis and transformation in the form of PLUTO, combined with a highly optimized finegrain tile runtime to exploit parallelism at all levels. The main contributions of this paper include the introduction of multi-hierarchical tiling techniques that increases intra tile parallelism; and a data-flow inspired runtime library that allows the expression of parallel tiles with an efficient synchronization registry. Our current implementation shows performance improvements on an Intel Xeon Phi board up to 32.25% against instances produced by state-of-the-art compiler frameworks for selected stencil applications.

  7. The bond strength of porcelain to Ni-Cr alloy--the influence of tin or chromium plating.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Murakami, T; Terada, Y

    1992-01-01

    Nickel-chromium alloys were plated with tin and chromium to evaluate the effect on porcelain shear bond strength. Six plating methods were used. Additionally, the microstructure of the bond between the plated alloy and porcelain were studied using SEM and EPMA. Tin plating increased the bond strength of porcelain to a nickel-chromium alloy while chromium plating did not.

  8. Mechanical and chemical analyses across dental porcelain fused to CP titanium or Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Souza, Júlio C M; Henriques, Bruno; Ariza, Edith; Martinelli, Antonio E; Nascimento, Rubens M; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of mechanical properties and chemical variation across veneering dental porcelain fused to different titanium-based substrates. Test samples were synthesized by fusing dental feldspar-based porcelain onto commercially pure titanium grade II or Ti6Al4V alloy. Samples were cross-sectioned at angles of 10 and 90° to the interface plane. Afterwards, nanoindentation tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging coupled to an Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) system were carried out across interfaces extending from the metal towards the porcelain area. Elemental diffusion profiles across the porcelain-to-metal interfaces were also obtained by EDS analysis. The mismatch in mechanical properties found in porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V interfaces was lower than that of porcelain-to-CP titanium. Cracking was noticed at low-thickness veneering dental porcelain regions after the nanoindentation tests of samples cross-sectioned at low angles to the interface plane. A wide reaction zone between titanium and porcelain as well as higher incidence of defects was noticed at the porcelain-to-CP titanium interfaces. This study confirmed Ti6Al4V as an improved alternative to CP-titanium as it showed to establish a better interface with the veneering dental porcelain considering the slight chemical interaction and the lower mechanical properties mismatch. The elastic modulus of porcelain-to-Ti6Al4V samples showed to be less sensitive to porcelain thickness variations.

  9. 75 FR 81967 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Antidumping... of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (POS cooking ware) from Taiwan... antidumping duty order is porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan that does not have self-...

  10. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelan, Louise; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results. In addition, the data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking are described and the outcome of the detector consolidation in the maintenance period is also presented.

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molander, Simon

    2014-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Detector performances with respect to electronic noise and cell response are presented. In addition, an overview of the partially overlapping calibration systems is given.

  12. Radioactivity level in Chinese building ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Xinwei, L

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been determined by gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 158.3 to 1087.6, 91.7 to 1218.4, and 473.8 to 1031.3 Bq kg(-1) for glaze, and from 63.5 to 131.4, 55.4 to 106.5, and 386.7 to 866.8 Bq kg(-1) for ceramic tile, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the typical world values. The radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) associated with the radionuclides were calculated. The Ra(eq) values of all ceramic tiles are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1). The values of H(ex) and H(in) calculated according to the Chinese criterion for ceramic tiles are less than unity. The Ra(eq) value for the glaze of glazed tile collected from some areas are >370 Bq kg(-1).

  13. L-Tromino Tiling of Multilated Chessboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "n" x "n" chessboard is called deficient if one square is missing from any spot on the board. Can all deficient boards with a number of cells divisible by 3 be tiled by bent (or L-shaped) trominoes? The answer is yes, with exception of the order-5 board. This paper deals with the general problem plus numerous related puzzles and proofs…

  14. Tile survey seen during EVA 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-03

    S114-E-6396 (3 August 2005) --- Space Shuttle Discovery’s underside thermal protection tiles are featured in this image photographed by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, during the mission’s third session of extravehicular activities (EVA). Lake Nasser along the Nile River, Egypt is visible near Discovery’s starboard wing.

  15. High Temperature Filler for Tile Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, J. W.; Wang, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    Gaps between ceramic tiles filled with ceramic-coated fabric that withstands temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees F (1,300 degrees C). Reusable high-temperature gap filler is made of fabric coated with ceramic slurry and bonded in place with room-temperature-vulcanized adhesive. Procedure used in kilns and furnaces.

  16. L-Tromino Tiling of Multilated Chessboards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An "n" x "n" chessboard is called deficient if one square is missing from any spot on the board. Can all deficient boards with a number of cells divisible by 3 be tiled by bent (or L-shaped) trominoes? The answer is yes, with exception of the order-5 board. This paper deals with the general problem plus numerous related puzzles and proofs…

  17. TILE at Iowa: Adoption and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florman, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter introduces a University of Iowa effort to enhance and support active learning pedagogies in technology-enhanced (TILE) classrooms and three elements that proved essential to the campus-wide adoption of those pedagogies. It then describes the impact of those professional development efforts on the curricula and cultures of three…

  18. Lozenge Tilings, Glauber Dynamics and Macroscopic Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslier, Benoît; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2015-09-01

    We study the Glauber dynamics on the set of tilings of a finite domain of the plane with lozenges of side 1/ L. Under the invariant measure of the process (the uniform measure over all tilings), it is well known (Cohn et al. J Am Math Soc 14:297-346, 2001) that the random height function associated to the tiling converges in probability, in the scaling limit , to a non-trivial macroscopic shape minimizing a certain surface tension functional. According to the boundary conditions, the macroscopic shape can be either analytic or contain "frozen regions" (Arctic Circle phenomenon Cohn et al. N Y J Math 4:137-165, 1998; Jockusch et al. Random domino tilings and the arctic circle theorem, arXiv:math/9801068, 1998). It is widely conjectured, on the basis of theoretical considerations (Henley J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997; Spohn J Stat Phys 71:1081-1132, 1993), partial mathematical results (Caputo et al. Commun Math Phys 311:157-189, 2012; Wilson Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004) and numerical simulations for similar models (Destainville Phys Rev Lett 88:030601, 2002; cf. also the bibliography in Henley (J Statist Phys 89:483-507, 1997) and Wilson (Ann Appl Probab 14:274-325, 2004), that the Glauber dynamics approaches the equilibrium macroscopic shape in a time of order L 2+ o(1). In this work we prove this conjecture, under the assumption that the macroscopic equilibrium shape contains no "frozen region".

  19. Nitrate in tile drainage of the semiarid Palouse Basin.

    PubMed

    Keller, C Kent; Butcher, Caroline N; Smith, Jeffrey L; Allen-King, Richelle M

    2008-01-01

    Topographically heterogeneous agricultural landscapes can complicate and accelerate agrochemical contamination of streams due to rapid transport of water and chemicals to poorly drained lower-landscape positions and shallow ground water. In the semiarid Palouse region, large parts of these landscapes have been tile drained to enhance crop yield. From 2000-2004 we monitored the discharge of a tile drain (TD) and a nearby profile of soil water for nitrate concentration ([NO(3)]), electrical conductivity level (EC), and water content to develop a conceptual framework describing soil nitrate occurrence and loss via subsurface pathways. Tile-drain baseflow [NO(3)] was consistently 4 mg N L(-1) and baseflow EC was 200 to 300 microS cm(-1). Each year sudden synoptic increases in TD discharge and [NO(3)] occurred in early winter following approximately 150 mm of fall precipitation, which saturated the soil and mobilized high-[NO(3)] soil water throughout the profile. The greatest TD [NO(3)] (20-30 mg N L(-1)) occurred approximately contemporaneous with greatest TD discharges. The EC decrease each year (to approximately 100 microS cm(-1)) during high discharge, a dilution effect, lagged approximately 1 mo behind the first appearance of high [NO(3)] and was consistent with advective transport of low-EC water from the shallow profile under saturated conditions. Water-budget considerations and temporal [NO(3)] patterns suggest that these processes deliver water to the TD from both lower- and upper-slope positions, the latter via lateral flow during the high-flow season. Management practices that reduce the fall reservoir of soil nitrate might be effective in reducing N loading to streams and shallow ground water in this region.

  20. 76 FR 2920 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... COMMISSION Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission...-steel cooking ware from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from...

  1. Effect of cooling rate on shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to a zirconia ceramic material.

    PubMed

    Komine, Futoshi; Saito, Ayako; Kobayashi, Kazuhisa; Koizuka, Mai; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Matsumura, Hideo

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cooling rates after firing procedures of veneering porcelain on shear bond strength between veneering porcelain and a zirconium dioxide (zirconia; ZrO₂) ceramic material. A total of 48 ZrO₂ disks were divided equally into three groups. Two veneering porcelains that are recommended for ZrO₂ material - Cerabien ZR (CZR), IPS e.max Ceram (EMX) - and one that is recommended for metal ceramics - Super Porcelain AAA (AAA) were assessed. Each group was then further divided into two subgroups (n = 8) according to cooling time (0 or 4 min) after porcelain firing. Specimens were fabricated by veneering the porcelain on the ZrO₂ disks, after which shear bond testing was conducted. Bond strength differed significantly by cooling time in ZrO₂-AAA (P < 0.001) and ZrO₂-EMX (P = 0.001) specimens. There was no significant difference in shear bond strength with respect to cooling time in ZrO₂-CZR specimens (P = 0.382). The duration of cooling from firing temperature to room temperature may affect the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to a zirconia material depending on porcelain material used.

  2. Intensity of energy input during radiation drying of porcelain products in metallic molds

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarev, V.A.; Mikhalev, V.P.; Gubskii, G.Z.

    1987-03-01

    The authors seek to optimize the energy input and efficiency of the process and equipment for drying porcelain in a parametric analysis which maximizes the drying rate against the limiting condition of the onset of temperature-dependent crack propagation in the porcelain.

  3. Factors affecting the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain.

    PubMed

    Bourke, B M; Rock, W P

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to establish a regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain, which ensures adequate bond strength (6-8 MPa) with minimal damage on debond and consisted of an ex vivo investigation measuring the effects of porcelain surface preparation and thermocycling on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. One-hundred-and-twenty feldspathic porcelain bonded crown surfaces were divided into 12 equally-sized groups to assess the effects of: (1) glaze removal, (2) application of hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, or omission of acid treatment, and (3) silane priming upon the bond strength of premolar brackets bonded with Right-on (TM) composite resin adhesive. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to shear debonding forces on an Instron machine. Removal of the porcelain glaze, or use of hydrofluoric acid, prior to bonding were found to be unnecessary to secure the target bond strength. Hydrofluoric acid application was associated with increased porcelain surface damage. Thermocycling caused a significant reduction in shear bond strength to porcelain (P < 0*001). The best regime for orthodontic bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, and prime with silane prior to bonding. Usually the porcelain surfaces could be repolished. Refereed Paper

  4. [Preliminary study of bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramic and veneering porcelains].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-li; Gao, Mei-qin; Cheng, Yu-ye; Zhang, Fei-min

    2015-04-01

    In order to choose the best veneering porcelain for diatomite-based dental ceramic substrate, the bonding strength between diatomite-based dental ceramics and veneering porcelains was measured, and the microstructure and elements distribution of interface were analyzed. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of diatomite-based dental ceramics was detected by dilatometry. Three veneering porcelain materials were selected with the best CTE matching including alumina veneering porcelain (group A), titanium porcelain veneering porcelain (group B), and E-max veneering porcelain (group C). Shear bonding strength was detected. SEM and EDS were used to observe the interface microstructure and element distribution. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. The CTE of diatomite-based dental ceramics at 25-500 degrees centigrade was 8.85×10-6K-1. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combined best with group C. Shear bonding strength between group A and C and group B and C both showed significant differences(P<0.05). SEM and EDS showed that the interface of group C sintered tightly and elements permeated on both sides of the interface. The diatomite-based substrate ceramics combines better with E-max porcelain veneer.

  5. Tile-based Level of Detail for the Parallel Age

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Cohen, J D

    2007-08-15

    Today's PCs incorporate multiple CPUs and GPUs and are easily arranged in clusters for high-performance, interactive graphics. We present an approach based on hierarchical, screen-space tiles to parallelizing rendering with level of detail. Adapt tiles, render tiles, and machine tiles are associated with CPUs, GPUs, and PCs, respectively, to efficiently parallelize the workload with good resource utilization. Adaptive tile sizes provide load balancing while our level of detail system allows total and independent management of the load on CPUs and GPUs. We demonstrate our approach on parallel configurations consisting of both single PCs and a cluster of PCs.

  6. TGA-DTA and chemical composition study of raw material of Bikaner region for electrical porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tak, S. K.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Mangal, R.

    2013-06-01

    Porcelains are vitrified and a fine grained ceramic product, used either glazed or unglazed and is often manufactured from a tri-axial body mix of clays, quartz and alkaline feldspar. Physical properties associated with porcelain include those of permeability, high strength, hardness, glassiness, durability, whiteness, translucence, resonance, brittleness, high resistance to the passage of electricity, high resistance to thermal shock and high elasticity[1,2]. Porcelain insulators are made from three raw materials; clay; feldspar and quartz. For porcelain manufacture the clay is categorized in two groups; ball clay and kaolin, each of which plays an important role, either in the preparation of the product or in the properties of the finished products. The following research highlights the importance that suits these materials for their contributions to the final properties of the product. Keeping this view a TGA-DTA and chemical composition of these raw materials were observed and these materials are found suitable for production of Electrical Porcelain.

  7. Effect of laser parameters on the microstructure of bonding porcelain layer fused on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Guo, Litong; Liu, Xuemei; Feng, Wei; Li, Baoe; Tao, Xueyu; Qiang, Yinghuai

    2017-09-01

    Bonding porcelain layer was fused on Ti surface by laser cladding process using a 400 W pulse CO2 laser. The specimens were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and bonding tests. During the laser fusion process, the porcelain powders were heated by laser energy and melted on Ti to form a chemical bond with the substrate. When the laser scanning speed decreased, the sintering temperature and the extent of the oxidation of Ti surface increased accordingly. When the laser scanning speed is 12.5 mm/s, the bonding porcelain layers were still incomplete sintered and there were some micro-cracks in the porcelain. When the laser scanning speed decreased to 7.5 mm/s, vitrified bonding porcelain layers with few pores were synthesized on Ti.

  8. [Mass Spectrometric Methods for Colorative Mechanism Analysis of Yaozhou Porcelain Glaze].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuan-fang; He, Miao-hong; Zhang, Shu-di; Hang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    An in-house-built femtosecond laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (fs-LI-TOFMS) has been applied to the multi-elemental analysis of porcelain glaze from Yaozhou kiln. The samples are selected representing products of different dynasties, including Tang, Five, Song, Jin, and Ming Dynasty. For exploring the colorative mechanism of Yaozhou porcelain through the elemental analysis of the glaze, the effects of all potential coloring elements, especially transition elements, were considered. There was a speculation that the typical Co-Cr-Fe-Mn recipe was used in the fabrication of Yaozhou black glaze; the low content of Fe and high content of Ni resulted in the porcelain of white glaze; an increase content of P could lead the porcelain to be yellow-glazed. Undoubtedly, this research is an important supplement to the study of the colorative mechanism of the Yaozhou porcelain system.

  9. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Wells, R.P.; Craven, G.E.

    1996-12-24

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ions because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile. 8 figs.

  10. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Wells, Russell P.; Craven, Glen E.

    1996-01-01

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ion because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile.

  11. Bending strength of zirconia/porcelain functionally graded materials prepared using spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Gakuji; Sueyoshi, Hidekazu; Kamibayashi, Hiroki; Tokuda, Masayuki; Torii, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to fabricate functionally graded materials (FGMs) consisting of yttria-stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and porcelain using spark plasma sintering (SPS) and examine the influence of their microstructures and thermal stress on their bending strengths. Two types of four-layered Y-TZP/porcelain FGMs having a constant layer thickness and a varying layer thickness, Y-TZP/porcelain composite materials having a microstructure corresponding to each layer in FGMs and monolithic materials of Y-TZP and porcelain were fabricated by SPS. The Y-TZP/porcelain volume fraction of each layer in FGMs was varied over 100/0-70/30. Three-point bending test, X-ray diffraction, density measurement, microstructure observation, and thermal stress estimation were performed to characterise the materials. The bending strength of the Y-TZP/porcelain composite materials decreased with the volume fraction of the porcelain. About FGMs, when the 100%Y-TZP layer was on the tensile stress side during the bending test, the bending strength was almost the same as that of the 100%Y-TZP monolithic material. On the other hand, when the 100%Y-TZP layer was on the compressive stress side, the bending strength of FGM having a constant layer thickness was almost the same as that of the 70%Y-TZP+30%porcelain composite material, while the bending strength of FGM with a varying layer thickness was significantly higher than that of the 70%Y-TZP+30%porcelain composite material. The FGMs prepared and analyzed in this research can potentially be used for crowns and bridges as well as for inlays and onlays. The SPS method could effectively fabricate the Y-TZP/porcelain FGMs, and the bending strength results revealed that the graded structure was very efficient to raise the bending strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An efficient pseudomedian filter for tiling microrrays

    PubMed Central

    Royce, Thomas E; Carriero, Nicholas J; Gerstein, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    Background Tiling microarrays are becoming an essential technology in the functional genomics toolbox. They have been applied to the tasks of novel transcript identification, elucidation of transcription factor binding sites, detection of methylated DNA and several other applications in several model organisms. These experiments are being conducted at increasingly finer resolutions as the microarray technology enjoys increasingly greater feature densities. The increased densities naturally lead to increased data analysis requirements. Specifically, the most widely employed algorithm for tiling array analysis involves smoothing observed signals by computing pseudomedians within sliding windows, a O(n2logn) calculation in each window. This poor time complexity is an issue for tiling array analysis and could prove to be a real bottleneck as tiling microarray experiments become grander in scope and finer in resolution. Results We therefore implemented Monahan's HLQEST algorithm that reduces the runtime complexity for computing the pseudomedian of n numbers to O(nlogn) from O(n2logn). For a representative tiling microarray dataset, this modification reduced the smoothing procedure's runtime by nearly 90%. We then leveraged the fact that elements within sliding windows remain largely unchanged in overlapping windows (as one slides across genomic space) to further reduce computation by an additional 43%. This was achieved by the application of skip lists to maintaining a sorted list of values from window to window. This sorted list could be maintained with simple O(log n) inserts and deletes. We illustrate the favorable scaling properties of our algorithms with both time complexity analysis and benchmarking on synthetic datasets. Conclusion Tiling microarray analyses that rely upon a sliding window pseudomedian calculation can require many hours of computation. We have eased this requirement significantly by implementing efficient algorithms that scale well with genomic

  13. [Colorimetric study of color reproduction in porcelain-fused-to-metal restoration. The application of Kubelka-Munk theory in porcelain mixtures].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Miyoshi, F; Ishibashi, K

    1990-06-01

    To get a more natural and harmonious color of porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations, an objective and precise systematic method from shade selection to color evaluation is needed. Thus, the absorption and scattering coefficients were determined to develop a CCM system for porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. The Kubelka-Munk Theory was applied on the dental porcelain, opaque, dentin, and enamel. From these data, we predicted the color of the porcelain mixtures from the both coefficients. From the results of comparing the spectral curves and analyzing the color differences between measured values and predicted values of porcelain mixtures, the following was analysed; 1. In opaque, spectral curves of the predicted and measured values were exactly alike and the mean dE between two values was 0.39. 2. In dentin, the spectral curved of the predicted and measured values were exactly alike, and the mean dE was 1.13. The measured values indicated a slight increase in the level of chroma and lightness. 3. In enamel, the spectral curves were exactly alike and the mean dE was 1.16. The measured values indicated a slight decrease in the level of lightness. Therefore, it was possible to predict the color of opaque, dentin and enamel porcelain mixtures, by applying the Kubelka-Munk Theory.

  14. Self-Replication of Nanoscale tiles and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaikin, Paul

    2012-02-01

    We want to make a ``non-biological'' system which can self-replicate. The idea is to design particles with specific and reversible and irreversible interactions, introduce seed motifs, and cycle the system in such a way that a copy is made. Repeating the cycle would double the number of offspring in each generation leading to exponential growth. Using the chemistry of DNA either on colloids or on DNA tiles makes the specific recognition part easy. In the case of DNA tiles we have in fact replicated the seed at least to the third generation. The DNA linkers can also be self-protected so that particles don't interact unless they are held together for sufficient time -- a nano-contact glue. Chemical modification of the DNA allows us to permanently crosslink hybridized strands for irreversible bonds and a new type of photolithography. We have also designed and produced colloidal particles that use novel ``lock and key'' geometries to get specific and reversible physical interactions.[4pt] With Tong Wang, Ruojie Sha, Remi Dreyfus, Mirjam E. Leunissen, Corinna Maass, David J. Pine, and Nadrian C. Seeman.

  15. Er:YAG laser debonding of porcelain veneers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buu, Natalie; Morford, Cynthia; Finzen, Frederick; Sharma, Arun; Rechmann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    The removal of porcelain veneers using Er:YAG lasers has not been previously described in the scientific literature. This study was designed to systematically investigate the efficacy of an Er:YAG laser on veneer debonding without damaging the underlying tooth structure, as well as preserving a new or misplaced veneer. Initially, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used on flat porcelain veneer samples (IPS Empress Esthetic; Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY) to assess which infrared laser wavelengths are transmitted through the veneer. Additionally, FTIR spectra from a veneer bonding cement (RelyX Veneer Cement A1; 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN) were obtained. While the veneer material showed no characteristic water absorption bands in the FTIR, the bonding cement has a broad H2O/OH absorption band coinciding with the ER:YAG laser emission wavelength. Consequently Er:YAG laser energy transmission through different veneer thicknesses was measured. The porcelain veneers transmitted 11 - 18 % of the incident Er:YAG laser energy depending on their thicknesses (Er:YAG laser: LiteTouch by Syneron; wavelength 2,940 nm, 10 Hz repetition rate, pulse duration 100 μs at 133 mJ/pulse; straight sapphire tip 1,100 μm diameter; Syneron, Yokneam, Israel). Initial signs of cement ablation occurred at approximately 1.8 - 4.0 J/cm2. This can be achieved by irradiating through the veneer with the fiber tip positioned at a distance of 3-6 mm from the veneer surface, and operating the Er:YAG laser with 133 mJ output energy. All eleven veneers bonded on extracted anterior incisor teeth were easily removed using the Er:YAG laser. The removal occurred without damaging underlying tooth structure as verified by light microscopic investigation (Incident Light Microscope Olympus B 50, Micropublisher RTV 3.3 MP, Image Pro software, Olympus). The debonding mainly occurred at the cement/veneer interface. When the samples were stored in saline solution for 5 days and/or an air-waterspray was

  16. Cement luting thickness beneath porcelain veneers made on platinum foil.

    PubMed

    Wall, J G; Reisbick, M H; Espeleta, K G

    1992-09-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers were made using a platinum foil matrix and were subsequently cemented to mandibular anterior Cymel teeth. Cement film thickness was measured in six predetermined locations. Repeated measures analysis of variance and single degree of freedom contrasts delineated a significant difference between marginal openings at the incisal edge where foil is folded and in four of the other vertical areas (132 versus 74.1 microns). Marginal cement film thickness of veneers made on platinum foil is less than that reported for veneers made on a refractory investment.

  17. Cyclic testing of porcelain laminiate veneers on superficial enamel and dentin: Pressed vs. conventional layered porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawde, Shweta

    Statement of Problem: Clinicians are inclined towards more aggressive teeth preparations to accommodate the thickness of the veneering material. The principle of conservative tooth preparation is compromised. Purpose: By using a conservative approach to treatment with porcelain veneers, long-lasting, esthetic and functional results may be achieved. Sacrificing as little tooth structure as possible and conserving the supporting tissues will facilitate prospective patients. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary and mandibular canines were selected. The teeth were divided into one of two groups (pressable and stackable) and further subdivided according to tooth substrate (all-enamel or mixed enamel-dentin exposure). Twenty canine teeth were allotted to the pressable veneer group and 20 were allotted to the stackable veneer group. Of the 20 teeth in the pressable group, all were pressed with a lithium disilicate ceramic system (IPS e.max Press), 10 with labial tooth reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (PEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (PDN). Of the 20 teeth in the stackable group, all were stacked/ layered with conventional feldspathic porcelain (Fortune; Williams/ Ivoclar); with labial veneer reduction of 0.3-0.5 mm maintaining superficial enamel (SEN) and the remaining 10 teeth with labial veneer reduction of 0.8-1.0 mm exposing superficial dentin (SDN). Silicon putty matrix was fabricated prior to teeth preparation to estimate the teeth reduction. The prepared facial reduction was limited to the incisal edge. No incisal or palatal/lingual reduction was performed. Impressions of the prepared teeth were taken in medium/light-bodied PVS. Master casts were made in Resin Rock. The stackable group specimens were made with fabricating refractory dies and after following the recommended steps of laboratory procedure, stackable veneers were processed. The pressable group

  18. Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

  19. Firing ceramic tiles in solar energy equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasichnyi, V.V.; Berezhetskaya, V.Ya.; Chop, Yu.I.; Kashket, G.I.

    1987-03-01

    In the interest of satisfying the growing demand for glazed ceramic tiles and conserving the natural gas ordinarily used to fire them, the authors assess the feasibility of using a solar kiln for the process. Their design incorporates a parabolic reflector and a tracking system to continuously focus radiant solar energy on the tile. Their energy analysis includes such factors as solar thermal input, radiant heat transfer, and heat flow, the relationship between the firing time and the heat flow density, and the surface quality of the glaze and colorizer. Their results indicate that when the heat flow density rises above a level at which the specific expenditure of heat is no longer dependent on the color of the pigment, this expenditure or input comes to a quarter of what is currently needed using existing technologies and fuels.

  20. Anosov Diffeomorphisms and {γ}-Tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, João P.; Pinto, Alberto A.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a toral Anosov automorphism {G_γ:{mathbb{T}}_γto{mathbb{T}}_γ} given by {G_γ(x,y)=(ax+y,x)} in the { < v,w > } base, where {ainmathbb{N} backslash\\{1\\}}, {γ=1/(a+1/(a+1/ldots))}, {v=(γ,1)} and {w=(-1,γ)} in the canonical base of {{mathbb{R}}^2} and {{mathbb{T}}_γ={mathbb{R}}^2/(v{mathbb{Z}} × w{mathbb{Z}})}. We introduce the notion of {γ}-tilings to prove the existence of a one-to-one correspondence between (i) marked smooth conjugacy classes of Anosov diffeomorphisms, with invariant measures absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure, that are in the isotopy class of {G_γ}; (ii) affine classes of {γ}-tilings; and (iii) {γ}-solenoid functions. Solenoid functions provide a parametrization of the infinite dimensional space of the mathematical objects described in these equivalences.

  1. Degenerate polygonal tilings in simple animal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hočevar, A.; Ziherl, P.

    2009-07-01

    The salient feature of one-cell-thick epithelia is their en face view, which reveals the polygonal cross section of the close-packed prismatic cells. The physical mechanisms that shape these tissues were hitherto explored using theories based on cell proliferation, which were either entirely topological or included certain morphogenetic forces. But mitosis itself may not be instrumental in molding the tissue. We show that the structure of simple epithelia can be explained by an equilibrium model where energy-degenerate polygons in an entropy-maximizing tiling are described by a single geometric parameter encoding their inflatedness. The two types of tilings found numerically—ordered and disordered—closely reproduce the patterns observed in Drosophila, Hydra, and Xenopus and they generalize earlier theoretical results. Free of a specific cell self-energy, cell-cell interaction, and cell division kinetics, our model provides an insight into the universality of living and inanimate two-dimensional cellular structures.

  2. Mapping Signal Processing Kernels to Tiled Architectures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    attractive alternatives to monolithic computer architecture designs because they allow a larger design to be built from smaller modules and limit the...Computer Architectures. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, 2(4):289–308, November 1984. [12] Steven Swanson, Ken Michelson , Andrew Schwerin, and...Program MIT Lincoln LaboratoryHPEC 2004-3 JML 28 Sep 2004 Tiled Architectures • Monolithic single-chip architectures are becoming rare in the industry

  3. NASA TileWorld Simulator Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Andrew; Bresina, John; Drummond, Mark

    1993-01-01

    NASA TileWorld (NTW) computer program formulated to further research on planning, scheduling, and control problems. Designed to focus on three particular attributes of real-world problems: exogenous events, uncertain outcomes of actions, and metric time. Written specifically for use by NASA, NTW modified easily to act as software base for other simulated environments. Written in Allegro Common Lisp for Sun-3-(TM) and Sun-4-series(TM) computers running SunOS(TM).

  4. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrió, F.; Tile Calorimeter System, ATLAS

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm-2s-1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year.

  5. Laser printing of enamels on tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Restrepo, J. W.; Gómez, M. A.; Serra, P.; Morenza, J. L.

    2007-07-01

    A Nd:YAG laser beam is used as a tool to print patterns of coloured enamels on tile substrates. For this, the laser beam is scanned over a layer of raw enamel previously sprayed on the tile surface. The possibility to focus the laser energy to heat a small zone without affecting the rest of the piece presents some advantages in front of traditional furnace techniques in which the whole piece has to be heated; among them, energy saving and the possibility to apply enamels with higher melting temperatures than those of the substrate. In this work, we study the effects of laser irradiation of a green enamel, based in chromium oxide pigment and lead frit, deposited on a white tile substrate. Lines obtained with different combinations of laser beam power and scan speeds were investigated with the aim to optimize the process from the point of view of the quality of the patterns. For this purpose, the morphology of the lines and their cross-sections is studied. The results show that lines with good visual properties can be printed with the laser. The characteristics of the marked lines were found to be directly related with the accumulated energy density delivered. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the accumulated energy density and the volume of melted material. A minimum accumulated energy density is required to melt a shallow zone of the glazed substrate to allow the adhesion of the enamelled lines.

  6. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephe

    2013-04-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section (0 < |η| < 1.7) of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons decaying hadronically, and missing transverse energy. Because of its very good signal to noise ratio it is also useful for the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 4900 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser, and electronic charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of pp collisions acquired during 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance will be presented, including the absolute energy scale, time resolution, and associated stabilities. These results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter is performing well within the design requirements and is giving essential input to the physics results.

  8. Chemical Composition of Ceramic Tile Glazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufrik, S. S.; Kurian, N. N.; Zhukova, I. I.; Znosko, K. F.; Belkov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out laser emission and x-ray fluorescence spectral analysis of glaze before and after its application to ceramic tile produced by Keramin JSC (Belarus). We have studied the internal microstructure of the ceramic samples. It was established that on the surface and within the bulk interior of all the samples, there are micropores of sizes ranging from a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and microcracks as long as several hundred micrometers. The presence of micropores on the surface of the ceramic tile leads to an increase in the water absorption level and a decrease in frost resistance. It was found that a decrease in the surface tension of ceramic tile coatings is promoted by substitution of sodium by potassium, silica by boric anhydride, magnesium and barium by calcium, CaO by sodium oxide, and SiO2 by chromium oxide. We carried out a comparative analysis of the chemical composition of glaze samples using S4 Pioneer and ElvaX x-ray fluorescence spectrometers and also an LIBS laser emission analyzer.

  9. Initial enamel wear of glazed and polished leucite-based porcelains with different fusing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko; de Campos, Tomie Nakakuki; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami

    2009-01-01

    This study used the radiotracer method to measure the initial enamel wear caused by low- and high-fusing porcelains after glazing or polishing. It also tested the correlation between enamel wear and porcelain surface roughness (Ra). Surface morphology was assessed by optical microscopy. Cylindrical specimens of three porcelains (two high-fusing, one low-fusing) were either autoglazed or polished. Flattened enamel specimens were irradiated with neutrons and submitted to the wear assay for 2,500 cycles in distilled water using a 285 g load; the released beta 32P particles were measured for 10 minutes. For all samples, Ra was recorded with a profilometer before and after testing. Enamel wear was not significantly different for porcelain or finishing method but there was a trend of interaction between the two variables (p = 0.08). A positive correlation was found between enamel wear and the initial Ra of porcelain (r = 0.71). The glazed surfaces of high-fusing porcelains were wavy and had a greater Ra, while the polished surfaces had grooves and pores prior to wear testing. The low-fusing porcelain demonstrated lower Ra and a more homogeneous surface. All abraded surfaces had similar morphology after the wear assay.

  10. Analysis of fracture surface of titanium-porcelain bonding by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kannari, Yoshiteru; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ida, Yusuke; Ochi, Morio; Ohno, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Three commercially available porcelains bonded to titanium were evaluated to determine the weakest zone of the titanium-porcelain bonding structures. Tensile bond tests were performed for these specimens (NO, DU, and VI) and for Ni-Cr alloy-porcelain bonding samples that served as controls. The maximum bond strengths between porcelain and titanium and the Ni-Cr alloy subjected to different metal surface treatments were compared. Sand blasting effectively increased bond strengths in titanium-porcelain bonding materials. No statistically significant differences in the maximum bond strengths were found between the NO sample and a control; however, sample NO exhibited greater maximum bond strength than DU and VI samples. The bond strengths increased with increasing area fractions of porcelain failure on fracture surfaces. The weakest zones were investigated based on the oxygen chemical states determined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include bridging oxygen (Si-O-Si), nonbridging oxygen (Si-O(-) M(+)), and titanium oxide (O(2-)) states. We concluded that the titanium oxide layer is the weakest zone of titanium-porcelain bonding structures.

  11. Bonding of dental porcelain to non-cast titanium with different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mau-Chin; Tung, Kuo-Lung; Lin, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the bonding of dental porcelain to non-cast Ti surface with different treatments. Mechanically ground non-cast Ti strips, simulating surface conditions produced by CAD/CAM, were Al(2)O(3)-sandblasted, then subjected to different surface treatments, including immersion in HNO(3)-containing acid, NaOH-containing alkaline, and NaOH-containing alkaline then HNO(3)-containing acid. Ti-porcelain specimens preparations and their bend strength measurements were based on ISO 9693. Ti surface treatment changed not only surface roughness but also surface chemistry, leading to influence on bond strength. Bond strengths of all Ti-porcelain groups were higher than ISO 9693 minimum requirement. The sandblasted/acid-treated Ti surface showed the highest bond strength (34.60 MPa) with porcelain; no significant difference in bond strength (27.92-29.63 MPa) was found among other Tiporcelain groups. All Ti-porcelain specimens showed adhesive bond failure. Bonding between non-cast Ti and dental porcelain was strengthened by a simple and practical sandblasting/acid-etching treatment of the Ti surface prior to porcelain sintering.

  12. Al2O3/GdAlO3 fiber for dental porcelain reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Igor S; Luz, Luciana A; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Cesar, Paulo F; Hernandes, Antonio C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the addition of continuous or milled GdAlO3/Al2O3 fibers to a dental porcelain increases its mechanical properties. Porcelain bars without reinforcement (control) were compared to those reinforced with long fibers (30 vol%). Also, disk specimens reinforced with milled fibers were produced by adding 0 (control), 5 or 10 vol% of particles. The reinforcement with continuous fibers resulted in significant increase in the uniaxial flexural strength from 91.5 to 217.4 MPa. The addition of varied amounts of milled fibers to the porcelain did not significantly affect its biaxial flexural strength compared to the control group. SEM analysis showed that the interface between the continuous fiber and the porcelain was free of defects. On the other hand, it was possible to note the presence of cracks surrounding the milled fiber/porcelain interface. In conclusion, the reinforcement of the porcelain with continuous fibers resulted in an efficient mechanism to increase its mechanical properties; however the addition of milled fibers had no significant effect on the material because the porcelain was not able to wet the ceramic particles during the firing cycle.

  13. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  14. Bond strength of binary titanium alloys to porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yoda, M; Konno, T; Takada, Y; Iijima, K; Griggs, J; Okuno, O; Kimura, K; Okabe, T

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bond strength between porcelain and experimental cast titanium alloys. Eleven binary titanium alloys were examined: Ti-Cr (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Pd (15, 20, 25 wt%), Ti-Ag (10, 15, 20 wt%), and Ti-Cu (5, 10 wt%). As controls, the bond strengths for commercially pure titanium (KS-50, Kobelco, Japan) and a high noble gold alloy (KIK, Ishifuku, Japan) were also examined. Castings were made using a centrifugal casting unit (Ticast Super R, Selec Co., Japan). Commercial porcelain for titanium (TITAN, Noritake, Japan) was applied to cast specimens. The bond strengths were evaluated using a three-point bend test according to ISO 9693. Since the elastic modulus value is needed to evaluate the bond strength, the modulus was measured for each alloy using a three-point bend test. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/S-N-K test (alpha = 0.05). Although the elastic moduli of the Ti-Pd alloys were significantly lower than those of other alloys (p = 0.0001), there was a significant difference in bond strength only between the Ti-25Pd and Ti-15Ag alloys (p = 0.009). The strengths determined for all the experimental alloys ranged from 29.4 to 37.2MPa, which are above the minimum value required by the ISO specification (25 MPa).

  15. Influence of bruxism on survival of porcelain laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Fons-Font, Antonio; Román-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Solá-Ruíz, María F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to determine whether bruxism and the use of occlusal splints affect the survival of porcelain laminate veneers in patients treated with this technique. Material and Methods: Restorations were made in 70 patients, including 30 patients with some type of parafunctional habit. A total of 323 veneers were placed, 170 in patients with bruxism activity, and the remaining 153 in patients without it. A clinical examination determined the presence or absence of ceramic failure (cracks, fractures and debonding) of the restorations; these incidents were analyzed for association with bruxism and the use of splints. Results: Analysis of the ceramic failures showed that of the 13 fractures and 29 debonding that were present in our study, 8 fractures and 22 debonding were related to the presence of bruxism. Conclusions: Porcelain laminate veneers are a predictable treatment option that provides excellent results, recognizing a higher risk of failure in patients with bruxism activity. The use of occlusal splints reduces the risk of fractures. Key words:Veneer, fracture, debonding, bruxism, occlusal splint. PMID:23986018

  16. Treating a young adult with bonded porcelain veneers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Matt; Shull, G Franklin

    2011-04-01

    Esthetic dental treatment for young adults can be challenging. Practitioners often use direct composite bonding in children and teenagers, and often it serves them for many years. However, direct composite bonding has its limitations (such as staining and chipping), and bonded porcelain often is needed. The authors describe an 18-year-old woman who sought esthetic dental treatment. After her dentist discussed treatment options with her, she opted to receive bonded porcelain veneers. The dentist chose a lithium disilicate material on the basis of its strength and esthetic properties. Although the first set of veneers matched the patient's natural teeth well, they did not satisfy her objective of eliminating the white mottling that existed on her natural teeth. Therefore, the dental technician prepared a second set of restorations by cutting back the facial incisal areas slightly in wax to allow creation of incisal effects and by pressing them with a brighter ingot. Collaboration between the dentist and dental technician is essential to achieving treatment success. Likewise, it is important to secure the patient's input during the process, as he or she often has ideas regarding his or her smile that are different from those of the dental team.

  17. Surface treatment of feldspathic porcelain: scanning electron microscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Valian, Azam

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Topographic analysis of treated ceramics provides qualitative information regarding the surface texture affecting the micromechanical retention and locking of resin-ceramics. This study aims to compare the surface microstructure following different surface treatments of feldspathic porcelain. MATERIALS AND METHODS This in-vitro study was conducted on 72 porcelain discs randomly divided into 12 groups (n=6). In 9 groups, feldspathic surfaces were subjected to sandblasting at 2, 3 or 4 bar pressure for 5, 10 or 15 seconds with 50 µm alumina particles at a 5 mm distance. In group 10, 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HF) gel was applied for 120 seconds. In group 11, specimens were sandblasted at 3 bar pressure for 10 seconds and then conditioned with HF. In group 12, specimens were first treated with HF and then sandblasted at 3 bar pressure for 10 seconds. All specimens were then evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different magnifications. RESULTS SEM images of HF treated specimens revealed deep porosities of variable sizes; whereas, the sandblasted surfaces were more homogenous and had sharper peaks. Increasing the pressure and duration of sandblasting increased the surface roughness. SEM images of the two combined techniques showed that in group 11 (sandblasted first), HF caused deeper porosities; whereas in group 12 (treated with HF first) sandblasting caused irregularities with less homogeneity. CONCLUSION All surface treatments increased the surface area and caused porous surfaces. In groups subjected to HF, the porosities were deeper than those in sandblasted only groups. PMID:25352961

  18. Interference Lattice-based Loop Nest Tilings for Stencil Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Frumkin, Michael

    2000-01-01

    A common method for improving performance of stencil operations on structured multi-dimensional discretization grids is loop tiling. Tile shapes and sizes are usually determined heuristically, based on the size of the primary data cache. We provide a lower bound on the numbers of cache misses that must be incurred by any tiling, and a close achievable bound using a particular tiling based on the grid interference lattice. The latter tiling is used to derive highly efficient loop orderings. The total number of cache misses of a code is the sum of (necessary) cold misses and misses caused by elements being dropped from the cache between successive loads (replacement misses). Maximizing temporal locality is equivalent to minimizing replacement misses. Temporal locality of loop nests implementing stencil operations is optimized by tilings that avoid data conflicts. We divide the loop nest iteration space into conflict-free tiles, derived from the cache miss equation. The tiling involves the definition of the grid interference lattice an equivalence class of grid points whose images in main memory map to the same location in the cache-and the construction of a special basis for the lattice. Conflicts only occur on the boundaries of the tiles, unless the tiles are too thin. We show that the surface area of the tiles is bounded for grids of any dimensionality, and for caches of any associativity, provided the eccentricity of the fundamental parallelepiped (the tile spanned by the basis) of the lattice is bounded. Eccentricity is determined by two factors, aspect ratio and skewness. The aspect ratio of the parallelepiped can be bounded by appropriate array padding. The skewness can be bounded by the choice of a proper basis. Combining these two strategies ensures that pathologically thin tiles are avoided. They do not, however, minimize replacement misses per se. The reason is that tile visitation order influences the number of data conflicts on the tile boundaries. If two

  19. Adhesion monomers utilized for fixed partial denture (porcelain/metal) repair.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, R L; Paganetti, C

    1990-07-01

    A technique is presented for repair of fatigue-fractured fixed partial dentures with an overlaid, bonded porcelain/metal repair. The repair techniques utilize recent advances in resin-to-metal and resin-to-porcelain adhesion. Clinical procedures are given for adhesion of repair castings to intraoral porcelain or metal surfaces. Metal surface preparation techniques depend on the chemistry of the metal and include intraoral tin plating of noble metals. Direct adhesion of composite resin luting agents is used for base metals.

  20. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-11-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  1. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  2. 55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. QUARRY TILE CUTTERS, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH WING. WORKERS PRESSED THE CUTTERS INTO SLABS OF CLAY, LIFTED THEM ONTO DRYING BOARDS AND PRESSED THE PLUNGERS TO RELEASE THE CUT TILES. REPRODUCTIONS CUTTERS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. WOODEN FORMS FOR PRODUCING CLAY SLABS WITH ROLLING PINS REST AGAINST THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  3. Design optimization methods for genomic DNA tiling arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bertone, Paul; Trifonov, Valery; Rozowsky, Joel S.; Schubert, Falk; Emanuelsson, Olof; Karro, John; Kao, Ming-Yang; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A recent development in microarray research entails the unbiased coverage, or tiling, of genomic DNA for the large-scale identification of transcribed sequences and regulatory elements. A central issue in designing tiling arrays is that of arriving at a single-copy tile path, as significant sequence cross-hybridization can result from the presence of non-unique probes on the array. Due to the fragmentation of genomic DNA caused by the widespread distribution of repetitive elements, the problem of obtaining adequate sequence coverage increases with the sizes of subsequence tiles that are to be included in the design. This becomes increasingly problematic when considering complex eukaryotic genomes that contain many thousands of interspersed repeats. The general problem of sequence tiling can be framed as finding an optimal partitioning of non-repetitive subsequences over a prescribed range of tile sizes, on a DNA sequence comprising repetitive and non-repetitive regions. Exact solutions to the tiling problem become computationally infeasible when applied to large genomes, but successive optimizations are developed that allow their practical implementation. These include an efficient method for determining the degree of similarity of many oligonucleotide sequences over large genomes, and two algorithms for finding an optimal tile path composed of longer sequence tiles. The first algorithm, a dynamic programming approach, finds an optimal tiling in linear time and space; the second applies a heuristic search to reduce the space complexity to a constant requirement. A Web resource has also been developed, accessible at http://tiling.gersteinlab.org, to generate optimal tile paths from user-provided DNA sequences. PMID:16365382

  4. Geopolymers as potential repair material in tiles conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Catarina F. M.; Lima, Augusta M.; Delgado-Rodrigues, José; Mimoso, João Manuel; Pereira, Sílvia R. M.

    2016-03-01

    The restoration materials currently used to fill gaps in historical architectural tiles (e.g. lime or organic resin pastes) usually show serious drawbacks in terms of compatibility, effectiveness or durability. The existing solutions do not fully protect Portuguese faïence tiles ( azulejos) in outdoor conditions and frequently result in further deterioration. Geopolymers can be a potential solution for tile lacunae infill, given the chemical-mineralogical similitude to the ceramic body, and also the durability and versatile range of physical properties that can be obtained through the manipulation of their formulation and curing conditions. This work presents and discusses the viability of the use of geopolymeric pastes to fill lacunae in tiles or to act as "cold" cast ceramic tile surrogates reproducing missing tile fragments. The formulation of geopolymers, namely the type of activators, the alumino-silicate source, the quantity of water required for adequate workability and curing conditions, was studied. The need for post-curing desalination was also considered envisaging their application in the restoration of outdoor historical architectural tiles frequently exposed to adverse environmental conditions. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the use of geopolymers in the conservation of tiles are also discussed. The results obtained reveal that geopolymers pastes are a promising material for the restoration of tiles, when compared to other solutions currently in use.

  5. NASA TileWorld manual (system version 2.2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philips, Andrew B.; Bresina, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The commands are documented of the NASA TileWorld simulator, as well as providing information about how to run it and extend it. The simulator, implemented in Common Lisp with Common Windows, encodes a particular range in a spectrum of domains, for controllable research experiments. TileWorld consists of a two dimensional grid of cells, a set of polygonal tiles, and a single agent which can grasp and move tiles. In addition to agent executable actions, there is an external event over which the agent has not control; this event correspond to a 'gust of wind'.

  6. View of Chapel mosaic tile ceiling featuring "doves of heaven" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Chapel mosaic tile ceiling featuring "doves of heaven" motifs on a stepped concrete shell. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  7. Complex tiling patterns in liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Tschierske, C.; Nürnberger, C.; Ebert, H.; Glettner, B.; Prehm, M.; Liu, F.; Zeng, X.-B.; Ungar, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this account recent progress in enhancing the complexity of liquid crystal self-assembly is highlighted. The discussed superstructures are formed mainly by polyphilic T-shaped and X-shaped molecules composed of a rod-like core, tethered with glycerol units at both ends and flexible non-polar chain(s) in lateral position, but also related inverted molecular structures are considered. A series of honeycomb phases composed of polygonal cylinders ranging from triangular to hexagonal, followed by giant cylinder honeycombs is observed for ternary T-shaped polyphiles on increasing the size of the lateral chain(s). Increasing the chain size further leads to new modes of lamellar organization followed by three-dimensional and two-dimensional structures incorporating branched and non-branched axial rod-bundles. Grafting incompatible chains to opposite sides of the rod-like core leads to quaternary X-shaped polyphiles. These form liquid crystalline honeycombs where different cells are filled with different material. Projected on an Euclidian plane, all honeycomb phases can be described either by uniformly coloured Archimedean and Laves tiling patterns (T-shaped polyphiles) or as multi-colour tiling patterns (X-shaped polyphiles). It is shown that geometric frustration, combined with the tendency to segregate incompatible chains into different compartments and the need to find a periodic tiling pattern, leads to a significant increase in the complexity of soft self-assembly. Mixing of different chains greatly enhances the number of possible ‘colours’ and in this way, periodic structures comprising up to seven distinct compartments can be generated. Relations to biological self-assembly are discussed shortly. PMID:24098852

  8. Direct AFM observation of individual micelles, tile decorations and tiling rules of a dodecagonal liquid quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran

    2017-10-01

    We performed an atomic force microscopy study of the dendron-based dodecagonal quasicrystal, the material that had been reported in 2004 as the first soft quasicrystal. We succeeded in orienting the 12-fold axis perpendicular to the substrate, which allowed the imaging of the quasiperiodic xy plane. Thus for the first time we have been able to obtain direct real-space information not only on the arrangement of the tiles, but also on their ‘decorations’ by the individual spherical micelles or ‘nanoatoms’. The high-resolution patterns recorded confirm the square-triangle tiling, but the abundance of different nodes corresponds closely to random tiling rather than to any inflation rule. The previously proposed model of three types of decorated tiles, two triangular and one square, has been confirmed; the basic Frank–Kasper mode of alternating dense-sparse-dense-sparse layer stacking along z is confirmed too, each of the four sublayers being 2 nm thick. The consecutive dense layers are seen to be rotated by 90°, as expected. The 2 nm steps on the surface correspond to one layer of spheres, nonetheless with a dense layer always remaining on top, which implies a layer slip underneath and possibly the existence of screw dislocations.

  9. Contact fatigue response of porcelain-veneered alumina model systems.

    PubMed

    Stappert, Christian F J; Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Stappert, Dina; Thompson, Van P

    2012-02-01

    Fatigue damage modes and reliability of hand-veneered (HV) and over-pressed (OP) aluminum-oxide layer structures were compared. Influence of luting cement thickness on mechanical performance was investigated. Sixty-four aluminum-oxide plates (10 × 10 × 0.5 mm) were veneered with hand built-up or pressed porcelain (0.7 mm) and adhesively luted (50- or 150-μm cement thickness) to water-aged composite resin blocks (12 × 12 × 4 mm). Single-load-to-failure and fatigue tests were performed with a spherical tungsten carbide indenter (d = 6.25 mm) applied in the center of the veneer layer. Specimens were inspected with polarized-reflected-light and scanning electron microscopy. Use-level probability Weibull curves were plotted with two-sided 90% confidence bounds, and reliability at 75,000 cycles and 250 N load was calculated. For all specimens but two OP with 50-μm cement thickness, failure was characterized by flexural radial cracks initiating at the bottom surface of the alumina core and propagating into the veneering porcelain before cone cracks could extend to the porcelain/alumina interface. HV specimens showed higher reliability compared to OP. Those with 50-μm cement thickness were more reliable relative to their 150-μm counterparts (HV_50 μm: 95% (0.99/0.67); HV_150 μm: 55% (0.92/0.01); OP_50 μm: 69% (0.84/0.48); OP_150 μm: 15% (0.53/0.004)). Similar failure modes were observed in HV and OP specimens. Radial cracks developing in the core and spreading into the veneer are suggested to cause bulk fracture, which is the characteristic failure mode for alumina core crowns. However, the highest resistance to fatigue loading was found for the HV specimens with thin cement thickness, while the lowest occurred for the OP with thick cement layer.

  10. Procedure for combining a facial porcelain veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface.

    PubMed

    Bishop, K; Priestley, D

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a procedure for making a crown that combines an all-porcelain facial veneer with a metal lingual and occluding surface. The procedure combines both the conventional lost wax technique and the use of a refractory cast for firing porcelain. The crown retains the advantages of the traditional all-porcelain crown restoration but reduces the risk of damage to the opposing teeth associated with an all-ceramic occluding surface. Furthermore, compared with porcelain, the metal surface allows more control over the occlusal and lingual contours during construction of the crown. Although the construction of the anterior crown is described, the procedure is equally applicable to posterior full-coverage restorations.

  11. Bulge RR Lyrae stars in the VVV tile b201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, F.; Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Navarrete, C.; Dékány, I.; McDonald, I.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Catelan, M.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey is one of the six ESO public surveys currently ongoing at the VISTA telescope on Cerro Paranal, Chile. VVV uses near-IR (ZYJHKs) filters that at present provide photometry to a depth of Ks ~ 17.0 mag in up to 36 epochs spanning over four years, and aim at discovering more than 106 variable sources as well as trace the structure of the Galactic bulge and part of the southern disk. Aims: A variability search was performed to find RR Lyrae variable stars. The low stellar density of the VVV tile b201, which is centered at (ℓ,b) ~ (-9°, -9°), makes it suitable to search for variable stars. Previous studies have identified some RR Lyrae stars using optical bands that served to test our search procedure. The main goal is to measure the reddening, interstellar extinction, and distances of the RR Lyrae stars and to study their distribution on the Milky Way bulge. Methods: For each star in the tile with more than 25 epochs (~90% of the objects down to Ks ~ 17.0 mag), the standard deviation and χ2 test were calculated to identify variable candidates. Periods were determined using the analysis of variance. Objects with periods in the RR Lyrae range of 0.2 ≤ P ≤ 1.2 days were selected as candidate RR Lyrae. They were individually examined to exclude false positives. Results: A total of 1.5 sq deg were analyzed, and we found 39 RR Lyr stars, 27 of which belong to the ab-type and 12 to the c-type. Our analysis recovers all the previously identified RR Lyrae variables in the field and discovers 29 new RR Lyr stars. The reddening and extinction toward all the RRab stars in this tile were derived, and distance estimations were obtained through the period-luminosity relation. Despite the limited amount of RR Lyrae stars studied, our results are consistent with a spheroidal or central distribution around ~8.1 and ~8.5 kpc. for either the Cardelli or Nishiyama extinction law. Our analysis does not reveal a stream

  12. Influence of dentin and core porcelain thickness on the color of fully sintered zirconia ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Sinmazisik, Gulden; Demirbas, Bulent; Tarcin, Bilge

    2014-02-01

    The influence of the thickness of dentin and core porcelain, and the glazing procedure on the color of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing ceramic restorations has not been investigated. This study evaluated the influence of the thickness of dentin and core porcelain and glazing on the color of fully sintered zirconia ceramic restorations. Fully sintered zirconia core material was cut into 90 specimens of 0.3 mm (n=30, group ZC1), 0.4 mm (n=30, group ZC2), and 0.5-mm thickness (n=30, group ZC3). On a dentin disk obtained from an extracted molar, the L*, a*, b* values of the specimens were measured at different steps in the laboratory procedures (Zirconia core, Effect Bonder, Effect Liner, dentin porcelain, glazing) with a spectrophotometer. One millimeter dentin porcelain was applied on half of the specimens of each group and 1.5-mm dentin porcelain on the rest. To assess the ability of porcelain substructures to mask the underlying dark colored tooth structure, color difference (ΔE) values between the steps were calculated. Results were statistically analyzed with ANOVA. Glazing caused a decrease in the L* values and an increase in the a* and b* values (P<.05). Increasing the thickness of dentin porcelain decreased the L*, a*, and b* values (P<.05). Increasing the zirconia core thickness resulted in an increase in the L* values and a decrease in the a* and b* values (P<.05). Increasing the dentin porcelain thickness from 1 mm to 1.5 mm resulted in a color change below the perceptibility threshold (ΔE<2.6). In the ZC1 group, glazing resulted in a color change perceptible to 50% of observers, whereas, in the ZC2 and ZC3 groups with 1-mm dentin porcelain, the ΔE value was higher than 5.5. However, the color change was perceptible to 50% of the observers in all of the groups with 1.5-mm dentin porcelain. Although the thicknesses of the dentin and core porcelain did not influence the final shade of the restoration, glazing resulted in a

  13. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.; Noda, N.

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  14. Shear bond strength of a hot pressed Au-Pd-Pt alloy-porcelain dental composite.

    PubMed

    Henriques, B; Soares, D; Silva, F S

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hot pressing on the shear bond strength of a Au-Pt-Pd alloy-porcelain composite. Several metal-porcelain composites specimens were produced by two different routes: conventional porcelain fused to metal (PFM) and hot pressing. In the latter case, porcelain was hot pressed onto a polished surface (PPPS) as well as a roughened one (PPRS). Bond strength of all metal-porcelain composites were assessed by the means of a shear test performed in a universal test machine (crosshead speed: 0.5 mm/min) until fracture. Interfaces of fractured specimens as well as undestroyed interface specimens were examined with optical microscope, stereomicroscope, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's test (p<0.05). Shear bond strength of conventional PFM specimens were in line with the upper range of literature data (83±14 MPa). Hot pressing proved to significantly increase bond strength between metal and porcelain (p<0.05). For both polished and roughened surface the shear bond strength values for hot pressed specimens were 120±16 MPa and 129±5 MPa, respectively, which represents an improvement of more than 50% relatively to a conventional PFM. Roughened surface did not have a significant effect on bond strength of hot pressed specimens (p>0.05). This study shows that it is possible to significantly improve metal-porcelain bond strength by applying an overpressure during porcelain firing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Trophic Ecology of Porcelain Crabs Petrolisthes Spp. on Oyster Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J.

    2016-02-01

    Porcelain crabs are found in dense populations in tropical and subtropical estuaries worldwide and are important components of oyster reef ecosystems. They are thought to primarily consume phytoplankton, but in recent laboratory studies porcelain crabs also readily consumed zooplankton which provided as much as 200 times more energy than a mixed microalgae diet. There is little known about the feeding behavior of porcelain crabs in their natural environment. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used in this work to identify porcelain crab prey and the crab's trophic level in Copano Bay, Texas. Muscle tissue from porcelain crabs taken from three sites in the bay were analyzed for their carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios during the summer and fall. Porcelain crab muscle tissue summer δ13C mean value was -16.4 ± 0.3‰, while the δ15N mean was 8.0 ± 0.1‰. During the fall, the δ13C mean value was -21.5 ± 0.3‰ and the δ15N nitrogen mean was 10.1 ± 0.8‰. There was no variation in porcelain crab isotopic composition within and among sites in the bay. However, there were seasonal differences within locations in Copano Bay. Summer carbon ratios were similar to those of benthic microalgae (-16‰), while fall values were comparable to phytoplankton (-22‰) measured in other locations, which may suggest a diet of primarily diatoms in the summer and phytoplankton in the fall. Nitrogen isotopic values of porcelain crabs will be compared to possible prey items in Copano Bay. These crabs may serve as a connection between producers and higher trophic levels.

  16. A neutron-absorbing porcelain enamel for coating nuclear equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, nuclear safety analyses showed that under upset conditions, strict administrative controls were necessary to limit access to a new processing vessel for enriched uranium service at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In order to increase the level of nuclear safety associated with that vessel, the traditional methods of incorporating neutron absorbers (borated stainless steel, boral, cadmium foil, etc.) were reviewed, however, process conditions did not permit their use. A neutron-absorbing porcelain enamel containing large amounts of cadmium and boron was developed as a safe, cost-effective alternative to traditional neutron-absorbing methods. Several pieces of coated process equipment have been installed or are planned for installation at SRP.

  17. Nightguard vital bleaching beneath existing porcelain veneers: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haywood, V B; Parker, M H

    1999-11-01

    Dentist-prescribed, at-home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide was used to lighten the apparent color of teeth with preexisting porcelain veneers. Veneers had been placed over unprepared, tetracycline-stained teeth; the translucency of the veneers over the discolored teeth resulted in a graying of the veneers. A custom-fitted tray with no reservoirs and no gingival scalloping was fabricated. A 10% carbamide peroxide material was applied nightly for 9 months to achieve the maximum change in the underlying tooth color. The patient was pleased with the apparent color change. Tooth sensitivity during treatment was minimal (lasting 4 days total); the patient treated sensitivity by brushing with a potassium nitrate-containing toothpaste or applying fluoride in the tray.

  18. Cross-sectional TEM analysis of porcelain fused to gold-coated titanium.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Ikuya; Okabe, Toru

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the interfacial microstructure between gold-coated titanium and low-fusing porcelain. The square surfaces of cast titanium split rods were sputter-coated with gold using a sputter coater at 40 mA for 1,000 seconds. Specimens were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by cutting and polishing two pieces of the gold-coated split-rod specimens, which were glued and embedded in Cu tubes with an epoxy adhesive. TEM observation was also conducted for the gold-coated specimens after degassing and porcelain fusing. Due to the gold coating, intermetallic compounds of Au-Ti formed under the sputtered gold layer after degassing and porcelain fusing. Ti3Au and Ti3Al layers were also observed beneath the Au-Ti intermetallic compound layer. There was good adhesion of porcelain to the Au-Ti compound and Ti oxides without any gaps or formation of a Ti-deficient intermediate layer, which is normally observed at the titanium-porcelain interface. The results of this TEM study suggested that gold-sputter-coating the cast titanium surface produced a Ti-Au intermetallic compound and suppressed the formation of a Ti-deficient intermediate layer, resulting in improved adherence between porcelain and titanium.

  19. Oxidation effects on porcelain-titanium interface reactions and bond strength.

    PubMed

    Kimura, H; Horng, C J; Okazaki, M; Takahashi, J

    1990-06-01

    Titanium is strong, resists corrosion and has a low density and excellent biocompatibility. Conventional ceramic-metal restorations have been extensively used in dentistry because of their esthetic appearance and good mechanical properties. This study investigates oxidation effects on the porcelain-titanium interface reactions and bond strength. Pure titanium was treated in a porcelain furnace at temperatures of 600 to 1000 degrees C under either vacuum or air. X-ray diffraction analysis of the surface of pure titanium revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha-Ti decreased and that of TiO2 increased, with increasing firing temperature. The Vickers hardness number of titanium increased with temperature especially over 900 degrees C, and was harder in air than in vacuum. The tension-shear bond strength of the porcelain-titanium system was the highest in the green stage and lowest after 900 degrees C treatment. Metallographic microscopy of the porcelain-titanium interface revealed a thick band-like zone in the sample treated over 900 degrees C. The excess thick layer of TiO2 apparently weakened the bond strength of porcelain-titanium. Unlike the conventional ceramic-gold alloy system the recommended degassing procedure was not suitable for porcelain-pure titanium restoration.

  20. [Composition and morphology of oxides on porcelain fused to Ni-Cr alloys. Be containing alloys].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T

    1989-06-01

    Bonding strength between porcelain and Ni-Cr alloy for the porcelain fused-to metal crown in which Be is contained in the alloy is known to be higher than those in which Be is not contained. Since, bonding between porcelain and alloy is the reaction of oxides and porcelain, the bonding is thought to be influenced by the quality the oxides film which forms on the alloy surface. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition and morphology of the oxides formed on both Be containing and non-Be contained Ni-Cr alloys. The oxides analysis was done using an EPMA and Auger analysis. Also, the Porcelain/Ni-Cr alloy interface was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The following results are indicated from this investigation: 1. The oxides from the alloys not containing Be are corundum type Cr2O3 and spinel type NiCr2O4. These oxide layers are uniform, thick and porous and the adhesion to alloy is poor. 2. The oxides from alloy containing Be is BeO only. The BeO is uniform, thin and condensed. The adhesion to the alloy is good. 3. The oxide layer formed when the porcelain is fused to alloy containing Be is thin (1 micron average) and has good adhesion to alloy. 4. Be is selectively oxidized and controlled the form of Cr2O3 and NiO.

  1. Provenance study of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain by neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. X.; Y Gao, Z.; Li, R. W.; Zhao, W. J.; Xie, J. Z.; Feng, S. L.; Zhuo, Z. X.; Y Fan, D.; Zhang, Y.; Cai, Z. F.; Liu, H.

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports our study of the provenance of ancient Chinese Yaozhou porcelain. The content of 29 elements in the Yaozhou porcelain samples was measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analysed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the trend fuzzy cluster diagrams. These samples with different glaze colour, ranging over more than 700 years, were fired in different kilns. Our analysis indicates the relatively concentrated distribution of the sources of the raw material for the Yaozhou porcelain body samples. They can be classified into two independent periods, i.e. the Tang (AD 618-907) and the Five Dynasties (AD 907-960) period, and the Song (AD 960-1279) and Jin (AD 1115-1234) period. Our analysis also indicates that the sources of the raw material for the ancient Yaozhou porcelain glaze samples are quite scattered and those for the black glaze in the Tang Dynasty are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the celadon glaze and the white glaze in the Tang Dynasty are widely distributed and those for the celadon glaze in the Song Dynasty are close to those of the bluish white glaze in the Jin Dynasty, and they are very concentrated. The sources of the raw material for the porcelain glazes cover those of the porcelain bodies.

  2. [Effects of laser welding on bond of porcelain fused cast pure titanium].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Juan-fang; He, Hui-ming; Gao, Bo; Wang, Zhong-yi

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the influence of the laser welding on bond of porcelain fused to cast pure titanium. Twenty cast titanium plates were divided into two groups: laser welded group and control group. The low-fusing porcelain was fused to the laser welded cast pure titanium plates at fusion zone. The bond strength of the porcelain to laser welded cast pure titanium was measured by the three-point bending test. The interface of titanium and porcelain was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy depressive X-ray detector (EDX). The non-welded titanium plates were used as comparison. No significant difference of the bond strength was found between laser-welded samples [(46.85 +/- 0.76) MPa] and the controls [(41.71 +/- 0.55) MPa] (P > 0.05). The SEM displayed the interface presented similar irregularities with a predominance. The titanium diffused to low-fusing porcelain, while silicon and aluminum diffused to titanium basement. Laser welding does not affect low-fusing porcelain fused to pure titanium.

  3. Measuring residual stress in ceramic zirconia-porcelain dental crowns by nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Allahkarami, M; Hanan, J C

    2012-02-01

    Residual stress plays a critical role in failure of ceramic dental crowns. The magnitude and distribution of residual stress in the crown system are largely unknown. Determining the residual stress quantitatively is challenging since the crown has such complex contours and shapes. This work explored the feasibility and validity of measuring residual stress of zirconia and porcelain in ceramic crowns by nanoindentation. Nanoindentation tests were performed on the cross-section of a crown for both porcelain and zirconia along four critical locations: the thickest, thinnest and medium porcelain thicknesses. Zirconia and porcelain pieces, chipped off from the crown and annealed at 400 °C, were used as reference samples. The residual stress was determined by comparing the measured hardness of the stressed sample with that of the reference sample. Nanoindentation impression images were acquired through a scanning probe microscope (SPM) equipped with a Hysitron Triboindenter. Zirconia showed large pile-up. Residual stress is determined along the thickness of crowns at the chosen locations for both porcelain and zirconia. The measured results were compared with the results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and finite element modeling (FEM). Results show there are large amounts of residual stresses in the dental crown and their magnitude differs between locations due to the complex shape of the crown. The average residual stress readings were as high as -637 MPa and 323 MPa for zirconia and porcelain respectively.

  4. Effect of preoxidation on the bond strength of titanium and porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mahale, K M; Nagda, S J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of preoxidation on porcelain titanium- bond strength and the effect of paste bonder (adhesive) on the titanium porcelain bond strength. 11 specimens of commercially pure titanium (26 x 7 x 3 mm) were prepared by different heat treatments in programmable dental furnace. Identification of the oxides formed on the metal surface was conducted with an X-Ray diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation. Vickers hardness numbers were determine. Additional 50 specimens of commercially pure titanium were used to bond with low fusing porcelain. The bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. X-ray diffraction analysis of the surface of pure titanium revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha -Ti decreased and that of TiO2 increased with increasing firing temperature. The Vickers hardness number decreased initially as the temperature increased but it increased remarkably above 900 degrees C & was harder in air than vacuum. The tensile shear bond strength was highest in the green stage i.e. without preoxidation of metal, and decreased above 900 degrees C, and was the lowest in the group without paste bonder application. The difference in bond strengths was statistically highly significant for all groups. Preoxidation under vacuum before porcelain firing can effectively improve bonding. The adhesive provided with the low fusing porcelain helps in the bond between titanium & porcelain.

  5. Isothermal anneal effect on microcrack density around leucite particles in dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mackert, J R; Rueggeberg, F A; Lockwood, P E; Evans, A L; Thompson, W O

    1994-06-01

    Because of the large differential in thermal expansion coefficient between leucite and the surrounding glass matrix, microcracks form around the leucite crystallites during the manufacture of dental porcelain frits. These microcracks decouple leucite from the surrounding glass matrix and affect the bulk thermal expansion of the porcelain frit (Binns, 1983). The purpose of this study was to determine if the microcrack density in a dental porcelain decreased as a result of isothermal heat treatment. Ten specimens of a commercial dental porcelain that had previously exhibited an increase in thermal expansion as a function of isothermal heat treatment were prepared and divided into two groups. The experimental group was heated to 750 degrees C and held for 16 minutes at that temperature. The control group received no anneal. The mean microcrack densities were determined by quantitative stereology to be 575 cm2/cm3 +/- 75 cm2/cm3 (mean +/- SEM) for the control group (no anneal) and 231 cm2/cm3 +/- 25 cm2/cm3 for the experimental group (16-minute anneal at 750 degrees C). The specimens annealed at 750 degrees C had a significantly lower microcrack density (p < 0.001) than those that received no anneal. A model was developed to estimate the effect of microcracking on thermal expansion of the porcelain, and a 6% increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the porcelain was predicted from this model as a result of this decrease in microcrack density.

  6. Dynamic out-of-plane and in-plane testing of full-scale hollow clay tile infilled frames. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gambill, J.B.

    1994-12-31

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings are made of steel and concrete frames infilled with unreinforced clay tile walls; in many instances these infill walls comprise the major lateral load resisting capacity of the structures. A research program was begun to evaluate clay tile infill behavior. This test report describes testing done by USACERL as part of shake table testing; the tests were on a biaxial shock test machine.

  7. Photographing Shuttle Thermal Tiles in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Launched on July 26, 2005 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, STS-114 was classified as Logistics Flight 1. Among the Station-related activities of the mission were the delivery of new supplies and the replacement of one of the orbital outpost's Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs). STS-114 also carried the Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module and the External Stowage Platform-2. A major focus of the mission was the testing and evaluation of new Space Shuttle flight safety, which included new inspection and repair techniques. Upon its approach to the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Shuttle Discovery underwent a photography session in order to assess any damages that may have occurred during its launch and/or journey through Space. The mission's third and final Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) included taking a close-up look and the repair of the damaged heat shield. Gap fillers were removed from between the orbiter's heat-shielding tiles located on the craft's underbelly. Never before had any repairs been done to an orbiter while still in space. This particular photo was taken by astronaut Stephen K. Robinson, STS-114 mission specialist, whose shadow is visible on the thermal protection tiles.

  8. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  9. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  10. Creative Tiling: A Story of 1000-and-1 Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Darwish, Nasir

    2012-01-01

    We describe a procedure that utilizes symmetric curves for building artistic tiles. One particular curve was found to mesh nicely with hundreds other curves, resulting in eye-catching tiling designs. The results of our work serve as a good example of using ideas from 2-D graphics and algorithms in a practical web-based application.

  11. Low-Density, Aerogel-Filled Thermal-Insulation Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santos, Maryann; Heng, Vann; Barney, Andrea; Oka, Kris; Droege, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Aerogel fillings have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop low-density thermal-insulation tiles that, relative to prior such tiles, have greater dimensional stability (especially less shrinkage), equal or lower thermal conductivity, and greater strength and durability. In preparation for laboratory tests of dimensional and thermal stability, prototypes of aerogel-filled versions of recently developed low-density tiles have been fabricated by impregnating such tiles to various depths with aerogel formations ranging in density from 1.5 to 5.6 lb/ft3 (about 53 to 200 kg/cu m). Results available at the time of reporting the information for this article showed that the thermal-insulation properties of the partially or fully aerogel- impregnated tiles were equivalent or superior to those of the corresponding non-impregnated tiles and that the partially impregnated tiles exhibited minimal (<1.5 percent) shrinkage after multiple exposures at a temperature of 2,300 F (1,260 C). Latest developments have shown that tiles containing aerogels at the higher end of the density range are stable after multiple exposures at the said temperature.

  12. New SWAT tile drain equations: Modifications, Calibration, Validation, and Application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface tile drainage is a commonly used agricultural practice to enhance crop yield in poorly drained but highly productive soils in many other regions of the world. However, the presence of subsurface tile drainage systems also expedites the transport of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and other chemi...

  13. Highly Symmetric and Congruently Tiled Meshes for Shells and Domes

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Muhibur; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2016-01-01

    We describe the generation of all possible shell and dome shapes that can be uniquely meshed (tiled) using a single type of mesh face (tile), and following a single meshing (tiling) rule that governs the mesh (tile) arrangement with maximal vertex, edge and face symmetries. Such tiling arrangements or congruently tiled meshed shapes, are frequently found in chemical forms (fullerenes or Bucky balls, crystals, quasi-crystals, virus nano shells or capsids), and synthetic shapes (cages, sports domes, modern architectural facades). Congruently tiled meshes are both aesthetic and complete, as they support maximal mesh symmetries with minimal complexity and possess simple generation rules. Here, we generate congruent tilings and meshed shape layouts that satisfy these optimality conditions. Further, the congruent meshes are uniquely mappable to an almost regular 3D polyhedron (or its dual polyhedron) and which exhibits face-transitive (and edge-transitive) congruency with at most two types of vertices (each type transitive to the other). The family of all such congruently meshed polyhedra create a new class of meshed shapes, beyond the well-studied regular, semi-regular and quasi-regular classes, and their duals (platonic, Catalan and Johnson). While our new mesh class is infinite, we prove that there exists a unique mesh parametrization, where each member of the class can be represented by two integer lattice variables, and moreover efficiently constructable. PMID:27563368

  14. 81. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHWEST. INDIAN HOUSE WING AT THE LEFT. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-2. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  15. 69. TILE WORKS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, 1912. SOURCE: FONTHILL MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. TILE WORKS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, 1912. SOURCE: FONTHILL MANUSCRIPT COLLECTION, SPRUANCE LIBRARY, BUCKS COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY (HEREAFTER SL/BCHS), UNCATALOGED GLASS PLATE NEGATIVE. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  16. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  17. METHOD FOR EVALUATING MOLD GROWTH ON CEILING TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method to extract mold spores from porous ceiling tiles was developed using a masticator blender. Ceiling tiles were inoculated and analyzed using four species of mold. Statistical analysis comparing results obtained by masticator extraction and the swab method was performed. T...

  18. Development of anti-slip sustainable tiles from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkefli, Zainordin Firdaus; Zainol, Mohd Remy Rozainy Mohd Arif; Osman, Norhayati

    2017-04-01

    In general of 80% the human activities is located in the building. Buildings constructed should be in line with full functions and optimum safety features. Aspects to be emphasized is the slip on the floor of the building. The selection of tiles must have anti-slip characteristics and achieve standard strength stress. This study is conducted to develop anti-slip tiles modification using agricultural waste. The material used is agricultural waste such rice husks, palm fibre and saw dusk mixed into the clay and then baked at a temperature of 900-1185 C °. Agricultural waste mixture ratio is 5%, 10% and 15%. The samples of tiles are produced for experiments. The results of agricultural waste tiles show that the strength is higher than standard strength, the water absorption less than standard tiles and pendulum value test is exceeds 36.

  19. Edge exposure of poloidal divertor target plate tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanti, R.B.; Gilligan, J.G.; Bourham, M.A.

    1996-12-01

    Exposure to near normal surfaces of poloidal divertor target plate tiles is a limiting feature of the power handling capability of the tiles. The problems associated with the design of poloidal divertor tiles, with beryllium chosen as the tile material, and possible methods of solving the problem are discussed. Thermal two- and three-dimensional analyses are carried out for the assessment of relative merits in performance due to modifications to the surface. The power handling capability (time to reach melting temperature of beryllium) of the target plate tiles is presented for unswept and swept plasma cases. Results have shown that sweeping the plasma improves the power handling capability by a factor of up to 10. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Influence of tile-drainage on groundwater flow and nitrate transport in heterogeneous geological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Schepper, G.; Therrien, R.; Refsgaard, J.

    2012-12-01

    Subsurface drainage is a common agricultural practice in poorly drained production fields to guarantee the productivity of crops and to reduce flooding risks. The impact of shallow tile-drainage networks on groundwater flow patterns and associated nitrate transport from the surface needs to be quantified for adequate agricultural management. A challenge is to represent tile-drain networks in numerical models, at the field scale, while accounting for the influence of subsurface heterogeneities on flow and transport. A numerical model of a tile-drainage system has been developed with the fully integrated HydroGeoSphere model for the Lillebaek agricultural catchment, Denmark. The Lillebaek catchment is an experimental study area where hydraulic heads, stream and drain discharges, as well as groundwater and surface water nitrate concentrations are regularly measured. This catchment includes various tile-drainage networks that are monitored on a daily basis; the one we have been focusing on is about 5 ha within a 34 ha model domain. The Lillebaek catchment subsurface is made of about 30 m thick Quaternary deposits which consist of a local sandy aquifer with upper and lower clayey till units, confining the aquifer in the upper part. The main modelling objective is to assess the influence of tile drains on the water flow pattern within the confining clayey till unit with and on the nitrate reduction zone depth, also known as the redox-interface, while accounting for local geological heterogeneities. Using the national-scale geological model for Denmark combined with available local data, a hydrogeological model at field scale has been generated. A proper representation of the tile-drains geometry is essential to calibrate and validate the water flow model associated with nitrate transport. HydroGeoSphere can represent drains directly into a model as one-dimensional features, which however requires a very fine mesh discretization that limits the size of the simulation

  1. Optical design and studies of a tiled single grating pulse compressor for enhanced parametric space and compensation of tiling errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daiya, D.; Patidar, R. K.; Sharma, J.; Joshi, A. S.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-04-01

    A new optical design of tiled single grating pulse compressor has been proposed, set-up and studied. The parametric space, i.e. the laser beam diameters that can be accommodated in the pulse compressor for the given range of compression lengths, has been calculated and shown to have up to two fold enhancement in comparison to our earlier proposed optical designs. The new optical design of the tiled single grating pulse compressor has an additional advantage of self compensation of various tiling errors like longitudinal and lateral piston, tip and groove density mismatch, compared to the earlier designs. Experiments have been carried out for temporal compression of 650 ps positively chirped laser pulses, at central wavelength 1054 nm, down to 235 fs in the tiled grating pulse compressor set up with the proposed design. Further, far field studies have been performed to show the desired compensation of the tiling errors takes place in the new compressor.

  2. Improve load balancing and coding efficiency of tiles in high efficiency video coding by adaptive tile boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Hsin; Tu, Chun-Chuan; Tsai, Wen-Jiin

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency video coding (HEVC) not only improves the coding efficiency drastically compared to the well-known H.264/AVC but also introduces coding tools for parallel processing, one of which is tiles. Tile partitioning is allowed to be arbitrary in HEVC, but how to decide tile boundaries remains an open issue. An adaptive tile boundary (ATB) method is proposed to select a better tile partitioning to improve load balancing (ATB-LoadB) and coding efficiency (ATB-Gain) with a unified scheme. Experimental results show that, compared to ordinary uniform-space partitioning, the proposed ATB can save up to 17.65% of encoding times in parallel encoding scenarios and can reduce up to 0.8% of total bit rates for coding efficiency.

  3. Tile-in-ONE: A web platform which integrates Tile Calorimeter data quality and calibration assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivolella, A.; Ferreira, F.; Maidantchik, C.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Burghgrave, B.; Smirnov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter collaboration assesses the quality of calibration data in order to ensure its proper operation. A number of tasks is then performed by executing several tools and accessing web systems, which were independently developed to meet distinct collaboration's requirements and do not necessarily are connected with each other. Thus, to attend the collaboration needs, several programs are usually implemented without a global perspective of the detector, requiring basic software features. In addition, functionalities may overlap in their objectives and frequently replicate resources retrieval mechanisms. Tile-in-ONE is a designed and implemented platform that assembles various web systems used by the calorimeter community through a single framework and a standard technology. It provides an infrastructure to support the code implementation, avoiding duplication of work while integrating with an overall view of the detector status. Database connectors smooth the process of information access since developers do not need to be aware of where records are placed and how to extract them. Within the environment, a dashboard stands for a particular Tile operation aspect and gets together plug-ins, i.e. software components that add specific features to an existing application. A server contains the platform core, which represents the basic environment to deal with the configuration, manage user settings and load plug-ins at runtime. A web middleware assists users to develop their own plug-ins, perform tests and integrate them into the platform as a whole. Backends are employed to allow that any type of application is interpreted and displayed in a uniform way. This paper describes Tile-in-ONE web platform.

  4. Floor tile and mastic removal project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A test program was developed and coordinated with State and Federal Regulators and carried out at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. This program was carefully designed to create the worst conditions in order to evaluate whether asbestos fibers are released when asbestos containing floor tile and mastic are removed. There were over 1,000 samples taken and analyzed during the execution of the program. The conclusions reached were based upon analysis of the critical samples using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) technology. Additionally, the TEM procedures were used to evaluate personnel samples to determine whether those fibers found were asbestos or other materials. Most of the (TEM) samples were analyzed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

  5. Condensate oscillations in a Penrose tiling lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Vignolo, P.

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a particular Penrose tiling lattice. In such a lattice, the potential energy at each site depends on the neighbour sites, accordingly to the model introduced by Sutherland [16]. The Bose-Einstein wavepacket, initially at rest at the lattice symmetry center, is released. We observe a very complex time-evolution that strongly depends on the symmetry center (two choices are possible), on the potential energy landscape dispersion, and on the interaction strength. The condensate-width oscillates at different frequencies and we can identify large-frequency reshaping oscillations and low-frequency rescaling oscillations. We discuss in which conditions these oscillations are spatially bounded, denoting a self-trapping dynamics.

  6. Tile-Compressed FITS Kernel for IRAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a ubiquitously supported standard of the astronomical community. Similarly, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, is a widely used astronomical data reduction package. IRAF supplies compatibility with FITS format data through numerous tools and interfaces. The most integrated of these is IRAF's FITS image kernel that provides access to FITS from any IRAF task that uses the basic IMIO interface. The original FITS kernel is a complex interface of purpose-built procedures that presents growing maintenance issues and lacks recent FITS innovations. A new FITS kernel is being developed at NOAO that is layered on the CFITSIO library from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The simplified interface will minimize maintenance headaches as well as add important new features such as support for the FITS tile-compressed (fpack) format.

  7. The effect of the surface roughness of porcelain on the adhesion of oral Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Al-Marzok, Maan Ibrahim; Al-Azzawi, Haitham J

    2009-11-01

    Dental plaque has a harmful influence on periodontal tissue. When a porcelain restoration is fabricated and refinishing of the glazed surface is inevitable, the increase in surface roughness facilitates the adhesion of plaque and its components. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of surface roughness of glazed or polished porcelain on the adhesion of oral Streptococcus mutans. A total of 80 metal-ceramic specimens were prepared in the form of disks from two porcelain materials and divided into four groups according to the method of surface finishing. Surface roughness values (Ra-microm) for all specimens were recorded using a profilometer. S. mutans bacteria were isolated from saliva and all specimens were inoculated in test tubes containing a bacterial suspension allowing adhesion of the microorganisms to the specimens to occur. After incubation for 24 hours at 37 degrees C, the specimens were transferred to a sterile saline solution and an inoculum of 0.1 ml from each selected dilution was spread on the selective medium, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar (MSB). Bacterial counts, expressed in colony forming unit (CFU) taking into consideration the dilution factor, were recorded. There was significant correlation (p<0.05) between surface roughness values (Ra-microm) and the amount of bacterial adhesion (CFU x 10(3)). The glazed surface was the smoothest and exhibited the least amount of bacterial adhesion. A positive correlation between surface roughness and the amount of S. mutans adhesion was observed. The glazed porcelain surface was considered more biocompatible than other methods of porcelain surface finishing. Chairside adjustments of the cervical contour or occlusal surface of porcelain restorations are sometimes necessary before or after cementation. Ideally, an uncemented restoration should be returned to the laboratory for reglazing after all adjustments have been completed. It is important to evaluate various polishing procedures

  8. Shear Bond Strength of Porcelain to a Base-Metal Compared to Zirconia Core.

    PubMed

    Abrisham, S M; Fallah Tafti, A; Kheirkhah, S; Tavakkoli, M A

    2017-03-01

    Recent clinical results for Zirconia all-ceramic restorations have revealed that the fracture rate 6-15% of the Zirconia framework is so low and the core of Zirconia has high stability. However, chipping-off fractures of porcelain are the most common reason for failures of Zirconia in the fixed partial dentures. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of porcelain in the porcelain fused to metal and all-ceramic crowns with Zirconia core. Two groups were selected: porcelain fused to metal (PFM) and porcelain fused to Zirconia (PFZ) (n = 30).In the PFM group, a wax model (10 × 10 × 10mm)was used to cast metal base (Ni_Cr alloy). In the PFZ group, an acrylic cubic model (10 × 10 × 10mm) was made as Zirconia model for scanning.15 cubic Zirconia samples were milled by CAD-CAM. The procedure of porcelain veneering was conducted by the conventional layering technique up to 2 mm thickness (2.5 × 2.5 × 2 mm). All specimens were stored in water for 48 hrs. Thermal cycling was conducted for 20000 cycles between 55°C and 5ºC alternatively for 30s.All samples were mounted in acrylic resin and the SBS test was performed, using a universal testing machine. The analysis of data was performed at a significance level of 0.05 using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U-test. Mean of SBS in PFM and PFZ was 24.57 and 20.88, respectively. The results of Mann-Whitney test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of porcelain fused to metal and Zirconia in item shear bond strength (p = 0.455). There was no significant difference between the two groups of PFM and PFZ in the item SBS.

  9. Wear evaluation of the human enamel opposing different Y-TZP dental ceramics and other porcelains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jin; Oh, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Ju, Sung-Won; Seo, Deog-Gyu; Jun, Sang-Ho; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Ryu, Jae-Jun

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the wear resistance of human enamel and feldspathic porcelain after simulated mastication against 3 zirconia ceramics, heat-pressed ceramic and conventional feldspathic porcelain. Human teeth and feldspathic porcelain cusp were tested against ceramic discs. 5 brands were tested - 3 monolithic zirconia, Prettau, Lava, and Rainbow, one lithium disilicate, IPS e.max Press, and one feldspathic porcelain, Vita-Omega 900. The surface was polished using a 600 grit and 1200 grit SiC paper. Each group was loaded for 300,000 cycles in a chewing simulator. The wear resistance was analyzed by measuring the volume of substance lost. The wear surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy to determine the wear characteristics. Vita-Omega 900 led to the greatest amount of enamel wears followed by IPS e.max Press, Prettau, Lava and Rainbow. There was a significant difference between Vita-Omega 900 and IPS e.max Press (p<0.05). The wear values for human enamel were significantly greater than those for feldspathic porcelain, regardless of the surface roughness of the ceramic specimens (p<0.05). The wear behaviour of human enamel and feldspathic porcelain varies according to the type of substrate materials. On the other hand, 3 zirconia ceramics caused less wear in the abrader than the conventional ceramic. Dental professionals should be aware of the wear effect of dental restorations on the opposing teeth or restorations. The amount of enamel wear was highest in feldspathic porcelains whereas zirconia ceramics caused less wear on the opposing teeth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The efficiency of different light sources to polymerize resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Usumez, S; Ozturk, B

    2004-02-01

    Plasma arc light units for curing resin composites have been introduced with the claim of relatively short curing times. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of two different light sources to polymerize dual curing resin cement beneath porcelain laminate veneers. Twenty extracted healthy human maxillary centrals were used. Teeth were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin, labial surface facing up. Cavity preparation was carried out on labial surfaces. These teeth were divided into two groups of 10 each. The resin cement/veneer combination was exposed to two different photo polymerization units. A conventional halogen light (Hilux 350, Express Dental Products) and a plasma arc light (Power PAC, ADT) were used to polymerize resin cement. Ten specimens were polymerized conventionally (40 s) and the other specimens by plasma arc curing (PAC) (6 s). Two samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microshear testing and failure values were recorded. Statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of veneers exposed to conventional light and PAC unit (P < 0.001). Samples polymerized with halogen light showed better bond strength. The results of this study suggest that the curing efficiency of PAC through ceramic was lower compared with conventional polymerization for the exposure durations tested in this study.

  11. Corrosion-fatigue of the bond between nickel-chrome casting alloys and porcelain.

    PubMed

    DeLong, R; Goodkind, R J; Douglas, W H

    1984-09-01

    This study was designed to determine if corrosion-fatigue might play a part in early failure of the porcelain-fused-to-metal bonds with Ni-Cr alloys. A qualitative test was used that compared the bond strengths of a control group with those of samples subjected to corrosion-fatigue. One Au-Pd alloy was used for comparison with the Ni-Cr alloys. The bond strengths were determined with a shear-push through test in an M.T.S. hydraulic testing machine. Two additional groups of samples were tested with corrosion only and fatigue only. All samples except those used for controls were placed in an oral environment chamber that had an aerated artificial saliva circulating through it maintained at 37 degrees C. (Samples subjected to fatigue only used unaerated distilled water). Corrosion was accelerated by enforcing a potential of approximately 500 mV on the test samples. The samples subjected to fatigue were stressed with a haversine waveform with a force between 5 and 45 pounds at a rate of 200 Hz for 10(6) cycles.

  12. A localized PCR inhibitor in a porcelain crab suggests a protective role

    PubMed Central

    El-Maklizi, Mahmoud A.; Ouf, Amged; Ferreira, Ari; Hedar, Shahyn

    2014-01-01

    A number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors have been identified from biological and environmental samples. By and large, such substances are treated as random nuisances and contaminants with alternate functions; their inhibitory effects on DNA replication being a coincidental property of their molecular structure. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a localized PCR inhibitor in the foregut of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes rufescens (Anomura: Porcellanidae) from the Red Sea. The inhibitor precluded amplification of 28s, 16s and 18s gene sequences effectively but lost activity at 10−2 dilutions from initial concentration. Heat treatment was ineffective in arresting inhibition and spectrophotometric techniques suggested that the inhibitor was not a melanin-type compound. The compound was not detected from midgut, hindgut, or gills of the crab. Activity of the inhibitor was precluded when samples were treated with suspensions from the midgut, suggesting that enzymatic degradation of the inhibitor likely happens at that part of the gut. As many microbial pathogens invade their hosts via ingestion, we suggest the presence of the localized inhibitor could carry a defensive or immunological role for P. rufescens. The identity of the inhibitory molecule remains unknown. PMID:25493214

  13. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Alexa, C.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Arabidze, G.; Araque, J. P.; Artamonov, A.; Asquith, L.; Astalos, R.; Backus Mayes, J.; Bartos, P.; Batkova, L.; Bertolucci, F.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Blanco Castro, A.; Blazek, T.; Bohm, C.; Boumediene, D.; Boveia, A.; Brown, H.; Busato, E.; Calkins, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castro, N. F.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chadelas, R.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekanov, S.; Chen, X.; Chikovani, L.; Choudalakis, G.; Cinca, D.; Ciubancan, M.; Clement, C.; Cole, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costin, T.; Crouau, M.; Crozatier, C.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Darmora, S.; Davidek, T.; Del Prete, T.; Dita, S.; Djobava, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dotti, A.; Dubreuil, E.; Dunford, M.; Eriksson, D.; Errede, S.; Errede, D.; Faltova, J.; Farbin, A.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Feng, E. J.; Ferrer, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Francavilla, P.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Galhardo, B.; Gellerstedt, K.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G. L.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Guicheney, C.; Hakobyan, H.; Hard, A. S.; Harkusha, S.; Heelan, L.; Helsens, C.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Hernandez, C. M.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jennens, D.; Johansson, K. E.; Jon-And, K.; Jorge, P. M.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kapliy, A.; Karpov, S. N.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Khandanyan, H.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Klimek, P.; Korolkov, I.; Kruse, A.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Lafarguette, P.; Lambert, D.; LeCompte, T.; Leitner, R.; Leone, S.; Liao, H.; Lie, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lundberg, O.; Magalhaes Martins, P. J.; Maio, A.; Makouski, M.; Maneira, J.; Filho, L. Manhaes de Andrade; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Martin, B.; Mchedlidze, G.; Meehan, S.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meoni, E.; Merritt, F. S.; Meyer, C.; Miller, D. W.; Milstead, D. A.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mir, L. M.; Molander, S.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Mosidze, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Nemecek, S.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nilsson, P.; Nodulman, L.; Nordkvist, B.; Ohm, C. C.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M. J.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Pedro, R.; Martins, F. M. Pedro; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pina, J.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Podlyski, F.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poveda, J.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Rossetti, V.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Says, L. P.; Schwartzman, A.; Scuri, F.; Shimizu, S.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Solans, C. A.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Spalla, M.; Stanek, R. W.; Starchenko, E. A.; Starovoitov, P.; Stavina, P.; Stoicea, G.; Succurro, A.; Suhr, C.; Sumida, T.; Sykora, I.; Tas, P.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tokár, S.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tudorache, V.; Tudorache, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tylmad, M.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Vazeille, F.; Veloso, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Volpi, M.; Wang, C.; Weng, Z.; White, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Yanush, S.; Yoshida, R.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y.; Zinonos, Z.; Zutshi, V.; Ženiš, T.; van Woerden, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC . First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Finally, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  14. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    DOE PAGES

    Abdallah, J.; Alexa, C.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; ...

    2016-10-12

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC . First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % formore » the end-caps. Lastly, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.« less

  15. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J.; Alexa, C.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Anderson, K. J.; Arabidze, G.; Araque, J. P.; Artamonov, A.; Asquith, L.; Astalos, R.; Mayes, J. Backus; Bartos, P.; Batkova, L.; Bertolucci, F.; Bylund, O. Bessidskaia; Castro, A. Blanco; Blazek, T.; Bohm, C.; Boumediene, D.; Boveia, A.; Brown, H.; Busato, E.; Calkins, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Toro, R. Camacho; Armadans, R. Caminal; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castro, N. F.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chadelas, R.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekanov, S.; Chen, X.; Chikovani, L.; Choudalakis, G.; Cinca, D.; Ciubancan, M.; Clement, C.; Cole, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costin, T.; Crouau, M.; Crozatier, C.; Cuciuc, C. -M.; De Sousa, M. J. Da Cunha Sargedas; Darmora, S.; Davidek, T.; Prete, T. Del; Dita, S.; Djobava, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dotti, A.; Dubreuil, E.; Dunford, M.; Eriksson, D.; Errede, S.; Errede, D.; Faltova, J.; Farbin, A.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Feng, E. J.; Ferrer, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Francavilla, P.; Torregrosa, E. Fullana; Galhardo, B.; Gellerstedt, K.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G. L.; Gomes, A.; Parra, G. Gonzalez; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Guicheney, C.; Hakobyan, H.; Hard, A. S.; Harkusha, S.; Heelan, L.; Helsens, C.; Correia, A. M. Henriques; Jiménez, Y. Hernández; Hernandez, C. M.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Plante, I. Jen-La; Jennens, D.; Johansson, K. E.; Jon-And, K.; Jorge, P. M.; Rozas, A. Juste; Kapliy, A.; Karpov, S. N.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Khandanyan, H.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Klimek, P.; Korolkov, I.; Kruse, A.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Lafarguette, P.; Lambert, D.; LeCompte, T.; Leitner, R.; Leone, S.; Liao, H.; Lie, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lundberg, O.; Martins, P. J. Magalhaes; Maio, A.; Makouski, M.; Maneira, J.; Filho, L. Manhaes de Andrade; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Martin, B.; Mchedlidze, G.; Meehan, S.; Garcia, B. R. Mellado; Meoni, E.; Merritt, F. S.; Meyer, C.; Miller, D. W.; Milstead, D. A.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mir, L. M.; Molander, S.; Berlingen, J. Montejo; Mosidze, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Nemecek, S.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nilsson, P.; Nodulman, L.; Nordkvist, B.; Ohm, C. C.; Olariu, A.; Seabra, L. F. Oleiro; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M. J.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Hernandez, D. Paredes; Morales, M. I. Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Martins, F. M. Pedro; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pina, J.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Podlyski, F.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poveda, J.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; de Lima, J. G. Rocha; Roda, C.; Santos, D. Roda Dos; Saez, S. M. Romano; Rossetti, V.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ferrando, B. M. Salvachua; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Says, L. P.; Schwartzman, A.; Scuri, F.; Shimizu, S.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Solans, C. A.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Spalla, M.; Stanek, R. W.; Starchenko, E. A.; Starovoitov, P.; Stavina, P.; Stoicea, G.; Succurro, A.; Suhr, C.; Sumida, T.; Sykora, I.; Tas, P.; Delgado, A. Tavares; Tokár, S.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tudorache, V.; Tudorache, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tylmad, M.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Gallego, E. Valladolid; Ferrer, J. A. Valls; Vazeille, F.; Veloso, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Volpi, M.; Wang, C.; Weng, Z.; White, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Yanush, S.; Yoshida, R.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y.; Zinonos, Z.; Zutshi, V.; Ženiš, T.; van Woerden, M. C.

    2016-10-12

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC . First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Lastly, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  16. Spectral response data for development of cool coloured tile coverings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libbra, Antonio; Tarozzi, Luca; Muscio, Alberto; Corticelli, Mauro A.

    2011-03-01

    Most ancient or traditional buildings in Italy show steep-slope roofs covered by red clay tiles. As the rooms immediately below the roof are often inhabited in historical or densely urbanized centres, the combination of low solar reflectance of tile coverings and low thermal inertia of either wooden roof structures or sub-tile insulation panels makes summer overheating a major problem. The problem can be mitigated by using tiles coated with cool colours, that is colours with the same spectral response of clay tiles in the visible, but highly reflecting in the near infrared range, which includes more than half of solar radiation. Cool colours can yield the same visible aspect of common building surfaces, but higher solar reflectance. Studies aimed at developing cool colour tile coverings for traditional Italian buildings have been started. A few coating solutions with the typical red terracotta colour have been produced and tested in the laboratory, using easily available materials. The spectral response and the solar reflectance have been measured and compared with that of standard tiles.

  17. Shear bond strength of porcelain veneers rebonded to enamel.

    PubMed

    St Germain, H A; St Germain, T H

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory research, shear bond strength (SBS) and mode of failure of veneers rebonded to enamel in shear compression were determined. Three groups (A, B, and C; n=10 each) of mounted molar teeth were finished flat using wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper, and 30 leucite-reinforced porcelain veneers (5.0 × 0.75 mm) were air abraded on the internal surface with 50 μm aluminum oxide, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid, and silanated. The control group (A) veneer specimens were bonded to enamel after etching with 37% phosphoric acid using bonding resin and a dual cure resin composite cement. Groups B and C were prepared similarly to group A with the exception that a release agent was placed before the veneer was positioned on the prepared enamel surface and the resin cement was subsequently light activated. The debonded veneers from groups B and C were placed in a casting burnout oven and heated to 454°C/850°F for 10 minutes to completely carbonize the resin cement and stay below the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the leucite-reinforced porcelain. The recovered veneers were then prepared for bonding. The previously bonded enamel surfaces in group B were air abraded using 50 μm aluminum oxide followed by 37% phosphoric acid etching, while group C enamel specimens were acid etched only. All specimens were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 2000 cycles using a 30-second dwell time and stored in 37°C deionized water for 2 weeks. SBS was determined at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. SBS results in MPa for the groups were (A) = 20.6±5.1, (B) = 18.1±5.5, and (C) = 17.2±6.1. One-way analysis of variance indicated that there were no significant interactions (α=0.05), and Tukey-Kramer post hoc comparisons (α=0.05) detected no significant pairwise differences. An adhesive mode of failure at the enamel interface was observed to occur more often in the experimental groups (B = 40%, C = 50%). Rebonding the veneers produced SBS values that were not

  18. Detecting transcriptionally active regions using genomic tiling arrays

    PubMed Central

    Halasz, Gabor; van Batenburg, Marinus F; Perusse, Joelle; Hua, Sujun; Lu, Xiang-Jun; White, Kevin P; Bussemaker, Harmen J

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a method for interpreting genomic tiling array data, implemented as the program TranscriptionDetector. Probed loci expressed above background are identified by combining replicates in a way that makes minimal assumptions about the data. We performed medium-resolution Anopheles gambiae tiling array experiments and found extensive transcription of both coding and non-coding regions. Our method also showed improved detection of transcriptional units when applied to high-density tiling array data for ten human chromosomes. PMID:16859498

  19. DNA tile based self-assembly: building complex nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chenxiang; Liu, Yan; Rinker, Sherri; Yan, Hao

    2006-08-11

    DNA tile based self-assembly provides an attractive route to create nanoarchitectures of programmable patterns. It also offers excellent scaffolds for directed self-assembly of nanometer-scale materials, ranging from nanoparticles to proteins, with potential applications in constructing nanoelectronic/nanophotonic devices and protein/ligand nanoarrays. This Review first summarizes the currently available DNA tile toolboxes and further emphasizes recent developments toward self-assembling DNA nanostructures with increasing complexity. Exciting progress using DNA tiles for directed self-assembly of other nanometer scale components is also discussed.

  20. Affine reflection groups for tiling applications: Knot theory and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, M.; Patera, J.; Peterson, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper some non-conventional applications of affine Weyl groups Waff of rank 2, the symmetry group of the tiling/lattice. We first develop and present the tools for applications requiring tilings of a real Euclidean plane {R}^2. We then elucidate the equivalence of these tilings with 2D projections of knots. The resulting mathematical structure provides a framework within which is encompassed recent work utilizing knot theory for modeling the structure and function of genetic molecules, specifically the action of particular enzymes in altering the topology of DNA in site-specific recombination.

  1. Effect of repeated firings on the color of opaque porcelain applied on different dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Ozçelik, Tuncer Burak; Wee, Alvin G

    2009-06-01

    Although metal ceramic fixed restorations are commonly preferred by clinicians, there remain a limited number of studies on how opaque porcelain color is affected by fabrication procedures, such as the number of firings and types of metal alloys. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various types of metal alloys on the color of opaque porcelain after repeated firings. Seven different types of metal ceramic alloys (3 base metals: Metalloy CC, chromium cobalt (B-MCC); Heraenium NA, nickel chromium (B-HNA); Argeloy NP, nickel chromium beryllium (B-ANP); 3 noble metals: Ceradelta, palladium silver (N-CD); Cerapall 2, palladium (N-CP2); V-Delta SF, gold palladium (N-VDSF); and 1 high noble metal: V-Gnathos Plus, gold platinum (HN-GP)) were used to support a 0.1-mm-thick layer of opaque porcelain (IPS d.SIGN Opaquer, shade B1) to determine the metal alloys' effect on the opaque porcelain color after repeated porcelain firings. Opaque porcelain was applied on specimens (16 mm x 1 mm) prepared from each type of alloy. The specimens (n=21) were subjected to 1 opaque firing, 4 consecutive dentin firing cycles, and 1 glaze firing cycle. Delta E values were calculated for all metal alloy groups from opaque firing (control group) to each subsequent firing stage within each tested alloy group. One-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference tests were performed to determine the differences between alloys. In addition, DeltaE values calculated after repeated firings were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and paired t test, to determine whether repeated dentin firing stages affected the color of opaque porcelain (alpha=.05). After the first and second dentin firings, the color shift in opaque porcelain was significant for all tested alloy groups (P<.001). The color of opaque porcelain changed significantly after the third dentin firing for all groups except for B-HNA and N-VDSF (P<.001). After the fourth dentin firing, the color of opaque porcelain changed

  2. Effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains

    PubMed Central

    SARIKAYA, Işil; GÜLER, Ahmet Umut

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of dental porcelains. Material and Methods Fifty-five cylindirical specimens (15x2 mm) were prepared for each feldspathic (Vita VMK 95, Ceramco III) and low-fusing dental porcelain (Matchmaker). Fifty-five specimens of machinable feldspathic porcelain blocks (Vitablocs Mark II), (12x14x18 mm) were cut into 2-mm-thick slices (12x14 mm) with low speed saw. The prepared specimens were divided into 11 groups (n=5) representing different polishing techniques including control ((C) no surface treatment), glaze (G) and other 9 groups that were finished and polished with polishing discs (Sof-Lex) (Sl), two porcelain polishing kits (NTI (Pk), Dialite II (Di)), a diamond polishing paste (Sparkle) (Sp), a zirconium silicate based cleaning and polishing prophy paste (Zircate) (Zr), an aluminum oxide polishing paste (Prisma Gloss) (Pg), and combinations of them. The surface roughness of all groups was measured with a profilometer. The data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the mean values were compared by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (α=0.05). Results For all porcelain material groups, the lowest Ra values were observed in Group Gl, Group Sl, Group Pk, and Group Di, which were not significantly different from each other (p>0.05).When comparing the 4 different porcelain materials, the machinable feldspathic porcelain block group (Mark II) demonstrated statistically significantly less Ra values than the other porcelain materials tested (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the VMK 95 and Ceramco III porcelain groups (p=0.919), also these groups demonstrated the highest Ra values. Conclusion Subjected to surface roughness, the surfaces obtained with polishing and/or cleaning-prophy paste materials used alone were rougher compared to the surfaces finished using Sof-lex, Dialite, and NTI polishing kit

  3. Diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow in a German lowland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Ulrich, Uta; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The separation of flow components within a model simulation is of great importance for a successful implementation of management measures. Tracers are commonly used to identify and assess runoff-generating processes and to detect sources of stream flow components within a target catchment. Diatoms could be an ideal tracer due to their diverse preferences to different aquatic habitats (van Dam et al. 1994, Pfister et al. 2009). As a part of a DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) project, we collected diatom samples of 9 sites (4 tile drainage, and 5 river sites) weekly or biweekly from March to July 2013 in a German lowland catchment (the Kielstau catchment). First results showed that diatom species Achnanthes lanceolata, Fragilaria biceps and Navicula ingapirca dominated in tile drainage flow with relative abundances of 22.2%, 21.5% and 10.9%, respectively. For river sites, the most abundant species was Navicula cryptocephala (20.5%), followed by Fragilaria biceps (12.9%), Cyclotella meneghiniana (9.5%) and Achnanthes lanceolata (9.3%). Compared with river sites, tile drainage flow had lower diatom density, biomass, species richness and percentage of Aquatic/Riparian diatoms (AqRi%). However, the proportion of Riparian diatoms (RiZo%) increased at tile drainage flow. Indicator value method (IndVal) revealed that the two water types were characterized by different indicator species. Fifteen taxa (e.g. Cocconeis placentula, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Navicula cryptocephala and Fragilaria biceps) were significant indicators for river sites. Achnanthes lanceolata, Achnanthes minutissima and Navicula ingapirca were significant indicators for tile drainage flow. These results highlight the suitability of diatoms as an indicator for tile drainage flow. Spatial and temporal variations of diatom community should be considered in future surveys. Keywords: Diatoms, Flow components, Indicator value method, Tracer References: Pfister, L., J. J. McDonnell, S. Wrede, D. Hl

  4. Tools Developed to Prepare and Stabilize Reactor Spent Fuel for Retrieval from Tile Holes - 12251

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Michael; Clough, Malcolm

    2012-07-01

    Spent fuel from the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) nuclear reactors is stored in the waste management areas on site. This fuel is contained within carbon steel spent fuel cans that are stored inside vertical carbon steel lined concrete pipes in the ground known as tile holes. The fuel cans have been stored in the tile holes for greater than 30 years. Some of the fuel cans have experienced corrosion which may have affected their structural integrity as well as the potential to form hydrogen gas. In addition to these potential hazards, there was a need to clean contaminated surfaces inside of and around the exposed upper surface of the tile holes. As part of the site waste management remediation plan spent fuel will be retrieved from degraded tile holes, dried, and relocated to a new purpose built above ground storage facility. There have been a number of tools that are required to be developed to ensure spent fuel cans are in a safe condition prior to retrieval and re-location. A series of special purpose tools have been designed and constructed to stabilize the contents of the tile holes, to determine the integrity of the fuel containers and to decontaminate inside and around the tile holes. Described herein are the methods and types of tools used. Tools that have been presented here have been used, or will be used in the near future, in the waste management areas of the CRL Site in preparation for storage of spent fuel in a new above ground facility. The stabilization tools have been demonstrated on mock-up facilities prior to successful use in the field to remove hydrogen gas and uranium hydrides from the fuel cans. A lifting tool has been developed and used successfully in the field to confirm the integrity of the fuel cans for future relocation. A tool using a commercial dry ice blaster has been developed and is ready to start mock-up trials and is scheduled to be used in the field during the summer of 2012. (authors)

  5. The Application of a Novel Ceramic Liner Improves Bonding between Zirconia and Veneering Porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Sung

    2017-01-01

    The adhesion of porcelain to zirconia is a key factor in the success of bilayered restorations. In this study, the efficacy of a novel experimental liner (EL) containing zirconia for improved bonding between zirconia and veneering porcelain was tested. Four ELs containing various concentrations (0, 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 wt %) of zirconia were prepared. Testing determined the most effective EL (EL3 containing 3.0 wt % zirconia) in terms of shear bond strength value (n = 15). Three different bar-shaped zirconia/porcelain bilayer specimens were prepared for a three-point flexural strength (TPFS) test (n = 15): no-liner (NL), commercial liner (CL), and EL3. Specimens were tested for TPFS with the porcelain under tension and the maximum load was measured at the first sign of fracture. The strength data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05) as well as Weibull distribution. When compared to NL, the CL application had no effect, while the EL3 application had a significant positive effect (p < 0.001) on the flexural strength. Weibull analysis also revealed the highest shape and scale parameters for group EL3. Within the limitations of this study, the novel ceramic liner containing 3.0 wt % zirconia (EL3) significantly enhanced the zirconia/porcelain interfacial bonding. PMID:28869512

  6. Influence of surface treatments on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cong; Zeng, Jishan; Wang, Shaoan; Yang, Zheng; Huang, Qian; Chen, Pixiu; Zhou, Shujuan; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various surface treatments after different storage time and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces. 128 disc-shaped porcelain specimens were randomly assigned to the following surface treatments: 9.6% HFA, 9.6% HFA combined with silane, 50 μ aluminum trioxide sandblasting followed by silane and application of silane after 37% phosphoric acid. Metal or ceramic brackets were bonded onto each treated porcelain facet with light cured resin. The samples were stored in 37 °C water 1 day or 7 days, thermocycled 500 times from 5 to 55 °C. The shear bond strengths were measured (1 mm/min), and statistically analyzed. The bond failure sites were classified according to ARI system. The surface of the glazed, sandblasted, hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid etched porcelain were examined with SEM. All groups achieved reasonable bond strengths to withstand the application of orthodontic forces. Water storage for 7 days caused lower shear bond strength than that of 1 day. But there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The mean shear bond strength provided by ceramic bracket with mechanical retention had no statistical difference with that of metal bracket. Therefore, the optimal treatment for orthodontic brackets bonding to feldspathic porcelain was to apply phosphoric acid combined with silane.

  7. Fracture resistance of zirconia-composite veneered crowns in comparison with zirconia-porcelain crowns.

    PubMed

    Alsadon, Omar; Patrick, David; Johnson, Anthony; Pollington, Sarah; Wood, Duncan

    2017-02-11

    The objectives were to evaluate the fracture resistance and stress concentration in zirconia/composite veneered crowns in comparison to zirconia/porcelain crowns using occlusal fracture resistance and by stress analysis using finite element analysis method. Zirconia substructures were divided into two groups based on the veneering material. A static load was applied occlusally using a ball indenter and the load to fracture was recorded in Newtons (N). The same crown design was used to create 3D crown models and evaluated using FEA. The zirconia/composite crowns subjected to static occlusal load showed comparable results to the zirconia/porcelain crowns. Zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress on the zirconia substructure at 63.6 and 50.9 MPa on the zirconia substructure veneered with porcelain. In conclusion, zirconia/composite crowns withstood high occlusal loads similar to zirconia/porcelain crowns with no significant difference. However, the zirconia/composite crowns showed higher stress values than the zirconia/porcelain crowns at the zirconia substructure.

  8. Evaluation of zirconia-porcelain interface using X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Alghazzawi, Tariq F; Janowski, Gregg M

    2015-09-14

    The aim of this study was to determine if accelerated aging of porcelain veneering had an effect on the surface properties specific to a tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation (TMT) of zirconia restorations. Thirty-six zirconia samples were milled and sintered to simulate core fabrication followed by exposure to various combinations of surface treatments including as-received (control), hydrofluoric acid (HF), application of liner plus firings, application of porcelain by manual layering and pressing with firing, plus accelerated aging. The quantity of transformed tetragonal to monoclinic phases was analyzed utilized an X-ray diffractometer and one-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data. The control samples as provided from the dental laboratory after milling and sintering process had no TMT (Xm = 0). There was an effect on zirconia samples of HF application with TMT (Xm = 0.8%) and liner plus HF application with TMT (Xm = 8.7%). There was an effect of aging on zirconia samples (no veneering) with significant TMT (Xm = 70.25%). Both manual and pressing techniques of porcelain applications reduced the TMT (manual, Xm = 4.41%, pressing, Xm = 11.57%), although there was no statistical difference between them. It can be concluded that simulated applications of porcelain demonstrated the ability to protect zirconia from TMT after aging with no effect of a liner between different porcelain applications. The HF treatment also caused TMT.

  9. Effect of silica coating on the bond strength of milled pure titanium to dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiantao; Ye, Xiuhua; Chang, Shaohai; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Yiping; Lin, Shiyao

    2016-10-01

    The creation of a high bond strength between machined computer-manufactured pure titanium and porcelain remains problematic, and the effects of a silica coating on the bond strength of milled pure titanium bonded to dental porcelain require further investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of machined pure titanium, with an intermediate coating of silica, to dental porcelain. In this work, 24 specimens of milled pure titanium were prepared and randomly divided into test and control groups, in which the test group was coated with silica using the sol-gel dipping technique. The metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated, according to ISO 9693 standards, using the three-point bending test, and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the microstructure and elemental composition of the specimens. The bonding strength of the silica-coated group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and more residual porcelain on the metal surface could be observed in the silica-coated group. Therefore, the application of a silica intermediate coating produced using the sol-gel method could significantly improve the bond strength between machined pure titanium and porcelain.

  10. Effect of bracket base design on shear bond strength to feldspathic porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Dalaie, Kazem; Mirfasihi, Armin; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Kabiri, Sattar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study sought to assess the effect of bracket base design on the shear bond strength (SBS) of the bracket to feldspathic porcelain. Materials and Methods: This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 40 porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations and four different bracket base designs were bonded to these specimens. The porcelain surfaces were etched, silanized, and bonded to brackets. Specimens were thermocycler, incubated for 24 h and were subjected to SBS. Data were analyzed using Shapiro–Wilk test, Levene's test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's honest significant difference test. Adhesive remnant index was calculated and compared using Fisher's exact test. Results: One-way ANOVA showed that the SBS values were significantly different among the four groups (P < 0.001). Groups 1, 2, and 4 were not significantly different, but group 3 had significantly lower SBS (P < 0.001). Fractures mostly occurred at the porcelain-adhesive interface in Groups 1 and 2 while in Groups 3 and 4, bracket-adhesive and mixed failures were more common. Conclusion: The bracket base design significantly affects the SBS to feldspathic porcelain. PMID:27403052

  11. Effect of surface treatments of porcelain on adhesion of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lawaf, Shirin; Azizi, Arash; Farzad, Azin; Adimi, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Surface treatment of porcelain is required to minimize the adhesion of microorganisms to surfaces of the restoration. This study sought to assess the effects of 3 different porcelain surface treatments on adhesion of Candida albicans. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 60 porcelain disks (10 × 3 mm) randomly divided into 4 groups of 15. The nonglazed group received no surface treatment; specimens in the other 3 groups were glazed in the furnace, overglazed with liquid glaze, or polished using a polishing kit. The specimens were washed, sterilized, and separately incubated with 350 µL of Candida albicans suspension for 24 hours. Specimens were then rinsed for 20 seconds and shaken in 1 mL of saline solution for 1 minute, and 20 µL of this suspension was cultured in a plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Candida albicans colonies were counted to assess the number of microorganisms adhering to each disk. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistically significant differences were found among the 4 groups in terms of C albicans adherence (P = 0.001). The nonglazed porcelain had the highest and the overglazed porcelain had the lowest mean adherence value. No statistically significant difference was noted between glazed and polished specimens. Based on the obtained results, overglazing resulted in the least adhesion of C albicans, and polishing provided a surface as smooth as a glazed surface.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-114 mission crew walks through the Orbiter Processing Facility looking at the tiles underneath Atlantis. From left are Mission Specialists Andy Thomas, Stephen Robinson, Soichi Noguchi and Charles Camarda (pointing); Commander Eileen Collins; and Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence. At far right Glenda Laws, EVA Task Leader, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. Not seen is Pilot James Kelly. Noguchi is with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA. The STS-114 crew is at KSC to take part in crew equipment and orbiter familiarization.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-114 mission crew walks through the Orbiter Processing Facility looking at the tiles underneath Atlantis. From left are Mission Specialists Andy Thomas, Stephen Robinson, Soichi Noguchi and Charles Camarda (pointing); Commander Eileen Collins; and Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence. At far right Glenda Laws, EVA Task Leader, with United Space Alliance at Johnson Space Center. Not seen is Pilot James Kelly. Noguchi is with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA. The STS-114 crew is at KSC to take part in crew equipment and orbiter familiarization.

  13. The Effect of Marginal Seal of Veneering DiCor (trade name) Substrates with DiCor Plus Porcelain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    sections were placed on pieces of 2 mm thick plastic sheets (Splint Biocryl, Great Lakes Orthodontics , Tonawanda, NY) that were cut to fit inside a...and pulp vitality. In this investigation, the fact that copings with porcelain fit statistically similar to those without porcelain suggests dimensional

  14. 76 FR 13602 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... International Trade Administration Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From the People's Republic of China... revocation of the antidumping duty order on porcelain- on-steel cooking ware (``POS cookware'') from the... the ITC of the magnitude of the margins likely to prevail should the order be revoked. See...

  15. 76 FR 7534 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final... Commerce (``Department'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel... FR 60731 (October 1, 2010) (``Sunset Initiation''); see also Antidumping Duty Order;...

  16. Development of porcelain enamel passive thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Lent, W. E.; Buettner, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    A white porcelain enamel coating was developed for application to high temperature metallic alloy substrates on spacecraft. The coating consists of an optically opacifying zirconia pigment, a lithia-zirconia-silica frit, and an inorganic pigment dispersant. The coating is fired at 1000 to 1150 C to form the enamel. The coating has a solar absorptance of 0.22 and a total normal emittance of 0.82 for a 0.017 cm thick coating. The coating exhibits excellent adhesion, cleanability, and integrity and is thermal shock resistant to 900 C. Capability to coat large panels has been demonstrated by successful coating of 30 cm x 30 cm Hastelloy X alloy panels. Preliminary development of low temperature enamels for application to aluminum and titanium alloy substrates was initiated. It was determined that both leaded and leadless frits were feasible when applied with appropriate mill fluxes. Indications were that opacification could be achieved at firing temperatures below 540 C for extended periods of time.

  17. Porcelain factory worker with asbestos-related mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Meng-Ting; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan J

    2009-10-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumor among the general population, but for people exposed to asbestos, the lifetime risk is high. A 58-year old man presented with suffering from chest pain, upper back pain, shortness of breath, and coughing that had continued for several months. A chest X-ray revealed right-side pleural effusion; however, pleural biopsy from drainage treatment confirmed a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. According to his occupational and environmental history, the patient had worked continuously in a porcelain factory for 30 years. The specific characteristics of his work, making asbestos wallboards and gaskets, entailed working in high-temperature conditions with a high fine-particle content in the atmosphere. The high working temperature caused asbestos debris and dust to fall down regularly from the wallboards, however, it was not until recently that the patient had started to wear personal protection. Asbestos is a significant source of hazardous exposure in old buildings, and this case serves as a reminder of the importance of asbestos-related exposure history, which facilitated the correct diagnosis of pulmonary malignant mesothelioma. Asbestos-containing materials that are now banned or regulated are still present in older buildings and remain an exposure hazard; they continue to be a serious health concern in many countries.

  18. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF TILE GAUGE IN INTERMEDIATE LOCK WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF TILE GAUGE IN INTERMEDIATE LOCK WALL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. NOTE STEEL WALL ARMOR EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26, Alton, Madison County, IL

  19. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. Integrator Based Readout in Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Parra, Garoé; ATLAS Collaboration

    TileCal is the Barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. To equalize the response of individual TileCal cells with a precision better than 1% and to monitor the response of each cell over time, a calibration and monitoring system based on a Cs137 radioactive source driven through the calorimeter volume by liquid flow has been implemented. This calibration system relies on a dedicated readout chain based on slow integrators that read currents from the TileCal photomultipliers integrating over milliseconds during the calibration runs. Moreover, during the LHC collisions the TileCal integrator based readout provides the signal coming from inelastic proton-proton collisions at low momentum transfer. This is used to monitor in ATLAS the instantaneous luminosity as well as the response of all calorimeter cells during data-taking.

  1. VIEW OF COMPASS ROSE TILE INLAY IN FLOOR OF LOBBY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF COMPASS ROSE TILE INLAY IN FLOOR OF LOBBY, BUILDING 1, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Administration & Brig Building, Bounded by Nevada & Colorado Streets, Reeves & Richardson Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Interference Heating to Cavities Between Simulated RSI Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Test results for full scale simulated surface insulation tiles on both the tunnel wall and in the free stream, for in-line and staggered tile orientations, are summarized as follows: (1) The staggered tile orientation has heating on the forward face which is a factor of 4.5 times higher than the heating to the forward face of the in-line tile orientation; (2) the longitudinal gap heating was the highest for the 0.3175 cm gap and the lowest for the 0.1587 cm gap; and (3) there was an order of magnitude decrease in the heating on the forward face of a spanwise gap when the gap size was decreased from 0.3175 cm to 0.1587 cm.

  3. 45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION HALL LOOKING EAST ACROSS ARRIVAL LOBBY FLOOR - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 44. Everett Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN, FROM LOGGIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Everett Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN, FROM LOGGIA LOOKING EAST ACROSS RECEPTION HALL - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Measurement of Tritium Surface Distribution on TFTR Bumper Limiter Tiles

    SciTech Connect

    K. Sugiyama; T. Tanabe; C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile

    2004-06-28

    The tritium surface distribution on graphite tiles used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) bumper limiter and exposed to TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) discharges from 1993 to 1997 was measured by the Tritium Imaging Plate Technique (TIPT). The TFTR bumper limiter shows both re-/co-deposition and erosion. The tritium images for all tiles measured are strongly correlated with erosion and deposition patterns, and long-term tritium retention was found in the re-/co-depositions and flakes. The CFC tiles located at erosion dominated areas clearly showed their woven structure in their tritium images owing to different erosion yields between fibers and matrix. Significantly high tritium retention was observed on all sides of the erosion tiles, indicating carbon transport via repetition of local erosion/deposition cycles.

  6. Remote handling system development of armor tile replacement for FER

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, J.; Yoshizawa, S.; Nakano, Y.

    1994-12-31

    A number of armor tiles are attached to the first wall of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) in order to protect the first wall against severe heat/particle loads from plasma during its operation. Although the armor tiles are made of heat-resisting materials such as graphite, they are eroded and damaged due to the loads and thus they are categorized into scheduled maintenance component. A remote handling system is required to replace a large number of tiles rapidly in the highly activated circumstance and has to be capable for adjusting a manipulator`s motion taking into account a thermal deformation of the first wall and/or a positioning error of a manipulator for the remote handling system. For this purpose, a remote handling system of the armor tile replacement with a visual feedback control has been fabricated and this paper describes an experimental system and the performance test results.

  7. Aerodynamic heat transfer to RSI tile surfaces and gap intersections. [Reusable Surface Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunavant, J. C.; Throckmorton, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    Review of the results of aerothermal heating tests of a simulated reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile array, performed on the sidewall of a Mach-10 hypersonic tunnel. In particular, the heating characteristics of the tile array, such as they result from heating inside the tile-expansion-space providing gaps between individual tiles, are investigated. The results include the finding that heating on the upstream face of a tile is strongly affected by the interacting longitudinal gap flow.

  8. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá Alberich, L.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010-2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  9. Ceramic tile grout removal & sealing using high power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.; Li, L.; Spencer, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    Work has been conducted using a Nd:YAG laser, a CO{sub 2} laser and a high power diode laser (HPDL) in order to determine the feasibility of removing contaminated tile grout from the void between adjoining vitrified ceramic tiles, and to seal the void permanently with a material having an impermeable surface glaze. Reported on in the paper are; the basic process phenomena, the process effectiveness, suitable vitrifiable material development, a heat affect study and a morphological and compositional analysis.

  10. On the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S.; Zhu, B.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling problem, which is a generalization of the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation. Contrary to the conjecture of Eppstein that the Minimum Weight Steiner Triangulation of a convex polygon has the property that the Steiner points all lie on the boundary of the polygon [Epp94], we show that the Steiner points of a Minimum Weight Steiner Triangular Tiling could lie in the interior of a convex polygon.

  11. 56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. ORIGINAL MOLDS. THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS HAS APPROXIMATELY 6,000 PLASTER MOLDS OF VARIOUS TYPES, INCLUDING THE DEEP CAVITY MOLDS IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THESE MOLDS PRODUCED ALLEGORICAL FIGURES TO BE INSTALLED AROUND THE CORNICES OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  12. No inherent glassiness in a Penrose tiling quasicrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Strandburg, K.J.; Dressel, P.R.

    1988-11-01

    Consideration of the structure of the Penrose pattern has led to speculation that a system with a Penrose tiling ground state might be subject to inherent glassy behavior. Monte Carol simulations show, using a simple model of the energetics, that there is no inherent glassiness in the Penrose tiling. Thermodynamic quantities measured are completely reversible, displaying no observable hysterisis, and the system may be easily cooled from a highly disordered configuration into its lowest energy state. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Transient and residual stresses in dental porcelains as affected by cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, K; Tesk, J A

    1989-06-01

    The development of either transient or residual stress in a slab of dental porcelain during cooling was simulated by use of a super-computer. The temperature dependences of the elastic modulus, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the shear viscosity, and the cooling rate dependence of the glass transition temperature, Tg, were considered in this calculation. Internal stress and viscoelastic creep were computed for several cooling rates. Calculated results display stress profiles which agree reasonably well with reported measured profiles in quenched, tempered glasses. The calculated residual surface stress, sigma, could be fit by the following empirical formula, sigma = kl2(q/q0)n, q is the cooling rate, q0 is a reference cooling rate and l is the half-thickness of the porcelain. The method by which residual stress develops is also discussed. This discussion suggests a method for strengthening of the porcelain by the development of high-compressive residual stress on the surface.

  14. Use of Feldspathic Porcelain Veneers to Improve Smile Harmony: A 3-Year Follow-up Report.

    PubMed

    Federizzi, Leonardo; Gomes, Érica Alves; Báratro, Samantha Schaffer Pugilato; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Bacchi, Ataís; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes an esthetic treatment to improve the shape and alignment of the anterior teeth, reestablishing smile harmony, using feldspathic porcelain veneers. Results of clinical follow up after 36 months are also presented. The advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the technique are detailed with reference to the relevant literature. This suggests that the success of treatment depends on adequate conditions of bonding between the veneers and the tooth complex, which involves parameters such as the strength and durability of the bond interface. Therefore, the clinical success of feldspathic porcelain veneers depends on the accurate selection of cases and correct execution of clinical and laboratory procedures. The rehabilitation involved from first right premolar to the left with feldspathic porcelain veneers made on refractory dies. After the 3-year follow up, excellent clinical results and patient satisfaction were achieved.

  15. Laser photoacoustic technique for ultrasonic surface acoustic wave velocity evaluation on porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, K.; Tu, S. J.; Gao, L.; Xu, J.; Li, S. D.; Yu, W. C.; Liao, H. H.

    2016-10-01

    A laser photoacoustic technique has been developed to evaluate the surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity of porcelain. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm was focused by a cylindrical lens to initiate broadband SAW impulses, which were detected by an optical fiber interferometer with high spatial resolution. Multiple near-field surface acoustic waves were observed on the sample surface at various locations along the axis perpendicular to the laser line source as the detector moved away from the source in the same increments. The frequency spectrum and dispersion curves were obtained by operating on the recorded waveforms with cross-correlation and FFT. The SAW phase velocities of the porcelain of the same source are similar while they are different from those of different sources. The marked differences of Rayleigh phase velocities in our experiment suggest that this technique has the potential for porcelain identification.

  16. Surface roughness of a novel dental porcelain following different polishing procedures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu; Chen, Ji-Hua; Wang, Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of a novel dental porcelain following different polishing procedures. One hundred twenty Imagine Reflex porcelain disks were prepared and randomly assigned into six groups according to different treatments: Group 1: CeraMaster polishing system (CP); Group 2: CP + diamond polishing paste (DP); Group 3: Sof-Lex polishing system (SS); Group 4: SS + DP; Group 5: SiC paper polishing; Group 6: reglazing (control). After the respective treatments, surface roughness values were measured using a profilometer. Qualitative analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy. Results demonstrated that a combination of the CeraMaster polishing system and a diamond polishing paste could produce similar superficial smoothness to that of the reglazed surface of the tested porcelain.

  17. Effects of sandblasting media and steam cleaning on bond strength of titanium-porcelain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Che-Shun; Chen, Ker-Kong; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Nagamatsu, Yuki; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio

    2010-08-01

    The effects of sandblasting media and steam cleaning treatment after sandblast were examined on tensile bond strength of porcelain to titanium. The use of the commercially available silica-coated alumina particles for sandblast was significantly effective for increasing bond strength than the conventional alumina. It might be due to the increased surface roughness and existence of remaining silica on titanium surface. Additional application of the steam cleaning on titanium surface after sandblasting could make the surface configuration clear in SEM by removing some sandblasted particles loosely embedded in titanium as well as the debris and oily contaminants. The resultant bond strength was significantly improved to reach almost the maximum strength of this porcelain-titanium system regardless of the kind of sandblasting media used, which was confirmed by the observation of the failure mode showing that most of the fracture surface was occupied by cohesive failure in porcelain.

  18. Translucency and flexural strength of monolithic translucent zirconia and porcelain-layered zirconia.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Fumiyori; Sekine, Hideshi; Honma, Shinya; Takanashi, Takuya; Furuya, Katsunori; Yajima, Yasutomo; Yoshinari, Masao

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of monolithic translucent TZP with different colors and porcelain-layered TZP by evaluating their colors and strengths. Different mixing ratios of Zpex to Zpex-Yellow as translucent TZP, conventional opaque TZP (TZ-3YB-E) (Tosoh, Tokyo) as a control, and veneering porcelain (CERABIEN ZR, body porcelain, Noritake, Tokyo) with shade A3 as a typical shade. Disk-shaped specimens of 13 mm diameter and 1.5 mm thickness were prepared. These specimens were observed under reflected and transmitted light, and the translucency parameter (TP) values were measured. Strength was also evaluated with flexural strength in a biaxial bending test. The TP values of the monolithic TZP, Zpex100>Zpex70>Zpex50>TZ3YB, were larger in this order. The flexural strength of all the monolithic TZP showed approximately 1,000 MPa. It is suggested that colored translucent TZP is clinically useful when used as monolithic restorations.

  19. DNAzyme-Controlled Cleavage of Dimer and Trimer Origami Tiles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Na; Willner, Itamar

    2016-04-13

    Dimers of origami tiles are bridged by the Pb(2+)-dependent DNAzyme sequence and its substrate or by the histidine-dependent DNAzyme sequence and its substrate to yield the dimers T1-T2 and T3-T4, respectively. The dimers are cleaved to monomer tiles in the presence of Pb(2+)-ions or histidine as triggers. Similarly, trimers of origami tiles are constructed by bridging the tiles with the Pb(2+)-ion-dependent DNAzyme sequence and the histidine-dependent DNAzyme sequence and their substrates yielding the trimer T1-T5-T4. In the presence of Pb(2+)-ions and/or histidine as triggers, the programmed cleavage of trimer proceeds. Using Pb(2+) or histidine as trigger cleaves the trimer to yield T5-T4 and T1 or the dimer T1-T5 and T4, respectively. In the presence of Pb(2+)-ions and histidine as triggers, the cleavage products are the monomer tiles T1, T5, and T4. The different cleavage products are identified by labeling the tiles with 0, 1, or 2 streptavidin labels and AFM imaging.

  20. Influence of pH on slow crack growth of dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo M; Cesar, Paulo F; Rosa, Vinícius; Yoshimura, Humberto N

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of pH of storage medium on slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of dental porcelains. Two porcelains were selected: with (UD) and without (VM7) leucite particles, in order to assess if the microstructure would affect the response of the material to the pH variation. Disc specimens were produced following manufacturers' instructions. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva in pHs 3.5, 7.0 or 10.0 for 10 days and after that the fatigue parameters (n: SCG susceptibility coefficient and sigma(0): scaling parameter) were obtained by the dynamic fatigue test using the same pH of storage. Microstructural analysis of the materials was also performed. For VM7, the values of n obtained in the different pHs were similar and varied from 29.9 to 31.2. The sigma(0) value obtained in pH 7.0 for VM7 was higher than that obtained in the other pHs, which were similar. For porcelain UD, n values obtained in pHs 7.0 and 10.0 were similar (40.8 and 39.6, respectively), and higher than that obtained in pH 3.5 (26.5). With respect to sigma(0), the value obtained for porcelain UD in pH 10.0 was lower than those obtained in pHs 3.5 and 7.0, which were similar. The effect of pH on the stress corrosion susceptibility (n) depended on the porcelain studied. While the n value of VM7 was not affected by the pH, UD presented lower n value in acid pH. For both porcelains, storage in acid or basic pH resulted in strength degradation.

  1. Adhesion determination of dental porcelain to zirconia using the Schwickerath test: strength vs. fracture energy approach.

    PubMed

    Kosyfaki, P; Swain, M V

    2014-11-01

    Two approaches to measure the fracture energy to delaminate four different porcelains from zirconia substrates are compared using Schwickerath adhesion strength test specimens. In all instances it was possible to stably extend the crack along or adjacent to the porcelain-zirconia interface. The fracture energy expended to delaminate the porcelain was found by determining the work of fracture upon loading to 12 N and then unloading. Additional tests were undertaken on specimens notched along the interface, which enabled the compliance of the cracked Schwickerath specimens to be calibrated. The strain energy and deflection of the Schwickerath specimen as a function of crack length were derived. On this basis a simple expression was determined for the strain energy release rate or interfacial fracture toughness from the minima in the force-displacement curves. Consequently two measures of the adhesion energy were determined, the work of fracture and the strain energy release rate. It was found that the ranking for the four porcelains bonded to zirconia differed depending upon the approach. The work of fracture was substantially different from the strain energy release rate for three of the porcelain-zirconia systems and appears to be directly related to the residual stresses present in the bonded structures. The relative merits of the strain energy release rate, work of fracture vs. the stress to initiate cracking in the case of the Schwickerath adhesion test, are discussed. The advantage of this test is that it enables three estimates of the adhesion for porcelain veneers bonded to zirconia. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J.-W; Mieleszko, Adam J.; Chu, Stephen J.; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bend fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a FEA taking into account stress shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was well less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred by a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations. PMID:24769152

  3. Porcelain laminate veneer conditioning for orthodontic bonding: SEM-EDX analysis.

    PubMed

    Aksakalli, Sertac; Ileri, Zehra; Yavuz, Tevfik; Malkoc, Meral Arslan; Ozturk, Nilgun

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effects of different surface treatments and laser irradiation on the bond strength of brackets bonded to porcelain laminate veneer. Porcelain laminate veneer specimens were embedded in the centers of acrylic resin blocks. Thirty-nine teeth were used for shear bond strength testing and the remaining three (one tooth for each group) were used for evaluation of the debonded bracket interface. Specimens were randomly divided into three groups, each containing 13 specimens. The details of the groups are as follows: Group SB, sandblasting with alumina particles (50 μm); Group HFA, 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching; Group ER, erbium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er: YAG) irradiation (from 1 mm distance, 2 W, 10 Hz for 10 s). After conditioning, the upper central brackets were bonded to the porcelain surfaces. Porcelain laminate veneers were examined under stereomicroscope for adhesive remnant index and surface damage after debonding. The highest shear bond strength values were obtained with Group HFA (10.8 ± 3.8 MPa) and Group ER (9.3 ± 1.5 MPa), whereas Group SB revealed the lowest values. Scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis revealed that the silicon level in the porcelain decreased after debonding in all groups. The sandblasting method did not demonstrate any ideal bond strength values; however, the 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching and Er: YAG laser did. There were no significant differences among all groups in terms of laminate surface damages. The Er: YAG laser therefore can be selected for ideal bond strength and minimal damage to porcelain laminates.

  4. On the interfacial fracture of porcelain/zirconia and graded zirconia dental structures.

    PubMed

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Mieleszko, Adam J; Chu, Stephen J; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Porcelain fused to zirconia (PFZ) restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry. However, their susceptibility to fracture remains a practical problem. The failure of PFZ prostheses often involves crack initiation and growth in the porcelain, which may be followed by fracture along the porcelain/zirconia (P/Z) interface. In this work, we characterized the process of fracture in two PFZ systems, as well as a newly developed graded glass-zirconia structure with emphases placed on resistance to interfacial cracking. Thin porcelain layers were fused onto Y-TZP plates with or without the presence of a glass binder. The specimens were loaded in a four-point-bending fixture with the thin porcelain veneer in tension, simulating the lower portion of the connectors and marginal areas of a fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) during occlusal loading. The evolution of damage was observed by a video camera. The fracture was characterized by unstable growth of cracks perpendicular to the P/Z interface (channel cracks) in the porcelain layer, which was followed by stable cracking along the P/Z interface. The interfacial fracture energy GC was determined by a finite-element analysis taking into account stress-shielding effects due to the presence of adjacent channel cracks. The resulting GC was considerably less than commonly reported values for similar systems. Fracture in the graded Y-TZP samples occurred via a single channel crack at a much greater stress than for PFZ. No delamination between the residual glass layer and graded zirconia occurred in any of the tests. Combined with its enhanced resistance to edge chipping and good esthetic quality, graded Y-TZP emerges as a viable material concept for dental restorations.

  5. CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces for bonding metal orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Heravi, Farzin; Hosseini, Mohsen

    2013-07-01

    Bonding to porcelain remains to be a challenge in orthodontic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Eighty feldspathic porcelain specimens were divided into four groups of 20. In each group, half of the porcelain surfaces were deglazed, while the others remained glazed. The specimens in groups 1 to 3 were treated with a fractional CO2 laser for 10 s using 10 mJ of energy, frequency of 200 Hz and powers of 10 W (group 1), 15 W (group 2) and 20 W (group 3). In group 4, a 9.6 % hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel was used for 2 min. A silane coupling agent was applied before bracket bonding, and the SBS was measured with a universal testing machine after 24 h. Deglazing caused significant increase in SBS of laser treated porcelain surfaces (p < 0.05), but had no significant effect on SBS when HF acid was used for etching (p = 0.137). ANOVA revealed no significant difference in SBS values of the study groups when glazed surfaces were compared (p = 0.269). However, a significant between group difference was found among the deglazed specimens (p < 0.001). Tukey test revealed that the bond strengths of 10 W and 15 W laser groups were significantly higher than that of the HF acid group (p < 0.05). Laser conditioning with a fractional CO2 laser can be recommended as a suitable alternative to hydrofluoric acid for deglazed feldspathic porcelain.

  6. A comparative study on the bond strength of porcelain to the millingable Pd-Ag alloy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun-Tae

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The porcelain fused to gold has been widely used as a restoration both with the natural esthetics of the porcelain and durability and marginal fit of metal casting. However, recently, due to the continuous rise in the price of gold, an interest towards materials to replace gold alloy is getting higher. This study compared the bond strength of porcelain to millingable palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy, with that of 3 conventionally used metal-ceramic alloys. MATERIALS AND METHODS Four types of metal-ceramic alloys, castable nonprecious nickel-chrome alloy, castable precious metal alloys containing 83% and 32% of gold, and millingable Pd-Ag alloy were used to make metal specimens (n=40). And porcelain was applied on the center area of metal specimen. Three-point bending test was performed with universal testing machine. The bond strength data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and post hoc Scheffe's tests (α=.05). RESULTS The 3-point bending test showed the strongest (40.42 ± 5.72 MPa) metal-ceramic bond in the nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy, followed by millingable Pd-Ag alloy (37.71 ± 2.46 MPa), precious metal alloy containing 83% of gold (35.89 ± 1.93 MPa), and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold (34.59 ± 2.63 MPa). Nonprecious Ni-Cr alloy and precious metal alloy containing 32% of gold showed significant difference (P<.05). CONCLUSION The type of metal-ceramic alloys affects the bond strength of porcelain. Every metal-ceramic alloy used in this study showed clinically applicable bond strength with porcelain (25 MPa). PMID:25352959

  7. Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

    1995-08-01

    Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

  8. Programmable disorder in random DNA tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2016-11-01

    Scaling up the complexity and diversity of synthetic molecular structures will require strategies that exploit the inherent stochasticity of molecular systems in a controlled fashion. Here we demonstrate a framework for programming random DNA tilings and show how to control the properties of global patterns through simple, local rules. We constructed three general forms of planar network—random loops, mazes and trees—on the surface of self-assembled DNA origami arrays on the micrometre scale with nanometre resolution. Using simple molecular building blocks and robust experimental conditions, we demonstrate control of a wide range of properties of the random networks, including the branching rules, the growth directions, the proximity between adjacent networks and the size distribution. Much as combinatorial approaches for generating random one-dimensional chains of polymers have been used to revolutionize chemical synthesis and the selection of functional nucleic acids, our strategy extends these principles to random two-dimensional networks of molecules and creates new opportunities for fabricating more complex molecular devices that are organized by DNA nanostructures.

  9. Programmable disorder in random DNA tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Grigory; Petersen, Philip; Qian, Lulu

    2017-03-01

    Scaling up the complexity and diversity of synthetic molecular structures will require strategies that exploit the inherent stochasticity of molecular systems in a controlled fashion. Here we demonstrate a framework for programming random DNA tilings and show how to control the properties of global patterns through simple, local rules. We constructed three general forms of planar network—random loops, mazes and trees—on the surface of self-assembled DNA origami arrays on the micrometre scale with nanometre resolution. Using simple molecular building blocks and robust experimental conditions, we demonstrate control of a wide range of properties of the random networks, including the branching rules, the growth directions, the proximity between adjacent networks and the size distribution. Much as combinatorial approaches for generating random one-dimensional chains of polymers have been used to revolutionize chemical synthesis and the selection of functional nucleic acids, our strategy extends these principles to random two-dimensional networks of molecules and creates new opportunities for fabricating more complex molecular devices that are organized by DNA nanostructures.

  10. Tiling solutions for optimal biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems, from cells to organisms, must respond to the ever-changing environment in order to survive and function. This is not a simple task given the often random nature of the signals they receive, as well as the intrinsically stochastic, many-body and often self-organized nature of the processes that control their sensing and response and limited resources. Despite a wide range of scales and functions that can be observed in the living world, some common principles that govern the behavior of biological systems emerge. Here I review two examples of very different biological problems: information transmission in gene regulatory networks and diversity of adaptive immune receptor repertoires that protect us from pathogens. I discuss the trade-offs that physical laws impose on these systems and show that the optimal designs of both immune repertoires and gene regulatory networks display similar discrete tiling structures. These solutions rely on locally non-overlapping placements of the responding elements (genes and receptors) that, overall, cover space nearly uniformly.

  11. Tooth preparation and fabrication of porcelain veneers using a double-layer technique.

    PubMed

    Chpindel, P; Cristou, M

    1994-09-01

    This article discusses proper tooth preparation when using the double-layered porcelain technique for constructing porcelain veneers designed to produce strength and translucency. Indications for this technique include color correction, restoration of lost tooth structure or improper tooth size, and overall smile design. A new indication--misalignment--has been added. The objective of this article is to review tooth preparation and double-layered laboratory techniques using hydrothermal ceramics in combination. Four cases are used to illustrate the procedure, concentrating on the correction of misaligned teeth.

  12. The effect of fluxing agent MnO2 on alumina silicate porcelain insulator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudi, Dharmender; Shekhawat, M. S.; Singh, G. P.

    2016-05-01

    Higher strength electrical porcelain is a requirement for industry. This will be achieved by a specific composition of raw materials, which is consisted of clays and feldspars. High mechanical resistance, low porosity and water absorption are among their important properties. By decreasing the silica and increasing the alumina provides a higher mechanical strength in porcelain but on the other hand increases the body's baking temperature. Therefore adding MnO2 in different percentage is a suitable and practical solution to improve strength without increasing sinter temperature. Results have shown that addition of 1% MnO2 in body enhances mechanical strength of the body.

  13. The Effect of Cooling Rate on the Apparent Bond Strength of Porcelain-Metal Couples,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-06

    patients by modern restorative dentistry. Dental porcelain when fused to a metal substructure, provides acceptable esthetics and improved strength to...AD-A097 492 ARMY INST OF DENTAL RESEARCH WASHINGTON DC F/G 11/2 THE EFFECT OF COOLING RATE ON THE APPARENT BOND STRENGTH OF POR-’ETC(U) MAR 81 J...porcelain- metal couples John W. Guinn, III, B.S., D.D.S. William H. Griswold, B.S., D.D.S. Stanley G. Vermilyea, B.S.,D.M.D., M.S. U.S. Army Dental

  14. Restoration of primary canines with porcelain laminate veneers: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2014-09-01

    This article describes treatment of a young adult patient with porcelain laminate veneers for restoring unaesthetic maxillary anterior teeth with two retained primary canines. The patient had experienced an approximately two-year orthodontic treatment and had received both fixed and removable retainers for the upper arch. The patient could not afford implant supported restorations for his missing premolar teeth and was not pleased by the appearance of his smile. Using porcelain laminate veneers is a proper treatment option that could be taken into consideration in these situations.

  15. Effect of mineralizers on the sintering of porcelain bodies (a review)

    SciTech Connect

    Maslennikova, G.N.; Koneshova, T.I.

    1987-11-01

    The authors assess the effects of a wide range of mineralizing agents on the structure formation of porcelain in order to arrive at optimal crystallization and structure parameters for the resulting porcelain crystals and to determine those agents which best contribute to the energy efficiency of the sintering process. The assessment is carried out specifically for the kinetics of mullite formation. Reagents tested include salts of sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and aluminum, and the oxides of chromium, titanium, iron, zirconium, molybdenum, boron, and tin.

  16. Esthetic restorations of maxillary anterior teeth with orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sung-Hun; Han, Jung-Suk; Yang, Jae-Ho

    2010-01-01

    If orthodontists and restorative dentists establish the interdisciplinary approach to esthetic dentistry, the esthetic and functional outcome of their combined efforts will be greatly enhanced. This article describes satisfying esthetic results obtained by the distribution of space for restoration by orthodontic treatment and porcelain laminate veneers in uneven space between maxillary anterior teeth. It is proposed that the use of orthodontic treatment for re-distribution of the space and the use of porcelain laminate veneers to alter crown anatomy provide maximum esthetic and functional correction for patients with irregular interdental spacing. PMID:21165191

  17. Phase change material in floor tiles for thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy Sarah

    Traditional passive solar systems have relied on sensible heat storage for energy savings. Recent research has investigated taking advantage of latent heat storage for additional energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change material into building materials used in traditional passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. This research introduces a new flooring material that incorporates a phase change material ready for commercial manufacture. An agglomerate floor tile containing 20% by mass of encapsulated octadecane has been manufactured. Flexural and compressive strength of 7.4 MPa and 24.5 MPa respectively, were measured for the tile. Peak melting transition temperature was determined to be 27.2°C with a latent heat of 33.9 J/g of tile. Structural and thermal performance of the tile surpassed that of a typical ceramic tile. Each tile was composed of quartz, resin and phase change material. Statistical modeling was performed to analyze the response of flexural and compressive strength on varying amounts of quartz, resin and phase change material. Resulting polynomials described the effect of adding phase change material into the tile. With as little as 10% by mass of phase change material, the strength was reduced to less than 50% of tile without phase change material. It was determined that the maximum phase change material content to attain structural integrity greater than ceramic tile was 20% by mass. The statistical analysis used for this research was based on mixture experiments. A procedure was developed to simplify the selection of data points used in the fit of the polynomials to describe the response of flexural and compressive strengths. Analysis of energy savings using this floor tile containing 20% by mass of phase change material was performed as an addendum to this research. A known static simulation method, SLR (solar load ratio), was adapted to include

  18. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the STS-107 Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2004-01-01

    Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA/Contractor investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. The authors formed a working subgroup within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the Orbiter's tiles and of the Tank's foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working subgroups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three-dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the main body of LI-900 insulation, the densified lower layer of LI-900, the Nomex felt mounting layer, and the Aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with Southwest Research Institute foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger foam projectiles on the examples of tile systems used on the Orbiter. Results for impacts on the main landing gear door are presented in this paper, including effects of impacts at several angles, and of rapidly rotating projectiles. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rotation up to 17 rps failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases

  19. Probing the mechanical properties of dental porcelain through nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manda, Marianthi; Moschakis, Nikolaos; Konstantinidis, Avraam; Christophilos, Demetrios; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Koidis, Petros; Aifantis, Elias

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this short communication is to report on some micro/nanoscale aspects of the mechanical behavior of dental porcelain. Specimens were characterized by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Massive nanoindentation experiments on the surface of the specimens were performed, and typical load-displacement or load-depth (P-h) curves were obtained, which in turn were used to determine the Young modulus (E) and nanoindentation hardness (n-H), based on the Oliver-Pharr method [1]. Statistical analyses were carried out to determine the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (Spearman’s ρ), along with non-parametric linear regression analysis by employing Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Two-Step Cluster tests. Densification due to grain boundary diffusion and open-pore elimination was revealed by SEM. EDS analysis indicated a leucite-dispersed silicate glass matrix, as well as its contamination by traces of other minerals. Raman spectroscopy supported the EDS assignments. The P-h curves suggested that inelastic deformation and material flow increases at larger depths. Spearman’s ρ value showed strong dependence of E and n-H on h, indicating the occurrence of a size effect. The logarithmic data of E and n-H as functions of h were fitted by using linear regression analysis. The data did not obey a normal distribution (as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed) due to the chemical heterogeneity involved. The Two-Step Cluster analysis indicated clustering in four groups associated with the chemical heterogeneity of the surface. Similar works using nanoindentation to determine the mechanical properties of dental materials can be found, for example, in [2, 3]. Corresponding methods for extracting the values of E and n-H from P-h experimental curves can be found, for example, in [4-6].

  20. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time.

  1. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  2. Effect of fast neutrons on the electric resistivity of porcelain for application in fast-neutron dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fadel, M.A.; Abdel-Fattah, W.I.; Abdulla, A.A.; Kadum, A.A.

    1982-11-01

    The electric resistivity (rho) of quartz and alumina porcelain was measured before and after irradiation with different fluences (phi) of fission neutrons in the range of 10/sup 7/-10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ and at different temperatures in the range of 20-90/sup 0/C. The results showed that the activation energy (..delta..E) for quartz porcelain decreased progressively with the increase of phi, while it remained approximately constant for alumina porcelain. Moreover, the electric resistivity of alumina porcelain decreased with the increase of phi. However, there were no measureable effects of /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. doses up to 0.6 Mrad on the electric resistivities of the samples. An empirical formula for calculating phi from the measured value of ..delta..E for quartz porcelain was achieved. A semiempirical formula for calculating phi for the resistivity data for the alumina porcelain is given. The effect of neutron energies on the induced changes in (rho) for the alumina porcelain was investigated. Additionally, the effect of storage at 50/sup 0/C for periods up to 3 weeks on these changes were also measured.

  3. Effects of sandblasting and electrical discharge machining on porcelain adherence to cast and machined commercially pure titanium.

    PubMed

    Inan, Ozgür; Acar, Asli; Halkaci, Selçuk

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sandblasting and electrical discharge machining (EDM) on cast and machined titanium surfaces and titanium-porcelain adhesion. Twenty machined titanium specimens were prepared by manufacturer (groups 1 and 2). Thirty specimens were prepared with autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Twenty of these specimens (groups 3 and 4) were cast with commercially pure titanium and the alpha-case layer was removed. For control group (group 5), 10 specimens were cast by using NiCr alloy. Groups 2 and 4 were subjected to EDM while groups 1, 3, and 5 were subjected to sandblasting. Surface examinations were made by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A low-fusing porcelain was fused on the titanium surfaces, whereas NiCr specimens were covered using a conventional porcelain. Titanium-porcelain adhesion was characterized by a 3-point bending test. Results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Metal-porcelain interfaces were characterized by SEM. The bond strength of control group was higher than that of the titanium-porcelain system. There was no significant difference between cast and machined titanium groups (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between EDM and sandblasting processes (p > 0.05). The use of EDM as surface treatment did not improve titanium-porcelain adhesion compared with sandblasting.

  4. Effect of provisional restorations on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Aykent, F; Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Yucel, M T

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the different provisional restorations cementation techniques on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs). Thirty-six extracted human central incisors were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction, and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin. Standardized PLV preparations were carried out on labial surfaces of the teeth. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 12 each. In group 1, provisional restorations were cemented with eugenol-free cement. In group 2, prepared teeth surfaces were first coated with a desensitizing agent then provisional restorations were cemented with resin cement. In group 3, provisional restorations were not fabricated to serve as control. After specimens were stored in distilled water for 2 weeks, provisional restorations were removed and final IPS Empress 2 ceramic veneers were bonded with a dual-curing resin. Two microtensile samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microtensile testing and failure values were recorded. The data were analysed by one-way anova and Tukey HSD tests. The PLVs, placed on the tooth surface that had received a dentine desensitizer and provisional restorations luted with resin cement (group 2), showed the lowest bond strength in all test groups. But no statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of PLVs in control group (no provisional restorations) and group 1 (provisional restorations cemented with eugenol-free cement before final cementations). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of this study also showed that the bonding to enamel surface was better in control group and group 1 than group 2.

  5. Flexural strength of glass-infiltrated zirconia/alumina-based ceramics and feldspathic veneering porcelains.

    PubMed

    Bottino, Marco Antonio; Salazar-Marocho, Susana M; Leite, Fabiola P P; Vásquez, Vanessa C; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2009-07-01

    To compare the flexural strength of two glass-infiltrated high-strength ceramics and two veneering glass-ceramics. Four ceramic materials were tested: two glass-infiltrated high-strength ceramics used as framework in metal-free restorations [In-Ceram Zirconia IZ (Gr1) and In-Ceram Alumina IA (Gr2)], and two glass-ceramics used as veneering material in metal-free restorations [Vita VM7 (Gr3) and Vitadur-alpha (Gr4)]. Bar specimens (25 x 5 x 2 mm3) made from core ceramics, alumina, and zirconia/alumina composites were prepared and applied to a silicone mold, which rested on a base from a gypsum die material. The IZ and IA specimens were partially sintered in an In-Ceram furnace according to the firing cycle of each material, and then were infiltrated with a low-viscosity glass to yield bar specimens of high density and strength. The Vita VM7 and Vitadur-alpha specimens were made from veneering materials, by vibration of slurry porcelain powder and condensation into a two-part brass Teflon matrix (25 x 5 x 2 mm3). Excess water was removed with absorbent paper. The veneering ceramic specimens were then removed from the matrix and were fired as recommended by the manufacturer. Another ceramic application and sintering were performed to compensate the contraction of the feldspar ceramic. The bar specimens were then tested in a three-point bending test. The core materials (Gr1: 436.1 +/- 54.8; Gr2: 419.4 +/- 83.8) presented significantly higher flexural strength (MPa) than the veneer ceramics (Gr3: 63.5 +/- 9.9; Gr4: 57.8 +/- 12.7). In-Ceram Alumina and Zirconia were similar statistically and more resistant than VM7 and Vitadur-alpha.

  6. [Effect of sintering gold paste coating on the bonding strength of pure titanium and three low-fusing porcelains].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-li; Luo, Xiao-ping; Zhou, Li

    2012-05-01

    To study the effect of sintering gold paste coating of pure titanium on the adhesion of three porcelains following the protocol ISO 9693, and to investigate the titanium-porcelains interfaces. Sixty machined pure titanium samples were prepared in a rectangular shape according to ISO 9693 and divided equally into six groups. Half of the strips were coated with gold paste (Deckgold) and sintered. Three ultra-low-fusing dental porcelains (I: Initial Ti, S: Super porcelain Ti-22, T: TitanKeramik) were fused onto the titanium surfaces. A thin layer of bonding agent was only applied on the surfaces of uncoated gold specimens. The interface of the porcelain and titanium was observed with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) after metallographic preparation and sputtered with a very thin carbon layer of the embedded titanium-porcelain interface. After three-point bending test was performed, optical stereomicroscope was used to characterize the titanium-porcelains adhesion and determine the mode of failure. FE-SEM illustrated intermetallic compounds of Au-Ti formed with some visible microcracks in the gold layer and the interface of gold layer and ceramic. All the uncoated gold titanium-porcelain system showed predominately adhesive fracture at the titanium oxidation, whereas the failure modes in all gold coated systems were cohesive and adhesive, mainly cohesive. The three-point-bending test showed that the bonding strength of GS and GI groups [(37.08 ± 4.32) and (36.20 ± 2.40) MPa] were higher than those in uncoated groups [(31.56 ± 3.74) and (30.88 ± 2.60) MPa, P < 0.05], while no significant difference was found between T group and GT group (P > 0.05). The gold paste intermediate coatings can improve bond strengths of Super porcelain Ti-22 system and Initial Ti system, which have potential applications in clinical fields.

  7. Identification of a novel gene by whole human genome tiling array.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hirokazu; Yagi, Tomohito; Tanaka, Masami; Tokuda, Yuichi; Kamoi, Kazumi; Hongo, Fumiya; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Nakano, Masakazu; Miki, Tsuneharu; Tashiro, Kei

    2013-03-01

    When the whole human genome sequence was determined by the Human Genome Project, the number of identified genes was fewer than expected. However, recent studies suggest that undiscovered transcripts still exist in the human genome. Furthermore, a new technology, the DNA microarray, which can simultaneously characterize huge amounts of genome sequence data, has become a useful tool for analyzing genetic changes in various diseases. A version of this tool, the tiling DNA microarray, was designed to search all the transcripts of the entire human genome, and provides huge amounts of data, including both exon and intron sequences, by a simple process. Although some previous studies using tiling DNA microarray analysis have indicated that numerous novel transcripts can be found in the human genome, none of them has reported any novel full-length human genes. Here, to find novel genes, we analyzed all the transcripts expressed in normal human prostate cells using this microarray. Because the optimal analytical parameters for using tiling DNA microarray data for this purpose had not been established, we established parameters for extracting the most likely regions for novel transcripts. The three parameters we optimized were the threshold for positive signal intensity, the Max gap, and the Min run, which we set to detect all transcriptional regions that were above the average length of known exons and had a signal intensity in the top 5%. We succeeded in obtaining the full-length sequence of one novel gene, located on chromosome 12q24.13. We named the novel gene "POTAGE". Its 5841-bp mRNA consists of 26 exons. We detected part of exon 2 in the tiling data analysis. The full-length sequence was then obtained by RT-PCR and RACE. Although the function of POTAGE is unclear, its sequence showed high homology with genes in other species, suggesting it might have an important or essential function. This study demonstrates that the tiling DNA microarray can be useful for

  8. Construction of 2D quasi-periodic Rauzy tiling by similarity transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravlev, V. G.; Maleev, A. V.

    2009-05-15

    A new approach to constructing self-similar fractal tilings is proposed based on the construction of semigroups generated by a finite set of similarity transformations. The Rauzy tiling-a 2D analog of 1D Fibonacci tiling generated by the golden mean-is used as an example to illustrate this approach. It is shown that the Rauzy torus development and the elementary fractal boundary of Rauzy tiling can be constructed in the form of a set of centers of similarity semigroups generated by two and three similarity transformations, respectively. A centrosymmetric tiling, locally dual to the Rauzy tiling, is constructed for the first time and its parameterization is developed.

  9. Study on changing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Jamaluddin, O; Zainal, A A

    2004-05-01

    Raising the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of dental porcelains is important to match the CTE of the ceramic material with the higher CTE of the metal inlay in dental restorations. The higher thermal expansion of the leucite phase increases the overall thermal expansion coefficient of the dental porcelain. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) additions in controlled percentages to the base dental porcelain formulation help in the formation of a leucite phase. The percentage added was 5,10 and 20 weight percent of leucite, respectively, to the total base frit composition. The change in CTE values was then investigated using a Linseis Dilatometer. A 20wt% KNO3 addition resulted in a CTE of 9.0 microm/m-K compared to the 7.7 microm/m-K CTE of the base composition. The microstructures observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) show a multiphase material with the leucite phases dispersed within a glassy matrix. The results suggest that higher CTEs in the dental porcelain are possible by increasing the KNO3- additions within the limits tested.

  10. Silk bonded replacements with porcelain veneers: a cosmetic alternative in dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Walinchus, R E

    1990-01-01

    A case in which the use of a silk bonded splint bridge was incorporated as a basis for porcelain veneer fabrication is discussed. The results of the treatment indicate that silk bonding may represent an acceptable conservative treatment alternative for patient care.

  11. Study of Glazes and Their Effects on Properties of Triaxial Electrical Porcelains from Ugandan Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olupot, Peter W.; Jonsson, Stefan; Byaruhanga, Joseph K.

    2010-11-01

    Kaolin, ball clay, feldspar, and sand were collected from deposits in Uganda, milled and sieved to particle sizes of 45, 45, 53, and 25 μm, respectively. Three porcelain bodies and five glazes were formulated from them. The glazes were applied on porcelain specimens and subsequently evaluated for their effects on properties of porcelain samples. The formulated specimens were investigated using dilatometry, Steger test, FEG-SEM, XRD, 4-point bending, dielectric strength, and fracture toughness tests. A porcelain specimen consisting of 68% SiO2, 19% Al2O3, 4.7% K2O, and a glaze RO:0.57Al2O3:4.86SiO2 exhibited MOR of 105 MPa with Weibull modulus of 5.6 and a dielectric strength of 18 kV/mm upon firing at a heating rate of 6 °C/min to 1250 °C and holding for 2 h. The microstructure of the high-strength specimen exhibited round mullite needles, quartz, and glass. Holding samples for 2 h at peak temperature resulted in a 22% increase in MOR compared to 1 h holding. Glazing further improved strength by 67% for the best sample. Compressive stresses in glaze contributed to the strengthening effect. The dielectric and mechanical strength values obtained qualify the formulated sample for application in electrical insulation.

  12. Development of conical silicone rubber bushings to replace porcelain on SF{sub 6} circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.B.; Orbeck, T.; Moal, E.

    1994-12-31

    A unique design of a composite polymer bushing is introduced and evaluated. A comprehensive test program defined the mechanical and electrical performance of a conical silicone polymer composite bushing. This evaluation also included aging and pollution tests to assess the long-term stability of the new design. Results show that the composite bushing offers technical and safety benefits over conventional porcelain bushings.

  13. AC Clean Fog tests on non-ceramic insulating materials and a comparison with porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    De La O, A.; Gorur, R.S.; Chang, J. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    AC Clean Fog tests were performed on non-ceramic materials used for outdoor high voltage insulators, namely, Room and High Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV and HTV) silicone rubber, and ethylene propylene rubber (EPR), with porcelain used as the reference. The steam input rate was varied upwards from the value standardized for porcelain insulators. Results indicate that higher steam input rates produce a significant reduction in the flashover voltage of silicone rubber family materials, although it is always higher than that obtained for EPR and porcelain. For EPR, the reduction is less and is similar to that established for porcelain. The mechanisms involved have been examined. The trend in the results is found to be consistent for different formulations and insulator geometries of the generic polymer (e.g. silicone rubber, EPR) evaluated. A new, simple method for consistently applying uniform contamination on silicone rubber (both RTV and HTV) is described, without the use of extensive physical or chemical treatments, or prior conditioning by dry band arcing.

  14. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula.

  15. The Earliest Chinese Proto-Porcelain Excavated from Kiln Sites: An Elemental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Huansheng; Zheng, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    In June 2012, the Piaoshan kiln site was excavated in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, which hitherto proved to be the earliest known Chinese proto-porcelain kiln. Judging from the decorative patterns of unearthed impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain sherds, the site was determined to date to the late Xia (c. 2070–c. 1600 BC), the first dynasty of China. Here, we report on proton-induced X-ray emission analyses of 118 proto-porcelain and 35 impressed stoneware sherds from Piaoshan and five subsequent kiln sites in the vicinity. Using principal components analysis on the major chemical compositions, we reveal the relationships between impressed stoneware and proto-porcelain samples from the six kiln sites. The sherds from different sites have distinctive chemical profiles. The results indicate that the raw materials were procured locally. We find a developmental tendency for early glazes towards mature calcium-based glaze. It is most likely that woody plant ashes with increased calcia-potash ratios were applied to the formula. PMID:26535583

  16. Thermodynamically optimal whole-genome tiling microarray design and validation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyejin; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2016-06-13

    Microarray is an efficient apparatus to interrogate the whole transcriptome of species. Microarray can be designed according to annotated gene sets, but the resulted microarrays cannot be used to identify novel transcripts and this design method is not applicable to unannotated species. Alternatively, a whole-genome tiling microarray can be designed using only genomic sequences without gene annotations, and it can be used to detect novel RNA transcripts as well as known genes. The difficulty with tiling microarray design lies in the tradeoff between probe-specificity and coverage of the genome. Sequence comparison methods based on BLAST or similar software are commonly employed in microarray design, but they cannot precisely determine the subtle thermodynamic competition between probe targets and partially matched probe nontargets during hybridizations. Using the whole-genome thermodynamic analysis software PICKY to design tiling microarrays, we can achieve maximum whole-genome coverage allowable under the thermodynamic constraints of each target genome. The resulted tiling microarrays are thermodynamically optimal in the sense that all selected probes share the same melting temperature separation range between their targets and closest nontargets, and no additional probes can be added without violating the specificity of the microarray to the target genome. This new design method was used to create two whole-genome tiling microarrays for Escherichia coli MG1655 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 and the experiment results validated the design.

  17. Microwave versus conventional sintering of silicon carbide tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.; Caughman, J.B.O.; Forrester, S.C.; Akerman, A.

    1997-05-07

    Silicon carbide is being evaluated as an armor material because of its lightweight, high-hardness, and excellent armor efficiency. However, one of the problems associated with silicon carbide is the high cost associated with achieving fully dense tiles. Full density requires either hot pressing and sintering or reaction bonding. Past efforts have shown that hot pressed tiles have a higher armor efficiency than those produced by reaction bonded sintering. An earlier stuy showed that the acoustic properties of fully-dense silicon carbide tiles were enhanced through the use of post-sintered microwave heat treatments. One of the least expensive forming techniques is to isostatically press-and-sinter. In this study, the authors have used microwave energy to densify silicon carbide green bodies. Microwave sintering has been demonstrated to be a very quick way to sinter ceramics such as alumina to exceptionally high densities. Previous work has shown that microwave post treatment of fully-dense reaction bonded silicon carbide tiles significantly improves the acoustic properties of the tiles. These properties include Poisson`s ratio, Young`s modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus.

  18. Investigation of registration algorithms for the automatic tile processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamir, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotic Tile Inspection System (RTPS), under development in NASA-KSC, is expected to automate the processes of post-flight re-water-proofing and the process of inspection of the Shuttle heat absorbing tiles. An important task of the robot vision sub-system is to register the 'real-world' coordinates with the coordinates of the robot model of the Shuttle tiles. The model coordinates relate to a tile data-base and pre-flight tile-images. In the registration process, current (post-flight) images are aligned with pre-flight images to detect the rotation and translation displacement required for the coordinate systems rectification. The research activities performed this summer included study and evaluation of the registration algorithm that is currently implemented by the RTPS, as well as, investigation of the utility of other registration algorithms. It has been found that the current algorithm is not robust enough. This algorithm has a success rate of less than 80% and is, therefore, not suitable for complying with the requirements of the RTPS. Modifications to the current algorithm has been developed and tested. These modifications can improve the performance of the registration algorithm in a significant way. However, this improvement is not sufficient to satisfy system requirements. A new algorithm for registration has been developed and tested. This algorithm presented very high degree of robustness with success rate of 96%.

  19. Thermal desorption analysis of beryllium tile pieces from JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaulay-Newcombe, R. G.; Thompson, D. A.; Coad, J. P.

    1998-10-01

    Pieces of beryllium tile exposed to a D-D plasma in JET have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy. These tiles have a thick layer of redeposited Be-C-O with considerable hydrogen and deuterium present. The samples were heated at a constant rate of 2°C/min, from 100°C to 900°C. Desorption peaks occurred in the range of 140-480°C. There was no significant desorption at temperatures above 600°C. The amount of deuterium detected varied from a low of 8 × 10 21/m 2 to a high of 2.1 × 10 23/m 2. In one case, the amount of deuterium in a tile piece was seven times greater than the amount in a neighboring tile piece. Some of the tile pieces in the plasma-exposed region showed surface melting. Despite this, the deuterium yield from one of these pieces is >10 23/m 2.

  20. Analysis of Thick Sandwich Shells with Embedded Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Smith, C.; Lumban-Tobing, F.

    1996-01-01

    The Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) is an advanced technology demonstrator of an all-composite ground combat vehicle. The CAV upper hull is made of a tough light-weight S2-glass/epoxy laminate with embedded ceramic tiles that serve as armor. The tiles are bonded to a rubber mat with a carefully selected, highly viscoelastic adhesive. The integration of armor and structure offers an efficient combination of ballistic protection and structural performance. The analysis of this anisotropic construction, with its inherent discontinuous and periodic nature, however, poses several challenges. The present paper describes a shell-based 'element-layering' technique that properly accounts for these effects and for the concentrated transverse shear flexibility in the rubber mat. One of the most important advantages of the element-layering technique over advanced higher-order elements is that it is based on conventional elements. This advantage allows the models to be portable to other structural analysis codes, a prerequisite in a program that involves the computational facilities of several manufacturers and government laboratories. The element-layering technique was implemented into an auto-layering program that automatically transforms a conventional shell model into a multi-layered model. The effects of tile layer homogenization, tile placement patterns, and tile gap size on the analysis results are described.

  1. Interlaced Particle Systems and Tilings of the Aztec Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Benjamin J.; Forrester, Peter J.

    2011-02-01

    Motivated by the problem of domino tilings of the Aztec diamond, a weighted particle system is defined on N lines, with line j containing j particles. The particles are restricted to lattice points from 0 to N, and particles on successive lines are subject to an interlacing constraint. It is shown that this particle system is exactly solvable, to the extent that not only can the partition function be computed exactly, but so too can the marginal distributions. These results in turn are used to give new derivations within the particle picture of a number of known fundamental properties of the tiling problem, for example that the number of distinct configurations is 2 N( N+1)/2, and that there is a limit to the GUE minor process, which we show at the level of the joint PDFs. It is shown too that the study of tilings of the half Aztec diamond—not known from earlier literature—also leads to an interlaced particle system, now with successive lines 2 n-1 and 2 n ( n=1,…, N/2-1) having n particles. Its exact solution allows for an analysis of the half Aztec diamond tilings analogous to that given for the Aztec diamond tilings.

  2. Characterization of ceramic roof tile wastes as pozzolanic admixture.

    PubMed

    Lavat, Araceli E; Trezza, Monica A; Poggi, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this work is to study the recycling of tile wastes in the manufacture of blended cements. Cracked or broken ceramic bodies are not accepted as commercial products and, therefore, the unsold waste of the ceramic industry becomes an environment problem. The use of powdered roof tile in cement production, as pozzolanic addition, is reported. The wastes were classified as nonglazed, natural and black glazed tiles. The mineralogy of the powders was controlled by SEM-EDX microscopy, XRD analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size was checked by laser granulometry. Once the materials were fully characterized, pozzolanic lime consumption tests and Fratini tests were carried out. Different formulations of cement-tile blends were prepared by incorporation of up to 30% weight ratios of recycled waste. The compressive strength of the resulting specimens was measured. The evolution of hydration of the cement-tile blends was analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Vibrational spectroscopy presented accurate evidence of pozzolanic activity. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of these waste materials to produce pozzolanic cement.

  3. Colorimetric analysis of opaque porcelain fired to different base metal alloys used in metal ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Tuncer Burak; Yilmaz, Burak; Ozcan, Isil; Kircelli, Cem

    2008-03-01

    The popularity of base metal alloys has considerably increased in recent years because of their superior mechanical properties as well as the high cost of noble alloys. However, there is disagreement about their effect on the opaque porcelain color and the color differences among base metal alloys. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine and compare the influence of various commercially available base metal alloys (excluding titanium-based systems) on the resulting color of opaque porcelain with the use of a colorimetric device. Fourteen different types of Ni-Cr and 3 different types of Co-Cr porcelain bonding alloys were selected with a Au-Pd alloy (V-Delta SF) as the control group for colorimetric measurements and determination of color shift after opaque application. Shade B1 of an opaque porcelain (IPS d.SIGN Opaquer) was applied (0.1 mm) to all specimens (16 mm x 1 mm). The color coordinates of each specimen were measured with a chromameter. The data were displayed in L*, a*, and b* values according to the CIELAB system, and the color differences (DeltaE) between base metal alloys and the control group were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA (alpha=.05). The ANOVA was followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison test for comparisons with the control group to determine specifically which groups were significantly different from the control group. The L* value of only 1 base metal alloy was significantly different from the control group (P<.001). All base metal alloy groups except 3 had a* values which were significantly different from the control group a* value (P=.001 for Rexillium III, P=.008 for Heracles N, and P<.001 for the remaining 12 alloys), whereas only 3 base metal alloys were not statistically significantly different from the control group in the means of b* values (P<.001). All base metal alloys to which opaque porcelain was applied had significantly different DeltaE values in comparison with the control group (P

  4. Shear Bond Strength of Porcelain to a Base-Metal Compared to Zirconia Core

    PubMed Central

    Abrisham, SM.; Fallah Tafti, A.; Kheirkhah, S.; Tavakkoli, MA.

    2017-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Recent clinical results for Zirconia all-ceramic restorations have revealed that the fracture rate 6-15% of the Zirconia framework is so low and the core of Zirconia has high stability. However, chipping-off fractures of porcelain are the most common reason for failures of Zirconia in the fixed partial dentures. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of porcelain in the porcelain fused to metal and all-ceramic crowns with Zirconia core. Materials and Methods: Two groups were selected: porcelain fused to metal (PFM) and porcelain fused to Zirconia (PFZ) (n = 30).In the PFM group, a wax model (10 × 10 × 10mm)was used to cast metal base (Ni_Cr alloy). In the PFZ group, an acrylic cubic model (10 × 10 × 10mm) was made as Zirconia model for scanning.15 cubic Zirconia samples were milled by CAD-CAM. The procedure of porcelain veneering was conducted by the conventional layering technique up to 2 mm thickness (2.5 × 2.5 × 2 mm). All specimens were stored in water for 48 hrs. Thermal cycling was conducted for 20000 cycles between 55°C and 5ºC alternatively for 30s.All samples were mounted in acrylic resin and the SBS test was performed, using a universal testing machine. The analysis of data was performed at a significance level of 0.05 using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Mean of SBS in PFM and PFZ was 24.57 and 20.88, respectively. The results of Mann-Whitney test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups of porcelain fused to metal and Zirconia in item shear bond strength (p = 0.455). Conclusions: There was no significant difference between the two groups of PFM and PFZ in the item SBS. PMID:28959767

  5. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    PubMed

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  6. A comparison of debonding strengths of four metal-ceramic systems with and without opaque porcelain.

    PubMed

    Wood, Marjorie C; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Agar, John R

    2007-03-01

    When performing an adjustment on metal-ceramic restorations, opaque porcelain may become exposed, particularly on the lingual surface of maxillary anterior teeth. It is generally believed that exposed opaque porcelain can be more abrasive and destructive to an opposing dentition than body porcelain, and that these teeth may require restoration as a consequence. This study compared the debonding strengths of 2 types of porcelain, with and without opaque porcelain, to 2 types of dental casting alloys. Two porcelain systems, Ceramco3 and Vita 900, and 2 metal alloys, a high noble (Encore) and a base metal (Duceranium U), were used to fabricate and test 56 flexure bars in accordance with ISO 9693:1999(E): Metal-Ceramic Dental Restorative Systems. Half of the bars received opaque porcelain prior to body porcelain additions, and the other half did not. The metal-ceramic debonding strength was determined by using a 3-point flexure apparatus and a mechanical testing device (Instron). A center load was applied at a crosshead speed of 1.5 mm/min(-1) until debonding occurred. In addition to the load-versus-displacement curve, a precision measurement microphone was used to assist in ascertaining the point in time when debonding occurred. Since the sound analysis and the mechanical test were started simultaneously, the debonding load could be more accurately determined. Data were statistically analyzed using 3-way analysis of variance, and all pairwise multiple comparisons were made with the Tukey HSD test (alpha=.05). The difference in mean debonding strength values for opaqued and non-opaqued flexure bars were statistically significant (P=.028). The mean debonding strength values (MPa) for each metal-ceramic system were as follows: Encore-Opaque-Ceramco3 (EOC), 31.43 +/- 6.92(a); Encore-Opaque-Vita 900 (EOV), 30.37 +/- 3.25(a); Duceranium U-No Opaque-Ceramco3 (DNC), 29.20 +/- 6.97(a); Duceranium U-Opaque-Ceramco3 (DOC), 26.61 +/- 4.98(a); Duceranium U-Opaque-Vita 900 (DOV

  7. Influence of leucite content on slow crack growth of dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Paulo F; Soki, Fabiana N; Yoshimura, Humberto N; Gonzaga, Carla C; Styopkin, Victor

    2008-08-01

    To determine the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient, n, of seven dental porcelains (A: Ceramco I; B: Ceramco-II; C: Ceramco-III; D: d.Sign; E: Cerabien; F: Vitadur-Alpha; and G: Ultropaline) after aging in air or artificial saliva, and correlate results with leucite content (LC). Bars were fired according to manufacturers' instructions and polished before induction of cracks by a Vickers indenter (19.6N, 20s). Four specimens were stored in air/room temperature, and three in saliva/37 degrees C. Five indentations were made per specimen and crack lengths measured at the following times: approximately 0; 1; 3; 10; 30; 100; 300; 1000 and 3000 h. The stress corrosion coefficient n was calculated by linear regression analysis after plotting crack length as a function of time, considering that the slope of the curve was [2/(3n+2)]. Microstructural analysis was performed to determine LC. LC of the porcelains were 22% (A and B); 6% (C); 15% (D); 0% (E and F); and 13% (G). Except for porcelains A and D, all materials showed a decrease in their n values when stored in artificial saliva. However, the decrease was more pronounced for porcelains B, F, and G. Ranking of materials varied according to storage media (in air, porcelain G showed higher n compared to A, while in saliva both showed similar coefficients). No correlation was found between n values and LC in air or saliva. Storage media influenced the n value obtained for most of the materials. LC did not affect resistance to slow crack growth regardless of the test environment.

  8. Porcelain surface alterations and refinishing after use of two orthodontic bonding methods.

    PubMed

    Herion, Drew T; Ferracane, Jack L; Covell, David A

    2010-01-01

    To compare porcelain surfaces at debonding after use of two surface preparation methods and to evaluate a method for restoring the surface. Lava Ceram feldspathic porcelain discs (n = 40) underwent one of two surface treatments prior to bonding orthodontic brackets. Half the discs had sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid, and silane (SB + HF + S), and the other half, phosphoric acid and silane (PA + S). Brackets were debonded using bracket removing pliers, and resin was removed with a 12-fluted carbide bur. The surface was refinished using a porcelain polishing kit, followed by diamond polishing paste. Measurements for surface roughness (Ra), gloss, and color were made before bonding (baseline), after debonding, and after each step of refinishing. Surfaces were also examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD tests (alpha = 0.05). The SB + HF + S bonding method increased Ra (0.160 to 1.121 microm), decreased gloss (41.3 to 3.7) and altered color (DeltaE = 4.37; P < .001). The PA + S method increased Ra (0.173 to 0.341 microm; P < .001), but the increase in Ra was significantly less than that caused by the SB + HF + S bonding method (P < . 001). The PA + S method caused insignificant changes in gloss (41.7 to 38.0) and color (DeltaE = 0.50). The measurements and SEM observations showed that changes were fully restored to baseline with refinishing. The PA + S method caused significantly less damage to porcelain than the SB + HF + S method. The refinishing protocol fully restored the porcelain surfaces.

  9. Effects of local cooling rate and processing variables on leucite in dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    Mackert, J Rodway; Sheen, Geoffrey W; Williams, Amalia L; Russell, Carl M; Ergle, Janet W

    2003-01-01

    This research determined whether there is a measurable effect of local geometry factors on leucite content of dental porcelain in fixed partial dentures (FPD). Four-unit FPD frameworks (n = 36) were fabricated using a nickel-chromium alloy (Rexillium III). Body porcelain (Crystar, shade A2) was applied in one increment and subjected to two simulated body firings, followed by a simulated glaze firing to achieve a thickness of 1.5 to 2.0 mm. The completed FPD specimens were randomly assigned to three groups of 12 specimens each: (1) simulated post-soldering, (2) multiple firing, and (3) control. The FPDs from each test group were sectioned into individual units: canine retainer, premolar pontic, molar pontic, and molar retainer. The porcelain was removed from each unit, and the leucite content was measured via quantitative x-ray diffraction. Porcelain cracking indicated that the soldering simulation had successfully reproduced conditions in the dental laboratory that result in porcelain cracking during soldering. The leucite content was not significantly different between the retainer and pontic units for either the soldering simulation or control FPDs, although the canine retainer units did have a slightly lower leucite content than the pooled values of the other units. Comparison of the pooled data for the three groups indicated statistically significant differences among the leucite contents. Compared to the control, the simulated post-soldering procedure produced a significant increase in leucite, and the multiple firing group exhibited a significant decrease in leucite. Increases in leucite weight fraction during post-soldering operations-and the larger thermally induced stresses that accompany these leucite increases-are responsible for the cracking that occurs.

  10. Effect of metal conditioner on bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloy

    PubMed Central

    Kajihara, Yutaro; Takenouchi, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takuo; Suzuki, Shiro; Minami, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two different metal conditioners for non-precious metal alloys for the bonding of porcelain to a cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shaped specimens (2.5×10.0 mm) were cast with Co-Cr alloy and used as adherend materials. The bonding surfaces were polished with a 600-grid silicon carbide paper and airborne-particle abraded using 110 µm alumina particles. Bonding specimens were fabricated by applying and firing either of the metal conditioners on the airborne-particle abraded surface, followed by firing porcelain into 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in height. Specimens without metal conditioner were also fabricated. Shear bond strength for each group (n=8) were measured and compared (α=.05). Sectional view of bonding interface was observed by SEM. EDS analysis was performed to determine the chemical elements of metal conditioners and to determine the failure modes after shear test. RESULTS There were significant differences among three groups, and two metal conditioner-applied groups showed significantly higher values compared to the non-metal conditioner group. The SEM observation of the sectional view at bonding interface revealed loose contact at porcelain-alloy surface for non-metal conditioner group, however, close contact at both alloy-metal conditioner and metal conditioner-porcelain interfaces for both metal conditioner-applied groups. All the specimens showed mixed failures. EDS analysis showed that one metal conditioner was Si-based material, and another was Ti-based material. Si-based metal conditioner showed higher bond strengths compared to the Ti-based metal conditioner, but exhibited more porous failure surface failure. CONCLUSION Based on the results of this study, it can be stated that the application of metal conditioner is recommended for the bonding of porcelain to cobalt-chromium alloys. PMID:26949481

  11. Comparison of porcelain surface and flexural strength obtained by microwave and conventional oven glazing.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil; Davis, Elaine L; Brewer, Jane D

    2009-01-01

    Although the superior qualities of microwave technology are common knowledge in the industry, effects of microwave glazing of dental ceramics have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface roughness and flexural strength achieved by glazing porcelain specimens in a conventional and microwave oven. Thirty specimens of each type of porcelain (Omega 900 and IPS d.Sign) were fabricated and sintered in a conventional oven. The specimens were further divided into 3 groups (n=10): hand polished (using diamond rotary ceramic polishers), microwave glazed, and conventional oven glazed. Each specimen was evaluated for surface roughness using a profilometer. The flexural strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine. A 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc analysis were used to determine significant intergroup differences in surface roughness (alpha=.05). Flexural strength results were also analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and the Weibull modulus was determined for each of the 6 groups. The surfaces of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for cracks and porosities using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A significant difference in surface roughness was found among the surface treatments (P=.02). Follow-up tests showed a significant difference in surface roughness between oven-glazed and microwave-glazed treatments (P=.02). There was a significant difference in flexural strength between the 2 porcelains (P<.005), but no significant difference in flexural strength by surface treatment (P=.48). The Weibull modulus value for the Omega 900 microwave-glazed group was the highest (1.9) as compared to the other groups. The surface character of microwave-glazed porcelain was superior to oven-glazed porcelain. Omega 900 had an overall higher flexural strength than IPS d.Sign. Weibull distributions of flexural strengths for Omega 900 oven-glazed and microwave-glazed specimens were similar. SEM analysis demonstrated a

  12. New class tiling design for dot-diffused halftoning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Fu; Guo, Jing-Ming

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a new class tiling designed dot diffusion along with the optimized class matrix and diffused matrix are proposed. The result of this method presents a nearly periodic-free halftone when compared to the former schemes. Formerly, the class matrix of the dot diffusion is duplicated and orthogonally tiled to fulfill the entire image for further thresholding and quantized-error diffusion, which accompanies subsequent periodic artifacts. In our observation, this artifact can be solved by manipulating the class tiling with comprising rotation, transpose, and alternatively shifting of the class matrices. As documented in the experimental results, the proposed dot diffusion has been compared with the former halftoning methods with parallelism in terms of image quality, processing efficiency, periodicity, and memory consumption; the proposed dot diffusion exhibits as a very competitive candidate in the printing/display market.

  13. Solare Cell Roof Tile And Method Of Forming Same

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Real, Markus

    1999-11-16

    A solar cell roof tile includes a front support layer, a transparent encapsulant layer, a plurality of interconnected solar cells and a backskin layer. The front support layer is formed of light transmitting material and has first and second surfaces. The transparent encapsulant layer is disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. The interconnected solar cells has a first surface disposed adjacent the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer has a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells, wherein a portion of the backskin layer wraps around and contacts the first surface of the front support layer to form the border region. A portion of the border region has an extended width. The solar cell roof tile may have stand-offs disposed on the extended width border region for providing vertical spacing with respect to an adjacent solar cell roof tile.

  14. Summer Thermal Performance of Ventilated Roofs with Tiled Coverings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoloni, M.; Bottarelli, M.; Piva, S.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal performance of a ventilated pitched roof with tiled coverings is analysed and compared with unventilated roofs. The analysis is carried out by means of a finite element numerical code, by solving both the fluid and thermal problems in steady-state. A whole one-floor building with a pitched roof is schematized as a 2D computational domain including the air-permeability of tiled covering. Realistic data sets for wind, temperature and solar radiation are used to simulate summer conditions at different times of the day. The results demonstrate that the batten space in pitched roofs is an effective solution for reducing the solar heat gain in summer and thus for achieving better indoor comfort conditions. The efficiency of the ventilation is strictly linked to the external wind conditions and to buoyancy forces occurring due to the heating of the tiles.

  15. Flutter Analysis of the Shuttle Tile Overlay Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Scott, Robert C.; Bartels, Robert E.; Waters, William A.; Chen, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle tile overlay repair concept, developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center, is designed for on-orbit installation over an area of damaged tile to permit safe re-entry. The thin flexible plate is placed over the damaged area and secured to tile at discreet points around its perimeter. A series of flutter analyses were performed to determine if the onset of flutter met the required safety margins. Normal vibration modes of the panel, obtained from a simplified structural analysis of the installed concept, were combined with a series of aerodynamic analyses of increasing levels of fidelity in terms of modeling the flow physics to determine the onset of flutter. Results from these analyses indicate that it is unlikely that the overlay installed at body point 1800 will flutter during re-entry.

  16. Complex Archimedean tiling self-assembled from DNA nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2013-05-22

    Archimedean tilings are periodic polygonal tessellations that are created by placing regular polygons edge-to-edge around a vertex to fill the plane. Here we show that three- and four-arm DNA junction tiles with specifically designed arm lengths and intertile sticky-end interactions can be used to form sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) tessellation patterns. We demonstrate two different complex Archimedean patterns, (3(3).4(2)) and (3(2).4.3.4), and the formation of 2D lattices, 3D tubes, and sealed polygon-shaped pockets from the tessellations. The successful growth of hybrid DNA tile motif arrays suggests that it maybe possible to generate 2D quasi-crystals from DNA building blocks.

  17. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  18. Monte Carlo estimation of the number of tatami tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Higuchi, Saburo

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the way Japanese tatami mats are placed on the floor, we consider domino tilings with a constraint and estimate the number of such tilings of plane regions. We map the system onto a monomer-dimer model with a novel local interaction on the dual lattice. We make use of a variant of the Hamiltonian replica exchange Monte Carlo method where data for ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic models are combined to make a single family of histograms. The properties of the density of states is studied beyond exact enumeration and combinatorial methods. The logarithm of the number of the tilings is linear in the boundary length of the region for all the regions studied.

  19. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  20. Implications of tiling for performance and design flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demircan, Ertugrul; Tian, Ruiqi; Grobman, Warren D.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss rule-based and model-based tiling methodologies for interconnect layers and their implications for design flows and performance. The addition of these 'dummy' tiling metal features modifies the final physical design and reduces the variation of back-end process parameters. This is a newly developing area of design flow and its importance is increasing with each succeeding semiconductor generation. Along with this development new methodologies and tools need to be introduced to handle time placement post-physical design, as well as efficient methods for representing the resulting large amount of dat. Additionally, the inclusion of tiles may introduce performance-degrading parasitic effects. The situation is complicated by the order of the elements of the design flow: parasitics characterization requires knowledge about the placement of dummy metal times, which takes place after physical design. In this study, we co pare the advantages of having uniform interconnect characteristics to the performance degradation caused by the additional layout parasitics. We also discuss several possible scenarios for the modification of design flows to account for these effects the thereby recover timing and power targets closure. These scenarios depend for their success on the very different length scales of polish and electromagnetic effects. Finally, an analysis of correlations in the parameters that define design corners leads to the new conclusion that the negative effect of increased parasitic loading due to tiling is not as sever as a simple analysis would suggest. This result is due to the fact that the tiling parasitic loading is somewhat compensated for by the improved planarity resulting from tiling, which tightens the process variation-induced spread of metal electrical parameters.

  1. High-Performance Tiled WMS and KML Web Server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This software is an Apache 2.0 module implementing a high-performance map server to support interactive map viewers and virtual planet client software. It can be used in applications that require access to very-high-resolution geolocated images, such as GIS, virtual planet applications, and flight simulators. It serves Web Map Service (WMS) requests that comply with a given request grid from an existing tile dataset. It also generates the KML super-overlay configuration files required to access the WMS image tiles.

  2. Characterization of color texture: color texture based sorting of tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourada, Y.; Lafon, Dominique; Eterradossi, O.

    1998-09-01

    Many materials used by the building industry show a color texture which affects the product commercial value. This texture can be seen as the spatial arrangement of regions of acceptable color differences. This work describes an appearance based automated sorting via color texture analysis, using ceramic tiles as example. Textural analysis of the tiles digital images expressed in CIEL*a*b* color system is performed through the analysis of intrinsic features of each region and relationships between regions. Results obtained through the automated process are compared to a visual sorting which leads to calculation of application dependant color and texture tolerances.

  3. Tony Rollins fashions a new tile for the Space Shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Tile Fabrication Shop, Tony Rollins, with United Space Alliance, holds down a curtain while making a test sample of tile on a block 5-axis computerized numerical control milling machine. About 70 percent of a Space Shuttle orbiter's external surface is shielded from heat by a network of more than 24,000 tiles formed from a silica fiber compound. They are known as High-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) tiles and Low-Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) tiles. Most HRSI tiles are 6 inches square, but may be as large as 12 inches in some areas, and 1 to 5 inches thick. LRSI tiles are generally 8 inches square, ranging from 0.2- to 1-inch thick. More advanced materials such as Flexible Insulation Blankets have replaced tiles on some upper surfaces of the orbiter.

  4. An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

  5. [Line scanning analysis of white porcelain from Gong Kiln in early Tang dynasty by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Ling, Xue; Mao, Zhen-wei; Feng, Min; Hu, Yao-wu; Wang, Chang-sui; Liu, Hong-miao

    2005-07-01

    Gong kiln, for its long porcelain-firing history, was one of three representative white porcelain kilns in northern China. In order to improve the quality and whiteness of white porcelain, a decorating layer or cosmetic earth was laid on the body surface in Gong kiln during early Tang dynasty, which was able to blot out rough surface and weaken the influence of fuscous body upon surface color. In this paper the main chemical composition of the white porcelain's profile was analyzed by using energy disperse X-Ray fluorescence. The result showed that different materials were used as cosmetic earth during early Tang dynasty, in accordance with the phenomenon under optical microscope. In addition, the glaze belongs to calcium glaze in which plant ash was added.

  6. Porcelain laminate veneer restorations bonded with a three-liquid silane bonding agent and a dual-activated luting composite.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Hideo; Aida, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Yumi; Tanoue, Naomi

    2006-12-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication and bonding of porcelain laminate veneer restorations in a patient with anterior open spaces. Laminate veneer restorations made of feldspathic porcelain were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid, rinsed under tap water, ultrasonically cleaned with methanol, and primed with a chemically activated three-liquid silane bonding agent (Clearfil Porcelain Bond). The enamel surfaces were etched with 40% phosphoric acid, rinsed with water, and primed with a two-liquid bonding agent (Clearfil New Bond) that contained a hydrophobic phosphate (10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate; MDP). The restorations were bonded with a dual-activated luting composite (Clapearl DC). The veneers have been functioning satisfactorily for an observation period of one year. Combined use of the Clearfil bonding agents and Clapearl DC luting composite is an alternative to conventional materials for seating porcelain laminate veneer restorations, although the system is inapplicable to dentin bonding.

  7. Modeling Subsurface Storm and Tile Drain Systems in GSSHA with SUPERLINK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    capable of representing flow through a pipe network with inputs typical for an urban storm drain network or an agricultural tile drainage system...greater than zero is input for the materials surrounding any pipe in the network, then tile drainage will be computed, and the GRID_PIPE file must...tile drain pipes , as shown in Figure 5. The drainage to tile from ground water under this common condition can be calculated with one of two optional

  8. Bulk Universality for Random Lozenge Tilings Near Straight Boundaries and for Tensor Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Vadim

    2017-08-01

    We prove that the asymptotic of the bulk local statistics in models of random lozenge tilings is universal in the vicinity of straight boundaries of the tiled domains. The result applies to uniformly random lozenge tilings of large polygonal domains on triangular lattice and to the probability measures describing the decomposition in Gelfand-Tsetlin bases of tensor products of representations of unitary groups. In a weaker form our theorem also applies to random domino tilings.

  9. Porcelain inlays cemented with composite resin cement: an in vivo investigation of pulpal reaction one year following cementation.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Graiff, Lorenzo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Fonzi, Fulvio

    2007-01-01

    This in vivo study was designed to verify the presence of pulpal inflammation on teeth after 1 year of function from cementation of porcelain inlays. Thirty-two vital, healthy, caries-free and previously untreated maxillary and mandibular first premolars in eight patients needing extraction for orthodontic reasons were included in this study. For each patient three first premolars were randomly chosen and treated with porcelain MOD inlays. One first premolar served as the control group with no restorations. The porcelain inlays were cemented with dental adhesive and composite resin cement without pulpal protection. The same dentist, following standardized preparation, impression, and cementation techniques, accomplished all clinical phases. The teeth were extracted 1 year later. The condition of the pulp tissues of the 24 teeth with porcelain inlays was compared with the pulpal tissues of the eight teeth of the control group. The data relating to the number of inflammatory cells were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance to assess quantitative differences between the group of teeth with porcelain inlays and the group without porcelain inlays (p < 0.05). Means and standard deviations were calculated for each group. The microscopic analysis revealed the absence of pulpal inflammation of the teeth with porcelain inlays when compared with the teeth of the control group. The analysis of variance revealed no statistical differences between the two groups compared. Within the limitations of this study, the cementation of porcelain inlays with dental adhesive and composite cement on healthy premolars did not result in any inflammatory reaction of the pulpal tissues 1 year after placement.

  10. Influence of the processing route of porcelain/Ti-6Al-4V interfaces on shear bond strength.

    PubMed

    Toptan, Fatih; Alves, Alexandra C; Henriques, Bruno; Souza, Júlio C M; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Filipe S; Rocha, Luís A; Ariza, Edith

    2013-04-01

    This study aims at evaluating the two-fold effect of initial surface conditions and dental porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy joining processing route on the shear bond strength. Porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V samples were processed by conventional furnace firing (porcelain-fused-to-metal) and hot pressing. Prior to the processing, Ti-6Al-4V cylinders were prepared by three different surface treatments: polishing, alumina or silica blasting. Within the firing process, polished and alumina blasted samples were subjected to two different cooling rates: air cooling and a slower cooling rate (65°C/min). Metal/porcelain bond strength was evaluated by shear bond test. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tuckey's test (p<0.05). Before and after shear bond tests, metallic surfaces and metal/ceramic interfaces were examined by Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Shear bond strength values of the porcelain-to-Ti-6Al-4V alloy interfaces ranged from 27.1±8.9MPa for porcelain fused to polished samples up to 134.0±43.4MPa for porcelain fused to alumina blasted samples. According to the statistical analysis, no significant difference were found on the shear bond strength values for different cooling rates. Processing method was statistically significant only for the polished samples, and airborne particle abrasion was statistically significant only for the fired samples. The type of the blasting material did not cause a statistically significant difference on the shear bond strength values. Shear bond strength of dental porcelain to Ti-6Al-4V alloys can be significantly improved from controlled conditions of surface treatments and processing methods.

  11. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  12. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  13. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile...

  14. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory...

  15. Hardening by cooling rate control and post-firing heat treatment in Pd-Ag-Sn alloy for bonding porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Jun; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hardening effect by controlling the cooling rate during the porcelain firing process and performing an additional post-firing heat treatment in a Pd-Ag-Sn alloy. The most effective cooling rate for alloy hardening was determined by cooling the specimens at various cooling rates after oxidation treatment. A subsequent porcelain firing simulation followed by cooling at the selected cooling rate was performed. A post-firing heat treatment was then done at 600°C in a porcelain furnace. The hardening mechanism was characterized by a hardness test, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Alloy softening occurred during the porcelain firing process followed by cooling at a controlled cooling rate. A post-firing heat treatment allowed apparent precipitation hardening. It is advisable to perform a postfiring heat treatment at 600°C in a porcelain furnace by annealing metal substructure after porcelain fusing.

  16. Genotoxicity evaluation of locally produced dental porcelain--an in vitro study using the Ames and Comet assays.

    PubMed

    Noushad, Mohammed; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Husein, Adam; Abdullah, Haswati; Ismail, Abdul Rashid

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of a locally produced dental porcelain (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia) using the Ames and Comet assays. In the Ames assay, four genotypic variants of the Salmonella strains (TA98, TA100, TA1537 and TA1535) carrying mutations in several genes were used. The dental porcelain was incubated with these four strains in five different doses both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9) and the result was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. Concurrently, appropriate positive controls were used so as to validate the test. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with locally produced dental porcelain was less than double as compared to that of negative control. In the Comet assay, L929 (CCL-1 ATCC, USA) mouse fibroblast cells were treated with the dental porcelain in three different concentrations along with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment which was used as a measurement of DNA damage was almost equal to that of the negative control, suggesting that the locally produced dental porcelain did not induce any DNA damage. The results indicated that the locally produced dental porcelain is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions.

  17. Effect of Oxidation and SiO2 Coating on the Bonding Strength of Ti-Porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Litong; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhu, Yabo; Xu, Cheng; Gao, Jiqiang; Guo, Tianwen

    2010-11-01

    Investigations on the effect of oxidation on titanium-ceramic adhesion were performed. Cast pure titanium was subjected to surface modification by preoxidation and introduction of an intermediate layer of SiO2 by sol-gel process. Specimens were characterized by TG-DSC, XRD, and SEM/EDS. The adhesion between the titanium and porcelain was evaluated by three-point flexure bond test. Failure of the titanium-porcelain with preoxidation treatment predominantly occurred at the titanium-oxide interface. Preoxidation treatment did not affect the fracture mode of the titanium-ceramic system and did not increase the bonding strength of Ti-porcelain. The SEM results revealed the existence of microcracks on the SiO2 coating surface oxidized at 800 °C in an air furnace. During the porcelain fusion, minute amounts of oxygen were able to penetrate the cracks and caused localized oxidation of the Ti-substrate. Failure of the titanium-porcelain with SiO2 coating predominantly occurred at the SiO2 layer. The SiO2 coating served as an effective oxygen diffusion barrier and improved the mechanical and chemical bonding between porcelain and titanium.

  18. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins

    PubMed Central

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The μ-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P < 0.05 was selected as the level of statistical significance in this study. Results: The results showed that for enamel (24 h), the μ-SBS of the Wave MV and Wave HV groups were significantly lower than the Margin Bond group. Tukey test indicated the absence of a significant difference between the μ-SBS of the Wave group and the Margin Bond group. However, the μ-SBS of the Grandioflow group was significantly higher than the one for the Margin Bond as a bonding agent. In enamel (9 months), there was a significant difference between the Grandioflow and Margin Bond groups. Regarding bonding to the porcelain the one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant difference among the groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that flowable composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite

  19. Effect of fiber addition on slow crack growth of a dental porcelain.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Maico Dutra; Miranda, Ranulfo Benedito de Paula; Fredericci, Catia; Yoshimura, Humberto Naoyuki; Cesar, Paulo Francisco

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of the processing method (conventional sintering, S, and heat-pressing, HP) and addition of potassium titanate fibers, PTF, on the microstructure, mechanical properties (flexural strength, σf, and Weibull parameters, m and σ5%), slow crack growth parameters n (stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient), and optical properties (translucency parameter, TP, and opalescence index, OI) of a feldsphatic dental porcelain. Disks (n = 240, Ø12 × 1 mm) of porcelain (Vintage-Halo, Shofu) were produced using S and HP methods with and without addition of 10 wt% (conventional sintering) or 5 wt% (heat-pressing) of PTF. For the S method, porcelain was sintered in a conventional furnace. In the HP technique, refractory molds were produced by lost wax technique. The porcelain slurry was dry-pressed (3t/30s) to form a cylinder with 12 mm (diameter) and 20mm (height), which was heat-pressed for 5 min/3.5 bar into the mold. Specimens were tested for biaxial flexural strength in artificial saliva at 37°C. Weibull analysis was used to determine m and σ5%. Slow crack growth (SCG) parameters were determined by the dynamic fatigue test, and specimens were tested in biaxial flexure at five stress rates: 10(-2), 10(-1), 10(0), 10(1) and 10(2)MPa/s (n=10), immersed in artificial saliva at 37°C. Parameter n was calculated and statistically analyzed according to ASTM F394-78. Optical properties were determined in a spectrophotometer in the diffuse reflectance mode. The highest n value was obtained by the combination of heat-pressing with fiber addition (37.1) and this value was significantly higher than those obtained by both sintered groups (26.2 for control group and 27.7 for sintered with fiber). Although heat-pressing alone also resulted in higher n values compared to the sintered groups, there were no significant differences among them. Fiber addition had no effect on mechanical strength, but it resulted in decreased TP values and increased OI values for

  20. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...