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Sample records for porcine contact dermatitis

  1. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  2. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  3. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  4. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar.

  5. Spa contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yankura, Jessica A; Marks, James G; Anderson, Bryan E; Adams, David R

    2008-01-01

    Potassium monopersulfate (MPS) is widely used in spa and pool "shock" treatments, yet contact dermatitis associated with MPS has been rarely reported. A patient presented with a generalized scattered dermatitis from the neck down that worsened after spa use. Patch testing elicited a ++ reaction to ammonium persulfate. Contact with ammonium persulfate was ruled out; however, MPS, which can cross-react with ammonium persulfate, was found to be the active ingredient in the patient's spa shock treatments. The dermatitis cleared after the patient switched to a hydrogen peroxide-based shock treatment.

  6. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  7. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  8. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Detlef

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Differential diagnoses should be considered only after careful exclusion of any causal contact sensitization. Hence, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance. Modifications of the standardized test procedure are the strip patch test and the repeated open application test. The interpretation of the SLS (sodium lauryl sulfate) patch test as well as testing with the patients' own products and working materials are potential sources of error. Accurate patch test reading is affected in particular by the experience and individual factors of the examiner. Therefore, a high degree of standardization and continuous quality control is necessary and may be supported by use of an online patch test reading course made available by the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group. A critical relevance assessment of allergic patch test reactions helps to avoid relapses and the consideration of differential diagnoses. Any allergic test reaction should be documented in an allergy ID card including the INCI name, if appropriate. The diagnostics of allergic contact dermatitis is endangered by a seriously reduced financing of patch testing by the German statutory health insurances. Restrictive regulations by the German Drug Law block the approval of new contact allergens for routine patch testing. Beside the consistent avoidance of allergen contact, temporary use of systemic and topical corticosteroids is the therapy of first choice.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Fontana, E; Belloni Fortina, A

    2014-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction) that accounts for up to 20% of all childhood dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis represents a clinical manifestation of contact sensitization and usually occurs at skin sites that have come into contact with the allergen. The clinical features of allergic contact dermatitis are itchy eczematous lesions. Prevalence of contact sensitization varies between 27% and 96% of children with suspected contact dermatitis. The relationship between contact sensitization and atopic dermatitis has been widely discussed but only conflicting data have been reported. Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. The most common allergens detected in children are: metals, topical medicaments, fragrances, and preservatives. The first line management of allergic contact dermatitis in children is to avoid the offending allergens identified with the patch test and a topical corticosteroid therapy.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Ali; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is one of the most important dermatologic disorders worldwide - it can cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life, as well as having major economic implications and loss of vocational productivity. Patch testing is the most important discovery in allergic contact dermatitis and the best diagnostic modality to date; the thin-layer rapid- use epicutaneous (TRUE) test is a more recent patch test development which has improved the convenience and feasibility of the test. The future of allergic contact dermatitis is bright as we continue to learn more about the science of the disorder, as well as ways to improve diagnosis and patient care. Furthermore, it is important to remember, in this global age, that cooperation between health care providers worldwide is essential.

  12. Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kostner, Lisa; Anzengruber, Florian; Guillod, Caroline; Recher, Mike; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Navarini, Alexander A

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease caused by a T cell-mediated immune reaction to usually innocuous allergens. ACD can have grave medical and socioeconomic consequences. ACD and irritant contact dermatitis often occur together. A detailed history and clinical examination are crucial and guide patch testing, which is the gold standard to diagnose ACD. T-cell clones persisting in the skin may explain the tendency of ACD to relapse even after years of allergen avoidance. Traditional treatments for ACD are topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, phototherapy, retinoids (including the recent alitretinoin), and immunosuppressants. Targeted therapies are lacking.

  13. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  14. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  15. Contact dermatitis in printing tradesmen.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; Nosal, R

    1986-05-01

    During a 2-year period in Toronto, Canada, 21 printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis were evaluated. 67% had allergic contact dermatitis; 29% due to ultraviolet-cured ink components. Irritant contact dermatitis accounted for 37% of the cases. The prognosis in printing tradesmen with contact dermatitis is guarded, except for those with allergic contact dermatitis due to UV-cured components, as the tradesmen who were sensitized to other contactants eventually left the trade. Offset lithography was associated with the problem in 18 of the 21 cases. A brief outline is given of the printing processes in common use.

  16. Contact dermatitis in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Y M

    1985-05-01

    Nickel is the most important sensitizer in Lagos, with an incidence of 12.3% of 453 patients tested. There was no sex difference, as the wearing of necklaces and bracelets was equally fashionable among both sexes. Housewife eczema is not common, probably because of hardening. Dermatitis from additives in the processing of leather and rubber footwear was the next most common. Chromate sensitivity comes usually from leather or cement. Cultural and climatic factors are mainly responsible for differences in the incidence of contact dermatitis found in Lagos from other countries.

  17. [Contact dermatitis from Agave americana].

    PubMed

    de la Cueva, Pablo; González-Carrascosa, Mateo; Campos, Minia; Leis, Vicente; Suárez, Ricardo; Lázaro, Pablo

    2005-10-01

    Numerous plant species and their derivatives can cause skin reactions through a variety of mechanisms: irritative contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact urticaria and photodermatitis. We present a case of irritative contact dermatitis after exposure to the sap of Agave americana. The skin symptoms in this case have only been described on rare occasions; although this condition usually presents with a papulovesicular rash, in this patient it appeared as purpuric lesions in the contact area.

  18. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  19. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  20. Contact dermatitis: allergic and irritant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cher-Han; Rasool, Sarah; Johnston, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Facial contact dermatitis is frequently encountered in medical practice in both male and female patients. Identifying the underlying cause can be challenging, and the causative agent may be overlooked if it is not considered during the assessment of a patient. The two main types of contact dermatitis are irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The mechanisms and common causative agents vary for both ICD and ACD, but the clinical picture is often similar, particularly for chronic disease. Facial contact dermatitis can be successfully treated by avoiding the causative agent. In this review, we focus on the clinical assessment of a patient with facial contact dermatitis and the mechanisms of both ICD and ACD. Common causative agents, including emerging allergens, are discussed in detail, and suggestions are made regarding the management of patients with proven ICD or ACD of the face.

  1. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence.

  2. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved.

  4. Paederus dermatitis featuring chronic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, Andrija; Skerlev, Mihael; Culav-Košćak, Ivana; Kovačević, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a distinct variant of acute irritant contact dermatitis caused by mucocutaneous contact with the specific toxin of an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. It is characterized by the sudden onset of erythema and vesiculobullous lesions on exposed skin, with special predilection for the periorbital region. Paederus species have been mostly identified in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central/South America. We report a 51-year-old woman who experienced 4 recurrences of periorbital erythema and edema in the previous year. No consistent etiology could be established at the beginning. Only after taking a detailed medical history was it discovered that 1 year before our examination, the patient had traveled to Kenya, where she had experienced contact with the insect. This fact led us to the diagnosis of Paederus dermatitis. After appropriate treatment, a complete regression was observed over a 3-week period.

  5. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands.

  6. Contact dermatitis with henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Nevin; Olmez, Duygu; Babayigit, Arzu; Vayvada, Ozlem

    2009-05-01

    Allergic and irritant reactions to henna are rare. Para-phenylenediamine, which is sometimes added to obtain a dark, blackish henna, causes the majority of contact dermatitis reported related with tattoos. Allergic contact dermatitis due to temporary paint-on tattoo with black henna is described in two adolescents.

  7. Contact dermatitis in military personnel.

    PubMed

    Dever, Tara T; Walters, Michelle; Jacob, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Military personnel encounter the same allergens and irritants as their civilian counterparts and are just as likely to develop contact dermatitis from common exposures encountered in everyday life. In addition, they face some unique exposures that can be difficult to avoid owing to their occupational duties. Contact dermatitis can be detrimental to a military member's career if he or she is unable to perform core duties or avoid the inciting substances. An uncontrolled contact dermatitis can result in the member's being placed on limited-duty (ie, nondeployable) status, needing a job or rate change, or separation from military service. We present some common causes of contact dermatitis in military personnel worldwide and some novel sources of contact dermatitis in this population that may not be intuitive.

  8. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  9. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  11. Hand dermatitis: a focus on allergic contact dermatitis to biocides.

    PubMed

    Maier, Lisa E; Lampel, Heather P; Bhutani, Tina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-07-01

    Hand dermatitis is a common disease of the skin resulting in significantly decreased quality of life. Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent cause of hand dermatitis. Recent studies have revealed that biocides used as preservatives are frequent allergens affecting the hands. This article reviews common biocides implicated in hand dermatitis.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A.

  13. Medical management of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Alexandroff, A B; Johnston, G A

    2009-10-01

    Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis are important dermatological problems. Although the frequencies of positive reactions to a number of allergens have decreased during last 30 years because of better avoidance (and at least in part due to improved legislation), contact allergy to other agents is rising. The medical treatment starts from a correct identification of triggers of contact dermatitis which could allow patients to reduce or avoid exposure to these agents in future. A good clinical history, examination and immunological tests including patch testing are of crucial importance at this stage. Further management includes emollients, topical and oral corticosteroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, azathioprine and ciclosporin. Methotrexate and alitretinoin are recent additions to the armamentarium of dermatologists who manage contact dermatitis.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives.

    PubMed

    Timm-Knudson, Vickie L; Johnson, Janis S; Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2006-04-01

    In summary, a wide variety of skin care products contain preservatives. Patients who are allergic to one of these preservatives may have either localized or widespread dermatitis. Affected patients may find it difficult to avoid thimerosal without the help of the health care provider because the use of these allergens is so widespread. Patch testing is an invaluable tool for patients who struggle with dermatitis. Antigen-avoidance lists that facilitate patient education about what products to avoid are available from the manufacturers of patch test allergens (for example, TRUE Test or Chemotechnique). These lists are helpful starting points for patients in that they provide general categories (for example, shampoos, soaps, or creams) of products that the patient should avoid. With these printed guidelines alone, patients must read skin care product labels carefully, looking for the names of their allergens as identified by patch tests as well as for any synonyms and cross-reactors of these allergens. Thus, patients may feel overwhelmed by hearing the names of allergens that are long and complex. After an allergen has been identified, the nurse can play a key role in helping patients understand their dermatitis and its management. Nurses are in a unique position to spend time educating patients about how to uncover the sources of specific allergens and, subsequently, how to avoid them. The Contact Allergen Replacement Database can help in this educational process by giving patients a shopping list of specific items that are free of the specific allergens causing their allergic contact dermatitis.

  15. Shock treatment: swimming pool contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Heather L; Scheman, Andrew J; Chamlin, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to potassium peroxymonosulfate, used as a chemical shock treatment for hot tubs and swimming pools, should be in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with dermatitis triggered by swimming pool or hot tub exposure. We report the first pediatric case of allergic contact dermatitis to potassium peroxymonosulfate after swimming exposure. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  17. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  19. "Car seat dermatitis": a newly described form of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Fred E

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several years, our clinic has documented an increasing trend of contact dermatitis presenting in areas that are in direct contact with certain types of car seats composed of a shiny, nylon-like material. Our practice has encountered these cases in both atopic and nonatopic infants, with a seasonal predilection for the warmer months. This brief report highlights some of the key features of this condition and alerts the clinician to this newly described form of contact dermatitis.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to chloroxylenol.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Cindy; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-09-01

    Chloroxylenol, also known as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX), is a compound that has been used as a preservative in cosmetics and as an active agent in antimicrobial soaps. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from PCMX, confirmed by positive (+++) patch-test reactions at 48 and 72 hours, identification of PCMX in a soap and in a hand cream used by the patients, and improvement following withdrawal of the incriminating products. The mechanism of action, structure, antimicrobial activity, and dangers of PCMX are reviewed.

  1. Contact dermatitis and workforce economics.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Steele, Tace

    2006-06-01

    The roots of education in patch testing begin with Jadassohn and have been passed down through generations of dermatologists through didactic teachings and mentoring. Currently, we are faced with workforce economics tipping the balance of dermatology toward cosmetic and surgical practices. This imbalance is easily found in the subspecialty of contact dermatitis, where the current demand for patch test services is on the rise and the number of new dermatology-based patch test providers cannot keep up with the current demand. Steps are being made to remedy this discrepancy through societies and fellowships, yet the question remains: were the steps in time and were they big enough?

  2. Bibliometrics, dermatology and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Derek R

    2008-09-01

    Although the fields of bibliometrics and citation analysis have existed for many years, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the dermatological literature. This article reviews citation-based research in the dermatology journals, with a particular interest in manuscripts that have included Contact Dermatitis as part of their analysis. Overall, it can be seen that the rise of bibliometrics during the mid-20th century and its subsequent application to dermatology has provided an interesting insight into the progression of research within our discipline. Further investigation of citation trends and top-cited papers in skin research periodicals would certainly help complement the current body of knowledge.

  3. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind.

  5. Contact Dermatitis for the Practicing Allergist.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of important practice recommendations from the recently updated Contact Dermatitis Practice Parameter. This updated parameter provides essential recommendations pertaining to clinical history, physical examination, and patch testing evaluation of patients suspected of allergic contact dermatitis. In addition to providing guidance for performing and interpreting closed patch testing, the updated parameter provides concrete recommendations for assessing metal hypersensitivity in patients receiving prosthetic devices, for evaluating workers with occupational contact dermatitis, and also for addressing allergic contact dermatitis in children. Finally, the document provides practical recommendations useful for educating patients regarding avoidance of exposure to known contact sensitizers in the home and at work. The Contact Dermatitis Parameter is designed as a practical, evidence-based clinical tool to be used by allergists and dermatologists who routinely are called upon to evaluate patients with skin disorders.

  6. Protein contact dermatitis - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Barata, Ana Rita Rodrigues; Conde-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Protein contact dermatitis is a skin condition not well known and underdiagnosed by dermatologists, resulting from an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. Clinically it presents as a chronic hand and/or forearms eczema of occupational origin, especially in professionals who work as food handlers. Epicutaneous tests are negative, and to diagnose this condition it is necessary to perform immediate-type allergy tests. The most sensitive and practical is the prick-by-prick test with food that the patient refers to cause intense itching after immediate skin contact. Treatment is symptomatic, and it is mandatory to avoid the responsible allergen, wearing plastic gloves and even sometimes leaving the workplace for symptom resolution. PMID:24068135

  7. Contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Roopal V; Scheman, Andrew J; Gutmanovich, Artem; Hernandez, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    A 31-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of presumed atopic dermatitis. She complained of severe pruritus and the presence of extensive patches of erythema and scale. Her previous treatments included: multiple topical corticosteroids, tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, pimecrolimus 1% cream, and cyclosporine with no improvement of her symptoms. Her past medical history was unremarkable and she was on no other oral medications, including over-the-counter products. On physical examination, multiple erythematous, scaly patches were present on the chest, abdomen,back, and upper extremities. Lichenification of both antecubital fossa was present. Extensive excoriations on her arms and abdomen were also noted. Although the patient had a long-standing history of presumed atopic dermatitis, she had never undergone a skin biopsy. A skin biopsy was performed which demonstrated a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with eosinophils and dermal edema (Figures 1, 2). The biopsy was suggestive of possible hypersensitivity dermatitis. The patient then underwent patch testing. The following patch tests were applied to normal back skin using IQ chambers:North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) expanded standard, textile, fragrance trays, and ingredients found in her products (Chemotechnique, Malmo, Sweden). A total of 89 patches were applied, removed at 48 hours, and read both at 48 and 96 hours. At 48 hours, a total of 70 allergens were positive, 69 of those allergens were in a petrolatum vehicle. There were 50, 3+ reactions to sites of allergens in petrolatum (Figure 3). There were only two sites with petrolatum that were negative: budesonide (a corticosteroid) and melamine formaldehyde. In contrast, all of the sites where there were allergens in liquid vehicles were negative, with the exception of a 1+ reaction to cocamidopropyl betaine. At 48 hours,four additional patch tests were applied to plain petrolatum. Two of these patches were in plastic IQ chambers

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee; Choi, Jun; Lee, Ai-Young

    2004-05-01

    White petrolatum is known for its nonsensitizing and nonirritating properties. Only a few cases of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum have been reported. Although it is a rare event, the finding of contact sensitization to white petrolatum raises the potential problem of its usage of common topical agents or vehicles for patch testing. We herein report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to white petrolatum.

  9. Milia after allergic contact dermatitis from poison ivy: two cases.

    PubMed

    Berk, David R; Hurt, Mark A; Reese, Lester T; Wagner, Laura; Bayliss, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    Milia have rarely been reported as a complication of severe allergic contact dermatitis. To our knowledge, milia have not previously been associated with poison ivy dermatitis. We present two cases of milia after allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy.

  10. Systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eujin; Lee, Jeong Deuk; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Propolis, also known as bee glue, is a substance collected by worker bees and it is used as a material for constructing and maintaining their beehives. It has been used topically and orally by humans for its anti-inflammatory properties. However, the growing use of propolis has been paralleled by reports of allergic contact dermatitis as a reaction to the substance. Contact dermatitis with generalized cutaneous manifestations elicited by propolis ingestion has not been previously reported. Here we report on the first case of systemic contact dermatitis from propolis ingestion in a 36-year-old woman.

  11. [Contact dermatitis with Hirudo medicinalis].

    PubMed

    Blaise, S; Le Brun, V; Sparsa, A; Delrous, J-L; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2002-12-01

    Hirudine is the first natural anti-coagulant ever described. It is used for its anti-coagulant properties in plastic surgery or for the treatment of post-phlebitic diseases. Natural hirudine is extracted from the saliva of the Hirudo medicinalis leech, but it can also be found in crushed leech and included in a cream (Hirucrème). Side effects to hirudine are considered to be rare. We report a contact eczema caused by an extract from the medicinal Hirudo medicinalis leech. This was confirmed by the patch tests. However, we noticed a negativity of these tests with two analogs of the recombinant hirudine. Several cases of contact dermatitis with Hirucreme have been described. The analogs of recombinant hirudine, which share similar biological activity, have a very close molecular structure. They are indicated via the systemic route for thrombopenia related to heparin for the prevention of severe thromboses. The negative patch tests does not allow definite conclusion, but they prove that these molecules do not always lead to cross-allergies.

  12. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  13. Impact of regulation on contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Daniel; Ledet, Johnathan J

    2009-07-01

    Contact dermatitis is a serious public health and dermatologic concern. The prevalence of contact dermatitis in the United States was estimated to be 13.6 per 1000 population according to the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey using physical examinations by dermatologists of a selected sample of Americans. The American Medical Care Survey estimated that for all American physicians dermatitis is the second most common dermatologic diagnosis proffered. It is essential that government, industry, and dermatologists work together to enhance regulatory methods to control and prevent contact allergy epidemics. Increased knowledge and awareness of occupational skin diseases by dermatologists and other health care professionals will assist in achieving national public health goals. This article reviews governmental regulations-some helpful for patients and workers and some not helpful for dermatologists in their quest to assist patients with contact dermatitis.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hilary C; Warshaw, Erin M

    2010-01-01

    Formaldehyde-based resins have been used to create permanent-press finishes on fabrics since the 1920s. These resins have been shown to be potent sensitizers in some patients, leading to allergic contact dermatitis. This review summarizes the history of formaldehyde textile resin use, the diagnosis and management of allergic contact dermatitis from these resins, and current regulation of formaldehyde resins in textiles.

  15. Contact dermatitis from beryllium in dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Haberman, A L; Pratt, M; Storrs, F J

    1993-03-01

    An increasing number of metals with the potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis have found their way into dental alloys for economic and practical reasons. 2 patients are reported who developed gingivitis adjacent to the Rexillium III alloy in their dental prostheses. Patch testing demonstrated positive reactions to beryllium sulfate, a component of the alloy. Components of dental alloys and the mechanism of the contact dermatitis are discussed.

  16. Atopic and Contact Dermatitis of the Vulva.

    PubMed

    Pichardo-Geisinger, Rita

    2017-09-01

    Pruritus, or itch, is a common vulvar complaint that is often treated empirically as a yeast infection; however, yeast infections are just one of the many conditions that can cause vulvar itch. Ignoring other conditions can prolong pruritus unnecessarily. Atopic dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis are extremely common noninfectious causes of vulvar itch that are often underdiagnosed by nondermatologists. Identifying these conditions and treating them appropriately can significantly improve a patient's quality of life and appropriately decrease health care expenditures by preventing unnecessary additional referrals or follow-up visits and decreasing pharmaceutical costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Dermatitis from contact with Agave americana].

    PubMed

    Golan, H; Landau, M; Goldberg, I; Brenner, S

    2000-10-01

    Various plants induce dermatitis in man. There have been only a few published cases of contact dermatitis caused by Agave americana (AA). We report intentional exposure to AA in a soldier seeking sick leave, and review our previously reported cases. Treatment with oral antihistamines and topical saline compresses resulted in subsidence of the systemic symptoms within 24 h and regression of cutaneous manifestations in 7-10 days. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of self-inflicted contact dermatitis induced by exposure to plants, especially to A. americana. Systemic signs may accompany the cutaneous lesions.

  18. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  19. Jet Fuel-Associated Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Contestable, James J

    2017-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is a ubiquitous problem. Sailors onboard U.S. Navy vessels are at high risk given the multitude of potential workplace exposures. Solvents, petrochemicals, and fuels are abundant and can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. Symptoms of contact dermatitis can cause inability to work and, if chronic, may require a change in rating or job. Prevention of this issue requires patient education about the risks and correct personnel protective equipment. Even with preventative strategies in place, exposures and cases of contact dermatitis will occur. Treatment consists of topical steroids and immunomodulators, as well as barrier creams and emollients. The goal of treatment is to fully restore the skin's natural barrier and prevent further exposure. A classic case of jet fuel-associated contact dermatitis is reviewed. A literature review utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and Google Search was conducted to elucidate our understanding of this issue, current occupational health guidelines, preventative approaches, and treatments. This case report provides guidance and recommendations for providers who encounter contact dermatitis related to petrochemicals, such as jet fuel. The literature review revealed limited knowledge surrounding in vivo human skin effects of jet fuel, specifically JP-5. Even larger gaps were found in our understanding of, and guidelines for, protective modalities against jet fuel exposure and dermatitis. A case is presented to facilitate recognition of jet fuel contact dermatitis and guidance for treatment and prevention. Given our current limited knowledge and guidelines concerning protective equipment and skin protectants, multiple proposals for future studies are suggested. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Induced by Textile Necklace

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Uffe; Kralund, Henrik Højgrav; Sommerlund, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to textile dyes is considered to be a rare phenomenon. A recent review reported a prevalence of contact allergy to disperse dyes between 0.4 and 6.7%. The relevance of positive patch testing was not reported in all studies. Textile dye allergy is easily overlooked and is furthermore challenging to investigate as textile dyes are not labelled on clothing. In this report, we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to a textile necklace. The patch test showed strong reactions to the necklace and the azo dyes Disperse Orange 1 and Disperse Yellow 3. Despite the European legislation and the reduced use of disperse dyes in Third World countries, disperse azo dyes still induce new cases of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:24348384

  1. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  2. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  3. Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Yoo, J M; Cho, B K; Kim, H O

    2001-07-01

    The high risk of occupational contact dermatitis in dental personnel are well accepted throughout the world. There are few reports concerning occupational skin disease in dental personnel in Korea. The purposes of this study were to investigate the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians. Recording of personal history, physical examination and patch tests with the Korean standard series and dental screening series were performed in 49 dental technicians. Most of the subjects were exposed to a variety of compounds, including acrylics, metals, plaster, alginate, etc. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand in all 22. The most common clinical feature of hand dermatitis was itching (77.3%); scaling, fissuring and erythema were other common clinical features. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results of 49 dental technicians. 7 positive reactions to the various acrylics were found in 3 subjects. In our study, the frequency and clinical features of the contact dermatitis showed a similarity to other reports, though the patch test results were somewhat different; a higher patch-positive reaction to metals and a relatively lower patch-positive reaction to acrylics than the patch test results reported in Europe.

  4. Contact dermatitis: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Enos, Clinton; Fioranelli, Massimo; França, Katlein; Castillo, David; Lotti, Torello; Wollina, Uwe; Roccia, Maria Grazia

    2017-03-29

    Contact dermatitis is a common skin condition that can have a considerable impact on patient quality of life and function. Historically, contact dermatitis has played a significant role in the evolution of dermatology as the understanding of a relationship between environmental exposure and specific skin disease became more widely accepted. Reports about this relationship can be found throughout the history of humanity, thousands of years ago. The Egyptians were perhaps the first to document this relationship in ancient history, and documentation has also been found in several other cultures and nations such as the Chinese, Indians, Europeans, and American colonizers. The patch test emerged over a century ago and has remained a powerful tool for diagnosing and directing patients. This paper provides historical and curious facts about contact dermatitis.

  5. Contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis from oxybenzone.

    PubMed

    Landers, Maeran; Law, Sandra; Storrs, Frances J

    2003-03-01

    There is little literature regarding conventional patch tests and photopatch tests to oxybenzone resulting in both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. A patient was patch-tested and photopatch-tested to various sunscreen chemicals. Both immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were observed with oxybenzone. The positive patch tests were also photoaccentuated. Oxybenzone, a common sunscreen allergen, can result in both contact urticaria and delayed-type hypersensitivity on both conventional patch testing and photopatch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen chemicals has traditionally included contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, and photoallergic contact dermatitis. Due to the recognition of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its esters as sensitizers, the presence of benzophenones in "PABA-free" sunscreens has become more prevalent, especially in sunscreens with a sun protection factor (SPF) greater than 8. In our patient, immediate- and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions were seen to oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2-benzoyl-5-methoxyphenol, benzophenone-3, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, EUSORB 228, Spectra-Sorb UV-9, Uvinul M-40) upon conventional patch testing and photopatch testing.

  6. Contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    Haltmeier, S; Yildiz, M; Müller, S; Anliker, M D; Heinzerling, L

    2011-11-01

    Glatiramer acetate (Copaxone(®)) is an immunomodulatory polypeptide used in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It represents a safe treatment option with mild side effects. In this study, we look at a 39-year-old woman who received glatiramer acetate as subcutaneous injections for two months and developed contact dermatitis. The drug had to be stopped, and treatment with topical prednisone was initiated. Prick/scratch testing was negative but the lymphocyte transformation test was highly positive for glatiramer acetate. This is the first report on contact dermatitis induced by glatiramer acetate injections. The treatment consisted of local topical steroids and cessation of the drug.

  7. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions.

  8. Organic pigments in plastics can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L; Estlander, T

    1987-01-01

    A short review on organic pigments in plastics as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis is presented. Previously, organic pigments have been reported as provoking allergic pigmented contact dermatitis when used in cosmetics. Here we present the case of a patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis from an organic pigment (Irgalite Orange F2G) in a plastic glove. This shows that organic pigments in plastics can also cause allergic contact dermatitis. The potential sensitizing capacity of organic pigments should be noted.

  9. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  10. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community.

  11. Contact dermatitis from pyrrolnitrin (an antimycotic agent).

    PubMed

    Meneghini, C L; Angelini, G

    1975-10-01

    Two cases are described of acute contact dermatitis from an antifungal cream, containing pyrrolnitrin, employed for the treatment of tinea cruris. Positive reactions to pyrrolnitrin and to a chemically related substance, 1-chlor-2,4dinitrobenzene, were put into evidence.

  12. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

  13. Rutin suppresses atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of eczematous, scratching, pruritus and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. The aim of our study was to examine whether rutin, a predominant flavonoid having anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential, modulates AD and ACD symptoms. We established an atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, 2,4-dinitroflourobenzene-sensitized a local lymph node assay was used for the ACD model. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD symptoms. Topical application of rutin reduced AD based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, in addition to serum IgE levels. Rutin inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and serum histamine level. Rutin suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-31, IL-32 and interferon (INF)-γ in the tissue. In addition, rutin suppressed ACD based on ear thickness and lymphocyte proliferation, serum IgG2a levels, and expression of INF-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor-α in ACD ears. This study demonstrates that rutin inhibits AD and ACD, suggesting that rutin might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cocamide diethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Sarien; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Goossens, An

    2016-07-01

    Cocamide DEA (CAS no. 68603-42-9) is a non-ionic surfactant frequently used in industrial, household and cosmetic products for its foam-producing and stabilizing properties. Contact allergy has been reported quite rarely in the past, but recently several cases were published, raising the question of an increase in the frequency of allergic dermatitis caused by this substance. To describe cocamide DEA-allergic patients and their characteristics observed in our department. Medical charts of patients, investigated between 1990 and December 2015, were retrospectively reviewed for cocamide DEA-allergy. Demographic characteristics and patch test results were analyzed. Out of 1767 patients tested, 18 (1%) presented with an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA, all of them at least with hand dermatitis. Twelve patients had (past) occupational exposure to cocamide DEA. Out of the 18 patients, 15 showed (most often) multiple positive reactions and 7 also suffered from atopic dermatitis. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively rare, despite frequent use, and an increasing trend was not observed. Reactions to cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide MEA only occurred in some of the subjects tested. Shampoos and liquid hand soaps/cleansers dominated as sources of exposure. All patients presented with an impaired skin barrier due to atopic and/or previous contact dermatitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate.

    PubMed

    Antonia Pastor-Nieto, María; Olivares, Mercedes; Sánchez-Herreros, Consuelo; Belmar, Paulina; De Eusebio, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to treat certain types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Metvix cream applied topically in PDT is composed of the active substance methyl aminolevulinate and 14 excipients composing the vehicle. One case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reported. A 49-year-old nurse's aide working in a PDT unit in the dermatology department developed a dermatitis involving the eyelids and fingers. The lesions began a few months after she started working in that unit. Patch tests were performed with the standard series (Spanish Group for Research into Dermatitis and Skin Allergies [GEIDAC]), cosmetics series, Metvix cream "as is," the Metvix vehicle supplied by the manufacturer, and some of the excipients separately (methyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipagin M], propyl para-hydroxybenzoate [Nipasol M], isopropyl myristate, cetostearyl alcohol [Lanette N], and disodium edetate). After day-2, day-4, and day-7 readings, positive results were achieved only with Metvix cream "as is." Tests performed on a control group of 15 individuals were negative. Literature on cases of allergic contact dermatitis from methyl aminolevulinate is reviewed. It should be emphasized that the present case is the first occupational case reported so far.

  16. Atypical diaper dermatitis: contact allergy to mercapto compounds.

    PubMed

    Onken, Anna Theresa; Baumstark, Julia; Belloni, Benedetta; Ring, Johannes; Schnopp, Christina

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of allergic contact dermatitis in an 18-month-old boy caused by type-IV allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole as components of the elastic border of diapers. Allergic contact dermatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of diaper dermatitis, especially in difficult-to-treat cases or atypical clinical presentation.

  17. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Casey; Bidinger, Jeff; Hivnor, Chad; Hoover, Aaron; Henning, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Cyanoacrylates are widely used as topical skin adhesives in emergency departments, clinics, and operating rooms. We report 4 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) following postsurgical closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. These patients were challenged with a novel method of use testing to confirm sensitivity to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate. The popularity of skin adhesives makes this emerging allergen worthy of examination. It is possible that cyanoacrylate allergy currently is underrecognized.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis in American aircraft manufacture.

    PubMed

    Hackett, J P

    1999-09-01

    This study was prompted by the paucity of generally available information on the materials used in modern aircraft manufacture and the allergic contact dermatitis caused by those materials. The purpose of this study was to review the author's experience with aircraft workers over a period of 5 years, with attention to documentable allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) that can be attributed to their work. All patients who were referred for evaluation of a possible work-related injury were subjected to a routine workup. This included an occupational history, a specific delineation of their jobs, review of Material Safety Data Sheets, physical examinations, patch testing to possible causative agents, and, when necessary, inspection of the specific workplaces. Forty-four workers were found to have ACD that, more probably than not, was caused by a specific material in their workplaces. Although many common contactants appeared with predictable frequency, the use of "pre-preg" materials and modern sealants often led to ACD that could not be diagnosed with "standard" screening trays of test materials. When evaluating dermatitis in someone engaged in the manufacture of aircraft, one must be aware of the numerous materials used in this industry that have the potential to cause ACD.

  20. [Allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp].

    PubMed

    Koch, L; Aberer, W

    2017-04-10

    Contact allergy represents an important differential diagnosis to other skin diseases of the scalp. The typical efflorescences, spreading in the periphery, pruritus, and the clinical history support the differential diagnosis. Since the scalp is particularly resistant to contact dermatitis, allergens applied to this area often produce dermatitis of the eyelids, ears and neck. Nevertheless, potent allergens such as para-phenylendiamine can also cause severe reactions of the scalp. The most important allergens eliciting contact allergy of the scalp are found in bleaches and dyes, shampoos and conditioners, products for perm waves and straighteners as well as topical drugs. Besides active ingredients or drugs, vehicles and preservative agents represent additional allergens. The use of topical steroids and oral antihistamines usually results in rapid resolution of the dermatitis, systemic steroids are only necessary in severe cases. Epicutaneous patch testing on the basis of available series combined with the ingredients of the suspected elicitors confirms the diagnosis and facilitates allergen avoidance as well as the selection of alternative products.

  1. Occlusive irritant dermatitis: when is "allergic" contact dermatitis not allergic?

    PubMed

    Miller, Sara; Helms, Amy; Brodell, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    CASE 1: A 38-year-old teacher presented with a 3- to 4-week history of a linear, erythematous, vesicular, and pruritic eruption of her left wrist. She had been wearing a new elastic bracelet for 4 weeks before the onset of her eruption. Although there was no history of allergy to rubber products or jewelry, an allergic contact dermatitis to rubber was suspected. Patch testing to rubber chemicals and the elastic bracelet revealed no reactions at 48, 72, and 96 hours. She stopped wearing the bracelet and used a corticosteroid cream with rapid resolution of the problem. The patient resumed wearing the bracelet, and there has been no recurrence in the past 2 months. CASE 2: A 12-year-old boy presented with a 1-month history of an itchy, scaly, erythematous 1-cm patch over the midline of his lower lip. The patient complained of tiny blisters initially with persistent erythema, mild scaling, and associated pruritus. The patient plays the saxophone and he had been practicing more intensely (3 to 4 h/d) for a musical competition. Allergic reaction to his wood reed was suspected, but patch testing with a moistened portion of his reed and reed shavings in a drop of water revealed no reaction at 48 and 72 hours. Treatment with hydrocortisone 1% cream bid for 3 days led to complete resolution of the dermitis and pruritus. Playing the saxophone 1 h/d has not led to any recurrence. CASE 3: A 33-year-old woman presented with erythema, scaling, and pruritus of 1 month's duration beneath her engagement and wedding rings, which were worn together on her left fourth finger (Figure 3). Although she had no history of previous sensitivity to earrings, watch clasp, blue jean rivets, or other jewelry, allergic contact dermatitis to nickel was suspected. Patch testing was performed to the common metal allergens nickel, cobalt, chromium, and gold. Readings at 48 hours and 1 week revealed no positive reactions. The patient wore her rings on the right hand for 1 week and used fluocinonide 0

  2. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by plants].

    PubMed

    Fernández de Corres, L; Corrales, J L; Muñoz, D; Leanizbarrutia, I

    1984-01-01

    The proliferation of house and garden plants, some of them highly sensitizing, produced by the general improvement of the standard of living, is causing an increase in the number of cases of contact dermatitis from plants with both irritative and allergic mechanisms. During the past 12 years, we have studied 43 cases of allergic eczema caused by plant contact as primary sensitization which supposes 2.4% of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis attended in our Services. The majority of patients were women (65%) as opposed to 35% men while the ages varied from 12 to 70 years with an average of 44.5. Below the age of 25 there were only 3 cases (6.9%) 12, 18 and 20 years respectively. In the clinical study, as well as the profession, secondary activities and hobbies were also evaluated. Through localization of lesions, an attempt was made to determine how the patient came in to contact with the different plants. The diagnosis was confirmed by the use of epicutaneous tests, as recommended by the ICDRG (3). Some plants in a natural state were used but etheral extracts were preferred. In cases of photo-dermatitis, photo-patch-tests were carried out using standard photo-sensitizers and suspected plants. The plants found to be responsible were: Allium (garlic) in 11 cases, Frullania in 8, Primula (primrose) in 8. Compositae (composites) in 6, Pinus (pine) in 3, Umbelliferae (umbellifers) in 3, Philodendron (philodendron) in 1, Pelagonium (pelargonium) in 1, Citrus (citrus) in 1 and Chlorophora (iroko) in 1. The frequency of reactions to garlic and primrose is particularly interesting and their characteristics will be the object of a later study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause.

  4. Pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol in a child.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Ali Ihsan; Albayrak, Hulya; Uslu, Esma; Başkan, Elife; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2015-03-01

    Pustular irritant contact dermatitis is rare and unusual clinic form of contact dermatitis. Dexpanthenol is the stable alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It is widely used in cosmetics and topical medical products for several purposes. We present the case of 8-year-old girl with pustules over erythematous and eczematous areas on the face and neck. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reported that is diagnosed as pustular irritant contact dermatitis caused by dexpanthenol.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from falcarinol isolated from Schefflera arboricola.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L; Hammershøy, O; Boll, P M

    1986-02-01

    From the plant Schefflera arboricola, which has been reported to cause allergic contact dermatitis, we have isolated and determined the elicitor of allergic contact dermatitis as falcarinol, heptadeca-1,9(Z)-diene-4,6-diyne-3-ol. Three polyacetylenes closely related to falcarinol, namely falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone were tested simultaneously. Falcarinol, but not falcarindiol, falcarinone and dehydrofalcarinone, elicited allergic contact dermatitis in a 38-year-old female plant-nursery worker.

  6. Contact dermatitis in the West of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Husain, S L

    1977-12-01

    Since 1970, more than 4,500 patients have been patch tested at the Contact Dermatitis Investigation Unit in Glasgow. The results of 1,312 patients patch tested to the 20 test substances as described by the ICDRG (Fregert et al. 1969) are presented. The data on frequency of the most common allergens observed are presented. The most common allergens observed are nickel, chromium, cobalt, neomycin, colophony, wool alcohols, balsam of Peru and rubber. The less common allergens are benzocaine, parabens, formaldehyde and turpentine.

  7. Black-spot poison ivy dermatitis. An acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon an allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, R M; Rivera, H P; Guin, J D

    1984-08-01

    A black spot in the epidermis over a blister of poison ivy dermatitis is an uncommon finding. Four patients with the phenomenon are described. Histologic and histochemical studies were made on biopsy material and the blackish deposit on the skin surface was compared with black deposits in and on leaves of the species of poison ivy. This examination revealed a yellow, amorphous substance on the stratum corneum of the lesions and a similar substance in and on leaves of the poison ivy plant, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. negundo. Associated with the pigmentary deposits there were distinct changes of acute irritant contact dermatitis superimposed upon allergic contact dermatitis. Our findings support the view that the black material is the oleoresin of the plant, and that this substance behaves both as an irritant and an allergen.

  8. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with allergy to intraoral metals.

    PubMed

    Pigatto, Paolo D; Brambilla, Lucia; Ferrucci, Silvia; Zerboni, Roberto; Somalvico, Francesco; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2014-10-15

    Contact (allergic) dermatitis is a skin disorder related to natural exposure to various allergens. Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) describes a cutaneous eruption in response to systemic exposure to an allergen. The exact pathologic mechanism remains uncertain. Herein we describe a 36-year-old woman with symmetric systemic allergic contact dermatitis, unresponsive to conventional treatment, associated with dental alloy-contact hypersensitivity. We did skin patch testing and the blood lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) from the dental allergen series to assess contact allergy to restorative dental materials. On patch testing, positive allergic contact dermatitis reactions to metals occurred (nickel, potassium dichromate, and gold). Nickel hypersensitivity was confirmed by LTT, which also revealed silver-amalgam sensitization. Our case report highlights the need to consider adverse reactions to base-metal dental alloys in the differential diagnosis of cases of systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis of the vulva.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Susan M; Torgerson, Rochelle R

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) of the vulva arises as a primary condition or develops secondary to topical agents. We aimed to describe the incidence of ACD in patients presenting with vulvar symptoms and to identify the allergens of most importance. Using a database of the patch testing results from 3 geographically distinct sites, we identified patients tested to a gynecologic series between 2003 and 2010. Patients had patch testing to the standard European battery and a gynecologic series. Patch testing was in line with accepted universal methods: application on day 1, allergen removal and initial reading on day 3, and final reading on day 5. Ninety patients were included. Thirty-five (39%) had a relevant positive result. The 5 allergens with the highest number of cases with a relevant reaction were natural fragrance mix 2%, balsam of Peru, benzocaine 5%, fragrance mix 8%, and quaternium 15 1%. The most common gynecologic series allergen to cause a relevant reaction was terconazole. Allergic contact dermatitis is a frequent finding in patients presenting with vulvar symptoms. We identified a relevant positive result to patch testing in 39%. We found fragrances, medicaments, and preservatives to be of most relevance.

  10. Nickel allergy presenting as mobile phone contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hugh; Tate, Bruce

    2010-02-01

    A 39-year-old man presented with a 6-month history of a treatment-resistant facial dermatitis. The patient regularly used his mobile phone, predominantly on the left cheek. Patch testing confirmed the clinical suspicion of mobile phone contact dermatitis from nickel contained in the phone casing. Although infrequently reported, with the trend towards metallic mobile phone casings and the high incidence of nickel sensitization in the community, the incidence of mobile phone contact dermatitis is likely to increase.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from shellac in mascara.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Christophe-J; Leclere, Jean-Marie; Arnoult, Elisabeth; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Pons-Guiraud, Annick; Vigan, Martine

    2002-03-01

    We report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids due to mascara. Allergy occurred in women aged 17-34 years, between September 1999 and June 2001. The main ingredient responsible for allergy was shellac, which gave positive patch test reactions in 5/5 patients. This resinous substance is mainly used in cosmetics, food and industry. The exact nature of the hapten remains unknown, and its presence and level in shellac can vary with the source and the treatments applied to it. One patient was also sensitized to quaternium-22, a quaternary ammonium compound in the cosmetic. These reports underline the rôle of networks, such as REVIDAL-GERDA, in monitoring the emergence of contact allergens and disseminating such information among the medical community.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from temporary henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragan L; Slavkovic-Jovanovic, Maja R

    2009-01-01

    Temporary henna tattooing has been very popular during recent years. Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is a plant from the Lythraceae family. For henna tattooing, henna dye is used. It is a dark green powder, made from the leaves of the plant, used for hair dyeing and body tattooing. Very often, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is added to henna dye to make color blacker and to speed up dyeing. PPD may be a very potent contact sensitizer. We report a 9-year-old boy with allergic contact dermatitis due to temporary henna tattooing. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to PPD. After the treatment with topical corticosteroid and oral antihistamines, the lesion cleared with discrete residual hypopigmentation.

  13. Contact dermatitis to biperiden and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist.

    PubMed

    Torinuki, W

    1995-08-01

    A case of contact dermatitis to biperiden, an anti-Parkinson agent, and photocontact dermatitis to phenothiazines in a pharmacist was reported. The patient developed eczematous lesions on exposed area after she had worked at a psychiatric hospital for 6 months. She showed positive patch test reaction to biperiden. In addition, she reacted positively to photopatch testing with ultraviolet A and phenothiazines such as chlorpromazine and perphenazine. To our knowledge, contact dermatitis to biperiden has not been previously reported in the English literature.

  14. STUDIES ON SOME RECOMMENDED AYURVEDIC HERBS FOR CONTACT DERMATITIS

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, M.A.; Tripathi, M.; Srinivas, C.R; Nayak, S.G.K

    1997-01-01

    A number of plant drugs are used in topical application meant for medical and cosmetic purposes. Many of such recommended drugs have been reported to cause contact dermatitis which fact is well supported by clinical studies. To find out the role of these plant drugs in the etiology of contact dermatitis, clinical studies of 34 such herbal drugs were carried out. PMID:22556829

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to mango flesh.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sari; Bassiri-Tehrani, Shirley; Cohen, David E

    2004-03-01

    A 22-year-old white female student presented to the Emergency Department with a 2-day history of patchy pruritic erythema of the face, neck, and arms with periorbital edema. The eruption began as an isolated patch of nasal erythema, with subsequent extension to involve the entire face. Within 2 days, fine pinpoint papules were noted on the face, anterior chest, neck, and upper extremities. Periorbital edema was present without intraoral abnormalities or laryngeal changes. An erythematous, mildly lichenified plaque was noted on the ventral left wrist. The past medical history was significant for two similar, milder episodes of allergic reactions of uncertain etiology occurring within the previous 2 months. The previous eruptions resolved after treatment with oral loratodine and topical fluocinonide cream 0.05%. The patient denied any history of contact urticaria or new household or personal hygiene contactants, although she did report frequent ingestion of peeled mangoes. Her brother had a history of eczematous dermatitis. In the Emergency Department, the patient was administered intravenous diphenhydramine and a single 50 mg dose of oral prednisone. She continued treatment with a 5-day course of prednisone, 50 mg daily, with loratodine, 20 mg daily, and diphenhydramine as needed; however, no symptomatic improvement was seen over 4 days. She was then advised to restart fluocinonide cream twice daily. Patch testing was performed to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group Standard Series utilizing methods of the International Contact Dermatitis research group with Finn chambers. Mango skin and mango flesh harvested 5 mm below the skin surface were also placed in duplicate and tested under Finn chambers. Positive (1+) reactions were noted to nickel and p-tertbutylphenol formaldehyde resin, and bullous reactions were found to mango skin and surface flesh in duplicate (Fig. 1). Complete avoidance of mango led to resolution of the initial eruption. The clinical

  16. American contact dermatitis society core allergen series.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Peter C; Dunnick, Cory A; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce; Warshaw, Erin; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of patch testing and the need for an expanded series that provides experience and evidence-based suggestions for an extended patch testing series are examined in this review. Many of those testing with shorter allergen series are interested in expanding the spectrum of patch testing. The American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) Core Allergen Series Group has arranged a group of suggested allergen groups that can be logically scaled up or down depending on the needs of the patch tester and the community being tested. This is not an "ACDS 80 Standard." We suggest a core group of allergens similar to the TRUE Test (SmartPractice, Phoenix, Ariz) with subsequent trays providing a greater breadth of coverage in a logical fashion, with more likely allergens being higher in the tray. For more extensive testing, specialty trays (ie, cosmetics, metals, plant, etc) are recommended.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to pure henna.

    PubMed

    Polat, Muhterem; Dikilitaş, Meltem; Oztaş, Pinar; Alli, Nuran

    2009-01-15

    Henna is a naturally occurring brown dye made from the leaves of the tree Lawsonia inermis. The active ingredient of henna is lawsone (2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone). It is traditionally used in Islamic and Hindu cultures as a hair coloring and as a dye for decorating the nails or making temporary skin tattoos. Actually, henna has a very low allergic potential. In most cases, allergic reactions not caused by henna, but by the chemical coloring additives that are added to henna mixtures. These additives include agents such as daiminotoluenes and diaminobenzenes. In this article, we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis from pure henna that is also used for the relief of rheumatic pain.

  19. Mascaras may cause irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lodén, M; Wessman, C

    2002-10-01

    The majority of adverse effects of cosmetics have been attributed to soaps in Dutch and English studies, but to eye makeup in a recent Swedish study. The reactions may be caused by irritants or by sensitizing substances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the irritation potential of commercially available mascaras. The mascaras were exposed to the skin in aluminium chambers. The skin reaction was evaluated using both visual assessments of erythema and non-invasive measurements of the skin reaction. Seven mascaras were tested on 15 healthy individuals in a randomized and blinded fashion. Two of the seven tested mascaras induced pronounced skin inflammation, when applied to normal skin under occlusion. These two mascaras were based on volatile petroleum distillate, in contrast to the other five mascaras that were conventional emulsions with stearate as the main emulsifier. The findings suggest that solvent-based mascaras might induce contact dermatitis due to its content of irritating substances.

  20. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  1. Occupational Airborne Contact Dermatitis From Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Joel G; Yu, Ashley M

    2015-01-01

    Few published reports have described occupational contact dermatitis from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure in the literature. We present an additional case of a 58-year-old male pharmaceutical worker with an occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis to PPIs confirmed by patch testing. This is a novel report of workplace exposure to dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole PPIs with resultant clinical contact allergy and relevant positive patch test results to these 2 agents. A literature review of all previously reported cases of occupational contact dermatitis to PPI is summarized. The case also emphasizes the importance of even minute exposures when considering workplace accommodation.

  2. Recognizing and treating toilet-seat contact dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Ivan V; Sugathan, Paramoo; Cohen, Bernard A

    2010-02-01

    Toilet-seat contact dermatitis is a common condition around the world and is reemerging in the United States. It can be easily recognized and treated. However, few practitioners consider this diagnosis, which results in a delay in treatment and often exacerbation of the skin eruption. In the past, exposure to wooden toilet seats and associated varnish, lacquers, and paints led to the development of an allergic contact dermatitis on the buttocks and posterior thighs. In recent years, most public facilities have changed to plastic seats, resulting in a change in the clinical presentation of toilet-seat dermatitis. We present 5 cases of toilet-seat dermatitis in children from the United States and India and review the history, presentation, and clinical course of the disease. Our findings suggest that toilet-seat dermatitis is more common than previously recognized and should be considered in any child with a dermatitis that involves the buttocks and posterior thighs.

  3. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis.

  4. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-15

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel.

  5. [Contact Paederus dermatitis in a 12 years old boy].

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Betina; Plafnik, Romina; Castillo, Andrea; Cionci, Jimena; Abad, María Eugenia; Cabanilas, María Silvina; Larralde, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar contact dermatitis caused by pederine contained in the hemolimph of a small insect of the genus Paederus. It is characterized by vesico-pustulous eruption arising over an erythematous background, of sudden onset, over exposed areas of the body, and the history of outdoor activities. Diagnosis is based on the typical clinical features and the epidemiological context. The aim of this publication is to report a case and evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Paederus dermatitis.

  6. [Protein contact dermatitis: review of 27 cases].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bel, P; de la Cuadra, J; García, R; Alegre, V

    2011-06-01

    Protein contact dermatitis (PCD) is a rare and underdiagnosed condition that many dermatologists fail to recognize. Nevertheless, increasing awareness of the condition and the substances responsible has led to a rise in the number of published cases in recent years. To determine the clinical characteristics and allergens implicated in PCD in our setting. A retrospective observational study of all patients diagnosed with PCD in the last 10 years was undertaken in the Skin Allergies Unit of the Department of Dermatology at Hospital General Universitario in Valencia, Spain. All patients were assessed by skin-prick test with the standard GEIDAC allergen panel and by prick-by-prick test with foods or other products that were linked to immediate skin symptoms following handling. Twenty-seven patients (8 men and 19 women) were diagnosed with PCD, and 26 of the cases were occupational in origin. The mean age of the patients was 32.3 years and 51.8% had a history of atopy. The latency period varied from 2 months to 27 years. The most commonly affected areas were the backs of the hands and the forearms. Four patients had an oral allergy syndrome. In order of frequency, the substances responsible for PCD were fish (9 patients, 33.3%), latex (8 patients, 29.6%), potato (4 patients, 14.8%), chicken (3 patients, 11.1%), flour (3 patients, 11.1%), alpha amylase (2 patients, 7.4%), aubergine (2 patients, 7.4%), pork (1 patient, 3.7%), garlic (1 patient, 3.7%), and Anisakis (1 patient, 3.7%). PCD is a clinically relevant condition that dermatologists should include in the differential diagnosis of chronic dermatitis affecting the hands or forearms in patients at high occupational risk, particular those in the food preparation industry. 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. [Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader].

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, M C; Goday-Buján, J J; Almagro, M; Fonseca, E

    2009-05-01

    Diethylthiourea, like other thioureas, is often used by the rubber industry and in the manufacture of neoprene. We present a patient who suffered allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea in a neoprene wader and who required admission to hospital and systemic treatment. We review the literature on allergy to diethylthiourea. Thioureas are not included in the standard GEIDAC (Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group) battery of patch tests. In these cases, it is necessary to use a special battery of rubber allergens, which includes thiourea compounds, for diagnosis of the disease and to ensure that cases of contact allergic dermatitis to thioureas do not go undiagnosed.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis: pathophysiology applied to future therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lily Y; Cruz, Ponciano D

    2004-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common reason for patient visits to primary-care clinics and represents up to 7% of all dermatologic consultations in the US. Substantial progress has been made in elucidating the pathophysiology of contact dermatitis, particularly the allergic form. A better understanding of pathologic mechanisms has led to improved management of cases and will continue to advance treatment modalities. The present paper reviews the pathogenesis and current treatment of allergic contact dermatitis and speculates on the prospects for improved future therapy.

  9. [Irritant contact dermatitis. Part I. Epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation].

    PubMed

    Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2008-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a frequent problem in dermatology. It compromises the majority of all occupational skin diseases in most countries. It develops as a result of the environmental or work-related exposure to irritants. Cutaneous reaction depends on the intrinsic properties of the irritant, individual skin susceptibility and environmental conditions. A great morphological variety of irritant contact dermatitis and difficulties in diagnosis may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. The prognosis is variable. Preventive measures, including education, individual skin protection and proper skin care may contribute to the reduced incidence of occupational irritant contact dermatitis.

  10. Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Skin contact dermatitis by pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The authors present here the case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Patient was treated with topical potassium dobesilate 5% cream twice a day for 2 days. An improvement occurred soon after treatment. PMID:22688482

  11. Gallate Contact Dermatitis: Systematic Review and Product Update.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Zachary E; Van Noord, Megan G; Atwater, Amber Reck

    2017-02-06

    Allergic contact dermatitis related to cosmetic use can result from allergens not routinely evaluated by standard patch test protocols. Propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates are commonly used as antioxidant preservatives with reports of associated allergic contact dermatitis in the literature. The objectives of this review were to investigate the role of gallates in allergic contact dermatitis and to explore products containing these preservatives. A systematic review of the literature through April 2016 was performed to explore cases of reported gallate allergy. Food and cosmetic product databases were searched for products containing gallates. Seventy-four cases of gallate contact allergy have been reported. In addition, a variety of commercially available cosmetic products and foods contain gallate chemicals. Propyl gallate is the most commonly reported gallate contact allergen and often causes facial and/or hand dermatitis.

  12. Easter egg hunt dermatitis: systemic allergic contact dermatitis associated with chocolate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Hamann, Dathan; Goldenberg, Alina; Connelly, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric systemic allergic contact dermatitis to nickel has previously been reported in association with cocoa. We present four clinical cases of hypersensitivity temporally associated with chocolate consumption at Easter. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for foods high in nickel to provoke patients with known nickel sensitivity and systemic dermatitis.

  13. Systematized contact dermatitis and montelukast in an atopic boy.

    PubMed

    Castanedo-Tardan, Mari Paz; González, Mercedes E; Connelly, Elizabeth A; Giordano, Kelly; Jacob, Sharon E

    2009-01-01

    Upon ingestion, the artificial sweetener, aspartame is metabolized to formaldehyde in the body and has been reportedly associated with systemic contact dermatitis in patients exquisitely sensitive to formaldehyde. We present a case of a 9-year-old Caucasian boy with a history of mild atopic dermatitis that experienced severe systematized dermatitis after being started on montelukast chewable tablets containing aspartame. Patch testing revealed multiple chemical sensitivities which included a positive reaction to formaldehyde. Notably, resolution of his systemic dermatitis only occurred with discontinuation of the montelukast chewables.

  14. Contact dermatitis due to use of Octenisept in wound care.

    PubMed

    Calow, Trevis; Oberle, Kristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Jakob, Thilo; Schumann, Hauke

    2009-09-01

    Octenisept, containing 0.1 % octenidine/2 % phenoxyethanol, is a widely used antiseptic in modern wound management. It is considered to have a very low allergenic potential. Thus far, neither allergic nor irritant contact dermatitis to the product has been described. Chronic wounds in 251 patients were treated with Octenisept; 11 developed signs of contact dermatitis. The symptoms improved after discontinuation of the antiseptic. Eight of these patients were patch tested to the antiseptic and its components. The eight patients all showed a positive reaction to the product. In at least three cases a reaction to the components cocamidopropyl betaine and phenoxyethanol was found, but not to octenidine dihydrochloride. In this cohort, more than three percent of the treated patients developed a contact dermatitis to the antiseptic. However, the differentiation between allergic and irritant contact dermatitis towards the ingredients of the antiseptic remains problematic.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to thiourea in a neoprene knee brace.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Cahill, Jennifer; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY An elderly woman developed an itchy, weeping, erythematous, papular eruption, confined to the skin under her neoprene knee brace. Allergic contact dermatitis to diethylthiourea and to her neoprene knee brace were diagnosed by positive patch test reactions. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas may be underdiagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians are encouraged to consider this diagnosis in patients with reactions to synthetic rubber, especially neoprene.

  16. [Contact dermatitis by camphor present in a flushing solution].

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, J; Romaguera, C; Campderros, L

    2007-06-01

    We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to alcamphor present in a flushing solution used by a 58-year-old woman. It is the first case described in our Division of Allergy and the second one reported in the literature. Alcamphor is a chemical substance present in many products that may have been underestimated as the causative agent of contact allergic dermatitis as the allergen is not available in the standard patch test batteries.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from hearing aid materials.

    PubMed

    Sood, Apra; Taylor, James S

    2004-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented with dermatitis of the ear canal. The dermatitis had developed after she started wearing hearing aids that fit into the ear canals. Patch-test results were positive for (1) several acrylics, including polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, which were present in the hearing aid shell; (2) the hearing aid shell materials; and (3) the finish coat. The dermatitis resolved after she discontinued wearing the hearing aid, and a device with a silicone earpiece to be worn behind the ear was recommended as an alternative.

  18. Systemic Allergic Contact Dermatitis After Formaldehyde-Containing Influenza Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kuritzky, L Alexandra; Pratt, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis occurs when a patient sensitized to an allergen topically is systemically reexposed to the allergen and develops a cutaneous eruption. To report the case of a 48-year-old male who developed explosive dermatitis following injection of a formaldehyde-containing influenza vaccine and was subsequently shown to be strongly positive to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing allergens by patch testing, as well as to review the literature for similar cases. A PubMed search was made using the following search terms: systemic contact dermatitis, formaldehyde, influenza, and vaccine. A review of the literature revealed 2 cases of systemic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde derived from aspartame and 1 case from a thimerosal-containing influenza vaccine. No cases caused by formaldehyde in influenza or other vaccines were found. This case highlights the importance of considering systemic allergic contact dermatitis in any patient presenting with dermatitis following injection of a formaldehyde-containing vaccine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers: an analysis of patch test data from the Danish contact dermatitis group, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne D; Veien, Niels K; Funding, Anne T; Avnstorp, Christian; Osterballe, Morten; Andersen, Klaus E; Paulsen, Evy; Mortz, Charlotte G; Sommerlund, Mette; Danielsen, Anne; Andersen, Bo L; Thormann, Jens; Kristensen, Ove; Kristensen, Berit; Vissing, Susanne; Nielsen, Niels H; Thyssen, Jacob P; Søsted, Heidi

    2014-04-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995 matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. Occupational contact dermatitis (p < 0.001) and hand eczema (p < 0.001) were observed significantly more often among hairdressers than among controls. Atopic dermatitis was less commonly observed among hairdressers (21.3%) than among controls (29.4%) (p < 0.01). Allergens from the European baseline series with a statistically significant association with the occupation of hairdressing were p-phenylenediamine, thiuram mix, and benzocaine. Frequent sensitizers from the hairdressing series were ammonium persulfate, toluene-2,5-diamine, 3-aminophenol, and 4-aminophenol. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide emerged as new sensitizers. These results indicate a healthy worker effect among hairdressers diagnosed with eczema. Ammonium persulfate and p-phenylenediamine remain frequent sensitizers in hairdressers with contact dermatitis. Cysteamine hydrochloride and chloroacetamide should be included in future surveillance studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Occupational contact dermatitis from Cichorium (chicory, endive) and Lactuca (lettuce).

    PubMed

    Friis, B; Hjorth, N; Vail, J T; Mitchell, J C

    1975-10-01

    In two cases, occupational contact dermatitis was found to be due to chicory (Cichorium) used as a salad plant. In one of the two cases, contact sensitivity to letuce (Lactuca) was also observed. The sesquiterpene lactones of the plant may be the allergens.

  2. Airborne contact dermatitis from Coleus plant.

    PubMed

    Bryld, L E

    1997-03-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a 25-year history of facial dermatitis and no obvious external cause was patch tested with her houseplants and a wide range of common allergens. The only positive reaction found was to the plant Coleus blumei.

  3. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD). Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST), have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST. PMID:22693488

  4. Contact Dermatitis to Personal Sporting Equipment in Youth.

    PubMed

    Marzario, Barbara; Burrows, Dianne; Skotnicki, Sandy

    2016-07-01

    Contact dermatitis to personal sporting equipment in youth is poorly studied. To review the results of patch testing 6 youth to their sporting equipment in a dermatology general private practice from 2006 to 2011. A retrospective analysis of 6 youth aged 11 to 14 who were evaluated for chronic and persistent dermatitis occurring in relation to sports equipment was conducted. All patients were subjected to epicutaneous (patch) testing, which included some or all of the following: North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACGD) series, textile series, rubber series, corticosteroid series, and raw material from the patients' own personal equipment. All cases had 1 or more positive patch test reactions to an allergen within the aforementioned series, and 3 subjects tested positive to their personal equipment in raw form. Allergic contact dermatitis, not irritant, was deemed the relevant cause of chronic dermatitis in 4 of the 6 patients due to positive reactions to epicutaneous tests and/or personal equipment. The utility of testing to patients' own sporting equipment was shown to be of additional value and should be considered when patch testing for contact allergy to sporting equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Contact dermatitis to cobalt chloride with an unusual mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevket; Aksan, Serkan; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2015-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. A suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Therefore, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance because the patch testing is important to find out which allergen/material causes the complaints. Metallic allergens such as cobalt are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, but frequencies of contact dermatitis to these allergens may vary in different skin areas. Here, we report an unusual case of cobalt allergy on the skin contact with the prosthetic leg of a 30-year-old female patient. The patient developed maculopapular and vesicular lesions on her contact region of residual limb to prosthetic leg. She underwent standard patch testing, which resulted in a strong positive reaction to cobalt chloride. This case report may serve to remind doctors to be aware of potential allergic reactions to prostheses and to enable them to recognize a metal allergy if it appears. Prosthetists should also be reminded of potential allergic reactions. Cobalt can be used as an accelerator in making a prosthetic socket. Several cases have been reported concerning allergies to components of the prosthetic socket. This is the first report of sensitization to cobalt which is used in making a prosthetic leg. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  6. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Fernanda; das Graças, Maria; Melo, Mota; Tosti, Antonella

    2009-01-01

    Nickel is the major cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the general population, both among children and adults, as well as in large occupational groups. This metal is used in numerous industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel, magnets, metal plating, coinage, and special alloys, and is therefore almost impossible to completely avoid in daily life. Nickel contact dermatitis can represent an important morbidity, particularly in patients with chronic hand eczema, which can lead to inability to work, a decrease in quality of life and significant healthcare expenses. Therefore, its management is of great importance. This article reviews diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies in this field. PMID:21436967

  7. Are You at Risk for Contact Dermatitis? | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    You probably don’t give much thought to hand health. Until something goes wrong, almost everyone takes for granted that these crucial appendages will continue working as they always have. But hand health is an important consideration, especially at work. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis account for 15–20 percent of all reported occupational diseases, and they cost employers an estimated $1 billion each year in lost workdays and decreased productivity.

  8. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke. We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000–2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts. The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01). The multivariable Cox method analyzed adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.19) for all stroke types and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05–1.20) for ischemic stroke and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.94–1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-specific aHR of stroke for contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03–1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15–1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07–1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00–1.18) for men and women, respectively. This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further. PMID:28272195

  9. Patch testing practices of American Contact Dermatitis Society members.

    PubMed

    Schleichert, Rachel A; Hostetler, Sarah G; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2010-01-01

    Patch testing is an important part of diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis although there is much variability in methodology among practitioners. We surveyed members of the American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) to quantify time spent with patients with contact dermatitis; to characterize patch testing practices, including the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous (T.R.U.E.) Test; and to assess utilization of the Contact Allergen Replacement Database (CARD). An electronic survey was sent to all members of the ACDS. Our survey was sent to the 600 members of the ACDS; 100 members participated (a response rate of 16.6%). Respondents used patch testing trays that contained an average of 62 allergens; 68% of respondents used the North American Contact Dermatitis Group series, and only 9% used the T.R.U.E. Test. Respondents' biggest criticism of the T.R.U.E. Test was its low number of allergens, and 94% of respondents used CARD regularly. ACDS members used patch testing trays with many allergens. Despite the T.R.U.E. Test's popularity among general dermatologists and allergists, few ACDS members used it. Routine CARD usage should be encouraged.

  10. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis.

  11. Postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J; Zaragozá-Ninet, V; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Alegre de Miquel, V

    2014-04-01

    We present 7 cases of postsurgical contact dermatitis due to povidone iodine. The diagnosis was based on the clinical manifestations, the history of exposure, the site of the lesions, and the results of patch tests. This type of dermatitis can develop in the area of surgery or at distant sites exposed to povidone iodine during the surgical intervention. Patch tests with 10% povidone iodine in petrolatum were positive in all patients. Based on the results of the same tests in a control group, we recommend the use of petrolatum rather than water as the vehicle for the diagnosis of this form of contact dermatitis. Repeated open application tests with a commercially available solution of povidone iodine were negative. We conclude that the presence of the solution under occlusion during surgery is necessary both for the symptoms to develop and for the diagnosis to be made. This condition may be underdiagnosed.

  12. A Case of a Paediatric Patient With Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Sandre, Matthew; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to benzoyl peroxide can occur in up to 6.5% of those with a history of exposure to this potential allergen. Conversely, irritant contact dermatitis is very common with benzoyl peroxide and can be differentiated from allergic contact dermatitis based on the patient's history and clinical signs and symptoms. We present a case of a paediatric patient with patch test-confirmed severe allergic contact dermatitis to benzoyl peroxide requiring hospitalisation and systemic treatment.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to a sanitary pad.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Marius

    2004-11-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented with a recurring vulval dermatitis that started several days after first using a sanitary pad. The rash settled but recurred with subsequent use of the same sanitary pads. Patch testing revealed a marked sensitivity (3+) to colophony (rosin). She denied previous reactions to adhesive tape/sticking plaster. During patch testing she also developed reactions to a black permanent waterproof marking pen used to mark the site of patch tests. The ink of this pen also contained colophony.

  14. Occupational contact dermatitis in 2 dental technicians.

    PubMed

    Farli, M; Gasperini, M; Francalanci, S; Gola, M; Sertoli, A

    1990-05-01

    2 dental technicians, both with chronic hand eczema, reported worsening from the use of 2 products containing methyl methacrylate, employed in manufacturing acrylic prostheses. Patch tests in both patients gave positive reactions to methyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and products employed in manufacturing acrylic prostheses (2% and 5% pet.). On the basis of results subsequently obtained from patch tests carried out with pieces of glove interposed between the skin and the allergens (methyl methacrylate and products employed), we advised our patients still to use latex gloves during work. Follow-up after 1 year showed complete regression of the dermatitis in 1 case and considerable improvement in the other.

  15. Persistent allergic contact dermatitis to plastic toilet seats.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Sara; Adams, David R; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to various components of toilet seats is being recognized and reported with increasing frequency. This report details the case of an young girl who was found to be allergic to plastic found in both a toilet seat and a school chair. It highlights particular problems with patch testing young children and the difficulty in confirming allergy to plastics.

  16. Contact sensitivity to lichens and compositae in Frullania dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalo, S

    1987-02-01

    48 patients with allergic contact dermatitis from Frullania were patch tested with a lichen mix, compositae and lichen acids. 27 were sensitive to Frullania and lichens. Parmelia caperata and Parmelia reticulata were positive in all, and in a descending order of positivity: Pseudovernia furfuracea, Evernia prunastri, Usnea spp, Ramalina lusitanica. d-Usnic and evernic acids and atranorin were the main responsible allergens.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, S.; Zilmer, K.; Leping, V.; Zilmer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL-) 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01) and TPX (P < 0.0001) were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05) and TAC (P < 0.0001) were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely), as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001), but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies. PMID:25183967

  18. Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics.

    PubMed

    Vidović, R; Kansky, A

    1985-01-01

    Out of 401 workers employed in a factory producing shoes from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) granulate, 388 were investigated. By patch testing with the standard tests and 4 phthalate compounds, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed in 11 of these. Six of them were sensitized to phthalates and 5 to coal tar.

  19. Occupational contact dermatitis in manual cloud seeding operations.

    PubMed

    Ng, W T; Koh, D

    2011-05-01

    This is a case report on irritant contact dermatitis secondary to calcium oxide exposure during manual cloud seeding operations. A less hazardous substitute such as sodium chloride should be considered wherever possible. Cloud seeding operations are briefly discussed in this report, and the impact of calcium oxide exposure as an occupational hazard is elaborated.

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis is associated with significant oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kaur, S; Zilmer, K; Leping, V; Zilmer, M

    2014-01-01

    Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL-) 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01) and TPX (P < 0.0001) were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05) and TAC (P < 0.0001) were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely), as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001), but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives and fragrances in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tatyana; de Gannes, Gillian C

    2011-04-01

    Cosmetics are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens found in cosmetic products. Patch testing remains the gold standard for identification of causative allergens. Common cosmetic allergens are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  2. Genetic variation of contact dermatitis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ask, B

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of genetic variation in footpad dermatitis (FPD) and hock burns (HB) and the possibility to genetically select against these. A field trial including 10 commercial broiler lines (n = 102 to 265) was carried out at 2 Dutch farms. Footpad dermatitis and HB were subjectively scored at approximately 4, 5, and 7 wk on a scale from 0 through 5. Genetic parameters were estimated in 2 lines based on a larger data set. The overall agreement of repeated FPD and HB scores was high (0.66 to 0.86) and the scoring system was, therefore, considered reliable. Kendall's tau between left and right scores was lower than 1 (FPD: 0.73 and HB: 0.57), and both left and right FPD and HB must, therefore, be evaluated. High prevalences of FPD, but also HB, were achieved in the field trial, but lower prevalences may be sufficient for genetic evaluations and would be less detrimental to welfare. Genetic variation between and within lines was present for both FPD and HB as indicated by between-line differences and heritabilities, and selection against FPD and HB is, therefore, possible. It is important that selection is done against both FPD and HB, and such selection should not have a negative influence on the genetic improvement in BW. In contrast, continued selection for increased BW while ignoring FPD in the breeding goal is likely to lead to an increased propensity to develop FPD in broilers.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

    1985-01-01

    Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3971254

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by white petrolatum on damaged skin.

    PubMed

    Tam, Christine C; Elston, Dirk M

    2006-12-01

    Petrolatum rarely causes hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of a 51-year-old white man with allergic contact dermatitis due to white petrolatum on damaged skin. The patient, who presented with a history of hand dermatitis and intolerance to ointments for years, was patch-tested with white petrolatum on scratched skin. Patch tests with the European Standard series, preservatives, steroids, vehicles, and emulsifiers were also performed. The patch-test reaction to white petrolatum on scratched skin was positive at 48 and 96 hours. All other patch-test results were negative.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Márcia; Teixeira, Marta; Silva, Elvira; Selores, Manuela

    2007-10-01

    We present the case of a 72-year-old woman observed for dermatitis on the legs followed by apperance of erythema on the eyelids. She had a past history of peripheral venous insufficiency and had been using self home-made Aloe vera juice over the legs for relief from pain. Patch tests showed positive reactions to the leaf of Aloe, the macerated Aloe jelly, and nickel sulfate. Although most manufacturers process Aloe products avoiding its irritant extracts, and probably as a consequence reports of allergic reactions are rare, one must remember that the growing popularity on the use of Aloe products may stimulate its use 'as is' by the patients. Furthermore, it is important to specifically ask patients about the use of these products, because they consider it as innocuous and thus would not spontaneously provide such information.

  7. Risk factors and common contact allergens in facial allergic contact dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, Pranee; Iamphonrat, Thanawan; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Facial dermatitis is commonly encountered in dermatologic practice. It is sometimes difficult to manage because its causative factors may be multiple and difficult to diagnose. This study was designed to identify the characteristics, patch test results, and final diagnoses of facial dermatitis patients who were referred to a contact dermatitis clinic and to identify factors associated with facial allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We retrospectively reviewed case records of facial dermatitis patients who underwent patch testing at the clinic during the period from July 2006 to June 2011. Of the 891 patients patch-tested, 244 (27.4%) had facial dermatitis. Female patients were 9.1 times more predominant than male patients. The mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 37.3 ± 14.8 years. A total of 199 (81.6%) patients demonstrated at least one positive reaction to a patch test, 66.7% of which were clinically relevant. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 45.5% of patients. Independent factors predisposing towards facial dermatitis were female sex, having a previous history of cosmetic allergy, a positive patch test reaction to hairdressing product-related allergens, and a positive allergic reaction to preservative allergens. The prevalence of facial dermatitis was 27.4%. Almost half of all patients with facial dermatitis demonstrated ACD. Factors associated with facial ACD were female gender, a history of cosmetic allergy, and positive patch test reactions to hairdressing product-related allergens and preservatives. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Follicular contact dermatitis due to coloured permanent-pressed sheets

    PubMed Central

    Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628

  9. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis due to diclofenac sodium in eye drops.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Hitona; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Asato, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yu-Ichi; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    Eyelid dermatitis and/or periocular dermatitis (ED/PD) is commonly seen in a variety of skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, but is most often associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Here, a case of ACD in an 82-year-old man is described; he used 0.1% diclofenac sodium eye drops and exhibited pruritic erythema on the eyelids. Patch test for diclofenac sodium eye drops was positive. Further patch tests revealed a positive reaction to diclofenac sodium (monosodium 2-[2, 6-dichlorophenylamino] phenylacetate), which was the main component in the eye drop medicine. Diclofenac sodium is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and is frequently used in everyday oral medications, topical ointments, gel agents and eye drops. Case reports on ACD caused by diclofenac sodium eye drops are extremely rare. Nevertheless, it is necessary to consider ACD due to diclofenac sodium when a patient with ED/PD has a history of use of diclofenac sodium eye drops. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. The association of smoking with contact dermatitis and hand eczema - a review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Katelyn A; Armbrecht, Eric S; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2017-09-27

    Given the high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), hand eczema (HE), and smoking, and the impact that smoking has on skin disease, the authors reviewed the existing literature to assess the association between smoking and contact dermatitis or hand eczema. Using the PubMed and SCOPUS databases, a literature search identified articles related to allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and hand eczema and a possible association with smoking. The search period included articles prior to and including April 2016. Seven of eight articles described a positive relationship between smoking and allergic or irritant contact dermatitis, while nine of nineteen articles found a positive association between smoking and hand eczema. Published studies document that smoking may be an important risk factor for both allergic and irritant contact dermatitis as well as hand eczema. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Contact allergy to Compositae plants in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Marina; Poljacki, Mirjana; Duran, Verica; Vujanović, Ljuba; Sente, Ruza; Stojanović, Slobodan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of Compositae sensitivity is one of the most important goals of current dermatology and allergology. We have patch tested 30 adult patients suffering from "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis with sesquiterpene lactone mix and Compositae mix including Compositae mix individual ingredients, extracts of arnica (Arnica montana), chamomile (Chamomilla recutita), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare), fever few (Tanacetum parthenium) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) as well as with specific series for patients with atopic dermatitis. All allergens were purchased from Hermal-Trolab (Reinbek, Germany). There were 6 (20%) patients positive to Compositae mix only, and 3 (10%) patients positive to both Compositae mix and sesquiterpene lactone mix. Among 9 Compositae mix-sensitive patients 8 (88.8%) were positive to at least 1 of its individual ingredients: 5 (55.5%) to chamomile, 4 (44.4%) to arnica, 2 (22.2%) to tansy, and 2 (22.2%) to fever few. Among Compositae-sensitive patients 78.8% had other contact allergies, most often to nickel (33.3%). Since our study represents the first report on contact allergy to Compositae among patients with "extrinsic" type of atopic dermatitis, it substantiates the statement that atopy represents a risk factor for Compositae allergy. In conclusion, the overall prevalence of 30% Compositae-sensitive among patients with "extrinsic" atopic dermatitis detected in our study represents a basal sesquiterpene lactone mix detection rate of 10%, reinforced and safely supplemented by 20% by testing with the Compositae mix.

  13. Cheilitis, perioral dermatitis and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Collet, Evelyne; Jeudy, Géraldine; Dalac, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Cheilitis is a superficial inflammatory condition of the lip. It can occur either alone or be associated with stomatitis or perioral eczema. Contact hypersensitivity reactions are a frequent cause of cheilitis. Cosmetic and hygiene products are the most usual causes. Less frequently, allergic cheilitis is caused by contact with musical instruments, topical medicines or food allergens. Cases of cheilitis induced by dental material are rare and debated. The diagnosis relies on patch tests, which start with the European baseline series and the patient's personal cosmetic and topical products. This investigation will then be completed by the ingredients in the topical products and specific test series.

  14. [The most frequent allergens in allergic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Oppel, T; Schnuch, A

    2006-07-14

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis is high. Patch testing is the standard procedure to detect contact sensitivity. More than 3000 allergens are known, today. On the basis of the data of this study the top allergens are presented. The retrospective analysis is based on the patch test results collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology in 2004. Data of 9948 patients (6175 female und 3773 male) referred for the evaluation of suspected contact allergy were analysed to determine the frequency of sensitization to the 10 most common contact allergens. The top ten allergens were nickel sulphate (frequency of sensitization standardized for sex and age 17.2 %), fragrance mix (7.2 %), balsam of Peru (6.7 %), cobalt chloride (6.5 %), potassium dichromate (5.3 %), colophony (4.6 %), lanolin alcohol (4.3 %), p-phenylenediamine (4.2 %), ammoniated mercury (3.5 %) und methyldibromoglutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol (3.4 %) in 2004. Even after healing of the skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis, it must be considered that sensitization persists indefinitely. Therefore, patients have to be informed exactly about their relevant contact allergens to ensure complete avoidance. To do so, physicians need a detailed knowledge of the most common contact allergens which are discussed in this paper.

  15. [Allergic contact dermatitis for temporary "black henna" tattoos].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Moya, Ana I; Gatica, María E; García Almagro, Domingo; Larralde, Margarita

    2010-08-01

    Temporary 'black henna' tattoos, an increasingly popular body decoration in pediatric population, are associated with a growing incidence of adverse events. Black henna does not exist naturally, it is obtained from original henna after the addition of other compounds, among them paraphenilendiamine (PPD), which serves to darken the tattoo and allows greater precision to the design. PPD is known to be a strong sensitizer and increases the risk of allergic contact dermatitis. They may present as long lasting local reactions, and pigmentary sequels apart from problems with the future use of many products present in the daily life, as a result of sensitization by PPD. We report the case of an eleven-year old girl with an allergic contact dermatitis to black henna tattoo with a positive patch test to PPD, in order to warn against these types of temporary tattoos.

  16. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    PubMed

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  17. An overview of parabens and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Farhaan; Maibach, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) are the most widely used preservatives in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and industrial products. However, since the 1960s, controversy has surrounded its use and safety as a potential cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite the cloud of suspicion that has hovered over parabens ever since, these ubiquitous compounds have withstood four decades of extensive skin testing conducted by a variety of organizations, both North American and European, and now, it seems parabens have shown to be one of the least sensitizing preservatives in commercial use. Of the very limited reports of paraben-induced allergic contact dermatitis, these cases are often attributable to the application of parabens on damaged skin.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures.

  19. Frequency of Contact Allergens in Pediatric Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Herro, Elise M.; Matiz, Catalina; Sullivan, Kim; Hamann, Curt

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the prevalence of positive patch tests in atopic pediatric patients versus nonatopic controls and sought to determine if statistically significant allergen prevalence differences existed between the two groups. Design: Retrospective chart review. Setting: Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California. Participants: Patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis between the ages of 6 and 18 years who had been enrolled in the Pediatric Research Equity Act Thin-layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test trial. Measurements: Statistical analysis used Z-scores to compare associations between positive reactions in atopic versus nonatopic patients and the prevalence of individual chemicals in either group. Results: Results showed that at least one allergen reaction was noted in 78 percent (n=79) of the patients, 89 percent (n=48) in atopic patients, and 66 percent (n= 31) in the nonatopic patients (Z-score 2.78). Eczema area and severity index scores ranged from 0 to 41.75. Eczema area and severity index scores greater than 10 correlated with a higher probability of more than three positive patch tests (Z-score [-]3.28). Statistically significant differences were also observed between atopic and nonatopic patients in regards to contact allergens, with 20 percent (n=11) of atopic patients exhibiting positive patch tests to Myroxylon pereirae and 19 percent (n=10) of those with atopic dermatitis having reactions to fragrance mix. Conclusion: The authors concur with prior studies that performing systematic patch testing is indicated in children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, given the high rate of contact allergy in the atopic group, especially those with eczema area and severity index scores greater than 10. Furthermore, prevention through exposure avoidance to the most frequent contact allergens, especially fragrances in patients with atopic dermatitis, is recommended. PMID:22125658

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails in a flamenco guitarist.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Nicolás, F A; Pastor-Nieto, M A; Sánchez-Herreros, C; Pérez-Mesonero, R; Melgar-Molero, V; Ballano, A; De-Eusebio, E

    2016-12-01

    Acrylates are molecules that are well known for their strong sensitizing properties. Historically, many beauticians and individuals using store-bought artificial nail products have developed allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates. More recently, the use of acrylic nails among flamenco guitarists to strengthen their nails has become very popular. A 40-year-old non-atopic male patient working as a flamenco guitarist developed dystrophy, onycholysis and paronychia involving the first four nails of his right hand. The lesions were confined to the fingers where acrylic materials were used in order to strengthen his nails to play the guitar. He noticed improvement whenever he stopped using these materials and intense itching and worsening when he began reusing them. Patch tests were performed and positive results obtained with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA), ethyleneglycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA). The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis likely caused by acrylic nails. Artificial nails can contain many kinds of acrylic monomers but most cases of contact dermatitis are induced by 2-HEMA, 2-HPMA and EGDMA. This is the first reported case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in artificial nails in a professional flamenco guitar player. Since the practice of self-applying acrylic nail products is becoming very popular within flamenco musicians, we believe that dermatology and occupational medicine specialists should be made aware of the potentially increasing risk of sensitization from acrylates in this setting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; In-Nami, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Compression stockings are used for patients under general anesthesia to prevent occurrence of deep venous thrombosis. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings. A 53-year-old house wife had a history of sensitivity like skin eruption and disstasis to rubber products such as rubber band. Left nephrectomy for rupture of renal angiomyolipoma was scheduled under general and epidural anesthesia. Further examination for gum allergy was not performed before the operation, although latex allergy was suspected. The operation was performed uneventfully under latex-safe environment in the operating room under guideline for latex allergy. Postoperatively, ringed edematous erythema and wheal occurred in her bilateral thighs compressed with the upper part of compression stockings. The skin symptoms continued for more than four days. After disappearance of the skin symptoms, she was discharged from the hospital on the ninth day after the operation. Synthetic rubber, neoprene, in the upper part of compression stockings to prevent slipping down might cause allergic contact dermatitis. We should take care of occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber, neoprene in compression stockings in patients with rubber allergy.

  2. Aeroallergen Patch Testing in Patients of Suspected Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bisen, Nelee; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeroallergens are airborne substances present in the environment with the potential to trigger an allergic reaction in the respiratory tract, mucosae, or skin of susceptible individuals. The relevance of aeroallergens in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis has been reported by many investigators. However, very few studies have been conducted to investigate their role in the production of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Aims: To determine the prevalence of aeroallergen patch test positivity in patients of suspected ACD and to study the clinical characteristics of patients testing positive with aeroallergens. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting to our department with suspected contact allergy and undergoing patch testing with Indian Standard Series (ISS) between January 2010 and June 2011 were studied. After a detailed history and clinical examination, patients were patch tested with ISS and aeroallergen series. Based on the history and clinical suspicion, patients were additionally patch tested with 15% Parthenium. Prior tape stripping was done in some patients. Results: Out of total 114 patients, 26 (22.8%) showed sensitivity to aeroallergen series. Parthenium was the commonest aeroallergen being positive in all 26 patients followed by Xanthium in two. None reacted to other allergens. Although positivity was more in patients with prior tape stripping, the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Most common aeroallergen found to be positive in our study was Parthenium hysterophorus. In view of low positivity to other allergens, routine aeroallergen patch testing in patients with suspected contact dermatitis may not be necessary. PMID:24891655

  3. Eyelid Dermatitis: Contact Allergy to 3-(Dimethylamino)propylamine

    PubMed Central

    Knopp, Eleanor; Watsky, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with intractable eyelid dermatitis. Patch testing revealed sensitization to 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine (DMAPA). DMAPA is an important etiology of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids and face but is easily missed even with expanded-series patch testing. We also review the most common causative allergens in eyelid dermatitis cited in the literature over the past decade. DMAPA is a reagent used in the formation of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), a common additive to liquid soaps, shampoos, and other cleansing products because of its utility as a surfactant. Beginning in the 1980s, reports of allergy to CAPB surfaced in the literature. Ultimately, a majority of patch testing studies have shown that clinical allergy to CAPB-containing products actually reflects allergy to contaminant DMAPA in most cases. Amidoamine, another intermediate in the formation of CAPB, may also be implicated through a proposed mechanism of conversion to DMAPA in the skin. When patch-testing for eyelid and facial dermatitis, it is crucial to test with DMAPA directly, not just with CAPB; unlike commercial-grade CAPB, the CAPB in patch test kits is ultrapure and does not contain contaminant DMAPA. PMID:19134437

  4. Eyelid dermatitis: contact allergy to 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine.

    PubMed

    Knopp, Eleanor; Watsky, Kalman

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with intractable eyelid dermatitis. Patch testing revealed sensitization to 3-(dimethylamino)propylamine (DMAPA). DMAPA is an important etiology of allergic contact dermatitis of the eyelids and face but is easily missed even with expanded-series patch testing. We also review the most common causative allergens in eyelid dermatitis cited in the literature over the past decade. DMAPA is a reagent used in the formation of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), a common additive to liquid soaps, shampoos, and other cleansing products because of its utility as a surfactant. Beginning in the 1980s, reports of allergy to CAPB surfaced in the literature. Ultimately, a majority of patch testing studies have shown that clinical allergy to CAPB-containing products actually reflects allergy to contaminant DMAPA in most cases. Amidoamine, another intermediate in the formation of CAPB, may also be implicated through a proposed mechanism of conversion to DMAPA in the skin. When patch-testing for eyelid and facial dermatitis, it is crucial to test with DMAPA directly, not just with CAPB; unlike commercial-grade CAPB, the CAPB in patch test kits is ultrapure and does not contain contaminant DMAPA.

  5. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers/cosmetologists: retrospective analysis of north american contact dermatitis group data, 1994 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Wang, Michael Z; Mathias, C G Toby; Maibach, Howard I; Belsito, Donald V; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Deleo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Rietschel, Robert L; Fowler, Joseph F; Sasseville, Denis

    2012-01-01

    European studies document that occupational contact dermatitis (CD) is common in hairdressers, but studies from North America are lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of occupational CD among North American hairdressers/cosmetologists (HD/CS) and to characterize responsible allergens and irritants as well as their sources. A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1994 and 2010 was conducted. Of 35,842 patients, 432 (1.2%) were HD/CS. Significantly, most of the HD/CS were female (89.8%) and younger than 40 years (55.6%) as compared with non-hairdressers (P < 0.0001). The rates for allergic and irritant CD in HD/CS were 72.7% and 37.0%, respectively. The most common body site of involvement was the hand, and this was significantly more common than in non-HD/CS (P < 0.0001). The most frequent currently relevant and occupationally related allergens were glyceryl thioglycolate, p-phenylenediamine, nickel sulfate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and quaternium-15. Hair dyes, permanent wave solutions, and other hair products were common sources of allergens. The North American Contact Dermatitis Group allergen series missed at least 1 occupationally-related allergen in 26.2% of patients. Contact dermatitis in North American HD/CS is common, and occupationally related allergens are those found in HD/CS products. Supplemental hairdressing/cosmetology antigen series are important in detecting all occupationally related allergens in this population.

  6. Pilot analysis of presentations at meetings of the American Contact Dermatitis Society and the European Society of Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Daniel J; Miller, Lee; Neal, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The largest meetings on contact dermatitis are those of the American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) and the European Society of Contact Dermatitis (ESCD). To document the topics presented at these meetings and their presenters' countries of origin. Review of abstracts from the 2006 ESCD meeting and the 2005 and 2006 ACDS meetings. Twenty percent of ACDS presentations were on patch testing, versus 5% at the ESCD meeting (p < .001); 15% of ACDS presentations were on local reactions, versus 5% at the ESCD meeting (p < .01); 10% of ESCD presentations were on cosmetics/fragrance, versus 1% at the ACDS meetings (p = .014); and 31% of ESCD presentations were on metals and occupational topics, versus 18% at the ACDS meetings (p < .05). At the ACDS meetings, 55% of presenters were American, versus 2% at the ESCD meeting. Higher percentages of ESCD presenters were from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (p < .001), the United Kingdom (p < .01), France and Belgium (p < .05), Italy (p < .05), and Scandinavia (p < .001). More papers from Canada (p < .001) and the rest of the world were presented at the ACDS meetings (p < .001). Significant differences exist between these meetings. There may be the potential for increased joint meetings of these societies.

  7. Contact dermatitis from methylisothiazolinone in a paint factory.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, J P; Sederberg-Olsen, N; Thomsen, J F; Menné, T

    2006-06-01

    Introduction of new potential contact-sensitizing chemicals have in the past led to epidemics of contact dermatitis. A new preservative containing only methylisothiazolinone (MI) and not methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) has recently been introduced in the European Union for use in products, such as paint, glue and cosmetics. The objective of this article is to describe a factory outbreak of contact allergy to MI and MCI preservatives. This factory outbreak describes allergic contact dermatitis towards MI in 4 patients of 14 persons working at a paint manufacturer. Patch test results from all patients showed positive reactions for MI and MCI/MI. The reactions were stronger for MI than MCI/MI indicating a primary sensitization to MI. The combination of MCI/MI remains widely used, and therefore various patterns of exposure and sensitization could be seen in the future. Our data show that MI holds a potential for eliciting and propably inducing contact allergy in humans. Whether this preservative is safe to use in cosmetics where billions of consumers are exposed needs a care full monitoring.

  8. Occupational contact dermatitis in the wind energy industry.

    PubMed

    Lárraga-Piñones, G; Heras-Mendaza, F; Conde-Salazar, L

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world's fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Brod, Bruce A; Treat, James R; Rothe, Marti Jill; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last ten years, there has been an increased awareness of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, in addition to adults. Historically, ACD was not considered a significant disease in the pediatric population. This may have been due to failure to employ patch testing, which is the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis of ACD. A number of epidemiologic studies now reflect upon the significance of positive patch tests in children and its utility in diagnosing ACD. While there is significant overlap among the most common allergens in children and adults, the patterns of exposure and sources of allergens can significantly differ, because children have distinct experiences related to their exposure to personal care products, articles of clothing, and time spent in play as opposed to work. Evaluation of the pediatric patient with dermatitis involves specialized knowledge in taking the pediatric history and specific techniques employed for successful patch test application.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high.

  11. Vitamin D in Atopic Dermatitis, Chronic Urticaria and Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  12. [Preservatives as important etiologic factors of allergic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Kręcisz, Beata; Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Preservatives present in cosmetics and other industrial products can cause allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of allergy to selected preservatives in consecutive patients examined due to contact dermatitis in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and to establish whether individuals sensitized to formaldehyde react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers. A group of 405 patients (308 females and 97 males) was examined in 2011-2013. In all participants patch tests with a series of 13 preservatives (paraben mix, formaldehyde, Quaternium 15, chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone mix, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, benzalkonium chloride, sodium metabisulfite, produced by Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) were performed. Of the 405 patients 74 (including 52 females) showed positive results of patch tests. Contact allergy to at least 1 preservative was noted in 47 (11.6%) patients, including 34 (11%) females and 13 (13.4%) males. Methylisothiazolinone proved to be the most frequent sensitizer--4.7% (5.2% females, 3.1% males) while parabens, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and imidazolidinyl urea (0.2%) were found to be the least frequent. Fourteen (3.4%) participants, 10 women and 4 men, were allergic to formaldehyde and/or formaldehyde releasers. In 11 (78.6%) of them monovalent hypersensitivity was observed. In 13 (3.2% of the examined group) patients allergy to preservatives might have been of occupational origin. Preservatives, particularly isothiazolinones, are significant causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis, including occupational cases. Individuals sensitized to formaldehyde may react simultaneously to formaldehyde releasers, however, such reactions are relatively rare. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Contact dermatitis presenting as non-healing wound: case report.

    PubMed

    Leelavathi, M; Le, Yy; Tohid, H; Hasliza, Ah

    2011-05-15

    Topical antiseptics are commonly used in the management of minor wounds, burns, and infected skin. These agents are widely used by health professionals and are often self-prescribed by patients as they are easily available over-the-counter. This case illustrates a 73 year old man who presented with a non-healing wound on his right forearm for 4 weeks. The wound started from an insect bite and progressively enlarged with increasing pruritus and burning sensation. Clinically an ill-defined ulcer with surrounding erythema and erosion was noted. There was a yellow crust overlying the center of the ulcer and the periphery was scaly. Further inquiry revealed history of self treatment with a yellow solution to clean his wound for 3 weeks. Patient was provisionally diagnosed to have allergic contact dermatitis secondary to acriflavine. Topical acriflavine was stopped and the ulcer resolved after treatment with non-occlusive saline dressing. Skin patch test which is the gold standard for detection and confirmation of contact dermatitis showed a positive reaction (2+) to acriflavine. Acriflavine is widely used as a topical antiseptic agent in this part of the world. Hence, primary care physicians managing a large variety of poorly healing wounds should consider the possibility of contact allergy in recalcitrant cases, not responding to conventional treatment. Patient education is an important aspect of management as this would help curb the incidence of future contact allergies.

  14. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-04-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the literature but an erythema multiforme-like presentation is rare.

  15. Contact dermatitis in children: 6 years experience (1992-1997).

    PubMed

    Romaguera, C; Vilaplana, J

    1998-12-01

    We report the results of patch tests carried out over the last 6 years (1992 1997) on 141 children. This corresponds to 2.8% of the total patients who were patch tested in our Allergy Department (5,014). These 141 children were patch tested using the TRUE Test standard series and an additional allergen, metallic mercury. Allergens from the Chemotechnique medicaments, cosmetics, plants and shoe series were added in some. The most frequent localization of eczema was to the feet, face and hands and the most frequent suspected causes were costume jewelry, footwear, topical medicaments and cosmetics. The most frequent allergens, assessed by degree of relevance, were first, nickel, followed by cobalt, mercurials (thimerosal and metallic mercury), fragrance and rubber chemicals (naphthyl mix, mercapto mix, carba mix and PPD mix). 13 children, 18% of the total, between the ages of 12 and 14 years, showed positivities relevant to some occupation, i.e., metalworking, building, hairdressing, catering, etc. Once patch tests had been carried out and relevant positive patch tests assessed, the most frequent diagnoses were contact dermatitis 45%, atopic dermatitis 25%, juvenile plantar dermatitis 15%, and other diagnoses in the remaining 15%.

  16. Sensitization to reactive textile dyes in patients with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Motolese, A; Conti, A; Ferdani, G; Seidenari, S

    1996-03-01

    Reactive dyes are used especially for colouring natural fibres (cotton, silk and wool) that are widely used in Western countries, particularly Italy, in the production of clothes. The aim of our study was to investigate sensitization to the most commonly used reactive textile dyes in patients undergoing patch tests, and to assess the clinical relevance of contact sensitization to these dyes. 1813 consecutive patients underwent patch tests with the GIRDCA standard series and an additional textile series of 12 reactive dyes. 18 of these patients were sensitized to reactive dyes (0.99%) (4 only to reactive dyes). The dyes most frequently responsible for positive patch tests were Red Cibacron CR and Violet Remazol 5R (respectively, 8 and 5 positivities). In 5 cases only was a history of intolerance to particular garments given; of 4 patch tests performed with pieces of garment, 2 were positive. In 1 occupationally-exposed patient, airborne contact dermatitis was suspected. Owing to the lack of up-to-date patch test series, some cases of allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are probably misdiagnosed: new colouring agents are continuously introduced to the market, so that a close relationship with textile industry is necessary to improve our diagnostic tools.

  17. Contact dermatitis associated with the use of Always sanitary napkins.

    PubMed Central

    Eason, E L; Feldman, P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report a clinical association between vulvar irritation or contact dermatitis and the use of Always sanitary napkins. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: A gynecology practice in Montreal. PATIENTS: Women presenting between September 1991 and September 1994 with itching or burning of areas that would be in contact with a sanitary napkin (mons pubis, external surfaces of the vulva and perineum) beginning at least 1 day after the use of the napkins was started and less than 5 days after the use was stopped. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women experienced vulvar itching and burning, often associated with eruptions resembling contact dermatitis, of the vulvar and perineal surfaces after using Always sanitary napkins. Twenty-six reported that symptoms disappeared after they stopped using that brand of sanitary napkin. Seven women who later used the same brand again reported a recurrence of the vulvar irritation. CONCLUSION: The findings of this case series reveal Always sanitary napkins as a potentially important cause of recurrent vulvitis. Physician awareness of the association will enable effective advice and relief for a large number of women suffering "chronic vaginitis". PMID:8612252

  18. Contact dermatitis associated with the use of Always sanitary napkins.

    PubMed

    Eason, E L; Feldman, P

    1996-04-15

    To report a clinical association between vulvar irritation or contact dermatitis and the use of Always sanitary napkins. Case series. A gynecology practice in Montreal. Women presenting between September 1991 and September 1994 with itching or burning of areas that would be in contact with a sanitary napkin (mons pubis, external surfaces of the vulva and perineum) beginning at least 1 day after the use of the napkins was started and less than 5 days after the use was stopped. Twenty-eight women experienced vulvar itching and burning, often associated with eruptions resembling contact dermatitis, of the vulvar and perineal surfaces after using Always sanitary napkins. Twenty-six reported that symptoms disappeared after they stopped using that brand of sanitary napkin. Seven women who later used the same brand again reported a recurrence of the vulvar irritation. The findings of this case series reveal Always sanitary napkins as a potentially important cause of recurrent vulvitis. Physician awareness of the association will enable effective advice and relief for a large number of women suffering "chronic vaginitis".

  19. Pediatric Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Lessons for Better Care.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Silverberg, Nanette; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Treat, James; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an immune-mediated condition that is likely underrecognized in children. ACD is the result of primary sensitization and secondary elicitation by allergy-provoking haptens. A detailed clinical history and physical examination may yield diagnosis. Patch testing is the criterion standard diagnostic tool for confirming the diagnosis of ACD in both children and adults. Herein, we present an overview of pediatric ACD, an analysis of relevant current literature on the topic, focused management recommendations, and a discussion of existing knowledge gaps that must be addressed by future research.

  20. Purpuric irritant contact dermatitis induced by Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Cherpelis, B S; Fenske, N A

    2000-10-01

    The sap of Agave americana, a popular ornamental plant, may cause irritant contact dermatitis. This rare eruption is typically vesiculopapular; however, a new purpuric variant with evidence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis has recently been reported. We report an additional case of a purpuric eruption associated with severe constitutional symptoms further supporting a possible vasculitic component. Both cases resulted from direct exposure to sap propelled by a chainsaw. We speculate that oxalic acid crystals, which are recognized systemic toxins, are embedded in the skin with resulting oxalism, which may result in vascular damage.

  1. In vivo skin penetration of macromolecules in irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-12-30

    Recently, a selective preferential accumulation of polymeric nanoparticles (in the size range around 100nm) has been observed in the follicular system of dermatitis skin. The present investigation aimed at clearly investigating the effect of irritant contact dermatitis on the barrier permeability for colloidal systems below this size range, namely quantum dots and hydrophilic macromolecules. Irritant dermatitis was induced in mice and the penetrability of quantum dots (5nm) and hydrophilic dextran molecules has been tracked in both healthy and inflamed skin using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The selective accumulation of the quantum dots was clearly observed in inflamed skin while hydrophilic dextran behaved similarly in both healthy and inflamed skin. The therapeutic potential for the transdermal delivery of peptide drugs through inflamed skin has been also tested in rats. Results revealed that the transdermal permeation of insulin and calcitonin was not significantly enhanced in dermatitis compared to healthy skin. On the other side, permeation through stripped skin was significantly higher. However, the effect was limited and shorter compared to the SC injection where tmin was 0.5h and 2h with a 70% and 46% reduction in blood glucose levels for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. Similarly, tmin was 4h and 8h with area under the curve of 161±65% and 350±97% for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. In conclusion, the changes in skin permeability accompanied with skin inflammation did not affect its permeability to peptide drugs. Our findings also underline that experiments with the tape stripped skin model as a surrogate for inflamed skin can risk misleading conclusions due to significant difference of skin permeability between the tape stripped skin and inflamed skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in the Wind Energy Industry.

    PubMed

    Lárraga-Piñones, G; Heras-Mendaza, F; Conde-Salazar, L

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world's fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. RESULTS: We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible.

  4. Contact dermatitis in patients undergoing serial intravitreal injections.

    PubMed

    Veramme, Jolien; de Zaeytijd, Julie; Lambert, Jo; Lapeere, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) medication, injected intravitreally, is currently the standard of care in patients with different retinal pathologies. Since its introduction in 2006, an increasing number of patients have undergone this procedure in Ghent University Hospital. Strikingly, more patients were diagnosed with contact dermatitis caused by ophthalmic products used during intravitreal injection procedure. To identify which of the substances used during intravitreal injection is most likely to cause contact dermatitis. Sixteen patients who developed a burning and stinging sensation and swelling of the eyelids after intravitreal injection were tested. All patients were patch tested with the Belgian baseline series, as well as a cosmetic, a pharmaceutical and an ophthalmic series, including the different eye drops used during the intravitreal injection procedure. Fourteen of 16 patients reacted to at least one of the substances used during the injection procedure. Nine patients reacted to phenylephrine (56%), 5 to iso-Betadine(®) ophthalmic solution (31%), and 3 patients to sodium metabisulfite (16%). The most common causal allergen was phenylephrine, being positive in 56% of patients. Patients most likely become sensitized because of the high frequency of usage of phenylephrine during repeated intravitreal injections and follow-up consultations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. What is the best duration of steroid therapy for contact dermatitis (rhus)?

    PubMed

    Craig, Kevin; Meadows, Susan E

    2006-02-01

    Scant evidence exists for the best duration of steroid therapy for contact dermatitis due to plants (rhus). Review articles recommend 10 to 21 days of treatment with topical or oral corticosteroids for moderate to severe contact dermatitis due to plants (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, based on review articles). The primary reason given for the duration of 2 to 3 weeks is to prevent rebound dermatitis.

  6. Eyeglass frame allergic contact dermatitis: does tacrolimus prevent recurrences?

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tokio; Iijima, Masafumi; Maibach, Howard I

    2005-10-01

    A 35-year-old man developed well-demarcated, oedematous and erosive erythematous lesions on the nasal bridge and retroauricular regions bilaterally. His eyeglass frame was repaired by an optician 2 weeks prior to symptom onset. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to scrapings of nose pads and temples of the frame in petrolatum. Because the patient did not take our exhortation to change eyeglass frames, we advised him to cover their nose pads and temples with vinyl tape to prevent direct skin contact. Although topical corticosteroid therapy produced clinical resolution temporally, recurrences were not prevented. After starting tacrolimus ointment therapy, recurrence has not occurred for 9 months. Tacrolimus may be effective for allergic contact dermatitis patients who cannot avoid repeated allergen exposure, as it may not only reduce inflammation but inhibit recurrences.

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Tomoko; Oiso, Naoki; Hirao, Ayaka; Kawada, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition. PMID:21173928

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, a paint mildewcide.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G; Andersen, K E; Hamann, K

    1983-11-01

    Severe allergic contact dermatitis from a paint mildewcide, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, developed in a worker formulating latex paints within a paint manufacturing company, Guinea pig maximization testing demonstrated this to be a moderate sensitizer. Further cases of allergic contact dermatitis may be encountered as the use of this biocide increases in the market place.

  9. Irritant bullous contact dermatitis caused by a rove beetle: an illustrated clinical course.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Lindsay; Piliouras, Peter; Robertson, Ivan

    2013-05-01

    A 26-year-old Australian female traveller in Sierra Leone presented with an irritant bullous contact dermatitis consistent with paederus dermatitis. The lesions were treated with a potent topical corticosteroid with good effect. The affected area resolved in 6 weeks and hyperpigmention persisted for months until complete resolution. This dermatitis occurs when beetles of the genus Paederus (rove beetles) are crushed on the skin, releasing pederin. The same dermatitis ensues with Australian Paederus species. Serial clinical photographs are presented which will aid Australian dermatologists in the diagnosis of this dermatitis, which presents in regional Australian patients and returned overseas travellers.

  10. Matching evaluation between occupational contact dermatitis and various jobs in Yazd in during 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Fatemeh; Jafarpoor, Moslem

    2013-01-01

    Skin disorders comprise more than 35% of all occupationally related diseases. 90-95% of work-related dermatoses are contact dermatitis. Effects of occupational dermatitis in the lives of workers are substantial. To plan any preventive program we need basic statistics of the problem, that we had no reliable one which includes a lot of industries in Iran. Therefore we decided to determine occupational contact dermatitis, and it's subtypes prevalence in various jobs. The objective of this study is determination of occupational contact dermatitis, and it's subtypes prevalence and comparison among various jobs. In this cross -sectional study, we examined 3061 workers of various industries during 2007-2012 and recognized contact dermatitis cases. Irritant and allergic cases were separated according to clinical judgment of physician and patch test using European standard series. We found 271 (prevalence=8.8%) occupational contact dermatitis cases which 247 (91.1%) were irritant, and the rest were allergic. The highest prevalence was in washing powder production and then glaze and paint workers, mechanists and chemical workers were located. There is a great variability for occupational contact dermatitis in various industries and between different countries. These statistics changes during the time by changing in number of workers and their characteristics, variation in material and process and glove use situation. So every country must have a national data bank of occupational contact dermatitis, which must be updated after a period of time.

  11. Contact dermatitis after temporary henna tattoos--an increasing phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Läuchli, S; Lautenschlager, S; Läuchl, S

    2001-04-07

    Four patients developed contact dermatitis to black henna tattoos on holiday in the Middle East and Asia. Two to ten days after skin painting an itchy, reddish swelling developed at the site of the tattoo exactly following its sharply demarcated borders. Histological investigation of the lesions revealed spongiotic dermatitis with dense lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. Patch testing in all patients showed a strong reaction to p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The other tests, including standard series and henna powder, were all negative. Healing time after application of topical class III and IV steroids was prolonged. These reports show an impressive side effect of temporary tattoos with possible long-term damage. Rather than henna, the causative agent in the pastes used for temporary tattoos appears to be PPD, a widely used dye that is added to the pastes in high concentrations to produce a darker shade. The growing incidence of this complication requires close observation, while practitioners should be aware of this sensitisation and of possible subsequent allergic reactions, especially after hair colouring with dyes based on PPD.

  12. Acupuncture for poison ivy contact dermatitis. A clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Liao, S J

    1988-01-01

    Poison ivy contact dermatitis is fairly common in the suburbia of this country among amateur gardeners and children. It commonly inflicts its poison on the exposed parts of the limbs. The vesicular or bullous skin lesions are quite disturbingly itchy. Scratching the itchy lesions often spreads the condition by transplanting the remanent resinous toxin to other parts of the body. Though they are usually self-limiting, the intense itch is the main motivation for a patient to seek medical care. The conventional treatment is basically ineffective. During the summer of 1987 we treated four such cases of dermatitis with acupuncture upon their request to mollify their unbearable itch. They originally consulted with us for other problems. There were three males and one female. Their ages were between 29 and 63. Three cases were relatively mild and the fourth one was fairly severe. In the milder cases, their itch subsided in a few hours and skin lesions were healed in about two days after one treatment. In the severe case the itch subsided in about two days and most of the skin lesions dried up in four days after the first treatment and were healed almost completely after three sessions of acupuncture treatment. The plausible anti-inflammatory mechanism of acupuncture with the involvement of ACTH and/or cortisol was discussed.

  13. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  14. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities.

    PubMed

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  15. Caterpillar dermatitis revisited: lepidopterism after contact with oak processionary caterpillar

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Pföhler, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Caterpillar dermatitis (lepidopterism) is a disease that is caused by butterflies, moths and their caterpillars. Clinical signs and symptoms vary from itchy skin lesions to conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, malaise and anaphylactic reactions. We present the case of two brothers with typical skin lesions of leptidopterism. The older boy showed skin lesions after playing with caterpillars in the garden, whereas his younger brother was affected without direct contact to the caterpillars but only by playing with his brother. As the mother could show two caterpillars, lepidopterism could easily be diagnosed. Under a local therapy with a medium potent corticosteroid cream and a non-sedating orally administered antihistamine, all skin lesions as well as itching disappeared within 1 week. PMID:22696629

  16. The hardening phenomenon in irritant contact dermatitis: an interpretative update.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon A; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-03-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is common and poses a significant problem in high-risk populations. In most cases, ICD resolves despite continued exposure in a process known as 'hardening', allowing individuals to continue with their work. Those who cannot clear ICD develop chronic ICD, which is a significant source of emotional, physical, and financial distress for affected individuals. While hardening is well known among labourers and clinicians, its mechanism remains to be elucidated. Much can be learned from the study of self-healing processes like the hardening phenomenon. This overview briefly documents the pathogenesis of ICD, focuses on the latest advances pertaining to the hardening phenomenon in ICD, and then highlights potential avenues of productive research. A better understanding of the 'hardening' process in the skin will hopefully lead to advances for the treatment of ICD.

  17. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis in the allergist office.

    PubMed

    Fonacier, Luz; Charlesworth, Ernest N

    2003-07-01

    The identification of allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is key to the management of this disease. The patch test (PT) is the only safe, objective, scientific, and practical method for the diagnosis of ACD. There is no single PT panel that will screen all the relevant allergens in a patient's environment. It is generally thought that 20 to 30 allergens in routine screening tests can identify 50% to 70% of clinically relevant ACD. However, the usefulness of patch testing is enhanced with the number of allergens tested. Although the PT might be simple to apply, it might be difficult to read, interpret, and correlate to the patient's symptoms. A familiarity with the patient's environment, the process of the industry in that environment, and the uses of various chemicals in the industry is needed in most cases.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to synthetic rubber following breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, C; Cigna, E; Grieco, T; Miller, D M; De Gado, F; Calvieri, S; Scuderi, N

    2007-06-01

    Allergic reactions associated with silicone injection and implant were examined in a 50-year-old woman with a granulomatous reaction following breast silicone-gel prosthesis rupture who developed a delayed hypersensitivity to rubber compounds. Patch tests with SIDAPA, dental, and rubber series as well as open tests with latex, silicone and non silicone tubes, open application test with silicone gel, and skin prick test for aero and food-allergens were performed. Total and specific serum IgE measured by CAP-FEIA. Skin tests revealed a delayed-type hypersensitivity to thioureas, thiuram mixture and platinum. Specific IgE to natural rubber latex were found. Allergic contact dermatitis from thioureas, thiurams and platinum might be under-diagnosed, as they are not tested as part of the standard patch test series. Clinicians should consider this diagnosis in patients submitted to several cosmetic treatments.

  19. Skin homing and recruitment of leukocytes in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marrakchi, Slaheddine; Turki, Hamida

    2008-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disorder that has a high socio-economic impact with regard to the increasing number of industrial allergens that has potential harmful effect on the skin of manual workers. Its management relies on the use of topical anti-inflammatory drugs as well as the avoidance of the allergens inducing the disease. However, with regard to the ubiquitous character of many chemicals in the environment, treatment of the disease remains unsatisfactory. Understanding the molecular basis of the disease is of major importance in prospect of designing new therapeutic modalities. In this article, the various stages of the disease are reviewed as well as the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of the mechanisms of the disease that would help to conceive new concepts for drug intervention. The article also reviews some of the recent patent relevant to the field.

  20. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  1. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S

    2015-01-01

    The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from exotic woods: importance of patch-testing with patient-provided samples.

    PubMed

    Podjasek, Joshua O; Cook-Norris, Robert H; Richardson, Donna M; Drage, Lisa A; Davis, Mark D P

    2011-01-01

    Exotic woods from tropical and subtropical regions (eg, from South America, south Asia, and Africa) frequently are used occupationally and recreationally by woodworkers and hobbyists. These exotic woods more commonly provoke irritant contact dermatitis reactions, but they also can provoke allergic contact dermatitis reactions. We report three patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) with allergic contact dermatitis reactions to exotic woods. Patch testing was performed and included patient-provided wood samples. Avoidance of identified allergens was recommended. For all patients, the dermatitis cleared or improved after avoidance of the identified allergens. Clinicians must be aware of the potential for allergic contact dermatitis reactions to compounds in exotic woods. Patch testing should be performed with suspected woods for diagnostic confirmation and allowance of subsequent avoidance of the allergens.

  3. Lactase-induced occupational protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Arja; Ruoppi, Pirkko; Remes, Sami; Koistinen, Tiina; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili

    2007-08-01

    Enzymes are high-molecular-weight proteins and highly sensitizing occupational allergens used widely in industrial processes. Lactase has been described to cause work-related respiratory and conjunctival immunoglobulin (Ig)-E-mediated sensitizations in workers in the pharmaceutical industry. In these previous reports, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma was confirmed with prick tests but not by challenge tests. Lactase previously has not been described as a cause of immediate or delayed contact skin reaction. Furthermore, there are no previous reports of lactase-specific IgE. We report a case of protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to lactase in a pharmaceutical worker. The patient exhibited strong positive responses to lactase in prick tests. In an open application test, lactase elicited whealing, and in patch testing, lactase elicited an eczematous reaction. Serum lactase-specific IgE antibodies were demonstrated in immunospot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and lactase-IgE-binding fractions and their specificities were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. The chamber challenge test was performed to detect the association between lactase sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. Our results have confirmed the previous observations that lactase can induce occupational IgE-mediated respiratory and conjunctival sensitizations, but they show that contact skin reactions caused by lactase may also occur.

  4. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD.

  5. Surgery-Related Contact Dermatitis: A Review of Potential Irritants and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kevin A; Kelso, John M

    2017-04-07

    Surgical procedures utilize an increasing number of medical products including antiseptics, anesthetics, gloves, suture materials, tissue adhesives, topical antibiotics, and bandages. Many of these products have irritant potential. Allergic contact dermatitis has also been reported. This review covers preoperative, operative, and postoperative exposures that may result in contact dermatitis. Testing with standard patch panels such as T.R.U.E. Test and the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 65 allergen series does not evaluate for all relevant contactants. A thorough understanding of potential exposures is vital to effectively evaluate a patient with surgery-related contact dermatitis. A systematic approach is needed to ensure that standard patch panels and supplementary patches adequately address each encountered contactant.

  6. Hand contact dermatitis in hairdressers: clinical and causative allergens, experience in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Tresukosol, Poohglin; Swasdivanich, Chanutta

    2012-12-01

    Hand dermatitis in hairdressers is a common occupational contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis is thought to be more common. To investigate the causes of hand dermatitis, common allergens, clinical patterns, morphology and onset of lesions among hairdressers. Forty four hairdressers who were diagnosed with hand dermatitis in a dermatological outpatient department were included and investigated by patch testing with standard and hairdressing related allergens and/or prick test. Allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed with a positive patch test reaction in 33 cases (75%), irritant contact dermatitis was found in 11 cases (25%). The clinical manifestations were mostly scaly plaques (68.18%) or vesicles (50%). The most common site of involvement was the palms (38.63%). The common causative allergens were paraphenylenediamine (45.45%), nickel (31.18%), fragrance mix (20.45%), p-toluenediamine sulphate (18.18%), ammonium persulfate (13.63%), and p-aminophenol (13.63%). Allergic contact dermatitis is more common among hairdressers, PPD was the most common causative allergen in our study.

  7. Contact dermatitis is an unrecognized problem in the construction industry: Comparison of four different assessment methods.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Johan G; Heederik, Dick; Spee, Ton; van Rooy, Frits G; Krop, Esmeralda J M; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Smit, Lidwien A M

    2017-10-01

    A high contact dermatitis symptoms prevalence has been observed in Dutch construction workers. Contact dermatitis was diagnosed by an expert panel using questionnaire data and photographs of 751 subjects' hands. A subset was evaluated by two occupational physicians. Their diagnoses were compared to those of the expert panel. In addition, two self-reported questionnaire-based assessment methods were compared to the expert panel evaluation. Associations between contact dermatitis and determinants were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. Contact dermatitis prevalence was high: 61.4% (expert panel's diagnosis) and 32.9% (self-reported). Agreement between occupational physicians and the expert panel was low but increased after training. Washing hands with solvents and performing job-related tasks at home were related to contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis prevalence among construction workers is high. Recognition of contact dermatitis by occupational physicians is poor but can be improved by training. Awareness of skin disorders should be raised. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Study of the frequency of allergens in cosmetics components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Bosco, Marcia Regina Miras; Mozer, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to cosmetics is a common dermatosis, especially in adults and professionals who handle them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to cosmetics' components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis and to identify the main sensitizers related to occupational contact dermatitis. During the period of January 2008 to June 2010, all the patients with a presumptive diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics were selected. The patients were submitted to the patch tests of cosmetics series, composed by ten substances. Among the 147 patients studied sensitization to cosmetics components occurred in 31,29% of the cases, 14 of those (19,18%) equally corresponding to BHT and triethanolamine substances, 13 (17,81%) to ammonium thioglycolate, 09 to sorbic acid (12,33%), 08 to tosilamida (10,95%), 06 to germall (8,22%). The other elements tested showed indices of 5% or less. A higher frequency of contact dermatitis to cosmetics was observed in women and the age most affected was concordant with the age range of greatest professional activity of the population. Allergic contact dermatitis was more frequently associated with Triethanolamine, BHT and ammonium thioglycolate, and the relation with occupational contact dermatitis was discreet.

  9. Histomorphology and Immunophenotype of Eczematous Skin Lesions Revisited-Skin Biopsies Are Not Reliable in Differentiating Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Irritant Contact Dermatitis, and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Frings, Verena G; Böer-Auer, Almut; Breuer, Kristine

    2017-03-10

    Lesions of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), and atopic dermatitis (AD) share similar clinical features and thus, their diagnosis can be challenging. The aim of this study was to reassess histopathology and immunophenotyping properties to distinguish between ACD, ICD, and AD. Charts of patients with eczema, who had undergone complete routine diagnostic workup (skin biopsies, patch tests, skin prick tests, and respectively or serum IgE levels), were reviewed. Thirty-five skin biopsy specimens of 28 patients (mean age 64 ± 15 years; ♀ = 13 ♂ = 15) with clear diagnosis of ACD (n = 15), ICD (n = 6), or AD (n = 14) were analyzed. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD34, CD123, S100, and IL-17) parameters were evaluated using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxon test, Fisher exact test, and decision tree analysis. Eosinophils were statistically significant (P = 0.0184), more often observed in AD than in ACD or ICD. No other statistically significant differences were found with regard to epidermal patterns, patterns of dermal infiltrates, or immunophenotyping. Using predictive modeling approaches, dermal eosinophils were found to be associated with AD, necrotic epidermal keratinocytes with ICD, and a focal type of parakeratosis with ACD. As an additional finding, pseudo-Pautrier microabscesses, which were present in the skin of 2 AD and 2 ACD patients, contained myeloid dendritic cells (CD11c-+). Differentiation of ACD, ICD, and AD should be based on clinical features and results of allergy tests. Histopathology does not reliably differentiate between ACD, ICD, and AD, but helps to exclude psoriasis, tinea, or T-cell lymphoma.

  10. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the "European Standard" set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients - during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods - and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease.

  11. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafał; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  12. Halometasone monohydrate (0.05%) in occupational contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar; Shaju, Noel; Hota, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The impact of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is often underestimated because of underreporting, and its management is also inadequate, especially in developing countries. Topical corticosteroids have remained the first line treatment but till date, there is no study on efficacy and safety of halometasone in OCD, and there is a paucity of data on its comparative efficacy in allergic and irritant variety. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of halometasone in OCD and to compare its effect in allergic and irritant types of OCD. Methods: The present study is a prospective, interventional, single arm clinical study conducted on 150 patients of OCD. Detailed history and clinical examination was done at baseline, and all enrolled patients underwent patch test with the Indian Standard Battery of allergens. Eczema severity was assessed by the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) scale, SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, and patient-oriented eczema measure (POEM). Change in quality of life was assessed by using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). After baseline assessments, they were prescribed halometasone 0.05% ointment and were followed up after 4 weeks, and efficacy variables were evaluated. Results: At follow-up, 19 patients were lost, and data of 131 patients were analyzed. After 4 weeks of halometasone therapy, there was statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement in SCORAD index, IGA, POEM, and DLQI. Considering improvement in IGA as treatment success criteria, treatment was found to be successful in 87.8%. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in effect of halometasone in allergic and irritant OCD. Conclusions: Halometasone is efficacious with a good safety profile in patients with OCD, and there is no significant difference in efficacy of the drug in allergic and irritant OCD. PMID:27127314

  13. Presentation of three cases with phyto contact dermatitis caused by Ranunculus and Anthemis genera.

    PubMed

    Uçmak, Derya; Ayhan, Erhan; Meltem Akkurt, Zeynep; Haydar Uçak

    2014-12-01

    In addition to being used especially in a systematic way, herbal treatments are preferred topically by the elderly population in some rheumatological and dermatological diseases. Although alternative medicine treatments may have beneficial effects, certain plants are known to cause common contact dermatitis. Protoanemonin and sesquiterpene lactones, which are found in such plant types as respectively Ranunculus and Anthemis, often cause contact dermatitis. In this article, three cases of phyto contact dermatitis, which are the result of topical use of plant types of Ranunculus ve Anthemis as an alternative method of treatment due to myalgia or arthralgia, have been presented.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo.

  15. The use of laboratory methods in contact dermatitis induced by composite materials.

    PubMed

    Ayala, F; Lembo, G; Balato, N; Patruno, C; Scognamiglio, G; Strazzullo, G; de Stefano, S

    1990-05-01

    Thin-layer chromatography, column chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to investigate the chemical constituents and haptens responsible in 2 different circumstances where allergic contact dermatitis from composite materials was suspected. In an aircraft factory where epoxy resins were used, tetraglycidyl-4,4'-dimethyl dianiline and phenylglycidyl ether were identified as the haptens responsible for an outbreak of contact dermatitis. The role of abietic acid as the main sensitizer in colophony was confirmed in a case of contact dermatitis occurring in a sportsman with an acute eczematous reaction due to a leg bandage. Identification of the chemical sensitizers was possible only by using the aforementioned laboratory methods.

  16. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4⁺ cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders.

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: understanding the chemistry will help our diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Rozas-Muñoz, E; Lepoittevin, J P; Pujol, R M; Giménez-Arnau, A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to plants is common. Potentially allergenic plants and plant products are found in many everyday environments, such as the home, the garden, the workplace, and recreational settings. By improving our knowledge of allergenic plant-derived chemical compounds, we will be better positioned to identify novel allergens. We review the most relevant chemical allergens that contribute to plant allergic contact dermatitis and propose a clinical classification system based on 5 major families of chemical sensitizers: α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones, quinones, phenol derivatives, terpenes, and miscellaneous structures (disulfides, isothiocyanates, and polyacetylenic derivates). We also describe the different clinical pictures of plant allergic contact dermatitis and review currently available patch test materials. A better understanding of the specific allergens involved in plant allergic contact dermatitis will help to predict cross-reactivity between different plant species or families.

  18. Occupational skin allergies: testing and treatment (the case of occupational allergic contact dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Holness, D Linn

    2014-02-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis, including occupational allergic contact dermatitis, is one of the most common occupational diseases. Making a timely and accurate diagnosis is important to improving the outcome. Taking a work history and patch testing are essential elements in the diagnostic process. Management, based on an accurate diagnosis, must include both medical treatment to address the disease and workplace modifications as appropriate to reduce exposure the causative agents.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

  20. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication.

  1. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  2. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by coconut fatty acids diethanolamide.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Pesonen, Maria; Kuuliala, Outi; Suuronen, Katri

    2014-03-01

    Coconut fatty acids diethanolamide [cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA)] is a surface-active derivative of coconut oil that is used in industrial, household and cosmetic products. Cocamide DEA contact allergy has been reported relatively seldom. To describe cocamide DEA-positive patients in an occupational dermatology clinic. We retrieved allergic reactions to cocamide DEA from test files, and studied the occupation, exposure, concomitant allergic reactions and diagnoses of the positive patients. Of the 2572 patients tested, 25 (1%) had an allergic reaction to cocamide DEA. Nineteen patients were occupational cases, and 11 worked in the metal industry. Hand cleansers constituted the main source of sensitization (n = 17). Other sources included two dishwashing liquids, one barrier cream, and one metalworking fluid. Three patients reacted to monoethanolamine and 2 to diethanolamine. Diethanolamine is an impurity of cocamide DEA, and can be found in cocamide DEA-containing products and in commercial patch test substances, which may explain some concomitant reactions. Cocamide DEA allergy is relatively common in patients with occupational hand dermatitis, and mainly derives from hand cleansers. However, exposure to detergents, metalworking fluids and barrier creams must also be taken into account. Concomitant reactions to ethanolamines are possible. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Improved transdermal delivery of morin efficiently inhibits allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao; Wan, Kawai; Sun, Xun

    2017-09-15

    The skin is an important site for local or systemic application of drugs. However, most of the drugs have poor permeability through the skin's outermost layer, stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to develop a method to enable transdermal delivery of morin (3, 5, 7, 2, 4-pentahydroxyflavone), which is a poorly water-soluble drug with anti-inflammatory properties obtained from natural products. Morin phospholipid complex (MPC) was prepared and then loaded in Carbopol 940 hydrogel (MPC-gel), which can significantly increase the transdermal flux of morin based on the in vitro skin penetration data presented in this paper. To further enhance permeation, different compositions of penetration enhancers were dispersed in the gel and screened. After applied onto the mouse skin, MPC-gel showed apparent reduction of ear swelling in 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Further determination of cytokines levels, histopathological analysis and T lymphocytes proliferation indicates that the MPC-gel is potent enough to reduce the inflammatory response mediated by the DNFB in ACD mice model. Collectively, we anticipate that such an approach may provide a new treatment for topical ACD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Persistent photosensitivity after allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Tiffany; Rosen, Cheryl F; Storrs, Frances J; Lobel, Edmund; DeKoven, Joel G

    2013-01-01

    Persistent photosensitivity after allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to epoxy resin has rarely been described. The aim of this study was to create awareness that ACD to epoxy may be a trigger for persistent photosensitivity. We present a series of 5 patients who developed ACD to epoxy resin and later a photodistributed eczematous eruption when exposed to sunlight, with a documented decrease in minimal erythema dose to UVA and UVB. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 71 years, and there were 3 men and 2 women. Each patient had occupational exposure to epoxy. Symptoms of epoxy ACD preceded photosensitivity by 5 months to 12 years in 3 cases and occurred simultaneously in 2 cases. Patch testing to epoxy resin was positive in all patients. Phototesting revealed a decreased minimal erythema dose to UVA and UVB in each of the 3 patients who were phototested. Photopatch testing was positive for epoxy resin in 1 of the 2 patients tested. All patients remained photosensitive for at least 2 years after diagnosis, with only 1 case of photosensitivity resolving with extended avoidance of epoxy. There is an association between ACD to epoxy resin and development of persistent photosensitivity. Possible mechanisms to explain the relationship between the 2 phenomena are discussed.

  5. Wrist dermatitis: contact allergy to neoprene in a keyboard wrist rest.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R C; Elston, D M

    1997-09-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis to a keyboard wrist rest containing neoprene is reported. The patient, who had a history of sensitivity to rubber products, developed an acute vesicular reaction of the palmar aspects of her distal wrists, followed by eczematous patches of her extremities and face. Treatment with prednisone, a 3-week tapering dose (60, 40, 20 mg), cleared the dermatitis. The widespread uses of neoprene are discussed and suggest that neoprene will become a common source of contact dermatitis as the potential sources of exposure increase.

  6. Bullous contact dermatitis caused by self-applied crushed Paederus fuscipes for the treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    You, Dong-O; Kang, Jung-Dae; Youn, Nyoung-Hoon; Park, Seok-Don

    2003-11-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a linear, blistering contact dermatitis caused by pederin, a potent vesicant agent that is contained in insects belonging to the genus Paederus. This form of dermatitis usually occurs accidentally in those who have contact with this insect during the summer season. We report a peculiar case of a patient developing severe chemical burnlike lesions after application to her skin of many crushed Paederus fuscipes that she collected from the soil of a riverbank in the early spring for the treatment of her vitiligo.

  7. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  8. Nickel-induced systemic contact dermatitis and intratubal implants: the baboon syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Bibas, Nathalie; Lassere, Jacques; Paul, Carle; Aquilina, Christian; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Permanent sterilization using intratubal implants is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. We report the first case of a 40-year-old woman presenting a systemic contact dermatitis due to nickel-containing intratubal implants: the Essure system. The diagnosis was confirmed with positive patch test result for nickel and total clearance of dermatitis after removing the implants that contain a metallic spiral of nitinol (alloy of 55% nickel and 45% titanium). Systemic contact dermatitis to the intratubal implants could be explained by the corrosion of nitinol after implantation resulting in the release of nickel. In the literature, no similar case has been reported despite the introduction of intratubal implants since 2002. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be aware of this type of complication. In practice, a thorough assessment for possible nickel contact dermatitis in a woman undergoing sterilization with Essure is recommended. Preoperative patch testing must be carried out if there is any doubt.

  9. Escin inhibits type I allergic dermatitis in a novel porcine model.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Wolfgang; Reutterer, Benjamin; Frank, Maria; Unger, Hermann; Grassauer, Andreas; Prieschl-Grassauer, Eva; Doerfler, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Current standard medications for the treatment of allergic inflammation consist primarily of glucocorticoids and anti-histamines, but adverse side effects or insufficient responsiveness by patient subpopulations illustrate the need for safe and novel alternatives. Thus, there is a demand to develop a porcine model that is able to mimic mast cell-mediated type I hypersensitivity. Previously, we found that escin, a pharmacologically active mix of triterpene saponins from horse chestnut extracts, exerts anti-allergic effects in murine models and merits further investigation as an anti-allergic therapeutic. We developed a new porcine model of allergic dermatitis based on a clinical prick test protocol. Histamine clearly provoked erythema and swelling at the prick site, whereas the mast cell-degranulating compound 48/80 even more pronounced caused wheal and flare reactions known from the human prick response. This model was used to test the anti-allergic efficacy of orally applied escin. Oral pretreatment of animals with escin strongly inhibited the allergic skin response induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. Additional in vitro data from murine mast cells indicate an engagement of the glucocorticoid receptor pathway upon treatment with escin. This model provides a valuable and easy-to-set-up tool for preclinical studies of mast cell-inhibiting compounds. The successful implementation of this model supports the development of oral escin applications as a novel anti-allergic therapy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Occupational allergic "march". Rapid evolution of contact dermatitis to ammonium persulfate into airborne contact dermatitis with rhinitis and asthma in a hairdresser].

    PubMed

    Poltronieri, Anna; Patrini, L; Pigatto, P; Riboldi, L; Marsili, Chiara; Previdi, M; Margonari, M; Marraccini, P

    2010-01-01

    Hairdressers are exposed to irritants and allergenic compounds that may cause contact dermatitis, rhinitis and asthma. In this paper we describe the case of a female, age 33 years, who developed contact dermatitis after 10 years of exposure to ammonium persulfate. After 7 months of progressively extensive and persistent skin lesions, respiratory symptoms appeared that were related to the occupational exposure (on-off test). SIDAPA and specific occupational patch test for hairdressers and occupational challenge with ammonium persulfate were performed. Clinical parameters of inflammation, ECP (eosinophil cationic protein) and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were detected before and after the specific bronchial challenge. The patch test was positive to ammonium persulfate (++), and bronchial challenge for ammonium persulfate showed a significant late response (FEV1 decrease--33%). Both FeNO and ECP showed a significant increase after 24 hours. Dermatitis, urticaria and angioedema occurred on the uncovered skin due to airborne contact. Topic steroids and anti-histaminic drugs resolved the clinical symptoms. Bronchial challenge is, in fact, considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of occupational asthma, although new inflammatory parameters can contribute to the diagnosis and can be useful for monitoring after a specific inhalation test with occupational agents. The described case summarizes the evolution from contact dermatitis to inhalation allergy, suggesting the occurrence of an allergic "march" for occupational allergy.

  11. Irritant contact facial dermatitis due to nebulizer therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Eedy, D. J.; Barton, K.; Stanford, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    A case is reported of a patient with long-standing, severe airflow obstruction requiring long-term nebulizer therapy developing a facial dermatitis in the area bounded by the nebulizer mask. The facial dermatitis seems to be the result of the combined irritancy of the nebulizer solutions and moisture, and prophylactic measures are suggested for patients requiring long-term nebulizer therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2973007

  12. Contact dermatitis: in pursuit of sensitizer's molecular targets through proteomics.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Sofia; Neves, Bruno; Vitorino, Rui; Domingues, Rosário; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Domingues, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    Protein haptenation, i.e., the modification of proteins by small reactive chemicals, is the key step in the sensitization phase of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Despite the research effort in past decades, the identification of immunogenic hapten-protein complexes that trigger a relevant pathogenic immune response in ACD, as well as the haptenation reaction molecular site, and the elements of a potentially conditioning environment during each of these stages, remain poorly understood. These questions led us to employ a proteomics-based approach to identify modified proteins in the dendritic-like cell line THP-1 sensitized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), through a combination of 2D-gel electrophoresis, nano-LC and mass spectrometry. A specific set of 39 targeted proteins was identified and comprised proteins from various cellular locations and biological functions. One of FITC targets was identified as MLK, a member of the mixed-lineage kinase family known to act as a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase and to control the activity of specific mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, namely p38 and JNK pathways. Haptenated in the vicinity of its active site, our results point to MLK being a relevant target due to a consistent non-activation at early time points of these pathways upon FITC sensitization in THP-1 cells. Moreover, FITC pre-treatment significantly decrease phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK levels induced upon exposure to a classical activator such as lipopolysaccharide or to the sensitizer 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Overall, our data point to specific amino acid residues haptenation within critical proteins as the key step in the subsequent signaling pathways modulation responsible for DC activation and maturation events.

  13. Contact allergy to finished woods in furniture and furnishings: a small allergic contact dermatitis epidemic to western red cedar in sauna interior decoration.

    PubMed

    Huilaja, L; Kubin, M E; Riekki, R

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dust remains uncommon and most cases are occupational. Contact allergy to finished wooden products is even more rare and only few cases of contact dermatitis to wooden furnishings and furniture are described. During 2012-2014 surprisingly many patients with dermatitis associated to sauna baths were referred to our clinic. We report three novel cases with allergic contact dermatitis to western red cedar due to exposure during sauna baths. Three cases of non-occupational contact dermatitis to western red cedar were confirmed by patch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to interior decoration or furniture is a rarity, but can be induced by novel exposures, like western red cedar in sauna interior decoration. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Antigen-Specific Induction of Osteopontin Contributes to the Chronification of Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seier, Anne M.; Renkl, Andreas C.; Schulz, Guido; Uebele, Tanja; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Liaw, Lucy; Kon, Shigeyuki; Uede, Toshimitsu; Weiss, Johannes M.

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a T cell-mediated immune response, which in its relapsing chronic form is of high socioeconomic impact. The phosphoglycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) has chemotactic and Th1 cytokine functions and in various models is essential for robust T cell-mediated immunity. Here we demonstrate that OPN is abundantly expressed by both effector T cells and keratinocytes in allergic contact dermatitis lesions. T cells from nickel-allergic donors secrete high levels of OPN following antigen-specific stimulation. OPN may substitute for missing IFN-γ secretion in T effector cells because low IFN-γ-producing T cell clones secrete high levels of OPN, and OPN down-modulates their interleukin-4 expression. Furthermore, interferon-γ from T effector cells augments OPN in allergic contact dermatitis by inducing OPN in keratinocytes, which in turn polarizes dendritic cells and attracts inflammatory cells. In the murine contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model for allergic contact dermatitis, OPN is strongly induced in antigen-specific proliferating T cells, and OPN null mice display a reduced chronic CHS inflammatory response due to a decreased influx of effector T cells. Importantly, because of its function for chronic allergic contact dermatitis, OPN may well be a therapeutic target, because anti-OPN antibody treatment in part suppresses established chronic CHS. PMID:20008129

  15. U.K. standards of care for occupational contact dermatitis and occupational contact urticaria.

    PubMed

    Adisesh, A; Robinson, E; Nicholson, P J; Sen, D; Wilkinson, M

    2013-06-01

    The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) and occupational contact urticaria (OCU) is a process that involves fastidious clinical and occupational history taking, clinical examination, patch testing and skin-prick testing. A temporal relationship of work and/or the presence of a rash on the hands only raises suspicion of an occupational cause, and does not necessarily confirm an occupational causation. The identification of allergy by patch or prick tests is a major objective, as exclusion of an offending allergen from the environment can contribute to clinical recovery in the individual worker and avoidance of new cases of disease. This can be a complex process where allergens and irritants, and therefore allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, may coexist. This article provides guidance to healthcare professionals dealing with workers exposed to agents that potentially cause OCD and OCU. Specifically it aims to summarize the 2010 British Occupational Health Research Foundation (BOHRF) systematic review, and also to help practitioners translate the BOHRF guideline into clinical practice. As such, it aims to be of value to physicians and nurses based in primary and secondary care, as well as occupational health and public health clinicians. It is hoped that it will also be of value to employers, interested workers and those with responsibility for workplace standards, such as health and safety representatives. Note that it is not intended, nor should it be taken to imply, that these standards of care override existing statutory and legal obligations. Duties under the U.K. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, the Equality Act 2010 and other relevant legislation and guidance must be given due consideration, as should laws relevant to other countries. © 2013 Crown Copyright BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists This

  16. Photosensitivity: the 9-year experience at a Sydney contact dermatitis clinic.

    PubMed

    Lee, Penny A; Freeman, Susanne

    2002-11-01

    In this retrospective study, 81 patients with photosensitivity were referred to the Contact and Occupational Dermatitis Clinic at The Skin and Cancer Foundation Australia, in Sydney, between 1991 and 1999. Photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) was diagnosed in 39.5% of patients, with 87.5% of these reactions being to sunscreen chemicals. Polymorphic light eruption (PMLE) accounted for 19.7% of cases, drug photosensitivity 14.8%, and photoaggravated atopic dermatitis and chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) each constituted 7.4%. Compared with overseas studies, there was a high incidence of PACD, possibly reflecting the referral bias and widespread use of sunscreens. The incidence of PMLE and CAD was less than studies from cooler climates overseas. No cause could be determined for three photosensitive patients.

  17. Contact dermatitis due to Allivum sativum and Ranunculus illyricus: two cases.

    PubMed

    Polat, Muhterem; Oztas, Pinar; Yalcin, Basak; Tamer, Emine; Gur, Gunes; Alli, Nuran

    2007-10-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for medical care. As alternative herbal remedies are becoming more widely used there is an increase in phytocontact dermatitis. Here we document two patients who developed contact dermatitis due to Allivum sativum, and Ranunculus illyricus after applying to the skin in order to relieve the rheumatological joint pain.

  18. Chinese medicines reported to have effects on contact dermatitis in the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngchul; Kim, Byungju; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kim, Hyungwoo

    2017-03-02

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is one of the most common skin diseases in industrialized countries. Chinese medicines (CMs) have been investigated worldwide as complementary and alternative medicines for corticosteroids, which are the first choice for treatment of inflammatory skin diseases owing to their favorable efficacy. This article describes the CMs that have been reported to have anti-dermatitis effects against CD in the last 20 years.

  19. Contact dermatitis caused by airborne agents. A review and case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Dooms-Goossens, A.E.; Debusschere, K.M.; Gevers, D.M.; Dupre, K.M.; Degreef, H.J.; Loncke, J.P.; Snauwaert, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    A general review is given of airborne-induced contact dermatoses, particularly of the irritant and allergenic types. Because the reports in the literature often omit the term airborne, 12 volumes of Contact Dermatitis (January 1975-July 1985) were screened, and the cases cited were classified in function of the anamnesis, lesion locations, causative irritants and allergens, and other factors. The present article also discusses differential diagnoses, in particular with regard to contact dermatitis of the face, ears, and neck. Finally, seven case reports of occupational and nonoccupational contact dermatitis problems caused by airborne agents are presented. In some of the cases the allergens have not been mentioned in published literature previously. 84 references.

  20. Contact dermatitis following sustained exposure to pecans (Carya illinoensis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Kathleen M; Boyd, Jason; Viernes, Jay L

    2006-04-01

    Type I hypersensitivity reactions following ingestion of peanuts and tree nuts are well characterized. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are less well characterized, yet they remain the second most common reaction pattern to contact with or ingestion of such nuts. We present a case of a patient who experienced an acute vesicular cutaneous reaction after prolonged contact with pecans. This case illustrates the salient features of contact dermatitis and serves as a reminder that contact with allergenic foods can lead to hypersensitivity reactions.

  1. Contact dermatitis caused by tulips: identification of contact sensitizers in tulip workers of Kashmir Valley in North India.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Iffat; Rasool, Farhan; Akhtar, Saniya; Kamili, Afifa; Rather, Parvaiz; Kanth, Raihana; Bhat, Yasmeen; Rather, Shagufta; Mubashir, Syed; Yaseen, Atiya; Bashir, Safia

    2017-09-21

    Tulip, belonging to the genus Tulipa and family Liliaceae, is a spring-blooming perennial that grows from bulbs. Owing to manual handling, contact dermatitis can occur in professionals at any stage of the growth cycle of the tulip plant. To determine the clinical pattern of contact dermatitis resulting from tulip plant cultivation, and to assess contact allergy in workers coming into contact with this plant. One hundred and sixty-four tulip workers were screened, and 48 patients with suspected contact dermatitis were patch tested with 39 allergens, including haptens from the Indian baseline series, a plant series, and extracts from different parts of the tulip plant. Thirty-nine positive patch test reactions were observed in 21 patients. Seventeen patients showed positive reactions to either α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone or to tulip plant extract. Clinical relevance was observed for 13 of 17 positive patch test reactions. Contact dermatitis is an important health hazard in workers dealing with tulip bulbs. Further studies to identify and isolate other possible tulip allergens, and to quantify the amounts of allergens in different parts of the tulip plant, are recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix) cream used in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Harries, Matthew J; Street, Gill; Gilmour, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Lesley E; Beck, Michael H

    2007-02-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used in the treatment of superficial skin malignancies including actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Contact allergy to the prodrug is rarely reported. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate cream used in PDT.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate after photodynamic therapy in 9 patients.

    PubMed

    Hohwy, Thomas; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Sølvsten, Henrik; Sommerlund, Mette

    2007-11-01

    This report describes 9 patients who developed allergic contact dermatitis to methyl aminolevulinate used for photodynamic therapy (PDT). The risk of developing contact allergy to methyl aminolevulinate in PDT treated patients was calculated to 1% after an average of 7 treatments (range 2-21).

  4. Direct and airborne contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region.

    PubMed

    Basista, Katarzyna

    2012-09-01

    The paper describes an atypical case of simultaneous airborne and direct contact dermatitis in a beekeeper from the Małopolska region. This is the third such case described in a beekeeper in the world and the first in Poland. I suggest that propolis should be regarded as both a direct and airborne contact allergen in beekeepers.

  5. The spontaneous resolution of photosensitivity and contact allergy in a patient with chronic actinic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rose, Rebecca F; Goulden, Victoria; Wilkinson, S Mark

    2009-04-01

    Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) is an uncommon photodermatosis in which patients typically exhibit photosensitivity together with contact allergy. Improvement of the photosensitivity over time is well recognized in a proportion of patients but the concurrent resolution of contact allergy is rare. We report on a 46-year-old female with longstanding CAD who demonstrated resolution of both of these features.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with an airborne pattern.

    PubMed

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-01-02

    Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and industry have been reported, but few reports are found in the literature as a consequence of the contact with sculptured artificial acrylic nails which are increasingly popular. We describe here 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial sculptured nails. Patch tests were performed with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates were applied. In particular, we tested three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one presented only with face and eyelid dermatitis had no other lesions. The tests showed positive reaction to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in all the three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic sculptured nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these products. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  8. Occupational Contact Dermatitis: Workers' Compensation Patch Test Results of Portland, Oregon, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Zinsmeister, Chris; Norris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Workers are exposed to potential irritants and allergens with constant introduction of new industrial chemicals in the workplace. Characterize the final diagnoses, demographics, occupations, exposures, clinical presentations, patch test results, dermatologic histories, and risk factors of workers evaluated for suspected work-related allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A retrospective chart review of 310 workers' compensation independent medical examinations evaluated for suspected work-related ACD was performed. Workers were seen in a community dermatology clinic in Portland, Oregon, from 2005 to 2014. Evaluation included history, physical examination, patch testing, and further diagnostic workup when indicated. Hand dermatitis was the most common presentation (n = 148, 47.7%). Prevalent occupations included health care workers (n = 51, 16.5%), custodial staff (n = 41, 13.2%), and machinists (n = 36, 11.6%). Allergic contact dermatitis (47.5%) was more common than irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) (38.9%) in those diagnosed as having occupational skin disease (n = 185). The highest-frequency work-related allergens were thiuram mix (21 of 88, 23.9%), carba mix (20 of 88, 22.7%), potassium dichromate (9 of 88, 10.2%), and epoxy resin (9 of 88, 10.2%). Allergic contact dermatitis and ICD are common occupational skin disorders. In this population of workers' compensation referrals, ACD was more common, with 73.3% of those cases work related, compared with 86.7% of ICD. Blue collar work and wet work were risk factors for the development of ACD and ICD.

  9. (Meth)Acrylate Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Nail Salon Workers: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    DeKoven, Samuel; DeKoven, Joel; Holness, D Linn

    Recently, many cases of acrylate-associated allergic contact dermatitis have appeared among nail salon workers. Common acrylate-containing products in nail salons include traditional nail polish, ultraviolet-cured shellac nail polish, ultraviolet-cured gel nails, and press-on acrylic nails. Nail salon technicians seen in the occupational medicine clinic in 2015 and 2016 were identified, and their patch test results and clinical features were summarized. Patch testing was done with the Chemotechnique (Meth)Acrylate nail series, and either the North American Standard series or the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening series. Six patients were identified, all women, ages 38 to 58. Common presentations included erythematous dermatitis of the dorsa of the hands, palms, and forearms and fissures on the fingertips. Less common sites of eruptions included the periorbital region, cheeks, posterior ears, neck, sacral area, lateral thighs, and dorsa of the feet. All patients reacted to hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and 5 patients reacted to ethyl acrylate. Each patient also reacted to (meth)acrylates that are not found on either standard series, including ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The authors report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in nail technicians seen over the past year, representing a new trend in their clinic. These cases are reflective of a growing trend of nail technicians with allergic contact dermatitis associated with occupational (meth)acrylate exposure. Efforts to improve prevention are needed.

  10. Contact allergy to lanolin: temporal changes in prevalence and association with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-09-21

    Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy, respectively, but no association with Amerchol™ L-101 allergy was found. Among 9286 dermatitis patients who were tested with both allergens, 108 had a positive test reaction to either lanolin alcohols or Amerchol™ L-101, whereas only 29 patients had positive test reactions to both markers. The prevalence of lanolin contact allergy has increased over a 12-year period, and inclusion of Amerchol™ L-101 will increase the chance of detecting lanolin contact allergy. Patch testing with lanolin is helpful in atopics with dermatitis and suspected cosmetic allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Mechanics and Repairers Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998-2014.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Hagen, Solveig L; Sasseville, Denis; Maibach, Howard I; DeKoven, Joel G; Belsito, Donald V; Fowler, Joseph F; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Mathias, C G Toby; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Zirwas, Matthew J; Storrs, Frances J

    Contact dermatoses are common in mechanic and repair occupations. This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of occupationally related contact dermatitis among mechanics/repairers patch tested from 1998 to 2014 by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, (2) characterize responsible allergens and irritants, and their sources, and (3) compare results among 3 occupational subgroups (mechanics, electrical/electronic, and other). A cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group between 1998 and 2014. Of 38,784 patients patch tested, 691 (1.8%) were mechanics/repairers. Male sex (93.5%) and hand involvement (59.5%) were common overall. Occupationally related skin disease was more prevalent among vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics/repairers (52.7%) and other mechanics/repairers (41.4%) than electrical/electronic equipment mechanics/repairers (21.3%). Overall, carba mix, thiuram mix, and methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone were the most common occupation-related clinically relevant allergens. Gloves, automotive vehicles, solvents, oils, lubricants, and fuels were the most common sources of responsible allergens. Common occupationally related allergens included rubber accelerators and the preservative methylchloroisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to copolymers in cosmetics--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quartier, Sarah; Garmyn, Marjan; Becart, Sophie; Goossens, An

    2006-11-01

    Copolymers or heteropolymers are large molecules with high molecular weights (>1000 D). They have been underestimated for a long time as to their sensitizing capacities. Allergic contact dermatitis to 6 copolymers in cosmetics and 1 in a medical dressing has been described; however, the nature of the hapten is still unknown. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hexadecene copolymer in a purple-colored lipstick and review the literature on allergic contact dermatitis to 7 copolymers: PVP/hexadecene, PVP/eicosene, PVP/1-triacontene, methoxy polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-22/dodecyl glycols, methoxy PEG-17/dodecyl glycols, phthalic anhydride/trimellitic anhydride/glycols, and polyvinyl methyl/maleic acid anhydride.

  13. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis associated with textile dye at an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Türkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru Itır; Ka Radağ, Ayşe Serap

    2015-12-01

    Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis (LCD) is a rare variant of noneczematous allergic contact dermatitis, which can mimick parapsoriasis or early-stage mycosis fungoides with its atypical clinical and histopathological manifestation. Many different haptens have been reported to be associated with this reaction. Histopathological examination, immunhistochemistry, clonality tests, and patch tests are mandatory for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. We present a 48-year-old male with a four years history of a relapsing erythematous plaque on the glans penis. Topical corticosteroids had been prescribed but he complained of relapse upon withdrawal. Histopathological examination was consistent with LCD. Thin layer rapid use epicutaneous patch test result was (++) for disperse blue and nickel sulfate. We present this case because of its rarity and unusual localization. This kind of allergic contact dermatitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis of nonspesific pruritic plaques over the genital region.

  14. Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis associated with textile dye at an unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Uzunçakmak, Tuğba Kevser; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Türkoğlu, Zafer; Zemheri, Ebru Itır; Ka Radağ, Ayşe Serap

    2015-01-01

    Lymphomatoid contact dermatitis (LCD) is a rare variant of noneczematous allergic contact dermatitis, which can mimick parapsoriasis or early-stage mycosis fungoides with its atypical clinical and histopathological manifestation. Many different haptens have been reported to be associated with this reaction. Histopathological examination, immunhistochemistry, clonality tests, and patch tests are mandatory for diagnosis and differential diagnosis. We present a 48-year-old male with a four years history of a relapsing erythematous plaque on the glans penis. Topical corticosteroids had been prescribed but he complained of relapse upon withdrawal. Histopathological examination was consistent with LCD. Thin layer rapid use epicutaneous patch test result was (++) for disperse blue and nickel sulfate. We present this case because of its rarity and unusual localization. This kind of allergic contact dermatitis should be remembered in differential diagnosis of nonspesific pruritic plaques over the genital region. PMID:26904444

  15. Outbreak of contact dermatitis related to Acticide EP paste in a paint manufacturing factory.

    PubMed

    Jee, S H; Chao, K Y; Sun, C C; Wang, J D

    1996-08-01

    An outbreak of severe itching, erythematous and edematous dermatitis over the extremities and upper back developed in 8 of 17 workers in the raw-materials department of a paint manufacturing factory. The outbreak occurred during a 2-month period when Acticide EP paste (Thor Chemical, Cheshire, UK) was used in place of Metatin as a microbiocide (Acima Chemical, Buchs, Switzerland). To evaluate the frequency and the etiologic agent of this outbreak, a plant walk-through, examination and review of photographs of skin lesions followed by statistical analysis for association between the development of dermatitis and exposure to Acticide paste were performed. Three guinea pigs were subjected to patch tests comparing the dermatotoxicity of Acticide EP and Metatin. The results showed that 8 out of 17 workers (47%) suffered from contact dermatitis during the 2-month period. Stratification by occupational exposure further confirmed the association between the development of dermatitis and exposure to the Acticide paste. The dermatotoxicity test on guinea pigs revealed the marked corrosive effect of the paste and the absence of dermatotoxicity of Metatin. After the removal of the paste from the raw material, there were no new cases of contact dermatitis at the 6 month follow-up. We conclude that Acticide EP paste was the responsible offending agent. Because isothiazolinone derivatives are well-known antigens and 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one is the active ingredient in Acticide EP paste, 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one is the likely cause of the dermatitis.

  16. Letter: Allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails: special presentation with a possible airborne pattern.

    PubMed

    Maio, Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo; Amaro, Cristina; Santos, Raquel; Cardoso, Jorge

    2012-02-15

    Sculptured artificial acrylic nails are widely used in developed countries. Methylmethacrylate was first reported in 1941 as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Since then, occupational contact allergies to acrylates in dentistry, orthopedic surgery, printing industry and other industries have been reported. We describe 3 patients with contact allergy to acrylates in artificial nails. Patch tests with the Portuguese baseline series of contact allergens and an extended series of acrylates was applied. We observed three female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from sculptured acrylic nails. Two of these patients were both customers and also technical nail beauticians. Two patients developed periungual eczema; one patient presented only with eyelid dermatitis and no hand or periungual lesions. The tests showed positive reactions to 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2-hydroxypropylmethacrylate (2-HPMA) in three patients. Our cases demonstrate the variety of clinical presentations of allergic contact dermatitis from acrylic nails. They show the need to warn patients of persistent and sometimes permanent side effects of these nails. They also emphasize the importance of cosmetic ingredient labeling.

  17. Facial contact dermatitis and the irritant potential of mobile phone screens.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Rommel; Heras-Mendaza, Felipe; Conde-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    A teenager with atopic dermatitis presented with a 12-month history of recurrent, pruritic, round and polygonal patches on her face. Patch tests using the European standard series (including nickel, chromium, and cobalt chloride), a plastic and glue series of allergens, polyester components, and personal and environmental products in contact with the patient were conducted. For the patient and 3 of 14 healthy volunteers, positive reactions were observed to the patient's mobile phone touchscreen (TS), an extract solution from the TS, and a non-TS phone of another brand. Accordingly, the patient's dermatitis disappeared when contact with mobile phone screens was avoided.

  18. Factors associated with textile pattern dermatitis caused by contact allergy to dyes, finishes, foams, and preservatives.

    PubMed

    Brookstein, David S

    2009-07-01

    From as early as 1869, textile dyes and subsequently finishes have been reported to cause various manifestations of contact dermatitis, from mild to severe and debilitating. The European Union, through Directive (2002/61/EC) to restrict the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (azo colorants) in textile and leather products, has taken the worldwide lead in restricting some dyes as a result of their carcinogenic nature. Given the recent discovery of the new route to contact dermatitis, it is important to continue to be vigilant for new and unexpected sources of allergens from textile, apparel, and furniture items.

  19. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    PubMed Central

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported. PMID:26347280

  20. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis to fiberglass in a factory worker of wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-09-01

    Fiberglass is extensively used due to its properties of thermal, acoustic and electrical insulation, and also to reinforce other materials such as plastics. Irritant contact dermatitis to fiberglass is a well established occupational dermatose and is due to penetration of small fragments in the cornified layer of the skin. On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rare and is more often triggered by sensitivity to the additives and resins used in the manufacture of fiberglass products. We report a case of ACD to fiberglass in a factory worker of fiberglass reinforced products.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hugh; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce

    2006-12-01

    Dexpanthenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid (the water-soluble vitamin B(5)). Although it is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, contact allergy is relatively uncommon. Cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate is a phospholipid complex derived from pure coconut oil, and contact allergy is rare. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

  2. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis: causes and concomitant airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Helaskoski, Eva; Suojalehto, Hille; Kuuliala, Outi; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina

    2017-08-10

    Contact urticaria (CU) and protein contact dermatitis (PCD) are mainly induced by an immediate, IgE-mediated immunological mechanism. Immediate sensitization is also linked to asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. To report causes of work-induced CU and PCD, and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant airway diseases. We retrospectively reviewed the patient files of cases diagnosed with CU or PCD at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1995-2011. We obtained data on occupation, exposures, clinical and immunological test results, and diagnosed occupational skin and respiratory diseases. Altogether, 291 cases of occupational CU or PCD were diagnosed during the study period. The most common causes were flour, cow dander, natural rubber latex, and acid anhydrides. Concomitant occupational asthma caused by the same agent as the skin disease was detected in 60 patients (21%), and occupational rhinitis was detected in 111 patients (38%). Almost half of the patients (46%) with occupational CU and PCD had concomitant occupational airway disease. Patients with CU/PCD should always be asked about respiratory symptoms, and preventive measures at the workplace should include protection of both the skin and the airways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergy Management Program: An Epidemiologic Tool to Quantify Ingredient Usage.

    PubMed

    Scheman, Andrew; Severson, David

    2016-01-01

    The usage prevalence of ingredients in topical products is important to dermatologists and industry. To determine the prevalence of methylisothiazolinone (MI) in various types of consumer products The Contact Allergy Management Program (CAMP) database was mapped and sorted in spreadsheet format to determine the prevalence of MI in various types of consumer products. Methylisothiazolinone was found in 13.2% of 4660 total products in CAMP. High usage of MI was seen in dishwashing products (64%), shampoos (53%), bathroom/kitchen/all-purpose cleaners (47%), hair conditioners (45%), hair dyes (43%), laundry additives/fresheners/softeners (30%), soaps/cleansers (29%), and surface cleaners/disinfectants (27%). Of the products containing MI, MI alone (without methylchloroisothiazolinone) was most common in makeup products (100%), cleaning/dish/laundry products (>99%), moisturizers (82%), shaving products (78%), sunscreens (71%), and antiaging products (67%). The American Contact Dermatitis Society's CAMP is a valuable tool to collect epidemiologic data on the incidence of specific ingredient usage in various types of topical products.

  4. Treatment of poison ivy/oak allergic contact dermatitis with an extract of jewelweed.

    PubMed

    Long, D; Ballentine, N H; Marks, J G

    1997-09-01

    Jewelweed (Impatiens biflora) is a plant which has been used for centuries for the treatment of poison ivy/oak allergic contact dermatitis. Numerous claims for its effectiveness exist in the lay press, and over-the-counter medicaments containing jewelweed are reputed to be an effective remedy for poison ivy/oak dermatitis. Despite these claims, few scientific studies testing the effectiveness of jewelweed have been performed. Our objective in this pilot study was to test the efficacy of an extract of jewelweed in the treatment of experimentally induced allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy/oak. A randomized, double-blinded, paired comparison investigation was performed. Ten adult volunteers were patch tested to urushiol, the allergenic resin in poison ivy/oak. For each volunteer, one patch test site was treated with an extract prepared from the fresh stems of jewelweed; the remaining site was treated with distilled water to serve as a control. Sites were examined on days 2, 3, 7, and 9 with reactions graded on a numerical scale. All subjects developed dermatitis at each patch test site. There was no statistically significant difference in the objective scores at the sites treated with jewelweed extract versus the distilled water control sites. This study demonstrated that an extract of jewelweed was not effective in the treatment of poison ivy/oak allergic contact dermatitis.

  5. Increased risk of stroke in contact dermatitis patients: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Hsu, Min-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chan, Po-Chi; Chang, Ko-Shih; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Tsai, Min-Tein; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Dermatologic diseases are not traditional risk factors of stroke, but recent studies show atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and bullous skin disease may increase the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases. No previous studies have focused on the association between contact dermatitis and stroke.We established a cohort comprised of 48,169 contact dermatitis patients newly diagnosed in 2000-2003 and 96,338 randomly selected subjects without the disorder, frequency matched by sex, age, and diagnosis year, as the comparison cohort. None of them had a history of stroke. Stroke incidence was assessed by the end of 2011 for both cohorts.The incidence stroke was 1.1-fold higher in the contact dermatitis cohort than in the comparison cohort (5.93 vs 5.37 per 1000 person-years, P < 0.01). The multivariable Cox method analyzed adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.19) for all stroke types and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.05-1.20) for ischemic stroke and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.94-1.30) for hemorrhagic stroke. The age-specific aHR of stroke for contact dermatitis cohort increased with age, from 1.14 (95% CI, 1.03-1.27) for 65 to 74 years; to 1.27 (95% CI, 1.15-1.42) for 75 years and older. The aHR of stroke were 1.16 (95% CI, 1.07-1.27) and 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) for men and women, respectively.This study suggests that patients with contact dermatitis were at a modestly increased risk of stroke, significant for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. Comorbidity, particularly hypertension, increased the hazard of stroke further.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Expression of Cytotoxic Proteins in Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Yawalkar, Nikhil; Hunger, Robert E.; Buri, Caroline; Schmid, Simone; Egli, Fabienne; Brand, Christoph U.; Mueller, Christoph; Pichler, Werner J.; Braathen, Lasse R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that cytotoxic T cells are critically involved in contact hypersensitivity reactions in animals. In this study we sought to investigate the in vivo expression of cytotoxic granule proteins in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with allergic contact dermatitis (n = 8) and psoriasis (n = 6) and from controls with normal skin (n = 6). Expression of perforin and granzyme B was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In contrast to normal skin and psoriasis, a significant enhancement of perforin and granzyme B gene expression and immunoreactivity was observed in the mononuclear cell infiltrate of allergic contact dermatitis. Immunoreactivity for perforin and granzyme B was mainly found in the cytoplasm of lymphocytic cells, which were located in the dense perivascular infiltrate as well as at sites of marked spongiosis in the epidermis. Double immunostaining revealed that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are capable of expressing perforin and granzyme B. In conclusion, our data suggest that T-cell-mediated mechanisms involving cytotoxic granule proteins may elicit epidermal cell injury in vivo and thereby strongly contribute to the development of allergic contact dermatitis in humans. PMID:11238028

  7. Contact sensitization in patients with lower extremity dermatitis in the South Moravian region, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Necas, M; Dastychová, E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of contact sensitization in patients with lower extremity dermatitis. Between the years 2001 and 2007, the authors investigated 462 patients (mean age 49.1 years, 196 men and 266 women) with the eczema/dermatitis localized on their lower extremities, including feet. The patients were investigated with epicutaneous tests of the European Standard Series and also with other special patch tests. The most frequent allergens were balsam of Peru, 44/462 (9.5%); wool alcohols, 41/462 (8.9%); nickel sulphate, 39/462 (8.4%); propolis, 35/462 (7.6%); fragrance mix, 34 (7.4%) and colophony, 29/462 (6.3%). In patients with lower extremity dermatitis the frequency of contact sensitization is still high, and therefore investigation with epicutaneous tests should belong to the routine dermatological diagnostic procedure in these patients.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis due to urethane acrylate in ultraviolet cured inks.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J R; Jakubovic, H R; Pilger, C; Smith, J W

    1983-01-01

    Seven workers exposed to ultraviolet printing inks developed contact dermatitis. Six cases were allergic and one irritant. A urethane acrylate resin accounted for five cases of sensitisation, one of which was also sensitive to pentaerythritol triacrylate and another also to an epoxy acrylate resin. One instance of allergy to trimethylpropane triacrylate accounted for the sixth case of contact dermatitis in this group of workers. An irritant reaction is presumed to account for the dermatitis in the individual not proved to have cutaneous allergy by patch tests. In this instance trimethylpropane triacrylate was thought to be the most likely irritating agent. Laboratory investigation proved urethane acrylate to be an allergen. The results of investigations of the sensitisation potentials of urethane acrylate, methylmethacrylate, epoxy acrylate resins, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, and other multifunctional acrylic monomers in the albino guinea pig are presented. The interpretation of such predictive tests is discussed. Images PMID:6223656

  9. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles.

    PubMed

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Gonçalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-09-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which we attribute to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, we showed that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, we noticed a delayed type of irritation after 72 hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is, as far as we know, the first time that a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil in tent-cloth is described.

  10. Mast Cells Limit the Exacerbation of Chronic Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Response to Repeated Allergen Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Rivera, Vladimir-Andrey; Siebenhaar, Frank; Zimmermann, Carolin; Siiskonen, Hanna; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a chronic T cell-driven inflammatory skin disease that is caused by repeated exposure to contact allergens. Based on murine studies of acute contact hypersensitivity, mast cells (MCs) are believed to play a role in its pathogenesis. The role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis has not been investigated, in part because of the lack of murine models for chronic contact hypersensitivity. We developed and used a chronic contact hypersensitivity model in wild-type and MC-deficient mice and assessed skin inflammatory responses to identify and characterize the role of MCs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis. Ear swelling chronic contact hypersensitivity responses increased markedly, up to 4-fold, in MC-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) (Sash) and MCPT5-Cre(+)iDTR(+) mice compared with wild-type mice. Local engraftment with MCs protected Sash mice from exacerbated ear swelling after repeated oxazolone challenge. Chronic contact hypersensitivity skin of Sash mice exhibited elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-17α, and IL-23, as well as increased accumulation of Ag-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells. The CD8(+) T cell mitogen IL-15, which was increased in oxazolone-challenged skin of Sash mice during the accumulation of cutaneous TRM cells, was efficiently degraded by MCs in vitro. MCs protect from the exacerbated allergic skin inflammation induced by repeated allergen challenge, at least in part, via effects on CD8(+) TRM cells. MCs may notably influence the course of chronic allergic contact dermatitis. A better understanding of their role and the underlying mechanisms may lead to better approaches for the treatment of this common, disabling, and costly condition.

  11. Lepidopterism - oak processionary caterpillar dermatitis: appearance after indirect out-of-season contact.

    PubMed

    Maronna, Andreas; Stache, Heiko; Sticherling, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Lepidopterism by contact with oak processionary caterpillars is becoming more frequent in Germany and is often described in the lay press. The hairs of the adolescent caterpillars cause localized and generalized mechanic-irritative, toxic and allergic skin reactions. We describe the oak processionary caterpillar dermatitis in a married couple caused by indirect contact via their dog's saliva, after the dog had oral contact with an abandoned caterpillar nest in winter and became ill. Accordingly, the recommendation for prophylaxis by avoiding contact with oak processionary caterpillars has to be extended beyond the direct contact with caterpillars in summer.

  12. Contact dermatitis to PPD rubber in Maleki shoes.

    PubMed

    Leppard, B J; Parhizgar, B

    1977-04-01

    The Persian cloth shoe (Maleki) which has been in use for more than 800 years has a strong cloth sole and a woven cotton upper. In the last 20 years, used car tires have become readily available in Iran and the soles of some shoes are now made from these. A man with the typical picture of rubber dermatitis on the soles of his feet is described. On patch testing he gave a 2+ positive to PPD rubber and this was thought to be due to the fact that he had worn Maleki shoes for several years.

  13. Neutrophilic and eosinophilic dermatitis caused by contact allergic reaction to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye.

    PubMed

    Lönngren, Vincent; Young, Ewa; Simanaitis, Mecius; Svedman, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes can cause systemic as well as cutaneous allergic reactions such as neutrophilic and eosinophilic dermatitis. The symptoms are often severe. The acute lesion is normally histologically indistinguishable from any eczematous reaction with marked spongiosis. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by the use of hair dye containing PPD that developed in a patient who had been using the same hair dye for many years. Her symptoms included scalp dermatitis and widespread skin lesions as well as lymphadenopathy and quite possibly dyspnea resembling asthma. What is most remarkable about this case is the histopathologic finding of neutrophilic cellulitis and a marked neutrophilic infiltrate with variable spongiosis. This unique finding was confirmed by histologic analysis of a patch test lesion specimen. It is always important to consider contact allergic dermatitis as a cause of dermatitis because of the variable presentation of the disease, including unique histologic findings that do not fit the conventional picture, as in the present case.

  14. [Vesicular contact dermatitis due to Paederus in Cameroon and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vanhecke, C; Le Gall, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2015-12-01

    This irritant blister dermatitis is caused by the genus Paederus whose geographical distribution is worldwide, with a higher incidence in tropical areas. It is induced by direct skin contact with pederin, a blistering and caustic substance found in the abdomen (coelome) of Paederus insects (insect order Coleoptera: family Staphylinidae). The diagnosis is based on the presence of typical clinical features combined with compatible epidemiological features. Our goal is to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of this irritant contact dermatitis in Cameroon through a retrospective study conducted at the end of the rainy season at the Oku Hospital in Northwest Cameroon and to also include cases reported at the medical center of the French Embassy in Yaounde during this same timeframe. In addition, we conducted a literature review of paederus dermatitis. Nineteen patients were included in this study. More than half of the patients presented with more than two lesions predominantly localized to the face or the neck; less than half had complications manifesting as either localized or respiratory reactions and three patients presented periorbital involvement. This study confirms the presence of paederus dermatitis in Cameroon. It is mainly localized in the unusual geoclimatic region of the western high mountains within the country, as well as the usual warm, moist areas of Yaounde. The clinical evolution of this dermatitis is usually one of spontaneous and uneventful resolution with complications being rare. Curative treatment is one of localized topical therapies while oral antibiotic therapy should be reserved for more complicated cases.

  15. Topical application of Scutellaria baicalensis suppresses 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Won; Choi, Jae-Mook; Kim, Myoung-Seok; Son, Hwa-Young; Lim, Jong-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a prototypic T-cell-mediated cutaneous inflammatory response. In the present study we describe the anti-allergic effect of topically applied Scutellaria bacalensis aqueous extract (WSBE) in suppressing 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced ACD in BALB/c mice. Topically applied WSBE attenuated the epidermal thickness and mast cell infiltration into the skin in DNCB-induced contact dermatitis. Furthermore, WSBE suppressed DNCB-induced production of serum IgE as well as IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in the skin. Topical application of WSBE also ameliorated the significant decrease in dermal glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels. Moreover, present results demonstrated that the baicalin, bioactive compound of WSBE, was able to penetrate into the skin following topical application, which was confirmed by the HPLC analysis using rat model. Taken together, topical application of WSBE exerts beneficial effects in contact dermatitis model, suggesting that WSBE might be a candidate for the treatment of contact dermatitis.

  16. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers.

  17. DNA damage and TNFalpha cytokine production in hairdressers with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Delia; Ursini, Cinzia Lucia; Setini, Andrea; Chianese, Concetta; Cristaudo, Antonio; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2005-09-01

    The present work was undertaken to study in hairdressers exposed to several irritants and allergens (prevalently hair-dyeing) and affected by hand contact dermatitis the possible correlation between exposure and direct-oxidative DNA damage, production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and allergic inflammatory disease. We evaluated in 19 hairdressers with hand contact dermatitis, 14 allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 5 irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and in a selected control group TNFalpha serum levels by ELISA and direct-oxidative DNA damage by Fpg (formamido-pyrimidine-glycosylase)-modified Comet test on blood. Hairdressers were divided on the basis of number of hair-dyeing carried out weekly into 2 groups: low-exposure (<60 hair-dyeing/week) and high-exposure hairdressers (>or=60 hair-dyeing/week) that reflect also the exposure to other allergens and irritants and 2 different tasks (hairdressers and apprentice hairdressers, respectively). Serum levels of TNFalpha in hairdressers with ACD were significantly higher than controls with a correlation to exposure level. Significant DNA damage in ICD hairdressers with higher exposure as compared to controls was found. These findings suggest that occupational exposure can induce in hairdressers, particularly ICD, DNA damage, increase the TNFa levels particularly in ACD and induce allergic sensitization, suggesting a relationship between direct-oxidative DNA damage, TNFalpha production and allergic inflammatory disease.

  18. Two cases of contact dermatitis resulting from use of body wash as a skin moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael A; Borys, Doug; Riggins, Michele; Masneri, David C; Levsky, Marc E

    2008-02-01

    The use of liquid skin cleanser or body wash has become common in the United States. We report 2 cases of contact dermatitis secondary to the application of Dove Body Wash (Unilever US, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ) with the consumer misconception that the product was a skin moisturizing cream.

  19. Survey of Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis and Patch Test among Clothing Employees in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Gao, Bing-Ai; Cheng, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Occupational population-based epidemiological data relating to occupational contact allergies in the Chinese clothing industry are limited. To investigate the prevalence of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (OACD) and to identify the causative allergens among clothing employees in China, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 529 clothing employees at 12 clothing factories in Beijing. All employees were subjected to an interview using self-administered questionnaire and skin examination, and those who were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) were patch tested. In the present survey, we found that the overall 1-year prevalence of OACD among the clothing employees was 8.5%. The 1-year prevalence of OACD among workers (10.8%) was significantly higher than that among managers (3.2%). The lesions were primarily on the hands and wrists in workers, but the face and neck in managers. The major allergens were nickel sulfate and cobalt dichloride in workers and colophony and p-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin in managers. In conclusion, workers are at a higher risk of OACD compared with managers in the Chinese clothing industry. In addition to hand dermatitis in workers, airborne contact dermatitis on the face and neck should be also addressed in managers. PMID:28396866

  20. Prevention of poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis by quaternium-18 bentonite.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G; Fowler, J F; Sheretz, E F; Rietschel, R L

    1995-08-01

    Poison ivy and poison oak are the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis in North America. We investigated whether a new topical lotion containing 5% quaternium-18 bentonite prevents experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis. A single-blind, paired comparison, randomized, multicenter investigation was used to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of quaternium-18 bentonite lotion in preventing experimentally induced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis in susceptible volunteers. One hour before both forearms were patch tested with urushiol, the allergenic resin from poison ivy and poison oak, 5% quaternium-18 bentonite lotion was applied on one forearm. The test patches were removed after 4 hours and the sites interpreted for reaction 2, 5, and 8 days later. The difference in reactions between treated and untreated patch test sites was statistically analyzed. Two hundred eleven subjects with a history of allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy and poison oak were studied. One hundred forty-four subjects had positive reactions to urushiol. The test sites pretreated with quaternium-18 bentonite lotion had absent or significantly reduced reactions to the urushiol compared with untreated control sites (p < 0.0001) on all test days. When it occurred, the reaction consistently appeared later on treated than on control sites (p < 0.0001). One occurrence of mild, transient erythema at the application site was the only side effect from the quaternium-18 bentonite lotion. Quaternium-18 bentonite lotion was effective in preventing or diminishing experimentally produced poison ivy and poison oak allergic contact dermatitis.

  1. Patch testing for allergic contact dermatitis to cigarettes: smoked/unsmoked components and formaldehyde factors.

    PubMed

    Carew, Benjamin; Muir, Jim

    2014-08-01

    A patient with hand dermatitis reported that switching her smoking hand resulted in reduced symptoms. When allergy to cigarettes is suspected the literature supports standard allergy testing as well as testing the individual components of cigarettes. Initial standard patch testing revealed an allergy to formaldehyde and the formaldehyde releasing agent, quaternium-15. The patient did not react to her usual roll-your-own cigarette components but reacted to the smoked filter paper of a particular brand of cigarette she frequently borrowed from a friend. Possible explanations include either a variation of ingredients between cigarettes that alters the formaldehyde concentration or another unidentified allergen in the branded cigarette causing allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from the synthetic fragrances Lyral and acetyl cedrene in separate underarm deodorant preparations.

    PubMed

    Handley, J; Burrows, D

    1994-11-01

    The case is reported of a 28-year-old man who developed allergic contact dermatitis from 2 synthetic fragrance ingredients, Lyral (3- and 4-(4-hydroxy-4-methylpentyl)-3-cyclohexene-1-aldehyde) and acetyl cedrene, in separate underarm deodorant preparations. The implications of the patient's negative patch test reactions to the European standard series (Trolab) and cosmetics and fragrance series (both Chemotechnique Diagnostics) are discussed. The importance is stressed of patch testing with the patient's own preparations when cosmetic dermatitis is suspected, and of identifying and reporting offending fragrance ingredients, with a view possibly to updating the European standard series and commercially available cosmetics and fragrance series.

  3. Prospective study of cosmetic reactions: 1977-1980. North American Contact Dermatitis Group.

    PubMed

    Eiermann, H J; Larsen, W; Maibach, H I; Taylor, J S

    1982-05-01

    This prospective study (1977-1980) of cosmetic adverse reactions by eleven dermatologists identified 487 cases of cosmetic-induced dermatitis. Approximately half of the cases were covert in nature. Eight percent were due to allergic contact dermatitis; the face, eye, and upper arm were the most involved sites. Skin care products, hair preparations (including colors), and facial makeup products were the most commonly involved product categories. Fragrances, preservatives, lanolin and lanolin derivatives, p-phenylenediamine, and propylene glycol were most commonly identified causative agents. The data may not be representative of the country at large because of the special interests of the dermatologists involved.

  4. Outbreak of rove beetle (Staphylinid) pustular contact dermatitis in Pakistan among deployed U.S. personnel.

    PubMed

    Dursteler, Brian B; Nyquist, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    Deployed military personnel are often faced with a variety of exposures unfamiliar to U.S. physicians. This is the first report to describe an outbreak of a pustular disease among U.S. personnel deployed to Pakistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Up to 10% of the base population was afflicted with a pustular eruption and an accompanying halo of erythema. A retrospective chart review and ongoing patient care resulted in 191 cases. Various therapies were used, including "watchful waiting." Gradual resolution occurred with residual area(s) of hypo- or hyperpigmentation. An irritant contact dermatitis was suspected based upon clinical presentation; staphylinid (rove) beetles were implicated. Rove beetle dermatitis from a pederin toxin has occurred in other parts of the world but has not been previously reported in Pakistan. We discuss the nature and progression of the dermatitis, treatments, outcomes, measures to control exposures, and the implications of such outbreaks.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in an adhesive on an electrosurgical earthing plate.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Alanko, K

    1998-01-01

    A highly (meth)acrylate-allergic patient underwent surgery because of nodular struma. Three days after her operation she developed an itching dermatitis on her left thigh. She came to our attention 18 days after the operation, because of an oozing, highly pruritic dermatitis, 8 x 19 cm in width on her left thigh, at the site where an electrosurgical earthing plate had been used during the surgery. It was revealed that the pressure-sensitive adhesive of the pad contained 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) to which the patient earlier had had an allergic patch test reaction. The patient was negative on patch testing to other (meth)acrylates present in the pad. Patients should be questioned about possible methacrylate sensitivity before methacrylate-containing electrosurgical earthing plates are used during surgery. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic adhesives is briefly reviewed.

  6. Occupational dermatitis from Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Cichorium (endive). Simultaneous occurrence of immediate and delayed allergy as a cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Krook, G

    1977-02-01

    Four patients with occupational contact dermatitis to Lactuca sativa had cross-sensitivity to Cichorium endivia. One of the patients also had contact urticaria to Lactuca and Cichorium, and another reacted positively to scratch tests with these plants as a sign of immediate allergy. In two cases such immediate allergy was considered the cause of a vesicular, intense itching eruption within a few minutes of contact with fresh leaves of Lactuca on previously eczematous skin. The severe chronic dermatitis of the hands of these patients is ascribed to combined delayed and immediate allergy.

  7. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy chemicals: occupations, sensitizing products, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Pesonen, Maria; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-12-01

    Epoxy products are among the most common causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R) is the most important sensitizer in epoxy systems. To describe patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy products. Patients with allergic reactions to epoxy chemicals were chosen from test files (January 1991 to June 2014). Only patients with occupational contact allergy to some component of epoxy resin systems were included. We analysed patch test results, occupation, symptoms, and exposure data. We found a total of 209 cases with occupational contact allergy to epoxy chemicals. The largest occupational groups were painters (n = 41), floor layers (n = 19), electrical industry workers (n = 19), tile setters (n = 16), and aircraft industry workers (n = 15). A total of 82% of the patients reacted to DGEBA-R. Diagnosis of the DGEBA-R-negative patients required testing with m-xylylenediamine, N,N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylenedianiline, 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether, 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol, diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F resin, N,N'-diglycidyl-4-glycidyloxyaniline, isophoronediamine, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, diethylenetriamine, and cresyl glycidyl ether. The hands/upper extremities were most commonly affected (69%), but facial symptoms were also frequent (60%). Allergic contact dermatitis caused by to epoxy products cannot always be diagnosed by the use of commercial test substances. Workplace products need to be tested. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Erythema multiforme associated with contact dermatitis to poison ivy: three cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L M; Cohen, J L

    1998-09-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is a hypersensitivity reaction that occurs mainly after exposure to certain medications or in the setting of infection, most commonly that due to herpes simplex virus. Rare cases of EM have been reported after allergic contact dermatitis due to various substances. There has been one case in the literature of EM following Rhus contact dermatitis. We report three patients who developed EM after allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy. In all three patients, targetoid lesions developed primarily on the palms and soles, either after a brief course of prednisone or during its taper. Two of the patients have had more than one episode of EM after poison ivy dermatitis. Although EM has been described after allergic contact dermatitis due to a variety of antigens (nickel being the most common), there is only one report in the literature of EM following Rhus contact dermatitis. Given the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy, this may be an under-reported complication.

  9. Contact allergy to corticosteroids and Malassezia furfur in seborrhoeic dermatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Ljubojevic, S; Lipozencic, J; Basta-Juzbasic, A

    2011-06-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic skin disease, requiring long-term treatment, which might promote sensitization. Malassezia furfur (Mf) plays an important role in seborrhoeic dermatitis. Objectives  The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of contact sensitivity in SD patients. A total of 100 patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were investigated: 50 suffering from SD with no previous local corticosteroid treatment (SDN), 50 SD patients treated with local corticosteroids (SDC). Mycological examination for Mf was performed. All patients were patch tested with the baseline standard, corticosteroid series, with 12 commercial corticosteroid preparations frequently used in Croatia; and also with Mf. Malassezia furfur was found in 44 (88%) SDN, 37 (74%) SDC, and in 4 (20%) HC; patch test reaction to Mf was positive in one SDN and in three SDC. Positive patch tests to standard allergens were observed in 17 (34%) SDN, 33 (66%) SDC and 2 (10%) HC. Patch tests to the corticosteroid series revealed positive reactions in 4 SDC and to commercial corticosteroids in seven patients, i.e. 2 SD and 5 SDC. Patch tests to the baseline series and to both individual corticosteroid and commercial corticosteroid preparations should be performed in SD patients with persistent dermatitis, as contact-allergic reactions may complicate their dermatitis. Sensitization to Mf was found to be infrequent. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Contact Dermatitis Due to Nickel Allergy in Patients Suffering from Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    D’Alcamo, Alberto; Mansueto, Pasquale; Soresi, Maurizio; Iacobucci, Rosario; La Blasca, Francesco; Geraci, Girolamo; Cavataio, Francesca; Fayer, Francesca; Arini, Andrea; Di Stefano, Laura; Iacono, Giuseppe; Bosco, Liana; Carroccio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is a new clinical entity in the world of gluten-related diseases. Nickel, the most frequent cause of contact allergy, can be found in wheat and results in systemic nickel allergy syndrome and mimics irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Objective: To evaluate the frequency of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy in NCWS patients diagnosed by a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenge, and to identify the characteristics of NCWS patients with nickel allergy. Methods: We performed a prospective study of 60 patients (54 females, 6 males; mean age 34.1 ± 8.1 years) diagnosed with NCWS from December 2014 to November 2016; 80 age- and sex-matched subjects with functional gastrointestinal symptoms served as controls. Patients reporting contact dermatitis related to nickel-containing objects underwent nickel patch test (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02750735). Results: Six out of sixty patients (10%) with NCWS suffered from contact dermatitis and nickel allergy and this frequency was statistically higher (p = 0.04) than observed in the control group (5%). The main clinical characteristic of NCWS patients with nickel allergy was a higher frequency of cutaneous symptoms after wheat ingestion compared to NCWS patients who did not suffer from nickel allergy (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Contact dermatitis and nickel allergy are more frequent in NCWS patients than in subjects with functional gastrointestinal disorders; furthermore, these patients had a very high frequency of cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. Nickel allergy should be evaluated in NCWS patients who have cutaneous manifestations after wheat ingestion. PMID:28157173

  11. Case of allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-butylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Atsuko; Ito, Akiko; Masui, Yukiko; Ito, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Butylene glycol (1,3-BG) is widely used in cosmetics, including low-irritant skin care products and topical medicaments, as an excellent and low-irritation humectant. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-BG. A 28-year-old woman suffered from an itchy erythematous eruption on her face. By 2 days of closed patch testing, her own cosmetics and many of the hypo-irritant skin care products showed positive results. A second patch testing showed positive reaction to 1,3-BG (1% and 5%). 1,3-BG was a common component in most of the products that had elicited a positive reaction in the first patch testing. Although allergic contact dermatitis due to 1,3-BG is not so common, we have to consider 1,3-BG as a possible contact allergen in the patients presenting with allergic contact dermatitis due to various cosmetics.

  12. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  13. Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vega, Francisco; Ramos, Tania; Las Heras, Paloma; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant allergic reactions to multiple drugs are uncommon. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. It is notable that one of the reactions was caused by oral nystatin, which generally is not considered to be allergenic due to its poor intestinal absorption. Diagnoses were confirmed on patch testing with histologic examination along with oral challenge testing. We also used challenge testing to rule out cross-reactivity among nystatin and other macrolide drugs, both antifungals and antibiotics.

  14. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent: retrospective results from a tertiary clinic suggesting an association with facial dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P

    2016-10-01

    Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (Ptrend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. Severe allergic contact dermatitis induced by paraphenylenediamine in paint-on temporary 'tattoos'.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Nixon, R

    2000-08-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a black dye with well known sensitizing properties. Its increasing use as a skin paint to produce temporary 'tattoos' has led to recent reports of allergic contact dermatitis. Hitherto, such cases of allergic contact dermatitis due to PPD have been localized to the original site of application of the skin paint. We report two cases of severe allergic reactions to paint-on 'tattoos'. Both of these patients had no prior history of sensitivity to PPD, although case 2 had previously used permanent hair dyes. In both cases, the primary eruption at the 'tattoo' site was followed within days by a generalized eruption which ultimately required treatment with oral corticosteroids, because the initially prescribed topical corticosteroids proved ineffective.

  16. Contact dermatitis to topical acne drugs: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Borghi, Alessandro; Angelini, Gianni; Bonamonte, Domenico; Corazza, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic dermatological disorder that affects the majority of teenagers in the Western world. Topical therapy is widely used to treat mild-moderate acne and is known as well-tolerated thanks to its low systemic toxicity, although associated to skin adverse effects. Acne seems to be associated also to an intrinsic alteration of the epidermal barrier, regarding both the upper and the follicular stratum corneum that promotes the onset of such local side effects. The commonest one is irritant contact dermatitis, an event of frequent observation occurring with erythema, burning, dryness, scaling, and itching, usually characterized by low severity and limited duration. Among topical acne drugs, retinoids are the most irritating ones. Another side effect is allergic contact dermatitis: it is rare and mainly associated to benzoyl peroxide. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Fiddler's Neck Accompanied by Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Nickel in a Viola Player.

    PubMed

    Jue, Mihn Sook; Kim, Yong Seok; Ro, Young Suck

    2010-02-01

    "Fiddler's neck" is an irritant contact dermatitis that frequently affects violin and viola players. The etiology of the skin changes associated with this condition are probably attributable to a combination of factors--including increased pressure, friction, poor hygiene, and excessive perspiration. Clinically, the lesions generally consist of a localized area of lichenification on the left side of the neck just below the angle of the jaw. Herein, we report a case of fiddler's neck in a viola player, attended by allergic contact dermatitis to the nickel in the metal fixtures of a viola. We hope that our case report draws the attention of dermatologists toward this, and many other skin problems that affect musicians.

  18. Contact Dermatitis Reaction to 2-Octyl Cyanoacrylate Following 3 Orthopedic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Lake, Nicholas H; Barlow, Brian T; Toledano, James E; Valentine, Johannah; McDonald, Lucas S

    2017-09-21

    Two-octyl cyanoacrylate is a popular skin adhesive used for closing surgical incisions. Since Food and Drug Administration approval in 1998, the few reports of adverse reactions following its use have primarily been limited to the nonorthopedic literature. The authors present a case series of contact dermatitis associated with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate following orthopedic surgery and a review of the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of this complication. All 3 patients presented with blistering around their incisions within 2 weeks of surgery and responded to treatment involving removal of the offending agent and use of oral diphenhydramine and hydroxyzine and topical triamcinolone. One case was complicated by a draining hematoma, requiring irrigation and debridement. Complete resolution occurred in all cases. This case series is intended to increase awareness in the orthopedic community of allergic contact dermatitis to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate and its appropriate treatment. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Systemic contact dermatitis in children: how an avoidance diet can make a difference.

    PubMed

    Matiz, Catalina; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is an under-recognized skin reaction that occurs secondary to systemic (oral, intravenous, intramuscular, inhaled, or subcutaneous) exposure to a hapten in a previously sensitized individual. Medicaments are the most common cause of SCD in the adult population, but other chemicals like nickel, cobalt, balsam of Peru, and formaldehyde have been implicated as well. Few reports in children exist to date. Dietary restriction has shown to be of some benefit in managing some adult patients. We present a case series of 8 pediatric patients diagnosed with SCD from the contact dermatology clinic, who showed marked improvement of their dermatitis after adequate dietary avoidance. We review common presentations of chemicals causing SCD in children and potential dietary modifications.

  20. A case of generalized allergic contact dermatitis after laser tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Ahu; Onan, Duru Tabanlioglu; Artuz, Ferda; Gunes, Ridvan

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos are popular body decorations mainly done for cosmetic purposes. Regarded as a form of self-expression, tattoos reflect the character of the person wearing it. However, as tatoos are persistent visual markings on the body, frequently misperceived by the others causing tattooed to seek removal. Today most of the tattoos can be successfully treated with laser ablation. Here we present a case of generalized allergic contact dermatitis after laser tattoo removal which is a rare adverse reaction of laser tattoo removal.

  1. [Toxic contact dermatitis from poison ivy in a private garden in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schauder, S; Callauch, R; Hausen, B M

    2006-07-01

    A couple suffered for 5 years from recurrent eruptions with vesicles and bullae after contact with an unknown "climbing weed" in their private garden in Germany. After this plant was identified as poison ivy and eradicated, their skin problems were solved. This is the first report of poison ivy in this setting. Urushiols in poison ivy are not only strong allergens but also potent irritants. Negative patch tests in the husband suggest that the bullous dermatitis was a toxic reaction.

  2. 365 Patch Testing Results in Contact Dermatitis from the Allergist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Marcella; Michelis, Mary Ann; Lighvani, Sebastian; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Fonacier, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background Contact Dermatitis (CD) is a frequently encountered skin disease by allergists and dermatologists that results from contact with external allergens. Patch Testing (PT) remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of allergic CD. Studies evaluating PT from allergy practices are lacking. Methods A multi-center, retrospective chart review of PT within the last 5 years at allergy practices in 3 institutions. We report PT results using allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid-Use Epicutaneous Test (TT) and additional supplemental allergens [North American Contact Dermatitis (NACD) Panel, Dormer Cosmetic Panel, hairdresser's panel, corticosteroid panel and personal products]. Additionally, patient characteristics including age, gender, occupation, dermatitis site, history of atopic disease and final diagnosis were also obtained. Results A total of 427 patients (mean age = 49.8 years) were patch tested, 82% were female, 54% reported an atopic history (history of asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis or food allergy), 30% were tested with TT, 60% with NACD panel, 30% with cosmetic series, 15% with corticosteroid series and 35% with personal products. The 5 most common positive PT allergens were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix I, P-phenylenediamine, thimerosal and cobalt chloride. The most common dermatitis sites were eyelid/periorbital (31%), facial (25%) and trunk (21%). 56.9% of patients were positive to at least one TT allergen. 25.6% of patients were positive to both a TT and a supplemental allergen (these patients would have been “partially evaluated” with TT allergens alone as they are positive to at least 1 TT allergen and 1 supplemental allergen). 12.5% of patients were negative to a TT allergen and positive to at least 1 supplemental allergen only (these patients would have been “missed” as they are negative to all TT allergens, but positive to at least 1 supplemental allergen). Conclusions Nickel remains the most common allergen. When evaluating

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    PubMed

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens.

  4. Parthenium dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Sethuraman, Gomathy

    2007-12-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus and Tanacetum parthenium, members of the Compositae family, are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis due to plants. Parthenium dermatitis is a major problem in India and Australia. Parthenium hysterophorus causes a spectrum of clinical patterns. Parthenium dermatitis, in its classical form known as airborne contact dermatitis, primarily affects the exposed areas and the flexures. Other clinical patterns are a seborrheic pattern, widespread dermatitis, and exfoliative dermatitis. The trend of the clinical pattern is changing. The classic airborne contact dermatitis may change to photodermatitis resembling chronic actinic dermatitis or mixed pattern dermatitis. The allergens responsible for contact dermatitis are sesquiterpene lactones and are present in the oleoresin fraction of the leaf, the stem, and the flower and also in pollen. The allergens can be extracted in various solvents (such as acetone, alcohol, ether, and water) and then used for patch testing. Acetone extract of Parthenium is better than aqueous extract in eliciting contact sensitivity. Treatment of Parthenium dermatitis is mostly symptomatic. Topical steroids, antihistamines, and avoidance of Parthenium are the mainstay of treatment for localized dermatitis. Systemic corticosteroids and azathioprine are frequently needed for severe or persistent dermatitis.

  5. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from epoxy resin in a golf club repairman.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Möller, Halvor; Pontén, Ann

    2008-01-01

    A golfer presented with facial and hand eczema. He had exacerbations of his hand eczema prior to golf tournaments. Being an authorized golf club repairman, he had been working with a two-part glue containing an epoxy resin (ER) based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and the hardener diethylenetriamine (DETA) for approximately 4 years before he developed any skin problems. He was patch-tested with the standard, which contains an ER based on DGEBA (DGEBA-R), epoxy (containing DETA), and rubber glove series and had positive reactions to DGEBA-R only. Other work materials (a latex glove, a golf glove made of leather, and part of the handle of his own golf club "as is" and in a methyl tert-butyl ether extract) were tested, with negative results. Allergic contact dermatitis from ER affects the skin by direct contact; the dermatitis is usually localized to the hands and forearms. If the face and eyelids are involved, the dermatitis may be due to exposure to airborne hardeners or reactive diluents, exposure to airborne dust from residual monomers, or ectopic allergic reactions. Our repairman had sandpapered an old glued surface, which may have led to possible airborne dust formation, thus explaining the facial eczema. Therefore, a worker with contact allergy to ER may continue working provided the skin is protected from contamination.

  6. Immunology and genetics of tumour necrosis factor in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Daan; Schuttelaar, Marie L

    2017-05-01

    During the sensitization phase of allergic contact dermatitis, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) plays an important role by promoting epidermal Langerhans cell migration to draining lymph nodes. It also plays a role during the elicitation phase. The TNF gene (TNF) is located within the major histocompatibility complex region. Many single-nucleotide variants exist in the promoter region of TNF, and these may either increase or decrease mRNA transcription and therefore lead to higher or lower levels of TNF. The most extensively studied single-nucleotide variant of TNF is a base pair substitution in the promoter region at location -308 relative to the transcription start site (rs1800629, TNF -308G>A), which is believed to increase transcription and lead to higher TNF levels. The role of TNF in allergic contact dermatitis and the functionality of TNF -308G>A are reviewed in this article. The association between genetic variants and disease can be studied in a case-control design. Only a few case-control studies investigating the association between TNF -308G>A and allergic contact dermatitis have been published, with contradictory results. These are reviewed critically, and suggestions for future case-control studies on this topic are made.

  7. Multicenter study of preservative sensitivity in patients with suspected cosmetic contact dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang S; Hong, Dong K; Jeong, Nam J; Lee, Jeung H; Choi, Yun-Seok; Lee, Ai-Young; Lee, Cheol-Heon; Kim, Kea J; Park, Hae Y; Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Ga-Young; Lee, Joon; Eun, Hee C; Moon, Kee-Chan; Seo, Seong J; Hong, Chang K; Lee, Sang W; Choi, Hae Y; Lee, Jun Y

    2012-08-01

    As many new cosmetic products are introduced into the market, attention must be given to contact dermatitis, which is commonly caused by cosmetics. We investigate the prevalence of preservative allergy in 584 patients with suspected cosmetic contact dermatitis at 11 different hospitals. From January 2010 to March 2011, 584 patients at 11 hospital dermatology departments presented with cosmetic contact dermatitis symptoms. These patients were patch-tested for preservative allergens. An irritancy patch test performed on 30 control subjects using allergens of various concentrations showed high irritancy rates. Preservative hypersensitivity was detected in 41.1% of patients. Allergens with the highest positive test rates were benzalkonium chloride (12.1%), thimerosal (9.9%) and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) (5.5%). Benzalkonium chloride and chlorphenesin had the highest irritancy rate based on an irritancy patch test performed using various concentrations. Seven of 30 normal subjects had a positive irritant patch reading with 0.1% benzalkonium chloride and eight of 30 normal subjects had a positive irritant patch reading at 4 days with 0.5% chlorphenesin in petrolatum. Although benzalkonium chloride was highly positive for skin reactions in our study, most reactions were probably irritation. MCI/MI and thimerosal showed highly positive allergy reactions in our study. The optimum concentration of chlorphenesin to avoid skin reactions is less than 0.5%. © 2012 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  8. Occupational contact dermatitis caused by aniline epoxy resins in the aircraft industry.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maria; Suuronen, Katri; Jolanki, Riitta; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Valtanen, Ilona; Alanko, Kristiina

    2015-08-01

    Tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylenedianiline (TGMDA) is an aniline epoxy resin used in, for example, resin systems of pre-impregnated composite materials (prepregs) of the aircraft industry. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by TGMDA in prepregs has been described previously. To report on 9 patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by TGMDA in epoxy glues used in helicopter assembly. The patients were examined with patch testing at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 2004-2009. The first patient was diagnosed by testing both components of two epoxy glues from the workplace, and was also tested with glue ingredients, including TGMDA. The following patients were tested with the glues and TGMDA. The resin parts of the glues were analysed for their epoxy compounds, including TGMDA. All of the patients had a patch test reaction to one or both of the resin parts of the TGMDA-containing glues. Eight of them had a strong allergic reaction to TGMDA, and one had a doubtful reaction to TGMDA. Two of the patients also had an allergic reaction to triglycidyl-p-aminophenol (TGPAP), another aniline epoxy resin, which was not present in the TGMDA-containing glues. In aircraft industry workers with suspected occupational dermatitis, aniline epoxy resins should be considered and patch tested as possible contact allergens. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from alkanolamineborates in metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Hradil, E; Eriksohn, I L; Gruvberger, B; Widström, L

    1995-01-01

    Alkanolamineborates are extensively used in coolants as corrosion inhibitors. In this paper, 3 machinists with contact allergy to alkanolamineborates are reported. To avoid false-positive test reactions due to the alkalinity of the alkanolamineborates, they should be tested when dissolved in an acidic buffer. When various alkanolamineborates were tested in dilution series in the 3 patients, 2 types of reactivity patterns emerged, indicating the existence of at least 2 separate sensitizers in alkanolamineborates. The raw materials, ethanolamines and boric acid, did not yield any positive patch test reactions. Thin-layer chromatography investigations demonstrated that each alkanolamineborate consists of many substances, which differed in part between different alkanolamineborates. The present study shows that it is not possible to use 1 particular alkanolamineborate for tracing contact allergy to alkanolamineborates in general.

  10. Contact dermatitis to alcohol swabs masquerading as vaccine allergy.

    PubMed

    Storer, Emma; Marshman, Gillian; Kupa, Ann

    2004-05-01

    A 14-year-old girl developed an eruption on her upper arm of pruritic, follicular papules each time she received a vaccination. This was initially thought to be a local reaction to the vaccines. After a similar rash appeared at a venepuncture site, a contact allergy to the alcohol swabs used before the procedures was postulated. A repeated open application test clarified this observation.

  11. Allergie acute contact dermatitis due to Arnica tincture self-medication.

    PubMed

    Hörmann, H P; Korting, H C

    1995-04-01

    After repeated intermittent use of Arnica tincture for rosacea a 66-year-old patient developed acute allergic contact dermatitis with blistering upon the single application of Arnica tincture to the dorsum of the right hand for minor swelling. Contact allergy of the delayed type to Arnica tincture could be proven by patch testing. Early diagnosis and treatment prevented exacerbation and spreading of the disease. In view of the wide use of Arnica preparations, particularly for self-medication, and the notable sensitizing potential, Arnica tincture should be a regular component of patch test series, at least when drug allergy is suspected.

  12. Dermatoses of the neck affecting violin and viola players ("fiddler's neck", and contact dermatitis).

    PubMed

    Tennstedt, D; Cromphaut, P; Dooms-Goossens, A; Lachapelle, J M

    1979-01-01

    Skin lesions occurring on the neck of violin or viola players are described, in the light of two personal observations. The lesions can be divided into two types: 1. Lesions described as "fiddler's neck", i.e. an area of erythematous, sometimes pigmented or scaly lichenification on the left side of the neck, just below the angle of the jaw, where the chin rest of the instrument is in contact with the skin. Histopathologic features of the lesions are described. 2. Allergic contact dermatitis to wooden or metallic parts of the violin. The recent literature is reviewed.

  13. [Allergic contact dermatitis from colophony and turpentine in resins of untreated pine wood].

    PubMed

    Booken, D; Velten, F W; Utikal, J; Goerdt, S; Bayerl, C

    2006-11-01

    Pine wood is one of the most used raw products in furniture manufacturing in Europe. High concentrations of colophony and turpentine can be extracted from pine resins. A 45-year-old woman developed a contact dermatitis of the face and hands due to a sensitization to colophony and turpentine after she had bought untreated pine chairs. The increased use of untreated pine in the furniture industry might result in an increase of colophony and turpentine-induced contact allergies. Therefore, the slogan "untreated=harmless" should be considered critically in such cases.

  14. [Allergic contact dermatitis to common ivy (Hedera helix L.)].

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, C; Schneider, L A; Hinrichs, R; Staib, G; Weber, L; Weiss, J M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2003-10-01

    Common ivy (Hedera helix L.) is a ubiquitous plant in Europe whose major allergen falcarinol has moderate allergic potential. It is not related to poison ivy (Toxicodendron spp.). There are no cross reactions between the allergens of common ivy (falcarinol) and poison ivy (urushiol). Contact with common ivy or falcarinol may lead to sensitization and then a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. There are only few cases described in the literature. We report on a male hobby gardener with appropriate clinical history and positive patch test. The pathogenic mechanism is a type IV reaction following a sensitization exposure. Gardeners and landscape architects with frequent exposure to common ivy and thus a high risk of sensitization should wear appropriate protective clothing.

  15. Efficacy of a Hand Regimen in Skin Barrier Protection in Individuals With Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. To review the pathogenesis and treatment options for OICD and evaluate the ef cacy of a selective skin-care regimen involv- ing a hand protectant cream alone as well as combined with a repair cream and speci c cleanser. A single-center open study was performed comprising 42 healthy male and female adult volunteers prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to frequent wet work or contact with detergents. Between day 0 and day 7, subjects applied a hand protectant cream as needed on both hands (at least twice daily). On days 7 to 14, subjects applied a hand protectant cream and cleanser as needed on both hands (at least twice daily) as well as a repair cream each evening. A diary log was given to each volunteer for application control and for a subjective evaluation of daily tolerability. In these subjects prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis, the hand protectant cream applied during the initial 7-day period was effective in restoring the damaged skin barrier and improving the stratum corneum hydration. A regimen that combined the hand protectant and repair creams with a speci c cleanser during a further 7-day period allowed contin- ued improvement of skin hydration and additional clinical bene ts while respecting the skin barrier function. The results of this study support the use of a 3-step approach for patients who are at risk of repeated exposure to external irritants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(suppl 11):s81-85..

  16. Topical royal jelly alleviates symptoms of pruritus in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Tomono, Ayana; Suwa, Eriko; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is widely used as a health tonic, especially in Asia. Royal jelly is commonly used in cosmetics as well as in dietary supplements and beverages. Little is known, however, about the pharmacologic efficacy of topical royal jelly. Therefore, we investigated the antipruritic activity of topical royal jelly on chronic pruritus in experimental allergic contact dermatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Hairless mice (HOS: HR-1), with chronic allergic contact dermatitis induced by 5 weeks of repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) to the entire back skin were treated topically with royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) for 5 weeks after sensitization with TNCB. The effects of royal jelly on pruritus and inflammation were evaluated by measurement of scratching behavior and skin inflammation score, respectively. Results: Repeated application of TNCB to the back skin of mice elicited frequent scratching behavior immediately and 24h after challenge. Topical royal jelly (0.01% or 1%) and betamethasone (0.01%) significantly ameliorated this chronic pruritus throughout the experimental period. The level of nerve growth factor mRNA in back skin was increased in the mice with dermatitis and reduced by betamethasone, but not by royal jelly. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of royal jelly on chronic pruritus may occur through different mechanisms from those of betamethasone. Topical application of royal jelly, as used in cosmetics, might be beneficial for the alleviation of chronic pruritus. PMID:23661987

  17. Are material safety data sheets (MSDS) useful in the diagnosis and management of occupational contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Keegel, Tessa; Saunders, Helen; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Nixon, Rosemary

    2007-11-01

    This study assesses both the success of medical practitioners in accessing hazardous substances' information from product manufacturers and the accuracy and clinical usefulness of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) presented by workers with suspected occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). 100 consecutively presented MSDS were collected from 42 workers attending an occupational dermatology clinic. Product manufacturers were contacted to verify ingredients. MSDS were evaluated for compliance with the Australian criteria for listing of OCD relevant information (sensitizers present at a concentration > or =1%, irritants present at a concentration > or =20%), and for clinical usefulness. All sensitizers were checked for clinical relevance to the worker's dermatitis. Manufacturers supplied product constituents for 77/100 MSDS. 58 MSDS satisfied the Australian standard. 57/58 MSDS were deemed clinically useful. Irritants were listed for 19/23 MSDS and sensitizers were listed for 30/68 MSDS (P = 0.001). 3 MSDS contained sensitizers, which were clinically relevant to the presenting worker's dermatitis, 1 appropriately listed, 1 present at > or =1% but not listed, and 1 present at <1% in the product and therefore, not required to be listed. Sensitizers are frequently omitted from MSDS and clinicians are often unsuccessful in obtaining crucial information from manufacturers. MSDS are inadequate for the protection and diagnosis of workers with suspected OCD.

  18. Epidermal Hyperplasia and Elevated HB-EGF are More Prominent in Retinoid Dermatitis Compared with Irritant Contact Dermatitis Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Chang, Jae Yong; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Jeong Seon; Lee, Min Geol

    2010-01-01

    Background 'Retinoid dermatitis' is a retinoid-induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). The mechanism of retinoid dermatitis may be different from that of other ICDs. However, it remains uncertain how topical retinoid induce ICD. Objective We compared several aspects of contact dermatitis induced by topical retinol and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) on hairless mice skin. Methods 2% retinol or 2.5% BKC was applied to hairless mice and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), ear thickness, histologic and immunohistochemical findings were compared. We also compared mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, epidermal differential markers, cyclooxygenases (COXs) and heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF). Results Topical application of 2% retinol and 2.5% BKC increased TEWL and ear thickness in similar intensity. Epidermal hyperplasia was more prominent in retinol treated skin. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, involucrin and loricrin expression were higher in retinol-treated skin than in BKC-treated skin. Filaggrin, however, was more expressed in BKC-treated skin. The mRNA expression of IL-8, TNF-α, COX-2, involucrin, loricrin and filaggrin were increased in both retinol- and BKC-treated skin in similar intensity. HB-EGF was more significantly increased in retinol-treated skin. Conclusion Elevated HB-EGF and epidermal hyperplasia are more prominent features of retinoid dermatitis than in BKC-induced ICD. PMID:20711265

  19. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    PubMed Central

    Gambichler, Thilo; Boms, Stefanie; Freitag, Marcus

    2004-01-01

    Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis) due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists), woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists), and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters), include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods) and irritant (physical-chemical noxae) skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin"). Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads") more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological investigations have

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to detergents: a multicenter study to assess prevalence.

    PubMed

    Belsito, Donald V; Fransway, Anthony F; Fowler, Joseph F; Sherertz, Elizabeth F; Maibach, Howard I; Mark, James G; Mathias, C G Toby; Rietschel, Robert L; Storrs, Frances J; Nethercott, James R

    2002-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to optical brighteners and enzymes in laundry detergents was the focus of numerous reports in the early 1970s. Subsequently, there has been little published on the incidence of allergic reactions to chemicals in laundry detergents. Nonetheless, consumers and physicians continue to ascribe allergic contact reactions to laundry detergents. This article reports the findings of a multicenter study on the prevalence of patch test reactions to a liquid and a granular laundry detergent provided by Procter & Gamble Company (Cincinnati, Ohio). Patients referred to members of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group for evaluation of potential ACD were invited to participate in the study, which involved the placement of 2 patch tests (a 0.1% aqueous dilution of a granular laundry detergent and a 0.1% aqueous dilution of a liquid laundry detergent). Whether the patients had atopic dermatitis and whether they or their physicians felt that their dermatitis might be related to laundry detergents were noted. Reactions to the laundry detergents were correlated with allergic reactions to the following screening chemicals: fragrances, nickel, and potassium dichromate. Patients who experienced a reaction to at least one of the laundry detergents could enter phase II of the study, which involved testing to varying dilutions of the laundry detergents, to 0.1% sodium lauryl sulfate (as an irritant control), and to laundered patches of cotton. Patients positive in phase II could enter phase III, which involved wearing a garment laundered with the detergent. Phases II and III were double blinded. Of the 3120 patients seen by members of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group during the 2 years of this study, 738 patients volunteered to enroll. Enrollment was not statistically randomized. Of these 738, 5 (0.7%) had positive patch test reactions to granular laundry detergent (0.1%, aqueous); 3 of these 5 also had positive reactions to the liquid

  1. Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation.

  2. Severity and functional disability of patients with occupational contact dermatitis: validation of the German version of the Occupational Contact Dermatitis Disease Severity Index.

    PubMed

    Ofenloch, Robert F; Diepgen, Thomas L; Popielnicki, Ana; Weisshaar, Elke; Molin, Sonja; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; Elsner, Peter; Schmitt, Jochen; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The Occupational Contact Dermatitis Disease Severity Index (ODDI) was designed in Australia to measure severity and functional disability in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) of the hands. The ODDI was translated into the German language with a linguistic validation process. The psychometric properties of the German version of the ODDI are still unclear. To report the linguistic validation procedure and to perform a psychometric validation by investigating the validity and reliability of the German ODDI version in a sample of patients with OCD. Data were drawn from the baseline assessment (T0) and first follow-up (T1) of the German chronic hand eczema (CHE) registry (CARPE). Spearman correlations of the ODDI with reference measures were computed to assess validity. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as a measure of internal consistency, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess retest reliability. The smallest real difference (SRD) and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) were calculated to assess sensitivity to change. Physician Global Assessment (PGA) was used as an anchor for the MCID. Four hundred and twenty-two patients (54.5% female, mean age 45.1 years) were included for analysis. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.73. The ICC was 0.79. Correlations between the ODDI total and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (rho = 0.36), and between PGA (rho = 0.48) and patient-assessed disease severity (rho = 0.40), were of moderate strength. The MCID (1.29) was found to be smaller than the SRD (1.87). The German ODDI version is reliable and valid for the measurement of functional impairment and disease severity in patients suffering from OCD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinones in water-based paints: a retrospective study of 44 cases.

    PubMed

    Amsler, Emmanuelle; Aerts, Olivier; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Debons, Michèle; Milpied, Brigitte; Giordano-Labadie, Françoise; Waton, Julie; Ferrier-Le Bouëdec, Marie C; Lartigau, Isabelle; Pecquet, Catherine; Assier, Haudrey; Avenel-Audran, Martine; Bernier, Claire; Castelain, Florence; Collet, Evelyne; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Genillier, Nathalie; Girardin, Pascal; Pralong, Pauline; Tetart, Florence; Vital-Durand, Dominique; Soria, Angele; Barbaud, Annick

    2017-09-01

    Airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones has been recognized as a health hazard. To collect epidemiological, clinical and patch test data on airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by isothiazolinone-containing paints in France and Belgium. A descriptive, retrospective study was initiated by the Dermatology and Allergy Group of the French Society of Dermatology, including methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI)- and/or MI-sensitized patients who developed airborne allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to isothiazolinone-containing paint. Forty-four cases were identified, with mostly non-occupational exposure (79.5%). Of the patients, 22.5% of also had mucosal symptoms. In several cases, the dermatitis required systemic corticosteroids (27.3%), hospitalization (9.1%), and/or sick leave (20.5%). A median delay of 5.5 weeks was necessary to enable patients to enter a freshly painted room without a flare-up of their dermatitis. Approximately one-fifth of the patients knew that they were allergic to MI and/or MCI/MI before the exposure to paints occurred. Our series confirms that airborne allergic contact dermatitis caused by paints containing isothiazolinones is not rare, and may be severe and long-lasting. Better regulation of isothiazolinone concentrations in paints, and their adequate labelling, is urgently needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Patients with atopic dermatitis have attenuated and distinct contact hypersensitivity responses to common allergens in skin.

    PubMed

    Correa da Rosa, Joel; Malajian, Dana; Shemer, Avner; Rozenblit, Mariya; Dhingra, Nikhil; Czarnowicki, Tali; Khattri, Saakshi; Ungar, Benjamin; Finney, Robert; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Xiuzhong; Estrada, Yeriel D; Peng, Xiangyu; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Krueger, James G; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2015-03-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory disease. The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis to allergens (eg, fragrance) is higher in patients with AD, despite a trend toward weaker clinical allergic contact dermatitis reactions. The role of the AD skin phenotype in modulating allergic sensitization to common sensitizers has not been evaluated. We sought to investigate whether patients with AD have altered tissue immune responses on allergen challenge. Gene expression and immunohistochemistry studies were performed on biopsy specimens from 10 patients with AD and 14 patients without AD patch tested with common contact allergens (nickel, fragrance, and rubber). Although 1085 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were commonly modulated in patch-tested skin from patients with AD and patients without AD versus control skin, 1185 DEGs were uniquely altered in skin from patients without AD, and only 246 DEGs were altered in skin from patients with AD. Although many inflammatory products (ie, matrix metalloproteinase 12/matrix metalloproteinase 1/S100A9) were upregulated in both groups, higher-magnitude changes and upregulation of interferon responses were evident only in the non-AD group. Stratification by allergen showed decreased expression of immune, TH1-subset, and TH2-subset genes in nickel-related AD responses, with increased TH17/IL-23 skewing. Rubber/fragrance showed similar trends of lesser magnitude. Negative regulators showed higher expression in patients with AD. Through contact sensitization, our study offers new insights into AD. Allergic immune reactions were globally attenuated and differentially polarized in patients with AD, with significant decreases in levels of TH1 products, some increases in levels of TH17 products, and inconsistent upregulation in levels of TH2 products. The overall hyporesponsiveness in skin from patients with background AD might be explained by baseline immune abnormalities, such as increased TH2, TH17, and

  5. Patch testing to a textile dye mix by the international contact dermatitis research group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus E; Diepgen, Thomas; Goh, Chee-Leok; Goossens R, An; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard I; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Disperse dyes are well-known contact sensitizers not included in the majority of commercially available baseline series. To investigate the outcome of patch testing to a textile dye mix (TDM) consisting of 8 disperse dyes. Two thousand four hundred ninety-three consecutive dermatitis patients in 9 dermatology clinics were patch tested with a TDM 6.6%, consisting of Disperse (D) Blue 35, D Yellow 3, D Orange 1 and 3, D Red 1 and 17, all 1.0% each, and D Blue 106 and D Blue 124, each 0.3%. 90 reacted positively to the TDM. About 92.2% of the patients allergic to the TDM were also tested with the 8 separate dyes. Contact allergy to TDM was found in 3.6% (1.3-18.2) Simultaneous reactivity to p-phenylenediamine was found in 61.1% of the TDM-positive patients. Contact allergy to TDM and not to other p-amino-substituted sensitizers was diagnosed in 1.2%. The most frequent dye allergen in the TDM-positive patients was D Orange 3. Over 30% of the TDM allergic patients had been missed if only the international baseline series was tested. Contact allergy to TDM could explain or contribute to dermatitis in over 20% of the patients. Textile dye mix should be considered for inclusion into the international baseline series.

  6. Update on allergic contact dermatitis due to methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Salinas, M; Francés, L; Silvestre, J F

    2014-11-01

    The combination of methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) and methylisothiazolinone (MI) is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, household, and industrial products. Furthermore, MI at a concentration of 100 ppm has been permitted in cosmetic products since 2005. Recently, a considerable increase in cases of contact dermatitis to both MCI and MI have been noted, and this warrants closer monitoring by relevant authorities and, probably, stricter legislation. In fact, MI at a test concentration of 2000 ppm was recently included in the European baseline patch test series. The clinical manifestations of allergy to MCI/MI and MI are highly variable and diagnosis is often missed. In the standard patch test series of the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), MCI/MI is tested at 100 ppm, but at this concentration, up to 50% of cases might go undetected. Furthermore, our data indicate that MCI/MI at 200 ppm would make it possible to diagnose more cases of contact allergy to MI. To improve the diagnosis of contact allergy to MCI/MI and MI, we believe that the test concentration of MCI/MI should be increased to 200 ppm in the GEIDAC standard series and that MI should be added in the GEIDAC standard series.

  7. Contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in hair dye following sensitization to black henna tattoos - an ongoing problem.

    PubMed

    Kind, Fabiola; Scherer, Kathrin; Bircher, Andreas J

    2012-08-01

    The increased frequency of case reports of allergic contact dermatitis from non-permanent black henna tattoos in recent years shows the popularity of this form of body painting. Seven patients presented with allergic contact dermatitis after initial hair or eyelash dyeing. They all had a history of a previous reaction from a black henna tattoo. All were patch tested with the European standard patch test series and the standard supplemental series, as well as special series for dyes and hairdressers. All seven patients showed a positive reaction in patch testing with para-phenylenediamine (PPD) (0.3 % and/or 1.0 % in pet.). Five patients also had positive reactions to other dyes such as aminophenol, para-toluene diamine, disperse orange and yellow and four patients reacted to benzocaine. These were interpreted as cross-reactions. The time from sensitization by the black henna tattoo to the onset of allergic contact dermatitis after hair dyeing was an average of 6.2 years. The most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis after black henna tattoos is PPD. Both the long skin contact and the high concentrations of PPD increase the risk of sensitization. Allergic contact dermatitis may be followed by post-inflammatory hyper- or hypopigmentation, scarring and lifelong sensitization, which can have occupational impact, especially for hair dressers and cosmeticians. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  8. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins in a patient with a negative patch-test reaction to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    García Gavin, Juan; Loureiro Martinez, Manuel; Fernandez-Redondo, Virginia; Seoane, Maria-José; Toribio, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Melamine paper is a basic material used in the furniture industry for home and office interiors. Contact allergic dermatitis from melamine formaldehyde resins (MFRs) should be considered in patients who work on melamine paper impregnation lines. We report a case of a 28-year-old female plywood worker who developed eczema on the dorsal side of her hands and wrists after 2 years of working on the melamine paper impregnation line. She had a relevant positive patch-test reaction to MFR, with a negative reaction to formaldehyde. Contact dermatitis due to MFR is not common, and it is usually related to products that are not fully cured or to close contact with intermediate products on the assembly line. Formaldehyde release from MFR can explain most of the positive responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MFR contact allergic dermatitis in a worker on a melamine paper impregnation line.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    PubMed

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  10. [Clinical effect of rock salt aerosol therapy in treatment of occupational allergic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Sun, M L; Song, L; Yang, H M; Shi, D M; Bi, Y L

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect and safety of rock salt aerosol therapy in the treatment of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: A total of 65 patients with acute exacerbation of occupational allergic contact dermatitis who were treated in the Outpatient Service and Inpatient Department of our hospital from March 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group and control group using a random number table. Both groups were givensymptomatic treatment including desensitization, and the patients in the observation group were given rock salt aerosol therapy for 2 courses in addition to the symptomatic treatment. The changes in symptoms, signs, blood eosinophil count, and IgE were observed. Results: There were significant changes in symptom score at the first and second courses of the treatment (P<0.05) , and there was an interaction between time of therapy and grouping (P<0.05) . There was no significant difference in symptom score before treatment between the two groups (P>0.05) , while there were differences at the first and second courses of the treatment (P<0.05) . After the second course of treatment, the observation group had a significantly higher overall response rate than the control group (P<0.05) ; both groups had significant reductions in blood eosinophil count and the observation group had a significantly greater reduction than the control group (P<0.05) . After two courses of treatment, both groups had significant increases in the number of patients with normal IgE (both P<0.05) , and after the second course of treatment, the observation group had a significantly higher number than the control group (P<0.05) . Both groups had mild adverse events, which did not affect the treatment. Conclusion: In the treatment of occupational allergic contact dermatitis, rock salt aerosol therapy has a certain effect on the recovery of symptoms, signs, blood eosinophil count, and IgE.

  11. Pediatric Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Clinical and Epidemiological Study in a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Salvador, J M; Esteve Martínez, A; Subiabre Ferrer, D; Victoria Martínez, A M; de la Cuadra Oyanguren, J; Zaragoza Ninet, V

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis in children. Underdiagnosis has been observed in some studies, with many cases in which the condition is not suspected clinically and patch tests are not performed. However, the prevalence of pediatric sensitization to allergens has been reported to be as high as 20%, and the diagnosis should therefore be contemplated as a possibility in this age group. We performed a retrospective analysis of the skin allergy database of the Dermatology Department of Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia. Children between 0 and 16 years of age diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis in the previous 15 years (between 2000 and 2015) were included in the analysis. Epidemiological (age, sex, history of atopy) and clinical (site of the lesions, allergen series applied, positive reactions, and their relevance) variables were gathered. Patch tests had been performed on 4,593 patients during the study period. Of these, 265 (6%) were children aged between 0 and 16 years. A positive reaction to at least one of the allergens tested was observed in 144 (54.3%) patients in that group. The allergens most frequently identified were the following (in decreasing order of frequency): thiomersal, cobalt chloride, colophony, paraphenylenediamine, potassium dichromate, mercury, and nickel. The sensitization was considered relevant in 177 (61.3%) cases. More than half of the children studied showed sensitization to 1 or more allergens, with a high percentage of relevant sensitizations. All children with a clinical suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis should be referred for patch testing. As no standardized test series have been developed for this age group, a high level of clinical suspicion and knowledge of the allergens most commonly involved are required when selecting the allergens to be tested. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M Craig; McAlexander, M Allen; Herrick, Christina A; Jordt, Sven E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1(-/-) mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.

  13. Influence of vitamin C on the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to p-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; White, Ian R; Kullavanijaya, Preya; Tresukosol, Poohglin; Wichaidit, Mingkwan; McFadden, John P

    2016-06-01

    Hair dyes represent one of the most important causes of allergic contact dermatitis resulting from the use of cosmetic products. The principal causative chemistry is associated with oxidation products of p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and closely related substances. To examine whether prior application of the antioxidant vitamin C to the skin was able to reduce the cutaneous allergic response to PPD. Twenty eight volunteers with a proven history of contact allergy to PPD were recruited. Each was tested with a range of PPD doses and PPD-containing hair dye on untreated skin and skin pretreated for 10 min with a vitamin C formulation. Pretreatment of skin sites with vitamin C led to a reduction in the intensity, or even ablation, of the cutaneous allergic reaction to PPD in ∼75% of cases as compared with untreated skin. The results suggest that treatment of the skin adjacent to the hair-bearing area with antioxidant could form part of a strategy to reduce the burden of cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis caused by hair dyeing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Toll-like receptor 3 increases allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Naomi; Tamagawa-Mineoka, Risa; Ueta, Mayumi; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Katoh, Norito

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing recognition of the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in noninfectious inflammatory diseases, but the function of TLR3 in inflammatory skin diseases is unclear. We investigated the functions of TLR3 in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). The contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response was lower in Toll-like receptor 3 knockout (Tlr3 KO) mice, and was greater in TLR3 transgenic (Tg) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice after challenge with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene. Adoptive transfer of immunized lymph node cells from Tlr3 KO mice induced CHS in WT recipients. In contrast, adoptive transfer of those from WT mice did not fully induce CHS in Tlr3 KO recipients. The ICD reaction following croton oil application was lower in Tlr3 KO mice, and was greater in TLR3 Tg mice than in WT mice. Maturation, migration, and antigen presentation of dendritic cells and proliferation of lymphocytes between WT mice and Tlr3 KO mice were comparable. These results show that TLR3 enhances antigen-independent skin inflammation in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis and in ICD.

  15. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by sodium metabisulfite: a challenging allergen: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    García-Gavín, Juan; Parente, Joana; Goossens, An

    2012-11-01

    Sulfites, preservatives and antioxidants used in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry are contact allergens whose relevance seems to be difficult to establish. To perform a retrospective study on patients patch tested with a sulfite. Materials and methods. Between 1990 and 2010, 2763 patients were patch tested with sodium metabisulfite. The reactions were considered to be relevant if there was a clear relationship between the dermatitis and sulfite exposure. One hundred and twenty-four (4.5%) of 2763 patients patch tested positively to sodium metabisulfite. The most frequent localizations of the lesions were the face (40.3%) and the hands (24.2%). Six patients also reported systemic symptoms. Thirteen cases (10.5%) were occupational, 10 of them presenting with hand eczema. Sodium metabisulfite was the single allergen found in 76 cases (61.3%). The reactions were considered to be relevant in 80 cases (64.5%), of which 11 were occupational. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by sulfites is frequent and often relevant. One should be aware of possible relevant sources of exposure, particularly in occupational settings such as hairdressing and the food industry, and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Patch testing with sodium metabisulfite, which seems to be the best indicator for sulfite contact allergy, is also useful in cases of immediate reactions to sulfite-containing products. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. A case of contact dermatitis to dimethylfumarate in shoes identified in Italy.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, Franca; Settimi, Laura; Stefanelli, Patrizia; Bartollini, Giuseppe; Barciocco, Daniela; Sesana, Fabrizio; Borghini, Rossana; Panzavolta, Giscardo; Fonda, Aurelia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes a case of shoe contact dermatitis from DMF identified by the Poison Control Centre of Milan (PCCM), Italy, in 2009. A 35 year old woman was affected by irritant reactions while wearing shoes contaminated with DMF. Exposure to these shoes was limited to a 8 hour period and was not repeated. In the following days the patient suffered feet blistering and swelling limited to the area in contact with shoe vamp. Topical application of cortisone did not prevent development of bullous eczema. After 20 days from exposure, the lesions were healed but the skin remained red, dry and very sensitive. Chemical analyses of shoes quantified an average concentration of DMF of 383 mg/kg. The patient refused to be patch tested. The observation here reported confirm that DMF should be considered a possible causal agent in shoe contact dermatitis. Documentation of cases exposed to this chemical provide a relevant support to characterize clinical manifestations and to identifying contaminated articles.

  18. Roles of alternatively activated M2 macrophages in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kotaro; Meguro, Kazuyuki; Nakagomi, Daiki; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2017-03-17

    Alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) play key roles in the suppression of Th1 cell responses and the orchestration of tissue repair. However, recent studies have shown that M2 macrophages have potentials to produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, suggesting that M2 macrophages may exacerbate inflammation in some settings. In this regard, we have recently shown that large numbers of M2 macrophages accumulate in the sites of hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS), an animal model of allergic contact dermatitis, and that M2 macrophages exacerbate hapten-induced CHS by producing matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12). We have also shown that suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), a member of SOCS family proteins that are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of the JAK/STAT signaling pathways, is highly and preferentially expressed in M2 macrophages in hapten-induced CHS and that SOCS3 expressed in M2 macrophages is involved in the attenuation of CHS by suppressing MMP12 production. These findings underscore the importance of M2 macrophage-derived MMP12 in the development of CHS, and suggest that inhibition of M2 macrophages or MMP12 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of allergic contact dermatitis.

  19. Prosthetic Arteriovenous Graft Contact Dermatitis Masquerading as an Arteriovenous Graft Infection in a Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ramagiri-Vinod, Nagadarshini; Tahir, Hassan; Narukonda, Sandhya; Joshi, Medha

    2016-01-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous (AV) graft is the second most common vascular access of choice in hemodialysis patients. Rare complications of such grafts are increasingly seen due to rising population of patients on hemodialysis. Infections and thrombosis are the most common complications. Though metallic implants are known to cause hypersensitivity skin reactions, prosthetic AV grafts are rarely known to cause such kind of reactions due to inert nature of materials used in their preparation. We present a case of 54-year-old male who developed contact dermatitis after AV graft creation which was mistreated initially as infection. PMID:27493977

  20. Propylene glycol: an often unrecognized cause of allergic contact dermatitis in patients using topical corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Al Jasser, M; Mebuke, N; de Gannes, G C

    2011-05-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is considered to be a ubiquitous formulary ingredient used in many personal care products and pharmaceutical preparations. It is an organic compound commonly found in topical corticosteroids (CS). Cutaneous reactions to PG are mostly irritant, but allergic contact dermatitis to PG is well-documented. Cosensitization to PG and topical CS can occur, making it challenging to choose the appropriate topical CS in a PG-allergic patient. This review is aimed at guiding clinicians in the selection of a suitable topical corticosteroid when presented with patients allergic to PG.

  1. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin condition can take a bit of detective work. Dermatologists frequently treat this condition. In fact, this is one of the most ... a rash. Your dermatologist can recommend ways to work and products to use. More than 80% ... and recover without any problems. Image used with ...

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis in psoriasis patients: typical, delayed, and non-interacting.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Maria; Eyerich, Stefanie; Knapp, Bettina; Nasorri, Francesca; Scarponi, Claudia; Mattii, Martina; Garzorz, Natalie; Harlfinger, Anna T; Jaeger, Teresa; Grosber, Martine; Pennino, Davide; Mempel, Martin; Schnopp, Christina; Theis, Fabian J; Albanesi, Cristina; Cavani, Andrea; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Ring, Johannes; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14) to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms.

  3. Dissolution of cemented carbide powders in artificial sweat: implications for cobalt sensitization and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2010-10-06

    Skin exposure to cobalt-containing materials can cause systemic immune sensitization and upon repeat contact, elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Data on cobalt dissolution rates are needed to calculate uptake through skin and for development of models to understand risk of sensitization or dermatitis. The purpose of this research was to measure the dissolution kinetics of feedstock and process-sampled powders encountered in the production of hard metal alloys using artificial sweat. The physicochemical properties of each material were characterized prior to evaluation of dissolution behavior. Variations in artificial sweat solvent pH and chemistry were used to understand critical factors in dissolution. Dissolution of cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide was often biphasic with the initial rapid phase being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the latter long-term phase. Artificial sweat pH did not influence dissolution of cobalt or tungsten carbide. Solvent composition had little influence on observed dissolution rates; however, vitamin E suppressed the dissolution of cobalt and tungsten carbide from sintered particles obtained from a chamfer grinder. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution of feedstock cobalt, tungsten, tungsten carbide, and admixture powders. Particle physicochemical properties influenced observed dissolution rates with more cobalt and tungsten carbide dissolving from chamfer grinder particles compared to the feedstock powders or admixture powder. Calculations using the observed dissolution rates revealed that skin exposure concentrations were similar to concentrations known to induce cobalt sensitization and elicit ACD. Observed dissolution rates for cobalt in artificial sweat indicate that dermal uptake may be sufficient to induce cobalt sensitization and allergic dermatitis.

  4. An epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis caused by a new allergen, caprylhydroxamic acid, in moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Leena; Virtanen, Hannele; Korhonen, Laura; Laukkanen, Arja; Huilaja, Laura; Riekki, Riitta; Hasan, Taina

    2017-09-01

    In 2016, dermatologists in Finland suspected contact allergy in several patients using moisturizers under the trade name Apobase®. Following a formulation change, Phenostat™, which is a mixture of phenoxyethanol, caprylhydroxamic acid, and methylpropanediol, was used as a preservative in Apobase® moisturizers in Finland. To confirm the suspected contact allergy to Apobase® cream, oily cream, and/or lotion, and to identify the specific contact allergen and define its optimal patch test concentration. Thirty-nine patients with suspected contact allergy to Apobase® creams or lotion were patch tested in four Finnish dermatological clinics. The patch tests included old and new Apobase® formulas and their preservative agents: phenoxyethanol, methylpropanediol, and dilution series of Phenostat™ and caprylhydroxamic acid or its potassium salt. The patch tests showed positive reactions to the new Apobase® formulas, Phenostat™, and caprylhydroxamic acid or its potassium salt, but not to the old Apobase® formulas, methylpropanediol, or phenoxyethanol. We found a new contact allergen, caprylhydroxyamic acid, which caused an epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis in patients using moisturizers containing this preservative. Whether the sensitizing capacity of caprylhydroxamic acid depends on the other chemicals used in Apobase® moisturizers needs further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of regulatory T cells during hyposensitization of acquired allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Kathleen; Abbas, Mariam; Hull, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that repeated intradermal steroid injections administered at weekly intervals into positive patch-test sites induce hyposensitization and desensitization. To examine changes in CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells during the attenuation of the patch-test response. Ten patients with known allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested weekly for 10 weeks. The patch-test site was injected intradermally with 2 mg triamcinolone. At weeks 1 and 7, a biopsy was performed on the patch-test site in 6 patients, and flow cytometry was performed assessing CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells. Secondary outcomes were clinical score, reaction size, erythema, and temperature. Statistical analysis included regression, correlation, and repeated-measures analysis of variance. The percentage of CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells, measured by flow cytometry, increased from week 1 to week 7 by an average of 19.2%. The average grade of patch-test reaction decreased from +++ (vesicular reaction) to ++ (palpable erythema). The mean drop in temperature following treatment was 0.28°C per week. The mean area decreased 8.6 mm/wk over 10 weeks. Intradermal steroid injections of weekly patch-test reactions resulted in hyposensitization of the allergic contact dermatitis reaction. CD4CD25CD127lo/ regulatory T cells showed a tendency to increase; however, further studies are needed to determine if this is significant.

  6. Do cool water or physiologic saline compresses enhance resolution of experimentally-induced irritant contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Levin, C Y; Maibach, H I

    2001-09-01

    Acute irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is frequently treated with cool water or saline compresses. While presumed effective, little quantitative evaluation documents the treatment's benefit. This study sought to determine the efficacy of both distilled water and physiologic saline compresses on experimentally-induced ICD. 24-h application of both the lipophilic nonanoic acid (NAA) and the hydrophilic sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) were used to induce irritant contact dermatitis in 9 healthy volunteers. Following irritation, compresses were applied 0.5 h 2x daily for 4 consecutive days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), chromametry and visual scoring were used to quantify results. Cool compresses of both water and saline significantly reduced TEWL and LDF, with no statistically significant difference between the efficacy of the saline or water compresses. Chromametry and visual scoring did not detect a significant effect with either the water or saline compresses. The results suggest an improvement with 2x-daily application of either water or physiologic saline compresses in the treatment of acute ICD, though true clinical benefit will be elucidated through further experimentation. Certainly, the current recommendation regarding the use of cool compresses for treating ICD should not be discarded.

  7. Primary photosensitization and contact dermatitis caused by Malachra fasciata Jacq. N.V. (Malvaceae) in sheep.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Valber Onofre; Oliveira Neto, Temístocles Soares; Simões, Sara Vilar Dantas; da Silva, Thatyana Kelly Ferreira; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Lucena, Ricardo Barbosa

    2017-11-01

    Farmers from Paraiba state, Northeast Brazil, claim that Malachra fasciata causes cutaneous lesions in sheep. To test its toxicity the plant was harvested daily and fed ad libitum for 21 days to 3 sheep as the sole food source (# 1-3). An additional sheep (# 4) was maintained as a control. Cutaneous lesions of photosensitization initiated after 7 days and increased continuously over the next 21 days. The dose ingested varied between 129 g/kg to 175 g/kg. Alopecia, hyperemia and crusting were observed in the animals. On day 22, sheep 3 was euthanized. At necropsy, no gross or microscopic alterations were observed in the liver. Skin biopsies were performed in the remaining animals Histopathology of skin of the three sheep included acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and multifocal infiltration by lymphocytes, eosinophils and plasma cells around blood vessels and appendages in the dermis. The Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon was observed in the dermis of sheep 2, due probably by contact dermatitis. After the end of administration Sheep 1 and 2 were protected from sunlight and the lesions regressed within two weeks. This experiment indicates that M. fasciata causes primary photosensitization and contact dermatitis in sheep. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acetophenone azine: a new allergen responsible for severe contact dermatitis from shin pads.

    PubMed

    Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Bergendorff, Ola; Bourrain, Jean Luc; Bruze, Magnus

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis resulting from the use of shin pads is usually caused by rubber components, dyes, benzoyl peroxide, or formaldehyde resins. To investigate and identify a new allergen in shin pads that was responsible for severe contact dermatitis in a young football player. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of samples of shin pads was performed. The boy was patch tested with pieces of shin pads and with acetophenone azine, a chemical substance identified by HPLC in the foam of the shin pads. HPLC identified acetophenone azine at concentrations of approximately 20 µg/g of shin pad samples. Patch tests gave strongly positive reactions to pieces of shin pads and to acetophenone azine down to 0.001% in acetone, whereas acetophenone and hydrazine sulfate were both negative. Twenty controls were negative for acetophenone azine 0.01% in acetone. Acetophenone azine is a new, strong allergen of shin pads, and more generally of other sport equipment based on ethylene vinyl acetate. It may be used as a biocide, but this has to be confirmed. Further investigations are needed to understand factors such as exposure, cross-reaction patterns, metabolism, and the optimal patch test preparation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis (CD) in the Chinese clothing industry. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and some risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interview using self-administered questionnaires and skin examination between May and August in 2016. Five-hundred twenty-nine employees who had worked at sewing, ironing, and as managers at 12 clothing manufacturing factories were studied. The overall 1-year prevalence of CD among the clothing employees was 28.5% (151/529 employees), with significantly higher prevalence among ironing workers (50%) and sewers (31.7%) compared with managers (12.7%; P < 0.001, n = 529). A significant association was noticed between the 1-year prevalence of CD and types of occupation (sewers and ironing workers versus managers, respectively), exposure to garment materials (leather and feather), dry skin, allergic rhinitis, age, and smoking. Among employees in Chinese clothing industry, sewers and ironing workers had a higher 1-year prevalence of CD than managers. It is noteworthy that exposure to leather and feather materials and the types of manual work are associated with CD, as well as dry skin and allergic rhinitis. PMID:28328819

  10. Encapsulation of hydrophobic allergens into nanoparticles improves the in vitro immunological diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cortial, Angèle; Nosbaum, Audrey; Rozières, Aurore; Baeck, Marie; de Montjoye, Laurence; Grande, Sophie; Briançon, Stéphanie; Nicolas, Jean-François; Vocanson, Marc

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) relies on in vivo patch testing. In vitro immunological assays based on the characterization of circulating allergen-specific memory T cells represent a promising alternative to patch testing. However, their development is hampered by the technical challenge of assessing hydrophobic allergens in serum-based assays. In this study, we show that the encapsulation of fragrance mix 1 (FMI, a mixture of 8 hydrophobic allergens) into poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticle (NP) vectors: (1) dramatically increases the solubilization of allergens in conventional cell culture media and (2) allows for a robust in vitro reactivation of allergen-specific T cells in large numbers of fragrance allergic patients. Therefore, the encapsulation of hydrophobic allergens into NP vectors opens new avenues to improve the in vitro immunobiological diagnosis of ACD. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensivity reaction prevalent in many individuals. Currently, skin patch testing has been the mainstay for diagnosis clinically. In this study, the authors described an improvement to in vitro immunological assays measuring circulating allergen-specific memory T cells, using nanoparticle vectors. The positive data might provide an exciting alternative to current practice of patch-testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Allergic contact dermatitis due to methoxy PEG-22 dodecyl glycol present in a cosmetic cold cream].

    PubMed

    Lasek-Duriez, A; Castelain, M-C; Modiano, P

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a girl presenting acute allergic contact dermatitis due to methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol contained in Mustela Cold Cream Nutriprotecteur®. A 6-year-old girl was referred with acute eczema of the face occurring within 12h of applying a new moisturizing cream, Mustela Cold Cream Nutriprotecteur®. Patch tests were performed on the upper back using the Finn Chamber technique with the European standard series and the patient's own cream. Readings were performed after 2 days and the sole positive ++ reaction was associated with Mustela Cold Cream®. Additional patch testing was carried out with the ingredients of the cream, with the sole positive ++ reaction again being to methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol copolymer. The other ingredients were negative. Methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol is a copolymer used in cosmetics as an emulsion stabilizer and viscosity-increasing agent. It is found in 20 cosmetics currently on the market, most of which are prescribed for children. Although it is rare, doctors must be aware of allergic contact dermatitis due to methoxy PEG 22 dodecyl glycol because of the extent of clinical reactions and because it chiefly affects the paediatric population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis from synthetic mineral fibres according to Finnish statistics.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, Riitta; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Suuronen, Katri; Alanko, Kristiina; Estlander, Tuula

    2002-12-01

    Synthetic mineral fibres (i.e. man-made vitreous fibres, MMVF) are classified into glass filament, mineral wool (glass wool, rock wool and slag wool), refractory ceramic fibres, and fibres for special purposes. This paper analyses the data on occupational irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) caused by MMVF during 1990-99 in Finland according to the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases (FROD). A total of 63 cases from MMVF were reported. 56 were diagnosed as ICD, and 2 as allergic contact dermatitis, both from rock wool. 53 out of 63 cases were due to mineral wool or glass filaments; half of the cases, according to a rough estimate, were due to mineral wool and a half due to glass filaments used in lamination work. Carpenters, building workers and insulation workers have the highest risk of ICD from mineral wool. 4 cases in carpenters, 4 in building workers and 2 in insulation workers were reported from MMVF. For every 100 000 employed workers, only 1.6 cases of ICD in carpenters, 2.7 in building workers and 9.1 in insulation workers were annually due to MMVF, respectively. Mineral wool used in construction work, insulation, etc., cannot be considered to be a common cause of occupationally induced ICD. However, information on harmful skin effects of MMVF is useful to exposed persons in the prevention of the effects.

  13. Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from tylosin in pharmacy compounders and cross-sensitization to macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Malaiyandi, Viba; Houle, Marie Claude; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Tylosin is a broad-spectrum macrolide antibiotic that is restricted to veterinary use. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by tylosin has been reported in the literature from the farming industry and veterinary medicine. It is also reported as the most common antibiotic to cause ACD in the previously mentioned occupational settings. We present 2 cases of airborne ACD from tylosin among veterinary pharmaceutical compounding technicians. To our knowledge, only one other case of patch test-confirmed tylosin ACD has been reported in the manufacturing setting. Based on our results, cross-sensitization to other clinically relevant macrolides does not appear to be a concern. Our cases highlight the importance of patch testing among pharmaceutical compounders where the incidence of an airborne contact may be greater, given that the exposure is to the powdered form of potential allergens.

  14. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from antioxidant amines in a dental technician.

    PubMed

    Conde-Salazar, Luis; Valks, Ruud; Acebes, Carmen García; Bertó, Josep

    2004-12-01

    We describe an 18-year-old dental technician who presented with dry hyperkeratotic lesions on his left palm that were limited to an area that was in contact with a container in which he had prepared the molds for a dental prosthesis. On patch testing, he had a positive reaction to black rubber mix and its components N-cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, N,N'-diphenyl-4-phenylenediamine, and N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-4-phenylenediamine, as well as to a piece of the rubber container. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of a piece of the rubber container confirmed the presence of the para-phenylenediamine mix. Results of patch-testing with TLC were positive after 48 and 96 hours. The lesions resolved when the patient stopped using the container. The patient was diagnosed with occupational allergic contact dermatitis. We also review the dermatoses caused by antioxidant amines.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from a perinone-type dye C.I. Solvent Orange 60 in spectacle frames.

    PubMed

    Shono, M; Kaniwa, M A

    1999-10-01

    This is the 1st case report of allergic contact dermatitis from a perinone-type plastic dye, C.I. Solvent Orange 60, used in the earpieces of spectacle frames. Sensitization of this dye was confirmed by patch tests and chemical analysis of the causative earpieces and coloring agents. Solvent Orange 60 is suspected of being the contact allergen in at least 2 other Japanese cases of spectacle earpiece dermatitis, and provoked strong reactions on sensitized individuals. Its use in products that are applied on human skin for a prolonged period of time, such as spectacle frames or hearing aids, would best be avoided.

  16. Contact allergy to sunscreen chemicals in photosensitivity dermatitis/actinic reticuloid syndrome (PD/AR) and polymorphic light eruption (PLE).

    PubMed

    Bilsland, D; Ferguson, J

    1993-08-01

    From 1989-1991, 214 patients (45 PD/AR, 54 PLE, 115 controls) were patch tested to a sunscreen series containing 9 constituents. 16/214 (7.5%) patients reacted to one or more sunscreens, with allergy being significantly more common in PD/AR patients (10/45 versus 2/54 PLE and 4/115 contact dermatitis clinic controls). The benzophenone group of sunscreens (mexenone, oxybenzone) were the most frequent sensitizers, accounting for 8 of the 27 positive patch tests observed. Clinicians should consider contact allergy to sunscreens in PD/AR patients as an explanation for exposed-site dermatitis episodes.

  17. Parthenium dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod Kumar; Verma, Parul; Maharaja, K

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to Parthenium hysterophorus is the most common cause of plant dermatitis in India. Parthenium dermatitis is caused by dry powder of leaves and flowers and hair-like structures (trichomes). Sesquiterpene lactones (SQLs) are the most important allergens responsible for ACD to parthenium. The different patterns include classical airborne contact dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD), exfoliative and widespread dermatitis. There is a definite trend towards a change from an airborne pattern to a CAD pattern in the natural history of parthenium dermatitis. In CAD, there is a reported increased sensitivity to UVB, UVA and even visible light. However, SQLs including parthenin, the major allergen in the Parthenium hysterophorus, has neither documented photoallergic nor phototoxic properties. Recently, the high photoreactivity of α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone ring toward thymidine and resulting photoadducts has been proposed as an explanation of the progressive evolution of allergic contact dermatitis toward chronic actinic dermatitis. However, more data is required to reach a conclusion on the mechanism of photosensitivity in parthenium dermatitis. Sunlight, especially UV radiation, may have a role in increasing the germination capacity and the amount of allergens in the Compositae family, especially in parthenium plants under appropriate conditions like summer and spring, which may contribute to high prevalence of parthenium dermatitis especially in northern India.

  18. A study of chromium induced allergic contact dermatitis with 54 volunteers: implications for environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J; Paustenbach, D; Adams, R; Fowler, J; Marks, J; Morton, C; Taylor, J; Horowitz, S; Finley, B

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 60 years, dose-response patch test studies by various methods have been conducted in an attempt to identify the minimum elicitation threshold (MET) concentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) that produces an allergic response in Cr(VI) sensitive subjects. These data are not adequate, however, to provide an accurate estimate of the MET because of the variability in the patch testing techniques and the variability in diagnostic criteria used. Furthermore, the data were not reported in terms of mass of allergen per surface area of skin (mg Cr/cm2-skin), which is necessary for conducting occupational or environmental health risk assessments. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine the MET (mg allergen/cm2) for Cr(VI) and trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by patch testing techniques. A patch test method that delivers a controlled amount of allergen per surface area of skin was used. A group of 54 Cr(VI) sensitised volunteers were patch tested with serial dilutions of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) to determine the cumulative response rate at several concentrations. The results indicate that the 10% MET for Cr(VI) based on the cumulative response was 0.089 micrograms Cr(VI)/cm2-skin. Only one of the 54 volunteers may have responded to 33 micrograms Cr(III)/cm2-skin, otherwise Cr(III) was unable to produce allergic contact dermatitis in these highly sensitive volunteers. Two supplemental studies were also conducted to assess whether the surface area of the patch and the concentration of Cr(VI) in the patch (related to patch thickness) were likely to influence the results. The data from these studies were used to assess the risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis due to contact with Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in soil. The findings indicated that soil concentrations at least as high as 450 ppm Cr(VI) and 165,000 ppm Cr(III) should not pose an allergic contact dermatitis hazard for at least 99.99% of the people in the community who might be exposed. PMID:8044228

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis from a natural deodorant: a report of 4 cases associated with lichen acid mix allergy.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Mary; Simpson, Eric L; Law, Sandra V; Storrs, Frances J

    2006-08-01

    Botanical ingredients used in personal care products are a significant and underreported cause of allergic contact dermatitis. To evaluate allergic contact dermatitis from a widely-used botanical deodorant. We conducted patch testing in four patients who were using the botanical deodorant and were referred to the contact dermatitis clinic; three patients had axillary dermatitis and one had dermatitis of the external ear. All four patients had positive patch test reactions to lichen acid mix and D-usnic acid. Of the three patients who were patch tested to the botanical deodorant, all had positive reactions. We did not test to the specific lichen used in the natural deodorant but rather used our own lichen acid mix and d-usnic acid in addition to testing to the actual product. One of the patients declined to be tested with the natural deodorant, but did test positive to the lichen acid mix and d-usnic acid. Personal care products such as deodorants may represent a new route of exposure to lichen extract, a known allergen.

  20. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2007-03-01

    2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT) is an antimicrobial agent that is mainly used in industrial settings. The objective of the study was to find the significance of OIT contact allergy at our clinic of occupational dermatology. We looked through our patient material from 1991 for allergic reactions to OIT and analysed the clinical records. We found 8 patients with ordinary allergic reactions to OIT and 1 late reaction. 2 workers in the manufacture of paints had occupational allergic contact dermatitis from OIT in biocides. 2 patients were machinists and 3 were female farmers: in these cases, however, we could not find any exposure. A sewing machine operator had patch test reactions to 2 of her mattress textiles, and chemical analysis of them showed 40-50 parts per million OIT. In conclusion, OIT is a rare sensitizer, and its contact allergies occur mainly in paint manufacturing. It is infrequently used in metal-working fluids and possibly sensitizes machinists. Although it is also used in some biocides recommended for use in the textile industry, there are no previous reports of contact allergy in this field. Our sewing machine operator with OIT contact allergy had probably been sensitized from mattress textiles.

  1. Risk of contact allergy and dermatitis at a wind turbine plant using epoxy resin-based plastics.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, K; Carstensen, O; Pontén, A; Gruvberger, B; Isaksson, M; Bruze, M

    2005-04-01

    To identify workplace and individual risk factors for occupational contact allergy and dermatitis. A cross-sectional study was carried out at an international company producing wind turbine systems in Denmark. A cohort of 724 production workers at four facilities was highly exposed to epoxy resin as well as other chemicals. A screening questionnaire (participation rate 84.7%) was followed by an interview by an occupational physician and a dermatological examination, including patch testing, for a comprehensive list of potential workplace sensitizers. Clinically diagnosed dermatitis was found among 214 workers (35.8%) and contact allergy to materials used in the workplace was found in 66 workers (10.9% of the total population and 20.3% of those who underwent patch testing). Of the 66 workers with a work-related allergy, 40 (60.6%) were allergic to epoxy compounds, 25 (37.9%) to hardeners and ten (15.2%) to other workplace materials, where one person showed an allergy only to these materials. Experiencing contact allergy was related to older age and longer employment in the workplace-however, neither of these risk factors was significant. The main risk factor for current dermatitis was contact allergy to materials used in the workplace, determined by patch testing, OR=5.4 (95% CI 3.9-9.9). Fewer days of absence from work was also related to current dermatitis, OR=2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.5). In a cohort of workers with extensive exposure to chemicals related to epoxy-resin systems, contact dermatitis and allergy was prevalent. Older age and longer duration of employment at the workplace were individual risk factors for allergy to workplace materials, whilst work-related allergies and longer duration of employment at the workplace were significant risk factors for current dermatitis.

  2. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients.

  3. Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin in a neat oil: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Charlotte D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2003-01-01

    Background Metal-working fluids contain complex mixtures of chemicals and metal workers constitute a potential risk group for the development of allergic contact dermatitis. Case presentation Two metal workers developed allergic contact dermatitis on the hands and lower arms from exposure to a neat oil used in metal processing. Patch testing revealed that the relevant contact allergen was a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin, 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, bis(oxiranylmethyl) ester, added to the oil as a stabilizer. None of the patients had positive reactions to the bisphenol A-based epoxy resin in the standard series. Conclusions These cases emphasize that well-known contact allergens may show up from unexpected sources of exposure. Further, it can be a long-lasting, laborious process to detect an occupational contact allergen and cooperation from the patient and the manufacturer of the sensitizing product is essential. PMID:12685935

  4. Formaldehyde in cosmetics in patch tested dermatitis patients with and without contact allergy to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Hauksson, Inese; Pontén, Ann; Isaksson, Marléne; Hamada, Haneen; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus

    2016-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-known contact sensitizer. Formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives in cosmetics. To survey the release of formaldehyde in cosmetics brought by patients investigated because of suspected allergic contact dermatitis, to compare it with information given by the manufacturers on the packages, and to investigate whether formaldehyde-allergic patients are potentially exposed to more cosmetics releasing formaldehyde than dermatitis patients without contact allergy to formaldehyde. Cosmetics from 10 formaldehyde-allergic and 30 non-allergic patients (controls) matched for age and sex were investigated with the chromotropic acid spot test, which is a semiquantitative method measuring the release of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde was found in 58 of 245 (23.7%) products. Twenty-six of 126 (20.6%) leave-on products released formaldehyde, and 17 of 26 (65.4%) of these were not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Among the rinse-off products, there were 32 of 119 (26.8%) formaldehyde-releasing products, and nine of 32 (28.0%) of these were not labelled as containing formaldehyde or formaldehyde releasers. Five of 10 formaldehyde-allergic patients brought leave-on products with ≥ 40 ppm formaldehyde, as compared with 4 of 30 in the control group (p = 0.029). Cosmetic products used by formaldehyde-allergic patients that are not declared to contain formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing preservatives should be analysed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Para-phenylenediamine allergic contact dermatitis due to henna tattoos in a child and adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Salvador, José María; Esteve Martínez, Altea; Subiabre Ferrer, Daniela; Victoria Martínez, Ana Mercedes; de la Cuadra Oyanguren, Jesús; Zaragoza Ninet, Violeta

    2017-03-01

    Henna tattoos are a very common practice in the adolescent population. Henna is very often admixed with para-phenylenediamine (PPDA) to improve the appearance of the tattoo. PPDA is a potent allergen, and is a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). A study was conducted on the results of 726 consecutive children who had been patch tested in the University General Hospital Consortium of Valencia between 1980 and 2015. Almost half (49.7%; (361 cases) of the children had one or more positive patch test findings, with 4.7% (34) being allergic to PPDA. Mean age of patients allergic to PPDA was 12.4 years, and 44.2% were male. There were 2 cases (5.9%) of atopic dermatitis. Of the positive reactions, 73.5% were considered to be current clinically relevant. The sensitisation origin was a Henna tattoo in 50% of cases. PPDA sensitisation is relatively common in the child and adolescent population. The most frequent origin is the performing of Henna tattoos adulterated with PPDA. Adolescents are at the higher risk of developing ACD due to Henna tattoos. Henna tattooing should be strongly discouraged in children. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to chromium from cement: Estimating the size of the problem in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Celestine C; Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2015-11-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by chromium in cement is a significant occupational hazard. However, legislation in Europe over the past two decades to reduce the concentration of chromium in cement to <2 ppm through the addition of ferrous sulphate to cement, has seen a significant decrease in the incidence of chromium allergy. No such legislation exists in Australia. A retrospective analysis of results from the Patchcams database of patients attending the Occupational Dermatology Clinic at the Skin & Cancer Foundation, Melbourne, who were patch tested for chromium between 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2013, was conducted. Our review revealed that there has not been any significant change in the number of cases of ACD to chromium attributed to sensitisation through cement. Based on our data, we estimate that a minimum of 24 cases of chromium occupational ACD (OACD) from cement is found in Australia yearly, causing considerable morbidity, often associated with an inability to work, costly workers' compensation claims and sometimes the development of the disabling condition, persistent post-occupational dermatitis. These findings highlight the need for high-level discussions about adopting European legislation in Australia in order to reduce the likelihood of developing chromium OACD from cement. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Mechanisms of chemical-induced innate immunity in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Martin, S F; Esser, P R; Weber, F C; Jakob, T; Freudenberg, M A; Schmidt, M; Goebeler, M

    2011-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most prevalent occupational skin diseases and causes severe and long-lasting health problems in the case of chronification. It is initiated by an innate inflammatory immune response to skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals that results in the priming of chemical-specific, skin-homing CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17 and CD4(+) Th1/Th17 cells. Following this sensitization step, T lymphocytes infiltrate the inflamed skin upon challenge with the same chemical. The T cells then exert cytotoxic function and secrete inflammatory mediators to produce an eczematous skin reaction. The recent characterization of the mechanisms underlying the innate inflammatory response has revealed that contact allergens activate innate effector mechanisms and signalling pathways that are also involved in anti-infectious immunity. This emerging analogy implies infection as a potential trigger or amplifier of the sensitization to contact allergens. Moreover, new mechanistic insights into the induction of ACD identify potential targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention. We summarize here the latest findings in this area of research.

  8. Triphenylguanidine, a new (old?) rubber accelerator detected in surgical gloves that may cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jakob; Bergendorff, Ola; Vindenes, Hilde K; Hindsén, Monica; Svedman, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    Rubber accelerators are common contact allergens in healthcare personnel, owing to exposures from medical gloves. To analyse glove extracts used for patch testing for the presence of guanidine-type accelerators, and to describe the results of patch testing with triphenylguanidine (TPG) in 2 cases of contact allergy and with TPG added to the rubber series. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection were used for analysis of glove extracts. Patch tests were performed with guanidine accelerators detected in the extracts. TPG, an accelerator not previously reported as being present in rubber gloves, was found in the glove extracts. Patch testing with TPG showed relevant contact allergic reactions in patients with hand dermatitis caused by rubber gloves. Chemical analysis of extracts for patch testing is important in the identification of new possible allergens. In this case, a rubber accelerator previously not reported as a possible contact allergen was found in extracts of surgical gloves. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Patch tests with commercial hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Won-Jeong; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Ko, Hyun-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hair dye is one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The main allergen has been identified as para-phenylenediamine. To prevent the recurrence of contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, patients should discontinue the use of para-phenylenediamine-containing hair dye products. However, many patients are unable to discontinue their use for cosmetic or social reasons. Sometimes, they continue to have symptoms even after switching to so-called "less allergenic" hair dyes. To evaluate the safety of 15 commercially available hair dye products in patients with allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine. We performed patch tests using 15 hair dyes that were advertised as "hypoallergenic," "no para-phenylenediamine" and "non-allergenic" products in the market. Twenty three patients completed the study and 20 (87.0%) patients had a positive patch test reaction to at least one product. While four (26.7%) hair dye products contained para-phenylenediamine, 10 (66.7%) out of 15 contained m- aminophenol and 7 (46.7%) contained toluene-2,5-diamine sulfate. Only one product did not elicit a positive reaction in any patient. Small sample size and possibility of false-positive reactions. Dermatologists should educate patients with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine about the importance of performing sensitivity testing prior to the actual use of any hair dye product, irrespective of how it is advertised or labelled.

  10. Has the epidemic of allergic contact dermatitis due to Methylisothiazolinone reached its peak?

    PubMed

    Venables, Z C; Bourke, J F; Buckley, D A; Campbell, F; Chowdhury, M M U; Abdul-Ghaffar, S; Green, C; Holden, C R; McFadden, J; Orton, D; Sabroe, R A; Sansom, J; Stone, N M; Wakelin, S H; Wilkinson, S M; Johnston, G A

    2016-08-31

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative used in many household and industrial products. There has been an unprecedented global rise in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from its presence in personal care products (PCPs). In 2005 changes to EU legislation allowed MI, used in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), to be used at concentrations of up to 100ppm, 25 times higher than previously permitted. MI was also permitted to be used alone, whereas previously it was only used in combination with MCI in a 3:1 mix.(1) This resulted in the chain of events that led to the current MI allergy epidemic.By 2010, the first case series of ACD to MI as a cosmetic allergen was published. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Hair-care practices in African American women: potential for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Alicia; Sood, Apra

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when the skin is re-exposed to a substance to which it was previously sensitized. One significant source of exposure to sensitizing chemicals is through personal grooming and beauty products. While the role of cosmetics and hair-care products in the development of ACD is well-documented, there has been very little literature that specifically addresses the role of hair-care practices of patients with tightly curled hair, such as in patients of African descent, in the development of ACD in this population. This review provides an integrated summary of the hair-care practices of female African American patients and the potential for exposure to sensitizing agents at each stage. This review will also discuss the challenges faced in recognizing and assessing ACD in these patients.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine in a tattoo: a case report.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Ertugrul; Gun, Emrah; Aliagaoglu, Cihangir

    2013-06-01

    It is highly popular among children and young adults to have temporary henna tattoos on their bodies in different colors and figures. Henna is a greenish natural powder obtained from the flowers and dry leaves of Lawsonia alba plant and its allergenicity is very low. Henna is also used in combination with other coloring substances such as para-phenylenediamine in order to darken the color and create a permanent tattoo effect. Para-phenylenediamine is a substance with high allergenicity potential and may cause serious allergic reactions. Here, we aimed to draw attention to the potential harms of para-phenylenediamine containing temporary tattoos by presenting a child patient who developed allergic contact dermatitis after having a scorpion-shaped temporary tattoo on his forearm.

  13. Surgery for a tree surgeon? Acute presentation of contact dermatitis due to Ailanthus altissima.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Warren O; Paget, James T; Mackenzie, Duncan

    2013-03-01

    A tree surgeon presented to hospital with multiple blackening, non-blanching regions of skin on both forearms, following exposure to sap from the 'tree of heaven' (Ailanthus altissima). A referral to plastic surgery was made to consider debridement. Following input from the national poisons centre and dermatology, conservative management with emollient was undertaken. The lesions blistered and exfoliated and were treated with topical steroid and oral antihistamines. Resolving erythema was the only symptom at three weeks. A. altissima, also known as the 'tree of heaven' has known toxins in its bark, leaves and flowers but is also commonly used in folk medicine. Two previous cases of contact dermatitis are reported in the literature but not with acute photo documentation of the lesions or with surgical referral. This demonstrates an important lesson that debridement would not be the appropriate management despite the initial presentation. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic characterization in situ of inflammatory cells in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in man.

    PubMed Central

    Scheynius, A; Fischer, T; Forsum, U; Klareskog, L

    1984-01-01

    The cellular response in allergic and irritant contact dermatitis was analysed in situ with an immunohistochemical double staining technique. Allergic patch test reactions were elicited in 10 patients and irritant reactions in eight cases, using the Finn chamber technique. Skin biopsies were obtained 6-72 h after test applications. Frozen sections of 43 biopsies were investigated by simultaneous staining with rabbit anti-HLA-DR antibodies and various mouse monoclonal antibodies. The cell infiltrates were usually larger in the allergic than in the irritant reactions. However, the kinetics of the cell responses, the phenotypes of the inflammatory cells, their distribution and spatial relationships were similar. It thus appears that the applications of allergens or irritants to the skin generates a cell pattern that to a large extent reflects an immunological readiness for further immune reactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:6362938

  15. Analysis of the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis to sunscreen: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Beleznay, Katie; de Gannes, Gillian; Kalia, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    As the use of sunscreens becomes more prevalent, reports of adverse effects to sunscreens have increased. To analyze a patch test database for the prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to sunscreen. The database was searched for positive patch test reactions to benzophenone-3. Charts were also reviewed for those who were further tested to the sunscreen series. Twenty-three of the 1,527 patients seen were tested to the sunscreen series. Of these, only 4 patients had a positive reaction to a sunscreen chemical or to the product they were using. In addition, 8 of the 1,527 patients who had no specific history of sunscreen allergy reacted to benzophenone-3. ACD to sunscreen was found to be very uncommon (0.8%). Other final diagnoses included ACD to excipients such as fragrances or preservatives and suspected photosensitive disorders.

  16. [Effect of deltaran and melatonin on immune system in rats with experimental contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Shandra, O O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was investigation of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity together with leukocytes functional stability indexes in rats with the experimental contact dermatitis (ECD) in conditions of complex pharmacological correction using deltaran and melatonin. Experimental trials were performed under conditions of chronic experiment on model chrome-induced ECD. Both deltaran and melatonin either alone or in combination were used for complex pharmacological correction of humoral and cell-mediated immunity and also for stability of leukocytes. The data obtained showed the expressed disturbances of humoral and cell-mediated immunity and neutrophils' functional stability damage under conditions of chrome-induced ECD in rats. The revealed alterations in functional activity of the immune system were successfully corrected using the combined administration of deltaran and melatonin. The activity of medical complex had exponential character.

  17. Occupational contact allergy and dermatitis from methylisothiazolinone after contact with wallcovering glue and after a chemical burn from a biocide.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Gruvberger, Birgitta; Bruze, Magnus

    2004-12-01

    Skin exposure to biocides containing high concentrations of methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) may cause severe chemical burns and may also induce sensitization. We report two cases in which skin exposure to a newly launched biocide containing 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (MI) and 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one led to sensitization to Ml, which in the second case was preceded by a chemical burn. A study was performed to investigate the pattern of reactivity to MCI and Ml in two patients who presumably had a primary sensitization to Ml and in one patient who had been sensitized to MCI/MI by being patch-tested. The patients were patch-tested with serial dilutions of MCI/MI, MCI, MI, and 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one. The first two patients reacted to both MCI/MI and the separate active ingredients, with a higher level of reactivity to Ml than to MCI. The third patient reacted to MCI/MI and MCI only. A biocide containing Ml caused sensitization and occupational contact dermatitis in the first two patients, through contact with wallpaper glue in one case and after a chemical burn in the other case.

  18. Evaluation of occupational allergic contact dermatitis and its related factors in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Nassiri-Kashani, Mohammad Hassan; Ghafari, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Occupational contact dermatitis, especially in hand, is one of the most common occupational disorders. The present study aimed at evaluating patients with occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by common allergens based on occupation type and disease history. Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the data of the patients with probable diagnosis of ACD in Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL) in Iran. In the present study, 946 patients were assessed from different regions of Iran. One hundred fifty-one cases with positive patch test and relevant exposure were entered into the study; data related to their occupation and disease activity history were evaluated and recorded. Then, factors related to disease activity history were assessed considering the occupational groups and common exposures. Results: Nickel sulphate was the most common allergen in the 151 patients. Disease activity was constant in 29.8% of the patients; it increased in 27.8%, and decreased just before doing the patch test in 42.4%. Of the patients, 52.3% were getting worse during the working days. Occupational groups were significantly different in age and gender. Disease duration was also different in the occupational groups (p=0.001). The least disease duration was observed in healthcare workers, and the most in service workers. Lesions in the foot were related to period of employment. In administrative work group, (teachers, technicians and housewives) disease activity was decreased in the most cases, while it was increased in most patients of service workers (p=0.086). Conclusion: The present study, similar to previous reports, revealed that nickel sulphate is the most common allergen in ACD cases. Moreover, it was found that the symptoms of disease activity remained constant or increased in a significant proportion of the cases during the working days. Therefore, these workers should seriously follow up on this matter

  19. Contact dermatitis in the construction industry: the role of filaggrin loss-of-function mutations.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, J G; Heederik, D; Spee, T; van Rooy, F G; Krop, E J M; Koppelman, G H; Rustemeyer, T; Smit, L A M

    2016-02-01

    A high prevalence of contact dermatitis (CD) and respiratory symptoms has been observed in the construction industry, probably due to widespread exposure to irritants and allergens. It is unknown whether carriers of loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG), a known risk gene for eczema and asthma, are at increased risk. To investigate associations of FLG mutations with CD and respiratory symptoms in Dutch construction workers. A questionnaire including items on dermal and respiratory symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath and asthma was administered to construction workers. Total and specific serum IgE was analysed by enzyme immunoassays. Four FLG loss-of-function mutations were genotyped. CD was diagnosed by a team of a dermatologist and a clinical occupational medicine specialist using photographs of the subjects' hands and self-reported questionnaire data. Of the 506 participating workers, 6·3% carried at least one FLG mutation. Mild CD was diagnosed by the specialists in 34·0%, and severe CD in an additional 24·3%. CD was considered work related in 282 of 295 subjects (95·6%). Carriers of FLG variants had an increased risk of CD compared with subjects carrying wild-type alleles [mild CD: odds ratio (OR) 5·71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·63-20·06; severe CD: OR 8·26, 95% CI 2·32-29·39]. FLG variants and the presence of CD were not associated with respiratory symptoms and atopy. Contact dermatitis prevalence in construction workers is high. FLG loss-of-function mutations increase the risk of CD even further. FLG mutations were not associated with respiratory symptoms or atopy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Coriander alleviates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon; Oh, Myung Sook

    2014-08-01

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5-1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases.

  1. Coriander Alleviates 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Contact Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gunhyuk; Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Lee, Wonil; Sim, Yeomoon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Contact dermatitis (CD) is a pattern of inflammatory responses in the skin that occurs through contact with external factors. The clinical picture is a polymorphic pattern of skin inflammation characterized by a wide range of clinical features, including itching, redness, scaling, and erythema. Coriandrum sativum L. (CS), commonly known as coriander, is a member of the Apiaceae family and is cultivated throughout the world for its nutritional and culinary values. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid in CS have various pharmacological activities. However, no study of the inhibitory effects of CS on CD has been reported. In this study, we demonstrated the protective effect of CS against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced CD-like skin lesions. CS, at doses of 0.5–1%, applied to the dorsal skin inhibited the development of CD-like skin lesions. Moreover, the Th2-mediated inflammatory cytokines, immunoglobulin E, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, and IL-13, were significantly reduced. In addition, CS increased the levels of total glutathione and heme oxygenase-1 protein. Thus, CS can inhibit the development of CD-like skin lesions in mice by regulating immune mediators and may be an effective alternative therapy for contact diseases. PMID:24963872

  2. In vivo induction of regulatory T cells promotes allergen tolerance and suppresses allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Balmert, Stephen C; Donahue, Cara; Vu, John R; Erdos, Geza; Falo, Louis D; Little, Steven R

    2017-09-10

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common T-cell mediated inflammatory skin condition, characterized by an intensely pruritic rash at the site of contact with allergens like poison ivy or nickel. Current clinical treatments use topical corticosteroids, which broadly and transiently suppress inflammation and symptoms of ACD, but fail to address the underlying immune dysfunction. Here, we present an alternative therapeutic approach that teaches the immune system to tolerate contact allergens by expanding populations of naturally suppressive allergen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs). Specifically, biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) microparticles were engineered to release TGF-β1, Rapamycin, and IL-2, to locally sustain a microenvironment that promotes Treg differentiation. By expanding allergen-specific Tregs and reducing pro-inflammatory effector T cells, these microparticles inhibited destructive hypersensitivity responses to subsequent allergen exposure in an allergen-specific manner, effectively preventing or reversing ACD in previously sensitized mice. Ultimately, this approach to in vivo Treg induction could also enable novel therapies for transplant rejection and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Multicentre patch testing with compositae mix by the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Hansson, Christer; Inerot, Annica; Lidén, Carola; Matura, Mihaly; Stenberg, Berndt; Möller, Halvor; Bruze, Magnus

    2011-05-01

    Sesquiterpene lactone mix detects contact allergy to these compounds present in the plant family Asteraceae. This marker is present in many baseline series. An additional marker is Compositae mix, which is not present in many baseline series. To investigate whether this allergen should be inserted into the Swedish baseline series, six dermatology centres representing the Swedish Contact Dermatitis Research Group included Compositae mix into their baseline series for 1.5 years. Of 2818 patients tested, 31 (1.1%) reacted to Compositae mix and 26 (0.9%) to Sesquiterpene lactone mix. Active sensitization to Compositae mix was noted in two cases. Only 0.4% of Asteraceae contact allergy cases would have been missed if Compositae mix had not been tested, a frequency too low to merit its inclusion in the baseline series. Due to obvious geographical differences in frequency in frequency of simultaneous allergic reactions to Compositae mix and Sesquiterpene lactone mix, the question as to whether specific baseline series (including Compositae mix or not as a "tail" substance) should be used in the different centres must be addressed. Another option could be to remove Sesquiterpene lactone mix from the baseline series and substitute it with Compositae mix.

  4. Deodorants are the leading cause of allergic contact dermatitis to fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Avnstorp, Christian; Kristensen, Berit; Kristensen, Ove; Kaaber, Knud; Laurberg, Grete; Henrik Nielsen, Niels; Sommerlund, Mette; Thormann, Jens; Veien, Niels K; Vissing, Susanne; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-05-01

    Fragrances frequently cause contact allergy, and cosmetic products are the main causes of fragrance contact allergy. As the various products have distinctive forms of application and composition of ingredients, some product groups are potentially more likely to play a part in allergic reactions than others. To determine which cosmetic product groups cause fragrance allergy among Danish eczema patients. This was a retrospective study based on data collected by members of the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group. Participants (N = 17,716) were consecutively patch tested with fragrance markers from the European baseline series (2005-2009). Of the participants, 10.1% had fragrance allergy, of which 42.1% was caused by a cosmetic product: deodorants accounted for 25%, and scented lotions 24.4%. A sex difference was apparent, as deodorants were significantly more likely to be listed as the cause of fragrance allergy in men (odds ratio 2.2) than in women. Correlation was observed between deodorants listed as the cause of allergy and allergy detected with fragrance mix II (FM II) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. Deodorants were the leading causes of fragrance allergy, especially among men. Seemingly, deodorants have an 'unhealthy' composition of the fragrance chemicals present in FM II. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Sensitization to thiourea derivatives among Finnish patients with suspected contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Liippo, Jussi; Ackermann, Leena; Hasan, Taina; Laukkanen, Arja; Rantanen, Tapio; Lammintausta, Kaija

    2010-07-01

    Thiourea derivatives in rubber products may induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Sensitization is most often from neoprene rubber, but the multitude of possible sensitizing products has remained poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to collect information on the occurrence of thiourea-related contact allergy and to show novel sources of sensitization. A mixture of dibutyl-, diethyl-, and diphenylthiourea was included in patch test baseline series in five Finnish dermatology clinics during 2002-2007. In addition, an extended series of rubber chemicals was tested in patients with suspected rubber allergy. Sources of sensitization to thioureas were analysed in sensitized patients. Thiourea mix yielded positive patch test reactions in 59 of 15,100 patients (0.39%); 33/59 patients were also tested with individual rubber chemicals. Diethylthiourea was positive in 24/33, diphenylthiourea in 5, and dibutylthiourea in 1 patient. The most common sources of sensitization included various neoprene-containing orthopaedic braces, sports equipment, and foot wear. The sources of sensitization to thiourea chemicals were detected in most cases. These sources comprise a heterogenous group of products extending from orthopaedic materials to sports equipment.

  6. Size dependent skin penetration of nanoparticles in murine and porcine dermatitis models.

    PubMed

    Try, Céline; Moulari, Brice; Béduneau, Arnaud; Fantini, Oscar; Pin, Didier; Pellequer, Yann; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-03-01

    A major limitation in the current topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases is the inability to selectively deliver the drug to the inflammation site. Recently, smart drug delivery systems such as nanocarriers are being investigated to enhance the selective deposition of anti-inflammatory drugs in inflamed areas of the skin to achieve higher therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Of such systems, polymeric nanoparticles are considered very efficient carriers for the topical drug delivery. In the current work, poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles of nominal sizes of 70nm (NP70) and 300nm (NP300) were studied for their intra-epidermal distribution in murine and pig atopic dermatitis models over time against the respective healthy controls. Confocal laser scanning microscopical examination of skin biopsies was utilized for the qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of nanoparticles skin deposition and penetration depth. While no skin penetration was found for any of the particles in healthy skin, the accumulation of NP70 was significantly higher than NP300 in inflamed skin (15-fold in mice, 5-fold in pigs). Penetration depth of NP70 decreased over time in mice from 55±3μm to 20±2μm and similar tendencies were observed for the other formulations. In inflamed pig skin, a similar trend was found for the penetration depth (NP70: 46±12μm versus NP300: 23±3μm); however, the NP amount remained constant for the whole analyzed period. Their ability to penetrate specifically into inflamed skin combined with minimal effects on healthy skin underlines small polymeric nanoparticles' potential as selective drug carriers in future treatment of chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis.

  7. Occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones in Danish contact dermatitis patients: results from a Danish multicentre study (2009-2012).

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Sommerlund, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Females with facial dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates adaptive IL-22 production and promotes allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Robb, Calum T; McSorley, Henry J; Lee, Jinju; Aoki, Tomohiro; Yu, Cunjing; Crittenden, Siobhan; Astier, Anne; Felton, Jennifer M; Parkinson, Nicholas; Ayele, Adane; Breyer, Richard M; Anderton, Stephen M; Narumiya, Shuh; Rossi, Adriano G; Howie, Sarah E; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Weller, Richard B; Yao, Chengcan

    2017-06-03

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are both forms of eczema and are common inflammatory skin diseases with a central role of T cell-derived IL-22 in their pathogenesis. Although prostaglandin (PG) E2 is known to promote inflammation, little is known about its role in processes related to AD and ACD development, including IL-22 upregulation. We sought to investigate whether PGE2 has a role in IL-22 induction and development of ACD, which has increased prevalence in patients with AD. T-cell cultures and in vivo sensitization of mice with haptens were used to assess the role of PGE2 in IL-22 production. The involvement of PGE2 receptors and their downstream signals was also examined. The effects of PGE2 were evaluated by using the oxazolone-induced ACD mouse model. The relationship of PGE2 and IL-22 signaling pathways in skin inflammation were also investigated by using genomic profiling in human lesional AD skin. PGE2 induces IL-22 from T cells through its receptors, E prostanoid receptor (EP) 2 and EP4, and involves cyclic AMP signaling. Selective deletion of EP4 in T cells prevents hapten-induced IL-22 production in vivo, and limits atopic-like skin inflammation in the oxazolone-induced ACD model. Moreover, both PGE2 and IL-22 pathway genes were coordinately upregulated in human AD lesional skin but were at less than significant detection levels after corticosteroid or UVB treatments. Our results define a crucial role for PGE2 in promoting ACD by facilitating IL-22 production from T cells. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Histamine suppresses regulatory T cells mediated by TGF-β in murine chronic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tamaka, Kyoko; Seike, Masahiro; Hagiwara, Tamio; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress effector T cells and ameliorate contact hypersensitivity (CH); however, the role of Tregs in chronic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) has not been assessed. Repeated elicitation of CH has been used to produce CACD models in mice. We previously showed that the presence of histamine facilitates the creation of eczematous lesions in this model using histidine decarboxylase (HDC) (-/-) mice. Therefore, the effects of histamine on Tregs in the CACD model were investigated in this study. CACD was developed by repeated epicutaneous application of 2, 4, 6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB) on HDC (+/+) and HDC (-/-) murine skin to assess the effects of histamine in CACD. Histamine aggravated CACD in the murine model and suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin. Histamine also suppressed the level of TGF-β1 in this model. Recombinant TGF-β1 or anti-TGF-β1 antibody was injected into the dorsal dermis of HDC (+/+) mice daily just before TNCB challenge to determine the effects of histamine-regulated TGF-β on the Treg population in CACD. Recombinant TGF-β1 injection promoted the infiltration of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10; however, anti-TGF-β1 antibody injection suppressed the number of Tregs in the skin and the production of IL-10. Histamine suppresses the number of Tregs in CACD, and this effect is mediated by TGF-β.

  10. CXCR3 chemokine receptor signaling mediates itch in experimental allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lintao; Fu, Kai; Yang, Jennifer; Shimada, Steven G; LaMotte, Robert H

    2015-09-01

    Persistent itch is a common symptom of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and represents a significant health burden. The chemokine CXCL10 is predominantly produced by epithelial cells during ACD. Although the chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 are implicated in the pathophysiology of ACD, it is largely unexplored for itch and pain accompanying this disorder. Here, we showed that CXCL10 and CXCR3 mRNA, protein, and signaling activity were upregulated in the dorsal root ganglion after contact hypersensitivity (CHS), a murine model of ACD, induced by squaric acid dibutylester. CXCL10 directly activated a subset of cutaneous dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the area of CHS through neuronal CXCR3. In behavioral tests, a CXCR3 antagonist attenuated spontaneous itch- but not pain-like behaviors directed to the site of CHS. Injection of CXCL10 into the site of CHS elicited site-directed itch- but not pain-like behaviors, but neither type of CXCL10-evoked behaviors was observed in control mice. These results suggest that CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling mediates allergic itch but not inflammatory pain in the context of skin inflammation. Thus, upregulation of CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in sensory neurons may contribute to itch associated with ACD. Targeting the CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling might be beneficial for the treatment of allergic itch.

  11. Nickel release from metals, and a case of allergic contact dermatitis from stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Sipiläinen-Malm, T; Estlander, T; Zitting, A; Jolanki, R; Tarvainen, K

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by nickel is increasing. The probable cause is the increased use of nickel-containing metals in intimate contact with the skin. The critical factor is the amount of nickel released from these metals (bioavailable nickel) onto the skin. In the present study, we determined, with flame atomic absorbtion spectrometry, the amount of nickel released into synthetic sweat from metal samples. The results of this method were compared with the results of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test, which is considered to be a reliable means of identifying whether nickel-containing metals may cause allergy symptoms in sensitive individuals. Out of 10 samples studied, only small amounts (< 0.5 microgram/cm2/week) were released from 2 samples, and the DMG test was negative. From 5 samples, more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week was released, and the DMG test was positive. For 3 samples, however, the DMG test was negative, though the flame atomic absorption spectrometry test showed considerable release of nickel. Therefore, although the DMG test can be used as a first line test for determining nickel release, some DMG-negative metal materials probably induce nickel sensitization, and should by no means be advertised as safe in this respect. We also report a nickel-allergic patient who developed ACD from stainless steel, indicating that some types of stainless steel release enough nickel to elicit allergic symptoms.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in aspen bark (Populus tremula).

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Välimaa, Jarmo; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2005-02-01

    Salicyl alcohol or 2-methylolphenol is a well-known allergen in phenol-formaldehyde resins and a strong sensitizer in guinea pigs. There is 1 previous report of allergic contact dermatitis from salicyl alcohol in aspen bark. We describe a second case with concomitant allergy to salicylaldehyde. An elk researcher who had handled leaves from various trees presented with eczema of the hands, face, flexures, trunk and extremities. Patch testing showed sensitivity to salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde, balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae resin), aspen wood dust and an extract prepared from the bark of aspen (Populus tremula). Weaker reactions were observed to bark extracts of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia) and goat willow (Salix caprea). We analysed salicyl alcohol and salicylaldehyde in the bark extracts and found the 2 chemicals in equal amounts, about 0.9 microg/mg in aspen bark and in lower concentrations in rowan and the willows. We did not find either of the chemicals in the test substance of balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae). Besides salicyl alcohol, salicylaldehyde is also recommended to be used to screen for contact allergy to aspen. Both of these chemicals should be tested in forest workers in areas where aspen is growing.

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic Acid and hydrogenated castor oil.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    A 34-year-old male experienced severe allergic contact dermatitis from 12-hydroxystearic acid in a lip balm and from hydrogenated castor oil in an underarm deodorant. He also had a positive patch-test reaction to bis-diglyceryl polyacyladipate-2, which is present in the implicated lip balm and which itself contains 12-hydroxystearic acid. He was also incidentally found to have contact allergy to ricinoleic acid and castor oil. Ricinoleic acid is the principal fatty acid in castor oil, whereas 12-hydroxystearic acid is the principal fatty acid in hydrogenated castor oil. These two fatty acids are each 18-carbon 12-hydroxylated fatty acids, differing only in degree of saturation. The lack of patch-test reactivity to the analogous nonhydroxylated fatty acids, stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) indicates that 12-hydroxylation was required for allergenicity in this patient. In addition, serial dilution testing demonstrated that saturation of the hydroxylated C18 fatty acid enhanced its allergenicity.

  14. Paederus Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar, irritant contact dermatitis characterized by a sudden onset of erythematobullous lesions on exposed areas of the body. The disease is provoked by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. This beetle does not bite or sting, but accidental brushing against or crushing the beetle over the skin provokes the release of its coelomic fluid, which contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent. This article describes this dermatitis, which occurred in three healthcare personnel aboard a medical mission boat on the Amazon River. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of paederus dermatitis is reviewed as well its treatment and prevention. PMID:22125660

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by isobornyl acrylate in Freestyle® Libre, a newly introduced glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anne; Aerts, Olivier; Baeck, Marie; Bruze, Magnus; De Block, Christophe; Goossens, An; Hamnerius, Nils; Huygens, Sara; Maiter, Dominique; Tennstedt, Dominique; Vandeleene, Bernard; Mowitz, Martin

    2017-08-14

    Glucose sensors, such as FreeStyle® Libre, are innovative medical devices developed for diabetes patients as a replacement for classic glucose meters, ensuring continuous glucose monitoring without the disadvantage of regular skin finger pricks. To report several cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by FreeStyle® Libre, and to report on isobornyl acrylate as a culprit allergen. Fifteen patients presented with allergic contact dermatitis caused by FreeStyle® Libre. All but 1 were patch tested with a baseline series, and with pieces and/or ultrasonic bath extracts of (the adhesive part of) the glucose sensor. Isobornyl acrylate was patch tested, in various concentrations and vehicles, in 13 patients. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the sensors was performed. All patients reacted to the adhesive part of the sensor, and 12 patients were shown to be sensitized to isobornyl acrylate. Simultaneous reactions to other allergens were rarely observed. GC-MS showed the presence of isobornyl acrylate in the sensors. Cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by FreeStyle® Libre are increasingly being observed, and isobornyl acrylate is a relevant culprit allergen. Cross-reactivity to other acrylates was infrequently observed, but other, hitherto unidentified, contact allergens may still be present in the device. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from persistently infected sows to contact controls.

    PubMed Central

    Bierk, M D; Dee, S A; Rossow, K D; Otake, S; Collins, J E; Molitor, T W

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could persist in non-pregnant sows and if persistently infected sows could transmit virus to naive contact controls. Twelve PRRSV-naive, non-pregnant sows (index sows) were infected with a field isolate of PRRSV and housed in individual isolation rooms for 42 to 56 days postinfection. Following this period, 1 naive contact sow was placed in each room divided by a gate allowing nose-to-nose contact with a single index sow. Index sows were not viremic at the time of contact sow entry. Virus nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and infectious virus was detected by virus isolation in sera from 3 of the 12 contact sows at 49, 56, and 86 days postinfection. All 3 infected contacts developed PRRSV antibodies. Virus nucleic acid was detected in tissues of all of the 12 index sows at 72 or 86 days postinfection. Nucleic acid sequencing indicated that representative samples from index and infected contacts were homologous (> 99%) to the PRRSV used to infect index sows at the onset of the study. This study demonstrates that PRRSV can persist in sows and that persistently infected sows can transmit virus to naive contact animals. PMID:11768134

  17. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; Castro, Paulo Carrara de

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk.

  18. Patch test standard series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Study Group during the 2006-2011 period*

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Tanaka, Greta Merie; Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Lazzarini, Rosana; Lopes, Andressa Sato de Aquino; Volpini, Beatrice Mussio Fornazier; de Castro, Paulo Carrara

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out between 2006-2011. Six hundred and eighteen patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis underwent the standard patch test series recommended by the Brazilian Contact Dermatitis Research Group. The aim of our study was to evaluate the variation of positive patch-test results from standard series year by year. The most frequently positive allergens were: nickel sulfate, thimerosal and potassium bichromate. Decrease of positive patch-test results over the years was statistically significant for: lanolin (p=0.01), neomycin (p=0.01) and anthraquinone (p=0.04). A follow-up study should be useful in determining which allergens could be excluded from standard series, as they may represent low sensitization risk. PMID:24474122

  19. Ultrastructural studies of allergic contact dermatitis in man. Infiltrating cells at the earliest phase of spongiotic bulla formation.

    PubMed

    Komura, J; Oguchi, M; Aoshima, T; Ofuji, S

    1980-01-01

    The kind and fine structure of mononuclear cells appearing in the epidermis at about 6 h of allergic contact dermatitis were examined by electron microscopy. They were monocytes and lymphocytes, the number being about equal. The ultrastructure of monocytes was that described for normal ones in blood, and apparently actively moving, streching the intercellular connections of the keratinocytes. Lymphocytes displayed a round or oval nucleus with some electron-dense cytoplasm which contained ribosomes and polysomes but only occasional mitochondria and Golgi complexes.

  20. Contact dermatitis from the epoxy resins tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylene dianiline and o-diglycidyl phthalate in composite material.

    PubMed

    Burrows, D; Fregert, S; Campbell, H; Trulsson, L

    1984-08-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis occurred in an aircraft factory using epoxy resin composite material. Of 25 operatives, 14 gave positive patch test reactions to the composite material and/or diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), tetraglycidyl-4,4'-methylene dianiline (TGMDA), and o-diglycidyl phthalate. This report seems to be the first to demonstrate contact allergy to the two last mentioned epoxy resins. The diglycidylether of bisphenol A used in routine test series picked up only 3 cases of 12 tested.

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to regenerated oxidized cellulose contained in a matrix employed for wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Conserva, Anna; Angelini, Gianni

    2007-07-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old non-atopic woman with recurrent leg ulcers because of the factor V Leiden mutation who developed a severe eczematous lesions of the skin surrounding an ulcer of the right leg after the use of a protease-modulating matrix (Promogran, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, Skipton, UK). The patient was patch tested with the SIDAPA (Italian Society of Allergological, Occupational and Environmental Dermatology) standard series, a piece of the device as is, of the bovine collagen (Zyderm, Collagen Corporation, Palo Alto, CA, USA) as is, a piece of the gauze containing only regenerated oxidized cellulose (Tabotamp, Johnson and Johnson, Gargrave, North Yorkshire, UK) and of a fold towels in pure cellulose (Foscart, Bassano del Grappa, Italy). Patch tests gave a positive reactions to nickel sulphate and Promogran as is. We showed that the sensitizing agent was regenerated oxidized cellulose, a substance the treatment of ulcers and as is in and in combination with collagen in surgery for intraoperative hemostasis. The case reported suggests that regenerated oxidized cellulose can cause allergic contact dermatitis.

  2. Acrylate-induced allergic contact dermatitis in a car windscreen repairer.

    PubMed

    Fremlin, G; Sansom, J

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an allergic skin reaction to ultraviolet-cured acrylates in a windscreen repair worker. The patient presented with a 6 month history of fingertip dryness, vesicles and desquamation. He had worked as a self-employed car windscreen repairer for 19 years. Previous management with vinyl glove protection and treatment with clobetasol propionate ointment had produced little improvement. He was patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard and preservatives series and to the two acrylates used in his work environment, identified using safety data sheets, methyl methacrylate 2% pet and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) 2% pet. A positive reaction was seen at Day 4 to 2-HEMA, but all other patch tests were negative. An occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2-HEMA was diagnosed. The patient was given avoidance advice and advised to use nitrile gloves. Although he was unable to give up his current work, he has continued his job using nitrile gloves with marked improvement.

  3. Vapor Pressure and Predicted Stability of American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergens.

    PubMed

    Jou, Paul C; Siegel, Paul D; Warshaw, Erin M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate patch testing is reliant on proper preparation of patch test allergens. The stability of patch test allergens is dependent on several factors including vapor pressure (VP). This investigation reviews the VP of American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Allergens and compares stability predictions based on VP with those established through clinical testing. Standard references were accessed for determining VP in millimeters of mercury and associated temperature in degrees celsius. If multiple values were listed, VP at temperatures that most approximate indoor storage conditions (20°C and 25°C) were chosen. For mixes, the individual component with the highest VP was chosen as the overall VP, assuming that the most volatile substance would evaporate first. Antigens were grouped into low (≤0.001 mm Hg), moderate (<1 to >0.001 mm Hg), and high (≥1 mm Hg) volatility using arbitrary cutoff values. This review is consistent with previously reported data on formaldehyde, acrylates, and fragrance material instability. Given lack of testing data, VP can be useful in predicting patch test compound stability. Measures such as air-tight multidose reagent containers, sealed single-application dispensers, preparation of patches immediately before application, and storage at lower temperatures may remedy some of these issues.

  4. [Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics containing Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil)].

    PubMed

    Fritz, T M; Burg, G; Krasovec, M

    2001-02-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia is a coniferous tree found in tropical regions, the needles contain an essential oil that is used in medical and cosmetic products. The essential oil contains turpentines (limonene, alpha-pinene, phellandrene) that are potentially allergenic. In 1997, 1216 patients were patch tested in our dermatoligic unit. Fourteen of them tested because of eczema used products containing tea tree oil. The patients used creams, hair products and essential oils containing Melaleuca alternifolia for cosmetic reasons and to treat skin affections. They were patch tested for a standard panel of allergens, topical emulgators, perfumes, plants, topical medications, metal, gloves, topical disinfectants and preservatives, dental products and rubber derivatives. Products containing Melaleuca alternifolia were tested concentrated or diluted. We report on 7 cases of patients with an allergic contact dermatitis due to tea tree oil. Two of them also exhibited from a delayed type IV hypersensitivity towards fragrance-mix or colophony suggesting the possibility of cross reaction or an allergic group reaction caused by contamination of the colophony with the volatile fraction of turpentines. The allergic potential of low concentrations of Melaleuca alternifolia is presumed to be low on healthy skin. Photoaged Melaleuca alternifolia must be considered to be a stronger sensitizer.

  5. IL-31 and IL-33 circulating levels in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, F; Minciullo, P L; Mannucci, C; Calapai, F; Saitta, S; Cannavò, S P; Gangemi, S

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced IL-31 expression in skin biopsies is present in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). IL-33 expression is induced in keratinocytes and in skin of ACD patients. This overexpression is present in both allergic and irritant conditions. The aim of this work was to test the systemic involvement of IL-31 and IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls. IL-33 serum levels, on the contrary, were similar in patients and controls. This work shows a possible systemic involvement of IL-31 and the absence of a systemic involvement of IL-33 in ACD. IL-31 levels do not seem related to the allergen involved, and did not change on the strength of the allergen involved. More likely, IL-31 levels are related to the itch. IL-33, instead, is secreted from damaged or inflamed tissue and might function as an early warning system at the site of skin damage. In the future, IL-31 could be a possible therapeutic target of all pruritic skin diseases resistant to conventional therapies.

  6. Best practices, new perspectives and the perfect emollient: optimizing the management of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lachapelle, Jean-Marie; Gimenez-Arnau, Ana; Metz, Martin; Peters, Jill; Proksch, Ehrhardt

    2017-09-19

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is caused by environmental agents, irritants, and allergens that penetrate the epidermis and lead to inflammation. An intact skin barrier prevents penetration and is important in maintaining healthy skin. Classical diagnosis of CD is made using the patch test, and traditional treatment strategies for CD promote skin barrier integrity and resolve the inflammatory component of the condition. This can be achieved by using emollient-based therapy, which is most important for skin barrier repair, and in addition to topical glucocorticosteroids, which are used in severe cases of CD and are most effective in reducing inflammation. Preventative measures, such as irritant and allergen avoidance in the workplace, also play a pivotal role in effective CD management. Moreover, CD management necessitates a holistic approach that incorporates prevention, barrier repair, and inflammatory resolution to ensure optimized efficacy. It is also important to consider potential barriers to optimal management when evaluating individuals with CD, such as limited patient education or poor access to care. Finally, key literature and our own clinical practice experience have highlighted the value of patient preference, as well as safety, efficacy and simplicity, in building the perfect emollient.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational contact dermatitis in Australia: diagnostic and management practices, and severity of worker impairment.

    PubMed

    Keegel, Tessa; Erbas, Bircan; Cahill, Jennifer; Noonan, Amanda; Dharmage, Shyamali; Nixon, Rosemary

    2007-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare treatment and referral practices between general practitioners (GPs) and dermatologists and to evaluate predictors for occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) disease severity measured in terms of worker impairment. Data were collected from 181 patients recruited for a larger study of OCD. Information about treatment recommendations and usual referral practices are reported for 123 patients. Data from patients, diagnosed with work-related skin disease, were modelled for severity of worker impairment. GPs were more likely to treat a patient independently, referring if the patient did not improve, whereas dermatologists were more likely to refer for patch testing on initial presentation. Dermatologists were more likely to recommend gloves and GPs were more likely to recommend soap avoidance/substitution. 2 GPs and no dermatologists reported recommending the best practice combination of moisturizers, topical corticosteroids and soap substitutes. When adjusted for all variables including age, sex, duration and diagnostic subgroup, workers with atopy as a cofactor had the most severe impairment. This study suggests that in Australia, patients with suspected OCD are initially managed within general practice, few clinicians recommend best practice treatments for OCD, and that atopy is associated with severity. These findings have implications for health resource allocation, clinician education, and the pre-employment counselling of atopic patients.

  9. Application of the risk assessment paradigm to the induction of allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Felter, Susan P; Ryan, Cindy A; Basketter, David A; Gilmour, Nicola J; Gerberick, G Frank

    2003-02-01

    The National Academy of Science (NAS) risk assessment paradigm has been widely accepted as a framework for estimating risk from exposure to environmental chemicals (NAS, 1983). Within this framework, quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) serve as the cornerstone of health-based exposure limits, and have been used routinely for both cancer and noncancer endpoints. These methods have focused primarily on the extrapolation of data from laboratory animals to establish acceptable levels of exposure for humans. For health effects associated with a threshold, uncertainty and variability inherent in the extrapolation process is generally dealt with by the application of "uncertainty factors (UFs)." The adaptation of QRA methods to address skin sensitization is a natural and desirable extension of current practices. Based on our chemical, cellular and molecular understanding of the induction of allergic contact dermatitis, one can conduct a QRA using established methods of identifying a NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) or other point of departure, and applying appropriate UFs. This paper describes the application of the NAS paradigm to characterize risks from human exposure to skin sensitizers; consequently, this method can also be used to establish an exposure level for skin allergens that does not present an appreciable risk of sensitization.

  10. Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine after temporary henna painting.

    PubMed

    Nawaf, Al-Mutairi; Joshi, Arun; Nour-Eldin, Osama

    2003-11-01

    The use of temporary natural henna painting for body adornment and hair dyeing is very common in several countries of the Indian subcontinent, Middle East, and North Africa, and the fad is spreading in other parts of the world. Several cases of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) contaminated, temporary traditional/natural henna induced sensitization and acute allergic reaction have been reported, along with occasional serious long term and rare fatal consequences. We report here a 17-year-old girl with blisters over her hands of five-days duration that appeared within 72 hours of applying a temporary henna paint to her hands during a social occasion. Similar lesions were noted on her face. She had previously applied black henna only once, a year earlier without developing any lesions. Clinical diagnosis of acute allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) was made. After a short course of oral corticosteroids, topical mometasone furaote 1.0% cream, and oral antihistamines, the lesions healed completely over the next four weeks leaving post-inflammatory hypopigmentation. Patch testing done with standard European battery, PPD 1% in petrolatum, and commercially available natural henna powder revealed a 3+ reaction to PPD at 48 hours. No reaction was seen at the natural henna site. Awareness of the condition among physicians and the public and regulation regarding warnings of the risks of using such products is urgently warranted.

  11. A comparative study of allergic contact dermatitis by patch test versus reflectance confocal laser microscopy, with nickel and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Sakanashi, Emi Nishijima; Matsumura, Mitsuaki; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Ikeda, Masaomi; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the accuracy of reflectance confocal laser microscopy (RCLM) in observing allergic contact dermatitis in vivo. However, distinction of skin reactions from different reagents is not well understood. We sought to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis by RCLM images and compare with routine, visual patch test (PT) reading for 2 major allergen metals in Japan. The PT was performed on the upper back skin with 5% nickel sulfate (Ni) and 2% cobalt chloride (Co) in eight healthy volunteers and eleven patients. RCLM was used to calculate the thickness of the suprabasal epidermis after visual assessment of PT. Comparison of clinical scoring versus suprabasal epidermal thickness was observed. RCLM images of positive PT showed increased suprabasal epidermal thickness on day 2 (D2), and D3 for Co, whereas there was vesicle formation and an overall increase suprabasal epidermal thickness for Ni. In two of 3 doubtful positive PT to Co, RCLM images presented characteristics of irritant reactions; and one characteristic of a positive reaction. The frequency of Co doubtful-positive PT was higher than that of Ni. We found advantages in using RCLM for visualizing features of allergic contact dermatitis and found it a useful tool as an objective parameter in grading severity and types of PT reaction.

  12. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-12

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

  13. Body piercing and metal allergic contact sensitivity: North American contact dermatitis group data from 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Kingsley-Loso, Jaime L; DeKoven, Joel G; Belsito, Donald V; Zug, Kathryn A; Zirwas, Matthew J; Maibach, Howard I; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; Fowler, Joseph F; Mathias, Charles Gordon Toby; DeLeo, Vincent A; Pratt, Melanie D; Marks, James G; Fransway, Anthony F

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between piercing and patch test sensitivity to metals (nickel, cobalt, and chromium) in North America. A retrospective analysis of 9334 patients tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group from 2007 to 2010 was conducted. Nickel sensitivity was statistically associated with at least 1 piercing (risk ratio [RR], 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.26-2.81; P < 0.0001) and nickel sensitivity rates increased with the number of piercings (16% for 1 piercing to 32% for ≥ 5 piercings). Prevalence of nickel sensitivity was higher in females (23.2%) than in males (7.1%), but the association with piercing was stronger in males (RR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.72-3.30; P < 0.0001) than in females (RR, 1.30; CI, 1.13-1.49; P = 0.0002). Crude analysis indicated that cobalt sensitivity was statistically associated with piercing (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.40-1.91; P < 0.0001); however, stratified analysis showed that this relationship was confounded by nickel. After adjusting for nickel sensitivity, the adjusted risk ratio for piercing and cobalt was 0.78 (not significant). Chromium sensitivity was negatively associated with piercing (RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.48-0.75; P < 0.0001). Piercing was statistically associated with sensitivity to nickel. This relationship was dose dependent and stronger in males. Cobalt sensitivity was not associated with piercing when adjusted for nickel. Chromium sensitivity was negatively associated with piercing.

  14. Contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis from corn in a patient with serum IgE specific for a salt-soluble corn protein of low molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Cristaudo, Antonio; Simonato, Barbara; Pasini, Gabriella; De Rocco, Mariagrazia; Curioni, Andrea; Giannattasio, Matteo

    2004-08-01

    Among the cereals, wheat, rye, barley and oats, have been reported to cause protein contact dermatitis. However, in these cases neither the involvement of an immunological mechanism nor the role of specific protein(s) has been demonstrated. We present a case of protein contact dermatitis from corn. The patient presented with a Type I sensitization to corn, as shown by the presence of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and positivity to prick tests with both a flour suspension and the salt-soluble protein fraction of this cereal. The same corn preparations induced a strong urticarial reaction on scratch testing. This reaction was followed several days later by the appearance of erythema and then eczema at the site of application. When boiled, these preparations became inactive on both prick and scratch testing. Patch tests were negative in all cases. Immunoblotting performed with the patient's serum showed the presence of a unique IgE-binding protein band with a molecular weight of around 14 kDa, belonging to the salt-soluble corn protein fraction. Our results give the first clear evidence that cornflour can induce protein contact dermatitis. The IgE-binding 14-kDa protein has characteristics identical to those of the trypsin/alpha-amylase inhibitors from cereals.

  15. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in North American Print Machine Operators Referred for Patch Testing: Retrospective Analysis of Cross-Sectional Data From the North American Contact Dermatitis Group 1998 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Hagen, Solveig L; Belsito, Donald V; DeKoven, Joel G; Maibach, Howard I; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; Sasseville, Denis; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fowler, Joseph F; Fransway, Anthony F; DeLeo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Taylor, James S

    Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis (CD) in print machine operators (PMOs). The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of CD and characterize clinically relevant and occupationally related allergens among PMOs undergoing patch testing. This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group data from 1998 to 2014. Of 39,332 patch-tested patients, 132 (0.3%) were PMOs. Among PMOs, most were male (75.0%) and white (92.4%). The majority were printing press operators (85.6%). The most frequent sites of dermatitis were hands (63.6%), arms (29.5%), and face/scalp (24.2%). More than half had an occupationally related skin condition (56.1%). Final diagnoses were most commonly allergic CD (58.3%) and irritant CD (33.3%). Cobalt (20.8%), carba mix (12.5%), thiuram mix (8.3%), and formaldehyde (8.3%) were the most frequent occupationally related allergens. The top allergen sources included inks (22.9%), gloves (20.8%), and coatings/dye/copy/photographic chemicals (14.6%). Allergic CD, irritant CD, and involvement of exposed body areas were common among PMOs. Common allergens included rubber accelerators, metals, and preservatives.

  16. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  17. Patch test results of the European baseline series among patients with occupational contact dermatitis across Europe - analyses of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy network, 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maria; Jolanki, Riitta; Larese Filon, Francesca; Wilkinson, Mark; Kręcisz, Beata; Kieć-Świerczyńska, Marta; Bauer, Andrea; Mahler, Vera; John, Swen M; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Europe. In order to develop effective preventive measures, detailed and up-to-date data on the incidence, main causes and professions at risk of occupational contact dermatitis are needed. To describe the pattern of patch test reactivity to allergens in the European baseline series of patients with occupational contact dermatitis in different occupations. We analysed data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy (ESSCA) network from 2002 to 2010, from 11 European countries. Allergens in the European baseline series associated with an at least doubled risk of occupational contact dermatitis include: thiuram rubber chemical accelerators, epoxy resin, and the antimicrobials methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone, methyldibromo glutaronitrile, and formaldehyde. The highest risk of occupational contact dermatitis was found in occupations classified as 'other personal services workers', which includes hairdressers, nursing and other healthcare professionals, precision workers in metal and related materials, and blacksmiths, tool-makers and related trades workers. In the planning and implementation of measures aimed at preventing occupational contact dermatitis, the focus should be on the identified high-risk occupational groups and the most common occupational allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Occupational protein contact dermatitis from spices in a butcher: a new presentation of the mugwort-spice syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anliker, Mark David; Borelli, Siegfried; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2002-02-01

    Protein contact dermatitis to meat is well known in butchers; spices are another source of potential contact allergy and usually are not recognized. We present a first case of contact-dermatitis to spice mix in a 39-year-old-butcher. The patient underwent skin prick testing (SPT) with standard allergens (ALK) and different meat and spice extracts (Stallergènes), scratch-patch testing with spice mix containing glutamate, paprika and other spices. Specific serum-IgE was measured with CAP-FEIA. SPT only showed an immediate-type sensitization to mugwort (+ +), as well as different spices (paprika +, curry +, cumin +) and camomile (+ + +). Scratch-patch tests were negative for different meat, but strongly positive for spice mix (+ + +) after 30 min (wheal and flare) and (+ +) after 48 h (infiltration and vesiculation). Two healthy controls were tested negative for spice mix used from that patient (scratch-patch). Specific IgE was slightly elevated for paprika 0.47 kU/L (CAP class 1), anise 0.43 kU/L, curry 0.36 kU/L and mugwort 3.83 kU/L. Sx1 atopy-multiscreen was 3.8 kU/L due to a sensitization to mugwort alone. The tests performed demonstrate an IgE-mediated contact allergy to spices but also a delayed type allergy to spice mix as a manifestation of the mugwort-spice syndrome in this individual. When testing for occupational dermatitis in butchers, protein contact allergy to spices must also be taken into consideration.

  19. [Secondary effects of topical application of an essential oil. Allergic contact dermatitis due to tea tree oil].

    PubMed

    Santesteban Muruzábal, R; Hervella Garcés, M; Larrea García, M; Loidi Pascual, L; Agulló Pérez, A; Yanguas Bayona, I

    2015-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an essential oil, whose use is increasing in our setting, due both to its supposed medicinal effects and to its aromatic properties. We describe our experience with allergic contact dermatitis following the application of this oil. Five patients in the last 5 years (0.4% of all the patients studied in specialized consultation) reacted to a 5% concentration of tea tree oil in Vaseline. All the patients presented strong reactions, and in all cases these were considered relevant. Three of them also reacted to oxidized d-limonene, one of the components of tea tree oil, which is present in our standard series. Different cases have been described in the literature on allergic contact dermatitis due to tea tree oil, but until recently it was infrequent in our setting. With the increased popularity of alternative and natural therapies we have witnessed several cases of sensitization to this essential oil, which had been used to treat several supposedly "infectious" skin diseases, but which were very probably different forms of dermatitis.

  20. [Occupationally-induced dyshidrosiform dermatitis of the hands following contact with cacti. Case report].

    PubMed

    Vassileva, S; Stransky, L

    1987-01-01

    A patient, employed in a plant nursery where cacti are grown, developed wide spread dyshidrotic dermatitis of the hands. This patient was histologically studied and cactus spines were found in several biopsied vesicles.

  1. North American contact dermatitis group patch test results: 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Erin M; Maibach, Howard I; Taylor, James S; Sasseville, Denis; DeKoven, Joel G; Zirwas, Matthew J; Fransway, Anthony F; Mathias, C G Toby; Zug, Kathryn A; DeLeo, Vincent A; Fowler, Joseph F; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Belsito, Donald V

    2015-01-01

    Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for assessment of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). This study documents the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch-testing results from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012. At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends analyzed using χ statistics. Four thousand two hundred thirty-eight patients were tested; of these, 2705 patients (63.8%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2029 (48.0%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of ACD. Four hundred eight patients (9.6%) had occupationally related skin disease. There were 7532 positive allergic reactions. As compared with previous reporting periods (2009-2010 and 2000-2010), positive reaction rates statistically increased for 6 allergens: methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (5.0%; risk ratios [RRs]: 2.01 [1.60-2.52], 1.87 [1.61-2.18]), lanolin alcohol (4.6%; RRs 1.83 [1.45-2.30], 2.10 [1.79-2.47]), cinnamic aldehyde (3.9%; 1.69 [1.32-2.15], 1.53 [1.28-1.82]), glutaral (1.5%; 1.67 [1.13-2.48], 1.31 [1.00-1.71]), paraben mix (1.4%; 1.77 [1.16-2.69], 1.44 [1.09-1.92]), and fragrance mix I (12.1%; RRs 1.42 [1.25-1.61], 1.24 [1.14-1.36]). Compared with the previous decade, positivity rates for all formaldehyde-releasing preservatives significantly decreased (formaldehyde 6.6%; RR, 0.82 [0.73, 0.93]; quaternium-15 6.4% RR 0.75 [0.66, 0.85]; diazolidinyl urea 2.1%; RR, 0.67 [0.54, 0.84]; imidazolidinyl urea 1.6%, 0.60 [0.47, 0.77]; bronopol 1.6%; RR, 0.60 [0.46, 0.77]; DMDM hydantoin 1.6%; RR, 0.59 [0.54, 0.84]). Approximately a quarter of patients had at least 1 relevant allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. In addition, approximately one-fourth to one-third of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been hypothetically missed by T

  2. Palmitoylethanolamide reduces inflammation and itch in a mouse model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vaia, Massimo; Petrosino, Stefania; De Filippis, Daniele; Negro, Luana; Guarino, Andrea; Carnuccio, Rosa; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Iuvone, Teresa

    2016-11-15

    In mice, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induces contact allergic dermatitis (CAD), which, in a late phase, is characterized by mast cell (MC) infiltration and angiogenesis. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, acts by down-modulating MCs following activation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We have previously reported the anti-inflammatory effect of PEA in the early stage of CAD. Here, we examined whether PEA reduces the features of the late stage of CAD including MC activation, angiogenesis and itching. After sensitization to DNFB, female C57BL/6J mice underwent to three DNFB challenges at days 5, 12 and 19 and treatments were given at each challenge and for two more days. CAD was expressed as Δ increase in ear thickness between challenged and un-challenged mice. PEA (5mg/kg/i.p.) reduced: i) the DNFB-induced Δ increase; ii) the number of MCs per tissue area; iii) the expression of VEGF and its receptor Flk-1. These effects were reversed by co-administration of AM630 (1mg/kg/i.p.), a CB2 antagonist, but not GW6471 (1mg/kg/i.p.), a PPAR-α antagonist. Finally, PEA reduced the number of ear scratchings 48h after DNFB challenge and this effect was reversed by both CB2 and PPAR-α antagonists, suggesting the involvement of both receptors. PEA, by reducing the features of late stage CAD in mice, may be beneficial in this pathological condition.

  3. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit on contact dermatitis induced by dinitrofluorobenzene in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jung; Jo, Suzy; Ryu, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Guemsan; Ryu, Mi Heon; Jung, Myeong Ho; Kim, Hyungwoo; Kim, Byung Joo

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. fruit is widely used to treat skin diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of S. chinensis (MESC) on 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) in mice. The effects of MESC on ear thickness and weight, histopathological changes, immune cell filtration and cytokine production were investigated in DNFB-induced CD mice. Topical application of MESC effectively inhibited ear swelling (30 or 300 μg on the left ear, P<0.001; 30 μg on the right ear, P<0.001). MESC also inhibited hyperplasia, spongiosis (100 μg/ear, P<0.05 and 300 μg/ear, P<0.001, respectively) and immune cell infiltration (100 μg/ear, P<0.05; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001) induced by DNFB. In addition, MESC suppressed increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels (100 or 300 μg/ear, P<0.05), interferon (INF)-γ (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (300 μg/ear, P<0.05) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (30 μg/ear, P<0.05; 100 μg/ear, P<0.01; 300 μg/ear, P<0.001). These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MESC are mediated by the reduced production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6 and MCP-1, and that MESC has potential use for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  4. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days. PMID:25276110

  5. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Mundhenk, Lars; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Lademann, Jürgen; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.

  6. Liquid Adhesive Contact Dermatitis After Bunionectomy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hood, Christopher R; Cornell, Rhonda S; Greenfield, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to the skin adherents used in postoperative dressings are an uncommon but unfavorable complication that can result in poor wound healing, increased scarring, and surgical wound infections. This unexpected and unforeseen complication is not well documented in the current published data. We present the case of a 39-year-old female who had undergone a bunionectomy procedure and developed allergic contact dermatitis postoperatively. We discuss the clinical findings and treatments administered after application of a commonly used liquid skin adhesive applied intraoperatively. Through the use of topical and oral steroids and foot soaks in astringent solutions, over the course of several months, the patient's skin returned to the expected postoperative appearance. With the increased consciousness to minimize surgical scarring to improve cosmesis, one of these causes of the reaction might have been the liquid adhesive used in the surgical closure and dressing application. Therefore, we additionally reviewed the adhesive compound's chemical makeup and any potential cross-reactivity to help surgeons make an informed decision of whether to use a liquid adhesive. The various ingredients in liquid adhesives contain known allergen compounds that can cause a reaction, such as balsam of Peru and colophony or rosin, both of which are reviewed in our report. We also present a treatment algorithm developed from the compiled data in the case of a patient developing an allergic reaction. From our literature review and considering the percentage of incidence, if a surgeon desires to use a liquid adhesive product, Mastisol(®) should be chosen because of its lower reactivity and greater adhesive properties compared with the compound tincture of benzoin. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A survey of plants responsible for causing irritant contact dermatitis in the Amathole district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Otang, Wilfred M; Grierson, Donald S; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2014-11-18

    Potentially harmful plants grow almost everywhere, hence, it is not practical to eradicate them all. However, a basic understanding of adverse cutaneous reactions and the common plants that cause each type can enable vulnerable individuals to discover the source of their dermatitis and thus prevent re-exposure. The aim of this study therefore, was to document the plants responsible for irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in the Eastern Cape, along with their respective irritants and clinical presentations. Study participants (161) in 12 locations were selected by convenient sampling with particular focus on local people who regularly interact with plants or plant products. Interview questions were focused on the local names of plants that contain irritating chemicals and physical characteristics that cause ICD. Forty four plant species distributed in 24 families and 34 genera were reported as causative agents of irritant contact dermatitis. Herbs constituted 67.35%, trees 24.49% and shrubs 8.16%. Mechanical ICD was reported to be caused by 23 species, closely followed by chemical ICD (20 species) and mechanico-chemical ICD (6 species). Species with the highest frequency of citations were Allium cepa, Acacia karroo, Capsicum annuum, Citrus limon and Zea mays. The most representative families were Euphorbiaceae (for chemical ICD), Urticaceae (for mechanico-chemical ICD), Fabaceae and Rutaceae for mechanical ICD. Most of the classes of chemical compounds identified as being responsible for chemical ICD were restricted to plants of specific genera such as the diterpenes in Euphorbia spp., disulphides in Allium spp., terpenes in Citrus spp. and isothiocyanates in Brassica spp. Thorns and hairs were reported for causing Mechanical ICD in 6 plant species each, including widely cultivated plants such as Acacia karoo and Citrus reticulata. Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cutaneous disorder in individuals exposed to plants in the Eastern Cape, especially among workers

  8. [Severe contact-allergy dermatitis due to poison ivy--a plant that is rarely encountered in The Netherlands; a family history].

    PubMed

    Leclercq, R M F M

    2005-07-23

    In successive years, three members of the same family (a man and woman aged 46 years and their son, aged 20) constantly developed severe pruritic, erythematous, vesicular and bullous dermatitis in the spring and summer after working in the garden. Although the findings were consistent with a photophytotoxic dermatitis, the causative plant remained unclear. Oral therapy with high doses ofprednisolone was necessary. When the man travelled to the USA and visited a doctor there, he recognised the symptoms as those of contact dermatitis caused by poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans), a plant that is found sporadically in the wild state in Europe. Their grandparents had brought the plant back from a trip to the USA and planted it in the garden because of the beautiful fall colours. The family identified the plant via a search on Internet and eliminated it from the garden completely. Since then, the family has no longer suffered from contact-allergy dermatitis.

  9. The effect of damaged skin barrier induced by subclinical irritation on the sequential irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yan-yu, Wu; Xue-min, Wang; Yi-Mei, Tan; Ying, Cheng; Na, Liu

    2011-12-01

    Skin damage caused by a single specific stimulus has been extensively studied. However, many additional mild skin irritants are experienced every day before obvious irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) appears. The effect that these previously experienced mild irritations have on the incidence and severity of sequential ICD remains undefined. The purpose of this work was to explore whether the effects of skin barrier damage induced by either the open patch test with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), tape stripping test (TAP) (10×), or irradiation with 0.75 median erythemal dose UVB (MED) will affect the severity of sequential irritant dermatitis induced by a 0.5% SLS occlusive patch test (PT). Nine treatments were applied to nine different locations of the ventral forearm of each subject at random. The nine treatment types were as follows: open patch test with 1% SLS; 10× TAP; UVB irradiation with 0.75 MED; open patch test with 1% SLS + PT with 0.5% SLS (SLSPT); 10× TAP + PT with 0.5% SLS (TAPPT); UVB irradiation with 0.75 MED + PT with 0.5% SLS (UVPT); PT with distilled water (DISPT); PT with 0.5% SLS (PT); and the CONTROL (no treatment). After 5 days of subclinical irritation, the PT was applied on day 6. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance (CAP), and skin color (a*) were measured at baseline and on days 6, 7, and 8. After the PT, indices of irritancy of PT, UVPT, SLSPT, and TAPPT were 60, 80, 87 and 100%, respectively. The index of irritancy of TAPPT and SLSPT were significantly higher than that of PT (p < 0.05). Clinical scores of SLSPT and TAPPT were also significantly higher than PT (p < 0.05). After 5 days of irritation, TEWL of SLS, TAP, SLSPT, and TAPPT were increased significantly compared to that of baseline. After the PT, D-value of TEWL between day 8 and day 6 ((≥6-8)TEWL) of SLSPT and TAPPT were greater than that of PT, and D-value of TEWL between day 8 and day 7 ((≥7-8)TEWL) of SLSPT and TAPPT were less than that of PT values. After the

  10. High-concentration topical capsaicin may abolish the clinical manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis by effects on induction and elicitation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin condition caused by a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction. Even though ACD is considered as a T-cell mediated disease, indications exists that peptidergic nerve fibers at the site of allergen exposure and associated with the draining lymph node play a prominent role in both induction and elicitation of ACD. This neuro-immune cross talk seems rely on neuropeptides such as Substance P secreted by nerve fiber terminals. It is hypothesized that local complete or partial cutaneous denervation/defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers in humans could be a feasible approach towards treating allergic contact dermatitis. Recently, human experimental protocols for prominent, temporary defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers have been published relying on prolonged application of 8% topical capsaicin patches. Combined with human experimental ACD models the importance of peptidergic nerve fibers in the induction and elicitation phases of ACD could be accurately established. Understanding the role of cutaneous peptidergic fibers in the pathogenesis and potentially of ACD and how contact sensitization can be modulated by topical defunctionalization of these fibers could lead to new approaches to treatment for ACD. In patients with localized ACD occurring to an allergen that is difficult or unfeasible to evade this would have particular relevance.

  11. Prevention of pacemaker-associated contact dermatitis by polytetrafluoroethylene sheet and conduit coating of the pacemaker system.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Takahiro; Maeba, Satoru; Sueda, Taijiro

    2014-09-01

    A 73-year-old female with sick sinus syndrome and atrial fibrillation was implanted with a ventricular demand inhibit pacemaker. She subsequently developed multiple episodes of skin irritation and necrosis. Skin patch testing revealed sensitivity to almost every component of the pacemaker system. The pacemaker was removed and replaced with a new pacemaker in which the generator was covered with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheet and the lead was covered with PTFE conduit. The patient suffered no further episodes of pacemaker-associated contact dermatitis.

  12. Predicting allergic contact dermatitis: a hierarchical structure activity relationship (SAR) approach to chemical classification using topological and quantum chemical descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Subhash C.; Mills, Denise; Hawkins, Douglas M.

    2008-06-01

    A hierarchical classification study was carried out based on a set of 70 chemicals—35 which produce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and 35 which do not. This approach was implemented using a regular ridge regression computer code, followed by conversion of regression output to binary data values. The hierarchical descriptor classes used in the modeling include topostructural (TS), topochemical (TC), and quantum chemical (QC), all of which are based solely on chemical structure. The concordance, sensitivity, and specificity are reported. The model based on the TC descriptors was found to be the best, while the TS model was extremely poor.

  13. Report of 19 cases of photoallergic contact dermatitis to sunscreens seen at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    PubMed

    Cook, N; Freeman, S

    2001-11-01

    We report on our experience with sunscreen allergy between 1992 and 1999 and also review the international literature on sunscreen allergy. There were a total of 21 allergic reactions to sunscreen chemicals observed in 19 patients over the 8 years. There were nine positive photopatch reactions to oxybenzone, eight to butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, three to methoxycinnamate and one to benzophenone. No positive reactions were observed to para aminobenzoic acid. Six patients also had positive patch tests to components of the sunscreen base. In our experience, sunscreen chemicals are the most common cause of photoallergic contact dermatitis.

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances.

  15. Topical application of a phospholipid mixture purified from pig lungs ameliorates 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong-Su; Jeon, Byung-Suk; Yoon, Byung-Il; Choi, Seong-Hyun; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2012-04-01

    This work was designed to assess the pharmacological effectiveness as a novel anti-atopic dermatitis remedy of a phopholipid mixture purified from pig lung tissues, named KT&G101, using the BALB/c mouse model of allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis was induced by applying 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) epicutaneously onto the dorsal skins of mice, and KT&G101 was topically applied onto the skin areas with the lesions. The topical application of KT&G101 (0.05 ml of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml KT&G101, twice a day for 15 days) decreased the total IgE level elevated in the sera of mice undergoing allergic contact dermatitis. KT&G101 was also able to decrease the 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-specific IgE level elevated in the sera of the model mice. It reduced the incidences of scratching behaviors in the mice undergoing DNFB-induced allergic contact dermatitis. It attenuated some histopathological changes, such as pustule, epidermal hyperplasia, dermatitis and fibroplasia, while it could enhance the recovery of epidermis, in the damaged skin tissues within a relatively short period after the topical application of KT&G101. KT&G101 lessened the expression of cytokines mRNAs, such as Th1-specific IL-2, TNF-β and IFN-γ, and Th2-specific IL-4, in the mouse skin tissues showing the lesions. In brief, it is concluded that KT&G101 alleviates the symptoms involved in induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

  16. Contact Dermatitis in Home Helps Following the Use of Enzyme Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Ducksbury, Christina F. J.; Dave, V. K.

    1970-01-01

    Twelve women in the home help service in Nottingham developed dermatitis after using enzyme detergents. A survey based on a questionary showed an incidence of 5% among those using them. The enzyme appears to act as a primary irritant. PMID:5435187

  17. Mechanisms of contact sensitization offer insights into the role of barrier defects vs. intrinsic immune abnormalities as drivers of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Nikhil; Gulati, Nicholas; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2013-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by wet, oozing, erythematous, pruritic lesions in the acute stage and xerotic, lichenified plaques in the chronic stage. It frequently coexists with asthma and allergic rhinitis, sharing some mechanistic features with these diseases as part of the "atopic march." Controversy exists as to whether immune abnormalities, epidermal barrier defects, or both are the primary factors responsible for disease pathogenesis. In AD patients, there is often a coexisting irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) or allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) that is sometimes clinically difficult to distinguish from AD. ACD shares molecular mechanisms with AD, including increased cellular infiltrates and cytokine activation (Gittler et al., 2013). In this issue, Newell et al. (2013) used an experimental contact sensitization model with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to gain insight into the unique immune phenotype of AD patients.

  18. Comparative study of IQ-ultra and Finn Chambers test methodologies in detecting 10 common standard allergens that cause allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Joseph; Pratt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Patch testing is routinely used in contact dermatitis clinics because it is the gold standard for the evaluation of potential allergic contact dermatitis. The study was undertaken to evaluate possible differences in reactivity between the Finn Chamber and IQ-Ultra patch-testing methodologies. Patients were patch-tested simultaneously with the Finn Chamber and IQ-Ultra patch tests. Ten standard allergens set by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group were used for both techniques. Both patch tests had a significant agreement in detecting all of the allergens. An "almost perfect agreement" was noted for ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, quaternium-15, mercapto mix, black rubber mix, balsam of Peru, and nickel sulfate; "substantial agreement" for formaldehyde, bisphenol A epoxy resin, and 4-tert-butylphenol formaldehyde resin; and "moderate agreement" for potassium dichromate. The Finn Chamber and IQ-Ultra patch tests had a good agreement in the detection of the 10 standard allergens that were tested.

  19. Prevention of irritant contact dermatitis among health care workers by using evidence-based hand hygiene practices: a review.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald

    2007-10-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is often found on the hands of healthcare workers and is generally caused by frequent hand washing, gloves, aggressive disinfectants or detergents. Alcohols have only a marginal irritation potential, although they may cause a burning sensation on pre-irritated skin. A burning sensation when using alcohols therefore, suggests that the skin barrier is already damaged. Two options for hand hygiene are generally available in clinical practice: (1) hand washing with some type of soap and water or (2) hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. Most clinical situations require the use of an alcohol-based hand rub for decontamination, which is especially useful for reducing the nosocomial transmission of various infectious agents. Washing one's hands should be the exception, to be performed only when they are visibly soiled or contaminated with proteinaceous material, or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids. The overall compliance rate in hand hygiene is around 50%, which is far too low. In addition, healthcare workers quite often wash their hands with soap and water, when they should use an alcohol-based hand rub. This not only adds to the degree of skin irritation, but is also potentially dangerous for patients, due to the low efficacy of hand washing when compared to hand disinfection with alcohol rubs. Adhering to evidence-based hand hygiene protocols and following international guidelines on hand hygiene practices therefore, can help prevent irritant contact dermatitis among healthcare workers.

  20. Improved efficacy in the treatment of contact dermatitis in rats by a dermatological nanomedicine containing clobetasol propionate.

    PubMed

    Fontana, M C; Rezer, J F P; Coradini, K; Leal, D B R; Beck, R C R

    2011-10-01

    We developed a dermatological nanomedicine containing clobetasol propionate-loaded nanocapsules and evaluated its efficacy in a model of contact dermatitis after topical administration in rats. Hydrogels containing clobetasol propionate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules or nanoemulsion (HG-CP-NC and HG-CP-NE, respectively) were prepared to evaluate the influence of the polymeric wall. They presented adequate pH values (5.50-6.50) and drug content (0.5 mg g(-1)) and their rheograms exhibited a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. The best in vitro drug release control was obtained for HG-CP-NC (1.03±0.11 μg cm(-2) h) compared to the HG-CP-NE (1.65±0.19 μg cm(-2) h) and the hydrogels containing nonencapsulated drug (HG-CP) (2.79±0.22 μg cm(-2) h). A significant increase in NTPDase activity was observed in lymphocytes for the group treated with 0.05% HG-CP-NC every other day compared to the group treated with 0.05% HG-CP every day using the in vivo model of contact dermatitis. The nanoencapsulation of clobetasol in nanocapsules led to a better control of the drug release from the semisolid nanomedicine and provided better in vivo dermatological efficacy.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Xin; Cheng, Hai-Yan; Li, Lin-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of contact dermatitis (CD) in the Chinese clothing industry. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and some risk factors of contact dermatitis among clothing manufacturing employees in Beijing.This cross-sectional study was conducted by interview using self-administered questionnaires and skin examination between May and August in 2016. Five-hundred twenty-nine employees who had worked at sewing, ironing, and as managers at 12 clothing manufacturing factories were studied.The overall 1-year prevalence of CD among the clothing employees was 28.5% (151/529 employees), with significantly higher prevalence among ironing workers (50%) and sewers (31.7%) compared with managers (12.7%; P < 0.001, n = 529). A significant association was noticed between the 1-year prevalence of CD and types of occupation (sewers and ironing workers versus managers, respectively), exposure to garment materials (leather and feather), dry skin, allergic rhinitis, age, and smoking.Among employees in Chinese clothing industry, sewers and ironing workers had a higher 1-year prevalence of CD than managers. It is noteworthy that exposure to leather and feather materials and the types of manual work are associated with CD, as well as dry skin and allergic rhinitis.

  2. Detection of endogenous and food-derived collagen dipeptide prolylhydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) in allergic contact dermatitis-affected mouse ear.

    PubMed

    Kusubata, Masashi; Koyama, Yoh-Ichi; Tometsuka, Chisa; Shigemura, Yasutaka; Sato, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Generation of collagen dipeptides and deposition of orally administered prolylhydroxyproline (Pro-Hyp) in local inflammatory sites were examined in mice with hapten (2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene)-induced dermatitis in the ear. Pro-Hyp content in the hapten-treated ear was significantly higher in the chronic phase of contact dermatitis than the vehicle control. In contrast, hydroxyprolylglycine contents remained at lower levels in all cases compared to Pro-Hyp. Four hours after the ingestion of [(13)C5,(15)N]Pro and [(13)C5,(15)N]Pro-Hyp, labeled-Pro-Hyp and Pro, respectively, appeared only in the ear with dermatitis. Thus, Pro-Hyp is generated and degraded as part of the rapid synthesis and degradation of collagen in the ear with dermatitis. In addition to the endogenously generated Pro-Hyp, the orally administered Pro-Hyp was deposited in the ears.

  3. Pre-Emptive Avoidance Strategy (P.E.A.S.) - addressing allergic contact dermatitis in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Golkar, Linda; Beck, Kristyn; Williams, Judith; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been increasingly recognized in the United States. Reported rates of positive patch tests in children referred for suspected ACD range between 27 and 95.6%. Many young children are becoming sensitized to contact allergens found in personal hygiene products. We reviewed five recent pediatric patch test studies to determine the top allergens associated with this source of ACD in children. The top ten allergens were neomycin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix, lanolin, cocamidopropylbetaine, formaldehyde, corticosteroids, methylchlorisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), propylene glycol, and benzalkonium chloride. We estimate that one third of children suffering from ACD could potentially benefit from a 'pre-emptive avoidance strategy' (P.E.A.S.) of the stated top 10 allergens.

  4. Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Temporary "Black Henna" Coloring of the Hair During Religious Cultural Celebrations: Three Different Cases, Same History.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Rimon, Ayelet; Danino, Dana; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis after the application of temporary, paint-on, henna tattoos represents a well-known, potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 3 cases involving 3 children of the same age who developed a severe contact dermatitis with massive face and neck swelling after application of black henna to their hair during "Purim" celebrations. All 3 cases had a history of having applied henna tattoos in the previous year with mild local reactions. Their reactions are presumed to be due to sensitization to para-phenylenediamine. Although reactions to henna are being increasingly reported, reactions of this severity seem to be rare and could lead to permanent skin changes.

  5. Review of Allergic and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis from an Ingredient in a Medicament Vehicle Consisting of a Compress, Poultice, Plaster, and Tape

    PubMed Central

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  6. Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Bassler, A W; Arnould, C; Butterworth, A; Colin, L; De Jong, I C; Ferrante, V; Ferrari, P; Haslam, S; Wemelsfelder, F; Blokhuis, H J

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), such as foot pad dermatitis and lameness, and 2) establish the breadth of effect of a risk factor by determining the range of animal welfare indicators associated with each of the risk factors (i.e., the number of ABM related to a specific RBM). Eighty-nine broiler flocks were inspected in 4 European countries (France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) in a cross-sectional study. The ABM were contact dermatitis (measured using scores of foot-pad dermatitis and hock burn, respectively), lameness (measured as gait score), fear of humans (measured by the avoidance distance test and the touch test), and negative emotional state (measured using qualitative behavior assessment, QBA). In a first step, risk factors were identified by building a multiple linear regression model for each ABM. Litter quality was identified as a risk factor for contact dermatitis. Length of dark period at 3 wk old (DARK3) was a risk factor for the touch test result. DARK3 and flock age were risk factors for lameness, and the number of different stockmen and DARK3 were risk factors for QBA results. Next, the ABM were grouped according to risk factor and counted. Then, in a second step, associations between the ABM were investigated using common factor analysis. The breadth of a risk factor's effect was judged by combining the number (count) of ABM related to this factor and the strength of association between these ABM. Flock age and DARK3 appeared to affect several weakly correlated ABM, thus indicating a broad range of effects. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the predominant risk factors identified in this study (DARK3, litter quality, and slaughter age) could generate

  7. Delayed cooling of an acute scald contact burn injury in a porcine model: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vasant; Bartlett, Nita; Harvey, John G; Martin, Hugh C O; La Hei, Erik R; Arbuckle, Susan; Godfrey, Craig; Holland, Andrew J A

    2009-01-01

    The current Australia and New Zealand Burn Association recommended burns first aid treatment is to place the burn under cool running water for 20 minutes. Immediate cooling of a burn wound has been shown to reduce the depth of the injury. Cooling has also been recommended as beneficial for up to 3 hours after the burn. No scientific data currently exist to support this recommendation. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of delayed cooling of an acute scald contact burn wound in a porcine model. Four partial-thickness contact scald burn injuries were induced in 12 piglets each. First aid treatment consisting of cool running water for 20 minutes was instituted randomly to each wound at different time points: immediately and at time delays of 5, 20, and 60 minutes. The group receiving immediate first aid with cool running water for 20 minutes served as the control group. At day 1 and day 9, biopsies were obtained and assessed in a blinded manner. Histologic analysis of burn depth on days 1 and 9 demonstrated no significant difference in the depth of the burn in the various treatment groups in comparison to the control group receiving immediate first aid. No significant differences in the surface areas of each burn were noted between the various treatment groups on day 9. Core body temperature did not fall below 35 degrees C throughout the cooling process. This study provides scientific evidence that in an animal model delayed cooling for up to 60 minutes postacute contact scald burn is still effective compared with immediate cooling at reducing burn depth.

  8. Impact of Selected Factors on the Occurrence of Contact Dermatitis in Turkeys on Commercial Farms in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Bergmann, Shana; Erhard, Michael H.; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Hübel, Jens; Ludewig, Martina; Mitterer-Istyagin, Heike; Ziegler, Nina; Bartels, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In two extensive field studies in Germany, the influence of husbandry on health and fitness of fattening turkeys was investigated in living animals of various ages as well as carcasses shortly after slaughter. Already in the early rearing phase, contact dermatitis of foot pads was observed as a relevant problem in turkey farming. Litter quality and condition as well as management must be coordinated at all rearing stages of turkeys to prevent the appearance of high litter moisture values in order to minimize the prevalence of foot pad dermatitis. Abstract In a long term research project in Germany the influence of husbandry on the health of fattening turkeys (Study 1) as well as the influence of practiced rearing conditions on the health of turkey poults (Study 2) was examined in 24 farms and at the meat processing plant. In all examined rearing farms, litter samples for the determination of litter moisture were taken. This paper summarizes the results obtained by our working group from 2007 until 2012. The results elucidate the universal problem of foot pad dermatitis (FPD). Nearly 100% of the observed turkeys showed a clinically apparent FPD at the meat processing plant. Furthermore, skin lesions of the breast, especially breast buttons were diagnosed, particularly at the slaughterhouse. FPD was detected in the first week of the rearing phase. Prevalence and degree showed a progressive development up to the age of 22–35 days, whereas 63.3% of the poults had foot pad alterations. As even mild alterations in the foot pad condition can be indicators for suboptimal design of the rearing environment, especially high litter moisture, it is important to focus on the early rearing phase. PMID:26479524

  9. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus; Diepgen, Thomas; Elsner, Peter; Goossens, An; Goh, Chee-Leok; Jerajani, Hemangi; Maibach, Howard; Matsunaga, Kayoko; McFadden, John; Nixon, Rosemary; Sasseville, Denis; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2 in an international population and to investigate associated simultaneous allergic reactions. Thirteen centers representing the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group included PFR-2 into their patch test baseline series during a period of 6 months in 2012. Of 2259 patients tested, 28 (1.2%) reacted to PFR-2. Of those 28 individuals, one had a positive reaction to formaldehyde and 2 to p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin. Simultaneous allergic reactions were noted to colophonium in 3, to Myroxylon pereirae in 5, and to fragrance mix I in 8. The contact allergy frequency in the tested population (1.2%) merits its inclusion into the international baseline series and possibly also into other baseline series after appropriate investigations. Significantly, overrepresented simultaneous allergic reactions were noted for M. pereirae and fragrance mix I.

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis due to rosin (colophony) in eyeshadow and mascara.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A A

    1988-12-01

    Three patients are reported with allergic reactions to rosin in eye makeup: two to eyeshadow and one to mascara. In each instance, the dermatitis was bilateral and symmetrical. Several popular eyeshadow and mascara preparations contain rosin, while the Almay products are free of this ingredient. Rosin-sensitive patients should be instructed to read cosmetic ingredient labels before using any product and should realize that the European term "colophony" is a synonym for rosin. The numerous products that rosin-sensitive persons must avoid will be discussed in a future article.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from a nonbisphenol A epoxy in a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G

    1987-09-01

    An employee of the Composites Division of an aircraft engine manufacturing firm developed dermatitis associated with the handling of a graphite fiber reinforced epoxy laminate (epoxy prepreg). Patch test investigation demonstrated that the responsible causal agent was the nonbisphenol A epoxy binder, 4-glycidyloxy-N, N-diglycidylaniline. A patch test with bisphenol A epoxy from a standard patch test screening series was negative. Subsequent interviews with employees of the Composites Division suggested that a relative lack of awareness of the cutaneous hazards of fiber reinforced epoxy laminates, compared with liquid epoxy resin systems, may be an important risk factor for allergic sensitization to these composite materials.

  12. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

  13. Performance of a commercially available plant allergen series in the assessment of suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plants in north Indian patients.

    PubMed

    De, Dipankar; Khullar, Geeti; Handa, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus is the leading cause of phytogenic allergic contact dermatitis in India. The Indian Standard Series currently supplied by Systopic Laboratories Ltd and manufactured by Chemotechnique Diagnostics ® contains parthenolide as the only allergen representing plant allergens. The study was conducted to assess the performance of the Chemotechnique plant series (PL-1000), consisting of 14 allergens, in patients with clinically suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plant allergens. Ninety patients were patch tested with the Chemotechnique plant series from 2011 to 2013. Demographic details, clinical diagnosis and patch test results were recorded in the contact dermatitis clinic proforma. Of 90 patients, 24 (26.7%) showed positive reactions to one or more allergens in the plant series. Positive patch tests were elicited most commonly by sesquiterpene lactone mix in 19 (78.6%) patients, followed by parthenolide in 14 (57.1%), Achillea millefolium in 10 (42.9%) and others in decreasing order. The plant allergen series prepared by Chemotechnique Diagnostics is possibly not optimal for diagnosing suspected allergic contact dermatitis to plants in north Indians. Sesquiterpene lactone mix should replace parthenolide as the plant allergen in the Indian Standard Series until relevant native plant extracts are commercially available for patch testing.

  14. Patch Testing for Evaluation of Hypersensitivity to Implanted Metal Devices: A Perspective From the American Contact Dermatitis Society.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Peter C; Crawford, Glen; Nedorost, Susan; Scheinman, Pamela L; Atwater, Amber Reck; Mowad, Christen; Brod, Bruce; Ehrlich, Alison; Watsky, Kalman L; Sasseville, Denis; Silvestri, Dianne; Worobec, Sophie M; Elliott, John F; Honari, Golara; Powell, Douglas L; Taylor, James; DeKoven, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The American Contact Dermatitis Society recognizes the interest in the evaluation and management of metal hypersensitivity reactions. Given the paucity of robust evidence with which to guide our practices, we provide reasonable evidence and expert opinion-based guidelines for clinicians with regard to metal hypersensitivity reaction testing and patient management. Routine preoperative evaluation in individuals with no history of adverse cutaneous reactions to metals or history of previous implant-related adverse events is not necessary. Patients with a clear self-reported history of metal reactions should be evaluated by patch testing before device implant. Patch testing is only 1 element in the assessment of causation in those with postimplantation morbidity. Metal exposure from the implanted device can cause sensitization, but a positive metal test does not prove symptom causality. The decision to replace an implanted device must include an assessment of all clinical factors and a thorough risk-benefit analysis by the treating physician(s) and patient.

  15. Novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue) in the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Tetsuya; KABASHIMA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases, which is classified as a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response. The development of ACD is divided into two phases: sensitization and elicitation. In the sensitization phase, antigen-specific effector T cells are induced in the draining lymph nodes by antigen-captured cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) that migrate from the skin. In the elicitation phase, the effector T cells are activated in the skin by antigen-captured cutaneous DCs and produce various chemical mediators, which create antigen-specific inflammation. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements in the immunological mechanisms of ACD, focusing on the mechanisms in the elicitation phase. The observations of elicitation of CHS lead to the emerging novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue). PMID:26755397

  16. Acute irritant threshold correlates with barrier function, skin hydration and contact hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized.

  17. TLR7/8 agonists stimulate plasmacytoid dendritic cells to initiate a Th17-deviated acute contact dermatitis in humans.

    PubMed

    Garzorz-Stark, Natalie; Lauffer, Felix; Krause, Linda; Thomas, Jenny; Atenhan, Anne; Franz, Regina; Roenneberg, Sophie; Boehner, Alexander; Jargosch, Manja; Batra, Richa; Mueller, Nikola S; Haak, Stefan; Groß, Christina; Groß, Olaf; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Theis, Fabian J; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Biedermann, Tilo; Eyerich, Stefanie; Eyerich, Kilian

    2017-09-18

    A standardized human model to study early pathogenic events in psoriasis is missing. Activation of Toll-like receptor 7/8 by topical application of imiquimod is the most commonly used mouse model of psoriasis. To investigate the potential of a human imiquimod patch test model to resemble human psoriasis. Imiquimod (Aldara® 5% cream) was applied twice a week onto the back of volunteers (n=18) and the development of skin lesions was monitored over a time period of four weeks. Consecutive biopsies were taken for whole genome expression analysis, histology and T cell isolation. pDC were isolated from whole blood, stimulated with TLR7 agonist and analysed by extracellular flux analysis and real time PCR. We demonstrate imiquimod induces a monomorphic and self-limited inflammatory response in healthy individuals as well as psoriasis or eczema patients, respectively. The clinical and histologic phenotype as well as transcriptome of imiquimod-induced inflammation in human skin resembles an acute contact dermatitis rather than psoriasis. Nevertheless, the imiquimod model mimics hallmarks of psoriasis. Namely, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are primary sensors of imiquimod, responding with production of pro-inflammatory and Th17-skewing cytokines. This results in a Th17 immune response with IL-23 as a key driver. In a proof-of-concept setting, systemic treatment with ustekinumab diminished the imiquimod-induced inflammation. In humans, imiquimod induces contact dermatitis with the distinctive feature that pDC are the primary sensors, leading to an IL-23/Th17 deviation. Despite these shortcomings, the human imiquimod model might be useful to investigate early pathogenic events and prove molecular concepts in psoriasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Preservation of allergic contact dermatitis to poison ivy (urushiol) in late HIV disease. The implications and relevance to immunotherapy with contact allergens.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Skelton, H G; Nelson, A; Wagner, K F; Hackley, B E

    1997-01-01

    Delayed hypersensitivity reactions (DTH) are lost with progression of HIV disease. This loss of DTH commonly occurs before the onset of opportunistic infections and is an independent predictor of disease progression. We wanted to determine whether patients in late HIV disease with a history of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to poison ivy continue to react to poison ivy. Twelve HIV+ patients with a past history of ACD to poison ivy were tested with an extract prepared from poison ivy leaves. All but 1 patient had CD4+ T cell counts < 200/microliters, and 5 patients had had an opportunistic infection. All 12 patients showed positive reactions ranging from mild erythema and infiltration to marked erythema with bulla formation. ACD is considered a variant of DTH, and as DTH results in a T helper 1 cytokine pattern. However, the antigen-specific effector cells in ACD may be more diverse than in DTH. This diversity could explain the continued reaction to some contact allergens in late disease and may be important in the use of contact allergens for immunotherapy.

  20. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important.

  1. The "Jewelry Addict": Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Repetitive Multiple Children's Jewelry Exposures.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis developed persistent plaques on the lips, hands, and fingers that were unresponsive to topical steroids. Her mother reported that she was "addicted" to costume jewelry and developed rashes in reaction to a number of adornments, ranging from rubber bracelets to costume metal jewelry and belt buckles. A careful history of jewelry exposures was taken and patch testing was performed to identify allergenic sources. Patch testing revealed allergy to nickel, gold, and thiuram mix. The case illustrates the importance of investigating a range of different types of allergens when evaluating for jewelry sensitivity in children with frequent use of accessories, including rubber jewelry, plastics, dyed yarns, beads, metals, and ceramics. This article provides an overview of jewelry allergies and the potential allergens requiring screening.

  2. Acute Pustular Dermatosis, Following Topical Treatment With Pimecrolimus, in a Child Affected With Atopic and Contact Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Brazzelli, Valeria; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is considered an important risk factor for chronic hand dermatitis, which can be seen in children too. Pimecrolimus cream 1% is approved to treat atopic dermatitis in children aged 2 years or older. In adults, this drug has been used for some clinical indications other than atopic dermatitis, such as chronic hand dermatitis. Here, we describe an adverse drug reaction in a 2-year-old child affected with atopic dermatitis, who was treated with topical pimecrolimus in order to ameliorate her concomitant hand dermatitis. The use of topical pimecrolimus led to a previously undescribed hand pustular dermatosis, being consistent with a form of pustular leukocytoclastic vasculitis, which required the permanent discontinuation of topical pimecrolimus. PMID:26997932

  3. Acute Pustular Dermatosis, Following Topical Treatment With Pimecrolimus, in a Child Affected With Atopic and Contact Hand Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Brazzelli, Valeria; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is considered an important risk factor for chronic hand dermatitis, which can be seen in children too. Pimecrolimus cream 1% is approved to treat atopic dermatitis in children aged 2 years or older. In adults, this drug has been used for some clinical indications other than atopic dermatitis, such as chronic hand dermatitis. Here, we describe an adverse drug reaction in a 2-year-old child affected with atopic dermatitis, who was treated with topical pimecrolimus in order to ameliorate her concomitant hand dermatitis. The use of topical pimecrolimus led to a previously undescribed hand pustular dermatosis, being consistent with a form of pustular leukocytoclastic vasculitis, which required the permanent discontinuation of topical pimecrolimus.

  4. Methods to Investigate the Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Marc; Goebeler, Matthias; Martin, Stefan F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact disease is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from hyperresponsiveness to harmless nonprotein substances such as metals, fragrances, or rubber. Recent research has highlighted a prominent role of Toll-like receptors, particularly TLR4 in contact allergen-induced innate immune activation that crucially contributes to the pathogenesis of this disease. Here we describe several methods to investigate the role of Toll-like receptors in contact allergen-induced pro-inflammatory responses. These include expansion of disease-relevant human primary cells including endothelial cells and keratinocytes and their manipulation of TLR signaling by transfection, retroviral infection and RNA interference, basic methods to induce contact hypersensitivity in mice, and protocols for adoptive transfer of hapten-stimulated dendritic cells and T cells from TLR-deficient mice to wild-type mice and vice versa wild-type mice to TLR-deficient mice in order to explore cell-specific roles of TLRs in contact hypersensitivity responses.

  5. Efficacy of the saponin component of Impatiens capensis Meerb.in preventing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Motz, Vicki A; Bowers, Christopher P; Kneubehl, Alexander R; Lendrum, Elizabeth C; Young, Linda M; Kinder, David H

    2015-03-13

    Many different tribes of American Indians used jewelweed, Impatiens capensis Meerb, as a plant mash to reduce development of poison ivy dermatitis. Saponins are a natural soapy constituent found within plants. A 2012 study suggested that saponins may be present in jewelweed which could be responsible for its efficacy in preventing rash development following contact with Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (poison ivy). This study validated this hypothesis and demonstrated additional biological activity of the jewelweed saponin containing extract. Fresh I. capensis leaves were extracted with methanol and further partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, with a final separation between water and n-butanol, to obtain a saponin containing extract. The presence of saponins in the extract was demonstrated by the observation of foaming and using a vanillin colorimetric assay for total saponins. Efficacy of the saponin containing extracts in rash reduction was tested by brushing poison ivy (PI) onto the forearms of volunteers (N=23) in six locations and treating these PI exposed areas with distilled water (control), saponin containing extracts, fresh plant mashes, and soaps made with and without plant extracts. Saponin containing extracts were further tested for biological activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and against cancer cell lines A-375, HT-29, and MCF-7. Additionally, because saponins have been shown to have a stimulatory effect in cardiac muscle 2 µl saponin extract was applied superficially to black worms, Lumbriculus variegatus (N=5). Both saponin containing extracts and all soaps tested were effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis; thus, saponin content correlates with PI rash prevention. No apparent antibiosis was observed against any bacteria tested; however, dose response cytotoxicity was documented against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and cytostatic activity was seen against the HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. Lumbriculus

  6. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction.

  7. An unusual marine envenomation following a rope contact: a report on nine cases of dermatitis caused by Pennaria disticha.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Özgür D; Sarp, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    We would like to present the clinical course of nine patients who had an acute, painful dermatitis following contact with a rope used as a swimming area liner in the sea. The macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the fouling on the rope retrospectively, revealed Pennaria disticha as the causative organism. To our knowledge, there is no previous report on P. disticha envenomation in medical literature. P. disticha is a benthic hydrozoa belonging to Cnidaria phylum. Cnidaria are well known for their envenomation with their venomous organelle, "cnidocyst". The contact with cnidaria can result in a wide range of cytotoxic or anaphylactic reactions. While there is a large body of data in the literature from studies at molecular and cellular levels, there is limited data about the in vivo effects of cnidaria toxins. We think the clinical aspects of the dermatologic reactions caused by P. disticha and the diagnostic work-up to reveal the contamination on this unusual medium would be of interest to the readers.

  8. Several cases of work-related allergic contact dermatitis caused by isocyanates at a company manufacturing heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Engfeldt, Malin; Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-03-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred by her occupational health service with suspected occupational contact dermatitis. In connection with the investigation, a workplace visit was undertaken at her company, which used an adhesive based on pre-polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate in one of its units. During the visit, we became aware of six other employees with skin problems who were then referred to our department for investigation. To investigate the seven employees complaining about skin problems. Seven employees were patch tested with a baseline series, an isocyanate series, and a series with work material. Five of seven patients had occupational contact allergy. Four reacted to isocyanate-related test preparations, and one to a cleanser used at the workplace. Workplace visits constitute an important part of an occupational investigation, as they might give a broader picture of the problems at a company. In this case, it was found that 5 of 100 employees currently had or had previously had occupation-related skin problems. Owing to 'healthy worker selection', some of these patients might have been missed if we had not performed a full-scale workplace visit. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis: epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, in vitro methods and regulatory aspects. Current knowledge assembled at an international workshop at BfR, Germany.

    PubMed

    Peiser, M; Tralau, T; Heidler, J; Api, A M; Arts, J H E; Basketter, D A; English, J; Diepgen, T L; Fuhlbrigge, R C; Gaspari, A A; Johansen, J D; Karlberg, A T; Kimber, I; Lepoittevin, J P; Liebsch, M; Maibach, H I; Martin, S F; Merk, H F; Platzek, T; Rustemeyer, T; Schnuch, A; Vandebriel, R J; White, I R; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Contact allergies are complex diseases, and one of the important challenges for public health and immunology. The German 'Federal Institute for Risk Assessment' hosted an 'International Workshop on Contact Dermatitis'. The scope of the workshop was to discuss new discoveries and developments in the field of contact dermatitis. This included the epidemiology and molecular biology of contact allergy, as well as the development of new in vitro methods. Furthermore, it considered regulatory aspects aiming to reduce exposure to contact sensitisers. An estimated 15-20% of the general population suffers from contact allergy. Workplace exposure, age, sex, use of consumer products and genetic predispositions were identified as the most important risk factors. Research highlights included: advances in understanding of immune responses to contact sensitisers, the importance of autoxidation or enzyme-mediated oxidation for the activation of chemicals, the mechanisms through which hapten-protein conjugates are formed and the development of novel in vitro strategies for the identification of skin-sensitising chemicals. Dendritic cell cultures and structure-activity relationships are being developed to identify potential contact allergens. However, the local lymph node assay (LLNA) presently remains the validated method of choice for hazard identification and characterisation. At the workshop the use of the LLNA for regulatory purposes and for quantitative risk assessment was also discussed.

  10. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a company manufacturing boards coated with isocyanate lacquer.

    PubMed

    Frick, Malin; Isaksson, Marléne; Björkner, Bert; Hindsén, Monica; Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    Over a short period of time, there was an outbreak of work-related skin lesions among workers at a company producing flooring laminate boards, after the introduction of a water-repellent lacquer based on diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI). In 5 workers, patch testing was performed with a standard series, an isocyanate series and work-environmental products when indicated. 3 of the workers were tested with the lacquer, and contact allergy was found with concurrent reactions to 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA). 1 of the 3 workers also showed a simultaneous reaction to MDI, whereas 1 showed a positive reaction to dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (HMDI). Of the 2 individuals not tested with the lacquer, 1 reacted to both MDI and MDA, whereas the other reacted to a soap used at work. In 3 of 4 cases, the isocyanate reactions appeared after D3. Occupational contact with isocyanates should not exclusively be focused upon respiratory hazards, as this report shows that skin contamination probably increases the risk of developing contact allergy to isocyanates and isocyanate-related substances. When aiming at diagnosing contact allergy to isocyanates, it is desirable to perform a late reading, as positive reactions appear late. MDA appears to be a good marker for isocyanate hypersensitivity.

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    PubMed

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 1: Achillea millefolium-Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Minciullo, Paola L; Caputi, Achille P; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 1: Achillea millefolium L.-Curcuma longa L. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be “mild” and “natural” are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to “stronger” allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-05-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil.

  15. Skin targeting of curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles-engrossed topical gel for the treatment of pigmentation and irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shrotriya, Shilpa; Ranpise, Nisharani; Satpute, Pournima; Vidhate, Bhagvat

    2017-09-08

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and hyperpigmentation are the problems associated with skin. Topical curcumin (CUR) although effective in hyperpigmentation and ICD, is a challenging molecule due to low-solubility. Encapsulation of CUR into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) makes it amenable to topical dosing as their small size promotes its penetration into the skin. CUR-SLNs were prepared using Precirol ATO5 and Tween-80 by probe ultrasonication method. Further, CUR-SLNs were incorporated into Carbopol gel and investigated for ex-vivo skin permeation, skin deposition and skin irritation studies. The potential of CUR-SLN gel was checked against hyperpigmentation through the inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme. It was further evaluated for possible effects on ICD using BALB/c mice. The optimized CUR-SLN showed the particle size of 51 nm and 93% EE. Ex vivo permeation of CUR-SLN gel exhibited controlled drug release up to 24 h, similarly in vitro drug deposition studies showed potential for skin targeting. In vitro tyrosinase inhibition assay indicates that the formulated gel has potential in skin depigmentation. The gel also confirmed proficient suppression of ear swelling and reduction in skin water content in the BALB/c mouse. Thus, the CUR-SLN gel would be a safe and effective alternative to conventional vehicles for treatment of ICD and pigmentation.

  16. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC− memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- γ, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  17. Evaluating the nickel content in metal alloys and the threshold for nickel-induced allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Kim, Hyung Ok; Koh, Cjae Sook; Lee, Hae Kwang

    2008-04-01

    Many patients are currently suffering from nickel (Ni)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). There have been few Korean studies dealing with the threshold of Ni-induced ACD and quantifying the total amount of Ni in the metal alloys. The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of Ni leached from metal alloys and Ni contents in metal alloys, and to estimate the threshold of Ni-induced ACD. All the earrings we examined leached below 0.5 microg/cm(2)/week, the upper limit of European Union (EU) regulation, but the other metal alloys leached a much higher amount of Ni than the limit. Likewise, all the earrings we examined contained less than 0.05% Ni (500 microg/g), the upper limit of EU regulation, but the other metal alloys exceeded this limit. Twenty Ni-sensitive subjects, who were patch-tested with various concentrations of Ni sulphate, showed positive reactions to 5% and 1% Ni sulphate, 10 subjects showed positive reactions to 0.01%, and the most sensitive subject showed reaction even to 0.0001%. The subjects in this study were more sensitive to Ni than those in the previous studies done in Europe. Taken together, strictly regulating the Ni-containing alloys that are made in Korea is needed to lower the occurrence of Ni-induced ACD.

  18. Pustular psoriasis and the Kobner phenomenon caused by allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione-containing shampoo.

    PubMed

    Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jang, Ho-Sun; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Oh, Chang-Keun; Kwon, Yoo-Wook; Kwon, Kyung-Sool

    2005-03-01

    Zinc pyrithione is a shampoo ingredient that has been shown to be safe and effective for dandruff and scalp psoriasis. It is thought to decrease the cell turnover rate in hyperproliferative dermatoses such as psoriasis, and also has fungistatic and antimicrobial activity, although its exact mode of action is unknown. In psoriasis, external factors, such as trauma, infection and drugs, may provoke aggravated manifestations of psoriatic skin lesions. Rarely, irritant or allergic mechanisms are likely causes of psoriatic flare and Kobnerization. A patient had had stable psoriasis for 25 years and no any other skin disease. Within 20 days, she developed an aggravated scaly erythematous patch on the scalp, where a shampoo had been applied, and simultaneously developed pustular psoriasis on both forearms. Patch testing showed a relevant sensitization to zinc pyrithione, and we observed symptomatic aggravation by provocation testing with zinc pyrithione shampoo. We report a rare case of psoriasis aggravated by the induction of allergic contact dermatitis from zinc pyrithione after using antidandruff shampoo.

  19. Direct release of the allergen tulipalin A from Alstroemeria cut flowers: a possible source of airborne contact dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Christensen, L P

    1999-12-01

    The allergen tulipalin A was collected by dynamic headspace technique from cut flowers of 2 Alstroemeria hybrids and quantified and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The amounts of tulipalin A released into the air were correlated with the tulipalin A and the total allergen content (tulipalin A and tuliposides) in the plant tissue, respectively. Tulipalin A was released primarily from the wounded areas, i.e. the stems, although small amounts were also emitted from the undamaged flowers in one of the hybrids. The tulipalin A concentrations in the stems of the Alstroemeria hybrids investigated were 0.06% and 0.13% of fresh weight, respectively, and the amounts directly released from the cut flowers were 0.4 and 2.2 microg (cut flower)(-1) h(-1), respectively. The content of tulipalin A exceeded that of tuliposides in leaves and flowers of both hybrids, whereas the content of tulipalin A in stems (in % fresh weight) was slightly lower than the content of tuliposides. The possibility that airborne tulipalin A from Alstroemeria could be a source of airborne contact dermatitis is discussed.

  20. Assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S M; Heinemann, C; Schliemann-Willers, S; Härtl, H; Fluhr, J W; Elsner, P

    2006-11-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos (PoCo) on experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in a repeated sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) irritation model. The anti-irritative effect of PoCo was evaluated with a visual score and quantified by non-invasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and transepidermal water loss. Three concentrations of PoCo in base cream DAC (amphiphilic emollient; German pharmacopoeia) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using SLS. A statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity was observed for PoCo by all three methods when applied in parallel to the induction period of ICD. Application of PoCo after induction of ICD once a day for 5 days, starting just at the end of 4 days, was without any effect. An anti-inflammatory efficacy of PoCo on the elicitation phase of the ICD induced by repeated SLS test could be observed and quantified by three independent, non-invasive biophysical assessment parameters. This effect can be explained by its influence on pro-inflammatory enzymes, namely phospholipase A2.

  1. The alarmin Mrp8/14 as regulator of the adaptive immune response during allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Beatrix; Wolf, Marc; Austermann, Judith; van Lent, Peter; Foell, Dirk; Ahlmann, Martina; Kupas, Verena; Loser, Karin; Sorg, Clemens; Roth, Johannes; Vogl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous alarmins amplifying inflammation via Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) activation. Due to their pro-inflammatory properties, alarmins are supposed to enhance adaptive immunity via activation of dendritic cells (DCs). In contrast, analysing a model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) we observed a more severe disease outcome in Mrp8/14-deficient compared to wild-type mice. This unexpected phenotype was associated with an enhanced T-cell response due to an accelerated maturation of DCs in Mrp8/14-deficient mice. Accordingly, Mrp8, the active component of the heterocomplex, inhibits early DC maturation and antigen presentation in a TLR-4-dependent manner. Transfer of DCs purified from the local lymph nodes of sensitized Mrp8/14-deficient to wild-type mice determined the outcome of ACD. Our results link a pro-inflammatory role of the endogenous TLR-4 ligand Mrp8/14 to a regulatory function in adaptive immunity, which shows some similarities with the ‘hygiene hypothesis' regarding continuous TLR-4 stimulation and decreased risk of allergy. PMID:23188082

  2. Evaluating the Nickel Content in Metal Alloys and the Threshold for Nickel-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Young; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young Min; Koh, Cjae Sook; Lee, Hae Kwang

    2008-01-01

    Many patients are currently suffering from nickel (Ni)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). There have been few Korean studies dealing with the threshold of Ni-induced ACD and quantifying the total amount of Ni in the metal alloys. The aim of this study is to evaluate the amount of Ni leached from metal alloys and Ni contents in metal alloys, and to estimate the threshold of Ni-induced ACD. All the earrings we examined leached below 0.5 µg/cm2/week, the upper limit of European Union (EU) regulation, but the other metal alloys leached a much higher amount of Ni than the limit. Likewise, all the earrings we examined contained less than 0.05% Ni (500 µg/g), the upper limit of EU regulation, but the other metal alloys exceeded this limit. Twenty Ni-sensitive subjects, who were patch-tested with various concentrations of Ni sulphate, showed positive reactions to 5% and 1% Ni sulphate, 10 subjects showed positive reactions to 0.01%, and the most sensitive subject showed reaction even to 0.0001%. The subjects in this study were more sensitive to Ni than those in the previous studies done in Europe. Taken together, strictly regulating the Ni-containing alloys that are made in Korea is needed to lower the occurrence of Ni-induced ACD. PMID:18437018

  3. The three moments of skin cream application: an evidence-based proposal for use of skin creams in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hines, J; Wilkinson, S M; John, S M; Diepgen, T L; English, J; Rustemeyer, T; Wassilew, S; Kezic, S; Maibach, H I

    2017-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is one of the most common occupational diseases, with serious impact on quality of life, lost days at work and a condition that may be chronically relapsing. Regular prophylactic skin cream application is widely acknowledged to be an effective prevention strategy against occupational contact dermatitis; however, compliance rates remain low. To present a simple programme for skin cream application in the workplace with focus on implementation to drive down the rate of occupational irritant contact dermatitis, an expert panel of eight international dermatologists combined personal experience with extensive literature review. The recommendations are based on clinical experience as supported by evidence-based data from interventional studies. The authors identified three moments for skin cream application in the work place: (i) before starting a work period; (ii) after washing hands; and (iii) after work. Affecting behaviour change requires systematic communications, monitoring and reporting, which is proposed through Kotter's principles of organizational change management. Measurement tools are provided in the appendix. Interventional data based on application of this proposal is required to demonstrate its effectiveness. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Molecular aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to plants. Recent progress in phytodermatochemistry.

    PubMed

    Benezra, C; Ducombs, G

    1987-01-01

    A classification of plants based on the chemical structures of their skin sensitizers is presented. A whole range of chemical structures of contact sensitizers exists in plants containing sesquiterpene lactones (Compositae, Frullania, Lauraceae etc.), tulipalin (Tulipa, Alstroemeria etc.), quinones (Primula and tropical woods), long chain phenols (Anacardiaceae, Ginkgoaceae) and miscellaneous structures such as aldehydes, ketones, terpene hydrocarbons etc. Knowledge of allergens in various plants allows prediction of cross-reactivity.

  5. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  6. Risks of Allergic Contact Dermatitis Elicited by Nickel, Chromium, and Organic Sensitizers: Quantitative Models Based on Clinical Patch Test Data.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Kenneth T; Garry, Michael R

    2017-10-11

    Risks of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from consumer products intended for extended (nonpiercing) dermal contact are regulated by E.U. Directive EN 1811 that limits released Ni to a weekly equivalent dermal load of ≤0.5 μg/cm(2) . Similar approaches for thousands of known organic sensitizers are hampered by inability to quantify respective ACD-elicitation risk levels. To help address this gap, normalized values of cumulative risk for eliciting a positive ("≥+") clinical patch test response reported in 12 studies for a total of n = 625 Ni-sensitized patients were modeled in relation to observed ACD-eliciting Ni loads, yielding an approximate lognormal (LN) distribution with a geometric mean and standard deviation of GMNi = 15 μg/cm(2) and GSDNi = 8.0, respectively. Such data for five sensitizers (including formaldehyde and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) were also ∼LN distributed, but with a common GSD value equal to GSDNi and with heterogeneous sensitizer-specific GM values each defining a respective ACD-eliciting potency GMNi /GM relative to Ni. Such potencies were also estimated for nine (meth)acrylates by applying this general LN ACD-elicitation risk model to respective sets of fewer data. ACD-elicitation risk patterns observed for Cr(VI) (n = 417) and Cr(III) (n = 78) were fit to mixed-LN models in which ∼30% and ∼40% of the most sensitive responders, respectively, were estimated to exhibit a LN response also governed by GSDNi . The observed common LN-response shape parameter GSDNi may reflect a common underlying ACD mechanism and suggests a common interim approach to quantitative ACD-elicitation risk assessment based on available clinical data. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Contact dermatitis due to 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride: an outbreak in production workers.

    PubMed

    Takiwaki, H; Arase, S; Nakayama, H

    1998-07-01

    2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) is an azo compound which has been used as a radical chain initiator. The purpose of this study was to confirm contact sensitivity to AAPH in individuals who were engaged in the production of AAPH, and presented with prolonged eczematous eruptions mainly on exposed areas. Patch testing was carried out with AAPH (1 and 5% aq.) on 8 patients and 6 healthy volunteers who had never been exposed to this chemical. All patients showed a strong positive patch test reaction to this agent, while all control subjects showed negative results. Because this chemical has recently been used for studies on the oxidation of biological materials, not only production workers in the chemical industry but also medical researchers should avoid prolonged exposure to this agent.

  8. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nripen S.; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; Maguire, Tim J.; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2014-01-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensitizers and irritants. The in silico approaches that have been discussed include Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and QSAR based expert models that correlate chemical molecular structure with biological activity and mechanism based read-across models that incorporate compound electrophilicity. The cell and tissue based assays rely on an assortment of mono and co-culture cell systems in conjunction with 3D skin models. Given the complexity of allergen induced immune responses, and the limited ability of existing systems to capture the entire gamut of cellular and molecular events associated with these responses, we also introduce a microfabricated platform that can capture all the key steps involved in allergic contact sensitivity. Finally, we describe the development of an integrated testing strategy comprised of two or three tier systems for evaluating sensitization potential of chemicals. PMID:24741377

  9. Perspectives on Non-Animal Alternatives for Assessing Sensitization Potential in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nripen S; Jindal, Rohit; Mitra, Bhaskar; Lee, Serom; Li, Lulu; Maguire, Tim J; Schloss, Rene; Yarmush, Martin L

    2012-03-01

    Skin sensitization remains a major environmental and occupational health hazard. Animal models have been used as the gold standard method of choice for estimating chemical sensitization potential. However, a growing international drive and consensus for minimizing animal usage have prompted the development of in vitro methods to assess chemical sensitivity. In this paper, we examine existing approaches including in silico models, cell and tissue based assays for distinguishing between sensitizers and irritants. The in silico approaches that have been discussed include Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and QSAR based expert models that correlate chemical molecular structure with biological activity and mechanism based read-across models that incorporate compound electrophilicity. The cell and tissue based assays rely on an assortment of mono and co-culture cell systems in conjunction with 3D skin models. Given the complexity of allergen induced immune responses, and the limited ability of existing systems to capture the entire gamut of cellular and molecular events associated with these responses, we also introduce a microfabricated platform that can capture all the key steps involved in allergic contact sensitivity. Finally, we describe the development of an integrated testing strategy comprised of two or three tier systems for evaluating sensitization potential of chemicals.

  10. An update on diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Klunk, Christopher; Domingues, Erik; Wiss, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis leads to approximately 20% of all childhood dermatology visits. There have been several technologic advances in diaper design the last several years; however, due to the unique environment of the diaper area, many children continue to suffer from a variety of dermatologic conditions of this region. Common causes include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, infection, and psoriasis. Treatments include allergen avoidance, barrier protection, parent education, and topical therapies.

  11. Sofa dermatitis presenting as a chronic treatment resistant dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Lynch, M; Collins, P

    2010-04-01

    There is now a well publicised increase in cases of sofa dermatitis since 2007. These have been linked to allergic contact sensitization to dimethlylfumarate, a novel contact allergen. We report on a case associated with a two year history of a treatment resistant dermatitis.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish - are we facing a new epidemic in the beauty industry?

    PubMed

    Gatica-Ortega, Maria-Elena; Pastor-Nieto, Maria-Antonia; Mercader-García, Pedro; Silvestre-Salvador, Juan-Francisco

    2017-06-27

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by (meth)acrylates has been described both in occupational and in non-occupational settings. To evaluate the clinical patterns, the most frequent allergens and the prognosis in patients sensitized to (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish. The files of patients with ACD caused by (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 in four dermatology departments in Spain were reviewed. Patients were followed up by telephone interview. Overall, 2353 patients were patch tested. Forty-three (1.82%) were diagnosed with ACD caused by (meth)acrylates in long-lasting nail polish during that period; all were female, and all had hand dermatitis. Patients were mostly less than 40 years old (72.1%), non-atopic (95.4%) and had an occupational cause of their dermatitis (93%), which developed ∼10.1 months after they had started to use this technique. The most frequent positive allergens were: 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate. Eight of the 22 interviewed patients were able to improve their working technique and used 4H® protective material (fingerstalls/gloves). Long-lasting nail polishes have become widespread, and it is a matter of concern that we may be facing a new epidemic of ACD caused by these. Policies regulating their use are urgently needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effectiveness of jewelweed, Impatiens capensis, the related cultivar I. balsamina and the component, lawsone in preventing post poison ivy exposure contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Abrams Motz, Vicki; Bowers, Christopher P; Mull Young, Linda; Kinder, David H

    2012-08-30

    Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) is native to the Eastern and Midwestern US and Canada. Many Native American tribes used I. capensis and its close relatives to treat/prevent rash from plant sources particularly Toxicodendron radicans and Urtica dioica. I. balsamina (garden balsam) a native of China was used by the indigenous people of Asia for similar purposes. This study aims to validate ethnopharmacological use of jewelweed in poison ivy (PI) dermatitis prevention and to refute scientific papers denying this efficacy. Additionally, the content of lawsone, the purported effective agent in jewelweed preparations, was measured to see if its concentration correlated with jewelweed preparation efficacy. Poison ivy was brushed onto forearms of volunteers in 6 locations and exposed areas were treated with jewelweed extracts, fresh plant mashes, soaps made of plant extracts, water and Dawn® dish soap. Rash development was scored on a scale of 0-14. Jewelweed mash was effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis, supporting ethnobotanical use. However, jewelweed extracts were not effective; and soaps made of these extracts were effective but no more so than jewelweed-free soaps. Lawsone content varied with harvest season and did not appear to affect rash development. Jewelweed is an efficacious plant for preventing development of dermatitis following poison ivy contact, but soap is more effective. Lawsone content does not correlate with PI rash prevention. Perhaps saponins, the soapy component of jewelweed are the effective agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in incidence of occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, noise-induced hearing loss, carpal tunnel syndrome and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in European countries from 2000 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Stocks, S Jill; McNamee, Roseanne; van der Molen, Henk F; Paris, Christophe; Urban, Pavel; Campo, Giuseppe; Sauni, Riitta; Martínez Jarreta, Begoña; Valenty, Madeleine; Godderis, Lode; Miedinger, David; Jacquetin, Pascal; Gravseth, Hans M; Bonneterre, Vincent; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Faye, Serge; Mylle, Godewina; Wannag, Axel; Samant, Yogindra; Pal, Teake; Scholz-Odermatt, Stefan; Papale, Adriano; Schouteden, Martijn; Colosio, Claudio; Mattioli, Stefano; Agius, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    The European Union (EU) strategy for health and safety at work underlines the need to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (OD), but European statistics to evaluate this common goal are scarce. We aim to estimate and compare changes in incidence over time for occupational asthma, contact dermatitis, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders across 10 European countries. OD surveillance systems that potentially reflected nationally representative trends in incidence within Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland and the UK provided data. Case counts were analysed using a negative binomial regression model with year as the main covariate. Many systems collected data from networks of 'centres', requiring the use of a multilevel negative binomial model. Some models made allowance for changes in compensation or reporting rules. Reports of contact dermatitis and asthma, conditions with shorter time between exposure to causal substances and OD, were consistently declining with only a few exceptions. For OD with physical causal exposures there was more variation between countries. Reported NIHL was increasing in Belgium, Spain, Switzerland and the Netherlands and decreasing elsewhere. Trends in CTS and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders varied widely within and between countries. This is the first direct comparison of trends in OD within Europe and is consistent with a positive impact of European initiatives addressing exposures relevant to asthma and contact dermatitis. Taking a more flexible approach allowed comparisons of surveillance data between and within countries without harmonisation of data collection methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - Part 3: Mentha × piperita - Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Calapai, Gioacchino; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2015)(†) called a European Union herbal monograph - has been produced. Part 3: Mentha × piperita L.-Solanum dulcamara L. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 4: Solidago virgaurea-Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Minciullo, Paola L; Calapai, Gioacchino; Miroddi, Marco; Mannucci, Carmen; Chinou, Ioanna; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Schmidt, Richard J

    2017-08-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph - now (since 2014) called a 'European Union herbal monograph' - has been produced. The present part 4 addresses species from Solidago virgaurea L. to Vitis vinifera L. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  18. A systematic approach to systemic contact dermatitis and symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE): a closer look at these conditions and an approach to intertriginous eruptions.

    PubMed

    Winnicki, Monika; Shear, Neil H

    2011-06-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis is a condition that occurs when an individual sensitized to a contact allergen is exposed to that same allergen or a cross-reacting molecule through a systemic route. Systemic exposure to allergens can include transcutaneous, transmucosal, oral, intravenous, intramuscular, and inhalational routes. Baboon syndrome is perhaps the most recognizable form of systemic contact dermatitis, presenting with diffuse, well demarcated erythema of the buttocks, upper inner thighs, and axillae. Other forms of systemic contact dermatitis include dermatitis at sites of previous exposure to the allergen such as at a previous site of dermatitis or at sites of previous positive patch tests, dyshidrotic hand eczema, flexural dermatitis, exanthematous rash, erythroderma, and vasculitis-like lesions. The most common causes of systemic contact dermatitis consist of three groups of allergens: (i) metals including mercury, nickel, and gold; (ii) medications including aminoglycoside antibacterials, corticosteroids, and aminophylline; and (iii) plants and herbal products including the Compositae and Anacardiaceae plant families and Balsam of Peru. Baboon syndrome caused by systemic medications without a known history of previous cutaneous sensitization in the patient has been termed drug-related baboon syndrome (DRBS) or symmetric drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE). Criteria for SDRIFE include exposure to systemic drug at first or repeated dose, erythema of the gluteal/perianal area and/or V-shaped erythema of the inguinal area, involvement of at least one other intertriginous localization, symmetry of affected areas, and absence of systemic toxicity. The most common causes are aminopenicillins, β-lactam antibacterials, and certain chemotherapeutic agents, though the list of etiologic agents continues to grow. Baboon syndrome and SDRIFE should be strongly considered in a patient presenting with a symmetric intertriginous eruption involving

  19. [The diagnosis and treatment of perianal dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lenhard, Bernhard H

    2004-01-01

    Perianal dermatitis is one of the most common proctological disorders. The anatomy of the anal region provides suitable conditions for the development of dermatitis. In the diagnostic work-up and the management of patients with perianal dermatitis, three types need to be distinguished: irritant contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis. Each type has its aetiological and pathogenetic factors, which will provide clues to the diagnosis and subsequent management of the condition. In the differential diagnosis of the condition, consideration should be given to inflammatory diseases of the perianal region which may produce eczema-like patterns.

  20. TRPA1 mediated aggravation of allergic contact dermatitis induced by DINP and regulated by NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun; Ding, Yong; Li, Baizhan; Liu, Hong; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2017-01-01

    The possible pathogenic role and mechanism of Di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP) in allergic dermatitis is still controversial. This work has shown that oral exposure to DINP exacerbated allergic dermatitis tissue lesions in FITC-sensitized mice. The lesions was accompanied by an enhancement of TRPA1 expression and an increase in IgG1, IL-6 and IL-13 levels. This work also found that blocking TRPA1 by HC030031 effectively prevented the development of allergic dermatitis resulting from oral exposure to DINP and/or FITC-sensitized mice. This result is marked by the down regulation of IgG1 levels, a reduction in mast cell degranulation and a decrease in IL-6 and IL-13 levels. We also showed that blocking NF-κB inhibited TRPA1 expression, and that blocking TRPA1 had no significant effect on the activation of NF-κB or TSLP expression. This study helps in understanding the role DINP exposure plays in the development of allergic dermatitis and provides new insight into the mechanisms behind the DINP-induced adjuvant effect. PMID:28240277