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Sample records for porcine coronary injury

  1. Inhibition of vascular remodelling in a porcine coronary injury model by herbal extract XS0601

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji

    2006-01-01

    Background Arterial remodelling is a major pathologic change of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Our previous studies showed that XS0601 (consisting of Chuangxingol and paeoniflorin) had some effects on the prevention of restenosis after PCI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and how its mechanism was related to the regulation of the arterial remodelling after endothelial injury by balloon dilation. Methods Twenty Chinese mini-pigs were randomized into four groups: control, probucol, low-dose XS0601 and high-dose XS0601 group before oversized balloon injury of the left anterior descending coronary arteries. Starting from two days before balloon injury, the mini-pigs in the treated group were administered with probucol (2 g/day) and XS0601 (0.02 g/kg/day for low dose; 0.04 g/kg/day for high dose) for four weeks after balloon injury. The animals receiving balloon injury alone were used as control. Morphometric and angiographic analysis of the injured arteries were performed. Results The contribution of intimal hyperplasia and arterial remodelling to angiographic late lumen loss was 41% and 59% respectively. XS0601 markedly inhibited proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and transformation of SMCs from contractile to synthetic phenotype in neointima, inhibited hyperplasia-related indices of morphometric analysis and reduce late angiographic lumen loss. The reduction of the late angiographic lumen loss resulting from vascular remodelling was greater after XS0601 treatment. Conclusion Both intimal hyperplasia and vascular remodelling are attributed to late lumen loss in this porcine coronary injury model. XS0601 markedly reduced angiographic late lumen loss resulting from intimal hyperplasia, vascular remodelling and XS0601 may be a potential agent to prevent restenosis after PCI. PMID:17302965

  2. A novel sutureless technique for the repair of coronary sinus injuries

    PubMed Central

    Patrini, Davide; Adams, Benjamin; Lawrence, David; Roberts, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Sinus injury related to cardioplegia catheter insertion is a rare complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality risk. We describe a simple, safe and effective sutureless technique for the management of coronary sinus injury. This technique was developed in a porcine haemostatic workshop in Hamburg, Germany. PMID:26793359

  3. Nanoporous CREG-Eluting Stent Attenuates In-Stent Neointimal Formation in Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingyu; Tao, Jie; Yan, Chenghui; Kang, Jian; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nanoporous CREG-eluting stent (CREGES) in inhibiting neointimal formation in a porcine coronary model. Methods In vitro proliferation assays were performed using isolated human endothelial and smooth muscle cells to investigate the cell-specific pharmacokinetic effects of CREG and sirolimus. We implanted CREGES, control sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) or bare metal stents (BMS) into pig coronary arteries. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess the efficacy of CREGES in inhibiting neointimal formation. Results CREG and sirolimus inhibited in vitro vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation to a similar degree. Interestingly, human endothelial cell proliferation was only significantly inhibited by sirolimus and was increased by CREG. CREGES attenuated neointimal formation after 4 weeks in porcine coronary model compared with BMS. No differences were found in the injury and inflammation scores among the groups. Scanning electron microscopy and CD31 staining by immunohistochemistry demonstrated an accelerated reendothelialization in the CREGES group compared with the SES or BMS control groups. Conclusions The current study suggests that CREGES reduces neointimal formation, promotes reendothelialization in porcine coronary stent model. PMID:23573278

  4. Effect of Stents Coated with Artemisinin or Dihydroartemisinin in a Porcine Coronary Restenosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Suyoung; Lim, Kyung Seob; Bae, In Ho; Park, Jun-Kyu; Park, Dae Sung; Shim, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin are drugs used to treat malaria. These drugs suppress inflammatory reactions. The aim of this study was to examine the anti-intima hyperplasia effect of a novel drug-eluting stent with artemisinin or dihydroartemisinin in a porcine coronary restenosis model. Materials and Methods Pigs were randomized into four groups; in the first, the coronary arteries (20 pigs, a total of 40 coronary arteries, with 10 coronary arteries in each group) was implanted with bare metal stents (BMS, n=10); the second group was given polymer-coated stents (PCS, n=10); the third group was treated with artemisinin-eluting stents (AES, n=10); and the fourth group was given dihydroartemisinin-eluting stents (DAES, n=10). Histopathologic analysis was performed 28 days after stenting. Results The injury and fibrin scores among the four groups were not significantly different. However, the internal elastic lamina, lumen area, and neointima area were significantly different. Moreover, the percent area of stenosis (46.2±18.66% in BMS vs. 89.4±10.92% in PCS vs. 83.3±17.07% in AES vs. 36.7±11.20% in DAES, p<0.0001) and inflammation score (1.0 [range: 1.0-1.0] vs. 3.0 [range: 2.25-3.0] vs. 3.0 [range: 1.0-3.0] vs. 2.0 [range: 1.75-3.0] in BMS, PCS, AES, and DAES, respectively; p<0.001) were markedly decreased in the DAES group compared to the PCS group. Conclusion DES, which uses a natural substance, dihydroartemisinin, showed a neointima and inflammatory suppressive effect in a porcine coronary restenosis model. PMID:28154599

  5. Methotrexate loaded SAE coated coronary stents reduce neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine coronary model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y; Salu, K; Liu, X; Li, S; Wang, L; Verbeken, E; Bosmans, J; De Scheerder, I

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of stent based methotrexate delivery on neointimal hyperplasia. Methods: Stainless steel coronary stents and biological polymer coated (SAE) stents were randomly implanted in coronary arteries of pigs with a stent to artery ratio of 1.1:1. The pigs were killed after five days (10 stents) or four weeks (20 stents). Second, stainless steel coronary stents were dip coated in a 10 mg/ml methotrexate–SAE polymer solution, resulting in a total load of 150 μg methotrexate/stent. SAE coated stents and methotrexate loaded stents were randomly implanted in porcine coronary arteries with a stent to artery ratio of 1.2:1 and followed up to four weeks. Results: SAE coated stents and bare stents elicited a similar tissue response at five days. At four weeks, neointimal hyperplasia induced by the coated stents was less pronounced than with the bare stents (1.32 (0.66) v 1.73 (0.93) mm2, p > 0.05). In vitro drug release studies showed that 50% of the methotrexate was released in 24 hours, and all drug was released within four weeks. No impact on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation or viability was observed in in vitro cell cultures. At four weeks the arteries with methotrexate loaded stents had decreased peristrut inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia (1.22 (0.34) v 2.25 (1.28) mm2, p < 0.01). Conclusions: SAE coating had an excellent biocompatibility with vascular tissue. Stent based delivery of methotrexate in the SAE coating effectively reduced neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine coronary stent model, potentially due to reduced peristrut inflammation. PMID:14729797

  6. Bidirectional Regulatory Effects of Dexmedetomidine on Porcine Coronary Tone In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shu-Zhi; Li, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Xue-Ru; Zhou, Jun; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Yang, Yan; Wei, Ji-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies in vivo have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect the myocardium and modulate the coronary blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the direct and concentration-dependent effects of DEX on the tone of porcine coronary artery in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Material/Methods Distal branches of the porcine anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected and cut into 3–5 mm rings. The tones of coronary rings in response to cumulative DEX were measured using the PowerLab system. Coronary rings were divided into three groups: 1) endothelium-intact coronary rings without drug pretreatment (control); 2) endothelium-intact coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine, tetraethylamine (TEA) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME); and 3) endothelium-denuded coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine or TEA. Results DEX induced coronary ring relaxation at lower concentrations (10−9 to 10−7 M) followed by constriction at higher concentrations (10−6 to 10−5 M). The coronary constrictive effect of higher DEX (10−5 M) was greater in the endothelium-denuded rings than in the endothelium-intact rings. Yohimbine reduced the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations (10−6 to 10−5 M). TEA and L-NAME significantly reduced the coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations (10−9 to 10−7 M) in endothelium-intact rings. TEA attenuated the coronary relaxation induced by DEX in endothelium-denuded rings. Conclusions DEX exerts bidirectional effects on porcine coronary tone. The coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations is likely associated with endothelium integrity, NO synthesis and BKCa channel activation, while the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations is mediated by α2 adrenoceptors in the coronary smooth muscle cells. PMID:28369032

  7. Bidirectional Regulatory Effects of Dexmedetomidine on Porcine Coronary Tone In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shu-Zhi; Li, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Xue-Ru; Zhou, Jun; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Yang, Yan; Wei, Ji-Cheng

    2017-04-03

    BACKGROUND Studies in vivo have shown that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect the myocardium and modulate the coronary blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the direct and concentration-dependent effects of DEX on the tone of porcine coronary artery in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Distal branches of the porcine anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected and cut into 3-5 mm rings. The tones of coronary rings in response to cumulative DEX were measured using the PowerLab system. Coronary rings were divided into three groups: 1) endothelium-intact coronary rings without drug pretreatment (control); 2) endothelium-intact coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine, tetraethylamine (TEA) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME); and 3) endothelium-denuded coronary rings pretreated with either yohimbine or TEA. RESULTS DEX induced coronary ring relaxation at lower concentrations (10^-9 to 10^-7 M) followed by constriction at higher concentrations (10^-6 to 10^-5 M). The coronary constrictive effect of higher DEX (10^-5 M) was greater in the endothelium-denuded rings than in the endothelium-intact rings. Yohimbine reduced the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations (10^-6 to 10^-5 M). TEA and L-NAME significantly reduced the coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations (10^-9 to 10^-7 M) in endothelium-intact rings. TEA attenuated the coronary relaxation induced by DEX in endothelium-denuded rings. CONCLUSIONS DEX exerts bidirectional effects on porcine coronary tone. The coronary relaxing effect of DEX at lower concentrations is likely associated with endothelium integrity, NO synthesis and BKCa channel activation, while the coronary constrictive effect of DEX at higher concentrations is mediated by a2 adrenoceptors in the coronary smooth muscle cells.

  8. Local Angiopeptin Delivery Using Coated Stents Reduces Neointimal Proliferation in Overstretched Porcine Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    De Scheerder I; Wilczek; Van Dorpe J; Verbeken; Cathapermal; Wang; Desmet; Schacht; Foegh; De Geest H; Piessens

    1996-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Systemic administration of angiopeptin has been shown to inhibit myointimal thickening after arterial injury in several animal species. METHODS AND RESULTS: To explore to what extent high and long-lasting local concentrations of angiopeptin influence the healing process after vascular injury, tantalum balloon-expandable stents were first coated with a polymer loaded with angiopeptin 250 µg. Implantation of these stents in porcine coronary arteries resulted in tissue concentrations of 10.7 pg/ml wet weight in the stented arterial segment 24 hours after stent implantation, gradually declining to 2.0 pg/ml wet weight at day 8. Finally, 20 pigs were randomly treated with either an angiopeptin-loaded or a blank-coated stent. At baseline, the angiographic parameters were similar between both groups but, after 6 weeks, the minimal luminal diameter of the stented arterial segment was larger in the angiopeptin-treated pigs when compared to controls (2.20 +/- 0.57 mm vs 1.57 +/- 0.68 mm, p < 0.01) This angiographic finding was confirmed by post-mortem morphometry where the respective lumen area values were 1.00 +/- 0.54 mm2 and 0.43 +/- 0.28 mm2 (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Polymer coated stents can be loaded with angiopeptin, which after implantation in porcine right coronary arteries result in high local tissue concentrations gradually declining over more than 8 days. These high local concentrations inhibit myointimal proliferation induced by poly(organo)phosphazene coated overstretched stents.

  9. Procedure for decellularization of porcine heart by retrograde coronary perfusion.

    PubMed

    Remlinger, Nathaniel T; Wearden, Peter D; Gilbert, Thomas W

    2012-12-06

    Perfusion-based whole organ decellularization has recently gained interest in the field of tissue engineering as a means to create site-specific extracellular matrix scaffolds, while largely preserving the native architecture of the scaffold. To date, this approach has been utilized in a variety of organ systems, including the heart, lung, and liver (1-5). Previous decellularization methods for tissues without an easily accessible vascular network have relied upon prolonged exposure of tissue to solutions of detergents, acids, or enzymatic treatments as a means to remove the cellular and nuclear components from the surrounding extracellular environment(6-8). However, the effectiveness of these methods hinged upon the ability of the solutions to permeate the tissue via diffusion. In contrast, perfusion of organs through the natural vascular system effectively reduced the diffusion distance and facilitated transport of decellularization agents into the tissue and cellular components out of the tissue. Herein, we describe a method to fully decellularize an intact porcine heart through coronary retrograde perfusion. The protocol yielded a fully decellularized cardiac extracellular matrix (c-ECM) scaffold with the three-dimensional structure of the heart intact. Our method used a series of enzymes, detergents, and acids coupled with hypertonic and hypotonic rinses to aid in the lysis and removal of cells. The protocol used a Trypsin solution to detach cells from the matrix followed by Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate solutions to aid in removal of cellular material. The described protocol also uses perfusion speeds of greater than 2 L/min for extended periods of time. The high flow rate, coupled with solution changes allowed transport of agents to the tissue without contamination of cellular debris and ensured effective rinsing of the tissue. The described method removed all nuclear material from native porcine cardiac tissue, creating a site-specific cardiac ECM

  10. Acute Simvastatin Inhibits KATP Channels of Porcine Coronary Artery Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Kong, Siu Kai; Ngai, Sai Ming; Wan, Song; Ho, Ho Pui; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Chan, Shun Wan; Leung, George Pak Heng; Kwan, Yiu Wa

    2013-01-01

    Background Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors) consumption provides beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems. However, effects of statins on vascular KATP channel gatings are unknown. Methods Pig left anterior descending coronary artery and human left internal mammary artery were isolated and endothelium-denuded for tension measurements and Western immunoblots. Enzymatically-dissociated/cultured arterial myocytes were used for patch-clamp electrophysiological studies and for [Ca2+]i, [ATP]i and [glucose]o uptake measurements. Results The cromakalim (10 nM to 10 µM)- and pinacidil (10 nM to 10 µM)-induced concentration-dependent relaxation of porcine coronary artery was inhibited by simvastatin (3 and 10 µM). Simvastatin (1, 3 and 10 µM) suppressed (in okadaic acid (10 nM)-sensitive manner) cromakalim (10 µM)- and pinacidil (10 µM)-mediated opening of whole-cell KATP channels of arterial myocytes. Simvastatin (10 µM) and AICAR (1 mM) elicited a time-dependent, compound C (1 µM)-sensitive [3H]-2-deoxy-glucose uptake and an increase in [ATP]i levels. A time (2–30 min)- and concentration (0.1–10 µM)-dependent increase by simvastatin of p-AMPKα-Thr172 and p-PP2A-Tyr307 expression was observed. The enhanced p-AMPKα-Thr172 expression was inhibited by compound C, ryanodine (100 µM) and KN93 (10 µM). Simvastatin-induced p-PP2A-Tyr307 expression was suppressed by okadaic acid, compound C, ryanodine, KN93, phloridzin (1 mM), ouabain (10 µM), and in [glucose]o-free or [Na+]o-free conditions. Conclusions Simvastatin causes ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release which is important for AMPKα-Thr172 phosphorylation via Ca2+/CaMK II. AMPKα-Thr172 phosphorylation causes [glucose]o uptake (and an [ATP]i increase), closure of KATP channels, and phosphorylation of AMPKα-Thr172 and PP2A-Tyr307 resulted. Phosphorylation of PP2A-Tyr307 occurs at a site downstream of AMPKα-Thr172 phosphorylation. PMID:23799098

  11. Calcium handling in porcine coronary endothelial cells by gastrin-17.

    PubMed

    Grossini, E; Molinari, C; Sigaudo, L; Biella, M; Mary, D A S G; Vacca, G

    2013-04-01

    In porcine coronary artery endothelial cells (PCAEC), gastrin-17 has recently been found to increase nitric oxide (NO) production by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) isoform through cholecystokinin 1/2 (CCK1/2) receptors and the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA), PKC and the β2-adrenoreceptor-related pathway. As eNOS is the Ca(2)(+)-dependent isoform of the enzyme, we aimed to examine the effects of gastrin-17 on Ca(2)(+) movements. Thus, experiments were performed in Fura-2-acetoxymethyl-ester-loaded PCAEC, where changes of cytosolic Ca(2)(+) ([Ca(2)(+)]c) caused by gastrin-17 were analysed and compared with those of CCK receptors and β2-adrenoreceptors agonists/antagonists. In addition, some experiments were performed by stimulating cells with gastrin-17 in the presence or absence of cAMP/PKA activator/inhibitor and of phospholipase C (PLC) and Ca(2)(+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockers. The results have shown that gastrin-17 can promote a transient increase in [Ca(2)(+)]c mainly originating from an intracellular pool sensitive to thapsigargin and from the extracellular space. In addition, the response of cells to gastrin-17 was increased by the adenylyl cyclase activator and the β2-adrenoreceptor agonists and affected mainly by the CCK2 receptor agonists/antagonists. Moreover, the effects of gastrin-17 were prevented by β2-adrenoreceptors and CaMKII blockers and the adenylyl cyclase/PKA and PLC inhibitors. Finally, in PCAEC cultured in Na(+)-free medium or loaded with the plasma membrane Ca(2)(+) pump inhibitor, the gastrin-17-evoked Ca(2)(+) transient was long lasting. In conclusion, this study shows that gastrin-17 affected intracellular Ca(2)(+) homeostasis in PCAEC by both promoting a discharge of an intracellular pool and by interfering with the operation of store-dependent channels through mainly CCK2 receptors and PKA/PLC- and CaMKII-related signalling downstream of β2-adrenoreceptor stimulation.

  12. A full 3-D reconstruction of the entire porcine coronary vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Kaimovitz, Benjamin; Lanir, Yoram

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reconstructed the entire coronary arterial tree of the porcine heart down to the first segment of capillaries. Here, we extend the vascular model through the capillary bed and the entire coronary venous system. The reconstruction was based on comprehensive morphometric data previously measured in the porcine heart. The reconstruction was formulated as a large-scale optimization process, subject to both global constraints relating to the location of the larger veins and to local constraints of measured morphological features. The venous network was partitioned into epicardial, transmural, and perfusion functional subnetworks. The epicardial portion was generated by a simulated annealing search for the optimal coverage of the area perfused by the arterial epicardial vessels. The epicardial subnetwork and coronary arterial capillary network served as boundary conditions for the reconstruction of the in-between transmural and perfusion networks, which were generated to optimize vascular homogeneity. Five sets of full coronary trees, which spanned the entire network down to the capillary level, were reconstructed. The total number of reconstructed venous segments was 17,148,946 ± 1,049,498 (n = 5), which spanned the coronary sinus (order −12) to the first segment of the venous capillary (order 0v). Combined with the reconstructed arterial network, the number of vessel segments for the entire coronary network added up to 27,307,376 ± 1,155,359 (n = 5). The reconstructed full coronary vascular network agreed with the gross anatomy of coronary networks in terms of structure, location of major vessels, and measured morphometric statistics of native coronary networks. This is the first full model of the entire coronary vasculature, which can serve as a foundation for realistic large-scale coronary flow analysis. PMID:20622105

  13. Dissection of the right coronary artery following blunt cardiac injury

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzis, I; Dapcevic, I

    2015-01-01

    Background Coronary artery dissection is a rare complication of blunt thoracic trauma which can become rapidly lethal necessitating prompt diagnosis and treatment. Most reported cases of coronary artery injury, including dissection, involve the left anterior descending coronary artery, given its anatomical location in relation to the impact. Description of case A 72-year-old male, who was involved in a vehicular accident, sustained blunt thoracic trauma which resulted in isolated right coronary artery dissection and acute myocardial infarction. The culprit lesion was found in coronary angiography in the proximal right coronary artery and was successfully repaired with percutaneous coronary intervention and one drug-eluting stent placement. Conclusion Traumatic dissection of coronary arteries must be suspected in blunt thoracic trauma. It can be treated with interventional management and results in a fairly good prognosis. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 278-280. PMID:27418793

  14. Elastic behavior of porcine coronary artery tissue under uniaxial and equibiaxial tension.

    PubMed

    Lally, C; Reid, A J; Prendergast, P J

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the nonlinear anisotropic elastic behavior of healthy porcine coronary arteries under uniaxial and equibiaxial tension. Porcine coronary tissue was chosen for its availability and similarity to human arterial tissue. A biaxial test device previously used to test human femoral arterial tissue samples (Prendergast, P. J., C. Lally, S. Daly, A. J. Reid, T. C. Lee, D. Quinn, and F. Dolan. ASME J. Biomech. Eng., Vol. 125, pp. 692-699, 2003) was further developed to test porcine coronary tissue specimens. The device applies an equal force to the four sides of a square specimen and therefore creates a biaxial stretch that demonstrates the anisotropy of arterial tissue. The nonlinear elastic behavior was marked in both uniaxial and biaxial tests. The tissue demonstrated higher stiffness in the circumferential direction in four out of eight cases subjected to biaxial tension. Even though anisotropy is demonstrated it is proposed that an isotropic hyperelastic model may adequately represent the properties of an artery, provided that an axial stretch is applied to the vessel to simulate the in vivo longitudinal tethering on the vessel. Isotropic hyperelastic models based on the Mooney-Rivlin constitutive equation were derived from the test data by averaging the longitudinal and circumferential equibiaxial data. Three different hyperelastic models were established to represent the test specimens that exhibited a high stiffness, an average stiffness, and a low stiffness response; these three models allow the analyst to account for the variability in the arterial tissue mechanical properties. These models, which take account of the nonlinear elastic behavior of coronary tissue, may be implemented in finite element models and used to carry out preclinical tests of intravascular devices. The errors associated with the hyperelastic models when fitting to both the uniaxial and equibiaxial data for the low stiffness, average stiffness, and

  15. Epicardial adipose excision slows the progression of porcine coronary atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In humans there is a positive association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and coronary atherosclerosis (CAD) burden. We tested the hypothesis that EAT contributes locally to CAD in a pig model. Methods Ossabaw miniature swine (n = 9) were fed an atherogenic diet for 6 months to produce CAD. A 15 mm length by 3–5 mm width coronary EAT (cEAT) resection was performed over the middle segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) 15 mm distal to the left main bifurcation. Pigs recovered for 3 months on atherogenic diet. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed in the LAD to quantify atheroma immediately after adipectomy and was repeated after recovery before sacrifice. Coronary wall biopsies were stained immunohistochemically for atherosclerosis markers and cytokines and cEAT was assayed for atherosclerosis-related genes by RT-PCR. Total EAT volume was measured by non-contrast CT before each IVUS. Results Circumferential plaque length increased (p < 0.05) in the proximal and distal LAD segments from baseline until sacrifice whereas plaque length in the middle LAD segment underneath the adipectomy site did not increase. T-cadherin, scavenger receptor A and adiponectin were reduced in the intramural middle LAD. Relative to control pigs without CAD, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD-1), CCL19, CCL21, prostaglandin D2 synthase, gp91phox [NADPH oxidase], VEGF, VEGFGR1, and angiotensinogen mRNAs were up-regulated in cEAT. EAT volume increased over 3 months. Conclusion In pigs used as their own controls, resection of cEAT decreased the progression of CAD, suggesting that cEAT may exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:24387639

  16. An evaluation of potassium ions as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Bény, Jean-Louis; Schaad, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    In the rat hepatic artery, the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) was identified as potassium. Potassium hyperpolarizes the smooth muscles by gating inward rectified potassium channels and by activating the sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+ATPase). Our goal was to examine whether potassium could explain the EDHF in porcine coronary arteries. On coronary strips, the inhibition of calcium-dependent potassium channels with 100 nM apamin plus 100 μM charibdotoxin inhibited the endothelium-dependent relaxations, produced by 10 nM substance P and 300 nM bradykinin and resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin. The scavenging of potassium with 2 mM Kryptofix 2.2.2 abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxations produced by the kinins and resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin. Forty μM 18α glycyrrethinic acid or 50 μM palmitoleic acid, both uncoupling agents, did not inhibit these kinin relaxations. Therefore, EDHF does not result from an electrotonic spreading of an endothelial hyperpolarization. Barium (0.3 nM) did not inhibit the kinin relaxations resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin. Therefore, EDHF does not result from the activation of inward rectified potassium channels. Five hundred nM ouabain abolished the endothelium-dependent relaxations resistant to nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin without inhibiting the endothelium-derived NO relaxation. The perifusion of a medium supplemented with potassium depolarized and contracted a coronary strip; however, the short application of potassium hyperpolarized the smooth muscles. These results are compatible with the concept that, in porcine coronary artery, the EDHF is potassium released by the endothelial cells and that this ion hyperpolarizes and relaxes the smooth muscles by activating the Na+-K+ATPase. PMID:11053218

  17. Demonstration of. beta. /sub 1/-adrenoceptor mediating relaxation of porcine coronary artery by radioligand binding and pharmacological methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, S.; Kashiwabara, T.; Yamazawa, T.; Harada, Y.; Nakayama, K.

    1988-01-01

    ..beta..-adrenoceptors in the porcine coronary artery were characterized by a radioligand binding assay using (-)-(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol (DHA) and also by measuring the relaxant response of isolated coronary artery to norepinephrine. Specific (-)-(/sup 3/H)DHA binding in the porcine coronary artery was saturable, reversible and of high affinity with a maximal number of binding sites of 63 fmol/mg protein, and it showed a pharmacological specificity as well as stereoselectivity which characterized ..beta..-adrenoceptors. The Hofstee analysis of inhibition of (-)-(/sup 3/H)DHA binding by atenolol, practolol and ICI 118551 has shown that the averaged concentration of ..beta../sub 1/ and ..beta../sub 2/-adrenoceptors in this tissue was 68% and 32% respectively. The relaxant response of isolated coronary artery to norepinephrine was competitively antagonized by (-)propranolol, (+)propranolol, atenolol, practolol and ICI 118551. The pA/sub 2/ values of these adrenoceptor antagonists were significantly correlated with the Ki values for ..beta../sub 1/ but not ..beta../sub 2/-adrenoceptors determined by the (-)-(/sup 3/H)DHA binding assay. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the relaxant response of porcine coronary artery to norepinephrine is predominantly mediated through the stimulation of ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptors on vascular smooth muscles.

  18. Dynamic Viscoelasticity and Surface Properties of Porcine Left Anterior Descending Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Burton, Hanna E; Freij, Jenny M; Espino, Daniel M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was, for the first time, to measure and compare quantitatively the viscoelastic properties and surface roughness of coronary arteries. Porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries were dissected ex vivo. Viscoelastic properties were measured longitudinally using dynamic mechanical analysis, for a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 10 Hz. Surface roughness was calculated following three-dimensional reconstructed of surface images obtained using an optical microscope. Storage modulus ranged from 14.47 to 25.82 MPa, and was found to be frequency-dependent, decreasing as the frequency increased. Storage was greater than the loss modulus, with the latter found to be frequency-independent with a mean value of 2.10 ± 0.33 MPa. The circumferential surface roughness was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the longitudinal surface roughness, ranging from 0.73 to 2.83 and 0.35 to 0.92 µm, respectively. However, if surface roughness values were corrected for shrinkage during processing, circumferential and longitudinal surface roughness were not significantly different (1.04 ± 0.47, 0.89 ± 0.27 µm, respectively; p > 0.05). No correlation was found between the viscoelastic properties and surface roughness. It is feasible to quantitatively measure the viscoelastic properties of coronary arteries and the roughness of their endothelial surface.

  19. Microsphere skimming in the porcine coronary arteries: Implications for flow quantification.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Matthew; Lee, Jack; Schuster, Andreas; Chiribiri, Amedeo; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen; van Horssen, Pepijn; Siebes, Maria; Spaan, Jos A E; Nagel, Eike; Smith, Nicolas P

    2015-07-01

    Particle skimming is a phenomenon where particles suspended in fluid flowing through vessels distribute disproportionately to bulk fluid volume at junctions. Microspheres are considered a gold standard of intra-organ perfusion measurements and are used widely in studies of flow distribution and quantification. It has previously been hypothesised that skimming at arterial junctions is responsible for a systematic over-estimation of myocardial perfusion from microspheres at the subendocardium. Our objective is to integrate coronary arterial structure and microsphere distribution, imaged at high resolution, to test the hypothesis of microsphere skimming in a porcine left coronary arterial (LCA) network. A detailed network was reconstructed from cryomicrotome imaging data and a Poiseuille flow model was used to simulate flow. A statistical approach using Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals was applied to determine the prevalence of skimming at bifurcations in the LCA. Results reveal that microsphere skimming is most prevalent at bifurcations in the larger coronary arteries, namely the epicardial and transmural arteries. Bifurcations at which skimming was identified have significantly more asymmetric branching parameters. This finding suggests that when using thin transmural segments to quantify flow from microspheres, a skimming-related deposition bias may result in underestimation of perfusion in the subepicardium, and overestimation in the subendocardium.

  20. Frequency of Vascular Inflammation and Impact on Neointimal Proliferation of Drug Eluting Stents in Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jong Shiuan; Oh, Seung Jin; Hsueh, Chun Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to describe the frequency of vascular inflammatory reactions with second generation drug eluting stents (DES) compared to first generation DES, and analyze the impact on inflammation and neointimal proliferation in a porcine coronary model. Methods A total of 26 stents (7 multi-link VISION, 6 CYPHER, 6 TAXUS and 7 XIENCE V) were deployed in the coronary arteries of 10 domestic swine for 28 days, after which each stent was harvested and processed (divided into 8 or 9 segments) for histomorphometric analysis. Results A total of 202 histological segments [146 DES and 56 bare metal stents (BMS)] were included in this study. The mean neointimal thickness was significantly reduced in the DES group compared to the BMS group. The DES group had higher injury scores (DES = 0.99 ± 0.79 versus BMS = 0.67 ± 0.44, p < 0.004), inflammatory scores (DES = 2.09 ± 1.54 versus BMS = 0.64 ± 0.98, p < 0.001) and presence of para-strut granulomas (DES = 35% versus BMS = 2%, p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the presence of para-strut granulomas correlated with an area of stenosis > 50% (RR: 6.11, 95% CI: 2.97 to 12.59, p = 0.001). In the DES group, the second generation stents had a lower neointimal area (XIENCE V: 1.64 ± 0.90 mm2) compared to the first generation stents (TAXUS: 2.36 ± 1.56 mm2, p = 0.005; CYPHER 2.78 ± 1.82 mm2, p = 0.001). The XIENCE V stents had lower inflammatory scores and lower frequency of para-strut granulomas compared to the first generation stents. Conclusions Second generation DES had a lower incidence of vascular inflammatory reactions compared to first generation DES. This biological phenomenon appears to influence the patterns of neointimal formation. PMID:27713606

  1. Development of Accelerated Coronary Atherosclerosis Model Using Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knock-Out Swine with Balloon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Onishi, Akira; Tsuboi, Shuta; Wada, Hideki; Konishi, Hirokazu; Naito, Ryo; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Kojima, Yuko; Schwartz, Robert S.; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Several animal models have facilitated the evaluation and pathological understanding of atherosclerosis, but a definitive animal model of coronary atherosclerosis is not available. We therefore developed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-KO) pigs with hypercholesterolemia, a model which rapidly developed coronary atherosclerosis following balloon injury. Methods and Results We deleted LDLR exon regions from cultured porcine fetal fibroblasts and cloned LDLR knockout (LDLR-KO) embryos microinjecting fetal fibroblast nuclei into enucleated oocytes. Twelve LDLR-KO pigs were fed a 2.0% cholesterol and 20% fat diet. Baseline serum LDL cholesterol level was 510.0±86.1 mg/dL. Balloon injury was created in 46 coronary segments and necropsy were obtained 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks later. Coronary artery sections were reviewed to evaluate lesion progression. We found lipid accumulation with foam cells and inflammatory cells beginning four weeks after balloon injury. The mean ratio of macrophages to plaque area was significantly higher in the four- weeks and eight-week animals compared with those at 2-weeks (8.79% ± 5.98% and 17.00% ± 10.38% vs. 1.14% ± 1.88%, P < 0.0001). At 12 weeks the ratio decreased toward the level at 2 week level (4.00% ± 4.56%, P = 0.66 vs. baseline). Advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions contained lipid pools at eight-weeks with fibrous components beginning at 12 weeks. Conclusions We developed a model of rapid coronary atherosclerosis using LDLR KO pigs with balloon injury. This model may be useful for preclinical evaluation of medication or devices, and may also help investigate mechanisms of plaque progression. PMID:27631974

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Mitigates Reperfusion Injury in a Porcine Model of Vascularized Composite Autotransplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogen Sulfide Mitigates Reperfusion Injury in a Porcine Model of Vascularized Composite Autotransplantation Carole Y. Villamaria, MD,*Þ C. Anton...interim perfusion of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) mitigates the effects of reperfusion injury in the setting of delayed resto- ration of blood flow. Methods: A...for reconstructing previ- ously unreconstructable injuries. Key Words: hydrogen sulfide , gracilis myocutaneous flap, vascularized composite tissue

  3. Remote effects of acute kidney injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Gardner, David S; De Brot, Simone; Dunford, Louise J; Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Welham, Simon J M; Fallman, Rebecca; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E; Oh, Weng; Devonald, Mark A J

    2016-02-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious condition with no specific treatment. An episode of AKI may affect organs distant from the kidney, further increasing the morbidity associated with AKI. The mechanism of organ cross talk after AKI is unclear. The renal and immune systems of pigs and humans are alike. Using a preclinical animal (porcine) model, we tested the hypothesis that early effects of AKI on distant organs is by immune cell infiltration, leading to inflammatory cytokine production, extravasation, and edema. In 29 pigs exposed to either sham surgery or renal ischemia-reperfusion (control, n = 12; AKI, n = 17), we assessed remote organ (liver, lung, brain) effects in the short (from 2- to 48-h reperfusion) and longer term (5 wk later) using immunofluorescence (for leukocyte infiltration, apoptosis), a cytokine array, tissue elemental analysis (e.g., electrolytes), blood hematology and chemistry (e.g., liver enzymes), and PCR (for inflammatory markers). AKI elicited significant, short-term (∼24 h) increments in enzymes indicative of acute liver damage (e.g. , AST: ALT ratio; P = 0.02) and influenced tissue biochemistry in some remote organs (e.g., lung tissue [Ca(2+)] increased; P = 0.04). These effects largely resolved after 48 h, and no further histopathology, edema, apoptosis, or immune cell infiltration was noted in the liver, lung, or hippocampus in the short and longer term. AKI has subtle biochemical effects on remote organs in the short term, including a transient increment in markers of acute liver damage. These effects resolved by 48 h, and no further remote organ histopathology, apoptosis, edema, or immune cell infiltration was noted.

  4. Comparative assessment of drug-eluting balloons in an advanced porcine model of coronary restenosis.

    PubMed

    Joner, M; Byrne, R A; Lapointe, J-M; Radke, P W; Bayer, G; Steigerwald, K; Wittchow, E

    2011-05-01

    The advent of drug-eluting balloon (DEB) therapy has represented an important development in interventional cardiology. Nevertheless, preclinical data with this technology remain scant, and comparative studies have not previously been published. Bare metal stents were implanted in the coronary arteries of 15 pigs followed by balloon angioplasty. Animals were allocated to treatment with a 60-second inflation of one of four different balloon catheters: a conventional untreated plain angioplasty balloon (PBA, Biotronik AG), the Pantera Lux DEB (3.0 μg/mm2 paclitaxel; BTHC excipient, Biotronik AG), the Elutax DEB (2.0 μg/mm2 paclitaxel; no excipient; Aachen Resonance), or the SeQuent Please DEB (3.0 μg/mm2 paclitaxel; iopromide excipient: B. Braun). Twenty-eight days following balloon deployment, animals underwent repeat angiography for quantitative coronary angiography analysis and euthanasia for histopathologic assessment. By histology, the mean neointimal thickness was 0.44 ± 0.19 mm with PBA, 0.35 ± 0.13 mm with Pantera Lux , 0.61 ± 0.20 mm with Elutax , and 0.47 ± 0.21 mm with SeQuent Please DEB (p=0.02). In comparison with PBA, deployment of the Pantera Lux or the SeQuent Please DEB resulted in delayed healing characterised by significant increases in fibrin, neointimal cell vacuity and delayed re-endothelialisation. In conclusion, investigation of comparative DEB performance in a porcine model of advanced coronary restenosis reveals significant heterogeneity of neointimal suppression between the devices tested with numerically lowest values seen in the Pantera Lux group. On the other hand, evidence of delayed healing was observed in the most effective DEB groups.

  5. KV7 channels are involved in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation of porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, E R; Nielsen, B D; Kun, A; Hughes, A D; Krøigaard, C; Mogensen, S; Matchkov, V V; Fröbert, O; Simonsen, U

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hypoxia causes vasodilatation of coronary arteries, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia reduces intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by opening of K channels and release of H2S. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Porcine coronary arteries without endothelium were mounted for measurement of isometric tension and [Ca2+]i, and the expression of voltage-gated K channels KV7 channels (encoded by KCNQ genes) and large-conductance calcium-activated K channels (KCa1.1) was examined. Voltage clamp assessed the role of KV7 channels in hypoxia. KEY RESULTS Gradual reduction of oxygen concentration from 95 to 1% dilated the precontracted coronary arteries and this was associated with reduced [Ca2+]i in PGF2α (10 μM)-contracted arteries whereas no fall in [Ca2+]i was observed in 30 mM K-contracted arteries. Blockers of ATP-sensitive voltage-gated potassium channels and KCa1.1 inhibited hypoxia-induced dilatation in PGF2α-contracted arteries; this inhibition was more marked in the presence of the Kv7 channel blockers, XE991 and linopirdine, while a KV7.1 blocker, failed to change hypoxic vasodilatation. XE991 also inhibited H2S- and adenosine-induced vasodilatation. PCR revealed the expression of KV7.1, KV7.4, KV7.5 and KCa1.1 channels, and KCa1.1, KV7.4 and KV7.5 were also identified by immunoblotting. Voltage clamp studies showed the XE991-sensitive current was more marked in hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION The KV7.4 and KV7.5 channels, which we identified in the coronary arteries, appear to have a major role in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation. The voltage clamp results further support the involvement of KV7 channels in this vasodilatation. Activation of these KV7 channels may be induced by H2S and adenosine. PMID:24111896

  6. Biomechanical Comparison of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Gelatin Fibrinogen Electrospun Scaffolds to Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tamimi, E.; Ardila, D. C.; Haskett, D. G.; Doetschman, T.; Slepian, M. J.; Kellar, R. S.; Vande Geest, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Americans. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains a mainstay of therapy for CVD and native vein grafts are limited by issues of supply and lifespan, an effective readily available tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in CABG would provide drastic improvements in patient care. Biomechanical mismatch between vascular grafts and native vasculature has been shown to be the major cause of graft failure, and therefore, there is need for compliance-matched biocompatible TEVGs for clinical implantation. The current study investigates the biaxial mechanical characterization of acellular electrospun glutaraldehyde (GLUT) vapor-crosslinked gelatin/fibrinogen cylindrical constructs, using a custom-made microbiaxial optomechanical device (MOD). Constructs crosslinked for 2, 8, and 24 hrs are compared to mechanically characterized porcine left anterior descending coronary (LADC) artery. The mechanical response data were used for constitutive modeling using a modified Fung strain energy equation. The results showed that constructs crosslinked for 2 and 8 hrs exhibited circumferential and axial tangential moduli (ATM) similar to that of the LADC. Furthermore, the 8-hrs experimental group was the only one to compliance-match the LADC, with compliance values of 0.0006±0.00018 mm Hg−1 and 0.00071±0.00027 mm Hg−1, respectively. The results of this study show the feasibility of meeting mechanical specifications expected of native arteries through manipulating GLUT vapor crosslinking time. The comprehensive mechanical characterization of cylindrical biopolymer constructs in this study is an important first step to successfully develop a biopolymer compliance-matched TEVG. PMID:26501189

  7. Distribution of stress and strain along the porcine aorta and coronary arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaomei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2004-06-01

    The existence of a homeostatic state of stresses and strains has been axiomatic in the cardiovascular system. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of circumferential stress and strain along the aorta and throughout the coronary arterial tree to test this hypothesis. Silicone elastomer was perfused through the porcine aorta and coronary arterial tree to cast the arteries at physiological pressure. The loaded and zero-stress dimensions of the vessels were measured. The aorta (1.8 cm) and its secondary branches were considered down to 1.5 mm diameter. The left anterior descending artery (4.5 mm) and its branches down to 10 microm were also measured. The Cauchy mean circumferential stress and midwall stretch ratio were calculated. Our results show that the stretch ratio and Cauchy stress were lower in the thoracic than in the abdominal aorta and its secondary branches. The opening angle (theta) and midwall stretch ratio (lambda) showed a linear variation with order number (n) as follows: theta = 10.2n + 63.4 (R(2) = 0.989) and lambda = 4.47 x 10(-2)n + 1.1 (R(2) = 0.995). Finally, the stretch ratio and stress varied between 1.2 and 1.6 and between 10 and 150 kPa, respectively, along the aorta and left anterior descending arterial tree. The relative uniformity of strain (50% variation) from the proximal aorta to a 10-microm arteriole implies that the vascular system closely regulates the degree of deformation. This suggests a homeostasis of strain in the cardiovascular system, which has important implications for mechanotransduction and for vascular growth and remodeling.

  8. Stingray barb injury: a cause of late coronary occlusion and stent failure.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Craig R; Saro, Enrique; Patel, Parag; Swidryk, John; Bacani, Victor O; Russo, Mark J; Stone, Jay H

    2013-11-01

    Stingray injuries to the heart are rare, and survivors of this injury are even rarer. To date, there are only three reported survivors of this mode of penetrating cardiac injury, all inflicted by the living animal itself. The following is a report of a stingray injury, inflicted by a human, causing coronary complications 17 years after the injury was sustained.

  9. Use of a tacrolimus-eluting stent to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia in a porcine coronary model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanming; Salu, Koen; Wang, Lan; Liu, Xiaoshun; Li, Shengqiao; Lorenz, Gunter; Wnendt, Stephan; Verbeken, Eric; Bosmans, Johan; Van de Werf, Frans; De Scheerder, Ivan

    2005-03-01

    In-stent restenosis remains an unresolved problem which occurs in 5-20% of patients undergoing coronary stenting within the first 3-6 months. Neointimal formation is the main contributor to in-stent restenosis. Stent-induced arterial injury and peri-strut inflammation are involved in the process of neointimal formation by activating cytokines and growth factors which induce smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation, migration, and proliferation. Histopathological studies found that neointimal hyperplasia is principally composed of smooth muscle cells, inflammatory cells, and extracellular matrix. Stent-based delivery of anti-proliferative and/or anti-inflammatory agents have shown beneficial effects on neointimal hyperplasia in experimental studies and clinical trials. Tacrolimus (FK506) is a water-insoluble macrolide immunosuppressant discovered in 1984. It has been widely used in reducing the incidence and severity of allograft rejection after organ transplantation. It has also been used to treat other inflammatory conditions such as atopic dermatitis. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of stent-based delivery of tacrolimus on inflammation and neointimal formation in an overstretched coronary stent model.

  10. Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-, and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hideki; Amano, Tetsuya; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:19936199

  11. [Effects of vasodilators on cyclic contraction induced by 3,4-diaminopyridine in isolated porcine coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Imai, S

    1987-06-01

    3,4-Diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), which is known to decrease K conductance, produced spontaneous repetitive phasic contractions of a regular (28/60) and an irregular (15/60) cycle or tonic contraction (16/60) following a latent period of 5-100 min in isolated porcine coronary arteries. Effects of pinacidil, a newly-synthesized vasodilator, were investigated using the preparation in which 3,4-DAP produced phasic contractions of the regular cycle in comparison with those of various vasodilators. Pinacidil produced dose-dependent prolongation of the cycle and reduced the peak tension and the tension at the relaxation phase, a mode of action that closely resembles that of nicorandil, suggesting the increase in K conductance and hyperpolarization. Nifedipine (10(-8) M) and dilazep (10(-4) M) markedly reduced the peak tension, while adenosine, dipyridamole and nitroglycerin did not produce such effects. The latter three drugs produced a prolongation of the cycle and reduced the tension of the relaxation phase. These data suggest that reduction of K conductance and activation of the voltage-dependent Ca channel may play an important role in initiation of the spontaneous repetitive phasic contraction in porcine coronary artery.

  12. Evaluation of a Novel Laser-assisted Coronary Anastomotic Connector - the Trinity Clip - in a Porcine Off-pump Bypass Model

    PubMed Central

    Stecher, David; Bronkers, Glenn; Noest, Jappe O.T.; Tulleken, Cornelis A.F.; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Herwerden, Lex A.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Buijsrogge, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    To simplify and facilitate beating heart (i.e., off-pump), minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery, a new coronary anastomotic connector, the Trinity Clip, is developed based on the excimer laser-assisted nonocclusive anastomosis technique. The Trinity Clip connector enables simplified, sutureless, and nonocclusive connection of the graft to the coronary artery, and an excimer laser catheter laser-punches the opening of the anastomosis. Consequently, owing to the complete nonocclusive anastomosis construction, coronary conditioning (i.e., occluding or shunting) is not necessary, in contrast to the conventional anastomotic technique, hence simplifying the off-pump bypass procedure. Prior to clinical application in coronary artery bypass grafting, the safety and quality of this novel connector will be evaluated in a long-term experimental porcine off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) study. In this paper, we describe how to evaluate the coronary anastomosis in the porcine OPCAB model using various techniques to assess its quality. Representative results are summarized and visually demonstrated. PMID:25490000

  13. Rosiglitazone dampens pulmonary inflammation in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mirakaj, Valbona; Mutz, Christian; Vagts, Dierk; Henes, Janek; Haeberle, Helene A; Husung, Susanne; König, Tony; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Rosenberger, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The hallmarks of acute lung injury (ALI) are the compromised alveolar-capillary barrier and the extravasation of leukocytes into the alveolar space. Given the fact that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist rosiglitazone holds significant anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone could dampen these hallmarks of local pulmonary inflammation in a porcine model of lung injury. For this purpose, we used a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg)-induced ALI. One hundred twenty minutes following the infusion of LPS, we started the exposure to rosiglitazone through inhalation or infusion. We found that intravenous rosiglitazone significantly controlled local pulmonary inflammation as determined through the expression of cytokines within the alveolar compartment. Furthermore, we found a significant reduction of the protein concentration and neutrophil activity within the alveolar space. In summary, we therefore conclude that the treatment with rosiglitazone might dampen local pulmonary inflammation during the initial stages of ALI.

  14. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2015-06-15

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  15. [UTP regulates spontaneous transient outward currents in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells through PLC-IP(3) signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Yun; Zeng, Xiao-Rong; Yang, Yan; Cai, Fang; Li, Miao-Ling; Liu, Zhi-Fei; Pei, Jie; Zhou, Wen

    2008-02-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-generating agonist UTP on spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs), and explore the role of intracellular Ca(2+) release in the current response mediated by IP(3) in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). The coronary artery was excised from the fresh porcine heart and cut into small segments (2 mm × 5 mm) and then transferred to enzymatic dissociation solution for incubation. Single CASMCs were obtained by two-step enzyme digestion at 37 °C. STOCs were recorded and characterized using the perforated whole-cell patch-clamp configuration in freshly isolated porcine CASMCs. The currents were amplified and filtered by patch-clamp amplifier (Axopatch 200B), and then the digitized data were recorded by pClamp 9.0 software and further analyzed by MiniAnalysis 6.0 program. The results were as follows: (1) UTP led to conspicuous increases in STOC amplitude by (57.54±5.34)% and in frequency by (77.46±8.42)% (P<0.01, n=38). (2) The specific blocker of phospholipase C (PLC) - U73122 (5 μmol/L) remarkably reduced STOC amplitude by (31.04±7.46)% and frequency by (41.65±16.59)%, respectively (P<0.05, n=10). In the presence of U73122, UTP failed to reactivate STOCs (n=7). (3) Verapamil (20 μmol/L) and CdCl2 (200 μmol/L), two blockers of L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, had little effects on STOCs initiated by UTP (n=8). (4) 1 μmol/L bisindolylmaleimide I (BisI), a potent blocker of protein kinase C (PKC), significantly increased STOC amplitude by (65.44±24.66)% and frequency by (61.35±21.47)% (P<0.01, n=12); UTP (40 μmol/L), applied in the presence of 1 μmol/L BisI, could further increase STOC activity (P<0.05, P<0.01, n=12). Subsequent application of ryanodine (50 μmol/L) abolished STOC activity. (5) In the presence of UTP (40 μmol/L), inhibition of IP(3) receptors (IP(3)Rs) by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB, 40 μmol/L) reduced

  16. Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Dembinski, Rolf; Pelosi, Paolo; Soodt, Thomas; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf; Bickenbach, Johannes

    2012-10-15

    Lung protective ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) focuses on using low tidal volumes and adequate levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Identifying optimal pressure is difficult because pressure-volume (PV) relations differ regionally. Precise analysis demands local measurements of pressures and related alveolar morphologies. In a porcine model of surfactant depletion (n=24), we combined measuring static pressures with endoscopic microscopy and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to examine regional PV loops and morphologic heterogeneities between healthy (control group; CON) and ALI lungs ventilated with low (LVT) or high tidal volumes (HVT). Quantification included indices for microscopy (Volume Air Index (VAI), Heterogeneity and Circularity Index), EIT analysis and calculation of regional compliances due to generated PV loops. We found that: (1) VAI decreased in lower lobe after ALI, (2) electrical impedance decreased in dorsal regions and (3) PV loops differed regionally. Further studies should prove the potentials of these techniques on individual respiratory settings and clinical outcome.

  17. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde-containing micelles induce relaxation of isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of nitric oxide and calcium

    PubMed Central

    Raffai, Gábor; Kim, Byungkuk; Park, Sanga; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Cinnamaldehyde, a major component of cinnamon, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species and exerts vasodilator and anticancer effects, but its short half-life limits its clinical use. The present experiments were designed to compare the acute relaxing properties of cinnamaldehyde with those of self-assembling polymer micelles either loaded with cinnamaldehyde or consisting of a polymeric prodrug [poly(cinnamaldehyde)] that incorporates the compound in its backbone. Methods Rings of porcine coronary arteries were contracted with the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 or 40 mM KCl, and changes in isometric tension were recorded. Results Cinnamaldehyde induced concentration-dependent but endothelium-independent, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-independent, cyclooxygenase-independent, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-independent, calcium-activated potassium-independent, and TRPA1 channel-independent relaxations. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the contractions induced by 40 mM KCl Ca2+ reintroduction in 40 mM KCl Ca2+-free solution or by the Ca2+ channel opener Bay K8644. Cinnamaldehyde-loaded control micelles induced complete, partly endothelium-dependent relaxations sensitive to catalase and inhibitors of NOS or sGC, but not cyclooxygenase or TRPA1, channels. Cinnamaldehyde-loaded micelles also inhibited contractions induced by 40 mM KCl Ca2+ reintroduction or Bay K8644. Poly(cinnamaldehyde) micelles induced only partial, endothelium-dependent relaxations that were reduced by inhibitors of NOS or sGC and by catalase and the antioxidant tiron, but not by indomethacin or TRPA1 channel blockers. Conclusion The present findings demonstrate that cinnamaldehyde-loaded and poly(cinnamaldehyde) micelles possess vasodilator properties, but that the mechanism underlying the relaxation that they cause differs from that of cinnamaldehyde, and thus could be used both to relieve coronary vasospasm and for therapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24904214

  18. In vivo microscopy in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Bickenbach, Johannes; Czaplik, Michael; Dembinski, Rolf; Pelosi, Paolo; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf

    2010-07-31

    Regional inhomogeneity and alveolar mechanics in a porcine model of acute lung injury (ALI) was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM was performed through thoracic windows of the upper and lower lobes. Image quantification was conducted by use of a volume air index (VAI). Twelve anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs were randomized to non-injury (control group, n = 6) or ALI induced by surfactant depletion (ALI group, n = 6). CLSM was performed at baseline, after 1 h at 5 mbar and after 2 h at 15 mbar positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Haemodynamics, respiratory mechanics and calculation of pulmonary ventilation-perfusion distribution by MIGET were determined. At baseline, VAI was not different. In the upper lobes, VAI significantly decreased in ALI compared to control group, with no changes after PEEP application. In the lower lobes, VAI significantly decreased in ALI compared to control group. Incremental PEEP significantly increased VAI in ALI, but not in control group. Haemodynamics were significantly compromised in the ALI group. A significant deterioration in oxygenation and ventilation-perfusion distribution could be seen being restored after PEEP adjustment. The VAI may help to assess regional inhomogeneity of the acutely injured lung.

  19. Investigation of the thermal and tissue injury behavior in microwave thermal therapy of the porcine kidney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoming; Mcgee, Shawn; Coad, James E.; Schmidlin, Franz R.; Iaizzo, Paul; Swanlund, David J.; Rudie, Eric; Kluge, Stan; Bischof, John C.

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we report the characterization of microwave therapy in normal porcine kidneys both in vitro and in vivo. This technology is being developed for eventual use in the treatment of small renal cell carcinomas (RCC) using minimally invasive procedures. Microwave energy was applied through an interstitial microwave probe (Urologix, Plymouth, MN) to the kidney cortex with involvement of the medulary region. The thermal histories at several locations were recorded. After treatment, the kidneys were bisected and tissue sections were prepared for histologic study at approximately the same depth as the thermal probe. Histologic cellular injury and microvascular stasis were quantitatively evaluated. Absolute rate kinetic models of cellular injury and vascular stasis were fit to the thermal and histologic data to determine the kinetic parameters. A 3-D finite element thermal model based on the Pennes Bioheat equation was developed and solved using a commercial software package (ANSYS, V5.7). The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the microwave probe was measured experimentally. This is the first thermal model validated using measured in vitro thermal histories and then used to determine the blood perfusion term in vivo.

  20. Injury of myocardial conduction tissue and coronary artery smooth muscle following brain death in the baboon.

    PubMed

    Novitzky, D; Rose, A G; Cooper, D K

    1988-05-01

    Experimental brain death was induced in 36 chacma baboons. In group A (n = 17), brain death was induced with no pharmacologic or surgical manipulation. Group B (n = 7) underwent bilateral vagotomy, unilateral left cardiac sympathectomy, or bilateral adrenalectomy before induction of brain death. Group C (n = 7) underwent total cardiac sympathectomy. Group D (n = 5) was pretreated with verapamil hydrochloride. Following induction of brain death, group A animals were maintained on a ventilator for a mean of 12 hr and 6 hr for the remaining groups. At the end of the experiment, the heart was excised, and tissue blocks were examined with light microscopy at (A) the atriaventricular node-bundle of His; (B) the major coronary arteries; and (C) myocardial tissue from the ventricular septum or left ventricular wall. In group A, 41% of the hearts showed histologic features of injury to the conduction tissue, 70% presented contraction band necrosis of the smooth muscle of the coronary arteries, and an incidence of 100% of the groups showed myocyte injury, more evident in the subendocardial area. In group B animals, conduction tissue injury was seen in 6 animals; the coronary arteries were not examined in this group; the incidence of myocyte injury was seen in 80% of the animals. Animals in groups C and D show no histopathologic injury in the conduction tissue (group A vs. C P less than 0.04), nor in the coronary arteries (group A vs. C P less than 0.002; group A vs. D P less than 0.01), preserving the myocytes (P less than 0.001). The catecholamine storm associated to acute increment of the endocranial pressure at the time of induction of brain death induces major histopathologic changes in the myocardium, as a result of endogenous catecholamines released inducing calcium overflow injury, affecting the conduction tissue, the smooth muscle of the coronary arteries, and the contractile myocardium. This can be prevented by calcium blockers or cardiac denervation.

  1. Effects of Vessel Compliance on Flow Pattern in Porcine Epicardial Right Coronary Arterial Tree

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yunlong; Choy, Jenny Susana; Svendsen, Mark; Sinha, Anjan Kumar; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the vessel wall affects hemodynamic parameters which may alter the permeability of the vessel wall. Based on experimental measurements, the present study established a finite element (FE) model in the proximal elastic vessel segments of epicardial right coronary arterial (RCA) tree obtained from computed tomography. The motion of elastic vessel wall was measured by an impedance catheter and the inlet boundary condition was measured by an ultrasound flow probe. The Galerkin FE method was used to solve the Navier-Stokes and Continuity equations, where the convective term in the Navier-Stokes equation was changed in the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) framework to incorporate the motion due to vessel compliance. Various hemodynamic parameters (e.g., wall shear stress-WSS, WSS spatial gradient-WSSG, oscillatory shear index-OSI) were analyzed in the model. The motion due to vessel compliance affects the time-averaged WSSG more strongly than WSS at bifurcations. The decrease of WSSG at flow divider in elastic bifurcations, as compared to rigid bifurcations, implies that the vessel compliance decreases the permeability of vessel wall and may be atheroprotective. The model can be used to predict coronary flow pattern in subject-specific anatomy as determined by noninvasive imaging. PMID:19195659

  2. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Bishop, James H; Fox, James R; Maple, Rhonda; Loretan, Caitlin; Badger, Gary J; Henry, Sharon M; Vizzard, Margaret A; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of back pain following acute back "sprains" is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally in a porcine model by combining a local injury of fascia with movement restriction using a "hobble" device linking one foot to a chest harness for 8 weeks. Ultrasound measurements of thoracolumbar fascia thickness and shear plane mobility (shear strain) during passive hip flexion were made at the 8 week time point on the non-intervention side (injury and/or hobble). Injury alone caused both an increase in fascia thickness (p = .007) and a decrease in fascia shear strain on the non-injured side (p = .027). Movement restriction alone did not change fascia thickness but did decrease shear strain on the non-hobble side (p = .024). The combination of injury plus movement restriction had additive effects on reducing fascia mobility with a 52% reduction in shear strain compared with controls and a 28% reduction compared to movement restriction alone. These results suggest that a back injury involving fascia, even when healed, can affect the relative mobility of fascia layers away from the injured area, especially when movement is also restricted.

  3. Kaempferol enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary artery through activation of large-conductance a2+-activated K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y C; Leung, S W S; Leung, G P H; Man, R Y K

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone. The present study aimed to elucidate the signalling pathway through which this flavonoid enhanced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Experimental Approach The effect of kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxing agents was studied in an in vitro organ chamber setup. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of kaempferol on potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs). Key Results At a concentration without direct effect on vascular tone, kaempferol (3 × 10−6 M) enhanced relaxations produced by bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation by kaempferol of the bradykinin-induced relaxation was not affected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase (10−4 M) or TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684, inhibitors of intermediate- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively (10−6 M each), but was abolished by tetraethylammonium chloride, a non-selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels (10−3 M), and iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa1.1; 10−7 M). Iberiotoxin also inhibited the potentiation by kaempferol of sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. Kaempferol stimulated an outward-rectifying current in PCASMCs, which was abolished by iberiotoxin. Conclusions and Implications The present results suggest that, in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery, kaempferol enhanced relaxations caused by endothelium-derived and exogenous NO as well as those due to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. This vascular effect of kaempferol involved the activation of KCa1.1 channels. PMID:25652142

  4. Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2009-12-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE caused pronounced relaxations in endothelium-intact but not in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings. Relaxations to EGE were significantly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase), slightly but not significantly by charybdotoxin plus apamin (two potent inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) and abolished by the combination of L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to EGE were abolished by the membrane permeant, SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, and significantly reduced by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase. Exposure of endothelial cells to EGE increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS at Ser1177 in a time and concentration-dependent manner. MnTMPyP abolished the EGE-induced phosphorylation of eNOS.In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that EGE induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which involve predominantly NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway.

  5. Comparisons of planar and tubular biaxial tensile testing protocols of the same porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Joseph T; Lockwood, Danielle R; Utzinger, Urs; Montilla, Leonardo G; Witte, Russell S; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    To identify the orthotropic biomechanical behavior of arteries, researchers typically perform stretch-pressure-inflation tests on tube-form arteries or planar biaxial testing of splayed sections. We examined variations in finite element simulations (FESs) driven from planar or tubular testing of the same coronary arteries to determine what differences exist when picking one testing technique versus another. Arteries were tested in tube-form first, then tested in planar-form, and fit to a Fung-type strain energy density function. Afterwards, arteries were modeled via finite element analysis looking at stress and displacement behavior in different scenarios (e.g., tube FESs with tube- or planar-driven constitutive models). When performing FESs of tube inflation from a planar-driven constitutive model, pressure-diameter results had an error of 12.3% compared to pressure-inflation data. Circumferential stresses were different between tube- and planar-driven pressure-inflation models by 50.4% with the planar-driven model having higher stresses. This reduced to 3.9% when rolling the sample to a tube first with planar-driven properties, then inflating with tubular-driven properties. Microstructure showed primarily axial orientation in the tubular and opening-angle configurations. There was a shift towards the circumferential direction upon flattening of 8.0 . There was also noticeable collagen uncrimping in the flattened tissue. PMID:23132151

  6. Comparisons of planar and tubular biaxial tensile testing protocols of the same porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Joseph T; Lockwood, Danielle R; Utzinger, Urs; Montilla, Leonardo G; Witte, Russell S; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2013-07-01

    To identify the orthotropic biomechanical behavior of arteries, researchers typically perform stretch-pressure-inflation tests on tube-form arteries or planar biaxial testing of splayed sections. We examined variations in finite element simulations (FESs) driven from planar or tubular testing of the same coronary arteries to determine what differences exist when picking one testing technique vs. another. Arteries were tested in tube-form first, then tested in planar-form, and fit to a Fung-type strain energy density function. Afterwards, arteries were modeled via finite element analysis looking at stress and displacement behavior in different scenarios (e.g., tube FESs with tube- or planar-driven constitutive models). When performing FESs of tube inflation from a planar-driven constitutive model, pressure-diameter results had an error of 12.3% compared to pressure-inflation data. Circumferential stresses were different between tube- and planar-driven pressure-inflation models by 50.4% with the planar-driven model having higher stresses. This reduced to 3.9% when rolling the sample to a tube first with planar-driven properties, then inflating with tubular-driven properties. Microstructure showed primarily axial orientation in the tubular and opening-angle configurations. There was a shift towards the circumferential direction upon flattening of 8.0°. There was also noticeable collagen uncrimping in the flattened tissue.

  7. A role for the sodium pump in H2O2-induced vasorelaxation in porcine isolated coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wong, P S; Garle, M J; Alexander, S P H; Randall, M D; Roberts, R E

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been proposed to act as a factor for endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) and EDH may act as a 'back up' system to compensate the loss of the NO pathway. Here, the mechanism of action of H2O2 in porcine isolated coronary arteries (PCAs) was investigated. Distal PCAs were mounted in a wire myograph and pre-contracted with U46619 (1nM-50μM), a thromboxane A2-mimetic or KCl (60mM). Concentration-response curves to H2O2(1μM-1mM), bradykinin (0.01nM-1μM), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10nM-10μM), verapamil (1nM-10μM), KCl (0-20mM) or Ca(2+)-reintroduction (1μM-10mM) were constructed in the presence of various inhibitors. Activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was measured through rubidium-uptake using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. H2O2 caused concentration-dependent vasorelaxations with a maximum relaxation (Rmax) of 100±16% (mean±SEM), pEC50=4.18±0.20 (n=4) which were significantly inhibited by PEG-catalase at 0.1-1.0mM H2O2 (P<0.05). 10mM TEA significantly inhibited the relaxation up to 100μM H2O2 (P<0.05). 60mM K(+) and 500nM ouabain significantly inhibited H2O2-induced vasorelaxation producing a relaxation of 40.8±8.5% (n=5) and 47.5±8.6% (n=6) respectively at 1mM H2O2 (P<0.0001). H2O2-induced vasorelaxation was unaffected by the removal of endothelium, inhibition of NO, cyclo-oxygenase, gap junctions, SKCa, IKCa, BKCa Kir, KV, KATP or cGMP. 100μM H2O2 had no effects on the KCl-induced vasorelaxation or Ca(2+)-reintroduction contraction. 1mM H2O2 inhibited both KCl-induced vasorelaxation and rubidium-uptake consistent with inhibition of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity. We have shown that the vascular actions of H2O2 are sensitive to ouabain and high concentrations of H2O2 are able to modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-pump. This may contribute towards its vascular actions.

  8. Effects of a phorbol ester on acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ mobilization and contraction in the porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, T; Kubota, Y; Kuriyama, H

    1988-01-01

    1. The effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, have been investigated on intact and chemically skinned muscle strips of the porcine coronary artery. 2. In the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+, TPA (0.1-1 nM) slightly enhanced the amplitude of ACh (10 microM)-induced contractions but at 100 nM, inhibited the contractions by approximately 50%. 3. ACh (10 microM) reduced the amount of [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and increased the amount of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of Ca2+. TPA (over 1 nM) dose-dependently inhibited the hydrolysis of PIP2 induced by ACh. 4. ACh (over 0.1 microM) dose-dependently increased the intensity of fura-2 fluorescence in dispersed single-cell suspensions. TPA (over 1 nM) dose-dependently inhibited the increase of the Ca2+ transient evoked by ACh, but it did not modify the ionomycin-induced Ca2+ transient or the resting fluorescence. These inhibitory effects of TPA occurred over a similar dose range to that which inhibited ACh-induced PIP2 break-down. 5. When the relationship between ACh-induced contraction amplitude and Ca2+ transient was observed in the presence or absence of 10 nM-TPA, TPA greatly reduced the Ca2+ transient but did not modify the amplitude of contraction. 6. In saponin-treated skinned muscle strips, TPA (10 nM) or 1,2-diolein (50 micrograms/ml) with phosphatidylserine (PS; 50 micrograms/ml) increased the amplitude of contraction evoked by various concentrations of Ca2+ (0.1-1.0 microM) without any change in the maximum amplitude of the Ca2+-induced contraction. 7. TPA (10 nM) with PS (50 micrograms/ml) increased the amplitude of contraction evoked by 10 microM-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in chemically skinned muscle strips. 8. It is concluded that TPA inhibits the ACh-induced [Ca2+]i increase by inhibiting the hydrolysis of PIP2, but that it enhances the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile proteins. These results

  9. Elevated preoperative HMGB1 as predictor of myocardial injury post-percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Peng; Zhou, Qi; Song, Shujiang; Xu, Jinpeng; Zhang, Minli; Zhu, Ming; Kang, Meili; Shi, Xiangming; Shi, Junting; Lu, Di; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we evaluated the impact of preoperative high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) on myocardial injury post-percutaneous coronary intervention. We evaluated 302 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. They were divided into equal tertiles based on their preoperative HMGB1 levels. Creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were measured at baseline, 8- and 24-hours after the procedure, while clinical outcomes were followed up for 1 year. The occurrence of post-procedural myocardial injury was significantly higher in the tertile comprising of patients with elevated HMGB1 levels. Moreover, these patients showed significantly higher post-procedural peak values of creatine kinase-MB and troponin I in comparison to patients with lower HMGB1 levels. Event-free survival was significantly associated with HMGB1 levels, with worst event-free survival in patients with elevated HMGB1 levels. Elevated preoperative HMGB1 was a predictor of myocardial injury after percutaneous coronary intervention, and was associated with the worst clinical outcomes during 1-year follow up. PMID:27861339

  10. Investigation of the thermal and tissue injury behaviour in microwave thermal therapy using a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    He, X; McGee, S; Coad, J E; Schmidlin, F; Iaizzo, P A; Swanlund, D J; Kluge, S; Rudie, E; Bischof, J C

    2004-09-01

    Minimally invasive microwave thermal therapies are being developed for the treatment of small renal cell carcinomas (RCC, d<3 cm). This study assessed the thermal history and corresponding tissue injury patterns resulting from microwave treatment of the porcine renal cortex. Three groups of kidneys were evaluated: (1) in vitro treated, (2) in vivo with 2-h post-treatment perfusion (acute) and (3) in vivo with 7-day post-treatment perfusion (chronic). The kidneys were treated with an interstitial water-cooled microwave probe (Urologix, Plymouth, MN) that created a lesion centered in the renal cortex (50 W for 10 min). The thermal histories were recorded at 0.5 cm radial intervals from the probe axis for correlation with the histologic cellular and vascular injury. The kidneys showed a reproducible 2 cm chronic lesion with distinct histologic injury zones identified. The thermal histories at the edge of these zones were found using Lagrangian interpolation. The threshold thermal histories for microvascular injury and stasis appeared to be lower than that for renal epithelial cell injury. The Arrhenius kinetic injury models were fit to the thermal histories and injury data to determine the kinetic parameters (i.e. activation energy and frequency factor) for the thermal injury processes. The resultant activation energies are consistent in magnitude with those for thermally induced protein denaturation. A 3-D finite element thermal model based on the Pennes bioheat equation was developed and solved using ANSYS (V7.0). The real geometry of the kidneys studied and temperature dependent thermal properties were used in this model. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the microwave probe required for the thermal modelling was experimentally determined. The results from the thermal modelling suggest that the complicated change of local renal blood perfusion with temperature and time during microwave thermal therapy can be predicted, although a first order kinetic model may

  11. ICG angiography predicts burn scarring within 48 h of injury in a porcine vertical progression burn model.

    PubMed

    Fourman, Mitchell S; McKenna, Peter; Phillips, Brett T; Crawford, Laurie; Romanelli, Filippo; Lin, Fubao; McClain, Steve A; Khan, Sami U; Dagum, Alexander B; Singer, Adam J; Clark, Richard A F

    2015-08-01

    The current standard of care in determining the need to excise and graft a burn remains with the burn surgeon, whose clinical judgment is often variable. Prior work suggests that minimally invasive perfusion technologies are useful in burn prognostication. Here we test the predictive capabilities of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and indocyanine green dye (ICG) angiography in the prediction of burn scarring 28 days after injury using a previously validated porcine burn model that shows vertical progression injury. Twelve female Yorkshire swine were burned using a 2.5 × 2.5 cm metal bar at variable temperature and application times to create distinct burn depths. Six animals (48 injuries total) each were analyzed with LDI or ICG angiography at 1, 24, 48, and 72 h following injury. A linear regression was then performed correlating perfusion measurements against wound contraction at 28 days after injury. ICG angiography showed a peak linear correlate (r(2)) of .63 (95% CI .34 to .92) at 48 h after burn. This was significantly different from the LDI linear regression (p < .05), which was measured at r(2) of .20 (95% CI .02 to .39). ICG angiography linear regression was superior to LDI at all timepoints. Findings suggest that ICG angiography may have significant potential in the prediction of long-term burn outcomes.

  12. Testing Danegaptide Effects on Kidney Function after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a New Porcine Two Week Model

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Anna K.; Hansen, Rie Schultz; Nørregaard, Rikke; Krag, Søren Palmelund; Møldrup, Ulla; Pedersen, Michael; Jespersen, Bente; Birn, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R-I) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with increased mortality. Danegaptide is a selective modifier of the gap junction protein connexion 43. It has cytoprotective as well as anti-arrhythmic properties and has been shown to reduce the size of myocardial infarct in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the ischemia-protective effect of Danegaptide in a porcine renal I/R-I model with two weeks follow up. Methods Unilateral renal I/R-I was induced in pigs by clamping the left renal artery over a two hour period. The model allowed examination of renal blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the measurement of single kidney GFR two weeks after injury. Eleven animals were randomized to Danegaptide-infusion while nine animals received placebo. Kidney histology and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) excretion were included as markers of AKI. Results Unilateral kidney I/R-I resulted in an immediate ~50% GFR reduction, associated with a four-fold increase in urinary NGAL-excretion. Fourteen days after I/R-I, the total GFR was ~75% of baseline with a significantly lower GFR in the injured left kidney compared to the right kidney. No differences in GFR were observed between the treated and non-treated animals immediately after I/R-I or at Day 14. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the urinary excretion of NGAL, renal blood flow or other markers of renal function. Conclusions As expected this porcine renal I/R-I model was associated with reduced GFR two weeks after injury. Danegaptide did not improve renal function after I/R-I. PMID:27760220

  13. Optimal Duration of Coronary Ligation and Reperfusion for Reperfusion Injury Study in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Tai; Chu, Chi-Ming; Yang, Teng-Yao; Hung, Li-Man; Pan, Kuo-Li; Cherng, Wen-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Reperfusion injury (RI) has an important impact on the clinical prognosis for patients with acute myocardial injury who had their coronary blood flow reestablished. However, no studies to date have investigated the timeframe of coronary occlusion and reperfusion effects on RI. Methods A total of 100 rats were divided into 4 groups based on the coronary ligation period: 30, 60, 120, and 180 min, and each group was further divided into 5 subgroups with different reperfusion periods: 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. R0 was the baseline of each subgroup. All animals received the same protocols for designed ligation and reperfusion periods. Evans blue and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride were used to distinguish different myocardial injury areas: area at risk (AAR) and myocardial necrosis. The differences of the ratios of the necrotic area to AAR between each subgroup and baseline were further averaged to calculate an overall value of each heart. Results The relative RI percentages showed significant differences (0.8 ± 2.3%, 4.9 ± 3.3%, 10.8 ± 3.1%, and 20.3 ± 3.6% respectively, p < 0.001) at different time points of reperfusion but not at different time points of ligation (p = 0.593). The effects of different time courses in RI showed that the L120R180 group (43.4 ± 2.3%) had the highest RI difference with the baseline group. Conclusions Maximal RI occurred at the timeframe of L120R180 in our animal model. This result may be utilized to assess the substantial benefits of RI therapies in an experimental rat model setting. PMID:27471363

  14. Fatal transfusion related acute lung injury following coronary artery by-pass surgery: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bawany, Fauzia Ahmad; Sharif, Hasanat

    2008-01-01

    Background Transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a potentially fatal Acute Lung Injury following transfusion of blood components. Hypotheses implicate donor-derived anti-human leukocyte antigen or granulocyte antibodies reacting with recipients' leukocytes, releasing inflammatory mediators. Lack of agreement on underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms renders improving transfusion safety difficult and expensive. Case Presentation Literature search has not revealed any case of TRALI from Pakistan. We report the case of fatal TRALI in a 68 year old male who received blood products after coronary artery by-pass surgery. Conclusion This article aims to create awareness about this complication and suggests that post transfusion cardiopulmonary instability should alert to the possibility of TRALI. PMID:19055759

  15. A chemically defined 2,3-trans procyanidin fraction from willow bark causes redox-sensitive endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Kaufeld, Aurica M; Pertz, Heinz H; Kolodziej, Herbert

    2014-07-25

    Extracts of the bark of willow species (Salix spp.) are popular herbal remedies to relieve fever and inflammation. The effects are attributed to salicin and structurally related phenolic metabolites, while polyphenols including procyanidins are suggested to contribute to the overall effect of willow bark. This study aimed at investigating the relaxant response to a highly purified and chemically defined 2,3-trans procyanidin fraction in porcine coronary arteries. The procyanidin sample produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in U46619-precontracted tissues. Relaxation was predominantly mediated through the redox-sensitive activation of the endothelial phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, leading to the subsequent activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by phosphorylation, as evidenced by Western blotting using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). That the relaxant response to Salix procyanidins was reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent with O2(-) as the key species followed from densitometric analysis using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA assay) and employment of various ROS inhibitors, respectively. The data also suggested the modification of intracellular Ca(2+) levels and KCa channel functions. In addition, our organ bath studies showed that Salix procyanidins reversed the abrogation of the relaxant response to bradykinin by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) in coronary arteries, suggesting a vasoprotective effect of willow bark against detrimental oxLDL in pathological conditions. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time that 2,3-trans procyanidins may contribute not only to the beneficial effects of willow bark but also to health-promoting benefits of diverse natural products of plant origin.

  16. Compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection attenuates cerebral ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats by targeting multiple cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyang; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Lu; Zheng, Ji; Fan, Shujie; Liu, Junya; Yang, Nan; Liu, Yanyong; Zuo, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    Background Compound porcine cerebroside and ganglioside injection (CPCGI) is a neurotrophic drug used clinically to treat certain functional disorders of brain. Despite its extensive usage throughout China, the exact mechanistic targets of CPCGI are unknown. This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of CPCGI against ischemic neuronal damage in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reperfusion injury and to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of CPCGI. Materials and methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAO surgery for 2 hours followed by reperfusion. The rats were administered CPCGI once a day for 14 days after reperfusion, and behavioral tests were performed 1, 3, 7, and 14 days post MCAO. Hematoxylin–eosin staining was used to measure infarct volume, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the ischemic cortex penumbra. Finally, the relative expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, and GADD45α), synaptic function (Synaptophysin, SNAP25, Syntaxin, and Complexin-1/2), and mitochondrial function (KIFC2 and UCP3) were determined by Western blot. Results CPCGI treatment reduced infarct size, decreased neurological deficit scores, and accelerated the recovery of somatosensory function 14 days after MCAO. In addition, CPCGI reduced the loss of NeuN-positive cells in the ischemic cortex penumbra. In the ischemic cortex, CPCGI treatment decreased GADD45α expression, increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, augmented Synaptophysin, SNAP25, and Complexin-1/2 expression, and increased the expression of KIFC2 and UCP3 compared with sham rats 14 days after MCAO reperfusion injury. Conclusion CPCGI displays neuroprotective properties in rats subjected to MCAO injury by inhibiting apoptosis and improving synaptic and mitochondrial function. PMID:28392696

  17. Role of Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics: [Ca2+]i and Force Suppression in Forskolin-Pretreated Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Venkatraman, Sneha; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2013-01-01

    Initiation of force generation during vascular smooth muscle contraction involves a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC). However, reversal of these two processes alone does not account for the force inhibition that occurs during relaxation or inhibition of contraction, implicating that other mechanisms, such as actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, play a role in the suppression of force. In this study, we hypothesize that forskolin-induced force suppression is dependent upon changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. To focus on the actin cytoskeletal changes, a physiological model was developed in which forskolin treatment of intact porcine coronary arteries (PCA) prior to treatment with a contractile agonist resulted in complete suppression of force. Pretreatment of PCA with forskolin suppressed histamine-induced force generation but did not abolish [Ca2+]i rise or MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, forskolin pretreatment reduced filamentous actin in histamine-treated tissues, and prevented histamine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory proteins HSP20, VASP, cofilin, and paxillin. Taken together, these results suggest that forskolin-induced complete force suppression is dependent upon the actin cytoskeletal regulation initiated by the phosphorylation changes of the actin regulatory proteins and not on the MLC dephosphorylation. This model of complete force suppression can be employed to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for smooth muscle tone, and may offer cues to pathological situations, such as hypertension and vasospasm. PMID:23593369

  18. Role of cyclic nucleotide-dependent actin cytoskeletal dynamics:Ca(2+)](i) and force suppression in forskolin-pretreated porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Kyle M; Baudenbacher, Franz J; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Venkatraman, Sneha; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2013-01-01

    Initiation of force generation during vascular smooth muscle contraction involves a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) and phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC). However, reversal of these two processes alone does not account for the force inhibition that occurs during relaxation or inhibition of contraction, implicating that other mechanisms, such as actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, play a role in the suppression of force. In this study, we hypothesize that forskolin-induced force suppression is dependent upon changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. To focus on the actin cytoskeletal changes, a physiological model was developed in which forskolin treatment of intact porcine coronary arteries (PCA) prior to treatment with a contractile agonist resulted in complete suppression of force. Pretreatment of PCA with forskolin suppressed histamine-induced force generation but did not abolish [Ca(2+)]i rise or MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, forskolin pretreatment reduced filamentous actin in histamine-treated tissues, and prevented histamine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory proteins HSP20, VASP, cofilin, and paxillin. Taken together, these results suggest that forskolin-induced complete force suppression is dependent upon the actin cytoskeletal regulation initiated by the phosphorylation changes of the actin regulatory proteins and not on the MLC dephosphorylation. This model of complete force suppression can be employed to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for smooth muscle tone, and may offer cues to pathological situations, such as hypertension and vasospasm.

  19. Pulmonary Instillation of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Promotes Coronary Vasoconstriction and Exacerbates Injury in Isolated Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leslie C.; Frasier, Chad R.; Sloan, Ruben C.; Mann, Erin E.; Harrison, Benjamin S.; Brown, Jared M.; Brown, David A.; Wingard, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) across industry has increased human exposures. We tested the hypothesis that pulmonary instillation of MWCNT would exacerbate cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. One day following intratracheal instillation of 1, 10, or 100 μg MWCNT in Sprague-Dawley rats, we used a Langendorff isolated heart model to examine cardiac I/R injury. In the 100 μg MWCNT group we report increased premature ventricular contractions at baseline and increased myocardial infarction. This was associated with increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) release and depression of coronary flow during early reperfusion. We also tested if isolated coronary vascular responses were affected by MWCNT instillation and found trends for enhanced coronary tone, which were dependent on ET-1, cyclooxygenase, thromboxane, and Rho-kinase. We conclude that instillation of MWCNT promoted cardiac injury by depressing coronary flow, invoking vasoconstrictive mechanisms involving ET-1, cyclooxygenase, thromboxane, and Rho-kinase. PMID:23102262

  20. CCK receptors-related signaling involved in nitric oxide production caused by gastrin 17 in porcine coronary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Caimmi, Philippe; Molinari, Claudio; Uberti, Francesca; Mary, David; Vacca, Giovanni

    2012-03-05

    In anesthetized pigs gastrin-17 increased coronary blood flow through CCK1/CCK2 receptors and β(2)-adrenoceptors-related nitric oxide (NO) release. Since the intracellular pathway has not been investigated the purpose of this study was to examine in coronary endothelial cells the CCK1/CCK2 receptors-related signaling involved in the effects of gastrin-17 on NO release. Gastrin-17 caused a concentration-dependent increase of NO production (17.3-62.6%; p<0.05), which was augmented by CCK1/CCK2 receptors agonists (p<0.05). The effect of gastrin-17 was amplified by the adenylyl-cyclase activator and β(2)-adrenoceptors agonist (p<0.05), abolished by cAMP/PKA and β(2)-adrenoceptors and CCK1/CCK2 receptors blockers, and reduced by PLC/PKC inhibitor. Finally, Western-blot revealed the preferential involvement of PKA vs. PKC as downstream effectors of CCK1/CCK2 receptors activation leading to Akt, ERK, p38 and endothelial NOS (eNOS) phosphorylation. In conclusion, in coronary endothelial cells, gastrin-17 induced eNOS-dependent NO production through CCK1/CCK2 receptors- and β(2)-adrenoceptors-related pathway. The intracellular signaling involved a preferential PKA pathway over PKC.

  1. Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury due to smoke inhalation and burns.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava; Ivey, Katherine M; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Langer, Thomas; Necsoiu, Corina; Baker, William; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-06-01

    In critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which requires invasive arterial blood gas analysis. Alternative noninvasive technologies include transcutaneous CO2 (tPCO2) and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) monitoring. We evaluated accuracy of tPCO2 and EtCO2 monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury (ALI) due to smoke inhalation and burns. Eight anesthetized Yorkshire pigs underwent mechanical ventilation, wood-bark smoke inhalation injury, and 40% total body surface area thermal injury. tPCO2 was measured with a SenTec system (SenTec AG, Therwil, Switzerland) and EtCO2 with a Capnostream-20 (Oridion Medical, Jerusalem, Israel). These values were compared with PaCO2 measurements from an arterial blood gas analyzer. Paired measurements of EtCO2-PaCO2 (n = 276) and tPCO2-PaCO2 (n = 250) were recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury was defined as PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mmHg; hemodynamic instability was defined as mean arterial pressure ≤ 60 mmHg. Before ALI, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.45; P < 0.0001), which deteriorated after onset of ALI (R = 0.12; P < 0.0001). Before ALI, tPCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation (R = 0.51, P < 0.0001), which was sustained after onset of ALI (R = 0.78; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic stability, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.44; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic instability, EtCO2 did not correlate with PaCO2 (R = 0.03; P = 0.29). tPCO2 monitoring demonstrated strong correlation with PaCO2 during hemodynamic stability (R = 0.80, P < 0.0001), which deteriorated under hemodynamically unstable conditions (R = 0.39; P < 0.0001). Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitors are acceptable for monitoring trends in PaCO2 under conditions of hemodynamic and pulmonary stability. Under

  2. Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging Detection of Microcirculatory Dysfunction in Small Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haifeng; Li, Ruokun; Qiang, Jinwei; Li, Ying; Wang, Li; Sun, Rongxun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate multi-slice computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging (CTPI) for identifying microcirculatory dysfunction in small intestinal ischemia−reperfusion (IR) injury in a porcine model. Materials and Methods Fifty-two pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) the IR group (n = 24), where intestinal ischemia was induced by separating and clamping the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) for 2 h, followed by reperfusion for 1, 2, 3, and 4 h (IR-1h, IR-2h, IR-3h, and IR-4h; n = 6, respectively); (2) the sham-operated (SO) group (n = 20), where the SMA was separated without clamping and controlled at postoperative 3, 4, 5, and 6 h (SO-3h, SO-4h, SO-5h, and SO-6h; n = 5, respectively); (3) the ischemia group (n = 4), where the SMA was separated and clamped for 2 h, without reperfusion, and (4) baseline group (n = 4), an additional group that was not manipulated. Small intestinal CTPI was performed at corresponding time points and perfusion parameters were obtained. The distal ileum was resected to measure the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and for histopathological examination. Results The perfusion parameters of the IR groups showed significant differences compared with the corresponding SO groups and the baseline group (before ischemia). The blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and permeability surface (PS) among the 4 IR groups were significantly different. BF and BV were significantly negatively correlated with MDA, and significantly positively correlated with SOD in the IR groups. Histopathologically, the effects of the 2-h ischemic loops were not significantly exacerbated by reperfusion. Conclusion CTPI can be a valuable tool for detecting microcirculatory dysfunction and for dynamic monitoring of small intestinal IR injury. PMID:27458696

  3. Involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation in the voltage-dependent regulation of the Ca(2+) concentration in porcine coronary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Hisao; Ohya, Susumu; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2012-08-01

    The involvement of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) formation in the voltage-dependent regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was examined in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery. Slow ramp depolarization from -90 to 0 mV induced progressive [Ca(2+)](i) increase. The slope was reduced or increased in the presence of Cd(2+) or (±)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-[trifluoromethyl]-phenyl)pyridine-3-carboxlic acid methyl ester (Bay K 8644), respectively. The decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) via the membrane hyperpolarization induced by K(+) channel openers (levcromakalim and Evans blue) under current clamp was identical to that under voltage clamp. The step hyperpolarization from -40 to -80 mV reduced [Ca(2+)](i) uniformly over the whole-cell area with a time constant of ∼10 s. The [Ca(2+)](i) at either potential was unaffected by heparin, an inhibitor of IP(3) receptors. Alternatively, [Ca(2+)](i) rapidly increased in the peripheral regions by depolarization from -80 to 0 mV and stayed at that level (∼400 nM) during a 60-s pulse. When the pipette solution contained IP(3) pathway blockers [heparin, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate, xestospongin C, or 1-[6-[((17β)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5[10]-trien-17-yl)amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122)], the peak [Ca(2+)](i) was unchanged, but the sustained [Ca(2+)](i) was gradually reduced by ∼250 nM within 30 s. In the presence of Cd(2+), a long depolarization period slightly increased the [Ca(2+)](i), which was lower than that in the presence of heparin alone. In coronary arterial myocytes, the sustained increase in the [Ca(2+)](i) during depolarization was partly caused by the Ca(2+) release mediated by the enhanced formation of IP(3). The initial [Ca(2+)](i) elevation triggered by the Ca(2+) influx though voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels may be predominantly responsible for the activation of phospholipase C for IP(3) formation.

  4. Porcine gonadogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  5. Establishing a Reproducible Hypertrophic Scar following Thermal Injury: A Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, Scott J.; Rumberg, Aaron; Visscher, Marty; Billmire, David A.; Schwentker, Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our complete understanding of hypertrophic scarring is still deficient, as portrayed by the poor clinical outcomes when treating them. To address the need for alternative treatment strategies, we assess the swine animal burn model as an initial approach for immature scar evaluation and therapeutic application. Methods: Thermal contact burns were created on the dorsum of 3 domestic swine with the use of a branding iron at 170°F for 20 seconds. Deep partial-thickness burns were cared for with absorptive dressings over 10 weeks and wounds evaluated with laser and negative pressure transduction, histology, photographic analysis, and RNA isolation. Results: Overall average stiffness (mm Hg/mm) increased and elasticity (mm) decreased in the scars from the initial burn injury to 8 weeks when compared with normal skin (P < 0.01). Scars were thicker, more erythematous, and uniform in the caudal dorsum. The percent change of erythema in wounds increased from weeks 6 to 10. Histology demonstrated loss of dermal papillae, increased myofibroblast presence, vertically oriented vessels, epidermal and dermal hypercellularity, and parallel-layered collagen deposition. Immature scars remained elevated at 10 weeks, and minimal RNA was able to be isolated from the tissue. Conclusions: Deep partial-thickness thermal injury to the back of domestic swine produces an immature hypertrophic scar by 10 weeks following burn with thickness appearing to coincide with the location along the dorsal axis. With minimal pig to pig variation, we describe our technique to provide a testable immature scar model. PMID:25750848

  6. Influence of exercise and perivascular adipose tissue on coronary artery vasomotor function in a familial hypercholesterolemic porcine atherosclerosis model

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Aaron K.

    2010-01-01

    Our lab has shown that left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) perivascular adipose tissue (PAT) blunts endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced maximal contractions in normal pigs on low- and high-fat diets. Other studies report that PAT exerts anticontractile effects on agonist-induced arterial contraction via release of a relaxing factor that acts on the underlying vasculature. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that PAT blunts LCX contraction in familial hypercholesterolemic pigs and that exercise training (Ex) augments this anticontractile effect. Male familial hypercholesterolemic pigs were divided into Ex (n = 13) and sedentary (Sed) (n = 15) groups. LCX reactivity to angiotensin II (ANG II), bradykinin (BK), ET-1, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was evaluated in vitro with intact or removed PAT in Sed and Ex familial hypercholesterolemic pigs. LCX relaxation induced by BK and SNP was not altered by Ex or PAT removal. LCX contractions stimulated by ANG II and ET-1 were not significantly altered by Ex or PAT removal across doses; however, Ex did act to significantly reduce ET-1 maximal contractions in familial hypercholesterolemic pig LCX compared with Sed familial hypercholesterolemic pig LCX, independent of PAT (P < 0.05). We conclude that LCX PAT in Sed and Ex familial hypercholesterolemic pigs exerts no substantial anticontractile influence over LCX vasomotor responses to endogenous constrictors such as ANG II and ET-1. Our results suggest that exercise training significantly reduces familial hypercholesterolemic pig LCX maximal contractile responses to the endogenous constrictor ET-1, independent of PAT. PMID:19959766

  7. Reduction of Late In-Stent Stenosis in a Porcine Coronary Artery Model by Cobalt Chromium Stents with a Nanocoat of Polyphosphazene (Polyzene-F)

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfl, Ulrike; Sommer, Christof-Matthias; Thierjung, Heidi; Stampfl, Sibylle; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Radeleff, Boris; Berger, Irina; Richter, Goetz M.

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of nanoscale coating with the highly biocompatible polymer Polyzene-F (PZF), in combination with cobalt chromium and stainless steel stents, to reduce in-stent stenosis, thrombogenicity, and vessel wall injury and inflammation. One bare cobalt chromium, PZF-nanocoated stainless steel or PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stent was implanted in right coronary artery of 30 mini-pigs (4- or 12-week follow-up). Primary study end points were in-stent stenosis and thrombogenicity. Secondary study end points were vessel wall injury and inflammation as evaluated by microscopy and a new immunoreactivity score applying C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha}), and TGF{beta}. At 12 weeks, angiography showed a significantly lower average loss in lumen diameter (2.1% {+-} 3.05%) in PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stents compared with stents in the other groups (9.73% {+-} 4.93% for bare cobalt chromium stents and 9.71% {+-} 7% for PZF-nanocoated stainless steel stents; p = 0.04), which was confirmed at microscopy (neointima 40.7 {+-} 16 {mu}m in PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stents, 74.7 {+-} 57.6 {mu}m in bare cobalt chromium stents, and 141.5 {+-} 109 {mu}m in PZF-nanocoated stainless steel stents; p = 0.04). Injury and inflammation scores were low in all stents and were without significant differences. PZF-nanocoated cobalt chromium stents provided the highest efficacy in reducing in-stent stenosis at long-term follow-up. The PZF nanocoat proved to be biocompatible with respect to thromboresistance and inflammation. Our data suggest that its combination with cobalt chromium stents might provide an interesting passive stent platform.

  8. Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on acoustic wave propagation in experimental porcine lung injury.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on sound propagation through injured lungs, we injected a multifrequency broad-band sound signal into the airway of eight anesthetized, intubated and mechanically ventilated pigs, while recording transmitted sound at three locations bilaterally on the chest wall. Oleic acid injections effected a severe pulmonary oedema predominately in the dependent lung regions, with an average increase in venous admixture from 19 ± 15 to 59 ± 14% (P < 0.001), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 34 ± 7 to 14 ± 4 ml cmH2 O(-1) (P < 0.001). A concomitant decrease in sound transit time was seen in the dependent lung regions (P < 0.05); no statistically significant change occurred in the lateral or non-dependent areas. The application of PEEP resulted in a decrease in venous admixture, increase in respiratory system compliance and return of the sound transit time to pre-injury levels in the dependent lung regions. Our results indicate that sound transmission velocity increases in lung tissue affected by permeability-type pulmonary oedema in a manner reversible during alveolar recruitment with PEEP.

  9. The Control of Drug Release and Vascular Endothelialization after Hyaluronic Acid-Coated Paclitaxel Multi-Layer Coating Stent Implantation in Porcine Coronary Restenosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Bae, In-Ho; Jeong, Myung Ho; Park, Yong Hwan; Lim, Kyung Seob; Park, Dae Sung; Shim, Jae Won; Kim, Jung Ha; Ahn, Youngkeun; Hong, Young Joon; Sim, Doo Sun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyaluronic acid (HA) is highly biocompatible with cells and the extracellular matrix. In contrast to degradation products of a synthetic polymer, degradation products of HA do not acidify the local environment. The aim of this study was to fabricate an HA-coated paclitaxel (PTX)-eluting stent via simple ionic interactions and to evaluate its effects in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods HA and catechol were conjugated by means of an activation agent, and then the stent was immersed in this solution (resulting in a HA-coated stent). After that, PTX was immobilized on the HA-coated stent (resulting in a hyaluronic acid-coated paclitaxel-eluting stent [H-PTX stent]). Study groups were divided into 4 groups: bare metal stent (BMS), HA, H-PTX, and poly (L-lactide)-coated paclitaxel-eluting stent (P-PTX). Stents were randomly implanted in a porcine coronary artery. After 4 weeks, vessels surrounding the stents were isolated and subjected to various analyses. Results Smoothness of the surface was maintained after expansion of the stent. In contrast to a previous study on a PTX-eluting stent, in this study, the PTX was effectively released up to 14 days (a half amount of PTX in 4 days). The proliferation of smooth muscle cells was successfully inhibited (by 80.5±12.11% at 7 days of culture as compared to the control) by PTX released from the stent. Animal experiments showed that the H-PTX stent does not induce an obvious inflammatory response. Nevertheless, restenosis was clearly decreased in the H-PTX stent group (9.8±3.25%) compared to the bare-metal stent group (29.7±8.11%). Conclusion A stent was stably coated with PTX via simple ionic interactions with HA. Restenosis was decreased in the H-PTX group. These results suggest that HA, a natural polymer, is suitable for fabrication of drug-eluting stents (without inflammation) as an alternative to a synthetic polymer. PMID:28154600

  10. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  11. The effect of remote ischaemic preconditioning on myocardial injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Hong, D M; Mint, J J; Kim, J H; Sohn, I S; Lim, T W; Lim, Y J; Bahk, J H; Jeon, Y

    2010-09-01

    In several recent clinical trials on cardiac surgery patients, remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) showed a powerful myocardial protective effect. However the effect of RIPC has not been studied in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We evaluated whether RIPC could induce myocardial protection in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Patients undergoing elective off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly allocated to the RIPC (n = 65) or control group (n = 65). After induction of anaesthesia, RIPC was induced by four cycles of five-minute ischaemia and reperfusion on the upper limb using a pneumatic cuff. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, remifentanil and vecuronium. Myocardial injury was assessed by troponin I before surgery and 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours after surgery. There were no statistical differences in troponin I levels between RIPC and control groups (P = 0.172). Although RIPC reduced the total amount of troponin I (area under the curve of troponin increase) by 26%, it did not reach statistical significance (RIPC group 53.2 +/- 72.9 hours x ng/ml vs control group 67.4 +/- 97.7 hours x ng/ml, P = 0.281). In this study, RIPC by upper limb ischaemia reduced the postoperative myocardial enzyme elevation in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients, but this did not reach statistical significance. Further study with a larger number of patients may be needed to fully evaluate the clinical effect of RIPC in off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients.

  12. Partially anaortic clampless off-pump coronary artery bypass prevents neurologic injury compared to on-pump coronary surgery: a propensity score-matched study on 286 patients.

    PubMed

    Bassano, Carlo; Bovio, Emanuele; Uva, Floriano; Iacobelli, Simona; Iasevoli, Nicola; Farinaccio, Andrea; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Anaortic coronary artery bypass proved to prevent early neurologic injury compared to on-pump CABG. The Cardica PAS-Port(®) is a fully automated device that might be able to perform proximal aorto-venous anastomoses without an increased embolic risk. We evaluated early post-operative neurologic outcome in a matched population following clampless OPCAB (CCAB: either "all-arterial" or with automatically anastomosed venous grafts) or on-pump CABG. 366 consecutive patients were submitted to isolated coronary bypass by a single surgeon experienced in both off and on-pump procedures between January 2009 and December 2013. Of these patients, 223 underwent a clampless off-pump revascularization. After propensity score matching, 143 pairs were selected, who received either off-pump or on-pump surgery. In the off-pump group, CCAB was performed with an all-arterial approach (n = 33) or with automated proximal anastomosis of the venous graft(s) by means of the Cardica PAS-Port(®) connector (n = 110). Neurologic injury was defined as non-reversible (NRNI: lethal coma or stroke) or reversible (RNI: TIA or delirium). Operative mortality was 2.4 % (CCAB 1.4 %; CABG 3.5 %; p = 0.14). The global rate of early neurologic injury was 5.6 % (CCAB 2.1 vs. CABG 9.1 %; p = 0.006). Incidence was 1.4 % for NRNI (CCAB 0 vs. CABG 2.8 %; p = 0.04) and 4.2 % for RNI (CCAB 2.1 vs. CABG 6.3 %; p = 0.06). No differences were found among other major perioperative outcomes. CCAB prevents both early post-operative RNI and NRNI. This result can be achieved with a totally anaortic strategy and also with the aid of a fully automated device for proximal aorto-venous anastomoses.

  13. Risk Factors of Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Emergency Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ying; Qiu, Hong; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Luo, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Jin; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Yuan; Yan, Hong-Bing; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Yang, Yue-Jin; Gao, Run-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) were mostly based on selective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases, and risk factors of CI-AKI after emergency PCI are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the risk factors of CI-AKI in a Chinese population undergoing emergency PCI. Methods: A total of 1061 consecutive patients undergoing emergency PCI during January 2013 and June 2015 were enrolled and divided into CI-AKI and non-CI-AKI group. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify the risk factors of CI-AKI in emergency PCI patients. CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dl (44.2 μmol/L) above baseline within 3 days after exposure to contrast medium. Results: The incidence of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI was 22.7% (241/1061). Logistic multivariable analysis showed that body surface area (BSA) (odds ratio [OR] 0.213, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.075–0.607, P = 0.004), history of myocardial infarction (MI) (OR 1.642, 95% CI: 1.079–2.499, P = 0.021), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR 0.969, 95% CI: 0.944–0.994, P = 0.015), hemoglobin (Hb) (OR 0.988, 95% CI: 0.976–1.000, P = 0.045), estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 1.027, 95% CI: 1.018–1.037, P < 0.001), left anterior descending (LAD) stented (OR 1.464, 95% CI: 1.000–2.145, P = 0.050), aspirin (OR 0.097, 95%CI: 0.009–0.987, P = 0.049), and diuretics use (OR 1.850, 95% CI: 1.233–2.777, P = 0.003) were independent predictors of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI. Conclusion: History of MI, low BSA, LVEF and Hb level, LAD stented, and diuretics use are associated with increased risk of CI-AKI in patients undergoing emergency PCI. PMID:28051022

  14. Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Its Detection Using Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    Onk, Oruç Alper; Onk, Didem; Ozcelik, Fatih; Gunay, Murat; Turkmen, Kultigin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of cardiac surgery due to its high mortality. The aim of the present study was to detect the factors leading to AKI in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS) and also to determine the optimal timing for detecting AKI using the biomarker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Materials and Methods The records of 375 patients who underwent CABS were reviewed in this case-control study. Ejection fraction (EF), common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and cross-clamp (C-C) time of the patients were recorded. Blood samples were taken from all patients on preoperative day 1 as well as 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 h and 7 days after operation. Biochemical parameters were studied in patients with and without AKI. Results According to the Risk Injury Failure Loss End Stage criteria, 24 patients had renal risk, 17 had injury and 4 had failure. Postoperative 24-hour serum creatinine levels indicated the risk of renal dysfunction for only 4 patients in the AKI group. CCA-IMT, C-C time, haematocrit (HCT) and preoperative interleukin-6 levels were significantly higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. Postoperative 6- and 12-hour NGAL levels in the AKI group correlated with postoperative 36-hour serum creatinine levels. The optimal cut-off values for postoperative 6- and 12-hour NGAL test were 310 and 283 ng/ml, respectively. The area under the curve was higher in the 12-hour NGAL test (p < 0.0086). Conclusion The number of stenotic coronary arteries, EF, CCA-IMT and HCT are all important risk factors. Early postoperative NGAL results were highly specific for the early recognition of AKI. PMID:27275158

  15. Dynamic failure properties of the porcine medial collateral ligament-bone complex for predicting injury in automotive collisions.

    PubMed

    Peck, Louis; Billiar, Kristen; Ray, Malcolm

    2010-03-09

    The goal of this study was to model the dynamic failure properties of ligaments and their attachment sites to facilitate the development of more realistic dynamic finite element models of the human lower extremities for use in automotive collision simulations. Porcine medial collateral ligaments were chosen as a test model due to their similarities in size and geometry with human ligaments. Each porcine medial collateral ligament-bone complex (n = 12) was held in a custom test fixture placed in a drop tower to apply an axial impulsive impact load, applying strain rates ranging from 0.005 s(-1) to 145 s(-1). The data from the impact tests were analyzed using nonlinear regression to construct model equations for predicting the failure load of ligament-bone complexes subjected to specific strain rates as calculated from finite element knee, thigh, and hip impact simulations. The majority of the ligaments tested failed by tibial avulsion (75%) while the remaining ligaments failed via mid-substance tearing. The failure load ranged from 384 N to 1184 N and was found to increase with the applied strain rate and the product of ligament length and cross-sectional area. The findings of this study indicate the force required to rupture the porcine MCL increases with the applied bone-to-bone strain rate in the range expected from high speed frontal automotive collisions.

  16. The effect of urapidil, an alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist and a 5-HT1A agonist, on the vascular tone of the porcine coronary and pulmonary arteries, the rat aorta and the human pulmonary artery.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Claire; Auger, Cyril; Diemunsch, Pierre; Schini-Kerth, Valérie

    2016-05-15

    Urapidil (Eupressyl(®)) an antihypertensive drug acting as an α1 antagonist and a 5-HT1A agonist, may be of special interest in the treatment of hypertension associated with preeclamptic toxaemia and hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction. However, the effect of urapidil on vascular tone has been poorly investigated. Vascular reactivity was evaluated using pulmonary and coronary arteries from 36 pigs, aortae from 22 rats and 9 human pulmonary artery samples suspended in organ chambers. Concentration-relaxation curves either to urapidil, 5-HT, or the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT were constructed after pre-contraction of rings. Pig pulmonary and coronary artery rings were contracted with U46619, a thromboxane mimetic, rat aortic rings with either endothelin-1 or phenylephrine, and human pulmonary artery rings with U46619 or phenylephrine. Urapidil markedly inhibited phenylephrine-induced contractions in rat aortic rings with and without endothelium with a more pronounced effect observed in rings without endothelium. Both 5-HT and 8-OH-DPAT failed to induce relaxation in rat aortic rings with an intact endothelium. 5-HT, but not urapidil and 8-OH-DPAT, induced a concentration-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary and pulmonary artery rings with an intact endothelium (P<0.05). 5-HT and phenylephrine but not urapidil caused concentration-dependent contractions in human pulmonary artery rings. The present findings, while confirming that urapidil is a potent inhibitor of α1-adrenoceptor-induced contraction, do not support the role of 5-HT1A receptor activation in the control of the vascular tone of the different types of arteries tested in response to urapidil. In addition, they indicate that urapidil seems to preferentially target arteries with endothelial dysfunction.

  17. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-02-01

    Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA).Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96, P = 0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD -0.31 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.07, P = 0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD -0.17 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04, P = 0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60-2.07, P = 0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41-1.21, P = 0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD -1.47; 95% CI: -4.14 to 1.20, P = 0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS = 6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS = 170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries.The evidence that sodium bicarbonate reduces the incidence of

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh porcine skin xenografts: risk to recipients with thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Busby, Stacey-Ann; Robb, Andrew; Lang, Sue; Takeuchi, Yasu; Vesely, Pavel; Scobie, Linda

    2014-03-01

    The previous use of fresh porcine xenografts at the Prague Burn Centre had raised concerns over the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. This study examines the risk of zoonotic Staphylococcus aureus colonisation of burn patients from fresh porcine skin xenografts. Samples were collected from the nares, skin and perineum of commercial pigs (n=101) and were screened for methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The efficacy of the antibiotic wash used in decontamination of the pigskin was tested against planktonic- and biofilm-grown isolates. The spa type of each isolate was also confirmed. All pig swabs were negative for MRSA but 86% positive for MSSA. All planktonic-grown isolates of MSSA were sensitive to chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin and 44% of isolates were resistant to streptomycin. Isolates grown as biofilm exhibited higher rates of antimicrobial resistance. Sequence analysis revealed three distinct spa types of the MRSA ST398 clonal type. This finding demonstrates the existence of a MSSA reservoir containing spa types resembling those of well-known MRSA strains. These MSSA exhibit resistance to antibiotics used for decontamination of the pigskin prior to xenograft. Amended use of procurement could allow the use of fresh pigskin xenografts to be reinstated.

  19. Circulating microRNAs Reveal Time Course of Organ Injury in a Porcine Model of Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Luisa A.; Lee, Karla C. L.; Palacios Jimenez, Carolina; Alibhai, Hatim; Chang, Yu-Mei; Leckie, Pamela J.; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P.; Davies, Nathan A.; Andreola, Fausto; Jalan, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare but catastrophic condition which can progress rapidly to multi-organ failure. Studies investigating the onset of individual organ injury such as the liver, kidneys and brain during the evolution of acute liver failure, are lacking. MicroRNAs are short, non-coding strands of RNA that are released into the circulation following tissue injury. In this study, we have characterised the release of both global microRNA and specific microRNA species into the plasma using a porcine model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Pigs were induced to acute liver failure with oral acetaminophen over 19h±2h and death occurred 13h±3h thereafter. Global microRNA concentrations increased 4h prior to acute liver failure in plasma (P<0.0001) but not in isolated exosomes, and were associated with increasing plasma levels of the damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, genomic DNA (P<0.0001). MiR122 increased around the time of onset of acute liver failure (P<0.0001) and was associated with increasing international normalised ratio (P<0.0001). MiR192 increased 8h after acute liver failure (P<0.0001) and was associated with increasing creatinine (P<0.0001). The increase in miR124-1 occurred concurrent with the pre-terminal increase in intracranial pressure (P<0.0001) and was associated with decreasing cerebral perfusion pressure (P<0.002). Conclusions MicroRNAs were released passively into the circulation in response to acetaminophen-induced cellular damage. A significant increase in global microRNA was detectable prior to significant increases in miR122, miR192 and miR124-1, which were associated with clinical evidence of liver, kidney and brain injury respectively. PMID:26018205

  20. The impact of a single episode of remote ischemic preconditioning on myocardial injury after elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Taylan, Gökay; Aktoz, Meryem; Gürlertop, Hanefi Y.; Aksoy, Yüksel; Özçelik, Fatih; Yalta, Kenan; Ekuklu, Galip

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Myocardial injury after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) occurs in approximately 30% of procedures, and is related to worse prognosis. Effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) on reperfusion injury have been investigated before, yielding conflicting results. Aim To assess the impact of a single episode of RIPC on myocardial injury after elective PCI. Material and methods One hundred and four patients undergoing elective PCI, with normal baseline cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) values, were randomized to two groups. Two patients were excluded due to data loss, and 102 patients were analyzed. Five minutes of ischemic preconditioning was delivered just before the intervention to the preconditioning group, by inflating the blood pressure cuff up to 200 mm Hg on the non-dominant arm. Postprocedural 16th hour cTn-I, ΔcTn-I (difference between the 16th h and baseline cTn-I values) and the prevalence of type 4a myocardial infarction were compared between the two groups. Results Median cTn-I values after the procedure were compared. 16th hour cTn-I was insignificantly lower in the preconditioning arm (0.026 μg/l vs. 0.045 μg/l, p = 0.186). The incidence of cTn-I elevation 5-fold above the upper reference limit (URL) (> 0.115 μg/l) was lower in the preconditioning group, but it was also not significant (21.6% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.184). Conclusions A single episode of RIPC before elective PCI demonstrated less troponin elevation but failed to show a significant effect. PMID:28344616

  1. Sildenafil Protects against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Following Cardiac Arrest in a Porcine Model: Possible Role of the Renin-Angiotensin System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoxing; Zhang, Qian; Yuan, Wei; Wu, Junyuan; Li, Chunsheng

    2015-11-12

    Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sold as Viagra, is a cardioprotector against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our study explored whether sildenafil protects against I/R-induced damage in a porcine cardiac arrest and resuscitation (CAR) model via modulating the renin-angiotensin system. Male pigs were randomly divided to three groups: Sham group, Saline group, and sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg) group. Thirty min after drug infusion, ventricular fibrillation (8 min) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (up to 30 min) was conducted in these animals. We found that sildenafil ameliorated the reduced cardiac function and improved the 24-h survival rate in this model. Sildenafil partly attenuated the increases of plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang (1-7) levels after CAR. Sildenafil also decreased apoptosis and Ang II expression in myocardium. The increases of expression of angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE), ACE2, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and the Ang (1-7) receptor Mas in myocardial tissue were enhanced after CAR. Sildenafil suppressed AT1R up-regulation, but had no effect on ACE, ACE2, and Mas expression. Sildenafil further boosted the upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). Collectively, our results suggest that cardioprotection of sildenafil in CAR model is accompanied by an inhibition of Ang II-AT1R axis activation.

  2. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality: A clinically relevant porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and grafting.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anders H; Rose, Lloyd F; Fletcher, John L; Wu, Jesse C; Leung, Kai P; Chan, Rodney K

    2017-02-01

    Current standard of care for full-thickness burn is excision followed by autologous split-thickness skin graft placement. Skin grafts are also frequently used to cover surgical wounds not amenable to linear closure. While all grafts have potential to contract, clinical observation suggests that antecedent thermal injury worsens contraction and impairs functional and aesthetic outcomes. This study evaluates the impact of antecedent full-thickness burn on split-thickness skin graft scar outcomes and the potential mediating factors. Full-thickness contact burns (100°C, 30s) were created on the backs of anesthetized female Yorkshire Pigs. After seven days, burn eschar was tangentially excised and covered with 12/1000th inch (300μm) split-thickness skin graft. For comparison, unburned wounds were created by sharp excision to fat before graft application. From 7 to 120days post-grafting, planimetric measurements, digital imaging and biopsies for histology, immunohistochemistry and gene expression were obtained. At 120days post-grafting, the Observer Scar Assessment Scale, colorimetry, contour analysis and optical graft height assessments were performed. Twenty-nine porcine wounds were analyzed. All measured metrics of clinical skin quality were significantly worse (p<0.05) in burn injured wounds. Histological analysis supported objective clinical findings with marked scar-like collagen proliferation within the dermis, increased vascular density, and prolonged and increased cellular infiltration. Observed differences in contracture also correlated with earlier and more prominent myofibroblast differentiation as demonstrated by α-SMA staining. Antecedent thermal injury worsens split-thickness skin graft quality, likely by multiple mechanisms including burn-related inflammation, microscopically inadequate excision, and dysregulation of tissue remodeling. A valid, reliable, clinically relevant model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin replacement therapy has been

  3. Changes in chondrocyte gene expression following in vitro impaction of porcine articular cartilage in an impact injury model.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Melissa S; Gonda, Michael G; Gray, Kent; Maltecca, Christian; O'Nan, Audrey T; Cassady, Joseph P; Mente, Peter L

    2013-03-01

    Our objective was to monitor chondrocyte gene expression at 0, 3, 7, and 14 days following in vitro impaction to the articular surface of porcine patellae. Patellar facets were either axially impacted with a cylindrical impactor (25 mm/s loading rate) to a load level of 2,000 N or not impacted to serve as controls. After being placed in organ culture for 0, 3, 7, or 14 days, total RNA was isolated from full thickness cartilage slices and gene expression measured for 17 genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Targeted genes included those encoding proteins involved with biological stress, inflammation, or anabolism and catabolism of cartilage extracellular matrix. Some gene expression changes were detected on the day of impaction, but most significant changes occurred at 14 days in culture. At 14 days in culture, 10 of the 17 genes were differentially expressed with col1a1 most significantly up-regulated in the impacted samples, suggesting impacted chondrocytes may have reverted to a fibroblast-like phenotype.

  4. Exercise training-enhanced, endothelium-dependent dilation mediated by altered regulation of BKCa channels in collateral-dependent porcine coronary arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Parker, Janet L.; Heaps, Cristine L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that exercise training increases the contribution of large-conductance, Ca2+-dependent K+ (BKCa) channels to endothelium-mediated dilation in coronary arterioles from collateral-dependent myocardial regions of chronically occluded pig hearts and may function downstream of H2O2. Methods An ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal left circumflex coronary artery to induce gradual occlusion in Yucatan miniature swine. Eight weeks postoperatively, pigs were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise training (treadmill; 14 wk) regimens. Results Exercise training significantly enhanced bradykinin-mediated dilation in collateral-dependent arterioles (~125 μm diameter) compared with sedentary pigs. The BKCa-channel blocker, iberiotoxin alone or in combination with the H2O2 scavenger, polyethylene glycol catalase, reversed exercise training-enhanced dilation in collateral-dependent arterioles. Iberiotoxin-sensitive whole-cell K+ currents (i.e., BKCa-channel currents) were not different between smooth muscle cells of nonoccluded and collateral-dependent arterioles of sedentary and exercise trained groups. Conclusions These data provide evidence that BKCa-channel activity contributes to exercise training-enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation in collateral-dependent coronary arterioles despite no change in smooth muscle BKCa-channel current. Taken together, our findings suggest that a component of the bradykinin signaling pathway, which stimulates BKCa channels, is enhanced by exercise training in collateral-dependent arterioles and suggest a potential role for H2O2 as the mediator. PMID:23002811

  5. Genome-wide association study of acute kidney injury after coronary bypass graft surgery identifies susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Smith, Mark; Li, Yi-Ju; Mathew, Joseph P; Li, Yen-Wei; Ji, Yunqi; Phillips-Bute, Barbara G; Milano, Carmelo A; Newman, Mark F; Kraus, William E; Kertai, Miklos D; Shah, Svati H; Podgoreanu, Mihai V

    2015-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common, serious complication of cardiac surgery. Since prior studies have supported a genetic basis for postoperative AKI, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for AKI following coronary bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The discovery data set consisted of 873 nonemergent CABG surgery patients with cardiopulmonary bypass (PEGASUS), while a replication data set had 380 cardiac surgical patients (CATHGEN). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were based on Illumina Human610-Quad (PEGASUS) and OMNI1-Quad (CATHGEN) BeadChips. We used linear regression with adjustment for a clinical AKI risk score to test SNP associations with the postoperative peak rise relative to preoperative serum creatinine concentration as a quantitative AKI trait. Nine SNPs meeting significance in the discovery set were detected. The rs13317787 in GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 intergenic region (3p21.6) and rs10262995 in BBS9 (7p14.3) were replicated with significance in the CATHGEN data set and exhibited significantly strong overall association following meta-analysis. Additional fine mapping using imputed SNPs across these two regions and meta-analysis found genome-wide significance at the GRM7|LMCD1-AS1 locus and a significantly strong association at BBS9. Thus, through an unbiased GWAS approach, we found two new loci associated with post-CABG AKI providing new insights into the pathogenesis of perioperative AKI.

  6. Noninvasive Carbon Dioxide Monitoring in a Porcine Model of Acute Lung Injury Due to Smoke Inhalation and Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which...recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury...instability, we recorded the frequency of changes in the respiratory rate (as set on the ventilator ) and in the FIO2. We defined hemo dynamic instability as

  7. Ameliorative effect of adenosine on hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in LLC-PK1, a porcine kidney cell line.

    PubMed

    Yonehana, T; Gemba, M

    1999-06-01

    We studied the effects of adenosine on injury caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation in LLC-PK1 cells. Lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase were released from cells exposed to hypoxia for 6 hr and then reoxygenation for 1 hr. The addition of adenosine at 100 microM to the medium before hypoxia began significantly decreased enzyme leakage into medium during both hypoxia and reoxygenation. The adenosine A1-receptor agonist, R(-)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine (R-PIA), at the concentration of 100 microM, did not affect enzyme release, but the adenosine A2-receptor agonist 2-p-[2-car-boxyethyl]phenethyl-amino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosi ne hydrochloride (CGS 21680) at the concentration of 100 nM, suppressed the injury caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation. There were decreases in cAMP contents and ATP levels in LLC-PK1 cells injured by hypoxia and reoxygenation. Adenosine (100 microM) restored ATP levels in the cells during reoxygenation. With adenosine, the intracellular cAMP level was increased prominently during reoxygenation. These results suggest that adenosine protects LLC-PK1 cells from injury caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation by increasing the intracellular cAMP level via adenosine A2 receptor.

  8. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Diabetics Receiving Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balbir Singh, Gillian; Ann, Soe Hee; Park, Jongha; Chung, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Eun-Sook; Choi, Jung Il; Lee, Jiho; Kim, Shin-Jae; Shin, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) induces transient episodes of ischemia by the occlusion of blood flow in non-target tissue, before a subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury. When RIPC is applied before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the kidneys may be protected against ischemia-reperfusion injury and subsequently contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RIPC for the prevention of CI-AKI in patients with diabetes with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing elective PCI. Methods This randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study enrolled patients with diabetes scheduled for elective PCI with eGFR ≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or urinary albumin creatinine ratio of >300 mg/g to receive either RIPC or the sham ischemic preconditioning. Results One hundred and two patients (68.9 ± 8.2 years old, 47.1% men) were included. Baseline eGFR, creatinine and serum NGAL was similar between RIPC and control groups (48.5 ± 12 ml/min vs. 46.6 ± 10 ml/min, p = 0.391; 1.42 ± 0.58 mg/dl vs. 1.41 ± 0.34 mg/dl, p = 0.924; and 136.0 ± 45.0 ng/ml vs. 137.6 ± 43.3 ng/ml, p = 0.961, respectively). CI-AKI occurred in 13.7% (14/102) of the total subjects, with both RIPC and control groups having an equal incidence of 13.7% (7/51). No significant differences were seen in creatinine, NGAL, cardiac enzymes (troponin T, CKMB) and hs-CRP between the groups post-procedure. Conclusions In this study, RIPC applied prior to elective PCI was not effective in preventing CI-AKI in patients with diabetes with pre-existing CKD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02329444 PMID:27723839

  9. Exercise training-induced adaptations in mediators of sustained endothelium-dependent coronary artery relaxation in a porcine model of ischemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Heaps, Cristine L.; Robles, Juan Carlos; Sarin, Vandana; Mattox, Mildred L.; Parker, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to persistent endothelium-dependent vasodilator exposure via increased nitric oxide contribution in small coronary arteries of control and ischemic hearts. Methods Yucatan swine were designated to a control group or a group in which an ameroid constrictor was placed around the proximal LCX. Subsequently, pigs from both groups were assigned to exercise (5 days/week; 16 weeks) or sedentary regimens. Coronary arteries (~100–350 μm) were isolated from control pigs and from both nonoccluded and collateral-dependent regions of chronically-occluded hearts. Results In arteries from control pigs, training significantly enhanced relaxation responses to increasing concentrations of bradykinin (10−10 to 10−7 M) and sustained relaxation to a single bradykinin concentration (30 nM), which were abolished by NOS inhibition. Training also significantly prolonged bradykinin-mediated relaxation in collateral-dependent arteries of occluded pigs, which was associated with more persistent increases in endothelial cellular Ca2+ levels, and reversed with NOS inhibition. Protein levels for eNOS and p-eNOS-(Ser1179), but not caveolin-1, Hsp90, or Akt, were significantly increased with occlusion, independent of training state. Conclusions Exercise training enhances sustained relaxation to endothelium-dependent agonist stimulation in small arteries of control and ischemic hearts by enhanced nitric oxide contribution and endothelial Ca2+ responses. PMID:24447072

  10. Protective effects of remifentanil preconditioning on cerebral injury during pump-assisted coronary artery bypass graft.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T Z; Zhou, J; Jin, Q; Sun, Y J; Diao, Y G; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Z

    2014-09-26

    The protective effects of remifentanil preconditioning on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) during pump-assisted coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) were investigated. Forty pump-assisted CABG patients were randomly divided into a remifentanil preconditioning group (R group) and a control group (C group, N = 10; normal saline). The R group was further divided into 3 sub-groups (R1, R2, and R3; N = 10 per group) according to the remifentanil dose (0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively). A venous blood sample was taken at anesthesia induction (T0), before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T1), CPB 30 min (T2), and after CPB (T3), and protein concentrations were measured. Patients were tested 24 h before and after the operation with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the difference was calculated. The MMSE score difference in the R3 group was lower than those of the other 3 groups (P < 0.05). At T2 and T3, the R3 group showed a significant decrease in S-100β protein and MDA and an increase in SOD (P < 0.05) compared with the other groups, and S-100β was negatively correlated with SOD activity (T2: r = -0.76, -0.80, P < 0.01; T3: r = -0.795, P < 0.01), and was positively correlated with MDA density (T2: r = 0.71, P < 0.01; T3: r = 0.71, P < 0.01). In conclusion, high-dosage remifentanil preconditioning played a protective role on brain damage, possibly through inhibition of the oxidative stress response.

  11. Identification and examination of a novel 9-bp insert/deletion polymorphism on porcine SFTPA1 exon 2 associated with acute lung injury using an oleic acid-acute lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuebo; Zhang, Longchao; Wang, Ligang; Qiao, Lijuan; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Lixian

    2015-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant-associated protein (SFTPA1, SP-A) gene has been studied as a candidate gene for lung disease resistance in humans and livestock. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of the porcine SFTPA1 gene coding region and its association with acute lung injury (ALI). Through DNA sequencing and the PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism method, a novel 9-bp nucleotide insertion (+) or deletion (-) was detected on exon 2 of SFTPA1, which causes a change in three amino acids, namely, alanine (Ala), glycine (Gly) and proline (Pro). Individuals of three genotypes (-/-, +/- and +/+) were divided into equal groups from 60 Rongchang pigs that were genotyped. These pigs were selected for participation in the oleic acid (OA)-ALI model by 1-h and 3-h injections of OA, and there were equal numbers of pigs in the control and injection groups. The lung water content, a marker for acute lung injury, was measured in this study; there is a significant correlation between high lung water content and the presence of the 9-bp indel polymorphism (P < 0.01). The lung water content of the OA injection group was markedly higher than that of the control group and lung water content for the +/+ genotype was significantly higher than that of the others in the 1-h group (P < 0.01). No differences in the expression of the SFTPA1 gene were found among individuals with different SFTPA1 genotypes, indicating that the trait is not caused by a linked polymorphism causing altered expression of the gene. The individuals with the -/- genotype showed lower lung water content than the +/+ genotype pigs, which suggests that polymorphism could be a potential marker for lung disease-resistant pig breeding and that pig can be a potential animal model for human lung disease resistance in future studies.

  12. Long-Term (3 Years) Prognosis of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Pesarini, Gabriele; Lunardi, Mattia; Ederle, Francesco; Zivelonghi, Carlo; Scarsini, Roberto; Gambaro, Alessia; Lupo, Antonio; Vassanelli, Corrado; Ribichini, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after coronary angiography or interventions is relatively frequent and portends adverse outcomes. The lack of a "universally accepted" definition, however, limits the integration and comparison of available data. We aimed to detect the CI-AKI definition that best correlates with the occurrence of clinical events at long-term in a 3-year follow-up study of patients at intermediate-to-high risk for CI-AKI. Furthermore, we sought to describe the incidence and long-term evolution of persistent renal damage (PRD) after CI-AKI and clarify the role of early (<12 hours) increments of serum creatinine (SCr) in CI-AKI prediction. Among a total of 216 patients enrolled at our center and followed for a median of 37 months, CI-AKI was diagnosed in 18.1% of cases (SCr increment ≥25% of baseline), 7.4% (SCr increment ≥0.5 mg/dl), and in 17.1% (SCr increment ≥0.3 mg/dl), according to 3 different definitions. The third definition was the only one significantly associated with the occurrence of events at 3 years (Cox regression, p = 0.04). PRD at 30 days, as detected by the same cutoff, significantly and independently identified patients at risk of worst outcomes at 3 years (p = 0.04 at multivariate Cox regression). Furthermore, a slight 5% to 10% increment of SCr compared with baseline, occurring as early as 12 hours postprocedure, was confirmed as a strong predictor of inhospital CI-AKI occurrence. In conclusion, an absolute increase in SCr ≥0.3 mg/dl seems to be most clinically informative cutoff for CI-AKI and PRD detection.

  13. Cell injury after ischemia and reperfusion in the porcine kidney evaluated by radiolabelled microspheres, sestamibi, and lactadherin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to quantify renal cell injury after ischemia and reperfusion in a pig model using 99mTc-lactadherin as a marker of apoptosis and 99mTc-sestamibi as a marker of mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods Thirty-four pigs were randomized into unilateral renal warm ischemia of 120 (WI120) or 240 min (WI240). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by renal clearance of 51Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and apoptosis was quantified by immunohistochemical detection of caspase-3. After 240 min of reperfusion, intravenous 99mTc-lactadherin or 99mTc-sestamibi was injected simultaneously with 153Gd microspheres into the aorta. Ex-vivo static planar images of the kidneys were acquired for determination of the differential renal function of tracer distribution using a gamma camera. Results In WI120, there was no significant difference in the uptake of microspheres in the ischemic and contralateral normal kidney indicating adequate perfusion (uptake in ischemic kidney relative to the sum of uptake in both kidneys; 46% ± 12% and 51% ± 5%). In WI240, the uptake of microspheres was severely reduced in both groups (17% ± 11% and 27% ± 17%). GFR was severely reduced in the post ischemic kidney in both groups. In both groups, the uptake of lactadherin was reduced (41% ± 8%, 17% ± 13%) but not different from the uptake of 153Gd microspheres. Caspase-3-positive cell profiles were increased in the post-ischemic kidneys (p < 0.001) and increased as the length of ischemia increased (p = 0.003). In both WI120 and WI240, the amount of 99mTc-sestamibi in the ischemic kidney was significantly lower than the amount of 153Gd microspheres (40 ± 5 versus 51 ± 5 and 20 ± 11 versus 27 ± 17; p < 0.05). Conclusions In an established pig model with unilateral renal warm ischemia, we found significantly reduced 99mTc-sestamibi uptake relative to perfusion in the kidneys exposed to

  14. Natural course of the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations after balloon endothelium removal in porcine coronary arteries. Possible dysfunction of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, H; Flavahan, N A; Vanhoutte, P M

    1989-09-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the natural course of the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations during a regeneration and tissue repair process after balloon endothelium removal and to elucidate the cellular mechanism(s) underlying it. Twenty-three male Yorkshire pigs underwent balloon endothelium removal along the proximal portion of either the left anterior descending or circumflex coronary artery and were then maintained on a regular chow for 4, 8, 16, or 24 weeks. Endothelium-dependent responses were examined in vitro in rings taken from the control and previously denuded arteries studied in parallel. Morphometric analysis revealed that intimal thickening developed only at the previously denuded area. In the previously denuded arteries with regenerated endothelium, the endothelium-dependent relaxations to UK 14304 (a selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist), serotonin, and aggregating platelets were impaired 4 weeks after endothelium removal and remained so throughout the study. The endothelium-dependent relaxations to thrombin and adenosine diphosphate became depressed 8 weeks after endothelium removal and those to bradykinin became depressed 16 weeks after endothelium removal, while those to the calcium ionophore A23187 were maintained throughout the study. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to all vasoactive agents were unaltered in the control arteries. In the control arteries, pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of certain G proteins, markedly inhibited the endothelium-dependent relaxations to UK 14304 and serotonin and partially inhibited those to thrombin and aggregating platelets. The responses inhibited by the toxin in control arteries were significantly reduced in the reduced in the previously denuded arteries with regenerated endothelium. The inhibitory effect of pertussis toxin was markedly reduced in those arteries with regenerated endothelium. In quiescent rings, the presence of normal endothelium inhibited the contractions

  15. The effects of blood pressure on rebleeding when using ExcelArrest™ in a porcine model of lethal femoral injury

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, HaYong; Brinkman, John; Beasley, Amy; Crocker, Richard; O’Sullivan, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uncontrolled hemorrhage is one of the leading causes of death in both combat and civilian trauma. This study was designed to compare the arterial blood pressures at which rebleeding occurred when a hemostatic agent, ExcelArrest™, was used compared with a standard pressure dressing. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, experimental, and mixed research design. Swine were assigned to one of two groups: ExcelArrest™ (n=5) or a control consisting of standard pressure dressings (n=5). Investigators generated a complex groin injury. The femoral artery and vein were transected and allowed to bleed for 60 s in each pig. After 60 s, ExcelArrest™ was poured into the wound. The control group underwent the same procedures, but without treatment with the hemostatic agent. After 5 min of direct pressure, a standard pressure dressing was applied. After 30 min, dressings were removed and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) was increased incrementally using intravenous phenylephrine until rebleeding occurred. Statistical Analysis: A multivariate ANOVA and a least significant difference were used to analyze the data. Results: ExcelArrest™ was more effective in preventing rebleeding compared to a standard pressure dressing (P<0.05). The means and standard deviations in mmHg for SBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) for rebleeding were as follows: ExcelArrest™ (SBP=206.4, SD±11.6; MAP=171.4, SD±12.5); for the control group (SBP=89.40±3.58, MAP=58.60±12.86). Conclusions: ExcelArrest™ was more effective in preventing rebleeding compared to the standard dressing with elevated blood pressures. There may be protective benefits in using this hemostatic agent against elevated blood pressures provided by ExcelArrest™. PMID:21769207

  16. Ventricular Arrhythmias and Mortality Associated with Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in a Porcine Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Regueiro-Purriños, Marta; Fernández-Vázquez, Felipe; de Prado, Armando Perez; Altónaga, Jose R; Cuellas-Ramón, Carlos; Ajenjo-Silverio, Jose M; Orden, Asuncion; Gonzalo-Orden, Jose M

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia of the myocardium can lead to reversible or irreversible injury depending on the severity and duration of the preceding ischemia. Here we compared sevoflurane and isoflurane with particular reference to their hemodynamic effects and ability to modify the effects of acute severe myocardial ischemia and reperfusion on ventricular arrhythmias and mortality in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Female Large White pigs were premedicated with ketamine, midazolam, and atropine. Propofol was given intravenously for the anesthetic induction, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane. Endovascular, fluoroscopy-guided, coronary procedures were performed to occlude the midleft anterior descending artery by using a coronary angioplasty balloon. After 75 min, the balloon catheter system was withdrawn and the presence of adequate reperfusion flow was verified. The pigs were followed for 2 mo, and overall mortality rate was calculated. The isoflurane group showed lower arterial pressure throughout the procedure, with the difference reaching statistical significance after induction of myocardial ischemia. The ventricular fibrillation rate was higher in isoflurane group (81.3%) than the sevoflurane group (51.7%; relative risk, 1.57 [1.03 to 2.4]). Overall survival was lower in the isoflurane group (75%) than the sevoflurane group (96.4%). In conclusion, in this porcine model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, sevoflurane was associated with higher hemodynamic stability and fewer ventricular arrhythmias and mortality than was isoflurane. PMID:21333167

  17. The protein kinase MEK1/2 mediate vascular endothelial growth factor- and histamine-induced hyperpermeability in porcine coronary venules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mack H; Yuan, Sarah Y; Granger, Harris J

    2005-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have been implicated in the signal transduction of the endothelial response to growth factors and inflammatory stimuli. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the p42/44 MAPK pathway plays a common role in mediating the microvascular hyperpermeability response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and histamine. The apparent permeability coefficient of albumin was measured in isolated and perfused coronary venules. Application of VEGF induced a rapid increase in venular permeability, and the effect was blocked by PD98059 and UO126, selective inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MEK1/2, in a dose-dependent pattern. The same MEK1/2 inhibitors dose-dependently attenuated the increase in venular permeability caused by histamine. In addition, the increases in venular permeability caused by agents that are known to activate the nitric oxide pathway, including the calcium ionophore ionomycin, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and the protein kinase G activator 8-bromo-cGMP, were significantly attenuated in venules pretreated with the MEK1/2 inhibitors. Furthermore, transfection of venules with active MEK1 increased baseline permeability. In contrast, transfection of active ERK1, a downstream target of MEK1/2, did not significantly alter the basal permeability of venules. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 with a specific inhibiting peptide did not prevent the hyperpermeability response to VEGF or histamine. The results suggest that activation of MEK1/2 may play a central role in the signal transduction of microvascular hyperpermeability in response to growth factors and inflammatory mediators. PMID:15539400

  18. Potential Effect of L-Carnitine on the Prevention of Myocardial Injury after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dastan, Farzaneh; Hajhossein Talasaz, Azita; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Abbasali; Salehiomran, Abbas; Bina, Payvand; Jalali, Arash; Aghaie, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: L-carnitine has been demonstrated to confer cardiac protection against ischemia reperfusion injury in animals. This study evaluates the effects of L-carnitine administration on cardiac biomarkers after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: One hundred thirty-four patients undergoing elective CABG surgery, without a history of myocardial ischemia or previous L-carnitine treatment, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an L-carnitine group ([n = 67], 3000 mg/d, started 2 days preoperatively and continued for 2 days after surgery) or a control group (n = 67). CK-MB (creatine kinase, muscle-brain subunits) and troponin T (TnT) levels were assessed in all the patients before surgery as baseline levels and at 8 and 24 hours postoperatively. Results: Our study included 134 patients (99 [73.8%] males) at a mean ± SD age of 59.94 ± 8.61 years who were candidates for CABG and randomized them into control or L-carnitine groups. The baseline demographic characteristics, including age (60.01 ± 9.23 in the L-carnitine group vs. 59.88 ± 7.98 in the control group) and sex (54 [80.6%] in the L-carnitine group vs. 45 [67.2%] in the control group) did not show any significant differences (p value=0.93 and 0.08, respectively). Patients in the L-carnitine group had lower levels of CK-MB (mean ± SD, 25.06 ± 20.29 in the L-carnitine group vs. 24.26 ± 14.61 in the control group), but the difference was not significant (p value = 0.28). TnT levels also showed no significant differences between the two groups (399.50 ± 378.91 in the L-carnitine group vs. 391.48 ± 222.02 in the control group; p value = 0.34). Conclusion: In this population of intermediate- to high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery, L-carnitine did not reduce CK-MB and TnT levels. PMID:26110005

  19. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every other ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  20. A Translational Study of a New Therapeutic Approach for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin into Reperfused Myocardium Reduces Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Preclinical Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Kenzo; Matoba, Tetsuya; Nakano, Kaku; Tokutome, Masaki; Honda, Katsuya; Koga, Jun-ichiro; Egashira, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction, for which interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We recently reported that bioabsorbable poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-mediated treatment with pitavastatin (pitavastatin-NP) exerts a cardioprotective effect in a rat IR injury model by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway and inhibiting inflammation. To obtain preclinical proof-of-concept evidence, in this study, we examined the effect of pitavastatin-NP on myocardial IR injury in conscious and anesthetized pig models. Methods and Results Eighty-four Bama mini-pigs were surgically implanted with a pneumatic cuff occluder at the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and telemetry transmitters to continuously monitor electrocardiogram as well as to monitor arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The LCx was occluded for 60 minutes, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion under conscious conditions. Intravenous administration of pitavastatin-NP containing ≥ 8 mg/body of pitavastatin 5 minutes before reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size; by contrast, pitavastatin alone (8 mg/body) showed no therapeutic effects. Pitavastatin-NP produced anti-apoptotic effects on cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 4 weeks after IR injury revealed that pitavastatin-NP reduced the extent of left ventricle remodeling. Importantly, pitavastatin-NP exerted no significant effects on blood pressure, heart rate, or serum biochemistry. Exploratory examinations in anesthetized pigs showed pharmacokinetic analysis and the effects of pitavastatin-NP on no-reflow phenomenon. Conclusions NP-mediated delivery of pitavastatin to IR-injured myocardium exerts cardioprotective effects on IR injury without apparent adverse side effects in a preclinical conscious pig model. Thus, pitavastatin-NP represents a novel therapeutic

  1. Early and late response-to-injury in patients undergoing transradial coronary angiography: arterial remodeling in smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Roberto; Stegemann, Emilia; Özaslan, Göksen; Schuler, Dominik; Lukosz, Margarete; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Lauer, Thomas; Westenfeld, Ralf; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of smoking on vascular response to transradial coronary angiography (TCA). Background: Cigarette smoking is the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factor associated with endothelial dysfunction. Methods: Radial artery flow-mediated vasodilation (RA-FMD), local stiffness (fractional diameter change), intima-media thickness (IMT), luminal and external arterial diameter were measured in 40 current smokers (CS) and former smokers (FS) at 6-14 months at the site of previous TCA and contralateral control artery. Vascular regenerative capacity was studied as chemotactic cell migration in vitro and ex vivo (n=10) and the time course of endothelial functional recovery following RA-FMD up to 72 h after TCA (n=10). Results: At 10 ± 3 months after TCA, subjects exhibited significant local stiffening and increased IMT as compared to the control arm. These late structural changes were significantly more pronounced in CS as compared to FS. IMT thickening correlated with packyears, number of daily cigarettes, and inversely with RA-FMD. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent chemotaxis of CS’ circulating angiogenic cells was impaired. Ex vivo incubation of endothelial cells with CS’ plasma inhibited NOS-dependent endothelial wound closure and chemotaxis. In vivo, TCA acutely decreased RA-FMD. At 24 h, RA-FMD had recovered in FS but remained impaired at 24 h and only recovered at 48 h in CS. Conclusion: In active smokers, transradial coronary angiography is associated with delayed early recovery from transient endothelial dysfunction, decreased NOS-dependent vascular regeneration, and late arterial remodeling pointing towards potential harmful effects of transradial coronary angiography on vascular function in distinct subsets of patients. PMID:25006532

  2. Quantification of myocardial injury produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, D.E.; Corbett, J.R.; Buja, L.M.; Hansen, C.; Ugolini, V.; Parkey, R.W.; Willerson, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Previously, technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PPi) has been used to localize and estimate the size of myocardial infarcts in animals after permanent coronary artery occlusion. This study tested the hypothesis that /sup 99m/Tc-PPi accurately sizes myocardial infarctions produced by temporary coronary artery occlusion and reflow in dogs. Three groups of dogs were studied: group A underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 10 min after reflow (n = 10); group B underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by 2 hr of reperfusion, with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected 90 min after reflow (n = 11); and group C underwent 3 hr of occlusion followed by reflow with /sup 99m/Tc-PPi injected at 10 min and again at 48 hr after reflow (n = 5). Myocardial slices from group A and B dogs were imaged in vitro. Group C dogs were imaged with single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) in vivo, and myocardial slices were imaged in vitro at the conclusion of the study. The extent of myocardial infarction was defined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and coronary blood flow was estimated with radioactive microspheres. In addition, transmural myocardial tissue samples were taken from the center of the myocardial infarction, the lateral portion of the myocardial infarction, the normal myocardium adjacent to the lateral aspect of the infarcts, and from the normal myocardium and counted for /sup 99m/Tc-PPi activity. A significant correlation was found between infarct size determined by areas of increased /sup 99m/Tc-PPi uptake and that estimated from TTC staining for both group A (r = .89) and group B animals (r = .98).

  3. Serum hyperchloremia as a risk factor for acute kidney injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nachiket; Baker, Sarah M.; Walters, Ryan W.; Kaja, Ajay; Kandasamy, Vimalkumar; Abuzaid, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    A high serum chloride concentration has been associated with the development of acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. However, the association between hyperchloremia and acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with the diagnosis of STEMI and treated with PCI was performed. Subjects were classified as having hyper- or normochloremia based upon their admission serum chloride level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary analysis evaluated whether high serum chloride on admission was associated with the development of AKI after adjusting for age, diabetes mellitus, admission systolic blood pressure, contrast volume used during angiography, Killip class, and need for vasopressor therapy or intraaortic balloon pump. The secondary analyses evaluated whether high serum chloride was associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Of 291 patients (26.1% female, mean age of 59.9 ± 12.6 years, and mean body mass index of 29.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2), 25 (8.6%) developed AKI. High serum chloride on admission did not contribute significantly to the development of AKI (odds ratio, 95%; confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.24). In addition, serum chloride on admission was not significantly associated with sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation after adjusting for demographic and clinical covariates. In conclusion, our study demonstrated no association between baseline serum hyperchloremia and an increased risk of AKI in patients admitted with STEMI treated with PCI. PMID:26722155

  4. Association Between Contrast Media Volume-Glomerular Filtration Rate Ratio and Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Akin, Fatih; Ayca, Burak; Yalcın, Ahmet Arif; Erturk, Mehmet; Bıyık, Ismail; Ayaz, Ahmet; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Enhos, Asım; Aslan, Serkan

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that contrast media volume-estimated glomerular filtration rate (CV-e-GFR) ratio may be a predictor of contrast media-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). We investigated the associations between CV-e-GFR ratio and CI-AKI in 597 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). An absolute ≥0.3 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine compared with baseline levels within 48 hours after the procedure was considered as CI-AKI; 78 (13.1%) of the 597 patients experienced CI-AKI. The amount of contrast during procedure was higher in the CI-AKI group than in those without CI-AKI (153 vs 135 mL, P = .003). The CV-e-GFR ratio was significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI than without (2.3 vs 1.5, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CI-AKI were low left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .018, odds ratio [OR] = 0.966), e-GFR <60 mL/min (P = .012, OR = 2.558), and CV-e-GFR >2 (P < .001, OR = 5.917). In conclusion, CV-e-GFR ratio is significantly associated with CI-AKI after pPCI.

  5. Myocardial injury in coronary artery bypass grafting: On-pump versus off-pump comparison by measuring heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein release.

    PubMed

    Malik, Vishwas; Kale, Shailaja C; Chowdhury, Ujjwal K; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Chauhan, Sandeep; Kiran, Usha

    2006-01-01

    This prospective study uses heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein (hFABP) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release to compare myocardial injury in on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Fifty patients were randomly assigned to on-pump or off-pump CABG. The hFABP and CK-MB concentrations were measured in serial venous blood samples drawn before heparinization in both groups and after aortic unclamping at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours in the on-pump group. In the off-pump group, samples were taken after the last distal anastomosis at the same time intervals as in the on-pump group. The total amount of hFABP and CK-MB released was significantly higher in the on-pump than in the off-pump group (hFABP = 100.43 +/- 77.63 vs 3.94 +/- 0.36 ng/mL, P < 0.0001; CK-MB = 33.33 +/- 3.81 vs 28.65 +/- 3.91 log units, P < 0.001). In all patients, hFABP levels peaked as early as 1 hour after declamping (on-pump group) or 2 hours after the last distal anastomosis (off-pump group), whereas CK-MB peaked only at 4 hours after declamping (on-pump group) or 24 hours after the last distal anastomosis (off-pump group). The lower release of hFABP and CK-MB in the off-pump CABG group indicates that on-pump CABG with cardioplegic arrest causes more myocardial damage than does off-pump CABG. Heart-type fatty-acid-binding protein is a more rapid marker of perioperative myocardial damage, peaks earlier than CK-MB, and may predict the requirement for intensive monitoring for postoperative myocardial infarction.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Is Involved in Myocardial Injury in a Miniature Swine Model of Coronary Artery Stenosis Exposed to Acceleration-Associated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haitao; Chai, Meng; Liu, Chaozhong; Sun, Jinjin; Huang, Congchun; Yu, Xinya; Tian, Yi; Luo, Huilan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of myocardial injury in a minimally-invasive miniature swine model with different levels of coronary artery stenosis (CAS) and exposed to maximal tolerated +Gz. Proximal left anterior descending branch was ligated in 20 swine. Five swine underwent a sham operation. A trapezoid acceleration curve was used for +Gz stress. Pathological changes of myocardial tissue were detected by H&E staining. Apoptotic cardiomyocytes were detected by TUNEL. GRP78 and CHOP were investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. CAS models were successful in 18 animals.Compared with the sham-operated group (+8.00±0.71 Gz), the maximal tolerated +Gz values of the moderate stenosis (+6.00±0.89 Gz, P<0.05) and severe stenosis groups (+5.20±0.84 Gz, P<0.05) were decreased.Compared with sham animals (12.16±1.25%), after exposure to maximum +Gz, apoptotic cells of the moderate (43.53±8.42%, P<0.05) and severe stenosis group (60.50±9.35%, P<0.05) were increased, MDA content was increased (1.89 and 4.91 folds, respectively, P<0.05), and SOD activity was reduced (-13.66% and -21.71%, respectively). After exposure to maximum +Gz, GRP78 protein expression was low in the sham-operated (0.29±0.05) and mild stenosis groups (0.35±0.04), while expression was high in the moderate (0.72±0.04, P<0.05) and severe stenosis groups (0.65±0.07, P<0.05). CHOP protein expression was not observed in the sham-operated group, while expression was high in the moderate and severe stenosis groups. These results indicated that Under maximum exposure to +Gz stress, different levels of CAS led to different levels of myocardial injury. Endoplasmic reticulum response is involved in the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes after +Gz stress. PMID:26167928

  7. Replication of porcine circoviruses.

    PubMed

    Faurez, Florence; Dory, Daniel; Grasland, Béatrice; Jestin, André

    2009-05-18

    Porcine circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that infect swine and wild boars. Two species of porcine circoviruses exist. Porcine circovirus type 1 is non pathogenic contrary to porcine circovirus type 2 which is associated with the disease known as Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome. Porcine circovirus DNA has been shown to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism. Other studies have revealed similar mechanisms of rolling-circle replication in plasmids and single-stranded viruses such as Geminivirus. Three elements are important in rolling-circle replication: i) a gene encoding initiator protein, ii) a double strand origin, and iii) a single strand origin. However, differences exist between viruses and plasmids and between viruses. Porcine circovirus replication probably involves a "melting pot" rather than "cruciform" rolling-circle mechanism.This review provides a summary of current knowledge of replication in porcine circoviruses as models of the Circovirus genus. Based on various studies, the factors affecting replication are defined and the mechanisms involved in the different phases of replication are described or proposed.

  8. Prognostic Impact of Combined Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Hypoxic Liver Injury in Patients with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results from INTERSTELLAR Registry

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young Ju; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jang, Ho-Jun; Suh, Jon; Park, Hyun Woo; Oh, Pyung Chun; Shin, Sung-Hee; Woo, Seong-Il; Kim, Dae-Hyeok; Kwan, Jun; Kang, WoongChol

    2016-01-01

    Background Besides contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CI-AKI), adscititious vital organ damage such as hypoxic liver injury(HLI) may affect the survival in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of CI-AKI and HLI in STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods A total of 668 consecutive patients (77.2% male, mean age 61.3±13.3 years) from the INTERSTELLAR STEMI registry who underwent primary PCI were analyzed. CI-AKI was defined as an increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL in serum creatinine level or 25% relative increase, within 48h after the index procedure. HLI was defined as ≥2-fold increase in serum aspartate transaminase above the upper normal limit on admission. Patients were divided into four groups according to their CI-AKI and HLI states. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization and target vessel revascularization were recorded. Results Over a mean follow-up period of 2.2±1.6 years, 94 MACCEs occurred with an event rate of 14.1%. The rates of MACCE and all-cause mortality were 9.7% and 5.2%, respectively, in the no organ damage group; 21.3% and 21.3% in CI-AKI group; 18.5% and 14.6% in HLI group; and 57.7% and 50.0% in combined CI-AKI and HLI group. Survival probability plots of composite MACCE and all-cause mortality revealed that the combined CI-AKI and HLI group was associated with the worst prognosis (p<0.0001 for both). Conclusion Combined CI-AKI after index procedure and HLI on admission is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. (INTERSTELLAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800421.) PMID:27415006

  9. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Send a link to NHLBI ... calcium, or calcifications, are a sign of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or coronary microvascular disease. A coronary calcium scan ...

  10. Protective effect of a protein kinase inhibitor on cellular injury induced by cephaloridine in the porcine kidney cell line LLC-PK(1).

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Kohda, Yuka; Kodawara, Takaaki; Gemba, Munekazu

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effects of a protein kinase C inhibitor and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor on the cellular injury induced by cephaloridine in an established renal epithelial cell line, LLC-PK(1). Cephaloridine increased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from LLC-PK(1) cells into the medium and also caused an increase in the level of lipid peroxide (index of oxidative stress) in the cells. Treatment of the cells with a hydroxyl radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU), inhibited the increases in LDH leakage and lipid peroxidation in LLC-PK(1) cells exposed to cephaloridine. A protein kinase C inhibitor, H-7, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and lavendustinA, inhibited the increases in LDH leakage and lipid peroxidation in LLC-PK(1) cells exposed to cephaloridine. These results suggest that a signaling pathway which involves protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase plays a role in the generation of reactive oxygen species in LLC-PK(1) cells damaged by cephaloridine.

  11. Coronary Flow Impacts Aortic Leaflet Mechanics and Aortic Sinus Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon L; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical stresses on aortic valve leaflets are well-known mediators for initiating processes leading to calcific aortic valve disease. Given that non-coronary leaflets calcify first, it may be hypothesized that coronary flow originating from the ostia significantly influences aortic leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics. High resolution time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted to map the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus blood flow and leaflet motion with and without physiological coronary flow in a well-controlled in vitro setup. The in vitro setup consists of a porcine aortic valve mounted in a physiological aorta sinus chamber with dynamically controlled coronary resistance to emulate physiological coronary flow. Results were analyzed using qualitative streak plots illustrating the spatiotemporal complexity of blood flow patterns, and quantitative velocity vector and shear stress contour plots to show differences in the mechanical environments between the coronary and non-coronary sinuses. It is shown that the presence of coronary flow pulls the classical sinus vorticity deeper into the sinus and increases flow velocity near the leaflet base. This creates a beneficial increase in shear stress and washout near the leaflet that is not seen in the non-coronary sinus. Further, leaflet opens approximately 10% farther into the sinus with coronary flow case indicating superior valve opening area. The presence of coronary flow significantly improves leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics in a manner that would reduce low wall shear stress conditions while improving washout at the base of the leaflet.

  12. Comparison of a New Miniaturized Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation System With Integrated Rotary Blood Pump to a Standard System in a Porcine Model of Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Heckmann, Jens; Lyskawa, Kathrin; Strauß, Andreas; Haake, Nils; Wiese, Ingo; Jakob, Heinz; Kamler, Markus; Pizanis, Nikolaus

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, available ECMO systems are large and not well designed for fast delivery, emergency implantation, and interhospital transfer. Therefore, a new miniaturized oxygenator with integrated rotary blood pump (ILIAS) was developed and compared with a standard ECMO system in a large animal model. Acute lung injury was induced with repeated pulmonary saline lavage in 14 pigs until PaO2 /FiO2 -ratio was <100 mm Hg with a positive-end-expiratory-pressure of 5 mbar. Pigs were assigned to the following three groups: group 1 (n = 4): control group with conventional ventilation; group 2 (n = 5): standard vv-ECMO; group 3 (n = 5): vv-ILIAS. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, hemolysis, and coagulation activation were examined over a period of 8 h. No device failed during the observation period. PaCO2 decreased from 59.40 ± 4.14 mm Hg to 48.62 ± 4.50 mm Hg after 1 h in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of PaCO2 from 48.86 ± 7.45 to 40.10 ± 6.02 in the conventional ECMO group (P = not significant [n.s.]). ARDS-induced respiratory acidosis was controlled promptly with a pH of 7.2 ± 0.1 at baseline increasing to 7.4 ± 0.1 in both study groups after 60 min of ECMO support. Mean carbon dioxide transfer was comparable between the conventional ECMO and ILIAS (211.36 ± 78.39 mL/min vs. 219.99 ± 76.72 mL/min, P = n.s.). PaO2 /FiO2 increased from 118.4 ± 15.5 mm Hg to 179.1 ± 72.4 mm Hg in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of oxygenation from 107.1 ± 24.9 mm Hg to 179.0 ± 45.7 mm Hg in the standard ECMO group (P = n.s.). Mean oxygen transfer was calculated with 136.09 ± 30.25 mL/min for the ILIAS and 129.05 ± 36.28 mL/min for the standard ECMO. Hemodynamic instability or significant activation of the plasmatic coagulation was not

  13. Coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, R

    1976-01-01

    Coronary collaterals are probably enlargements of pre-existing channels which respond to local vasodilators and which function whenever pressure differences exist across them. Thus, in human coronary atherosclerosis collaterals are only seen when there is a severe intervening arterial obstruction (in excess of 75%). Coronary collaterals follow epicardial and intramycardial pathways, and the intermediary connections may be at vessels of highly varying caliber. The flow potential of most collateral pathways in man is possibly adequate for segmental myocardial function at lower than normal demands but clearly is inadequate for most, if not all, stressful interventions. In the last analysis, coronary collaterals in man are more an indication of severe regional ischemia (present or potential) than a sign of biological "compensation'' for a perfusion deficit.

  14. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  15. Effects of cocaine on epicardial coronary artery reactivity in miniature swine after endothelial injury and high cholesterol feeding. In vivo and in vitro analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, K; Pipers, F S; Morgan, J P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cocaine on vasoreactivity in the swine model. Eight miniature pigs underwent regional endothelial denudation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and were then fed a high cholesterol diet. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries was measured by quantitative angiography. Before denudation, intravenous cocaine (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) decreased CSA of epicardial vessels by 19-44%. At 3 mo after the denudation, the percent reduction in CSA of the denuded vessels induced by the 10 mg/kg dose was significantly augmented compared to nondenuded vessels (59 +/- 5% vs. 48 +/- 4%, P less than 0.05). Under in vitro conditions where isometric force of isolated ring segments was measured, methoxamine (an alpha 1 agonist) or BHT-920 (an alpha 2 agonist) produced similar degrees of contraction of denuded and control vessels; however, cocaine in concentrations up to 3 x 10(-3) M did not produce contraction. These responses were unaffected by removal of the endothelium. Histologically, myointimal thickening was noted at the denuded site. The present study demonstrates an enhanced vasoreactivity of atherosclerotic coronary arteries to cocaine in vivo, the mechanism of which appears to be mediated by endogenous vasoactive substances rather than by a direct action of cocaine on vascular smooth muscle. Images PMID:1918381

  16. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  17. Critical contribution of KV1 channels to the regulation of coronary blood flow.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Noblet, Jillian N; Sassoon, Daniel; Fu, Lijuan; Kassab, Ghassan S; Schepers, Luke; Herring, B Paul; Rottgen, Trey S; Tune, Johnathan D; Dick, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    Ion channels in smooth muscle control coronary vascular tone, but the identity of the potassium channels involved requires further investigation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional role of KV1 channels on porcine coronary blood flow using the selective antagonist correolide. KV1 channel gene transcripts were found in porcine coronary arteries, with KCNA5 (encoding KV1.5) being most abundant (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated KV1.5 protein in the vascular smooth muscle layer of both porcine and human coronary arteries, including microvessels. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments demonstrated significant correolide-sensitive (1-10 µM) current in coronary smooth muscle. In vivo studies included direct intracoronary infusion of vehicle or correolide into a pressure-clamped left anterior descending artery of healthy swine (n = 5 in each group) with simultaneous measurement of coronary blood flow. Intracoronary correolide (~0.3-3 µM targeted plasma concentration) had no effect on heart rate or systemic pressure, but reduced coronary blood flow in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Dobutamine (0.3-10 µg/kg/min) elicited coronary metabolic vasodilation and intracoronary correolide (3 µM) significantly reduced coronary blood flow at any given level of myocardial oxygen consumption (P < 0.001). Coronary artery occlusions (15 s) elicited reactive hyperemia and correolide (3 µM) reduced the flow volume repayment by approximately 30 % (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data support a major role for KV1 channels in modulating baseline coronary vascular tone and, perhaps, vasodilation in response to increased metabolism and transient ischemia.

  18. Coronary stenting during burn shock: diagnostic and treatment considerations.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Shea C; Fidler, Philip E; Atweh, Nabil A

    2006-01-01

    Myocardial injury is known to occur in victims of both thermal and electrical burns. A variety of mechanisms have been ascribed to the pathogenesis of cardiac damage during burn shock. However, limited evidence exists that coronary artery thrombosis plays a frequent role. Distinguishing between acute coronary syndrome (impending myocardial infarction from coronary artery occlusion) vs global cardiac injury is essential; the care diverges drastically. The following case describes a patient who was angiographically proven to have acute coronary thrombosis amidst burn shock ftera 50% TBSA electrical flash burn. Managing the patient's burn shock, myocardial injury, and multiple surgical procedures while considering antiplatelet medications for a newly placed coronary artery stent presented a number of challenges not previously reported.

  19. Environmental hypothermia in porcine polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock is safe.

    PubMed

    Iyegha, Uroghupatei P; Greenberg, Joseph J; Mulier, Kristine E; Chipman, Jeffrey; George, Mark; Beilman, Greg J

    2012-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated survival benefit to induced hypothermia in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock simulating an associated delay to definitive care. In the current study, we wished to evaluate the effects of environmental hypothermia in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock with the addition of polytrauma. Sixteen pigs were randomized to normothermic (39°C, n = 7) or hypothermic (34°C, n = 9) groups. The model included instrumentation, chest injury (captive bolt device), hemorrhage to systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ∼50 mmHg, and crush liver injury. Animals received limited fluid resuscitation for a 1-h period with goal SBP of greater than 80 mmHg and ice packs or warming blankets to achieve goal temperatures, followed by full resuscitation with goal SBP of greater than 90 mmHg, adequate urine output, and hemoglobin by protocol for 20 h. Survivors were observed for an additional 24 h with end points including mortality, markers of organ injury, and neurologic function. There were no differences in survival between the groups (mortality = 1/9, hypothermia group vs. 2/7, normothermia group, P = 0.39). Markers of organ injury were elevated in the hypothermia group at 24 h after injury but were identical between groups at the end of the experimental protocol (48 h after injury). There were no noted differences in neurologic function between the two groups. Environmental hypothermia in a model of polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock was not associated with worse outcomes.

  20. A single intracoronary injection of midkine reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury in Swine hearts: a novel therapeutic approach for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hisaaki; Horiba, Mitsuru; Takenaka, Hiroharu; Sumida, Arihiro; Opthof, Tobias; Ishiguro, Yuko S; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kodama, Itsuo

    2011-01-01

    Several growth factors are effective for salvaging myocardium and limiting infarct size in experimental studies with small animals. Their benefit in large animals and feasibility in clinical practice remains to be elucidated. We investigated the cardioprotective effect of midkine (MK) in swine subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). I/R was created by left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion for 45 min using a percutaneous over-the-wire balloon catheter. MK protein was injected as a bolus through the catheter at the initiation of reperfusion [MK-treated (MKT) group]. Saline was injected in controls (CONT). Infarct size/area at risk (24 h after I/R) in MKT was almost five times smaller than in CONT. Echocardiography in MKT revealed a significantly higher percent wall thickening of the interventricular septum, a higher left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening, and a lower E/e(') (ratio of transmitral to annular flow) compared with CONT. LV catheterization in MKT showed a lower LV end-diastolic pressure, and a higher dP/dt(max) compared with CONT. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling-positive myocytes and CD45-positive cell infiltration in the peri-infarct area were significantly less in MKT than in CONT. Here, we demonstrate that a single intracoronary injection of MK protein in swine hearts at the onset of reperfusion dramatically reduces infarct size and ameliorates systolic/diastolic LV function. This beneficial effect is associated with a reduction of apoptotic and inflammatory reactions. MK application during percutaneous coronary intervention may become a promising adjunctive therapy in acute coronary syndromes.

  1. Coronary arteriography and angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.; Douglas, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book explores biomedical radiography of the heart. Topics considered include six bench marks in the history of cardiac catheterization; normal coronary anatomy; anomalies of the coronary arteries; pathoanotomy of the coronary arteries and complications; indications, limitations, and risks of coronary arteriography and left ventriculography; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Sones technique; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Judkins technique; modification of Judkins catheters; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography multipurpose technique; new views in coronary arteriography; quantitative evaluation of left ventricular function; complications of coronary arteriography: management during and following the procedure; interpretation of coronary arteriograms and left ventriculograms; prevalence and distribution of disease in patients catheterized for suspected coronary disease at Emory University Hospital; the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory; selection for surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; intracoronary thrombolysis; and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

  2. Ventricular Fibrillation-Induced Cardiac Arrest Results in Regional Cardiac Injury Preferentially in Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Territory in Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Forder, John R.; Clark, Dan; Shih, Andre; Udassi, Sharda; Badugu, Srinivasarao; Lamb, Melissa A.; Porvasnik, Stacy L.; Shih, Renata S.; Colon-Lopez, Dalia; Zaritsky, Arno L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Decreased cardiac function after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA) results from global ischemia of the myocardium. In the evolution of postarrest myocardial dysfunction, preferential involvement of any coronary arterial territory is not known. We hypothesized that there is no preferential involvement of any coronary artery during electrical induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) in piglet model. Design. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Methods. 12 piglets were randomized to baseline and electrical induced VF. After 5 min, the animals were resuscitated according to AHA PALS guidelines. After return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), animals were observed for an additional 4 hours prior to cardiac MRI. Data (mean ± SD) was analyzed using unpaired t-test; p value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Segmental wall motion (mm; baseline versus postarrest group) in segment 7 (left anterior descending (LAD)) was 4.68 ± 0.54 versus 3.31 ± 0.64, p = 0.0026. In segment 13, it was 3.82 ± 0.96 versus 2.58 ± 0.82, p = 0.02. In segment 14, it was 2.42 ± 0.44 versus 1.29 ± 0.99, p = 0.028. Conclusion. Postarrest myocardial dysfunction resulted in segmental wall motion defects in the LAD territory. There were no perfusion defects in the involved segments. PMID:27882326

  3. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  4. Porcine circovirus diseases.

    PubMed

    Segalés, Joaquim; Allan, Gordon M; Domingo, Mariano

    2005-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a member of the family Circoviridae, a recently established virus family composed of small, non-enveloped viruses, with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. PCV2, which is found all over the world in the domestic pig and probably the wild boar, has been recently associated with a number of disease syndromes, which have been collectively named porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and reproductive disorders are the most relevant ones. Among them, only PMWS is considered to have a severe impact on domestic swine production. PMWS mainly affects nursery and/or fattening pigs; wasting is considered the most representative clinical sign in this disease. Diagnosis of this disease is confirmed by histopathological examination of lymphoid tissues and detection of a moderate to high amount of PCV2 in damaged tissues. Since PMWS is considered a multifactorial disease in which other factors in addition to PCV2 are needed in most cases to trigger the clinical disease, effective control measures have focused on the understanding of the co-factors involved in individual farms and the control or elimination of these triggers. PDNS, an immuno-complex disease characterized by fibrino-necrotizing glomerulonephritis and systemic necrotizing vasculitis, has been linked to PCV2, but a definitive proof of this association is still lacking. PCV2-associated reproductive disease seems to occur very sporadically under field conditions, but it has been characterized by late-term abortions and stillbirths, extensive fibrosing and/or necrotizing myocarditis in fetuses and the presence of moderate to high amounts of PCV2 in these lesions. Taking into account that scientific information on PCV2 and its associated diseases has been markedly expanded in the last 8 years, the objective of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge of the most

  5. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Spontaneous coronary artery dissection — sometimes referred to as SCAD — is an ... the blood vessels in the heart. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can slow or block blood flow ...

  6. Coronary artery fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart defect - coronary artery fistula; Birth defect heart - coronary artery fistula ... A coronary artery fistula is often congenital, meaning that it is present at birth. It generally occurs when one of the ...

  7. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  8. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  9. Electromechanical Reshaping of Ex Vivo Porcine Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed; Manuel, Cyrus T.; Protsenko, Dmitriy E.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The trachea is a composite cartilaginous structure particularly prone to various forms of convexities. Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) is an emerging technique used to reshape cartilaginous tissues by applying electric current in tandem with imposed mechanical deformation to achieve shape change. In this study, EMR was used to reshape tracheal cartilage rings to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology as a potentially minimally invasive procedure to alter tracheal structure. Study Design Controlled laboratory study using ex vivo porcine tracheae. Methods The natural concavity of each porcine tracheal ring was reversed around a cork mandrel. Two pairs of electrodes were inserted along the long axis of the tracheal ring and placed 1.5 millimeters from the midline. Current was applied over a range of voltages (3 volts [V], 4V, and 5V) for either 2 or 3 minutes. The degree of EMR-induced reshaping was quantified from photographs using digital techniques. Confocal imaging with fluorescent live and dead assays was conducted to determine viability of the tissue after EMR. Results Specimens that underwent EMR for 2 or 3 minutes at 4V or 5V were observed to have undergone significant (P <.05) reshaping relative to the control. Viability results demonstrated that EMR reshaping occurs at the expense of tissue injury, although the extent of injury is modest relative to conventional techniques. Conclusion EMR reshapes tracheal cartilage rings as a function of voltage and application time. It has potential as a minimally invasive and cost-efficient endoscopic technology to treat pathologic tracheal convexities. Given our findings, consideration of EMR for use in larger ex vivo tracheal segments and animal studies is now plausible. Level of Evidence N/A. PMID:25692713

  10. Effects of intracoronary melatonin on ischemia-reperfusion injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ekeløf, Sarah V; Halladin, Natalie L; Jensen, Svend E; Zaremba, Tomas; Aarøe, Jens; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Simonsen, Carsten W; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary occlusion is effectively treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention. However, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is at the moment an unavoidable consequence of the procedure. Oxidative stress is central in the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Melatonin, an endogenous hormone, acts through antioxidant mechanisms and could potentially minimize the myocardial injury. The aim of the experimental study was to examine the cardioprotective effects of melatonin in a porcine closed-chest reperfused infarction model. A total of 20 landrace pigs were randomized to a dosage of 200 mg (0.4 mg/mL) melatonin or placebo (saline). The intervention was administered intracoronary and intravenous. Infarct size, area at risk and microvascular obstruction were determined ex vivo by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Myocardial salvage index was calculated. The plasma levels of high-sensitive troponin T were assessed repeatedly. The experimenters were blinded with regard to treatment regimen. Melatonin did not significantly increase myocardial salvage index compared with placebo [melatonin 21.8% (16.1; 24.8) vs. placebo 20.2% (16.9; 27.0), p = 1.00]. The extent of microvascular obstruction was similar between the groups [melatonin 3.8% (2.7; 7.1) vs. placebo 3.7% (1.3; 7.7), p = 0.96]. The area under the curve for high-sensitive troponin T release was insignificantly reduced by 32% in the melatonin group [AUC melatonin 12,343.9 (6,889.2; 20,147.4) ng h/L vs. AUC placebo 18,285.3 (5,180.4; 23,716.8) ng h/L, p = 0.82]. Combined intracoronary and intravenous treatment with melatonin did not reduce myocardial reperfusion injury. The lack of a positive effect could be due to an ineffective dose of melatonin, a type II error or the timing of administration.

  11. Vascular smooth cell proliferation in perfusion culture of porcine carotid arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Dan; Lin, Peter H.; Yao Qizhi; Chen Changyi

    2008-08-08

    Objective of this study was to develop a novel in vitro artery culture system to study vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation of porcine carotid arteries in response to injury, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), and FGF2 conjugated with cytotoxin saporin (SAP). Perfusion-cultured porcine carotid arteries remained contractile in response to norepinephrine and relaxant to acetylcholine for up to 96 h. SMC proliferation of cultured arteries was detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in both non-injured and balloon-injured arteries. In the inner layer of the vessel wall near the lumen, SMC proliferation were less than 10% in uninjured vessels, 66% in injured vessels, 80% in injured vessels with FGF2 treatment, and 5% in injured vessels with treatment of FGF2-SAP. Thus, the cultured porcine carotid arteries were viable; and the injury stimulated SMC proliferation, which was significantly enhanced by FGF2 and inhibited by FGF2-SAP.

  12. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Porcine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    swine U6 i!D 19, ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) A porcine model of Pseudorronas induced acute lung injury...and the clinical picture seen in ARDS unfolds. Pseudomonas- induced ARDS in the porcine model has been used as an effective and reproducible model of...sepsis- induced ARDS in this laboratory. Because ARDS is mediated by numerous inflammatory mediators, it is likely that treatment will require several

  13. Coronary magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza; Appelbaum, Evan; Danias, Peter G; Hauser, Thomas H; Yeon, Susan B

    2007-02-01

    This article highlights the technical challenges and general imaging strategies for coronary MRI. This is followed by a review of the clinical results for the assessment of anomalous CAD, coronary artery aneurysms, native vessel integrity, and coronary artery bypass graft disease using the more commonly applied MRI methods. It concludes with a brief discussion of the advantages/disadvantages and clinical results comparing coronary MRI with multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography.

  14. Calcium channel receptor sites for (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 in coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Kimura, R; Harada, Y; Nakayama, K

    1990-01-01

    The receptor sites for 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca++ channel antagonists in porcine coronary artery were identified and characterized by a binding assay using (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 as a radioligand. Specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in porcine coronary artery was saturable, reversible and of high affinity (Kd = 0.24 nM) and it showed a pharmacological specificity as well as stereoselectivity which characterized the receptor sites for DHP Ca++ channel antagonists. DHP antagonists competed for the (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in order: PN 200-110 greater than mepirodipine greater than nisoldipine greater than nicardipine greater than nitrendipine greater than nimodipine greater than nifedipine greater than (-)-PN 200-110. (+)-PN 200-110 was approximately 140 times as potent as the (-)-isomer. The potencies (PKi) of these eight DHP Ca++ channel antagonists in competing for (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding sites in porcine coronary artery correlated well with their pharmacological potencies. Specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding in the coronary artery was enhanced by d-cis-diltiazem and was inhibited incompletely by verapamil and D-600. In EDTA-pretreated coronary artery, the maximal number of binding sites for specific (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 binding was reduced (80%) markedly, and it was restored to the untreated level by the addition of Ca++ and Mg++.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  20. Silencing porcine CMAH and GGTA1 genes significantly reduces xenogeneic consumption of human platelets by porcine livers

    PubMed Central

    Butler, James R.; Paris, Leela L.; Blankenship, Ross L.; Sidner, Richard A.; Martens, Gregory R.; Ladowski, Joeseph M.; Li, Ping; Estrada, Jose L; Tector, Matthew; Tector, A. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background A profound thrombocytopenia limits hepatic xenotransplantation in the pig-to-primate model. Porcine livers also have shown the ability to phagocytose human platelets in the absence of immune-mediate injury. Recently, inactivation of the porcine ASGR1 gene has been shown to decrease this phenomenon. Inactivating GGTA1 and CMAH genes has reduced the antibody-mediated barrier to xenotransplantation; herein we describe the effect that these modifications have on xenogeneic consumption of human platelets in the absence of immune-mediated graft injury. Methods WT, ASGR1−/−, GGTA1−/−, and GGTA1−/−CMAH−/− knockout pigs were compared for their xenogeneic hepatic consumption of human platelets. An in vitro assay was established to measure the association of human platelets with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) by immunohistochemistry. Perfusion models were used to measure human platelet uptake in livers from WT, ASGR1−/−, GGTA1−/−, and GGTA1−/− CMAH−/− pigs. Results GGTA1−/−, CMAH−/− LSECs exhibited reduced levels of human platelet binding in vitro, when compared to GGTA1−/− and WT LSECs. In a continuous perfusion model, GGTA1−/− CMAH−/− livers consumed fewer human platelets than GGTA1−/− and WT livers. GGTA1−/− CMAH−/− livers also consumed fewer human platelets than ASGR1−/− livers in a single pass model. Conclusions Silencing the porcine carbohydrate genes necessary to avoid antibody-mediated rejection in a pig-to-human model also reduces the xenogeneic consumption of human platelets by the porcine liver. The combination of these genetic modifications may be an effective strategy to limit the thrombocytopenia associated with pig-to-human hepatic xenotransplantation. PMID:26906939

  1. MicroRNA-130a alleviates human coronary artery endothelial cell injury and inflammatory responses by targeting PTEN via activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chun-Li; Liu, Bin; Shi, Yong-Feng; Liu, Ning; Yan, You-You; Zhang, Ji-Chang; Xue, Xin; Wang, Jin-Peng; Zhao, Zhuo; Liu, Jian-Gen; Li, Yang-Xue; Zhang, Xiao-Hao; Wu, Jun-Duo

    2016-01-01

    Our study aims to investigate the roles of microRNA-130a (miR-130a) in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) injury and inflammatory responses by targeting PTEN through the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. HCAECs were treated with 1.0 mmol/L homocysteine (HCY) and assigned into eight groups: the blank group, the negative control (NC) group, the miR-130a mimics group, the miR-130a inhibitors group, the si-PTEN group, the Wortmannin group, the miR-130a inhibitors + si-PTEN group and the miR-130a mimics + Wortmannin group. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to validate the relationship between miR-130a and PTEN. The expressions of miR-130a, PTEN and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway-related proteins were detected by qRT-PCR assay and Western blotting. MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining were adopted to testify cell growth and apoptosis. The NO kit assay was used to detect the NO release. ELISA was conducted to measure serum cytokine levels. Luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed the target relationship between miR-130a and PTEN. Compared with the blank and NC groups, the miR-130a mimics and si-PTEN groups showed significant increases in the expressions of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway-related proteins, cell viability and the NO release, while serum cytokine levels and cell apoptosis were decreased; by contrast, an opposite trend was observed in miR-130a inhibitors and Wortmannin groups. However, no significant difference was found in the miR-130a inhibitors + si-PTEN and miR-130a mimics + Wortmannin groups when compared with the blank group. These results indicate that miR-130a could alleviate HCAECs injury and inflammatory responses by down-regulating PTEN and activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:27713121

  2. Emerging Therapies for Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Scott M.; Wilensky, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    In the majority of cases acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are caused by activation and aggregation of platelets and subsequent thrombus formation leading to a decrease in coronary artery blood flow. Recent focus on the treatment of ACS has centered on reducing the response of platelets to vascular injury as well as inhibiting fibrin deposition. Novel therapies include more effective P2Y12 receptor blockers thereby reducing inter-individual variability, targeting the platelet thrombin receptor (protease activated receptor 1) as well as directly inhibiting factor Xa or thrombin activity. In this review we discuss the clinical data evaluating the effectiveness of these various new ACS treatment options. PMID:22028691

  3. Simulations of Porcine Eye Exposure to Primary Blast Insult

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Richard; Gray, Walt; Sponsel, William E.; Lund, Brian J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Groth, Sylvia L.; Reilly, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A computational model of the porcine eye was developed to simulate primary blast exposure. This model facilitates understanding of blast-induced injury mechanisms. Methods A computational model of the porcine eye was used to simulate the effects of primary blast loading for comparison with experimental findings from shock tube experiments. The eye model was exposed to overpressure-time histories measured during physical experiments. Deformations and mechanical stresses within various ocular tissues were then examined for correlation with pathological findings in the experiments. Results Stresses and strains experienced in the eye during a primary blast event increase as the severity of the blast exposure increases. Peak stresses in the model occurred in locations in which damage was most often observed in the physical experiments. Conclusions Blast injuries to the anterior chamber may be due to inertial displacement of the lens and ciliary body while posterior damage may arise due to contrecoup interactions of the vitreous and retina. Correlation of modeling predictions with physical experiments lends confidence that the model accurately represents the conditions found in the physical experiments. Translational Relevance This computational model offers insights into the mechanisms of ocular injuries arising due to primary blast and may be used to simulate the effects of new protective eyewear designs. PMID:26336633

  4. Restenosis of the coronary stenotic lesions treated by holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Shunichi; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Goto, Yoichi; Itoh, Akira; Ozono, Keizaburo; Daikoku, Satoshi; Haze, Kazuo

    1994-07-01

    Clinical efficacy of newly developed Holmium YAG laser coronary angioplasty (HLCA) was assessed for 30 patients with angina. There were 12 near left main trunk (LMT) lesions and 4 aorto- ostial lesions. Adjunctive balloon angioplasty was performed for 25 of 30 lesions. Delivered energy ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 watts/pulse and the total exposure time ranged from 6 to 55 seconds. External diameter of laser catheter was 1.5 mm for 13 lesions, 1.4 mm for 17 lesions, and 1.7 mm for 5 lesions. Laser success, defined as 20% reduction of stenotic ratio, was obtained in 21 of 30 (70%) and overall procedural success rate was 93%. There were 3 cases with acute coronary occlusions relieved by adjunctive balloon angioplasty and one coronary perforation without manifestation of cardiac tamponade. There were no large coronary dissection which involved more than 5 mm of the coronary artery. Follow up coronary angiography after 3 months showed restenosis in 14 of 27 patients (52%). Percent stenosis after lasering (56%) was similar to that at 3 months after (62%). HLCA is acutely effective treatment for lesions near LMT, because of low incidence of large coronary dissection. However, angiographical restenosis rate is high at 3 months after HLCA. This may be attributed to the relatively large residual stenosis after the procedure and vessel injury caused by shock wave.

  5. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  6. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  7. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  8. High rate properties of porcine skull bone tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwig, Kyle Jeffry

    Several recent studies have shown the importance of understanding the nature of blast injuries. Traditionally, the lungs and other air filled organs were the focus of these injuries but it is being discovered that some level of brain trauma may result after encountering a blast. These injuries are referred to as traumatic brain injuries, or TBI. There has been many clinical studies and statistical analyses done concerning these injuries, but there is still no physical understanding of the problem. In order to develop a model of how this injury can occur, rate dependent material properties of the tissues the stress wave will travel through are needed. In this study, the compressive response of porcine skull bone through the thickness direction was experimentally determined over a wide range of rates, ranging from 0.001 sec -1 to approximately 3000 sec-1. The results reveal that for most mechanical properties there is a clear rate dependence of the material. However, only one subset of the skull section appeared to have a rate dependent initial modulus, with the rest showing no significant statistical dependence on loading rate. Other mechanical properties appeared to be affected by the loading rate, including the strain energy density.

  9. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease affecting US swine. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and is recognized as reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of piglets and growing pigs. This book chapter is part of the Office of International E...

  10. Revascularization therapy for coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Ferguson, J J

    1995-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass surgery relieves the symptoms of myocardial ischemia and prolongs survival of patients with more severe coronary artery disease. Randomized trials of surgical therapy have consistently shown that the benefits of surgical revascularization are proportional to the amount of myocardium affected by, or at risk for, ischemic injury. This risk is inferred from angiographically delineated coronary anatomy, estimates of left ventricular function, and physiologic testing. The population that may see a survival benefit from surgical revascularization has probably been expanded beyond that reported in the VA, CASS, and ECSS trials, due to improved perioperative care, longer graft survival, and the use of internal mammary artery grafts. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty revascularizes myocardium by dilating a stenotic segment of coronary artery. While successful in relieving the symptoms of myocardial ischemia, PTCA is hindered by the occurrence of abrupt vessel closure and the frequent development of restenosis. Furthermore, firm proof of a survival benefit, outside of emergency therapy for acute myocardial infarction, is not yet available. However, because the risk of procedure-related death or serious complication is lower than that seen with bypass surgery, PTCA provides a useful alternative revascularization method for patients with less extensive disease, in whom the risk of surgery may equal or exceed any beneficial effect. New technology and growing experience are widening the scope of percutaneous revascularization by extending the hope of symptomatic relief and survival benefit even to patients with extensive, severe coronary artery disease. Comparisons between surgical therapy and PTCA in select populations with single- and multivessel coronary artery disease have shown that PTCA is not as effective as surgery for long-term symptomatic control, and that it often requires repeat PTCA or cross-over to bypass surgery; however, long

  11. A pilot study on reparixin, a CXCR1/2 antagonist, to assess safety and efficacy in attenuating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation after on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    PubMed

    Opfermann, P; Derhaschnig, U; Felli, A; Wenisch, J; Santer, D; Zuckermann, A; Dworschak, M; Jilma, B; Steinlechner, B

    2015-04-01

    Reparixin, a CXCR 1/2 antagonist, has been shown to mitigate ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in various organ systems in animals, but data in humans are scarce. The aim of this double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reparixin to suppress IRI and inflammation in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Patients received either reparixin or placebo (n = 16 in each group) after induction of anaesthesia until 8 h after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We compared markers of systemic and pulmonary inflammation, surrogates of myocardial IRI and clinical outcomes using Mann-Whitney U- and Fisher's exact tests. Thirty- and 90-day mortality was 0% in both groups. No side effects were observed in the treatment group. Surgical revision, pleural and pericardial effusion, infection and atrial fibrillation rates were not different between groups. Reparixin significantly reduced the proportion of neutrophil granulocytes in blood at the beginning [49%, interquartile range (IQR) = 45-57 versus 58%, IQR = 53-66, P = 0·035], end (71%, IQR = 67-76 versus 79%, IQR = 71-83, P = 0·023) and 1 h after CPB (73%, IQR = 71-75 versus 77%, IQR = 72-80, P = 0·035). Reparixin patients required a lesser positive fluid balance during surgery (2575 ml, IQR = 2027-3080 versus 3200 ml, IQR = 2928-3778, P = 0·029) and during ICU stay (2603 ml, IQR = 1023-4288 versus 4200 ml, IQR = 2313-8160, P = 0·021). Numerically, more control patients required noradrenaline ≥ 0·11 μg/kg/min (50 versus 19%, P = 0·063) and dobutamine (50 versus 25%, P = 0·14). Therefore, administration of reparixin in CABG patients appears to be feasible and safe. It concurrently attenuated postoperative granulocytosis in peripheral blood.

  12. Impact of coronary bifurcation morphology on wave propagation

    PubMed Central

    Rivolo, Simone; Hadjilucas, Lucas; Sinclair, Matthew; van Horssen, Pepijn; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen; Wesolowski, Roman; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Smith, Nicolas P.

    2016-01-01

    The branching pattern of the coronary vasculature is a key determinant of its function and plays a crucial role in shaping the pressure and velocity wave forms measured for clinical diagnosis. However, although multiple scaling laws have been proposed to characterize the branching pattern, the implications they have on wave propagation remain unassessed to date. To bridge this gap, we have developed a new theoretical framework by combining the mathematical formulation of scaling laws with the wave propagation theory in the pulsatile flow regime. This framework was then validated in multiple species using high-resolution cryomicrotome images of porcine, canine, and human coronary networks. Results demonstrate that the forward well-matchedness (no reflection for pressure/flow waves traveling from the coronary stem toward the microcirculation) is a salient feature in the coronary vasculature, and this result remains robust under many scenarios of the underlying pulse wave speed distribution assumed in the network. This result also implies a significant damping of the backward traveling waves, especially for smaller vessels (radius, <0.3 mm). Furthermore, the theoretical prediction of increasing area ratios (ratio between the area of the mother and daughter vessels) in more symmetric bifurcations found in the distal circulation was confirmed by experimental measurements. No differences were observed by clustering the vessel segments in terms of transmurality (from epicardium to endocardium) or perfusion territories (left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery). PMID:27402665

  13. Redistribution of von Willebrand factor in porcine carotid arteries after balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Giddings, J C; Banning, A P; Ralis, H; Lewis, M J

    1997-10-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a well-characterized multimeric glycoprotein present in platelets and plasma and synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. Its role in platelet-vessel wall interactions has been studied extensively, but its involvement in intravascular events after balloon angioplasty has not been clarified. VWF antigen is not present in porcine arterial endothelium (except for the pulmonary artery) but is readily detected in porcine venous endothelial cells. We have examined the localization of VWF in porcine vessel walls during neointima formation after bilateral carotid balloon-angioplasty. Endothelium was denuded by balloon injury but regenerated by 7 days and was fully confluent by 42 days. VWF was detected at the site of injury in localized, adherent platelet aggregates at 10 minutes after angioplasty that were not present at later time points. A well-demarcated homogeneous layer of VWF was observed on the luminal surface from 30 minutes to day 7, but there was a progressive shift of positive staining from the lumen to the outer media from days 1 to 7. VWF was also strongly detected at sites proximal and distal to the balloon injury from 30 minutes to day 7, although endothelial disruption was minimal and the monolayer remained substantially intact at these sites. Regrowing endothelial cells appeared to contain granular VWF from days 12 to 21, but this was not readily evident at later time points. The results suggest that balloon injury is associated with deposition and medial absorption of plasma or platelet VWF in this porcine model over a time period that precedes and overlaps vascular smooth muscle proliferation and endothelial recoverage. The findings provide evidence to support the concept of a wider role for VWF in tissue injury responses.

  14. Vascular mechanics of the coronary artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veress, A. I.; Vince, D. G.; Anderson, P. M.; Cornhill, J. F.; Herderick, E. E.; Klingensmith, J. D.; Kuban, B. D.; Greenberg, N. L.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes our research into the vascular mechanics of the coronary artery and plaque. The three sections describe the determination of arterial mechanical properties using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), a constitutive relation for the arterial wall, and finite element method (FEM) models of the arterial wall and atheroma. METHODS: Inflation testing of porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries was conducted. The changes in the vessel geometry were monitored using IVUS, and intracoronary pressure was recorded using a pressure transducer. The creep and quasistatic stress/strain responses were determined. A Standard Linear Solid (SLS) was modified to reproduce the non-linear elastic behavior of the arterial wall. This Standard Non-linear Solid (SNS) was implemented into an axisymetric thick-walled cylinder numerical model. Finite element analysis models were created for five age groups and four levels of stenosis using the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis Youth (PDAY) database. RESULTS: The arteries exhibited non-linear elastic behavior. The total tissue creep strain was epsilon creep = 0.082 +/- 0.018 mm/mm. The numerical model could reproduce both the non-linearity of the porcine data and time dependent behavior of the arterial wall found in the literature with a correlation coefficient of 0.985. Increasing age had a strong positive correlation with the shoulder stress level, (r = 0.95). The 30% stenosis had the highest shoulder stress due to the combination of a fully formed lipid pool and a thin cap. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the solid mechanics of the arterial wall and the atheroma provide important insights into the mechanisms involved in plaque rupture.

  15. Developmental origin of age-related coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ke; Díaz-Trelles, Ramon; Liu, Qiaozhen; Diez-Cuñado, Marta; Scimia, Maria-Cecilia; Cai, Wenqing; Sawada, Junko; Komatsu, Masanobu; Boyle, Joseph J.; Zhou, Bin; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Mercola, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Aim Age and injury cause structural and functional changes in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) that influence the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. Although paracrine signalling is widely believed to drive phenotypic changes in caSMCs, here we show that developmental origin within the fetal epicardium can have a profound effect as well. Methods and results Fluorescent dye and transgene pulse-labelling techniques in mice revealed that the majority of caSMCs are derived from Wt1+, Gata5-Cre+ cells that migrate before E12.5, whereas a minority of cells are derived from a later-emigrating, Wt1+, Gata5-Cre− population. We functionally evaluated the influence of early emigrating cells on coronary artery development and disease by Gata5-Cre excision of Rbpj, which prevents their contribution to coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Ablation of the Gata5-Cre+ population resulted in coronary arteries consisting solely of Gata5-Cre− caSMCs. These coronary arteries appeared normal into early adulthood; however, by 5–8 months of age, they became progressively fibrotic, lost the adventitial outer elastin layer, were dysfunctional and leaky, and animals showed early mortality. Conclusion Taken together, these data reveal heterogeneity in the fetal epicardium that is linked to coronary artery integrity, and that distortion of the coronaries epicardial origin predisposes to adult onset disease. PMID:26054850

  16. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  17. Coronary revascularisation in women

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, G W

    2006-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in men and women worldwide. It is still considered a disease of men and there has been little recognition of its importance in women. Gender differences exist in acute and chronic ischaemia in terms of clinical manifestations, investigations and treatment. There are clear gender differences in coronary revascularisation with a higher mortality seen in women. At the time a woman presents with coronary artery disease she is older and has more co‐morbid factors. Furthermore, women have smaller coronary arteries making them more difficult to revascularise. In recent years there has been a general trend towards improved outcomes in women undergoing both surgical and percutaneous coronary intervention. The increasing use of drug eluting stents and adjunctive medical treatment as well as the use of off‐pump bypass surgery needs further evaluation in terms of gender differences. This article reviews the current literature on coronary revascularisation in women. PMID:16614263

  18. Assessment of coronary thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.

  19. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  20. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  4. Blocking porcine sialoadhesin improves extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion with human blood

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Joshua P.; Vogel, Thomas; Burlak, Christopher; Coussios, Constantin; Dominguez, Javier; Friend, Peter; Rees, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Patients in fulminant hepatic failure currently do not have a temporary means of support while awaiting liver transplantation. A potential therapeutic approach for such patients is the use of extracorporeal perfusion with porcine livers as a form of “liver dialysis”. During a 72-hour extracorporeal perfusion of porcine livers with human blood, porcine Kupffer cells bind to and phagocytose human red blood cells (hRBC) causing the hematocrit to decrease to 2.5% of the original value. Our laboratory has identified porcine sialoadhesin expressed on Kupffer cells as the lectin responsible for binding N-acetylneuraminic acid on the surface of the hRBC. We evaluated whether blocking porcine sialoadhesin prevents the recognition and subsequent destruction of hRBCs seen during extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion. Ex vivo studies were performed using wild type pig livers perfused with isolated hRBCs for 72-hours in the presence of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody or isotype control. The addition of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody to an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model reduces the loss of hRBC over a 72 hour period. Sustained liver function was demonstrated throughout the perfusion. This study illustrates the role of sialoadhesin in mediating the destruction of hRBCs in an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model. PMID:23822217

  5. Progress in coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Silverton, P

    1986-10-01

    Angioplasty offers an alternative to bypass grafting for an increasing number of patients with coronary artery disease. Improvements in catheter design and manufacture have been responsible for an enlargement of the indications which now include patients with multiple vessel coronary artery disease and those with acute evolving myocardial infarction. The application of laser technology may assist in the reopening of chronically occluded arteries.

  6. Acute coronary syndromes as auto-inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    From the onset to the healing stage of acute coronary syndromes, an endless inflammation has been presented with complex, multiple cross-talk mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Even though the early reperfusion treatment either by thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention provides the excellent clinical benefits in patients with acute coronary syndromes, ischemia/ reperfusion injury may somewhat offset those great advantages. Inflammation, although potentially protective, has been deeply associated with those detrimental conditions. The hexagonal vascular inflammatory network which is composed of activated various leukocytes, vascular endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, platelets, excess reactive oxygen species, and cholesterol may contribute these vicious circles. To address these complex syndromes with more benefits regarding the prevention and treatment, this review comprehensively updates the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes from the view points of vascular inflammation.

  7. Pathophysiology of coronary collaterals.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-02-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation.

  8. Pathophysiology of Coronary Collaterals#

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Michael; Seiler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While the existence of structural adaptation of coronary anastomoses is undisputed, the potential of coronary collaterals to be capable of functional adaptation has been questioned. For many years, collateral vessels were thought to be rigid tubes allowing only limited blood flow governed by the pressure gradient across them. This concept was consistent with the notion that although collaterals could provide adequate blood flow to maintain resting levels, they would be unable to increase blood flow sufficiently in situations of increased myocardial oxygen demand. However, more recent studies have demonstrated the capability of the collateral circulation to deliver sufficient blood flow even during exertion or pharmacologic stress. Moreover, it has been shown that increases in collateral flow could be attributed directly to collateral vasomotion. This review summarizes the pathophysiology of the coronary collateral circulation, ie the functional adapation of coronary collaterals to acute alterations in the coronary circulation. PMID:23701025

  9. [Research advances in porcine bocavirus].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2012-03-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) was considered as a new member of the genus Bocavirus of the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, which was discovered in Swedish swine herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 2009. At present, as an emerging pathogen, it was paid great attention by researchers at home and abroad. This paper referred to some published literatures and reviewed several aspects of PBoV including its finding, classification, genome structure and replication, epidemiology, associativity with diseases, cultural and diagnostic methods.

  10. Coronary plaque imaging by coronary computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has become the useful noninvasive imaging modality alternative to the invasive coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). With the development of technical aspects of coronary CTA, clinical practice and research are increasingly shifting toward defining the clinical implication of plaque morphology and patients outcomes by coronary CTA. In this review we discuss the coronary plaque morphology estimated by CTA beyond coronary angiography including the comparison to the currently available other imaging modalities used to examine morphological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. Furthermore, this review underlies the value of a combined assessment of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion in patients with CAD, and adds to an increasing body of evidence suggesting an added diagnostic value when combining both modalities. We hope that an integrated, multi-modality imaging approach will become the gold standard for noninvasive evaluation of coronary plaque morphology and outcome data in clinical practice. PMID:24876919

  11. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Bajaj, Sharad; Virk, Hartaj; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i) > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii) > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii) progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26823982

  12. Ribavirin efficiently suppresses porcine nidovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngnam; Lee, Changhee

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that represent emerging viral pathogens causing heavy economic impacts on the swine industry. Although ribavirin is a well-known antiviral drug against a broad range of both DNA and RNA viruses in vitro, its inhibitory effect and mechanism of action on porcine nidovirus replication remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether ribavirin suppresses porcine nidovirus infection. Our results demonstrated that ribavirin treatment dose-dependently inhibited the replication of both nidoviruses. The antiviral activity of ribavirin on porcine nidovirus replication was found to be primarily exerted at early times post-infection. Treatment with ribavirin resulted in marked reduction of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis, viral protein expression, and progeny virus production in a dose-dependent manner. Investigations into the mechanism of action of ribavirin against PRRSV and PEDV revealed that the addition of guanosine to the ribavirin treatment significantly reversed the antiviral effects, suggesting that depletion of the intracellular GTP pool by inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase may be essential for ribavirin activity. Further sequencing analysis showed that the mutation frequency in ribavirin-treated cells was similar to that in untreated cells, indicating that ribavirin did not induce error-prone replication. Taken together, our data indicate that ribavirin might not only be a good therapeutic agent against porcine nidovirus, but also a potential candidate to be evaluated against other human and animal coronaviruses.

  13. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention.

  14. A porcine model of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Saalfrank, A; Janssen, K-P; Ravon, M; Flisikowski, K; Eser, S; Steiger, K; Flisikowska, T; Müller-Fliedner, P; Schulze, É; Brönner, C; Gnann, A; Kappe, E; Böhm, B; Schade, B; Certa, U; Saur, D; Esposito, I; Kind, A; Schnieke, A

    2016-01-01

    We previously produced pigs with a latent oncogenic TP53 mutation. Humans with TP53 germline mutations are predisposed to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers, predominantly breast, brain, adrenal gland cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and osteosarcomas. Loss of p53 function has been observed in >50% of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) convert to a transformed phenotype after activation of latent oncogenic TP53R167H and KRASG12D, and overexpression of MYC promotes tumorigenesis. The process mimics key molecular aspects of human sarcomagenesis. Transformed porcine MSCs exhibit genomic instability, with complex karyotypes, and develop into sarcomas on transplantation into immune-deficient mice. In pigs, heterozygous knockout of TP53 was sufficient for spontaneous osteosarcoma development in older animals, whereas homozygous TP53 knockout resulted in multiple large osteosarcomas in 7–8-month-old animals. This is the first report that engineered mutation of an endogenous tumour-suppressor gene leads to invasive cancer in pigs. Unlike in Trp53 mutant mice, osteosarcoma developed in the long bones and skull, closely recapitulating the human disease. These animals thus promise a model for juvenile osteosarcoma, a relatively uncommon but devastating disease. PMID:26974205

  15. Is there a role for robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass in patients with a colostomy?

    PubMed

    Gibber, Marc; Lehr, Eric J; Kon, Zachary N; Wehman, P Brody; Griffith, Bartley P; Bonatti, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative colostomy presents a significant risk of sternal wound complications, mediastinitis, and ostomy injury in patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting. Less invasive procedures in coronary surgery have a potential to reduce the risk of sternal wound healing problems. Robotic totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with a colostomy has not been reported. We describe a case of completely endoscopic coronary surgery using the da Vinci Si system in a patient with a transverse colostomy. Single left internal mammary artery grafting to the left anterior coronary artery was performed successfully on the beating heart. We regard this technique as the least invasive method of surgical coronary revascularization with a potential to reduce the risk of surgical site infection and mediastinitis in patients with a colostomy.

  16. Refrigeration and freezing of porcine tissue does not affect the retardation of fragment simulating projectiles.

    PubMed

    Breeze, J; Carr, D J; Mabbott, A; Beckett, S; Clasper, J C

    2015-05-01

    Explosively propelled fragments are the most common cause of injury to UK service personnel in modern conflicts. Numerical injury models to simulate such injuries utilise algorithms based upon gelatin and animal tissue testing but data is limited on many fragment simulating projectiles and these simulants cannot represent human anatomy. Testing with post mortem specimens may overcome this limitation but no information exists about how post mortem tissue changes and storage conditions in humans or animals may affect projectile penetration. Two chisel nosed cylinders (0.49 g and 1.10 g) and a 0.51 g (5 mm) sphere were fired into three groups of porcine tissue (fresh, refrigerated and frozen then refrigerated) and compared to 20% gelatin. Depth of projectile penetration was ascertained with the assistance of computed tomography and kinetic energy absorption by tissues measured using Doppler radar and high speed photography. No difference in depth of penetration was found between porcine tissue stored in the different manners compared with 20% gelatin by impact velocities less than 100 m/s. Insufficient numbers of projectiles were retained in tissue at higher velocities for statistical analysis to be undertaken. Energy absorbed per millimetre of tissue ranged between 0.42 and 0.98 J/mm for different porcine tissue despite differing storage. This pilot study would suggest that the effect of refrigerating or freezing porcine tissue followed by thawing has no effect on its ability to retard these projectiles. Further research is required to ascertain if these results occur at greater velocities and for other types of projectile.

  17. Comparison of the biomechanical tensile and compressive properties of decellularised and natural porcine meniscus.

    PubMed

    Abdelgaied, A; Stanley, M; Galfe, M; Berry, H; Ingham, E; Fisher, J

    2015-06-01

    Meniscal repair is widely used as a treatment for meniscus injury. However, where meniscal damage has progressed such that repair is not possible, approaches for partial meniscus replacement are now being developed which have the potential to restore the functional role of the meniscus, in stabilising the knee joint, absorbing and distributing stress during loading, and prevent early degenerative joint disease. One attractive potential solution to the current lack of meniscal replacements is the use of decellularised natural biological scaffolds, derived from xenogeneic tissues, which are produced by treating the native tissue to remove the immunogenic cells. The current study investigated the effect of decellularisation on the biomechanical tensile and compressive (indentation and unconfined) properties of the porcine medial meniscus through an experimental-computational approach. The results showed that decellularised medial porcine meniscus maintained the tensile biomechanical properties of the native meniscus, but had lower tensile initial elastic modulus. In compression, decellularised medial porcine meniscus generally showed lower elastic modulus and higher permeability compared to that of the native meniscus. These changes in the biomechanical properties, which ranged from less than 1% to 40%, may be due to the reduction of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) content during the decellularisation process. The predicted biomechanical properties for the decellularised medial porcine meniscus were within the reported range for the human meniscus, making it an appropriate biological scaffold for consideration as a partial meniscus replacement.

  18. Acute coronary syndromes in patients with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Seecheran, Valmiki K.; Giddings, Stanley L.

    2017-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has considerably increased the life expectancy of patients infected with HIV. Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of mortality in patients infected with HIV. This is primarily attributed to their increased survival, HAART-induced metabolic derangements, and to HIV itself. The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in HIV is both multifactorial and complex – involving direct endothelial injury and dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and a significant contribution from traditional cardiac risk factors. The advent of HAART has since heralded a remarkable improvement in outcomes, but at the expense of other unforeseen issues. It is thus of paramount importance to swiftly recognize and manage acute coronary syndromes in HIV-infected patients to attenuate adverse complications, which should translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27845996

  19. Fatal delayed cardiac tamponade due to rupture of micropseudoaneurysm of left anterior descending coronary artery following stab to the chest.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jingjun; Li, Shangxun; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Duan, Yijie; Li, Wenhe; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic coronary pseudoaneurysm has been described to be mainly associated to iatrogenic lesion of the coronary arteries. However, chest-stab-wound-related coronary pseudoaneurysm caused by isolated partial incision of a coronary artery giving rise to fatal delayed cardiac tamponade is very rare. We describe an autopsy case in which this potentially fatal complication developed 8 days later after a thoracic stab wound. Unfortunately, the imaging examination failed to detect this defect during hospitalization. Postmortem examination revealed that the posterior wall of the left anterior descending coronary artery was intact but that the anterior wall was incised, forming a micropseudoaneurysm which had ruptured. This case highlights that isolated coronary artery injuries must be considered in any patient with a penetrating wound to the thorax, and coronary pseudoaneurysms should not be missed in these patients.

  20. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase. This enzyme is associated with the degradation of lung tissue in people suffering from emphysema. It is useful in studying causes of this disease. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Charles Bugg.

  1. Pharmacological characterisation of capsaicin-induced relaxations in human and porcine isolated arteries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Lozano-Cuenca, Jair; Villalón, Carlos M.; de Vries, René; Garrelds, Ingrid M.; Avezaat, Cees J. J.; van Kats, Jorge P.; Saxena, Pramod R.

    2007-01-01

    Capsaicin, a pungent constituent from red chilli peppers, activates sensory nerve fibres via transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors type 1 (TRPV1) to release neuropeptides like calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Capsaicin-sensitive nerves are widely distributed in human and porcine vasculature. In this study, we examined the mechanism of capsaicin-induced relaxations, with special emphasis on the role of CGRP, using various pharmacological tools. Segments of human and porcine proximal and distal coronary arteries, as well as cranial arteries, were mounted in organ baths. Concentration response curves to capsaicin were constructed in the absence or presence of the CGRP receptor antagonist olcegepant (BIBN4096BS, 1 μM), the neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist L-733060 (0.5 μM), the voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker ruthenium red (100 μM), the TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine (5 μM), the nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester HCl (l-NAME; 100 μM), the gap junction blocker 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (10 μM), as well as the RhoA kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (1 μM). Further, we also used the K+ channel inhibitors 4-aminopyridine (1 mM), charybdotoxin (0.5 μM) + apamin (0.1 μM) and iberiotoxin (0.5 μM) + apamin (0.1 μM). The role of the endothelium was assessed by endothelial denudation in distal coronary artery segments. In distal coronary artery segments, we also measured levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) after exposure to capsaicin, and in human segments, we also assessed the amount of CGRP released in the organ bath fluid after exposure to capsaicin. Capsaicin evoked concentration-dependent relaxant responses in precontracted arteries, but none of the above-mentioned inhibitors did affect these relaxations. There was no increase in the cAMP levels after exposure to capsaicin, unlike after (exogenously administered) α-CGRP. Interestingly, there were

  2. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  3. Coronary artery fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.

    2002-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696067

  4. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... angina? This content was last reviewed July 2015. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) ... Recovery FAQs • Heart Attack Tools & Resources • Support Network Heart Attack Tools & Resources What Is a Heart Attack? How ...

  5. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to open coronary arteries that are narrowed or blocked by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque. PCI may ... that will highlight the blockage. To open a blocked artery, your doctor will insert another catheter over ...

  6. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocker or a long-acting nitrate long-term. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this problem worse. They should be ...

  7. Coronary Artery Fistula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Figure 1A; oblique, Figure 1B), the left circumflex artery was identified by its black central lumen and noted to arise normally from the left main...but the mid left circumflex coronary artery was less well seen because of volume averaging with the left atrium and pulmonary venous confluence which...Figures 1C-D. Select oblique conventional x-ray views (C, early phase; D, late phase) from a coronary catheterization study following injection of

  8. Influence of coronary artery diameter on eNOS protein content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. H.; Turk, J. R.; Schrage, W. G.; Woodman, C. R.; Price, E. M.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the content of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein (eNOS protein/g total artery protein) increases with decreasing artery diameter in the coronary arterial tree. Content of eNOS protein was determined in porcine coronary arteries with immunoblot analysis. Arteries were isolated in six size categories from each heart: large arteries [301- to 2,500-microm internal diameter (ID)], small arteries (201- to 300-microm ID), resistance arteries (151- to 200-microm ID), large arterioles (101- to 150-microm ID), intermediate arterioles (51- to 100-microm ID), and small arterioles(<50-microm ID). To obtain sufficient protein for analysis from small- and intermediate-sized arterioles, five to seven arterioles 1-2 mm in length were pooled into one sample for each animal. Results establish that the number of smooth muscle cells per endothelial cell decreases from a number of 10 to 15 in large coronary arteries to 1 in the smallest arterioles. Immunohistochemistry revealed that eNOS is located only in endothelial cells in all sizes of coronary artery and in coronary capillaries. Contrary to our hypothesis, eNOS protein content did not increase with decreasing size of coronary artery. Indeed, the smallest coronary arterioles had less eNOS protein per gram of total protein than the large coronary arteries. These results indicate that eNOS protein content is greater in the endothelial cells of conduit arteries, resistance arteries, and large arterioles than in small coronary arterioles.

  9. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Selsby, Joshua T; Ross, Jason W; Nonneman, Dan; Hollinger, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This disease has been studied using a variety of animal models including fish, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially to our mechanistic understanding of the disease and disease progression, limitations inherent to each model have slowed the clinical advancement of therapies, which necessitates the development of novel large-animal models. Several porcine dystrophin-deficient models have been identified, although disease severity may be so severe as to limit their potential contributions to the field. We have recently identified and completed the initial characterization of a natural porcine model of dystrophin insufficiency. Muscles from these animals display characteristic focal necrosis concomitant with decreased abundance and localization of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex components. These pigs recapitulate many of the cardinal features of muscular dystrophy, have elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and preliminarily appear to display altered locomotion. They also suffer from sudden death preceded by EKG abnormalities. Pig dystrophinopathy models could allow refinement of dosing strategies in human-sized animals in preparation for clinical trials. From an animal handling perspective, these pigs can generally be treated normally, with the understanding that acute stress can lead to sudden death. In summary, the ability to create genetically modified pig models and the serendipitous discovery of genetic disease in the swine industry has resulted in the emergence of new animal tools to facilitate the critical objective of improving the quality and length of life for boys afflicted with such a devastating disease.

  10. Hypercholesterolemia increases coronary endothelial dysfunction, lipid content, and accelerated atherosclerosis after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Perrault, L P; Mahlberg, F; Breugnot, C; Bidouard, J P; Villeneuve, N; Vilaine, J P; Vanhoutte, P M

    2000-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia may increase endothelial damage and promote accelerated atherogenesis in graft coronary vasculopathy. To study the effects of hypercholesterolemia on coronary endothelial dysfunction, intimal hyperplasia, and lipid content, a porcine model of heterotopic heart transplantation, allowing nonacute rejection without immunosuppressive drugs, was used. A high cholesterol diet was fed to donor and recipient swine 1 month before and after transplantation. The endothelial function of coronary arteries of native and transplanted hearts from cholesterol-fed animals was studied in organ chambers 30 days after implantation and compared with endothelial function in arteries from animals fed a normal diet. The total serum cholesterol increased 3-fold in donors and recipients. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to serotonin, to the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist UK14,304, and to the direct G-protein activator sodium fluoride were decreased significantly in allografted hearts compared with native hearts from both groups. Relaxations to the calcium ionophore A23187 and bradykinin were decreased significantly in allografts from animals fed the high cholesterol diet. The prevalence of intimal hyperplasia was significantly increased in coronary arteries from hypercholesterolemic swine. There was a significant increase in the lipid content of allograft arteries of hypercholesterolemic recipients. Hypercholesterolemia causes a general coronary endothelial dysfunction, increases the prevalence of intimal hyperplasia, and augments the incorporation of lipids in the vascular wall after heart transplantation. Hyperlipidemia accelerates graft coronary atherosclerosis through its effects on the endothelium.

  11. Aspergillus coronary embolization causing acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M; Trigg, M; de Alarcon, P; Giller, R

    1988-05-01

    An increased frequency of disseminated aspergillosis has been observed in the last decade, mostly occurring in immunocompromised patients including the bone marrow transplant population. Cardiac involvement by Aspergillus remains rare. We report the clinical and postmortem findings of an unusual case of Aspergillus pancarditis in a 7-year-old bone marrow transplant patient with Aspergillus embolization to the coronary arteries leading to a massive acute myocardial infarction. This case suggests that myocardial injury secondary to disseminated aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chest pain in the immunocompromised pediatric patient.

  12. Chemokine guided angiogenesis directs coronary vasculature formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Michael R.M.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Long; Osorio, Arthela; Burns, C. Geoffrey; Burns, Caroline E.; Sucov, Henry M.; Siekmann, Arndt F.; Lien, Ching-Ling

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Interruption of coronary blood supply severely impairs heart function with often-fatal consequences for heart disease patients. However the formation and maturation of these coronary vessels is not fully understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of coronary vessel development in zebrafish. We observe that coronary vessels form in zebrafish by angiogenic sprouting of arterial cells derived from the endocardium at the atrioventricular canal. Endothelial cells express the CXC-motif chemokine receptor Cxcr4a and migrate to vascularize the ventricle under the guidance of the myocardium-expressed ligand Cxcl12b. cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to form a vascular network, whereas ectopic expression of Cxcl12b ligand induces coronary vessel formation. Importantly, cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to undergo heart regeneration following injury. Our results suggest that chemokine-signaling has an essential role in coronary vessel formation by directing migration of endocardium-derived endothelial cells. Poorly developed vasculature in cxcr4a mutants likely underlies decreased regenerative potential in adults. PMID:26017769

  13. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  14. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  15. Porcine models of digestive disease: the future of large animal translational research.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Liara M; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing interest in nonrodent translational models for the study of human disease. The pig, in particular, serves as a useful animal model for the study of pathophysiological conditions relevant to the human intestine. This review assesses currently used porcine models of gastrointestinal physiology and disease and provides a rationale for the use of these models for future translational studies. The pig has proven its utility for the study of fundamental disease conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, stress-induced intestinal dysfunction, and short bowel syndrome. Pigs have also shown great promise for the study of intestinal barrier function, surgical tissue manipulation and intervention, as well as biomaterial implantation and tissue transplantation. Advantages of pig models highlighted by these studies include the physiological similarity to human intestine and mechanisms of human disease. Emerging future directions for porcine models of human disease include the fields of transgenics and stem cell biology, with exciting implications for regenerative medicine.

  16. Characterization of decellularized scaffold derived from porcine meniscus for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Xi, Tingfei; Wei, Xiaojuan; Guo, Quanyi

    2016-06-01

    Menisci are fundamental fibrocartilaginous organs in knee joints. The injury in meniscus can impair normal knee function and predisposes patients to osteoarthritis. This study prepared decellularized meniscus scaffolds using a 1% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and sufficient rinsing steps. Complete cell removal was verified by hematoxylin and eosin staining and DNA content assay. Decellularized menisci had accordant tension properties to intact ones, but with declined compression properties. This occurred because the collagen fiber was not damaged but glycosaminoglycans was significantly lost during the decellularization process, which was confirmed by biochemical assay and histology staining. In vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that decellularized meniscus scaffolds have no toxicity on L929 murine fibroblasts and porcine chondrocytes. Further experiment showed that porcine chondrocytes could adhere and proliferate on the scaffold surface, and some cells even could infiltrate into the scaffold. All results showed the potential of this decellularized meniscus to be the scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  17. Biochemical characterization of exercise-trained porcine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, M H; Hale, C C; Novela, L; Gute, D; Hamilton, N; Ianuzzo, C D

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiac biochemical adaptations are induced by chronic exercise training (ET) of miniature swine. Female Yucatan miniature swine were trained on a treadmill or were cage confined (C) for 16-22 wk. After training, the ET pigs had increased exercise tolerance, lower heart rates during exercise at submaximal intensities, moderate cardiac hypertrophy, increased coronary blood flow capacity, and increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Myosin from both the C and ET hearts was 100% of the V3 isozyme, and there were no differences between the myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or myofibrillar ATPase activities of C and ET hearts. Also, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange activity of sarcolemmal vesicles were the same in cardiac muscle of C and ET hearts. Finally, the glycolytic and oxidative capacity of ET cardiac muscle was not different from control, since phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were the same in cardiac tissue from ET and C pigs. We conclude that endurance exercise training does not provide sufficient stress on the heart of a large mammal to induce changes in any of the three major cardiac biochemical systems of the porcine myocardium: the contractile system, the Ca2+ regulatory systems, or the metabolic system.

  18. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jansen of Lorkeers, Sanne J.; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Koudstaal, Stefan; van Hout, Gerardus P. J.; Zwetsloot, Peter Paul M.; van Oorschot, Joep W. M.; van Eeuwijk, Esther C. M.; Leiner, Tim; Hoefer, Imo E.; Goumans, Marie-José; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs) were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs) in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls. Aim Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes. Methods & Results We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg) received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA). Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-)loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals. Conclusion Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction. PMID:26678993

  19. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a minimally invasive procedure to open up blocked coronary arteries, allowing blood to circulate unobstructed to the heart muscle. The procedure begins with ...

  20. Functional Testing Underlying Coronary Revascularisation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease; Vessel Disease; Stable Angina; Unstable Angina or Stabilized Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction; Patients With ST-elevated Myocardial Infarction; Revascularization of Culprit Coronary Artery

  1. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100160.htm Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... slide 9 out of 9 Overview The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. The right ...

  2. Integrative physiology of coronary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, F; Goto, M

    1999-06-01

    Coronary microvessels play a crucial role for mechanoenergetic interaction between blood flow and myocardial function, which is not uniform transmurally. Thus, highly organized vascular regulations are required for matching local blood flow with myocardial energy requirement. Recently, new technologies to investigate in vivo coronary microcirculation with new knowledge of the signaling molecules for vascular regulation have revolutionized our abilities to understand the integrative regulation of coronary microcirculation. In this review, the mechanical aspects of the interaction between coronary blood flow and myocardium, coronary arte-rial tree and its roles in myocardial blood flow regulation, hierarchical and dynamic control of coronary flow, capillary network and function, function of venous drainage system, and molecular and cellular aspects of integrative coronary blood flow regulation are discussed, focusing on their integrational roles in maintaining coronary microvascular function and cell signaling.

  3. [Coronary angioplasty today].

    PubMed

    Metzger, J P

    1991-10-01

    The rise of coronary angioplasty has been rapid in the last ten years. It is a method of myocardial revascularisation without thoracotomy or cardiopulmonary bypass and is curative in the absence of restenosis. Recent advances concern the development of the material and the pharmacological support which reduce the risk of coronary thrombosis during the procedure. The primary success rate now approaches 90%, that of emergency bypass surgery less than 5%. The use of autoperfusion catheters and the use of intra-aortic balloon pumping improve the safety of the procedure but surgical stand-by remains a necessity in cases of dilatation of proximal main coronary stenosis. Stable and unstable angina are the main indications of a technique particularly appropriate for elderly patients and the treatment of residual post-thrombolytic stenoses, post-radic stenosis or stenosis of a single functional coronary artery. Restenosis is observed in 30 to 40% of cases during the first six months after the dilatation. Its occurrence is not influenced by any of the drugs tested but it could be reduced by the insertion of an endocoronary stent. Abrasive endocoronary techniques and laser angioplasty are alternative methods of treating coronary stenoses inaccessible to conventional balloon angioplasty but they do not reduce the risk of restenosis.

  4. A combined trauma model of chest and abdominal trauma with hemorrhagic shock--description of a new porcine model.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Frank; Weuster, Matthias; Mommsen, Philipp; Mohr, Juliane; Fröhlich, Matthias; Witte, Ingo; Keibl, Claudia; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Seekamp, Andreas; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Flohe, Sascha; van Griensven, Martijn

    2012-12-01

    Despite the high incidence and prognostic relevance of hemorrhagic shock and abdominal and blunt chest trauma in multiply injured patients, there are no animal models combining these injuries. Therefore, we established a new porcine multiple trauma model consisting of blunt chest trauma, penetrating abdominal trauma (two incisions in the right upper liver lobe using a four-edged scalpel and subsequent liver packing), and pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock with a mean arterial pressure of 30 ± 5 mmHg (a maximum of 45% of the total blood volume). The combined traumatic insult led to severe signs of hemorrhagic shock and impaired pulmonary function. In conclusion, a consistent, reproducible, and clinically relevant porcine model of multisystem injury with controlled (pressure-controlled blood withdrawal) and uncontrolled components of hemorrhage (liver laceration) with the potential for rebleeding was established.

  5. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging: detection of ischemia in a porcine model with FFR verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic cardiac CT perfusion (CTP) is a high resolution, non-invasive technique for assessing myocardial blood ow (MBF), which in concert with coronary CT angiography enable CT to provide a unique, comprehensive, fast analysis of both coronary anatomy and functional ow. We assessed perfusion in a porcine model with and without coronary occlusion. To induce occlusion, each animal underwent left anterior descending (LAD) stent implantation and angioplasty balloon insertion. Normal ow condition was obtained with balloon completely de ated. Partial occlusion was induced by balloon in ation against the stent with FFR used to assess the extent of occlusion. Prospective ECG-triggered partial scan images were acquired at end systole (45% R-R) using a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner. Images were reconstructed using FBP and a hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose4, Philips Healthcare). Processing included: beam hardening (BH) correction, registration of image volumes using 3D cubic B-spline normalized mutual-information, and spatio-temporal bilateral ltering to reduce partial scan artifacts and noise variation. Absolute blood ow was calculated with a deconvolutionbased approach using singular value decomposition (SVD). Arterial input function was estimated from the left ventricle (LV) cavity. Regions of interest (ROIs) were identi ed in healthy and ischemic myocardium and compared in normal and occluded conditions. Under-perfusion was detected in the correct LAD territory and ow reduction agreed well with FFR measurements. Flow was reduced, on average, in LAD territories by 54%.

  6. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Daniele; Capodanno, Davide; Dangas, George; Tamburino, Corrado

    2014-07-15

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively rare and unexplored type of coronary disease. Although atherosclerosis, hormonal changes during pregnancy and connective tissue disorders might represent a sufficiently convincing explanation for some patients with SCAD, the many remaining cases display only a weak relationship with these causes. While on one side the clinical heterogeneity of SCAD masks a full understanding of their underlying pathophysiologic process, on the other side paucity of data and misleading presentations hamper the quick diagnosis and optimal management of this condition. A definite diagnosis of SCAD can be significantly facilitated by endovascular imaging techniques. In fact, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) overcome the limitations of coronary angiography providing detailed endovascular morphologic information. In contrast, optimal treatment strategies for SCAD still represent a burning controversial question. Herein, we review the published data examining possible causes and investigating the best therapy for SCAD in different clinical scenarios.

  7. Restriction of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus by Porcine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dörrschuck, Eva; Fischer, Nicole; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Kuiper, Heidi; Spötter, Andreas; Möller, Ronny; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten; Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2011-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine cells, tissues, and organs shows promise to surmount the shortage of human donor materials. Among the barriers to pig-to-human xenotransplantation are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) since functional representatives of the two polytropic classes, PERV-A and PERV-B, are able to infect human embryonic kidney cells in vitro, suggesting that a xenozoonosis in vivo could occur. To assess the capacity of human and porcine cells to counteract PERV infections, we analyzed human and porcine APOBEC3 (A3) proteins. This multigene family of cytidine deaminases contributes to the cellular intrinsic immunity and act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. Our data show that the porcine A3 gene locus on chromosome 5 consists of the two single-domain genes A3Z2 and A3Z3. The evolutionary relationships of the A3Z3 genes reflect the evolutionary history of mammals. The two A3 genes encode at least four different mRNAs: A3Z2, A3Z3, A3Z2-Z3, and A3Z2-Z3 splice variant A (SVA). Porcine and human A3s have been tested toward their antiretroviral activity against PERV and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) using novel single-round reporter viruses. The porcine A3Z2, A3Z3 and A3Z2-Z3 were packaged into PERV particles and inhibited PERV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The antiretroviral effect correlated with editing by the porcine A3s with a trinucleotide preference for 5′ TGC for A3Z2 and A3Z2-Z3 and 5′ CAC for A3Z3. These results strongly imply that human and porcine A3s could inhibit PERV replication in vivo, thereby reducing the risk of infection of human cells by PERV in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation. PMID:21307203

  8. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Kashiwakura, Yuji; Mimuro, Jun; Onishi, Akira; Iwamoto, Masaki; Madoiwa, Seiji; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Ishiwata, Akira; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Hashimoto, Michiko; Yazaki, Satoko; Sakata, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  9. Air embolism during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery -A case report-.

    PubMed

    Chang, Choo-Hoon; Shin, Young Hee; Cho, Hyun-Sung

    2012-07-01

    There have been several reports of gas embolism occurring during off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) surgery. However, all these cases of air embolism were associated with the repair of venous circulation, using a CO(2) blower. In this report, we describe a rare case of air embolism in the coronary arteries associated with the use of a CO(2) blower during OPCAB. There was no injury to the veins during OPCAB. The air embolism was treated successfully with cardiopulmonary bypass.

  10. Photochemotherapy of intimal hyperplasia using psoralen activated by uv light in porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Lisa A.; Gregory, Kenton W.; Bahlman, Deborah T.; Shangguan, HanQun; Fahrenbach, Henner; Rosenthal, Eli; Block, Peter C.

    1996-05-01

    Psoralen activated by UVA light (PUVA) was investigated as a means of inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting from balloon injury. Twenty kilogram domestic swine were anesthetized and underwent balloon angioplasty to create a 133% overstretch injury. Assignments of treatment and control were randomized between the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (LCX) coronaries arteries. The animals were given with 5 mg/kg of 8- methoxypsoralen eternally. Treatment vessels received 600 mJ/cm2 of 364 nm light during balloon inflation to activate the psoralen. Control vessels received drug and balloon injury only. Serum was obtained during the light delivery to assess psoralen levels. At 30 days, animals were sacrificed and the coronary arteries perfusion fixed. Five sections per vessel were analyzed morphometrically to determine percent intimal area and extent of injury. The restenosis injury index was 0.21 plus or minus .02 in treatment vessels and 0.14 plus or minus .01 in the controls with a p-value less than .02. In this large animal model of balloon angioplasty injury, psoralen activated by ultraviolet light increased intimal hyperplasia.

  11. Neointimal hyperplasia persists at six months after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic porcine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Lu, Lin; Pu, LiJin; Zhang, RuiYan; Shen, Jie; Zhu, ZhengBing; Hu, Jian; Yang, ZhenKun; Chen, QiuJin; Shen, WeiFeng

    2007-01-01

    Background Observational clinical studies have shown that patients with diabetes have less favorable results after percutaneous coronary intervention compared with the non-diabetic counterparts, but its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the changes of neointimal hyperplasia after sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation in a diabetic porcine model, and to evaluate the impact of aortic inflammation on this proliferative process. Methods Diabetic porcine model was created with an intravenous administration of a single dose of streptozotocin in 15 Chinese Guizhou minipigs (diabetic group); each of them received 2 SES (Firebird, Microport Co, China) implanted into 2 separated major epicardial coronary arteries. Fifteen non-diabetic minipigs with SES implantation served as controls (control group). At 6 months, the degree of neointimal hyperplasia was determined by repeat coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and histological examination. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α protein level in the aortic intima was evaluated by Western blotting, and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were assayed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Results The distribution of stented vessels, diameter of reference vessels, and post-procedural minimal lumen diameter were comparable between the two groups. At 6-month follow-up, the degree of in-stent restenosis (40.4 ± 24.0% vs. 20.2 ± 17.7%, p < 0.05), late lumen loss (0.33 ± 0.19 mm vs. 0.10 ± 0.09 mm, p < 0.001) by quantitative angiography, percentage of intimal hyperplasia in the stented area (26.7 ± 19.2% vs. 7.3 ± 6.1%, p < 0.001) by IVUS, and neointimal area (1.59 ± 0.76 mm2 vs. 0.41 ± 0.18 mm2, p < 0.05) by histological examination were significantly exacerbated in the diabetic group than those in the controls. Significant increases in TNF-α protein and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels were observed in aortic intima in the diabetic group

  12. Endothelin-1 and ET receptors impair left ventricular function by mediated coronary arteries dysfunction in chronic intermittent hypoxia rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Wei; Li, Ai-Ying; Guo, Qiu-Hong; Guo, Ya-Jing; Weiss, James W; Ji, En-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results in cardiac dysfunction and vascular endothelium injury. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the main characteristic of OSAS, is considered to be mainly responsible for cardiovascular system impairment. This study is aimed to evaluate the role of endothelin-1(ET-1) system in coronary injury and cardiac dysfunction in CIH rats. In our study, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (FiO2 9% for 1.5 min, repeated every 3 min for 8 h/d, 7 days/week for 3 weeks). After 3 weeks, the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and coronary resistance (CR) were measured with the langendorff mode in isolated hearts. Meanwhile, expressions of ET-1 and ET receptors were detected by immunohistochemical and western blot, histological changes were also observed to determine effects of CIH on coronary endothelial cells. Results suggested that decreased LVDP level combined with augmented coronary resistance was exist in CIH rats. CIH could induce endothelial injury and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation dysfunction in the coronary arteries. Furthermore, ET-1 and ETA receptor expressions in coronary vessels were increased after CIH exposure, whereas ETB receptors expression was decreased. Coronary contractile response to ET-1 in both normoxia and CIH rats was inhibited by ETA receptor antagonist BQ123. However, ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 enhanced ET-1-induced contractile in normoxia group, but had no significant effects on CIH group. These results indicate that CIH-induced cardiac dysfunction may be associated with coronary injury. ET-1 plays an important role in coronary pathogenesis of CIH through ETA receptor by mediating a potent vasoconstrictor response. Moreover, decreased ETB receptor expression that leads to endothelium-dependent vasodilatation decline, might be also participated in coronary and cardiac dysfunction.

  13. Decellularisation and histological characterisation of porcine peripheral nerves

    PubMed Central

    Zilic, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral nerve injuries affect a large proportion of the global population, often causing significant morbidity and loss of function. Current treatment strategies include the use of implantable nerve guide conduits (NGC's) to direct regenerating axons between the proximal and distal ends of the nerve gap. However, NGC's are limited in their effectiveness at promoting regeneration Current NGCs are not suitable as substrates for supporting either neuronal or Schwann cell growth, as they lack an architecture similar to that of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of the nerve. The aim of this study was to create an acellular porcine peripheral nerve using a novel decellularisation protocol, in order to eliminate the immunogenic cellular components of the tissue, while preserving the three‐dimensional histoarchitecture and ECM components. Porcine peripheral nerve (sciatic branches were decellularised using a low concentration (0.1%; w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in conjunction with hypotonic buffers and protease inhibitors, and then sterilised using 0.1% (v/v) peracetic acid. Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed a ≥95% (w/w) reduction in DNA content as well as preservation of the nerve fascicles and connective tissue. Acellular nerves were shown to have retained key ECM components such as collagen, laminin and fibronectin. Slow strain rate to failure testing demonstrated the biomechanical properties of acellular nerves to be comparable to fresh controls. In conclusion, we report the production of a biocompatible, biomechanically functional acellular scaffold, which may have use in peripheral nerve repair. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2041–2053. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26926914

  14. Transradial artery coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J; de Melker, E

    1995-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and safety of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA) with miniaturized PTCA equipment via the radial artery. Coronary angioplasty (PTCA) via the femoral or brachial arteries may be associated with rare vascular complications such as bleeding and damage to the artery and adjacent structures. It was postulated that PTCA via the radial artery with miniaturized angioplasty equipment is feasible and that no major puncture site-related complications occur because hemostasis is obtained easily and because no major structures are near the radial artery. With double blood supply to the hand, radial artery occlusion is well tolerated. In 100 patients with collateral blood supply to the right hand, PTCA was attempted with 6F guiding catheters and rapid-exchange balloon catheters for exertional angina (87 patients) or nonexertional angina (13 patients). Angioplasty was attempted in 122 lesions (type A n = 67 [55%], Type B n = 37 [30%], and type C n = 18 [15%]). Pre- and post-PTCA computerized quantitative coronary analysis was performed. Radial artery function and structure were assessed clinically and with Doppler and two-dimensional ultrasound on the day of discharge. Coronary catheterization via the radial artery was successful in 94 patients (94%). The 6 remaining patients had successful PTCA via the femoral artery (n = 5) or the brachial artery (n = 1). Procedural success (120 of 122 lesions) was achieved in 92 patients (98%) via the radial artery and in 98 patients of the total study population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. [Acute coronary syndrome -- 2012].

    PubMed

    Becker, Dávid; Merkely, Béla

    2012-12-23

    The acute coronary syndrome is the most severe form of coronary artery disease. It is an immediate threat of life and the mortality rate can be high without proper therapy and patient management. Based on the first ECG, two different forms can be distinguished: acute coronary syndrome with and without ST elevation. Besides adequate medication, management of these patients is an essential part of treatment. In case of ST elevation, coronarography and percutaneous coronary intervention is needed in general, within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. When ST elevation is not detected on the ECG, individual ischemic risk factors and predictable mortality of the patient may define the necessity and the date of the invasive examination. The Hungarian hemodynamic laboratory network covers almost the whole country and, therefore, practically each patient may receive a state-of-the-art therapy. Although indicators of cardiovascular diseases are still prominent, the mortality rate of myocardial Infarction is decreasing in Hungary due to the well-organized invasive care.

  16. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...

  17. Coronary covered stents.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ismail Dogu; Fabris, Enrico; Serdoz, Roberta; Caiazzo, Gianluca; Foin, Nicolas; Abou-Sherif, Sara; Di Mario, Carlo

    2016-11-20

    Covered stents offer an effective bail-out strategy in vessel perforations, are an alternative to surgery for the exclusion of coronary aneurysms, and have a potential role in the treatment of friable embolisation-prone plaques. The aim of this manuscript is to offer an overview of currently available platforms and to report results obtained in prior studies.

  18. Nickel-free stainless steel avoids neointima formation following coronary stent implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Eriko; Komuro, Issei; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2012-12-01

    SUS316L stainless steel and cobalt-chromium and platinum-chromium alloys are widely used platforms for coronary stents. These alloys also contain nickel (Ni), which reportedly induces allergic reactions in some subjects and is known to have various cellular effects. The effects of Ni on neointima formation after stent implantation remain unknown, however. We developed coronary stents made of Ni-free high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel prepared using a N2-gas pressurized electroslag remelting (P-ESR) process. Neointima formation and inflammatory responses following stent implantation in porcine coronary arteries were then compared between the Ni-free and SUS316L stainless steel stents. We found significantly less neointima formation and inflammation in arteries implanted with Ni-free stents, as compared to SUS316L stents. Notably, Ni2+ was eluted into the medium from SUS316L but not from Ni-free stainless steel. Mechanistically, Ni2+ increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor protein-1α (HIF-1α) and its target genes in cultured smooth muscle cells. HIF-1α and their target gene levels were also increased in the vascular wall at SUS316L stent sites but not at Ni-free stent sites. The Ni-free stainless steel coronary stent reduces neointima formation, in part by avoiding activation of inflammatory processes via the Ni-HIF pathway. The Ni-free-stainless steel stent is a promising new coronary stent platform.

  19. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Hidden Coronary Artery-Unusual Type of Isolated Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shivanand; Ramalingam, Rangaraj; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa; Subramanyam, Kasamsetty

    2016-01-01

    Single coronary artery is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly, the incidence of which is 0.024-0.066% as described in literature. Report of cases having single coronary artery along with acute myocardial infarction are scanty and reports of percutaneous intervention in such a situation are even fewer, technically challenging and potentially cataclysmic. As single coronary artery supplies the entire myocardium, occlusion of this can result in significant ischemic insult, resulting in severe biventricular dysfunction. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of single coronary artery is technically challenging and carries high risk which may be equated to left main intervention. We report a rare interesting case of L1 variety of single coronary artery which presented as acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction with successful rescue PCI to Left Circumflex Artery (LCx). PMID:27656488

  20. Transient cortical blindness and successful recovery after coronary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Kutay; Evereklioglu, Cem; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2011-10-01

    Left ventricular injury has a bad prognosis, especially when a coronary artery is involved. After perforation of the left cardiac ventricle by a knife, a 19-year-old male patient presented with: (i) complete bilateral visual loss; (ii) left anterior descending (LAD) artery injury; (iii) severe systemic hypotension. Under emergency conditions and cardiopulmonary bypass, the LAD artery was revascularized by a saphenous vein graft. Bilateral blindness recovered within several days. Cerebral hypoxia as a result of severe systemic hypotension was the most likely underlying mechanism.

  1. Isolation, culture and biological characteristics of multipotent porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinjuan; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Li, Lu; Yuan, Hongyi; Liu, Xueting; Liu, Yingjie; Guan, Weijun

    2017-03-02

    Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts. The results showed that satellite cells isolated from porcine tibialis anterior were subcultured up to 12 passages and were positive for Pax7, Myod, c-Met, desmin, PCNA and NANOG but were negative for Myogenin. Satellite cells were also induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts, respectively. These findings indicated that porcine satellite cells possess similar biological characteristics of stem cells, which may provide theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application in the treatment of dystrophic muscle and other muscle injuries.

  2. In vivo volumetric analysis of coronary stent using optical coherence tomography with a novel balloon occlusion-flushing catheter: a comparison with intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Yoshiaki; Hoshino, Kozo; Yoneyama, Ryuichi; McGregor, Jennifer; Hajjar, Roger J; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Hayase, Motoya

    2005-10-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is limited as an intravascular imaging tool because of interference with blood. This study tested a new balloon occlusion-flushing catheter for OCT scanning of stented coronary arteries and compared stent measurements between OCT and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Motorized pullback with OCT and IVUS was examined in coronary stents deployed in swine. Quantitative measurements were obtained and compared between both groups. In addition, stent strut thickness was compared among OCT, IVUS and actual measurement. The occlusion catheter successfully provided motorized pullback OCT images in the stented coronary arteries without any complications. There were no differences in calculated lumen volume. However, stent volumes were significantly smaller with OCT than with IVUS (p < 0.05). OCT significantly underestimated the stent strut thickness compared with the actual measurement. Although OCT underestimates the stent strut thickness, motorized pullback OCT imaging with the occlusion catheter can provide appropriate in-stent images in the porcine coronary arteries.

  3. Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injuries. Try weightlifting to strengthen your muscles and stretching, Pilates, and yoga to improve your flexibility because ... lead to injuries and inflammation from overuse. Regular stretching can help. After an injury or surgery has ...

  4. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  5. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  6. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, a new biomarker candidate in perfusate of machine-perfused kidneys: a porcine pilot experiment.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, I; Monbaliu, D; Pirenne, J

    2011-11-01

    The enduring kidney graft shortage has led to the increasing use of expanded-criteria donors as well as kidneys donated after cardiac death, triggering the revival of machine perfusion preservation. Indeed, machine perfusion not only preserves these kidneys better than static cold storage, but also has the potential to evaluate them. The presence of certain biomarkers, among them aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), has been demonstrated in the perfusate of human kidneys, making them potentially useful as biomarkers of graft quality. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) which is believed to be released upon renal tubular cell injury is another biomarker candidate. However, because it is also released from neutrophils, it is currently unclear whether NGAL is a direct or indirect, inflammatory-mediated marker of kidney injury. To resolve this issue we established a pilot experiment to study the concentrations of AST, H-FABP, and NGAL in the perfusates of 6 porcine kidneys that were exposed to incremental periods of warm ischemia before machine perfusion for 22 hours. An ex vivo porcine model was chosen because preclinical large animal work remains necessary to refine machine perfusion technology and because the presence of these markers in perfusates of porcine kidneys had not been shown previously. All 3 biomarkers were detectable in the cold acellular perfusate; their release seemed to be proportionate to the degree of warm injury, albeit that this must be confirmed in a larger sample. In conclusion, NGAL is directly released by ischemically damaged kidneys, independent of neutrophil activation. In addition to NGAL, the determination of AST and H-FABP in perfusates of machine-perfused porcine kidneys is also feasible. Determination of these markers may be added to the arsenal of research tools for preclinical preservation research.

  7. Topographic Findings of the Porcine Cornea

    PubMed Central

    HEICHEL, Jens; WILHELM, Frank; KUNERT, Kathleen S.; HAMMER, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The porcine eye is often used as an ex vivo animal model in ophthalmological research. It is well suited for investigations concerning refractive surgery; however, corneal topography data are scarce. This study investigated the corneal topography and pachymetry of the porcine eye to provide further reproducible data. We evaluated freshly enucleated porcine eyes (n = 16) by performing computerized corneal topographies (Orbscan® IIz, Bausch and Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA). We assessed the steepest and flattest keratometric powers (K1 and K2, units in diopters (D)), astigmatism (D), white-to-white (WTW) diameter (mm), thinnest point pachymetry (µm), anterior and posterior best-fit sphere (BFS) (D), refractive power of the anterior and posterior curvatures, and total refractive power of the cornea (D). The mean keratometric powers were 39.6 ± 0.89 D (K1) and 38.5 ± 0.92 D (K2), and the mean astigmatism was 1.1 ± 0.78 D. The mean WTW diameter was 13.81 ± 0.83 mm, and the mean corneal thickness was 832.6 ± 40.18 µm. The BFSs were 38.14 ± 0.73 D (anterior) and 42.56 ± 1.15 D (posterior), and the mean refractive powers were 43.27 ± 1.08 D (anterior) and -5.15 ± 0.20 D (posterior); therefore, the mean of the total refractive power was 38.16 ± 1.00 D. The topography and pachymetry of the porcine cornea showed a specific configuration differing from the human cornea. When using animal ex vivo models such as porcine corneas for experimental corneal surgery, findings such as these should be considered. PMID:28293660

  8. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Results Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted porcine articular cartilage. The genes evaluated were: beta actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A), ribosomal protein L4, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, TATA box binding protein, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein—zeta polypeptide. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder software. The four most stable genes measured via geNorm were (most to least stable) succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin; the four most stable genes measured via BestKeeper were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, beta actin, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A; and the four most stable genes measured via NormFinder were peptidylprolyl isomerase A, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin. Conclusions BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder all generated similar results for the most stable genes in porcine articular cartilage. The use of these appropriate reference genes will facilitate accurate gene expression studies of porcine articular cartilage and suggest appropriate housekeeping genes for articular cartilage studies in other species. PMID:23146128

  9. Vascular Reactivity Profile of Novel KCa 3.1-Selective Positive-Gating Modulators in the Coronary Vascular Bed.

    PubMed

    Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Valero, Marta Sofía; Pinilla, Estéfano; Amor, Sara; García-Villalón, Ángel Luis; Coleman, Nichole; Laría, Celia; Calvín-Tienza, Víctor; García-Otín, Ángel-Luis; Fernández-Fernández, José M; Murillo, M Divina; Gálvez, José A; Díaz-de-Villegas, María D; Badorrey, Ramón; Simonsen, Ulf; Rivera, Luis; Wulff, Heike; Köhler, Ralf

    2016-08-01

    Opening of intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (KC a 3.1) produces membrane hyperpolarization in the vascular endothelium. Here, we studied the ability of two new KC a 3.1-selective positive-gating modulators, SKA-111 and SKA-121, to (1) evoke porcine endothelial cell KC a 3.1 membrane hyperpolarization, (2) induce endothelium-dependent and, particularly, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type relaxation in porcine coronary arteries (PCA) and (3) influence coronary artery tone in isolated rat hearts. In whole-cell patch-clamp experiments on endothelial cells of PCA (PCAEC), KC a currents evoked by bradykinin (BK) were potentiated ≈7-fold by either SKA-111 or SKA-121 (both at 1 μM) and were blocked by a KC a 3.1 blocker, TRAM-34. In membrane potential measurements, SKA-111 and SKA-121 augmented bradykinin-induced hyperpolarization. Isometric tension measurements in large- and small-calibre PCA showed that SKA-111 and SKA-121 potentiated endothelium-dependent relaxation with intact NO synthesis and EDH-type relaxation to BK by ≈2-fold. Potentiation of the BK response was prevented by KC a 3.1 inhibition. In Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, SKA-111 potentiated coronary vasodilation elicited by BK. In conclusion, our data show that positive-gating modulation of KC a 3.1 channels improves BK-induced membrane hyperpolarization and endothelium-dependent relaxation in small and large PCA as well as in the coronary circulation of rats. Positive-gating modulators of KC a 3.1 could be therapeutically useful to improve coronary blood flow and counteract impaired coronary endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease.

  10. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  11. Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Dick, Gregory M; Kiel, Alexander M; Tune, Johnathan D

    2017-03-16

    The heart is uniquely responsible for providing its own blood supply through the coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary blood flow is quite complex and, after over 100 years of dedicated research, is understood to be dictated through multiple mechanisms that include extravascular compressive forces (tissue pressure), coronary perfusion pressure, myogenic, local metabolic, endothelial as well as neural and hormonal influences. While each of these determinants can have profound influence over myocardial perfusion, largely through effects on end-effector ion channels, these mechanisms collectively modulate coronary vascular resistance and act to ensure that the myocardial requirements for oxygen and substrates are adequately provided by the coronary circulation. The purpose of this series of Comprehensive Physiology is to highlight current knowledge regarding the physiologic regulation of coronary blood flow, with emphasis on functional anatomy and the interplay between the physical and biological determinants of myocardial oxygen delivery. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:321-382, 2017.

  12. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  13. Protective approaches against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchi; Liu, Min; Sun, Rongrong; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Peiying

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is the leading cause for the events of cardiovascular disease, and is considered as a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary occlusion. The myocardial damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury constitutes the primary pathological manifestation of coronary artery disease. It results from the interaction between the substances that accumulate during ischemia and those that are delivered on reperfusion. The level of this damage can range from a small insult resulting in limited myocardial damage to a large injury culminating in myocyte death. Importantly, major ischemia-reperfusion injury to the heart can result in permanent disability or death. Given the worldwide prevalence of coronary artery disease, developing a strategy to provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced damage is of great importance. Currently, the treatment of reperfusion injury following ischemia is primarily supportive, since no specific target-oriented therapy has been validated thus far. Nevertheless, therapeutic approaches to protect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury remain an active area of investigation given the detrimental effects of this phenomenon. PMID:28101167

  14. Coronary Atherosclerosis and Interventional Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio; Romero-Ibarra, José Luis; Gaxiola-Macías, Manuel Ben Adoniram; Arias-Sánchez, Eduardo A

    2015-07-01

    The atherosclerotic process in coronary arteries begins with endothelial dysfunction and may provoke thrombotic total occlusion and myocardial infarction. In this state-of-the-art review, we discuss recent evidence of atheroslerosis, vulnerable plaque, and hemodynamic changes in the coronary tree, as well as the current techniques we implement in the catheterization lab to evaluate coronary stenosis. It is clear that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition with several consequences in the coronary tree, however, we are able now to characterize the plaque and to select the appropriate treatment for many patients.

  15. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  16. Simulated annealing approach to vascular structure with application to the coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Keelan, Jonathan; Chung, Emma M. L.; Hague, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Do the complex processes of angiogenesis during organism development ultimately lead to a near optimal coronary vasculature in the organs of adult mammals? We examine this hypothesis using a powerful and universal method, built on physical and physiological principles, for the determination of globally energetically optimal arterial trees. The method is based on simulated annealing, and can be used to examine arteries in hollow organs with arbitrary tissue geometries. We demonstrate that the approach can generate in silico vasculatures which closely match porcine anatomical data for the coronary arteries on all length scales, and that the optimized arterial trees improve systematically as computational time increases. The method presented here is general, and could in principle be used to examine the arteries of other organs. Potential applications include improvement of medical imaging analysis and the design of vascular trees for artificial organs. PMID:26998317

  17. Coronary revascularization after arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Prifti, Edvin; Bonacchi, Massimo; Luisi, Stefano Vincenzo; Vanini, Vittorio

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases presenting bilateral coronary artery obstruction after arterial switch operation. The first patient underwent bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting to the left and right coronary arteries. The other patient, presenting a single coronary ostium, underwent surgical coronary ostial angioplasty in concomitance to proximal arterioplasty of both coronary arteries employing a single "pantaloon" shape autologous pericardial patch. Both patients survived and, at 1 year and 9 months after the coronary revascularization procedures, the coronary angiography demonstrated a good patency of the internal thoracic grafts and excellent ostial plasty results, respectively. A complete literature review of patients undergoing different coronary revascularization procedures after arterial switch operation is reported.

  18. Dynamic loading affects the mechanical properties and failure site of porcine spines.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    1997-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load rate on the mechanical characteristics of spinal motion segments under compressive loading. DESIGN: An in vitro experiment using a porcine model which ensured a homogeneous population for age, weight, genetic background and physical activity. BACKGROUND: Spinal motion segments comprise of viscoelastic materials, and as a result the rate of loading will modulate mechanical characteristics and fracture patterns of the segments. METHODS: Twenty-six cervical porcine spines were excised immediately post-mortem with all soft tissue intact. Spines were then separated into two specimens each consisting of three vertebral bodies and the two intervening intervertebral discs (C2-C4 and C5-C7) and loaded to failure under five loading rates (100, 1000, 3000, 10 000 and 16 000 N s(-1)). After the specimens failed, they were dissected to determine the mode of failure. RESULTS: Dynamic loading increases the ultimate load compared with quasi-static loading (100 N s(-1)), whereas the magnitude of dynamic loading (1000-16 000 N s(-1)) appears not to have a significant affect. Stiffness behaved in a similar manner. The displacement to failure of specimens decreased as load rate increased, although there was a diminishing effect at high load rates. Furthermore, failure at low load rates occurred exclusively in the endplate, whereas failure of the vertebral body appeared with greater frequency at higher load rates. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanical characteristics and resulting injuries of porcine spinal motion segments were affected as the loading rates changed from quasi-static to dynamic. The modulating factors of the mechanical characteristics of the spine need to be understood if valid models are to be designed which will increase the understanding of spinal function, and are important for choosing better injury prevention and rehabilitation programmes.

  19. Potentiation by endothelin-1 of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction in coronary artery of the pig.

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, K.; Ishigai, Y.; Uchida, H.; Tanaka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    1. In order to elucidate the physiological and potential pathological roles of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in coronary artery contraction and relaxation, we undertook the present study to examine the action of ET-1 itself, and the combined effects of ET-1 with vasoconstrictor agonists such as acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), all of which have been implicated in the genesis of coronary spasm. 2. Isometric tension and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a ring segment of porcine coronary artery loaded with fura-2 were measured simultaneously. 3. ET-1 contracted the artery in a concentration-dependent manner; and nisoldipine, a Ca2+ channel blocking drug of the 1,4-dihydropyridine type, antagonized the ET-1 action non-competitively. A radio-receptor binding assay also indicated the mutually exclusive binding of ET-1 and (+)-[3H]-PN200-110, a Ca2+ channel ligand, to the membrane fraction of porcine coronary artery. 4. ET-1 (10-100 pM) increased tension and [Ca2+]i in a parallel manner, while at higher concentrations (1-10 nM) it produced further contraction with a small increase in [Ca2+]i. 5. ET-1 (30-100 pM) selectively potentiated the 5-HT-induced contraction 1.5 to 2 times over the control without causing a significant increase in [Ca2+]i, which seems to be qualitatively similar to a tumour promoting phorbol ester, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-isobutylate (DPB). Bay K 8644 (10 nM), on the other hand, potentiated the contraction in response to practically all agonists used and affected a concomitant increase in [Ca2+]i.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1810605

  20. Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jung, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Han; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries. PMID:25551074

  1. Transposition of Great Arteries with Intramural Coronary Artery: Experience with a Modified Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Amit; Jain, Anil; Hinduja, Manish; Wadhawa, Vivek; Patel, Ramesh; Vaidhya, Nikunj; Rodricks, Dayesh; Patel, Hardik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Transposition of the great arteries is a common congenital heart disease. Arterial switch is the gold standard operation for this complex heart disease. Arterial switch operation in the presence of intramural coronary artery is surgically the most demanding even for the most experienced hands. We are presenting our experience with a modified technique for intramural coronary arteries in arterial switch operation. Methods: This prospective study involves 450 patients undergoing arterial switch operation at our institute from April 2006 to December 2013 (7.6 years). Eighteen patients underwent arterial switch operation with intramural coronary artery. The coronary patterns and technique used are detailed in the text. Results: The overall mortality found in the subgroup of 18 patients having intramural coronary artery was 16% (n=3). Our first patient had an accidental injury to the left coronary artery and died in the operating room. A seven-day old newborn died from intractable ventricular arrhythmia fifteen hours after surgery. Another patient who had multiple ventricular septal defects with type B arch interruption died from residual apical ventricular septal defect and sepsis on the eleventh postoperative day. The remainder of the patients are doing well, showing a median follow-up duration of 1235.34±815.26 days (range 369 - 2730). Conclusion: Transposition of the great arteries with intramural coronary artery is demanding in a subset of patients undergoing arterial switch operation. We believe our technique of coronary button dissection in the presence of intramural coronary arteries using coronary shunt is simple and can be a good addition to the surgeons' armamentarium. PMID:27074270

  2. Sound transmission in porcine thorax through airway insonification

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zoujun; Mansy, Hansen A.; Henry, Brian M.; Sandler, Richard H.; Balk, Robert A.; Royston, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Many pulmonary injuries and pathologies may lead to structural and functional changes in the lungs resulting in measurable sound transmission changes on the chest surface. Additionally, noninvasive imaging of externally driven mechanical wave motion in the chest (e.g., using magnetic resonance elastography) can provide information about lung structural property changes and, hence, may be of diagnostic value. In the present study, a comprehensive computational simulation (in silico) model was developed to simulate sound wave propagation in the airways, lung, and chest wall under normal and pneumothorax conditions. Experiments were carried out to validate the model. Here, sound waves with frequency content from 50 to 700 Hz were introduced into airways of five porcine subjects via an endotracheal tube, and transmitted waves were measured by scanning laser Doppler vibrometry at the chest wall surface. The computational model predictions of decreased sound transmission with pneumothorax were consistent with experimental measurements. The in silico model can also be used to visualize wave propagation inside and on the chest wall surface for other pulmonary pathologies, which may help in developing and interpreting diagnostic procedures that utilize sound and vibration. PMID:26280512

  3. Modeling the thermal response of porcine cartilage to laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Valdes, Sergio H.; Aguilar, Guillermo; Basu, Reshmi; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Wong, Brian J.

    2002-06-01

    Cartilage laser thermoforming, also known as laser reshaping, is a new surgical procedure that allows in-situ treatment of deformities in the head and neck with less morbidity than traditional approaches. During laser irradiation, cartilage becomes sufficiently subtle or deformable for stretching and shaping into new stable configurations. This study describes the experimental and theoretical characterization of the thermal response of porcine cartilage to laser irradiation (Nd:YAG). The surface temperature history of cartilage specimens was monitored during heating and thermal relaxation; using laser exposure times ranging between 1 and 15 s and laser powers of 1 to 10 W. The experimental results were then used to validate a finite element model, which accounts for heat diffusion, light propagation in tissue, and heat loss due to water evaporation. The simultaneous solution of the energy and mass diffusion equations resulted in predictions of temperature distribution in cartilage that were in good agreement with experiments. The model simulations will provide insights to the relationship between the laser treatment parameters (exposure time, laser beam diameter, and power) and the onset of new molecular arrangements and cell thermal injury in the material, thus conceiving basic guidelines of laser thermoforming.

  4. Sound transmission in porcine thorax through airway insonification.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Dai, Zoujun; Mansy, Hansen A; Henry, Brian M; Sandler, Richard H; Balk, Robert A; Royston, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Many pulmonary injuries and pathologies may lead to structural and functional changes in the lungs resulting in measurable sound transmission changes on the chest surface. Additionally, noninvasive imaging of externally driven mechanical wave motion in the chest (e.g., using magnetic resonance elastography) can provide information about lung structural property changes and, hence, may be of diagnostic value. In the present study, a comprehensive computational simulation (in silico) model was developed to simulate sound wave propagation in the airways, lung, and chest wall under normal and pneumothorax conditions. Experiments were carried out to validate the model. Here, sound waves with frequency content from 50 to 700 Hz were introduced into airways of five porcine subjects via an endotracheal tube, and transmitted waves were measured by scanning laser Doppler vibrometry at the chest wall surface. The computational model predictions of decreased sound transmission with pneumothorax were consistent with experimental measurements. The in silico model can also be used to visualize wave propagation inside and on the chest wall surface for other pulmonary pathologies, which may help in developing and interpreting diagnostic procedures that utilize sound and vibration.

  5. What Is Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... narrows the heart's large arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. The buildup of plaque also makes it more likely that blood clots will form in your arteries. Blood clots can mostly or completely block blood flow through a coronary artery. In coronary MVD, however, ...

  6. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Challoumas, Dimitris; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakaki, Inetzi A.; Danelatos, Christos; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Coronary arteriovenous fistulae are a coronary anomaly, presenting in 0.002% of the general population. Their etiology can be congenital or acquired. We present a review of recent literature related to their epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic management. PMID:24940026

  7. The Coronary Patient in Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1971-01-01

    The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.

  8. Porcine models for the metabolic syndrome, digestive and bone disorders: a general overview.

    PubMed

    Litten-Brown, J C; Corson, A M; Clarke, L

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the role of pigs as a biomedical model for humans. The usefulness and limitations of porcine models have been discussed in terms of metabolic, cardiovascular, digestive and bone diseases in humans. Domestic pigs and minipigs are the main categories of pigs used as biomedical models. One drawback of minipigs is that they are in short supply and expensive compared with domestic pigs, which in contrast cost more to house, feed and medicate. Different porcine breeds show different responses to the induction of specific diseases. For example, ossabaw minipigs provide a better model than Yucatan for the metabolic syndrome as they exhibit obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension, all of which are absent in the Yucatan. Similar metabolic/physiological differences exist between domestic breeds (e.g. Meishan v. Pietrain). The modern commercial (e.g. Large White) domestic pig has been the preferred model for developmental programming due to the 2- to 3-fold variation in body weight among littermates providing a natural form of foetal growth retardation not observed in ancient (e.g. Meishan) domestic breeds. Pigs have been increasingly used to study chronic ischaemia, therapeutic angiogenesis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and abdominal aortic aneurysm as their coronary anatomy and physiology are similar to humans. Type 1 and II diabetes can be induced in swine using dietary regimes and/or administration of streptozotocin. Pigs are a good and extensively used model for specific nutritional studies as their protein and lipid metabolism is comparable with humans, although pigs are not as sensitive to protein restriction as rodents. Neonatal and weanling pigs have been used to examine the pathophysiology and prevention/treatment of microbial-associated diseases and immune system disorders. A porcine model mimicking various degrees of prematurity in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition has been established to

  9. Snowboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Pino, E C; Colville, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 267 snowboarders was undertaken to determine the population at risk and types and mechanisms of injuries sustained in this sport. Snowboarders are young (average age, 21 years), male (greater than 90%), view themselves in average or above average physical condition (96%), and have varied sports interests. One hundred ten injuries that resulted in a physician visit were reported. Ligament sprains, fractures, and contusions were the most frequent types of injury. Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common. Snowboard riders using equipment with increased ankle support seem to be more protected from lower extremity injuries. The lower extremity injuries were concentrated in the forward limb of the snowboarder, where the rider's weight is disproportionately distributed. Differences in the mechanism and spectrum of injury between snowboarding and skiing injuries were noted, including: impact rather than torsion as the major mechanism of injury, a significant lack of thumb injuries, comparative increase in ankle injuries, a decrease in knee injuries, and a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries.

  10. Tissue Sampling Guides for Porcine Biomedical Models.

    PubMed

    Albl, Barbara; Haesner, Serena; Braun-Reichhart, Christina; Streckel, Elisabeth; Renner, Simone; Seeliger, Frank; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    This article provides guidelines for organ and tissue sampling adapted to porcine animal models in translational medical research. Detailed protocols for the determination of sampling locations and numbers as well as recommendations on the orientation, size, and trimming direction of samples from ∼50 different porcine organs and tissues are provided in the Supplementary Material. The proposed sampling protocols include the generation of samples suitable for subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses, including cryohistology, paraffin, and plastic histology; immunohistochemistry;in situhybridization; electron microscopy; and quantitative stereology as well as molecular analyses of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes. With regard to the planned extent of sampling efforts, time, and personnel expenses, and dependent upon the scheduled analyses, different protocols are provided. These protocols are adjusted for (I) routine screenings, as used in general toxicity studies or in analyses of gene expression patterns or histopathological organ alterations, (II) advanced analyses of single organs/tissues, and (III) large-scale sampling procedures to be applied in biobank projects. Providing a robust reference for studies of porcine models, the described protocols will ensure the efficiency of sampling, the systematic recovery of high-quality samples representing the entire organ or tissue as well as the intra-/interstudy comparability and reproducibility of results.

  11. Porcine sperm vitrification I: cryoloops method.

    PubMed

    Arraztoa, C C; Miragaya, M H; Chaves, M G; Trasorras, V L; Gambarotta, M C; Péndola, C H; Neild, D M

    2016-09-29

    The aims of this study were to evaluate porcine sperm vitrification in cryoloops, with and without two different cryoprotectants and assess two warming procedures. Extended (n = 3; r = 4) and raw (n = 5; r = 2) semen was diluted in media without and with cryoprotectants (4% dimethylformamide and 4% glycerol) to a final concentration of 20 × 10(6) spermatozoa ml(-1) and vitrified using the cryoloops method. Two warming procedures were evaluated: rapid method (30 s at 37°C) and an ultra-rapid method (7 s at 75°C, followed by 30 s at 37°C). Total motility (phase contrast), sperm viability (6-carboxifluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide stain), membrane function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), acrosome integrity (phase contrast), chromatin condensation (toluidine blue stain) and chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation (acridine orange stain) were evaluated before and after vitrification and analysed using Friedman's test. In all media, the only seminal parameters that were maintained after vitrification were chromatin condensation and integrity. Vitrification of porcine spermatozoon using cryoloops, both in the presence or absence of cryoprotectants and independent of the warming procedure used, permits conservation of sperm chromatin condensation and integrity. It would be interesting to further verify this by producing porcine embryos using vitrified spermatozoon with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  12. Porcine sperm vitrification II: Spheres method.

    PubMed

    Arraztoa, C C; Miragaya, M H; Chaves, M G; Trasorras, V L; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

    2016-11-10

    Owing to current problems in boar sperm cryopreservation, this study proposes to evaluate vitrification in spheres as an alternative cryopreservation procedure, comparing the use or not of permeable cryoprotectants and two warming methods. Extended (n = 3; r = 4) and raw (n = 5; r = 2) porcine spermatozoa were diluted in media, in the absence or presence of either 4% dimethylformamide or 4% glycerol, to a final concentration of 5 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml and vitrified using the spheres method. Two warming procedures were evaluated: a rapid method (30 s at 37°C) and an ultrarapid method (7 s at 75°C, followed by 30 s at 37°C). Percentages of total motility (phase contrast), membrane function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), acrosome integrity (phase contrast), sperm viability (6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide stain), chromatin condensation (toluidine blue stain) and chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation (acridine orange stain) were evaluated in the samples before and after vitrification. Results, analysed using Friedman's test, suggest that rapid warming of raw porcine spermatozoa vitrified without permeable cryoprotectants may preserve DNA condensation and integrity better than the other processing methods studied in this work. Hence, porcine sperm vitrification using spheres could be used to produce embryos with ICSI to further validate this method.

  13. Cloning of Porcine Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 and Its Expression in Porcine Oocytes and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Nong, Suqun; Ma, Qingyan; Chen, Baojian; Liu, Mingjun; Pan, Tianbiao; Liao, D. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET) is a complex process that occurs during early mammalian embryogenesis and is characterized by activation of the zygotic genome, initiation of embryonic transcription, and replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. The objective of this study was to reveal the temporal expression and localization patterns of PTTG1 during early porcine embryonic development and to establish a relationship between PTTG1 and the MET. To achieve this goal, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to clone porcine PTTG1. Subsequently, germinal vesicle (GV)- and metaphase II (MII)-stage oocytes, zygotes, 2-, 4-, and 8-cell-stage embryos, morulas, and blastocysts were produced in vitro and their gene expression was analyzed. The results revealed that the coding sequence of porcine PTTG1 is 609-bp in length and that it encodes a 202-aa polypeptide. Using qRT-PCR, PTTG1 mRNA expression was observed to be maintained at high levels in GV- and MII-stage oocytes. The transcript levels in oocytes were also significantly higher than those in embryos from the zygote to blastocyst stages. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that porcine PTTG1 was primarily localized to the cytoplasm and partially localized to the nucleus. Furthermore, the PTTG1 protein levels in MII-stage oocytes and zygotes were significantly higher than those in embryos from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. After fertilization, the level of this protein began to decrease gradually until the blastocyst stage. The results of our study suggest that porcine PTTG1 is a new candidate maternal effect gene (MEG) that may participate in the processes of oocyte maturation and zygotic genome activation during porcine embryogenesis. PMID:27058238

  14. Snowboarding injuries.

    PubMed

    Sachtleben, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Snowboarding has gained immense popularity during the past 30 years and continues to appeal to many young participants. Injury patterns and characteristics of injuries seen commonly in snowboarders have rapidly evolved during this time. Risk factors have emerged, and various methods of reducing injuries to snowboarders have been investigated. It is important that medical providers are knowledgeable about this growing sport and are prepared to adequately evaluate and treat snowboarding injuries. This article will review the issues and discuss diagnostic and treatment principles regarding injuries seen commonly in snowboarders. Injury prevention should be emphasized, particularly with young riders and beginners.

  15. Systemic blood coagulation activation in acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Undas, Anetta; Szułdrzyński, Konstanty; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Tracz, Wiesława; Zmudka, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated systemic alterations to the blood coagulation system that occur during a coronary thrombotic event. Peripheral blood coagulation in patients with acute coronary thrombosis was compared with that in people with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood coagulation and platelet activation at the microvascular injury site were assessed using immunochemistry in 28 non-anticoagulated patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus 28 stable CAD patients matched for age, sex, risk factors, and medications. AMI was associated with increased maximum rates of thrombin-antithrombin complex generation (by 93.8%; P < .001), thrombin B-chain formation (by 57.1%; P < .001), prothrombin consumption (by 27.9%; P = .012), fibrinogen consumption (by 27.0%; P = .02), factor (f) Va light chain generation (by 44.2%; P = .003), and accelerated fVa inactivation (by 76.1%; P < .001), and with enhanced release of platelet-derived soluble CD40 ligand (by 44.4%; P < .001). FVa heavy chain availability was similar in both groups because of enhanced formation and activated protein C (APC)–mediated destruction. The velocity of coagulant reactions in AMI patients showed positive correlations with interleukin-6. Heparin treatment led to dampening of coagulant reactions with profiles similar to those for stable CAD. AMI-induced systemic activation of blood coagulation markedly modifies the pattern of coagulant reactions at the site of injury in peripheral vessels compared with that in stable CAD patients. PMID:18931343

  16. [Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and melatonin].

    PubMed

    Sahna, Engin; Deniz, Esra; Aksulu, Hakki Engin

    2006-06-01

    It is believed that myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is related to increased free radical generated and intracellular calcium overload especially during the period of reperfusion. The pineal secretory product, melatonin, is known to be a potent free radical scavenger, antioxidant and can inhibit the intracellular calcium overload. In this review, we have summarized the fundamental of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury and the effects of melatonin on myocardial damage that related to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. The total antioxidant capacity of human serum is related to melatonin levels. Incidence of sudden cardiac death is high in the morning hours. It has been shown that melatonin levels are significantly low at these times and patients with coronary heart disease have lower than normal individuals. These findings thought that melatonin would be valuable to test in clinical trials for prevention of possible ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury, especially life threatening arrhythmias and infarct size, effecting life quality, associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty, coronary artery spasm or coronary bypass surgery.

  17. Ocular injuries due to projectile impacts.

    PubMed

    Scott, W R; Lloyd, W C; Benedict, J V; Meredith, R

    2000-01-01

    An animal model has been developed using enucleated porcine eyes to evaluate ocular trauma. The eyes were pressurized to approximately 18 mmHg and mounted in a container with a 10% gelatin mixture. The corneas of sixteen pressurized eyes were impacted by a blunt metal projectile (mass of 2.6 gm, 3.5 gm or 45.5 gm) at velocities of 4.0 to 38.1 m/s. The impacted eyes were evaluated by an ophthalmologist. A numerical classification scheme was used to categorize the severity of the ocular injury. A chi-squared test indicates that the injury level is associated with the kinetic energy (KE) and not the momentum of the projectile. The enucleated eyes began to experience lens dislocations when the KE of the projectile was approximately 0.75 Nm, and retinal injuries when the KE was approximately 1.20 Nm.

  18. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Allen, S; Chang, A P Y; Henderson, H; Hobson, G C; Karania, B; Morgan, K N; Pek, A S Y; Raghvani, K; Shee, C Y; Shikotra, J; Street, E; Abbas, Z; Ellis, K; Heer, J K; Alexander, S P H

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (-)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3-30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (-)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (-)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium.

  19. Cardiac Dysfunction in a Porcine Model of Pediatric Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Fabiansen, Christian; Lykke, Mikkel; Hother, Anne-Louise; Koch, Jørgen; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Hunter, Ingrid; Goetze, Jens P.; Friis, Henrik; Thymann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Half a million children die annually of severe acute malnutrition and cardiac dysfunction may contribute to the mortality. However, cardiac function remains poorly examined in cases of severe acute malnutrition. Objective To determine malnutrition-induced echocardiographic disturbances and longitudinal changes in plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T in a pediatric porcine model. Methods and Results Five-week old piglets (Duroc-x-Danish Landrace-x-Yorkshire) were fed a nutritionally inadequate maize-flour diet to induce malnutrition (MAIZE, n = 12) or a reference diet (AGE-REF, n = 12) for 7 weeks. Outcomes were compared to a weight-matched reference group (WEIGHT-REF, n = 8). Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T were measured weekly. Plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide decreased in both MAIZE and AGE-REF during the first 3 weeks but increased markedly in MAIZE relative to AGE-REF during week 5–7 (p≤0.001). There was overall no difference in plasma cardiac troponin-T between groups. However, further analysis revealed that release of cardiac troponin-T in plasma was more frequent in AGE-REF compared with MAIZE (OR: 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2–19.7; p = 0.03). However, when release occurred, cardiac troponin-T concentration was 6.9-fold higher (95%CI: 3.0–15.9; p<0.001) in MAIZE compared to AGE-REF. At week 7, the mean body weight in MAIZE was lower than AGE-REF (8.3 vs 32.4 kg, p<0.001), whereas heart-weight relative to body-weight was similar across the three groups. The myocardial performance index was 86% higher in MAIZE vs AGE-REF (p<0.001) and 27% higher in MAIZE vs WEIGHT-REF (p = 0.025). Conclusions Malnutrition associates with cardiac dysfunction in a pediatric porcine model by increased myocardial performance index and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and it associates with cardiac injury by elevated cardiac troponin-T. Clinical studies are needed to see if the same applies for children suffering from

  20. Initial experience with the novel 6 Fr-compatible system for debulking de novo coronary arterial lesions.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Fumiaki; Abizaid, Alexandre; Suzuki, Takeshi; Rezaee, Mehrdad; Patterson, Greg R; Yeung, Alan C; Virmani, Renu; Sousa, J Eduardo; Carter, Andrew J

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel system for debulking of de novo native coronary arterial lesions. The Helixciser De Novo system is a novel 6 Fr-compatible catheter with a cutter encased in a slotted-orifice housing to excise atheromatous plaque. The cutter rotates at 15,000 rpm, debulking the plaque as it tracks through the lesion over a straight wire or a self-expanding nitinol helical-shaped wire. The tissue is aspirated via an Archimedes screw pump to vacuum collection chamber. The device was evaluated in a porcine toxic coronary stent model of chronic occlusion and in five patients with focal de novo native coronary arterial lesions. Procedural variables along with outcomes were reviewed. Quantitative angiography (QCA) and volumetric intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis were performed. In a porcine model of chronic occlusion, QCA demonstrated pretreatment minimal lumen diameter (MLD) increased from 0.77 +/- 0.59 to 1.88 +/- 0.25 mm postdebulking. IVUS analysis demonstrated pretreatment lumen volume (LV) increased from 15.8 +/- 22.2 to 46.4 +/- 28.9 mm(3) postdebulking. In human clinical feasibility cases, QCA demonstrated pretreatment MLD increased from 0.96 +/- 0.40 to 2.04 +/- 0.19 mm postdebulking. IVUS analysis demonstrated pretreatment LV increased from 38.40 +/- 12.78 to 52.05 +/- 15.68 mm(3) postdebulking. Preliminary results document the feasibility of Helixcision De Novo for treatment of focal de novo native coronary arterial lesions. Quantitative angiographic and IVUS analysis indicate that this system can effectively debulk plaque from selected noncalcified atherosclerotic lesions and thus may represent an alternative treatment strategy for coronary artery disease.

  1. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  2. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  3. ACL Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ... Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury ...

  4. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  5. Urethral Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Related Injuries (Video) Rotator Cuff Injury (News) Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans ... Comfort Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans ...

  6. Development of a model of the coronary arterial tree for the 4D XCAT phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, George S. K.; Segars, W. Paul; Gullberg, Grant T.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2011-09-01

    A detailed three-dimensional (3D) model of the coronary artery tree with cardiac motion has great potential for applications in a wide variety of medical imaging research areas. In this work, we first developed a computer-generated 3D model of the coronary arterial tree for the heart in the extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom, thereby creating a realistic computer model of the human anatomy. The coronary arterial tree model was based on two datasets: (1) a gated cardiac dual-source computed tomography (CT) angiographic dataset obtained from a normal human subject and (2) statistical morphometric data of porcine hearts. The initial proximal segments of the vasculature and the anatomical details of the boundaries of the ventricles were defined by segmenting the CT data. An iterative rule-based generation method was developed and applied to extend the coronary arterial tree beyond the initial proximal segments. The algorithm was governed by three factors: (1) statistical morphometric measurements of the connectivity, lengths and diameters of the arterial segments; (2) avoidance forces from other vessel segments and the boundaries of the myocardium, and (3) optimality principles which minimize the drag force at the bifurcations of the generated tree. Using this algorithm, the 3D computational model of the largest six orders of the coronary arterial tree was generated, which spread across the myocardium of the left and right ventricles. The 3D coronary arterial tree model was then extended to 4D to simulate different cardiac phases by deforming the original 3D model according to the motion vector map of the 4D cardiac model of the XCAT phantom at the corresponding phases. As a result, a detailed and realistic 4D model of the coronary arterial tree was developed for the XCAT phantom by imposing constraints of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the coronary vasculature. This new 4D coronary artery tree model provides a unique simulation tool that can be

  7. Outbreak investigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea in swine in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Pasma, Tim; Furness, Mary Catherine; Alves, David; Aubry, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus was first diagnosed in Ontario in January of 2014. An outbreak investigation was conducted and it was hypothesized that feed containing spray-dried porcine plasma contaminated with the virus was a risk factor in the introduction and spread of the disease in Ontario.

  8. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  9. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  10. Percutaneous coronary intervention for poor coronary microcirculation reperfusion of patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Li, J S; Zhao, X J; Ma, B X; Wang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been extensively applied to repair the forward flow of diseased coronary artery and can achieve significant curative results. However, some patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) develop non-perfusion or poor perfusion of cardiac muscle tissue after PCI, which increases the incidence of cardiovascular events and the death rate. PCI can dredge narrowed or infarct-related artery (IRA) and thus induce full reperfusion of ischemic myocardium. It is found in practice that some cases of AMI still have no perfusion or poor perfusion in myocardial tissue even though coronary angiography suggests opened coronary artery after PCI, which increases the incidence of vascular events and mortality. Therefore, to explore the detailed mechanism of PCI in treating coronary microcirculation of patients with stable angina pectoris, we selected 140 patients with stable angina pectoris for PCI, observing the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) of descending branch and changes of myocardial injury markers and left ventricular systolic function, and made a subgroup analysis based on the correlation between clinical indexes, IMR and other variables of diabetic and non-diabetic patients, PCI-related and non-PCI-related myocardial infarction patients. The results suggest that IMR of anterior descending branch after PCI was higher compared to that before PCI, and the difference was significant (P less than 0.05); creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), myohemoglobin and high sensitive troponin T were all increased after PCI, and the difference was also significant (P less than 0.05); brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level became higher after PCI, with significant difference (P less than 0.05); left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) declined after PCI, and the difference before and after PCI was statistically significant (P less than 0.05). Moreover, subgroup analysis results of the three groups all demonstrated statistically significant

  11. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo-Jiang; Li, Ping-Hua; Huang, Rui-Hua; Sun, Wen-Xing; Wang, Han; Li, Qi-Fa; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wang-Jun; Liu, Hong-Lin

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse) have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells.

  12. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV), which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) libraries derive...

  13. Actions of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone versus porcine bone only on osteointegration of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; López-Marí, Laura; Guardia, Javier; Marínez-González, José María; Barone, Antonio; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Paredes, Sergio D; Fuentes-Breto, Lorena

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the topical application of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone on the osteointegration on the rough discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface implants in Beagle dogs 3 months after their insertion. In preparation for subsequent insertion of dental implants, lower molars were extracted from 12 Beagle dogs. Each mandible received two parallel wall expanded platform implants with a DCD surface of 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. The implants were randomly assigned to the distal sites on each mandible in the molar area and the gaps were filled with 5 mg lyophilized powdered melatonin and porcine bone and collagenized porcine bone alone. Ten histological sections per implant were obtained for histomorphometric studies. After a 4-wk treatment period, melatonin plus porcine bone significantly increased the perimeter of bone that was in direct contact with the treated implants (P < 0.0001), bone density (P < 0.0001), and new bone formation (P < 0.0001) in comparison with porcine bone alone around the implants. Melatonin plus collagenized porcine bone on DCD surface may act as a biomimetic agent in the placement of endo-osseous dental implants and enhance the osteointegration. Melatonin combined with porcine bone on DCD implants reveals more bone in implant contact at 12 wk (84.5 +/- 1.5%) compared with porcine bone alone treated area (67.17 +/- 1.2%).

  14. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Enhances Accelerative Wave Intensity in Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Om; Leung, Michael C. H.; Wong, Dennis T. L.; Meredith, Ian T.; Cameron, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The systolic forward travelling compression wave (sFCW) and diastolic backward travelling decompression waves (dBEW) predominantly accelerate coronary blood flow. The effect of a coronary stenosis on the intensity of these waves in the distal vessel is unknown. We investigated the relationship between established physiological indices of hyperemic coronary flow and the intensity of the two major accelerative coronary waves identified by Coronary Wave Intensity analysis (CWIA). Methodology / Principal Findings Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and velocity measurement was performed during adenosine induced hyperemia in 17 patients with pressure / Doppler flow wires positioned distal to the target lesion. CWI profiles were generated from this data. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve (CFVR) were calculated concurrently. The intensity of the dBEW was significantly correlated with FFR (R = -0.70, P = 0.003) and CFVR (R = -0.73, P = 0.001). The intensity of the sFCW was also significantly correlated with baseline FFR (R = 0.71, p = 0.002) and CFVR (R = 0.59, P = 0.01). Stenting of the target lesion resulted in a median 178% (interquartile range 55–280%) (P<0.0001) increase in sFCW intensity and a median 117% (interquartile range 27–509%) (P = 0.001) increase in dBEW intensity. The increase in accelerative wave intensity following PCI was proportionate to the baseline FFR and CFVR, such that stenting of lesions associated with the greatest flow limitation (lowest FFR and CFVR) resulted in the largest increases in wave intensity. Conclusions Increasing ischemia severity is associated with proportionate reductions in cumulative intensity of both major accelerative coronary waves. Impaired diastolic microvascular decompression may represent a novel, important pathophysiologic mechanism driving the reduction in coronary blood flow in the setting of an epicardial stenosis. PMID:26658896

  15. Waterbike injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

    1991-01-01

    Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1810620

  16. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  17. Long-Term Histopathologic and IVUS Evaluations of a Novel Coiled Sheet Stent in Porcine Carotid Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneda, Hideaki; Ikeno, Fumiaki Lyons, Jennifer; Rezaee, Mehrdad; Yeung, Alan C.; Fitzgerald, Peter J.

    2006-06-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stent placement has been proposed as an alternative method for revascularization of carotid artery stenosis. A novel stent with a laser-cut, rolled sheet of Nitinol (EndoTex Interventional Systems, Inc., Cupertino, CA) has been developed to customize treatment of stenotic lesions in carotid arteries utilizing a single stent, designed to adapt to multiple diameters and to tapered or nontapered configurations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the conformability and vascular response to a novel stent in a chronic porcine carotid model using serial three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) analysis as well as histological examination. Ten Yucatan pigs underwent stent implantation in both normal carotid arteries with adjunctive balloon angioplasty. Three-dimensional IVUS analysis was performed before stent implantation, after adjunctive balloon angioplasty, and at follow-up [1 month (n = 6), 3 months (n = 6), or 6 months (n = 8)]. Histological examination (injury score, percent plaque obstruction, and qualitative analysis) was also performed. All stents were successfully deployed and well apposed in different sized vessels (lumen area range: 19-30 mm{sup 2}). Volumetric IVUS analysis showed no significant difference between the lumen areas before stent implantation and after adjunctive balloon angioplasty and no stent area change at each follow-up point compared to immediately postprocedure. Histological examination revealed minimal injury and neointimal hyperplasia at each follow-up point. In the chronic porcine carotid model, the novel stent system demonstrated good conformability, resulting in minimal vessel injury and neointimal formation.

  18. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (SecPBMC), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-SecPBMC), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-SecPBMC had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-SecPBMC had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-SecPBMC significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting. PMID:27125302

  19. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-04-29

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (Sec(PBMC)), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-Sec(PBMC)), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-Sec(PBMC) significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting.

  20. Bicycling injuries.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  1. Phenotypic map of porcine retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; del Río, Patricia; Blindert, Marcel; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Porcine retina is an excellent model for studying diverse retinal processes and diseases. The morphologies of porcine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have, however, not yet been described comprehensively. The aim of the present study was to créate a classification of the RGCs using the 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) tracing method. Methods About 170 RGCs were retrogradely labeled by injecting DiI into the optic nerve of postmortem eyes and statistically analyzed by two different clustering methods: Ward’s algorithm and the K-means clustering. Major axis length of the soma, soma area size, and dendritic field area size were selected as main parameters for cluster classification. Results RGC distribution in clusters was achieved according to their morphological parameters. It was feasible to combine both statistical methods, thereby obtaining a robust clustering distribution. Morphological analysis resulted in a classification of RGCs in three groups according to the soma size and dendritic field: A (large somas and large dendritic fields), B (medium to large somas and medium to large dendritic fields), C (medium to small somas and medium to small dendritic fields). Within groups, fine clustering defined several subgroups according to dendritic arborization and level of stratification. Additionally, cells stratifying in two different levels of the inner plexiform layer were observed within the clusters. Conclusions This comprehensive study of RGC morphologies in the porcine retina provides fundamental knowledge about RGC cell types and provides a basis for functional studies toward selective RGC cell degeneration in retinal disorders. PMID:23687427

  2. Enhancement of canine coronary collateral flow by nafazatrom.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, V B; Mardin, M

    1986-11-04

    The ability of oral nafazatrom treatment (10 mg/kg) 2 h preceding occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 h to limit expansion of myocardial injury was studied in anaesthetized canine hearts. Collateral blood flow was obtained with a load line analysis, employing aortic pressure, post-stenotic coronary pressure, and retrograde coronary flow from the occluded vessel. Contractile changes in the subendocardial ischemic perfused muscles were measured with ultrasonic techniques. Infarct size was determined post-mortem by a biochemical staining method and excision of necrosis. Post-stenotic coronary pressure was slightly below aortic pressure in both groups before coronary occlusion, and fell to 29 and 27% of aortic pressure in vehicle- and drug-treated hearts, respectively, after the insult. Retrograde flow was 2.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.7 ml/min in tylose- or nafazatrom-treated hearts. Collateral flow amounted to 1.5 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.04 ml/min in controls and drug-protected hearts. Contractility (dP/dtmax) and the %-segment shortening were greater in the ischaemic myocardium after nafazatrom treatment. Infarct size was 38 +/- 5.2 vs. 17 +/- 3.4 g/100 g left ventricle in the vehicle controls and nafazatrom group, respectively. Nafazatrom reduced infarct size by 46%. Besides other mechanisms, this was due to improved %-segment shortening and increased periinfarction collateral blood supply to jeopardized but viable myocardium. The drug may be of value in ischaemic heart disease as shown by the enhanced regional myocardial perfusion and improved contractility.

  3. Coronary collateral circulation: its relevance.

    PubMed

    Karrowni, Wassef; El Accaoui, Ramzi N; Chatterjee, Kanu

    2013-11-15

    The interest in coronary collateral circulation (CCC) as "natural bypasses" is growing, especially in patients in whom the extent of coronary atherosclerosis is too severe to allow for conventional revascularization. The anatomic foundation of CCC has been recognized for long time. Recently, reliable methods have become available for the assessment of the adequacy of collateral flow. However, the debate regarding the importance of CCC in the different clinical settings continues. In this article, we present the recent progress in the understanding of anatomy and physiology of the CCC and focus on the studies addressing their functional significance in acute, subacute, and chronic coronary artery disease. In addition, we provide a focused update on the essential role of collateral circulation in the management of coronary chronic total occlusions.

  4. Physiologic assessment of coronary artery fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J. )

    1991-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery.

  5. Animal models of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jiawei; Huang, Wei; Liu, George

    2015-08-20

    Cardiovascular disease, predominantly coronary heart disease and stroke, leads to high morbidity and mortality not only in developed worlds but also in underdeveloped regions. The dominant pathologic foundation for cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis and as to coronary heart disease, coronary atherosclerosis and resulting lumen stenosis, even total occlusions. In translational research, several animals, such as mice, rabbits and pigs, have been used as disease models of human atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular disorders. However, coronary lesions are either naturally rare or hard to be fast induced in these models, hence, coronary heart disease induction mostly relies on surgical or pharmaceutical interventions with no or limited primary coronary lesions, thus unrepresentative of human coronary heart disease progression and pathology. In this review, we will describe the progress of animal models of coronary heart disease following either spontaneous or diet-accelerated coronary lesions.

  6. Injury - kidney and ureter

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, ...

  7. Antibodies Against Human Cell Receptors, CD36, CD41a, and CD62P Crossreact With Porcine Platelets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-11

    normal platelet levels are 2–4 105/l (1). The primary function of platelets in circulation is to aid in the formation of clots after a vascular injury...Jolla, CA), fibrinogen (Sigma, St. Louis, MO), and P-selectin (R&D Systems , Minneapolis, MN), respectively. Cells were washed with 2 ml of PBS and... systems . Saalmuller et al. (12) found that crossreactivity of human mAb to porcine cells exists for a variety of T-cell markers. Zhang et al. (13) reported

  8. Toward modeling of regional myocardial ischemia and infarction: generation of realistic coronary arterial tree for the heart model of the XCAT phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, George S. K.; Segars, W. Paul; Veress, Alexander I.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.

    2009-02-01

    A realistic 3D coronary arterial tree (CAT) has been developed for the heart model of the computer generated 3D XCAT phantom. The CAT allows generation of a realistic model of the location, size and shape of the associated regional ischemia or infarction for a given coronary arterial stenosis or occlusion. This in turn can be used in medical imaging applications. An iterative rule-based generation method that systematically utilized anatomic, morphometric and physiologic knowledge was used to construct a detailed realistic 3D model of the CAT in the XCAT phantom. The anatomic details of the myocardial surfaces and large coronary arterial vessel segments were first extracted from cardiac CT images of a normal patient with right coronary dominance. Morphometric information derived from porcine data from the literature, after being adjusted by scaling laws, provided statistically nominal diameters, lengths, and connectivity probabilities of the generated coronary arterial segments in modeling the CAT of an average human. The largest six orders of the CAT were generated based on the physiologic constraints defined in the coronary generation algorithms. When combined with the heart model of the XCAT phantom, the realistic CAT provides a unique simulation tool for the generation of realistic regional myocardial ischemia and infraction. Together with the existing heart model, the new CAT provides an important improvement over the current 3D XCAT phantom in providing a more realistic model of the normal heart and the potential to simulate myocardial diseases in evaluation of medical imaging instrumentation, image reconstruction, and data processing methods.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression of porcine Siglec-5.

    PubMed

    Escalona, Z; Álvarez, B; Uenishi, H; Toki, D; Yuste, M; Revilla, C; Gómez del Moral, M; Alonso, F; Ezquerra, A; Domínguez, J

    2014-05-01

    In this study we describe the characterization of the porcine orthologue of Siglec-5. A cDNa clone was obtained from a porcine cDNa library derived from swine small intestine which encodes a 555 a-a type 1 transmembrane protein with sequence homology to human Siglec-5. This protein consists of four Ig-like domains, a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic tail with two tyrosine-based signalling motifs. When expressed as a recombinant protein fused to the Fc region of human IgG1, porcine Siglec-5 was able to bind porcine red blood cells in a sialic acid-dependent manner. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were developed against porcine Siglec-5 and used to analyse its expression in bone marrow and blood cells, and lymphoid tissues. Porcine Siglec-5 expression was mainly restricted to myelomonocytic cells and their precursors, being detected also, although at low levels, on plasmacytoid dendritic cells and B lymphocytes. In lymphoid tissues, ellipsoids of the spleen and subcapsular and medullar sinuses of lymph nodes were positive for Siglec-5. These mAbs were able to precipitate, from granulocyte lysates, a protein of approximately 85 kDa under non-reducing conditions, indicating that porcine Siglec-5 is expressed as a monomer in the plasma membrane.

  10. Noninvasive Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Ran; Nakazato, Ryo; Kalra, Dan; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive cardiac imaging is widely used to evaluate the presence of coronary artery disease. Recently, with improvements in imaging technology, noninvasive imaging has also been used for evaluation of the presence, severity, and prognosis of coronary artery disease. Coronary CT angiography and MRI of coronary arteries provide an anatomical assessment of coronary stenosis, whereas the hemodynamic significance of a coronary artery stenosis can be assessed by stress myocardial perfusion imaging, such as SPECT/PET and stress MRI. For appropriate use of multiple imaging modalities, the strengths and limitations of each modality are discussed in this review. PMID:25234083

  11. Candidate chemosensory cells in the porcine stomach.

    PubMed

    Widmayer, Patricia; Breer, Heinz; Hass, Nicole

    2011-07-01

    A continuous chemosensory monitoring of the ingested food is of vital importance for adjusting digestive processes according to diet composition. Although any dysfunction of this surveillance system may be the cause of severe gastrointestinal disorders, information about the cellular and molecular basis of chemosensation in the gastrointestinal tract is limited. The porcine alimentary canal is considered as an appropriate model for the human gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the gastric mucosa of swine for cells which express gustatory transduction elements such as TRPM5 or PLCβ2, and thus may represent candidate "chemosensors". It was found that the porcine stomach indeed contains cells expressing gustatory marker molecules; however, the morphology and topographic distribution of putative chemosensory cells varied significantly from that in mice. Whereas in the murine stomach these cells were clustered at a distinct region near the gastric entrance, no such compact cell cluster was found in the pig stomach. These results indicate substantial differences regarding the phenotype of candidate chemosensory cells of mice and swine and underline the importance of choosing the most suitable model organisms.

  12. Justifying clinical trials for porcine islet xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Cara E; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Edmonton Protocol encouraged a great deal of optimism that a cell-based cure for type I diabetes could be achieved. However, donor organ shortages prevent islet transplantation from being a widespread solution as the supply cannot possibly equal the demand. Porcine islet xenotransplantation has the potential to address these shortages, and recent preclinical and clinical trials show promising scientific support. Consequently, it is important to consider whether the current science meets the ethical requirements for moving toward clinical trials. Despite the potential risks and the scientific unknowns that remain to be investigated, there is optimism regarding the xenotransplantation of some types of tissue, and enough evidence has been gathered to ethically justify clinical trials for the most safe and advanced area of research, porcine islet transplantation. Researchers must make a concerted effort to maintain a positive image for xenotransplantation, as a few well-publicized failed trials could irrevocably damage public perception of xenotransplantation. Because all of society carries the burden of risk, it is important that the public be involved in the decision to proceed. As new information from preclinical and clinical trials develops, policy decisions should be frequently updated. If at any point evidence shows that islet xenotransplantation is unsafe, then clinical trials will no longer be justified and they should be halted. However, as of now, the expected benefit of an unlimited supply of islets, combined with adequate informed consent, justifies clinical trials for islet xenotransplantation.

  13. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L

    2015-01-01

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity.

  14. Progesterone improves porcine in vitro fertilisation system.

    PubMed

    Malo, Clara; Gil, Lydia; Cano, Rafael; Martinez, Felisa; Gonzalez, Noelia

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to improve the quality of in vitro produced porcine embryos, the effect of progestagens - progesterone analogues - on the in vitro developmental competence of porcine oocytes was studied. A total of 1421 in vitro matured oocytes, from 4 replicates, were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Progestagens were added to late maturation and embryo cultures (10 IU/ml). Fertilisation success (pre-maturation, penetration, monospermy and efficiency) and nuclear maturation were evaluated. There were no differences among prematuration rates between groups (P = 0.221). Penetration rates were higher (P < 0.001) in the presence of progestagens (75.0%) as compared to the control (51.7%). However, no differences were observed in monospermy percentages (P = 0.246). The results indicated that supplementation with progestagens increased the efficiency of the in vitro fertilisation system (P < 0.001). An additional beneficial effect was observed in nuclear maturation with progestagens (P = 0.035). In summary, progestagen supplementation is an important factor to improve the in vitro fertilisation procedure.

  15. Meta-analysis of organ damage after conversion from off-pump coronary artery bypass procedures.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Dayal; Rao, Christopher; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Ashrafian, Hutan; Protopapas, Aristotle; Darzi, Ara; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-08-01

    The relative efficacy of off-pump and on-pump coronary revascularization is uncertain. A complication of off-pump surgery which is rarely considered is intraoperative conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass. Consequently, meta-analysis was performed of studies comparing morbidity after converted and nonconverted off-pump coronary revascularization. There were significant increases in the likelihood of stroke, myocardial injury, bleeding, renal failure, wound infection, intraaortic balloon pump requirement, transfusion, and respiratory and gastrointestinal complications after conversion. The underlying mechanisms need to be urgently elucidated. Prevention and treatment protocols for conversion warrant serious consideration and the risk of conversion may need to be discussed when obtaining informed patient consent.

  16. Temporal effects in porcine skin following bromine vapor exposure.

    PubMed

    Price, Jennifer A; Rogers, James V; Wendling, Morgan Q S; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Perry, Mark R; Reid, Frances M; Kiser, Robyn C; Graham, John S

    2011-09-01

    Bromine is an industrial chemical that causes severe cutaneous burns. When selecting or developing effective treatments for bromine burns, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of tissue damage and wound healing. This study investigated the effect of cutaneous bromine vapor exposure on gene expression using a weanling swine burn model by microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated bromine vapor concentration of 0.51 g/L for 7 or 17 min. At 6 h, 48 h, and 7 days post-exposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and analyzed with Affymetrix GeneChip® Porcine Genome Arrays (N = 3 per experimental group). Differences in gene expression were observed with respect to exposure duration and sampling time. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed four common biological functions (cancer, cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and tissue development) among the top ten functions of each experimental group, while canonical pathway analysis revealed 9 genes (ARG2, CCR1, HMOX1, ATF2, IL-8, TIMP1, ESR1, HSPAIL, and SELE) that were commonly shared among four significantly altered signaling pathways. Among these, the transcripts encoding HMOX1 and ESR1 were identified using IPA as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study describes the transcriptional responses to cutaneous bromine vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for bromine-induced skin injury.

  17. Complement factor 5 blockade reduces porcine myocardial infarction size and improves immediate cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Pischke, Soeren E; Gustavsen, A; Orrem, H L; Egge, K H; Courivaud, F; Fontenelle, H; Despont, A; Bongoni, A K; Rieben, R; Tønnessen, T I; Nunn, M A; Scott, H; Skulstad, H; Barratt-Due, A; Mollnes, T E

    2017-05-01

    Inhibition of complement factor 5 (C5) reduced myocardial infarction in animal studies, while no benefit was found in clinical studies. Due to lack of cross-reactivity of clinically used C5 antibodies, different inhibitors were used in animal and clinical studies. Coversin (Ornithodoros moubata complement inhibitor, OmCI) blocks C5 cleavage and binds leukotriene B4 in humans and pigs. We hypothesized that inhibition of C5 before reperfusion will decrease infarct size and improve ventricular function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. In pigs (Sus scrofa), the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded (40 min) and reperfused (240 min). Coversin or placebo was infused 20 min after occlusion and throughout reperfusion in 16 blindly randomized pigs. Coversin significantly reduced myocardial infarction in the area at risk by 39% (p = 0.03, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining) and by 19% (p = 0.02) using magnetic resonance imaging. The methods correlated significantly (R = 0.92, p < 0.01). Tissue Doppler echocardiography showed increased systolic displacement (31%, p < 0.01) and increased systolic velocity (29%, p = 0.01) in coversin treated pigs. Interleukin-1β in myocardial microdialysis fluid was significantly reduced (31%, p < 0.05) and tissue E-selectin expression was significantly reduced (p = 0.01) in the non-infarcted area at risk by coversin treatment. Coversin ablated plasma C5 activation throughout the reperfusion period and decreased myocardial C5b-9 deposition, while neither plasma nor myocardial LTB4 were significantly reduced. Coversin substantially reduced the size of infarction, improved ventricular function, and attenuated interleukin-1β and E-selectin in this porcine model by inhibiting C5. We conclude that inhibition of C5 in myocardial infarction should be reconsidered.

  18. Porcine models of digestive disease: the future of large animal translational research

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J.; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in non-rodent translational models for the study of human disease. The pig, in particular, serves as a useful animal model for the study of pathophysiological conditions relevant to the human intestine. This review assesses currently used porcine models of gastrointestinal physiology and disease and provides a rationale for the use of these models for future translational studies. The pig has proven its utility for the study of fundamental disease conditions such as ischemia/ reperfusion injury, stress-induced intestinal dysfunction, and short bowel syndrome. Pigs have also shown great promise for the study of intestinal barrier function, surgical tissue manipulation and intervention, as well as biomaterial implantation and tissue transplantation. Advantages of pig models highlighted by these studies include the physiological similarity to human intestine as well as to mechanisms of human disease. Emerging future directions for porcine models of human disease include the fields of transgenics and stem cell biology, with exciting implications for regenerative medicine. PMID:25655839

  19. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Right Coronary Artery With All Coronary Arteries From Three Separate Ostiums in the Right Sinus of Valsalva

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Aydin, Mustafa; Dogan, Sait Mesut; Karabag, Turgut

    2011-01-01

    Some of coronary artery anomalies, such as origin of all coronary arteries from three separate ostiums in the right sinus of valsalva, represent a small amount of coronary anomalies. We describe a 63-year-old female patient which coronary angiogram revealed an origin of all coronary arteries from three separate ostiums in the right sinus of valsalva, with significant atherosclerotic plaque at the midportion of the right coronary artery. The stenosis was treated through percutaneous coronary intervention.

  20. Environmental injuries.

    PubMed

    Leikin, J B; Aks, S E; Andrews, S; Auerbach, P S; Cooper, M A; Jacobsen, T D; Krenzelok, E P; Shicker, L; Weiner, S L

    1997-12-01

    Environmental injuries and illnesses can happen in home, work, or recreational settings. The variety and severity of these injuries might require the clinician to call on skills from internal medicine, emergency medicine, and toxicology. Diseases of thermoregulation are hypothermia and hyperthermia. In each instance, treatment is based on the need to restore the patient's core temperature to normal and on monitoring for complications. The victim of a fire might suffer inhalation injury in addition to burns, and it is more likely that the inhalation injury will be fatal. Oxygen deprivation and inhalation of irritant or asphyxiant chemicals contribute to injury. Toxic plants can be the source of poisoning emergencies, especially in children. Misinformation and myths that surround common plants can create diagnostic problems (i.e., which plants really are toxic and require emergency measures). Venomous marine organisms can cause a wide range of injury, from cutaneous eruption to fatal envenomation. Most are encountered in a recreational setting, such as water sports, but keepers of home aquariums are subject to stings from venomous fish. Lightning injury can present many diagnostic and treatment dilemmas. An important point in this regard is that lightning injury and high-voltage electrical injury are different in pathology and require different approaches for treatment. A discussion of electrical, chemical, and thermal burns makes such differences apparent.

  1. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries. Images p99-a p100-a p100-b p100-c PMID:1751899

  2. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  3. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury, cerebral contusion, cerebral laceration, coma, head trauma, hematoma, impaired consciousness, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, skull penetration, stupor, vegetative state Family Health, Infants ...

  4. Hamstring Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... result. Hamstring injury risk factors include: Sports participation. Sports that require sprinting or running, or other activities such as dancing that might require extreme stretching, make a hamstring ...

  5. Cell-free extract from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells can affect porcine somatic cell nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of somatic cells with undifferentiated cell extracts, such as embryonic stem cells and mammalian oocytes, is an attractive alternative method for reprogramming control. The properties of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are similar to those of embryonic stem cells; however, no studies have reported somatic cell nuclear reprogramming using iPSC extracts. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of porcine iPSC extracts treatment on porcine ear fibroblasts and early development of porcine cloned embryos produced from porcine ear skin fibroblasts pretreated with the porcine iPSC extracts. The Chariot(TM) reagent system was used to deliver the iPSC extracts into cultured porcine ear skin fibroblasts. The iPSC extracts-treated cells (iPSC-treated cells) were cultured for 3 days and used for analyzing histone modification and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Compared to the results for nontreated cells, the trimethylation status of histone H3 lysine residue 9 (H3K9) in the iPSC-treated cells significantly decreased. The expression of Jmjd2b, the H3K9 trimethylation-specific demethylase gene, significantly increased in the iPSC-treated cells; conversely, the expression of the proapoptotic genes, Bax and p53, significantly decreased. When the iPSC-treated cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes, no differences were observed in blastocyst development and total cell number in blastocysts compared with the results for control cells. However, H3K9 trimethylation of pronuclear-stage-cloned embryos significantly decreased in the iPSC-treated cells. Additionally, Bax and p53 gene expression in the blastocysts was significantly lower in iPSC-treated cells than in control cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that an extracts of porcine iPSCs can affect histone modification and gene expression in porcine ear skin fibroblasts and cloned embryos.

  6. Genetic Characterization of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 from Pigs with Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pereda, Ariel; Piñeyro, Pablo; Bratanich, Ana; Quiroga, María Alejandra; Bucafusco, Danilo; Craig, María Isabel; Cappuccio, Javier; Machuca, Mariana; Rimondi, Agustina; Dibárbora, Marina; Sanguinetti, Hector Ramón; Perfumo, Carlos Juan

    2011-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) has been associated with syndromes grouped by the term porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The PCV-2 isolates have been grouped into two major groups or genotypes according to their nucleotide sequence of whole genomes and/or ORF-2: PCV-2b, which have, in turn, been subdivided into three clusters (1A–1C), and PCV-2a, which has been subdivided into five clusters (2A–2E). In the present study, we obtained 16 sequences of PCV-2 from different farms from 2003 to 2008, from animals with confirmatory diagnosis of PCVAD. Since results showed an identity of 99.8% among them, they were grouped within a common cluster 1A-B. This preliminary study suggests a stable circulation of PCV-2b among the Argentinean pig population. PMID:23738099

  7. Activation of porcine cytomegalovirus, but not porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus, in pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Nicolas J; Livingston, Christine; Knosalla, Christoph; Barth, Rolf N; Yamamoto, Shin; Gollackner, Bernd; Dor, Frank J M F; Buhler, Leo; Sachs, David H; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Cooper, David K C; Fishman, Jay A

    2004-05-01

    Tissue-invasive disease due to porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) has been demonstrated after pig-to-baboon solid-organ xenotransplantation. Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV)-1 is associated with B cell proliferation and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in swine but has not been observed in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Activation of PCMV and PLHV-1 was investigated in 22 pig-to-baboon xenotransplants by use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PCMV was found in all xenografts; increased viral replication occurred in 68% of xenografts during immunosuppression. PLHV-1 was found in 12 xenografts (55%); no increases in viral replication occurred during immunosuppression. Control immunosuppressed swine coinfected with PCMV and PLHV-1 had activation of PCMV but not PLHV-1. PCMV, but not PLHV-1, is activated in solid-organ xenotransplantation.

  8. A new three-dimensional exponential material model of the coronary arterial wall to include shear stress due to torsion.

    PubMed

    Van Epps, J Scott; Vorp, David A

    2008-10-01

    The biomechanical milieu of the coronary arteries is unique in that they experience mechanical deformations of twisting, bending, and stretching due to their tethering to the epicardial surface. Spatial variations in stresses caused by these deformations could account for the heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaques within the coronary tree. The goal of this work was to utilize previously reported shear moduli to calculate a shear strain parameter for a Fung-type exponential model of the arterial wall and determine if this single constant can account for the observed behavior of arterial segments under torsion. A Fung-type exponential strain-energy function was adapted to include a torsional shear strain term. The material parameter for this term was determined from previously published data describing the relationship between shear modulus and circumferential stress and longitudinal stretch ratio. Values for the shear strain parameter were determined for three geometries representing the mean porcine left anterior descending coronary artery dimensions plus or minus one standard deviation. Finite element simulation of triaxial biomechanical testing was then used to validate the model. The mean value calculated for the shear strain parameter was 0.0759+/-0.0009 (N=3 geometries). In silico triaxial experiments demonstrated that the shear modulus is directly proportional to the applied pressure at a constant longitudinal stretch ratio and to the stretch ratio at a constant pressure. Shear moduli determined from these simulations showed excellent agreement to shear moduli reported in literature. Previously published models describing the torsional shear behavior of porcine coronary arteries require a total of six independent constants. We have reduced that description into a single parameter in a Fung-type exponential strain-energy model. This model will aid in the estimation of wall stress distributions of vascular segments undergoing torsion, as such information

  9. Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... recommendations on Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography . These recommendations are for adult men and women ...

  10. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  11. Radiation-induced accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Thompson, M.; Dameshek, H.L.

    1986-07-01

    There is a paucity of information on radiation-induced coronary heart disease. A young patient with myocardial infarction following mediastinal irradiation is described. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the subsequent development of coronary heart disease is discussed.

  12. A mechanical argument for the differential performance of coronary artery grafts.

    PubMed

    Prim, David A; Zhou, Boran; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Uline, Mark J; Shazly, Tarek; Eberth, John F

    2016-02-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) acutely disturbs the homeostatic state of the transplanted vessel making retention of graft patency dependent on chronic remodeling processes. The time course and extent to which remodeling restores vessel homeostasis will depend, in part, on the nature and magnitude of the mechanical disturbances induced upon transplantation. In this investigation, biaxial mechanical testing and histology were performed on the porcine left anterior descending artery (LAD) and analogs of common autografts, including the internal thoracic artery (ITA), radial artery (RA), great saphenous vein (GSV) and lateral saphenous vein (LSV). Experimental data were used to quantify the parameters of a structure-based constitutive model enabling prediction of the acute vessel mechanical response pre-transplantation and under coronary loading conditions. A novel metric Ξ was developed to quantify mechanical differences between each graft vessel in situ and the LAD in situ, while a second metric Ω compares the graft vessels in situ to their state under coronary loading. The relative values of these metrics among candidate autograft sources are consistent with vessel-specific variations in CABG clinical success rates with the ITA as the superior and GSV the inferior graft choices based on mechanical performance. This approach can be used to evaluate other candidate tissues for grafting or to aid in the development of synthetic and tissue engineered alternatives.

  13. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun; Lv, Xiaonan; Herrler, Georg; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhou, Xingdong; Qu, Bo; Meng, Fandan; Cong, Chengcheng; Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  14. Porcine circovirus type 2 detection in in vitro produced porcine blastocysts after virus sperm exposure.

    PubMed

    Galeati, Giovanna; Zannoni, Augusta; Spinaci, Marcella; Bucci, Diego; Ostanello, Fabio; Panarese, Serena; Tamanini, Carlo; Sarli, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the capability of semen experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) to produce porcine blastocysts PCR positive for PCV2. Embryos were obtained from in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of porcine oocytes or by parthenogenesis. Sperm suspension was exposed to PCV2b and utilized for IVF. PCV2 spiked semen did not reveal any reduction in sperm viability or motility but its ability to produce infected blastocysts was irrelevant as only one out of 15 blastocysts obtained by IVF were PCV2b; however two blastocysts were PCV2a positive. Furthermore, the presence of PCV2 was demonstrated also in embryos obtained by parthenogenesis (one out of 17 was PCV2b and one PCV2a positive). Even if PCV2 firmly attaches to the surface of spermatozoa, experimentally spiked sperm were not effective in infecting oocytes during IVF and in producing PCR positive embryos. The infected blastocysts we obtained derived most probably from infected oocytes recovered at the abattoir.

  15. Functional analysis of the porcine USP18 and its role during porcine arterivirus replication.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ali, Tahar; Wilson, Alison W; Finlayson, Heather; Carré, Wilfrid; Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa Chakravarthy; Westcott, David G; Waterfall, Martin; Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Drew, Trevor W; Bishop, Stephen C; Archibald, Alan L

    2009-06-15

    Emerging evidence places deubiquitylation at the core of a multitude of regulatory processes, ranging from cell growth to innate immune response and health, such as cancer, degenerative and infectious diseases. Little is known about deubiquitylation in pig and arterivirus infection. This report provides information on the biochemical and functional role of the porcine USP18 during innate immune response to the porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV). We have shown that UBP gene is the ortholog of the murine USP18 (Ubp43) gene and the human ubiquitin specific protease 18 (USP18) gene and encodes a biochemically functional de-ubiquitin enzyme which inhibits signalling pathways that lead to IFN-stimulating response element (ISRE) promotor regulation. Furthermore we have demonstrated that overexpression of the porcine USP18 leads to reduced replication and/or growth of PRRSV. Our data contrast with the conclusion of numerous reports demonstrating that USP18-deficient mice are highly resistant to viral and bacterial infections and to oncogenic transformation by BCR-ABL, and highlight USP18 as a potential target gene that promotes reduced replication of PRRSV.

  16. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that /sup 125/I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of /sup 125/I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of /sup 125/I-pPRL was bound. /sup 125/I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites.

  17. Adventitial Nab-Rapamycin Injection Reduces Porcine Femoral Artery Luminal Stenosis Induced by Balloon Angioplasty via Inhibition of Medial Proliferation and Adventitial Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gasper, Warren J.; Jimenez, Cynthia A.; Walker, Joy; Conte, Michael S.; Seward, Kirk; Owens, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endovascular interventions on peripheral arteries are limited by high rates of restenosis. Our hypothesis was that adventitial injection of rapamycin nanoparticles would be safe and reduce luminal stenosis in a porcine femoral artery balloon angioplasty model. Methods and Results Eighteen juvenile male crossbred swine were included. Single-injury (40%–60% femoral artery balloon overstretch injury; n=2) and double-injury models (endothelial denudation injury 2 weeks before a 20%–30% overstretch injury; n=2) were compared. The double-injury model produced significantly more luminal stenosis at 28 days, P=0.002, and no difference in medial fibrosis or inflammation. Four pigs were randomized to the double-injury model and adventitial injection of saline (n=2) or 500 μg of nanoparticle albumin-bound rapamycin (nab-rapamycin; n=2) with an endovascular microinfusion catheter. There was 100% procedural success and no difference in endothelial regeneration. At 28 days, nab-rapamycin led to significant reductions in luminal stenosis, 17% (interquartile range, 12%–35%) versus 10% (interquartile range, 8.3%–14%), P=0.001, medial cell proliferation, P<0.001, and fibrosis, P<0.001. There were significantly fewer adventitial leukocytes at 3 days, P<0.001, but no difference at 28 days. Pharmacokinetic analysis (single-injury model) found rapamycin concentrations 1500× higher in perivascular tissues than in blood at 1 hour. Perivascular rapamycin persisted ≥8 days and was not detectable at 28 days. Conclusions Adventitial nab-rapamycin injection was safe and significantly reduced luminal stenosis in a porcine femoral artery balloon angioplasty model. Observed reductions in early adventitial leukocyte infiltration and late medial cell proliferation and fibrosis suggest an immunosuppressive and antiproliferative mechanism. An intraluminal microinfusion catheter for adventitial injection represents an alternative to stent- or balloon-based local drug delivery

  18. Computer storage and retrieval of coronary trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starmer, C. F.; Smith, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Coronary cineangiography is a routine procedure for evaluation of the coronary circulation. From the biplane cineangiograms a visual representation of coronary perfusion was obtained. A collection of simple ideas and procedures to aid in the collection is described. The uses to which the tree data will be put include the evaluation of myocardial function and the formation of a library sufficiently large to enable some taxonomic classification of coronary artery patterns to be made.

  19. Coronary Ostial Stenosis after Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Antonios G.; Economou, Fotios I.; Charokopos, Nicholas A.; Pitsis, Antonios A.; Parharidou, Despina G.; Papadopoulos, Thomas I.; Parharidis, Georgios E.

    2010-01-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option. PMID:20844624

  20. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously.

  1. Porcine radial artery decellularization by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Jun; Funamoto, Seiichi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi; Nam, Kwangoo; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio

    2015-11-01

    Many types of decellularized tissues have been studied and some have been commercially used in clinics. In this study, small-diameter vascular grafts were made using HHP to decellularize porcine radial arteries. One decellularization method, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), has been used to prepare the decellularized porcine tissues. Low-temperature treatment was effective in preserving collagen and collagen structures in decellularized porcine carotid arteries. The collagen and elastin structures and mechanical properties of HHP-decellularized radial arteries were similar to those of untreated radial arteries. Xenogeneic transplantation (into rats) was performed using HHP-decellularized radial arteries and an untreated porcine radial artery. Two weeks after transplantation into rat carotid arteries, the HHP-decellularized radial arteries were patent and without thrombosis. In addition, the luminal surface of each decellularized artery was covered by recipient endothelial cells and the arterial medium was fully infiltrated with recipient cells.

  2. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Quilis, Carme; Leischik, Roman; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement. PMID:27500157

  3. Whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  4. Rescue coronary stenting in acute myocardial infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Enrico; Meneghetti, Paolo; Molinari, Gionata; Zardini, Piero

    1996-01-01

    Failed rescue coronary angioplasty is a high risk situation because of high mortality. Coronary stent has given us the chance of improving and maintaining the patency of the artery. We report our preliminary experience of rescue stenting after unsuccessful coronary angioplasty.

  5. The ASSURE ROT Registry: Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Following Rotablation for Complex Coronary Lesions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-05

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  6. Head injuries.

    PubMed

    Yanko, J

    1984-08-01

    In summary, the broad term "head injury" represents a large variety of more specific injuries. In order to anticipate and plan appropriate patient care, nurses need information regarding the cause of injury, the impact site, and the patient's clinical course in addition to current assessment findings. The nurse must also anticipate sequelae from secondary brain injury due to hypoxia, edema, increased intracranial pressure, changes in regional blood flows, or hypovolemic shock due to internal bleeding in another body system or cavity. The head-injured patient is a complex patient requiring intensive nursing care, observation, and assessment. By incorporating knowledge of the mechanisms of injury into nursing observations and assessments, nurses can provide more effective nursing interventions.

  7. Porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell system.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R E

    2001-11-01

    Porcine Skin Flow-Through Diffusion Cell System (Ronald E. Baynes, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). Porcine skin can be used in a diffusion cell apparatus to study the rate and extent of absorption of topically applied chemicals through the skin. Although the skin of a number of animals can be used in this system, that of the pig most closely approximates human skin anatomically and physiologically.

  8. Genetic and antigenic changes in porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Betancourt, José I; Trujillo, María E; Mendoza, Susana E; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Alonso, Rogelio A

    2012-01-01

    Blue eye disease, caused by a porcine rubulavirus (PoRV), is an emergent viral swine disease that has been endemic in Mexico since 1980. Atypical outbreaks were detected in 1990 and 2003. Growing and adult pigs presented neurological signs, mild neurological signs were observed in piglets, and severe reproductive problems were observed in adults. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein revealed genetically different lineages. We used cross-neutralization assays, with homologous and heterologous antisera, to determine the antigenic relatedness values for the PoRV isolates. We found antigenic changes among several strains and identified a highly divergent one, making up a new serogroup. It seems that genetically and antigenically different PoRV strains are circulating simultaneously in the swine population in the geographical region studied. The cross neutralization studies suggest that the HN is not the only antigenic determinant participating in the antigenic changes among the different PoRV strains.

  9. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    PubMed

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  10. Location - Dependent Coronary Artery Diffusive and Convective Mass Transport Properties of a Lipophilic Drug Surrogate Measured Using Nonlinear Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Joseph T.; Simon, Bruce R.; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Arterial wall mass transport properties dictate local distribution of biomolecules or locally delivered dugs. Knowing how these properties vary between coronary artery locations could provide insight into how therapy efficacy is altered between arterial locations. Methods We introduced an indocarbocyanine drug surrogate to the lumens of left anterior descending and right coronary (LADC; RC) arteries from pigs with or without a pressure gradient. Interstitial fluorescent intensity was measured on live samples with multiphoton microscopy. We also measured binding to porcine coronary SMCs in monoculture. Results Diffusive transport constants peaked in the middle sections of the LADC and RC arteries by 2.09 and 2.04 times, respectively, compared to the proximal and distal segments. There was no statistical difference between the average diffusivity value between LADC and RC arteries. The convection coefficients had an upward trend down each artery, with the RC being higher than the LADC by 3.89 times. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the convective and diffusive transport of lipophilic molecules changes between the LADC and the RC arteries as well as along their length. These results may have important implications in optimizing drug delivery for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PMID:23224981

  11. Persistence of porcine rubulavirus in experimentally infected boars.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Martínez-Bautista, Rebeca; Pérez-Torres, Armando; García-Contreras, Adelfa Del Carmen; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Hernández, Jesús; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2013-03-23

    Porcine rubulavirus is the etiological agent of blue eye disease in pigs. In boars, this virus causes orchitis and epididymitis and reduces seminal quality. The objective of this study was to determine the persistence of porcine rubulavirus in experimentally infected boars. Nine 12-month-old boars were infected with 5 ml of the PAC-3 strain of porcine rubulavirus at 1 × 10(5) TCID(50)/ml and held for 142 days post infection (DPI) to evaluate humoral immune response. The virus was isolated in cell cultures and detected by RT-PCR. Infection with porcine rubulavirus produced clinical signs beginning at 5 DPI. Necropsy results showed that 3 boars had lesions in the testicles and epididymes. Histological analysis showed the characteristic lesions in all infected boars. Porcine rubulavirus antibodies were detected in the second week post infection and increased significantly (P<0.05) over time. Isolation of the virus from semen was achieved between 5 DPI and 48 DPI and from the testicles and epididymes between 64 DPI and 142 DPI. Viral RNA was detected in the serum between 2 DPI and 64 DPI and in the semen until 142 DPI. These results confirm that the RNA of the porcine rubulavirus persists in the semen and that this virus remains in the reproductive tract for prolonged periods of infection. Semen of persistently infected boars, therefore, represents an important source of the virus and a risk factor for the spread of blue eye disease in swine populations.

  12. Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-α mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-α protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-α, and found that induction with 0.8% lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-α. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-α in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-α inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-α has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare.

  13. Impaired contractile recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Janice V; Lu, Li; Ye, Shuyu; Bergman, Bryan C; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Sarraf, Mohammad; Reusch, Jane E B; Greyson, Clifford R; Schwartz, Gregory G

    2013-03-15

    Clinical metabolic syndrome conveys a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome, not fully accounted for by the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. To explain this observation, we determined whether postischemic myocardial contractile and metabolic function are impaired in a porcine dietary model of metabolic syndrome without atherosclerosis. Micropigs (n = 28) were assigned to a control diet (low fat, no added sugars) or an intervention diet (high saturated fat and simple sugars, no added cholesterol) for 7 mo. The intervention diet produced obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, but not atherosclerosis. Under open-chest, anesthetized conditions, pigs underwent 45 min of low-flow myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. In both diet groups, contractile function was similar at baseline and declined similarly during ischemia. However, after 120 min of reperfusion, regional work recovered to 21 ± 12% of baseline in metabolic syndrome pigs compared with 61 ± 13% in control pigs (P = 0.01). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a progressive decline in mechanical/metabolic efficiency (regional work/O2 consumption) in metabolic syndrome hearts, but not in control hearts. Metabolic syndrome hearts demonstrated altered fatty acyl composition of cardiolipin and increased Akt phosphorylation in both ischemic and nonischemic regions, suggesting tonic activation. Metabolic syndrome hearts used more fatty acid than control hearts (P = 0.03). When fatty acid availability was restricted by prior insulin exposure, differences between groups in postischemic contractile recovery and mechanical/metabolic efficiency were eliminated. In conclusion, pigs with characteristics of metabolic syndrome demonstrate impaired contractile and metabolic recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia. Contributory mechanisms may include remodeling of cardiolipin, abnormal activation of Akt, and excessive utilization of fatty acid substrates.

  14. Impaired contractile recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Janice V.; Lu, Li; Ye, Shuyu; Bergman, Bryan C.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Sarraf, Mohammad; Reusch, Jane E. B.; Greyson, Clifford R.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical metabolic syndrome conveys a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome, not fully accounted for by the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. To explain this observation, we determined whether postischemic myocardial contractile and metabolic function are impaired in a porcine dietary model of metabolic syndrome without atherosclerosis. Micropigs (n = 28) were assigned to a control diet (low fat, no added sugars) or an intervention diet (high saturated fat and simple sugars, no added cholesterol) for 7 mo. The intervention diet produced obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, but not atherosclerosis. Under open-chest, anesthetized conditions, pigs underwent 45 min of low-flow myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. In both diet groups, contractile function was similar at baseline and declined similarly during ischemia. However, after 120 min of reperfusion, regional work recovered to 21 ± 12% of baseline in metabolic syndrome pigs compared with 61 ± 13% in control pigs (P = 0.01). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a progressive decline in mechanical/metabolic efficiency (regional work/O2 consumption) in metabolic syndrome hearts, but not in control hearts. Metabolic syndrome hearts demonstrated altered fatty acyl composition of cardiolipin and increased Akt phosphorylation in both ischemic and nonischemic regions, suggesting tonic activation. Metabolic syndrome hearts used more fatty acid than control hearts (P = 0.03). When fatty acid availability was restricted by prior insulin exposure, differences between groups in postischemic contractile recovery and mechanical/metabolic efficiency were eliminated. In conclusion, pigs with characteristics of metabolic syndrome demonstrate impaired contractile and metabolic recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia. Contributory mechanisms may include remodeling of cardiolipin, abnormal activation of Akt, and excessive utilization of fatty acid substrates. PMID:23335793

  15. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs)?

    PubMed Central

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) technology. PMID:27527207

  16. Nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K M; Lovich, J E; Lam, C; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2014-07-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis suggests a mechanism whereby milk-borne bioactive factors delivered to nursing offspring affect development of neonatal tissues. The objective of this study was to assess whether nursing affects testicular development in neonatal boars as reflected by: (1) Sertoli cell number and proliferation measured by GATA-4 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining patterns; (2) Leydig cell development and steroidogenic activity as reflected by insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), and P450 side chain cleavage (scc) enzyme expression; and (3) expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, and relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1. At birth, boars were randomly assigned (n = 6-7/group) to nurse ad libitum or to be pan fed porcine milk replacer for 48 h. Testes were collected from boars at birth, before nursing and from nursed and replacer-fed boars at 50 h on postnatal day (PND) 2. Sertoli cell proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index increased (P < 0.01) from birth to PND 2 in nursed, but not in replacer-fed boars. Sertoli cell number and testicular GATA-4 protein levels increased (P < 0.01) from PND 0 to PND 2 only in nursed boars. Neither age nor nursing affected testicular INSL3, P450scc, ESR1, or VEGFA levels. However, testicular relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) levels increased (P < 0.01) with age and were greater in replacer-fed boars on PND 2. Results suggest that nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development and provide additional evidence for the importance of lactocrine signaling in pigs.

  17. Glycosaminoglycans of the porcine central nervous system†

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenling; Masuko, Sayaka; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Pu, Dennis; Linhardt, Robert J.; Zhang, Fuming

    2010-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are known to participate in central nervous system processes such as development, cell migration, and neurite outgrowth. In this paper, we report an initial glycomics study on GAGs from porcine central nervous system. GAGs of the porcine central nervous system, brain and spinal cord, were isolated and purified by defating, proteolysis, anion-exchange chromatography and methanol precipitation. The isolated GAG content in brain was 5-times higher than in spinal cord (0.35 mg/g, compared to 0.07 mg/g dry sample). In both tissues, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) were the major and the minor GAG. The average molecular weight of CS from brain and spinal cord was 35.5 and 47.1 kDa, respectively, and HS from brain and spinal cord was 56.9 and 34 kDa, respectively. The disaccharide analysis showed that the composition of CS from brain and spinal cords are similar with uronic acid (1→3) 4-O-sulfo-N-acetylgalactosamine residue corresponding to the major disaccharide unit (CS type-A) along with five minor disaccharide units. The major disaccharides of both brain and spinal cord HS were uronic acid (1→4) N-acetylglucosamine and uronic acid (1→4) 6-O-sulfo-N-sulfoglucosamine but their composition of minor disaccharides differed. Analysis by 1H- and two-dimensional-NMR spectroscopy confirmed these disaccharide analyses and provided the glucuronic/iduronic acid ratio. Finally, both purified CS and HS were biotinylated and immobilized on BIAcore SA biochips. Interactions between these GAGs and fibroblast growth factors (FGF1 and FGF2) and sonic hedgehog (Shh) were investigated by surface plasmon resonance. PMID:20954748

  18. Death from undetected acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary artery dissection after blunt thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Puanglumyai, Supot; Thamtakerngkit, Somboon; Lekawanvijit, Suree

    2016-01-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma is a common occurrence in automobile accidents. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) caused by coronary dissection following blunt thoracic trauma is rare. We report a case of healthy 24-year-old man with a history of blunt thoracic injury with subsequent undetected AMI who died of acute decompensated heart failure 4 days after the insult. The autopsy findings showed a 90% luminal narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery by dissecting hematoma, 3 cm in length. The myocardium revealed transmural myocardial infarction affecting apex, most part of left ventricular free wall, and interventricular septum. Both lungs were heavy, wet, and noncrepitant. Histological findings of the infarcted myocardium were consistent with 3-5 days post-AMI. Sections from both lungs revealed massive pulmonary edema, reflecting acute decompensated heart failure following a large AMI secondary to coronary dissection. Blunt thoracic trauma may obscure typical chest pain associated with cardiac ischemia especially in cases with a high tolerance for pain.

  19. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Glossary Contact Us Visitor Feedback mild Traumatic Brain Injury mild Traumatic Brain Injury VIDEO STORIES What is TBI Measuring Severity ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

  20. Altered Calcium Handling in Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Bompotis, Georgios C; Deftereos, Spyridon; Angelidis, Christos; Choidis, Efthymios; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Kaoukis, Andreas; Vassilikos, Vassilios P; Cleman, Michael W; Giannopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the major mortality cause in the Western Hemisphere. Reinstituting blood flow in the acutely occluded coronary vessel became the standard intervention to prevent Myocardial Infarct (MI) progression. Ever since their conception, thrombolysis, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) have been at the forefront of CHD treatment, limiting MI size. However, it quickly became apparent that after a period of ischemia, reperfusion itself sets off a cascade of events leading to cell injury. It seems that cellular changes in the ischemic period, prime the cell for a loss of homeostasis once blood flow returns. Loss of calcium (Ca(2+)) regulation has been found to be a main culprit in both ischemia and reperfusion. Indeed, sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) overload during reperfusion is related to hypercontracture, proteolysis and mitochondrial failure--the so-called Reperfusion Injury (RI). Ca(2+) channels of the sarcolemma (SL) (L-Type Ca((2+)) Channels, Sodium / Calcium Exchanger) initiate Ca(2+) flux and those of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) (Ca(2+) ATPase, Ca(2+) release channel) sustain the rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Ensuing interplay between Ca(2+), SR, mitochondria, myofilaments and proteolytic cascades i.e. calpain activation, results in cell injury. Novel insight about this interplay and details about the extent by which each of these players contributes to the RI, may allow scientists to devise and design proper interventions that ultimately reduce RI in clinical practice. The present article reviews the literature about key subcellular players participating in the sustained rise of cardiac myocyte cytosolic Ca(2+) during ischemia and reperfusion.

  1. Impact of Combat Deployment and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Newly Reported Coronary Heart Disease Among US Active Duty and Reserve Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-06

    activity, which may lead to the development of coronary atherosclerosis by invoking low-grade systemic proinflamma- tion, arterial intimal injury...veterans during the study period. Compared with a study of autopsy-based coro- nary atherosclerosis in US service members who died of com- bat or...Ebrahimi R. Post-traumatic stress disorder, coronary atherosclerosis , and mortality. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108:29–33. 6. Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM

  2. New Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Arakawa, Ko; Shibuya, Toshio; Horiuchi, Kenji; Okamoto, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Isojima, Kazushige; Kurita, Akira

    1988-06-01

    A new thin coronary angioscope which has a inflatable balloon at its distal tip is described in this paper. This angioscope is formed into very thin flexible catheter, less than 4F(1.33mm) in sheath outer diameter at the catheter tip. The angioscope contains two penetrated lumina which utilize for either flushing blood or manipulating of a guiding wire. A selective intracoronary visualization in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and circumuflex(CX) of dogs up to 15kg in their weight were carried out during up to 20s until occurring of ST segment change of the electro-cardiogram(ECG).

  3. Anesthesia for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Hemmerling, Thomas M; Romano, Gianmarco; Terrasini, Nora; Noiseux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of techniques and knowledge of beating heart surgery has led anesthesia toward the development of new procedures and innovations to promote patient safety and ensure high standards of care. Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery has shown to have some advantages compared to on-pump cardiac surgery, particularly the reduction of postoperative complications including systemic inflammation, myocardial injury, and cerebral injury. Minimally invasive surgery for single vessel OPCAB through a limited thoracotomy incision can offer the advantage of further reduction of complications. The anesthesiologist has to deal with different issues, including hemodynamic instability and myocardial ischemia during aorto-coronary bypass grafting. The anesthesiologist and surgeon should collaborate and plan the best perioperative strategy to provide optimal care and ensure a rapid and complete recovery. The use of high thoracic epidural analgesia and fast-track anesthesia offers particular benefits in beating heart surgery. The excellent analgesia, the ability to reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, and the good hemodynamic stability make high thoracic epidural analgesia an interesting technique. New scenarios are entering in cardiac anesthesia: ultra-fast-track anesthesia with extubation in the operating room and awake surgery tend to be less invasive, but can only be performed on selected patients.

  4. Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: a neglected therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Hausenloy, Derek J.; Yellon, Derek M.

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In patients with MI, the treatment of choice for reducing acute myocardial ischemic injury and limiting MI size is timely and effective myocardial reperfusion using either thombolytic therapy or primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). However, the process of reperfusion can itself induce cardiomyocyte death, known as myocardial reperfusion injury, for which there is still no effective therapy. A number of new therapeutic strategies currently under investigation for preventing myocardial reperfusion injury have the potential to improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI treated with PPCI. PMID:23281415

  5. Provocative Testing for Coronary Reactivity and Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaya, Melody; Mehta, Puja K.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2014-01-01

    Coronary spasm is an important and often overlooked etiology of chest pain. While coronary spasm, or Prinzmetal’s angina, has been thought of as benign, contemporary studies have shown serious associated adverse outcomes including acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmia, and death. Definitive diagnosis of coronary spasm can at times be difficult given the transience of symptoms. Numerous agents have been historically described for provocative testing. We provide a review of literature for the role of provocation testing in the diagnosis of coronary spasm. PMID:24201078

  6. Spinal Cord Swelling and Alterations in Hydrostatic Pressure after Acute Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    12 weeks post-injury using the Porcine Thoracic Injury Behavior Scale and hindlimb SSEP monitoring. Preliminary data suggest that duraplasty...expansile duraplasty (for detailed information on the animals see Table 1). Behavioral testing was performed weekly up to 12 weeks post-injury using the...7736 Yucatan 4-Aug-15 2907.00 19.0 duraplasty Week 12 7744 Yucatan 4-Aug-15 2681.00 19.5 SCI only Week 12 7758 Yucatan 5-Aug-15 3047.00 21.5

  7. Biaxial deformation of collagen and elastin fibers in coronary adventitia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xuefeng; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Lanir, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    The microstructural deformation-mechanical loading relation of the blood vessel wall is essential for understanding the overall mechanical behavior of vascular tissue in health and disease. We employed simultaneous mechanical loading-imaging to quantify in situ deformation of individual collagen and elastin fibers on unstained fresh porcine coronary adventitia under a combination of vessel inflation and axial extension loading. Specifically, the specimens were imaged under biaxial loads to study microscopic deformation-loading behavior of fibers in conjunction with morphometric measurements at the zero-stress state. Collagen fibers largely orientate in the longitudinal direction, while elastin fibers have major orientation parallel to collagen, but with additional orientation angles in each sublayer of the adventitia. With an increase of biaxial load, collagen fibers were uniformly stretched to the loading direction, while elastin fibers gradually formed a network in sublayers, which strongly depended on the initial arrangement. The waviness of collagen decreased more rapidly at a circumferential stretch ratio of λθ = 1.0 than at λθ = 1.5, while most collagen became straightened at λθ = 1.8. These microscopic deformations imply that the longitudinally stiffer adventitia is a direct result of initial fiber alignment, and the overall mechanical behavior of the tissue is highly dependent on the corresponding microscopic deformation of fibers. The microstructural deformation-loading relation will serve as a foundation for micromechanical models of the vessel wall. PMID:24092692

  8. Behaviour of implantable coronary stents during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Matthias G; Strohm, Oliver; Kivelitz, Dietmar; Gross, Werner; Wagner, Anja; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Liu, Xiaomeng; Hamm, Bernd

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) becomes more and more a routine diagnostic tool in clinical cardiology. In patients undergoing MRI, metallic implants may be harmful by motion or heating under certain circumstances. Many cardiac patients have implanted intracoronary stents. However, the safety of these metallic implants and especially their temperature behaviour during MRI has not been sufficiently tested. METHODS: This study investigated motion and temperature changes of 14 different stents for intracoronary application in two clinical scanners at field strengths of 1.0 and 1.5 T. At 1.5 T these studies were repeated after implantation of the stents into the coronary arteries of excised porcine hearts. Furthermore, the clinical status of 33 patients was assessed after a cardiac MR study and compared with a group of 33 patients matched for age, sex and risk factors for restenosis. RESULTS: No visible motion of the stents was observed. Furthermore, using a highly sensitive infrared camera any significant heating of the stents during MRI could be excluded. The rate of clinical events was not different in patients after MRI as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that MRI is safe in patients with the currently available intracoronary stents.

  9. Acquired and congenital coronary artery abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ming-Lon; McLeary, Michael; Chan, Kak-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Sudden unexpected cardiac deaths in approximately 20% of young athletes are due to acquired or congenital coronary artery abnormalities. Kawasaki disease is the leading cause for acquired coronary artery abnormalities, which can cause late coronary artery sequelae including aneurysms, stenosis, and thrombosis, leading to myocardial ischaemia and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery can develop adequate collateral circulation from the right coronary artery in the newborn period, which remains asymptomatic only to manifest in adulthood with myocardial ischaemia, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the opposite sinus occurs in 0.7% of the young general population aged between 11 and 15 years. If the anomalous coronary artery courses between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, sudden cardiac death may occur during or shortly after vigorous exercise, especially in patients where the anomalous left coronary artery originates from the right sinus of Valsalva. Symptomatic patients with evidence of ischaemia should have surgical correction. No treatment is needed for asymptomatic patients with an anomalous right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. At present, there is no consensus regarding how to manage asymptomatic patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva and interarterial course. Myocardial bridging is commonly observed in cardiac catheterisation and it rarely causes exercise-induced coronary syndrome or cardiac death. In symptomatic patients, refractory or β-blocker treatment and surgical un-bridging may be considered.

  10. Management of Coronary Artery Calcium and Coronary CTA Findings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dustin M; Divakaran, Sanjay; Villines, Todd C; Nasir, Khurram; Shah, Nishant R; Slim, Ahmad M; Blankstein, Ron; Cheezum, Michael K

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) testing and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) have significant data supporting their ability to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) and classify patient risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Evidence regarding CAC use for screening has established an excellent prognosis in patients with no detectable CAC, and the ability to risk re-classify the majority of asymptomatic patients considered intermediate risk by traditional risk scores. While data regarding the ideal management of CAC findings are limited, evidence supports statin consideration in patients with CAC > 0 and individualized aspirin therapy accounting for CAD risk factors, CAC severity, and factors which increase a patient's risk of bleeding. In patients with stable or acute symptoms undergoing coronary CTA, a normal CTA predicts excellent prognosis, allowing reassurance and disposition without further testing. When CTA identifies nonobstructive CAD (<50 % stenosis), observational data support consideration of statin use/intensification in patients with extensive plaque (at least four coronary segments involved) and patients with high-risk plaque features. In patients with both nonobstructive and obstructive CAD, multiple studies have now demonstrated an ability of CTA to guide management and improve CAD risk factor control. Still, significant under-treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and high-risk image findings remain, among concerns that CTA may increase invasive angiography and revascularization. To fully realize the impact of atherosclerosis imaging for ASCVD prevention, patient engagement in lifestyle changes and the modification of ASCVD risk factors remain the foundation of care. This review provides an overview of available data and recommendations in the management of CAC and CTA findings.

  11. Periodontal and coronary heart disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Schmid, Peter; Krennmair, Gerald; Crouse, Stephen F; Green, John S; Sinzinger, Helmut; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal inflammation has been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary angiography (CA) is used in the assessment of CHD; only a few studies have evaluated periodontal disease (PD) and angiographic measures of coronary atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CHD and PD. In this prospective epidemiologic study, 466 patients underwent CA and were assessed for PD. All patients underwent physical, laboratory, cardiac, and dental examination including dental x-rays. Periodontal disease and coronary angiograms were evaluated blindly by a dentist and 2 cardiologists, respectively. A coronary stenosis greater than 50% was ruled as CHD. Periodontal disease was defined and measured with the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN); and if at least 2 sextants (segments dividing mandible and maxilla into 6) were recorded as having CPITN of at least 3 (signifying that sextant had periodontal pocket depth ≥ 3.5 mm), the patient was coded as having PD. Three-hundred forty-nine patients (74.9%) had CHD assessed by CA The CHD patients had PD in 55.6% vs 41.9% in the non-CHD patients (P < .01). The CPITN scores were significantly higher in patients with vs without CHD, 2.43 vs 2.16, respectively (P = .023). After adjusting for age, sex, and risk factors for atherosclerosis with additional inclusion of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PD remained significantly related to CHD (odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.1). Other predictors for CHD were male sex, age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes. Our results demonstrate an increased odds ratio for angiographically determined CHD in patients with PD and that CHD and PD may cluster in particular groups of a population. Our data indicate that PD represents a potentially modifiable risk factor that is both preventable and treatable with predictable treatments that pose negligible risk.

  12. Provision of anaesthesia for porcine cardiac transplantation at the veterinary school in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Merritt-Charles, L; Chen, D; Legall, C; Mootoo, N; Brann, S H; Perrault, L; Williams, D; Thomas, C N; Ezeokoli, C

    2003-06-01

    A successful heterotopic cardiac transplantation was performed between sibling female Yorkshire Juvenile swine. Adequate pre-medication with azaperone and a smooth induction were ensured for both pigs, which were anaesthetized simultaneously with sodium thiopentone followed by endotracheal intubation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Inhalation anaesthetic agents were used for maintenance, neuromuscular blockade was achieved with cisatracurium and both fentanyl and tramadol were used to provide analgesia. Invasive monitoring was used in both the donor and recipient. Central venous pressure (CVP) was maintained at > 10 cm H2O and mean arterial pressure (MAP) > 60 mmHg. Heparin was injected during the surgical dissection of the heart in the donor to prevent coronary thrombosis and prior to aortic side clamping for end-to-side anastomosis of the donor heart in the recipient abdomen. After transplantation, the cardiovascular parameters of the recipient showed a MAP of 85-105 mmHg and a CVP of 8-10 cm H2O while echocardiography of the transplanted heart confirmed an ejection fraction (EF) of 80%. A functional anaesthetic team was assembled and trained to provide anaesthesia for porcine cardiac transplantation. The transplanted heart suffered pump failure after 69 days and was excised for performance of tissue analysis.

  13. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  14. Testicular Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, the location of the testicles makes them prime targets to be accidentally struck on the playing ... you might also feel nauseated for a short time. If it's a minor testicular injury, the pain ...

  15. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... devastating types of trauma resulting from exposure to fire and smoke. PREVENT you and your loved ones! ... people die annually in the United States from fire injuries. • Over half of these deaths result from ...

  16. Birth Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... cesarean delivery may be done in certain circumstances. Did You Know... Serious birth injuries are now quite ... are typically not needed. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Sidebar 1 ...

  17. Ear Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctors usually give an antibiotic to prevent infection. Did You Know... If left untreated, a swollen, bruised ... can be corrected surgically. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Facial Injuries ...

  18. Lightning Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause internal burns than electrical injuries from generated electricity. However, it can kill a person by instantaneously ... water do not attract lightning but easily transmit electricity once they are hit. Electricity from lightning can ...

  19. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drive. Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the ... Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  20. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  1. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  2. Recent advances in coronary angioscopy.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasumi

    2011-01-01

    Angioscopy enables macroscopic pathological diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases from the inside. This imaging modality has been intensively directed to characterizing vulnerable coronary plaques. Scoring of plaque color was developed, and based on prospective studies; dark yellow or glistening yellow plaques were proposed as vulnerable ones. Colorimetry apparatus was developed to assess the yellow color of the plaques quantitatively. The effects of lipid-lowering therapies on coronary plaques were confirmed by angioscopy. However, since observation is limited to surface color and morphology, pitfalls of this imaging technology became evident. Dye-staining angioscopy and near-infrared fluorescence angioscopy were developed for molecular imaging, and the latter method was successfully applied to patients. Color fluorescence angioscopy was also established for molecular and chemical basis characterization of vulnerable coronary plaques in both in vitro and in vivo. Drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce coronary restenosis significantly, however, late stent thrombosis (LST) occurs, which requires long-term antiplatelet therapy. Angioscopic grading of neointimal coverage of coronary stent struts was established, and it was revealed that neointimal formation is incomplete and prevalence of LST is higher in DES when compared to bare-metal stent. Many new stents were devised and they are now under experimental or clinical investigations to overcome the shortcomings of the stents that have been employed clinically. Endothelial cells are highly anti-thrombotic. Neoendothelial cell damage is considered to be caused by friction between the cells and stent struts due to the thin neointima between them that might act as a cushion. Therefore, development of a DES that causes an appropriate thickness (around 100 μm) of the neointima is a potential option with which to prevent neoendothelial cell damage and consequent LST while preventing restenosis.

  3. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.E. Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  4. Effect of electron radiation on vasomotor function of the left anterior descending coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Billings, Paul C.; Wilson, Jolaine M.; Diffenderfer, Eric S.; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Thorne, Pamela K.; Laughlin, Maurice H.; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    The left anterior descending (LAD, interventricular) coronary artery provides the blood supply to the mid-region of the heart and is a major site of vessel stenosis. Changes in LAD function can have major effects on heart function. In this report, we examined the effect of electron simulated solar particle event (eSPE) radiation on LAD function in a porcine animal model. Vasodilatory responses to adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 10-9-10-4 M), bradykinin (BK; 10-11-10-6 M), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 10-10-10-4 M) were assessed. The LAD arteries from Control (non-irradiated) and the eSPE (irradiated) animals were isolated and exhibited a similar relaxation response following treatment with either ADP or SNP. In contrast, a significantly reduced relaxation response to BK treatment was observed in the eSPE irradiated group, compared to the control group. These data demonstrate that simulated SPE radiation exposure alters LAD function.

  5. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens.

  6. Porcine Rotaviruses: Epidemiology, Immune Responses and Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Amimo, Joshua O.; Saif, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species become resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and gut physiological changes. Of the 9 RV genogroups (A–I), RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are associated with diarrhea in piglets. Although discovered decades ago, porcine genogroup E RVs (RVE) are uncommon and their pathogenesis is not studied well. The presence of porcine RV H (RVH), a newly defined distinct genogroup, was recently confirmed in diarrheic pigs in Japan, Brazil, and the US. The complex epidemiology, pathogenicity and high genetic diversity of porcine RVAs are widely recognized and well-studied. More recent data show a significant genetic diversity based on the VP7 gene analysis of RVB and C strains in pigs. In this review, we will summarize previous and recent research to provide insights on historic and current prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine RVs in different geographic regions and production systems. We will also provide a brief overview of immune responses to porcine RVs, available control strategies and zoonotic potential of different RV genotypes. An improved understanding of the above parameters may lead to the development of more optimal strategies to manage RV diarrheal disease in swine and humans. PMID:28335454

  7. Expression of interleukin-18 by porcine airway and intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Yoshihiro; Goji, Noriko; Tsuji, Noriko M; Mikami, Osamu; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yokomizo, Yuichi; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2002-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in porcine airway and intestinal epithelium. We found constitutive protein expression of precursor IL-18 in primary culture of porcine airway epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that porcine IL-18 was localized in the porcine airway epithelium and that it was significantly upregulated with experimental endotoxemia induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation. We also confirmed by immunohistochemical staining that IL-18 was expressed in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the concentration of IL-18 in intestinal cell lysates of 1-day-old piglets was about 3-fold and 6-fold less than that in those of 1-month-old and 6-month-old piglets, respectively. Exogenous IL-18 was able to induce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the peripheral blood of 1-day-old piglets, whereas concanavalin A (ConA) was not able to induce IFN-gamma in the same condition. These results suggest that mucosal epithelial cells are among the major sources of IL-18 in pig and that IL-18 may be useful as a therapeutic agent for the enhancement of immune responses and as a vaccine adjuvant, especially in neonatal piglets.

  8. Establishment and characterisation of a porcine rubulavirus (LPMV) persistent infection in porcine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Hjertner, B; Linné, T; Moreno-López, J

    1997-01-01

    Porcine rubulavirus (LPMV) can establish persistent infections in porcine kidney cells. Cell cultures characterised at passages 25 and 65 demonstrated haemadsorption, formation of syncytia, and a slower growth rate. The nucleoprotein (NP) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein were present in all cells, although not to the same extent as in wild type infected cells. Incubation of the cell cultures with virus neutralising antibodies could not cure them from the infection. The cells were resistant to LPMV high multiplicity superinfection, but lysed rapidly upon infection with VSV. These cells thus fulfilled the criteria of a true persistent infection. Viral particles were released into the medium from the persistently infected cells as measured by HA and infection of PK-15 cells with medium from the persistently infected cells. The infectious titer of the virus released from the persistently infected cells was 3 logs lower compared to wild type virus, the HN titer still being comparable. Virus released from the persistently infected cells was unable to cause a lytic infection in PK-15 cells, and showed a reduced ability to spread when compared to a LPMV lytic infection.

  9. Porcine relaxin, a 500 million-year-old hormone? the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has porcine relaxin.

    PubMed

    Georges, D; Schwabe, C

    1999-07-01

    The fossil record of tunicates reaches back to the upper Cambrian period. Ascidians have mobile, tadpole-like juvenile forms with a notochord, which inspired the classification of tunicates as Urochordata, i.e., predecessors of vertebrates. The genome of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis contains a relaxin coding region that is organized like a mammalian gene, i.e., signal peptide, B-chain domain, connecting peptide domain, followed by the A-chain domain with a stop codon after cysteine A-22. RNA-derived cDNA encodes a relaxin that is identical to the circulating form of the porcine hormone. In contrast to the porcine gene, the ascidian gene has no intron in the C-peptide domain, and in that respect is similar to the bombyxin gene of the silkworm. During the spawning period, only enough relaxin could be extracted and isolated from gonads of C. intestinalis for a partial sequence analysis. Remarkable as it may be, these findings suggest that relaxin is identical in pigs, whales, and the tunicate C. intestinalis.

  10. Porcine allergy and IgE.

    PubMed

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N

    2009-11-15

    Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.

  11. Genetic and antigenic changes in porcine rubulavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Betancourt, José I.; Trujillo, María E.; Mendoza, Susana E.; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Alonso, Rogelio A.

    2012-01-01

    Blue eye disease, caused by a porcine rubulavirus (PoRV), is an emergent viral swine disease that has been endemic in Mexico since 1980. Atypical outbreaks were detected in 1990 and 2003. Growing and adult pigs presented neurological signs, mild neurological signs were observed in piglets, and severe reproductive problems were observed in adults. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein revealed genetically different lineages. We used cross-neutralization assays, with homologous and heterologous antisera, to determine the antigenic relatedness values for the PoRV isolates. We found antigenic changes among several strains and identified a highly divergent one, making up a new serogroup. It seems that genetically and antigenically different PoRV strains are circulating simultaneously in the swine population in the geographical region studied. The cross neutralization studies suggest that the HN is not the only antigenic determinant participating in the antigenic changes among the different PoRV strains. PMID:22754092

  12. Ultrafast laser machining of porcine sclera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, W. S.; Carter, R. M.; Dhillon, B.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    The use of ultrafast lasers (pulsed lasers with pulse lengths of a few picoseconds or less) offers the possibility for minimally invasive removal of soft ophthalmic tissue. The potential for using pico- and femtosecond pulses for modification of scleral tissue has been reported elsewhere [1-6] and has resulted in the introduction of new, minimally invasive, procedures into clinical practice [3, 5-10]. Our research is focused on finding optimal parameters for picosecond laser machining of scleral tissue without introducing any unwanted collateral damage to the tissue. Experiments were carried out on hydrated porcine sclera in vitro, which has similar collagen organization, histology and water content (~70%) to human tissue. In this paper we present a 2D finite element ablation model which employs a one-step heating process. It is assumed that the incident laser radiation that is not reflected is absorbed in the tissue according to the Beer-Lambert law and transformed into heat energy. The experimental setup uses an industrial picosecond laser (TRUMPF TruMicro 5x50) with 5.9 ps pulses at 1030 nm, with pulse energies up to 125 μJ and a focused spot diameter of 35 μm. The use of a scan head allows flexibility in designing various scanning patterns. We show that picosecond pulses are capable of modifying scleral tissue without introducing collateral damage. This offers a possible route for minimally invasive sclerostomy. Many scanning patterns including single line ablation, square and circular cavity removal were tested.

  13. Steroid binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, S.; Nii, A.; Sakai, M.; Muramatsu, M.

    1987-05-05

    For the purpose of characterizing the estrogen binding domain of porcine estrogen receptor (ER), the authors have made use of affinity labeling of partially purified ER with (/sup 3/H)tamoxifen aziridine. The labeling is very efficient and selective particularly after partial purification of ER. A 65,000-dalton (65-kDa) band was detected on the fluorogram of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, together with a 50-kDa band and a few more smaller bands. The 50-kDa protein appears to be a degradation product of the 65-kDa protein in view of the similar peptide map. ER was affinity labeled before or after controlled limited proteolysis with either trypsin, papain, or ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin. The labeling patterns of limited digests indicate that a fragment of about 30 kDa is relatively resistant to proteases and has a full and specific binding activity to estrogen, whereas smaller fragments have lost much of the binding activity. This fragment is very hydrophobic and probably corresponds to the carboxy half of ER.

  14. KBSH parvovirus: comparison with porcine parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, T W; Joo, H S; Collett, M S

    1985-01-01

    We compared the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic properties of KBSH parvovirus to those of porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate NADL-8. KBSH, propagated in swine testes cells in culture, possessed two major capsid polypeptides of 83 and 64 kilodaltons that were similar in size to those of PPV. KBSH-infected cells also contained an 86-kilodalton nonstructural polypeptide that was identical in size to the PPV nonstructural polypeptide (NS-1). The KBSH polypeptides were structurally similar but not identical to the corresponding PPV polypeptides, as revealed by partial proteolysis mapping. Viral replicative-form DNA from KBSH-infected cells was similar in size to PPV replicative-form DNA and exhibited similar but not identical restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns to that of PPV replicative-form DNA. Antigenically, the two viruses were also very closely related. By using heterologous and homologous antisera, the two viruses were indistinguishable in hemagglutination inhibition and immunoprecipitation assays. However, pathogenically these viruses were dramatically different. NADL-8 caused fetal death when injected into swine fetuses in utero and viremia and high persisting antibody titers when administered orally to weaning-age swine. KBSH-inoculated fetuses were normal in appearance, and pigs orally exposed to KBSH failed to establish viremia and demonstrated only transient antibody titers. Thus, KBSH appears to be a PPV that is very closely related to a highly pathogenic PPV isolate, yet is itself nonpathogenic in swine. This reduced pathogenic potential of KBSH may be attributable to its poor ability to replicate in swine. Images PMID:2991553

  15. A Genetic Porcine Model of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schook, Lawrence B.; Collares, Tiago V.; Hu, Wenping; Liang, Ying; Rodrigues, Fernanda M.; Rund, Laurie A.; Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Seixas, Fabiana K.; Singh, Kuldeep; Wells, Kevin D.; Walters, Eric M.; Prather, Randall S.; Counter, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The large size of the pig and its similarity in anatomy, physiology, metabolism, and genetics to humans make it an ideal platform to develop a genetically defined, large animal model of cancer. To this end, we created a transgenic “oncopig” line encoding Cre recombinase inducible porcine transgenes encoding KRASG12D and TP53R167H, which represent a commonly mutated oncogene and tumor suppressor in human cancers, respectively. Treatment of cells derived from these oncopigs with the adenovirus encoding Cre (AdCre) led to KRASG12D and TP53R167H expression, which rendered the cells transformed in culture and tumorigenic when engrafted into immunocompromised mice. Finally, injection of AdCre directly into these oncopigs led to the rapid and reproducible tumor development of mesenchymal origin. Transgenic animals receiving AdGFP (green fluorescent protein) did not have any tumor mass formation or altered histopathology. This oncopig line could thus serve as a genetically malleable model for potentially a wide spectrum of cancers, while controlling for temporal or spatial genesis, which should prove invaluable to studies previously hampered by the lack of a large animal model of cancer. PMID:26132737

  16. Nuclear protein extraction from frozen porcine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Diederik W D; Merkus, Daphne; Jorna, Huub J J; Dekkers, Dick H W; Duncker, Dirk J; Verhoeven, Adrie J M

    2011-06-01

    Protocols for the extraction of nuclear proteins have been developed for cultured cells and fresh tissue, but sometimes only frozen tissue is available. We have optimized the homogenization procedure and subsequent fractionation protocol for the preparation of nuclear protein extracts from frozen porcine left ventricular (LV) tissue. This method gave a highly reproducible protein yield (6.5±0.7% of total protein; mean±SE, n=9) and a 6-fold enrichment of the nuclear marker protein B23. The nuclear protein extracts were essentially devoid of cytosolic, myofilament, and histone proteins. Compared to nuclear extracts from fresh LV tissue, some loss of nuclear proteins to the cytosolic fraction was observed. Using this method, we studied the distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (PY-STAT3) in LV tissue of animals treated with the β-agonist dobutamine. Upon treatment, PY-STAT3 increased 30.2±8.5-fold in total homogenates, but only 6.9±2.1-fold (n=4, P=0.03) in nuclear protein extracts. Of all PY-STAT3 formed, only a minor fraction appeared in the nuclear fraction. This simple and reproducible protocol yielded nuclear protein extracts that were highly enriched in nuclear proteins with almost complete removal of cytosolic and myofilament proteins. This nuclear protein extraction protocol is therefore well-suited for nuclear proteome analysis of frozen heart tissue collected in biobanks.

  17. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  18. Penetrating Heart Injury due to Screwdriver Assault

    PubMed Central

    Dieng, P. A.; Diop, M. S.; Ciss, A. G.; Ba, P. S.; Diatta, S.; Gaye, M.; Fall, M. L.; Ndiaye, A.; Ndiaye, M.

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating heart injuries cause wounds in the cardiac chambers. Most of them are due to gunshot or stabbing by knives. Screwdriver is an uncommon weapon. Authors report a case of stab wound by screwdriver, treated at cardiovascular center in Dakar. This is a 16-year-old boy who experienced physical aggression. He was assaulted with a screwdriver and had stab wound on the anterior wall of the chest. Physical examination showed a screwdriver penetrating the sternum bone over a right angle. He had a mild pericardial blood effusion and a right ventricle wound 5 mm in diameter with transection of the right coronary vein. The screwdriver was removed without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and the ventricle wound repaired by direct suture of stitches reinforced with Teflon pledgets. The right coronary artery was ligated. Postoperative period was free of events. Screwdriver is uncommonly used as a weapon. It is a dangerous device because of its rigid structure and narrow tip. PMID:25945263

  19. Half-life of porcine antibodies absorbed from a colostrum supplement containing porcine immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Polo, J; Campbell, J M; Crenshaw, J; Rodríguez, C; Pujol, N; Navarro, N; Pujols, J

    2012-12-01

    Absorption of immunoglobulins (Ig) at birth from colostrum is essential for piglet survival. The objective was to evaluate the half-life of antibodies absorbed in the bloodstream of newborn piglets orally fed a colostrum supplement (CS) containing energy (fat and carbohydrates) and IgG from porcine plasma. Viable piglets (n = 23; 900 to 1,800 g BW) from 6 sows were colostrum deprived and blood sampled and within the next 2 h of life randomly allocated to either control group (n = 9) providing 30 mL of Ig-free milk replacer or a group (n = 14) receiving 30 mL of CS by oral gavage. Piglets were transported to a Biosafety Level 3 facility (Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal, Spain) and fed Ig-free milk replacer every 3 to 4 h for 15 d. Survival, weight, plasma IgG content by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and antibodies against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhy), and swine influenza virus (SIV) were determined by specific ELISA before treatment administration, at 24 h, and weekly for 56 d. Clinical symptoms were not observed for either group. Mortality index was lower (17 vs. 38%; P < 0.02) and BW higher (17.7 vs. 15.3 kg; P = 0.035) for pigs supplemented with CS than piglets in the control group. At 24 h postadministration, the CS group had a plasma IgG mean of 7.6 ± 0.06 vs. 0.14 ± 0.03 mg/mL for the control group. The IgG levels in the CS group decayed until day 21 when de novo synthesis of IgG was detected in 25% of piglets. Half-life of antibody concentration (HLAC) by RID was 6.2 d. In the CS group, efficiency of PCV2 and PPV antibody transfer was high. For PCV2, all animals remained positive by day 56 and the calculated HLAC was 17.7 d. For PPV, 72.7% of piglets were ELISA positive by day 35 and HLAC was 12.0 d. For PRRS, all piglets remained positive by day 14 and the calculated HLAC was 11.9 d. For Mhy and SIV the calculated HLAC were 8.4 and 3.0 d

  20. Collateral circulation from the conus coronary artery to the anterior descending coronary artery: assessment using multislice coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    de Agustín, José A; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Vilacosta, Isidre; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, Enrique; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, José

    2010-03-01

    The prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease largely depends on the presence of a collateral circulation. The location and extent of the collateral circulation is highly variable and these parameters determine whether or not ischemic symptoms occur and whether left ventricular contractility is abnormal. The collateral circulation is generally established through small-caliber distal vessels, although many different forms have been described. We report on three patients with severe left coronary artery disease and collateral circulation through a large conus coronary artery that joined a proximal or medial segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. In all three cases, left ventricular function was preserved.

  1. Visibility enhancement of common bile duct for laparoscopic cholecystectomy by vivid fiber-optic indication: a porcine experiment trial

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsing-Ying; Huang, Chen-Han; Shy, Shannon; Chang, Yu-Chung; Chui, Hsiang-Chen; Yu, Tsung-Chih; Chang, Chih-Han

    2012-01-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) is the most serious iatrogenic complication during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and occurs easily in inexperienced surgeons since the position of common bile duct (CBD) and its related ductal junctions are hard to precisely identify in the hepatic anatomy during surgery. BDI can be devastating, leading to chronic morbidity, high mortality, and prolonged hospitalization. In addition, it is the most frequent injury resulting in litigation and the most likely injury associated with a successful medical malpractice claim against surgeons. This study introduces a novel method for conveniently and rapidly indicating the anatomical location of CBD during LC by the direct fiber-optic illumination of 532-nm diode-pumped solid state laser through a microstructured plastic optical fiber to avoid the wrong identification of CBD and the injury from mistakenly cutting the CBD that can lead to permanent and even life threatening consequences. Six porcine were used for preliminary intra-CBD illumination experiments via laparotomy and direct duodenal incision to insert the invented CBD illumination laser catheter with nonharmful but satisfactory visual optical density. PMID:23024892

  2. What to Expect during Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) requires ... surgery to newer, less-invasive methods. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting This type of surgery usually lasts ...

  3. Diagnosis and therapy of coronary artery disease: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.

  4. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries from becoming clogged again. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Start Here Coronary Artery Bypass (Texas Heart ... in Spanish Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) What Is Coronary Bypass Surgery? (American Heart ...

  5. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection with Cardiac Tamponade.

    PubMed

    Goh, Anne C H; Lundstrom, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Clinical presentation ranges from chest pain alone to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. The treatment of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection is challenging because the disease pathophysiology is unclear, optimal treatment is unknown, and short- and long-term prognostic data are minimal. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery. She was treated conservatively. Cardiac tamponade developed 16 hours after presentation. Repeat coronary angiography revealed extension of the dissection. Medical therapy was continued after the hemopericardium was aspirated. The patient remained asymptomatic 3 years after hospital discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in association with cardiac tamponade that was treated conservatively and had a successful outcome.

  6. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  7. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection during Cabergoline Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Nishaki Kiran; Malkani, Samir; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Although spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome, it should be considered during the evaluation of patients who have chest pain. Coronary vasospasm can lead to spontaneous dissection. The dopamine agonist cabergoline is known to cause digital vasospasm. Herein, we report a case of spontaneous right coronary artery dissection in a 43-year-old woman who was taking cabergoline as therapy for prolactinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an apparent relationship between cabergoline therapy and spontaneous coronary artery dissection. The possible association of cabergoline with coronary artery spasm and dissection should be considered in patients who present with chest pain while taking this medication. PMID:22412238

  8. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:25190240

  9. Coronary artery manifestations of fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Katherine C; Olin, Jeffrey W; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d'Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C

    2014-09-09

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic "string of beads" that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  10. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  11. Spatial Clustering of Porcine Cysticercosis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngowi, Helena A.; Kassuku, Ayub A.; Carabin, Hélène; Mlangwa, James E. D.; Mlozi, Malongo R. S.; Mbilinyi, Boniface P.; Willingham, Arve L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2–12 (median 8) months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each) and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2–9 (median 4) months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784). The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km. The

  12. [Recent advance on blood group antigen modification of porcine erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Xi; Zhang, Yang-Pei

    2002-06-01

    Advances in the field of xenotransplantation raise the intriguing possibility of using porcine red blood cells (pRBCs) as an alternative source for blood transfusion. Serologically, pRBCs share a number of characteristics with human red blood cells (RBCs), so pRBCs are considered the most likely donor for xenotransfusion. However, xenoantigens on porcine erythrocytes play major roles in antibody-mediated RBC destruction. Although the alphaGal epitope (Galalpha1, 3Galbeta1, 4GalNAc-R) is the major xenoantigen on porcine erythrocytes and is responsible for the binding of the majority of human natural antibodies, other non-alphaGal xenoantigens have been identified. The importance of these non-alphaGal xenoantigens in binding human natural antibodies and subsequently triggering immunological responses cannot be underestimated.

  13. Lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe Gatewood, Medley; Zane, Richard D

    2004-05-01

    Lightning is persistently one of the leading causes of death caused by environmental or natural disaster. To understand the pathophysiology and treatment of lightning injuries one must first discount the innumerable myths, superstitions, and misconceptions surrounding lightning. The fundamental difference between high voltage electrical injury and lightning is the duration of exposure to current. Reverse triage should be instituted in lightning strike victims because victims in cardiopulmonary arrest might gain the greatest benefit from resuscitation efforts, although there is no good evidence suggesting that lightning strike victims might benefit from longer than usual resuscitation times. Many of the injuries suffered by lightning strike victims are unique to lightning, and long-term sequelae should be anticipated and addressed in the lightning victim.

  14. Hamstring injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guanche, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuum of hamstring injuries that can range from musculotendinous strains to avulsion injuries. Although the proximal hamstring complex has a strong bony attachment on the ischial tuberosity, hamstring injuries are common in athletic population and can affect all levels of athletes. Nonoperative treatment is mostly recommended in the setting of low-grade partial tears and insertional tendinosis. However, failure of nonoperative treatment of partial tears may benefit from surgical debridement and repair. The technique presented on this article allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now has been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. The procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:27011828

  15. Cangrelor in percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Julie H; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2009-03-01

    Cangrelor is a novel, intravenous P2Y12 receptor antagonist in development for use in percutaneous coronary intervention. Currently in Phase III testing, the reversible platelet inhibitor provides several inherent advantages over other P2Y12 receptor antagonists in this setting for the prevention of adverse cardiac events. Unlike the class of thienopyridines (ticlopidine, clopidogrel and potentially soon to be available, prasugrel), cangrelor has nearly immediate onset after a bolus dose and a short half-life, and achieves maximal inhibition of ADP-mediated platelet function. Cangrelor's distinct mechanism of action allows for intravenous administration and avoids both hepatic and renal metabolism. These unique characteristics make cangrelor a promising agent for use in cardiovascular patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

  16. MRI in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Barkhausen, Jörg; Hunold, Peter; Waltering, Kai-Uwe

    2004-12-01

    Diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major challenge for medical imaging, because CAD is the leading cause of death in developed nations. Several non-invasive tests are used in clinical routine for the detection of CAD. However, due to limited sensitivity and specificity, the reliable diagnosis as well as the exclusion of CAD can only be established by catheter angiography. In patients with known CAD, therapeutic decisions require accurate information on myocardial function, ischemia and viability. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as a non-invasive cardiac imaging technique that provides information on cardiac morphology, cardiac function, myocardial viability, and coronary morphology. This review discusses technical aspects and the clinical impact of different MR techniques.

  17. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  18. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  19. Transthoracic coronary Doppler vibrometry in the evaluation of normal volunteers and patients with coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Comess, Keith A; Choi, Joon Hwan; Xie, Zhiyong; Achenbach, Stephan; Daniel, Werner; Beach, Kirk W; Kim, Yongmin

    2011-05-01

    Coronary artery vibrometry is a new transthoracic Doppler ultrasound method for the detection of coronary artery stenosis. It detects audio-frequency vibrations generated by coronary artery luminal diameter reduction. We studied 31 patients with known or suspected stenosis using coronary artery vibrometry and quantitative coronary angiography and 83 normal volunteers. A tissue vibration difference index (TVDI) was calculated from the left anterior descending, circumflex, left main and right coronary arteries. Accuracy for coronary artery stenosis detection using TVDI was assessed. Sensitivity for detecting coronary stenosis equal or greater than 25% diameter reduction was 89% in the left anterior descending coronary artery (16/18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 64%-98%), 87% in the right coronary artery (13/15, 95% CI = 58%-98%), 83% in the circumflex coronary artery (5/6, 95% CI = 36%-99%) and 100% in the left main artery (3/3, 95% CI = 31%-100%). The median TVDI increased with severity of stenosis, suggesting that this measure might be used to track progression/regression of coronary artery stenosis.

  20. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and

  1. Retrograde coronary sinus versus aortic root perfusion with cold cardioplegia: randomized study of levels of cardiac enzymes in 40 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Guiraudon, G.M.; Campbell, C.S.; McLellan, D.G.; Kostuk, W.J.; Purves, P.D.; MacDonald, J.L.; Cleland, A.G.; Tadros, N.B.

    1986-11-01

    Myocardial injury was assessed with the use of enzyme indexes in 40 patients randomly assigned to one of two groups undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Twenty patients received cold cardioplegia delivered by retrograde coronary sinus perfusion and 20 received cardioplegic solution by anterograde aortic root perfusion. Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB and lactate dehydrogenese isoenzyme 1 and isoenzyme 2 assays were carried out on blood samples obtained from the coronary sinus before aortic cross-clamping and 0, 5, and 30 min after aortic unclamping. Levels of these enzymes were also obtained from venous blood samples before aortic cross-clamping and 3, 8, 14, and 20 hr after aortic unclamping and 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after surgery. Preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic measurements (Swan-Ganz catheter) and radionuclide wall motion studies were also obtained for comparison. There was no overall significant difference between the two groups postoperatively in terms of enzyme indexes, hemodynamic measurements, or results of wall motion studies. We conclude that retrograde coronary sinus perfusion is an alternative to aortic root perfusion in delivering cold cardioplegia. More studies are required to determine which subgroup of patients with coronary artery disease may benefit from retrograde coronary perfusion.

  2. Spontaneous Coronary Dissection Masquerading as Benign Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sara Wei-Fen; Lin, Weiqin; Chan, Koo Hui; Seow, Swee-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis of coronary artery dissection is made on coronary angiogram and prompt revascularisation is the key in management. We present a case of coronary artery dissection with an atypical presentation of cardiac arrhythmia mimicking benign fascicular ventricular tachycardia. A high index of suspicion and early coronary angiogram allowed us to diagnose and treat this potentially life-threatening disease.

  3. [Update on coronary syndrome X].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, I; Velasco, S; Alegría, E; Bolao, I G; Díaz, M C; Huelmos, A; Alzamora, P

    1990-01-01

    Syndrome X is not a well-defined clinical entity. Patients included are those with typical effort angina with angiographically normal coronary arteries and with no evidence of other causes of chest pain. The pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in this syndrome could be a reduced vasodilatory capacity. The prognosis is usually good, but a subgroup of patients with left bundle brunch block in the ECG may develop a dilated cardiomyopathy. To present it lacks a full effective treatment.

  4. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao; Jin, Zhu-Qiu

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  5. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F

    2005-01-01

    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism. PMID:15831621

  6. Coronary air embolism treated with aspiration catheter.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M S; Kiemeneij, F

    2005-05-01

    Coronary air embolism remains a recognised complication of coronary catheterisation despite a strong emphasis on prevention. Current treatment consists of supportive measures with 100% oxygen and analgesia. Recent case reports describe the use of mechanical treatments aimed at dispersing or removing the air embolus with variable success. A case of coronary air embolism causing an acute coronary syndrome is described that was definitively treated with an aspiration system. The effectiveness of the aspiration system in the distal section of an obtuse marginal artery indicates that such dedicated aspiration systems may prove useful in the standard treatment of air embolism.

  7. Cardiac CT: atherosclerosis to acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Munnur, Ravi Kiran; Cameron, James D.; Ko, Brian S.; Meredith, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a robust non-invasive method to assess coronary artery disease (CAD). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis with CCTA has been favourably compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Importantly, it allows the study of preclinical stages of atherosclerotic disease, may help improve risk stratification and monitor the progressive course of the disease. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) is excellent and the constantly improving technology is making the evaluation of stents feasible. Novel techniques are being developed to assess the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The excellent negative predictive value of CCTA in ruling out disease enables early and safe discharge of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the Emergency Department (ED). In addition, CCTA is useful in predicting clinical outcomes based on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and also based on individual plaque characteristics such as low attenuation plaque (LAP), positive remodelling and spotty calcification. In this article, we review the role of CCTA in the detection of coronary atherosclerosis in native vessels, stented vessels, calcified arteries and grafts; the assessment of plaque progression, evaluation of chest pain in the ED, assessment of functional significance of stenosis and the prognostic significance of CCTA. PMID:25610801

  8. Tritiated porcine dynorphin (1-17): synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Houghten, R.A.

    1982-10-18

    Tritiated porcine dynorphin (1-17) has been prepared from its corresponding iodinated analog. The iodinated analog (diiodotyrosine at position 1) was synthesized, along with its non-iodinated counterpart, by the solid-phase method. Catalytic exchange of this iodinated analog in the presence of tritium yielded tritiated porcine dynorphin having a specific activity of 42 Ci/mmole. Both the native, iodinated and tritiated dynorphin analogs were shown to be homogenous by chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose, paper chromatography, amino acid analysis, electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide.

  9. Intravascular ultrasound for angiographically indeterminant left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Parashara, D K; Jacobs, L E; Ledley, G S; Yazdanfar, S; Oline, J; Kotler, M N

    1994-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of the presence of significant left main coronary artery disease has profound prognostic and therapeutic implications. Coronary cineangiography has shown to be imprecise and inaccurate to determine the percent stenosis of the left main coronary artery. We report a case with significant left main coronary artery disease in whom coronary cineangiography was in discordance with the clinical data and intravascular ultrasonography. Based on the intravascular ultrasound findings, the patient underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Therefore, the intravascular ultrasonography may be the procedure of choice for assessing indeterminant left main coronary artery lesions by coronary angiography.

  10. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction in a pediatric patient with giant coronary aneurysm due to Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Mongiovì, Maurizio; Alaimo, Annalisa; Vernuccio, Federica; Pieri, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of acute myocardial infarction in an 8-year-old boy with a history of Kawasaki disease and giant coronary aneurysms in the right and left coronary arteries. We performed coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention 4 hours after the onset of symptoms. This case suggests that primary percutaneous coronary intervention might be safe and effective in the long-term treatment of acute myocardial infarction due to coronary sequelae of Kawasaki.

  11. Electrical Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your injuries are depends on how strong the electric current was, what type of current it was, how it moved through your body, and how long you were exposed. Other factors include how ... you should see a doctor. You may have internal damage and not realize it.

  12. Pediatric Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Control and Prevention’s Safe Child website . What is pediatric critical care? Children who have severe or life-threatening injuries ... are staffed by physicians with specialized training in pediatric critical care medicine ("pediatric intensivists"). Because children can experience a ...

  13. Multivessel spontaneous coronary artery dissection of left and right coronary systems

    PubMed Central

    Asrar ul Haq, Muhammad; Mutha, Vivek; van Gaal, William J

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) involving multiple coronary arteries simultaneously is extremely rare. It should be considered in younger patients, especially who do not have traditional cardiac risk factors. We present a case of young male patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome associated with ST segments elevation on ECG following physical stress whose coronary angiography revealed SCAD of the left anterior descending as well as the right coronary artery and discuss the therapeutic options with a brief review of the limited evidence. PMID:24158301

  14. Interdental cleaning and gingival injury potential of interdental toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Marc; Sener, Beatrice; Roos, M; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2014-01-01

    The effective cleaning of interdental spaces using toothbrushes is a challenge. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate on the one hand the interdental cleaning efficiency and on the other hand the gingival injury potential of an electric single-headed sonic toothbrush (Water-pik) and two single-tufted manual toothbrushes (Curaprox 1009; Lactona Interdental Brush). Brushes were evaluated using a brushing device. Test dental casts (maxillary sextants) consisting of black teeth coated with white paint were brushed using standardized horizontal movements. Thereafter, black (i.e. cleaned) areas were measured planimetrically. The soft tissue injury potential was evaluated using front segments of porcine mandibles. In the same brushing device, test brushes were moved over the gingiva. Before and after each treatment, the porcine mucosa was stained with a plaque disclosing agent to visualize injured areas, which could then be measured planimetrically as well. These evaluations were each made after 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds of brushing. The statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The best cleaning performance of 46% across all interdental spaces assessed was found with the electric sonic toothbrush (Waterpik), while the performances of the manual brushes from Lactona and Curaprox were 14.8% and 5%, respectively. At each point of evaluation, the gingiva was injured most markedly by the powered sonic toothbrush (Waterpik), followed by the manual Curaprox brush. The smallest damage of the porcine gingiva was produced by the manual Lactona brush. When comparing the manual toothbrushes, the Lactona product revealed a better cleaning performance combined with a smaller injury potential than the Curaprox brush. Thus, the prophylactic goal to achieve high degrees of cleaning while producing minimal damage is important and should have priority when evaluating and selecting toothbrushes.

  15. Widespread Myocardial Delivery of Heart-Derived Stem Cells by Nonocclusive Triple-Vessel Intracoronary Infusion in Porcine Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Superior Attenuation of Adverse Remodeling Documented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Histology

    PubMed Central

    Tseliou, Eleni; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Dawkins, James; Gallet, Romain; Kreke, Michelle; Smith, Rachel; Middleton, Ryan; Valle, Jackelyn; Marbán, Linda; Kar, Saibal; Makkar, Rajendra; Marbán, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Single-vessel, intracoronary infusion of stem cells under stop-flow conditions has proven safe but achieves only limited myocardial coverage. Continuous flow intracoronary delivery to one or more coronary vessels may achieve broader coverage for treating cardiomyopathy, but has not been investigated. Using nonocclusive coronary guiding catheters, we infused allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) either in a single vessel or sequentially in all three coronary arteries in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess structural and physiological outcomes. Vehicle-infused animals served as controls. Single-vessel stop-flow and continuous-flow intracoronary infusion revealed equivalent effects on scar size and function. Sequential infusion into each of the three major coronary vessels under stop-flow or continuous-flow conditions revealed equal efficacy, but less elevation of necrotic biomarkers with continuous-flow delivery. In addition, multi-vessel delivery resulted in enhanced global and regional tissue function compared to a triple-vessel placebo-treated group. The functional benefits after global cell infusion were accompanied histologically by minimal inflammatory cellular infiltration, attenuated regional fibrosis and enhanced vessel density in the heart. Sequential multi-vessel non-occlusive delivery of CDCs is safe and provides enhanced preservation of left ventricular function and structure. The current findings provide preclinical validation of the delivery method currently undergoing clinical testing in the Dilated cardiomYopathy iNtervention With Allogeneic MyocardIally-regenerative Cells (DYNAMIC) trial of CDCs in heart failure patients. PMID:26784932

  16. [Pediatric case of congenital coronary artery fistula; surgical result and late changes in coronary artery aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Masaaki; Oguma, Fumiaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Congenital coronary artery fistula is an uncommon heart anomaly involving the coronary arteries. We report here a case of a 4-year-old boy who had a coronary fistula from the right coronary artery to the right ventricle, with a coronary aneurysm. He was asymptomatic, but the calculated ratio of pulmonary blood flow to systemic blood flow was shown to be high [pulmonary flow (Qp)/systemic flow(Qs)=1.78]. The coronary angiography showed that the right coronary artery was dilated beginning at the ostium and had an aneurysm at the acute marginal portion. A large spherical aneurysm approximately 20 mm in diameter was found to have been connected with coronary fistula opening into the right ventricle. Surgical repair by closure of the fistula under direct vision, partial resection and suture closure of the aneurysm was performed. Plication of the proximal portion of the right coronary artery was not performed, and the diffusely dilated artery was left untouched. After this operation, he recovered well under anticoagulant treatment with warfarin and aspirin. Postoperative angiography was performed 17 months after the surgery to evaluate morphological changes in the coronary artery. The angiography confirmed the closure of the fistula and the regression of coronary artery dilatation.

  17. Invasive coronary angiography in patients with acute exacerbated COPD and elevated plasma troponin

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; Herweg-Steffens, Neele; Buchenroth, Martin; Schulte, Wolfgang; Schaefer, Christian; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute exacerbation of COPD, increased plasma levels of cardiac troponin are frequent and associated with increased mortality. Thus, we aimed at prospectively determining the diagnostic value of coronary angiography in patients with exacerbated COPD and concomitantly elevated cardiac troponin. Patients and methods A total of 88 patients (mean age 72.9±9.2 years, 56.8% male) hospitalized for acute exacerbation of COPD with elevated plasma troponin were included. All patients underwent coronary angiography within 72 hours after hospitalization. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiogram, transthoracic echocardiography, pulmonary function, and angiological testing were performed. Results Coronary angiography objectified the presence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in 59 patients (67.0%), of whom 34 patients (38.6% of total study population) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Among these 34 intervened patients, the vast majority (n=26, 76.5%) had no previously known IHD, whereas only eight out of 34 patients (23.5%) presented an IHD history. Patients requiring coronary intervention showed significantly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (45.8%±13.1% vs 55.1%±13.3%, P=0.01) and a significantly more frequent electrocardiographic ST-segment depression (20.6% vs 7.4%, P=0.01). Neither additional laboratory parameters for inflammation and myocardial injury nor lung functional measurements differed significantly between the groups. Conclusion Angiographically confirmed IHD that required revascularization occurred in 38.6% of exacerbated COPD patients with elevated cardiac troponin. In this considerable portion of patients, coronary angiography emerged to be of diagnostic and therapeutic value. PMID:27695304

  18. Relationship between serum sodium level and coronary artery abnormality in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sora; Kim, Ji Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Kawasaki disease (KD) is an immune-related multisystemic vasculitis that occurs in children, especially ensuing from a coronary artery abnormality. Sodium level is known to be related to vascular injury, which could affect the progress of KD. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum sodium levels that could predict the occurrence of cardiac and coronary artery events in KD. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 104 patients with KD from January 2015 to December 2015. Patients with serum Na levels of <135 mEq/L at the time of initial diagnosis were assigned to the hyponatremia group. Laboratory findings and echocardiographic data were analyzed for various aspects. Results Among the 104 patients with KD, 91 were included in the study, of whom 48 (52.7%) had hyponatremia. The degree of fever, white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, percentage of lymphocytes, total bilirubin level, brain natriuretic peptide level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein level were higher in the patients with hyponatremia. They also demonstrated a trend of larger coronary artery diameters based on Z scores. Conclusion The severity of vascular inflammation in acute KD with hyponatremia might worsen the prognosis of coronary vasculature. Although no statistically significant correlation was found between the initial serum sodium levels and coronary arteriopathy in the patients with KD in this study, a long-term follow-up study with a larger number of enrolled patients should be designed in the future to elucidate the relationship between serum sodium level and coronary arteriopathy in patients with KD. PMID:28289432

  19. Effects of Intracoronary Administration of Autologous Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells on Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Bo Won; Ahn, Jinhee; Kim, Jin Hee; Park, Jin Sup; Oh, Jun-Hyok; Choi, Jung Hyun; Cha, Kwang Soo; Hong, Taek Jong; Park, Tae Sik; Kim, Sang-Pil; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Mi Hwa; Jung, Jin Sup

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are known to be potentially effective in regeneration of damaged tissue. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intracoronary administration of ADSCs in reducing the infarction area and improving function after acute transmural myocardial infarction (MI) in a porcine model. Materials and Methods ADSCs were obtained from each pig's abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue by simple liposuction. After 3 passages of 14-days culture, 2 million ADSCs were injected into the coronary artery 30 min after acute transmural MI. At baseline and 4 weeks after the ADSC injection, 99mTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile-single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT) was performed to evaluate the left ventricular volume, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; %), and perfusion defects as well as the myocardial salvage (%) and salvage index. At 4 weeks, each pig was sacrificed, and the heart was extracted and dissected. Gross and microscopic analyses with specific immunohistochemistry staining were then performed. Results Analysis showed improvement in the perfusion defect, but not in the LVEF in the ADSC group (n=14), compared with the control group (n=14) (perfusion defect, -13.0±10.0 vs. -2.6±12.0, p=0.019; LVEF, -8.0±15.4 vs. -15.9±14.8, p=0.181). There was a tendency of reducing left ventricular volume in ADSC group. The ADSCs identified by stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) staining were well co-localized by von Willebrand factor and Troponin T staining. Conclusion Intracoronary injection of cultured ADSCs improved myocardial perfusion in this porcine acute transmural MI model. PMID:26446632

  20. Protective Effects of HDL Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Calabresi, Laura; Franceschini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that, besides being a strong independent predictor of the occurrence of primary coronary events, a low plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level is also associated with short- and long-term unfavorable prognosis in patients, who have recovered from a myocardial infarction, suggesting a direct detrimental effect of low HDL on post-ischemic myocardial function. Experiments performed in ex vivo and in vivo models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury have clearly shown that HDL are able to preserve cardiac function when given before ischemia or at reperfusion; the protective effects of HDL against I/R injury have been also confirmed in other tissues and organs, as brain and hind limb. HDL were shown to act on coronary endothelial cells, by limiting the increase of endothelium permeability and promoting vasodilation and neoangiogenesis, on white blood cells, by reducing their infiltration into the ischemic tissue and the release of pro-inflammatory and matrix-degrading molecules, and on cardiomyocytes, by preventing the activation of the apoptotic cascade. Synthetic HDL retains the cardioprotective activity of plasma-derived HDL and may become a useful adjunctive therapy to improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes or undergoing coronary procedures.

  1. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among Farmed Pigs, Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Carr, John; Ellis, Richard J.; Steinbach, Falko; Williamson, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in the summer of 2014 in Ukraine, severely affecting piglets <10 days of age; the mortality rate approached 100%. Full genome sequencing showed the virus to be closely related to strains reported from North America, showing a sequence identity of up to 99.8%. PMID:26584081

  2. Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2014-04-01

    The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0 ± 53.9 pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum.

  3. Dystrophin deficiency-induced changes in porcine skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel porcine stress syndrome was detected in the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s swine research population when two sibling barrows died of apparent stress symptoms (open mouth breathing, vocalization, and refusal to move or stand) after transport at 12 weeks of age. At eight weeks of age, the...

  4. Adenosine modulates LPS-induced cytokine production in porcine monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ondrackova, Petra; Kovaru, Hana; Kovaru, Frantisek; Leva, Lenka; Faldyna, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Adenosine plays an important role during inflammation, particularly through modulation of monocyte function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of synthetic adenosine analogs on cytokine production by porcine monocytes. The LPS-stimulated cytokine production was measured by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. Adenosine receptor expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The present study demonstrates that adenosine analog N-ethylcarboxyamidoadenosine (NECA) down-regulates TNF-α production and up-regulates IL-8 production by LPS-stimulated porcine monocytes. The effect was more pronounced in CD163(-) subset of monocytes compared to the CD163(+) subset. Although both monocyte subsets express mRNA for A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors, the treatment of monocytes with various adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists proved that the effect of adenosine is mediated preferentially via A2A adenosine receptor. Moreover, the study suggests that the effect of NECA on porcine monocytes alters the levels of the cytokines which could play a role in the differentiation of naive T cells into Th17 cells. The results suggest that adenosine plays an important role in modulation of cytokine production by porcine monocytes.

  5. Age and nursing affect the neonatal porcine uterine transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated be...

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): an immune dysregulatory pandemic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome (PRRS) is a viral pandemic that especially affects neonates within the "critical window" of immunological development. PRRS was recognized in 1987 and within a few years became pandemic causing an estimated yearly $600,000 economic loss in the US...

  7. Cryopreservation of primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes with UW solution.

    PubMed

    Kunieda, Takemi; Maruyama, Masanobu; Okitsu, Teru; Shibata, Norikuni; Takesue, Michihiko; Totsugawa, Toshinori; Kosaka, Yoshikazu; Arata, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuya; Ikeda, Hideaki; Oshita, Mizuko; Nakaji, Shuhei; Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kurabayashi, Yuzuru; Kodama, Makoto; Tanaka, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Naoya

    2003-01-01

    Development of liver-targeted cell therapies, such as hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial livers, requires a large amount of functional hepatocytes as needed. To achieve this development, establishing an excellent cryopreservation method of hepatocytes is an extremely important issue. Therefore, we performed a comparative review of cryoprotective effects of various cryopreservation solutions using primarily isolated porcine hepatocytes. Porcine hepatocytes were isolated with a four-step dispase and collagenase perfusion method. The obtained hepatocytes with the initial viabilities of 76%, 84%, and 96% were assigned to the following four groups for cryopreservation at -80 degrees C: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) + 12% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (group A), University of Wisconsin (UW) solution + 12% DMSO (group B), Cell Banker 1 (group C), and Cell Banker 2 (group D). The hepatocytes in each group were thawed at 3 days, 10 days, and 5 months of cryopreservation and subjected to comparative analyses, including viability, plating efficiency, LDH release, ammonia removal test, and lentiviral gene transfer. These parameters were the most favorable in the hepatocytes cryopreserved with UW solution. Approximately 5% of thawed cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes expressed LacZ activity after lentiviral transduction. Intrasplenic transplantation of UW solution-cryopreserved hepatocytes improved the survival of rats treated with D-galactosamine. UW solution maintained the functions of cryopreserved porcine hepatocytes.

  8. Osteogenic and adipogenic potential of porcine adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guo-hua; Zhang, Li-jie; Yang, Gong-she

    2007-02-01

    Human, rat, and mouse studies have demonstrated the existence of a population of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) that can undergo multilineage differentiation in vitro. Understanding the clinical potential of AMSCs may require their use in preclinical large-animal models such as pigs. Thus, the objectives of this study were to establish a protocol for the isolation of porcine AMSCs from adipose tissue and to examine their ex vivo differentiation potential to adipocytes and osteoblast. The porcine AMSCs from passage 4 were selected for differentiation analysis. The adipocytes were identified morphologically by staining with Oil Red O, and the adipogenic marker genes were examined by RT-PCR technique. Osteogenic lineage was documented by deposition of calcium stained with Alzarin Red S, visualization of alkaline phosphatase activity, and expression of marker gene. Our result indicates that porcine AMSCs have been successfully isolated and induced differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts. This study suggested that porcine AMSCs are also a valuable model system for the study on the mesenchymal lineages for basic research and tissue engineering.

  9. Introduction to porcine red blood cells: implications for xenotransfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, A

    2000-04-01

    Advances in the field of xenotransplantation raise the intriguing possibility of using porcine red blood cells (pRBCs) as an alternative source for blood transfusion. The domestic pig is considered the most likely donor species for xenotransplantation. However, identification of xenoantigens on porcine erythrocytes and elucidation of their possible roles in antibody-mediated RBC destruction are necessary for developing clinical strategies to circumvent immunological incompatibility between humans and pigs. Although the alphaGal epitope (Galalpha1,3Galbeta1,4GIcNAc-R) is the major xenoantigen on porcine erythrocytes and is responsible for the binding of the majority of human natural antibodies, other non-alphaGal xenoantigens have been identified. The importance of these non-alphaGal xenoantigens in binding human natural antibodies and subsequently triggering immunological responses cannot be underestimated. Our data suggest that non-alphaGal xenoantigen(s) identified on the porcine erythrocyte membrane are not only recognized by xenoreactive human natural antibodies but are also involved in complement-mediated hemolysis.

  10. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  11. Porcine circovirus: transcription and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes the molecular studies pertaining to porcine circovirus (PCV) transcription and DNA replication. The genome of PCV is circular, single-stranded DNA and contains 1759-1768 nucleotides. Both the genome-strand (packaged in the virus particle) and the complementary-strand (synthesi...

  12. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  13. Coronary CT angiography: Beyond morphological stenosis analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-12-26

    Rapid technological developments in computed tomography (CT) imaging technique have made coronary CT angiography an attractive imaging tool in the detection of coronary artery disease. Despite visualization of excellent anatomical details of the coronary lumen changes, coronary CT angiography does not provide hemodynamic changes caused by presence of plaques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a widely used method in the mechanical engineering field to solve complex problems through analysing fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena by using computer simulations. In recent years, CFD is increasingly used in biomedical research due to high performance hardware and software. CFD techniques have been used to study cardiovascular hemodynamics through simulation tools to assist in predicting the behaviour of circulatory blood flow inside the human body. Blood flow plays a key role in the localization and progression of coronary artery disease. CFD simulation based on 3D luminal reconstructions can be used to analyse the local flow fields and flow profiling due to changes of vascular geometry, thus, identifying risk factors for development of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the coronary CT-derived CFD applications in coronary artery disease.

  14. Transient cortical blindness after coronary artery angiography.

    PubMed

    Terlecki, Michał; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Rajzer, Marek; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Bryniarski, Leszek; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease and therefore the prevalence of percutaneous coronary procedures such as angiography and angioplasty is high. The occurrence of cerebral complications after coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty is low and it mainly includes transient ischemic attack and stroke. The prevalence of transient cortical blindness after X-ray contrast media is low and it is usually seen after cerebral angiography. Until now only a few cases of transient cortical blindness have been described after coronary artery angiography. Regarding the spread of coronary angiography worldwide and in Poland this complication is uniquely rare. A 32-year-old man with multiple extrasystolic ventricular arrhythmia suggesting Brugada syndrome diagnosis according to morphology of the left bundle branch block and with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction was admitted to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Medical College of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Coronary angiography was performed in order to exclude ischemic etiology of the observed abnormalities. No arteriosclerotic lesions were found in coronary arteries. Transient cortical blindness was observed directly after angiography which may have been caused by the neurotoxic effect of the used X-ray contrast medium. In ophthalmologic and neurologic examination as well as in the cerebral computed tomography scan no pathologies were found. Visual impairment disappeared totally within several hours.

  15. Experiments On Flow In A Coronary Artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug-Yon; Liem, Timothy K.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on simulated flow of blood in atherosclerotic human coronary artery. Experiments performed on polyurethane cast made from S-shaped coronary artery of cadaver. Sucrose solution with viscosity of blood pumped through cast at physiologically realistic rates, and flow made pulsatile by mechanism alternately compressing and releasing elastic tube just upstream of cast.

  16. [Triggering of acute coronary syndromes. Pathophysiologic relationships].

    PubMed

    González Pliego, José Angel

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the relationship of external triggers with the development of acute coronary syndromes is described. Based on current evidence, the pathophysiological mechanisms that probably result in the rupture of vulnerable coronary plaques are revised and preventive measures to stop the functional and lethal consequences of its occurrence are proposed.

  17. Risk Factors for Injury and Cigarette Smoking and Temporal Trends in Demographic and Lifestyle Characteristics Among U.S. Army Ordinance School Students

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    injuries and illness. The relationship between tobacco use and injury may be due to a compromised ability to repair damaged tissues increasing...associated with smoking, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, cancers, emphysema , and obstructive pulmonary diseases, to name a few. (2) Studies...Battalion Metal Worker Machinist Small Arms / Artillery Repairer Field Artillery Systems Repairer Fire Control Repairer Armament Repairer

  18. Structural and functional annotation of the porcine immunome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is known as an excellent model for human immunology and the two species share many pathogens. Susceptibility to infectious disease is one of the major constraints on swine performance, yet the structure and function of genes comprising the pig immunome are not well-characterized. The completion of the pig genome provides the opportunity to annotate the pig immunome, and compare and contrast pig and human immune systems. Results The Immune Response Annotation Group (IRAG) used computational curation and manual annotation of the swine genome assembly 10.2 (Sscrofa10.2) to refine the currently available automated annotation of 1,369 immunity-related genes through sequence-based comparison to genes in other species. Within these genes, we annotated 3,472 transcripts. Annotation provided evidence for gene expansions in several immune response families, and identified artiodactyl-specific expansions in the cathelicidin and type 1 Interferon families. We found gene duplications for 18 genes, including 13 immune response genes and five non-immune response genes discovered in the annotation process. Manual annotation provided evidence for many new alternative splice variants and 8 gene duplications. Over 1,100 transcripts without porcine sequence evidence were detected using cross-species annotation. We used a functional approach to discover and accurately annotate porcine immune response genes. A co-expression clustering analysis of transcriptomic data from selected experimental infections or immune stimulations of blood, macrophages or lymph nodes identified a large cluster of genes that exhibited a correlated positive response upon infection across multiple pathogens or immune stimuli. Interestingly, this gene cluster (cluster 4) is enriched for known general human immune response genes, yet contains many un-annotated porcine genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the encoded proteins of cluster 4 genes showed that 15% exhibited an accelerated

  19. [Invasive diagnostic imaging of coronary atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Gamou, Tadatsugu; Kawashiri, Masaaki; Tada, Hayato; Hayashi, Kenshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Invasive diagnostic imaging technique of coronary atherosclerosis has rapidly developed. For example, intravascular ultrasound(IVUS) is recognized as an essential device for percutaneous coronary intervention to evaluate the vessel wall, vascular lumen and coronary plaque morphologies because of its accuracy for quantitative analysis capability. Recently new imaging modalities such as radio-frequency signal analysis, elastography and contrast harmonic echography have been developed for the evaluation of histological characteristics. Also, optical coherence tomography(OCT), which provides approximately ten-times higher-resolutional cross-section images of the coronary arterial wall in comparison with IVUS, became available in clinical setting. In this article, we review the latest progress of the invasive diagnostic imaging of coronary atherosclerosis.

  20. Single Coronary Artery with Aortic Regurgitation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsetos, Manny C. Toce, Dale T.

    2003-11-15

    An isolated single coronary artery can be associated with normal life expectancy; however, patients are at an increased risk of sudden death. A case is reported of a 54-year-old man with several months of chest pressure with activity. On exercise Sestamibi stress testing, the patient developed a hypotensive response with no symptoms and minimal electrocardiographic changes. Nuclear scanning demonstrated reversible septal and lateral perfusion defects consistent with severe ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed a single coronary artery with the right coronary artery arising from the left main. There were high-grade stenotic lesions in the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries with only moderate atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary artery. An aortogram showed 2-3+ aortic regurgitation, with an ejection fraction of 45% on ventriculography. The patient underwent four-vessel revascularization and aortic valve replacement and did well postoperatively.

  1. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: The Phantom Menace

    PubMed Central

    Spinthakis, Nikolaos; Abdulkareem, Nada; Farag, Mohamed; Gorog, Diana A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 66-year-old lady with chest pain, without dynamic 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and normal serial troponin. Coronary angiography revealed a linear filing defect in the first obtuse marginal branch of the circumflex artery indicating coronary artery dissection, with superadded thrombus. She was managed medically with dual antiplatelet therapy and has responded well. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of cardiac chest pain, which can be missed without coronary angiography. Unlike most other lesions in patients with unstable symptoms, where coronary intervention with stenting is recommended, patients with SCAD generally fare better with conservative measures than with intervention, unless there is hemodynamic instability. PMID:28197295

  2. Feasibility and safety of endoscopic cryoablation at the duodenal papilla: Porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Reinhard, Mary K; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the feasibility and safety of liquid nitrogen spray cryoablation at the duodenal papilla in a porcine model. METHODS: This prospective study protocol was approved by the University of Florida Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Six pigs underwent liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy at the duodenal papilla. Freeze time of 20-s was applied per cycle (4 cycles/session). Survival animals (n = 4) were monitored for adverse events. Hemoglobin, white blood count, liver tests, and lipase were obtained at baseline and post-treatment. EGD was performed on day#7 to evaluate the papilla and for histology. All animals were euthanized and necropsy was performed at the end of the one-week survival period. Feasibility was defined as successful placement of the decompression tube in the duodenum, followed by delivery of spray cryotherapy to the duodenal papilla. Safety was determined by monitoring post-treatment blood tests and clinical course. Treatment effect was defined as endoscopic and histologic changes after cryotherapy. This was established by comparing endoscopic and histologic findings from mucosal biopsies prior to cryotherapy and on post-operative day (POD)#7. Full-thickness specimen was obtained post-mortem to assess depth of injury. RESULTS: Spray cryotherapy was feasible and successfully performed in all 6/6 (100%) animals. Cryospray with liquid nitrogen (four 20-s freeze-thaw cycles) at the duodenal papilla resulted in white frost formation at and around the target region. The mean procedural time was 54.5 min (range 50-58 min). All six animals studied had stable blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse oximetry measurements during the procedure. There were no significant intra-procedural adverse events. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin, white cell count, liver tests or lipase from baseline to post-cryotherapy. Survival animals were monitored daily post-operatively without any clinical ill effects from the cryotherapy. There was

  3. Effects of inhaled carbon monoxide and glucocorticoids in porcine endotoxin sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Koulouras, Vasilios P; Li, Ren; Chen, Luni; Hedenstierna, Göran G

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent animal studies have demonstrated that pre-treatment with inhaled carbon monoxide (iCO) exert anti-inflammatory effects in various septic models. In all these models, there is no information whether iCO might act therapeutically after the onset of septic damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of iCO to treat established injury in a model of porcine endotoxin sepsis. Methods: Five groups of pigs (n=6 in each group), were studied under anesthesia and mechanical ventilation: healthy control group (HC); lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, animals received continuous IV infusion of LPS for 6 hours; 2.5 hours after of LPS infusion treated groups received either: 250 ppm of iCO for 3.5 h, (LPS+CO group); 3 mg/Kg hydrocorti-sone bolus [Steroid (ST)], (LPS+ST group); or both steroid and iCO, (LPS+CO+ST group). Measurements of haemodynamics, blood gases, respiratory mechanics and biochemistry of organ function, were made. At the end of the experiment lung tissue was taken for analysis of histology and inflammatory markers: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Results: LPS administration induced a dramatic inflammatory injury in lungs, increased expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, AP-1, down regulation of GR, pulmonary hypertension and severe deterioration of respiratory mechanics, oxygenation and organ function. Treatment with steroids and to greater extent with iCO significantly improved the microscopic appearance of the lung but had no effect on inflammatory markers. iCO significantly decreased pulmonary hypertension induced by LPS, without an obvious protective effect on organ function. Conclusion: Using this porcine sepsis model we find that treatment with iCO after the septic damage decreases pulmonary hypertension and partially protects the lung tissue from the inflammatory destruction induced by LPS but has no

  4. Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

    1991-03-21

    Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance.

  5. Kangaroo vs. porcine aortic valves: calcification potential after glutaraldehyde fixation.

    PubMed

    Narine, K; Chéry, Cyrille C; Goetghebeur, Els; Forsyth, R; Claeys, E; Cornelissen, Maria; Moens, L; Van Nooten, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the calcification potential of kangaroo and porcine aortic valves after glutaraldehyde fixation at both low (0.6%) and high (2.0%) concentrations of glutaraldehyde in the rat subcutaneous model. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing the time-related, progressive calcification of these two species in the rat subcutaneous model. Twenty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were each implanted with two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 0.6% glutaraldehyde and two aortic valve leaflets (porcine and kangaroo) after fixation in 2% glutaraldehyde respectively. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h and thereafter weekly for up to 10 weeks after implantation. Calcium content was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and confirmed histologically. Mean calcium content per milligram of tissue (dry weight) treated with 0.6 and 2% glutaraldehyde was 116.2 and 110.4 microg/mg tissue for kangaroo and 95.0 and 106.8 microg/mg tissue for porcine valves. Calcium content increased significantly over time (8.8 microg/mg tissue per week) and was not significantly different between groups. Regression analysis of calcification over time showed no significant difference in calcification of valves treated with 0.6 or 2% glutaraldehyde within and between the two species. Using the subcutaneous model, we did not detect a difference in calcification potential between kangaroo and porcine aortic valves treated with either high or low concentrations of glutaraldehyde.

  6. [Construction and specificity of porcine bmp15 gene reporter vector].

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingming; Wei, Jianghua; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jinglong; Liu, Xiaopeng; Ma, Xiaoling; Wang, Huayan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the express specificity of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp15) in porcine. The pBMP15-EGFP reporter vector was constructed from the 2.2 kb fragment of porcine bmp15 promoter to trace the differentiation process of stem cells into oocyte-like cells. We used porcine ovary and Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line (CHO), mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12) and porcine amniotic fluid stem cell (pAFSC) to investigate the expression and regulation of this gene via RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, cell transfection, and microinjection methods. We also used single layer cell differentiation to detect the application potential of bmp15. The results show that bmp15 gene was specifically expressed in the porcine ovary and CHO rather than in C2C12 and pAFSC. In addition, the characteristic of tissue-specific of Bmp15 was detected on CHO instead of other cell lines by transient transfection. We also detected the expression of Bmp15 in oocyte at different development stages by immunofluorescence of fixed paraffin-embedded ovary sections. Furthermore, microinjection results show that bmp15 expressed in oocytes at 18 h of maturation in vitro, and continued up to 4-cell stage embryos. Most importantly, we found that the expression of Bmp15 started at day 12 after inducing pAFSC into oocyte-like cells by transfection; green fluorescent was visible in round cell masses. It indicated that bmp15 has the expression specificity and the pBMP15-EGFP reporter vector can be used to trace Bmp15 action in the differentiation of stem cells into germ cells.

  7. Complementary, alternative, and putative nontroponin biomarkers of acute coronary syndrome: new resources for future risk assessment calculators.

    PubMed

    Millard, Ronald W; Tranter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Biomarkers, other than cardiac troponin, with potential sensitivity and selectivity that provide diagnostic and prognostic insights into the tissue-specific injury processes underlying acute coronary syndrome and their possible use in risk stratification algorithms are discussed. Such biomarkers may be useful as complementary or alternative to cardiac troponin (I or T) assays in early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, as well as for monitoring acute coronary syndrome progression and prognosis assessment. The information included in this article is based on a critical analysis of selected published biomedical literature accessible through the United States National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE-PubMed and Scopus search engines. The majority of articles cited in this review and perspective, except for a few historical publications as background, were published between January 2000 and December 2013.

  8. Sexual dimorphism in the permeability response of coronary microvessels to adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Virginia H.; Wang, JianJie; Whitt, Stevan P.

    2012-01-01

    Gender influences volume regulation via several mechanisms; whether these include microvascular exchange, especially in the heart, is not known. In response to adenosine (Ado), permeability (Ps)to protein of coronary arterioles of female pigs decreases acutely. Whether Ado induces similar Ps changes in arterioles from males or whether equivalent responses occur in coronary venules of either sex has not been determined. Hypotheses that 1) basal Ps properties and 2) Ps responses to vasoactive stimuli are sex independent were evaluated from measures of Ps to two hydrophilic proteins, α-lactalbumin and porcine serum albumin (PSA), in arterioles and venules isolated from hearts of adult male and female pigs. Consistent with hypothesis 1, basal Ps values of both microvessel types were independent of sex. Contrary to hypothesis 2, Ps responses to Ado varied with sex, protein, and vessel type. Confirming earlier studies, Ado induced a ~20% decrease in Ps to both proteins in coronary arterioles from females. In arterioles from males, Ado did not change Ps for α-lactalbumin (Psα-lactalb, 3 ± 13%) whereas Ps for PSA (PsPSA) decreased by 27 ± 8% (P < 0.005). In venules from females, Ado elevated PsPSA by 44 ± 20% (P < 0.05), whereas in those from males, Ado reduced PsPSA by 24 ± 5% (P < 0.05). The variety of outcomes is consistent with transvascular protein and protein-carried solute flux being regulated by multiple sex-dependent mechanisms in the heart and provides evidence of differences in exchange homeostasis of males and females in health and, likely, disease. PMID:15563527

  9. In-vivo regional myocardial perfusion measurements in a porcine model by ECG-gated multislice computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Meyer, Cristopher A.; Teague, Shawn; Stecker, Michael; Hutchins, Gary; McLennan, Gordon; Persohn, Scott

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether functional multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) can identify regional areas of normally perfused and ischemic myocardium in a porcine model. Material and Methods: Three out bred pigs, two of which had ameroids surgically implanted to constrict flow within the LAD and LCx coronary arteries, were injected with 25 mL of iopromide (Isovue) at a rate of 5 mL/second via the femoral or jugular vein. Sixty axial scans along the short axis of the heart was acquired on a 16-slice CT scanner (Philips MX8000-IDT) triggered at end-diastole of the cardiac cycle and acquiring an image within 270 msec. A second series of scans were taken after an intravenous injection of a vasodilator, 150 μg/kg/min of adenosine. ROIs were drawn around the myocardial tissue and the resulting time-density curves were used to extract perfusion values. Results: Determination of the myocardial perfusion and fractional blood volume implementing three different perfusion models. A 5-point averaging or 'smoothing' algorithm was employed to effectively filter the data due to its noisy nature. The (preliminary) average perfusion and fractional blood volume values over selected axial slices for the pig without an artificially induced stenosis were measured to be 84 +/- 22 mL/min/100g-tissue and 0.17 +/- 0.04 mL/g-tissue, the former is consistent with PET scan and EBCT results. The pig with a stenosis in the left LAD coronary artery showed a reduced global perfusion value -- 45 mL/min/100g-tissue. Correlations in regional perfusion values relative to the stenosis were weak. During the infusion of adenosine, averaged perfusion values for the three subjects increased by 46 (+/-45) percent, comparable to increases measured with PET. Conclusion: Quantifying global perfusion values using MDCT appear encouraging. Future work will focus resolving the systematic effects from noise due to signal fluctuation from the porcine tachyardia (80-93 BPM) and provide a more robust measurement

  10. Hsp90 inhibitor reduces porcine circovirus 2 replication in the porcine monocytic line 3D4/31.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xuliang; Ma, Chang; Jiang, Ping; Yun, Shifeng

    2017-02-01

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is an important pathogen of swine, which causes porcine circovirus disease and porcine circovirus-associated diseases (PCVD/PCVAD). However, no effective countermeasures exist to combat this virus infection so far. Recently, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) was found to be an important host factor for the replication of multiple viruses and the inhibition of Hsp90 showed significant antiviral effects. Inhibition of Hsp90 by treatment of porcine monocytic line 3D4/31 with geldanamycin (GA), a specific inhibitor of Hsp90, caused a 70 % decrease in viral Cap protein expression. Further, individual knockdown targeting Hsp90α or Hsp90β with siRNAs resulted in down to 20-25 % of decrease in viral replication, and inhibited the PCV2 titer by approximately 12- and 15-fold, respectively. In addition, we investigated alteration of several cytokine production in PCV2-infected cells following treatment with GA. Then, we found that GA could decrease IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p40 mRNA levels, respectively, by 30, 40, and 40 % in PCV2-infected cells. Our results shed light on the possibility of developing potential therapeutics targeting Hsp90 against PCV2 infection.

  11. An in-depth comparison of the porcine, murine and human inflammasomes; lessons from the porcine genome and transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that swine are a scientifically acceptable intermediate species between rodents and humans to model immune function relevant to humans. The swine genome has recently been sequenced and several preliminary structural and functional analysis of the porcine immunome have been...

  12. Intracoronary genistein acutely increases coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs through beta-adrenergic mediated nitric oxide release and estrogenic receptors.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Molinari, Claudio; Mary, David A S G; Uberti, Francesca; Caimmi, Philippe Primo; Surico, Nicola; Vacca, Giovanni

    2008-05-01

    Various studies have suggested that the phytoestrogen genistein has beneficial cardioprotective and vascular effects. However, there has been scarce information regarding the primary effect of genistein on coronary blood flow and its mechanisms including estrogen receptors, autonomic nervous system, and nitric oxide (NO). The present study was planned to determine the primary effect of genistein on coronary blood flow and the mechanisms involved. In anesthetized pigs, changes in left anterior descending coronary artery caused by intracoronary infusion of genistein at constant heart rate and arterial pressure were assessed using ultrasound flowmeters. In 25 pigs, genistein infused at 0.075 mg/min increased coronary blood flow by about 16.3%. This response was graded in a further five pigs by increasing the infused dose of the genistein between 0.007 and 0.147 mg/min. In the 25 pigs, blockade of cholinergic receptors (iv atropine; five pigs) and alpha-adrenergic receptors (iv phentolamine; five pigs) did not abolish the coronary response to genistein, whose effects were prevented by blockade of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (iv butoxamine; five pigs), nitric oxide synthase (intracoronary N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; five pigs) and estrogenic receptors (ERs; ERalpha/ERbeta; intracoronary fulvestrant; five pigs). In porcine aortic endothelial cells, genistein induced the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO production through ERK 1/2, Akt, and p38 MAPK pathways, which was prevented by the concomitant treatment by butoxamine and fulvestrant. In conclusion, genistein primarily caused coronary vasodilation the mechanism of which involved ERalpha/ERbeta and the release of NO through vasodilatory beta(2)-adrenoreceptor effects.

  13. Development of an in vitro porcine aorta model to study the stability of stent grafts in motor vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Darvish, Kurosh; Shafieian, Mehdi; Romanov, Vasily; Rotella, Vittorio; Salvatore, Michael D; Blebea, John

    2009-04-01

    Endovascular stent grafts for the treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms have become increasingly utilized and yet their locational stability in moderate chest trauma is unknown. A high speed impact system was developed to study the stability of aortic endovascular stent grafts in vitro. A straight segment of porcine descending aorta with stent graft was constrained in a custom-made transparent urethane casing. The specimen was tested in a novel impact system at an anterior inclination of 45 deg and an average deceleration of 55 G, which represented a frontal automobile crash. Due to the shock of the impact, which was shown to be below the threshold of aortic injury, the stent graft moved 0.6 mm longitudinally. This result was repeatable. The presented experimental model may be helpful in developing future grafts to withstand moderate shocks experienced in motor vehicle accidents or other dynamic loadings of the chest.

  14. An evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis using coronary CT in subjects with asymptomatic carotid lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Vito; Piraino, Davide; Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Evola, Salvatore; Di Piazza, Mariaconcetta; Vicari, Claudia; Lupo, Ambra; Inga, Giuseppe; Andolina, Giuseppe; Assennato, Pasquale; Novo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of coronary lesions in patients with asymptomatic carotid plaque represents a very promising line of research to assess cardiovascular risk and the possible implementation of a more aggressive prevention therapy. Methods: In this study we enrolled 102 patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk but no history of coronary artery disease. The first group, consisting of 51 patients, underwent a Coronary CT scan (CCT-group) as well as carotid ultrasonography. The second group, also consisting of 51 patients, underwent coronary angiography (CA) and carotid ultrasonography. Results: The absence of a statistically significant difference between the involvement of both coronary and carotid sites, assessed by CCT and CA, confirms the role of coronary CT as a useful method in the preclinical evaluation of cardiovascular risk. In the CCT group, the correlation between atherosclerosis of carotid artery and coronary disease, as well as between the mean carotid intimal medial thickness and the number of involved coronary vessels, and between the maximum values of carotid plaque and the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50%, were statistically significant. The Agatson calcium score was also statistically associated with carotid plaque size. Conclusion: The imaging biomarkers have a key role in the evaluation of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, carotid ultrasound examination and a CT-scan of coronary arteries, in a particular sub-group of patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk, can play a crucial role to assess the preventive therapeutic strategies. PMID:25147763

  15. In depth global analysis of transcript abundance levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Infection of the primary target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not under...

  16. In depth global analysis of gene expression levels in porcine alveolar macrophages following infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Infection of the preferential target cells, porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), by PRRSV causes significant changes in their function by mechanisms that are not understood. Serial Analysis of Gene Ex...

  17. Anomalous Single Coronary Artery Presenting with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Padmakumar; Krishnan, Anand Muthu; Chowdary, Ravella Keerthika; Malpe, Umesh Pai

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous origin of the entire coronary system from the right coronary sinus is a very rare anomaly. Here a patient with this rare anomaly, who developed acute coronary syndrome, requiring revascularization, is presented and treated successfully. His coronary angiographic findings are also discussed. We would like to highlight the rarity of the origin of all 3 coronary arteries from a single coronary trunk. The case also highlights the importance of using Amplantzer AR1 guiding catheter for such anatomical variations arising in the right coronary cusp. PMID:28208910

  18. Woven coronary artery: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kursaklioglu, Hurkan; Iyisoy, Atila; Celik, Turgay

    2006-10-26

    Woven coronary artery is an extremely rare and clearly undefined coronary malformation. Up to now, very few cases have been reported. In this anomaly, epicardial coronary artery are branched into thin channels at any segment of the coronary artery and then these longitudinal twisted thin channels merge again as the main coronary lumen. This anomaly is regarded as a benign condition since there is completely normal blood flow after the distal segment of the abnormal coronary artery. In this case report, we present a 48-year-old male patient with a woven coronary artery anomaly in the circumflex artery and who had been followed up for 5 years.

  19. Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma as a shielding technique after endoscopic mucosal resection in rat and porcine models

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Zúñiga, Vicente; Boix, Jaume; Moreno de Vega, Vicente; Bon, Ignacio; Marín, Ingrid; Bartolí, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: The aims were to assess the efficacy of endoscopic application of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to prevent delayed perforation and to induce mucosal healing after endoscopic resections. Patients and methods: Colonic induced lesions were performed in rats (n = 16) and pigs (n = 4). Animals were randomized to receive onto the lesions saline (control) or PRP. Animals underwent endoscopic follow-up. Thermal injury was assessed with a 1 – 4 scale: (1) mucosal necrosis; (2) submucosal necrosis; (3) muscularis propria necrosis; and (4) serosal necrosis Results: Saline treatment showed 50 % of mortality in rats (P = 0.02). Mean ulcerated area after 48 hours and 7 days was significantly smaller with PRP than with saline (0.27 ± 0.02 cm2 and 0.08 ± 0.01 cm2 vs. 0.56 ± 0.1 cm2 and 0.40 ± 0.06 cm2; P < 0.001). The incidence of thermal injury was significantly lower with PRP (1.25 ± 0.46) than in controls (2.25 ± 0.50); P = 0.006. The porcine model showed a trend toward higher mucosal restoration in animals treated with PRP than with saline at weeks 1 and 2 (Median area in cm2: 0.55 and 0.40 vs. 1.32 and 0.79) Conclusions: Application of PRP to colonic mucosal lesions showed strong healing properties in rat and porcine models. PMID:27540573

  20. Immediate tangential excision accelerates wound closure but does not reduce scarring of mid-dermal porcine burns.

    PubMed

    Macri, L K; Singer, A J; McClain, S A; Crawford, L; Prasad, A; Kohn, J; Clark, R A F

    2016-03-31

    Current evidence supports the use of excision to remove eschar from deep dermal and full-thickness burns. However, the role of excision of mid-dermal burns remains unclear. This study aimed to develop a porcine model that could produce reproducible middermal thermal burns that undergo tangential excision; and investigate the effects of immediate tangential excision (30 minutes postburn) on healing and scarring. An aluminum bar preheated in hot water (70°C) was applied for 20 or 30 s to produce a total of sixteen mid-dermal burns per pig on each of six pigs. Thirty minutes after burn creation, half of the burns were tangentially excised. Four partial- thickness wounds per pig were created as controls. Depth of burn injury (1 and 24 h), reepithelialization (7 and 10 d) and scar depth (28 d) were assessed microscopically. Total scar surface area was grossly evaluated on day 28. Exposure of porcine skin to a preheated aluminum bar at 70 °C for 20 or 30 sec resulted in reproducible mid-dermal burns, where immediate excision enhanced complete wound closure as judged by complete re-epithelialization, but did not reduce initial depth of injury, scar contraction and scar depth. Immediate surgical intervention is sufficient to enhance wound closure, but not to mitigate mid-dermal burn scar formation. This work provides a suitable animal model to evaluate novel therapies that may be used to inhibit burn progression, accelerate wound closure and decrease scarring, especially those therapies unable to penetrate burn eschar.

  1. Saphenous vein patch for correction of anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    AlQuadan, Obadah F.; AlSmady, Moaath M.; Saleh, Suhayl S.; Aqel, Raed A.; Al-Antary, Eman T.

    2017-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the coronary arteries is a rare congenital heart defect that may lead to disturbed life style, myocardial infarction and sudden death. This report describes a young lady with the right coronary artery arising from the left main coronary artery, which was confirmed by coronary angiography and corrected surgically using saphenous vein patch. PMID:28096325

  2. A survey of porcine picornaviruses and adenoviruses in fecal samples in Spain.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Dolores; Cano-Gómez, Cristina; Agüero, Montserrat; Fernandez-Pacheco, Paloma; Gómez-Tejedor, Concepción; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2010-09-01

    In the course of an epidemiologic surveillance program for swine diseases carried out in Spain, 206 cytopathic viruses were isolated from 600 porcine fecal samples between 2004 and 2005. The virus isolates were examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods specific for different types of porcine picornaviruses, including members of the Teschovirus, Enterovirus, and Sapelovirus genera, and PCR for porcine adenoviruses. Of the 206 isolates, 97 (47%) were identified as teschoviruses, 18 (9%) as sapeloviruses, and 7 (3%) as porcine adenoviruses. Neither Porcine enterovirus B nor Swine vesicular disease virus was found among the isolates. The present study confirms that teschoviruses are highly prevalent in porcine fecal samples, at least in Spain. It also reveals that these viruses commonly circulate among apparently healthy pigs.

  3. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  4. Transcription analysis of the porcine alveolar macrophage response to porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the causal agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has severely impacted the swine industry worldwide. PCV2 triggers a weak and atypical innate immune response, but the key genes and mechanisms by which the virus interferes with host innate immunity have not yet been elucidated. In this study, genes that control the response of primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the main target of PCV2, were profiled in vitro. Results PAMs were successfully infected by PCV2-WH strain, as evidenced quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results. Infection-related differential gene expression was investigated using pig microarrays from the US Pig Genome Coordination Program and validated by real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Microarray analysis at 24 and 48 hours post-infection (HPI) revealed 266 and 175 unique genes, respectively, that were differentially expressed (false discovery rate <0.05; fold-change >2). Only six genes were differentially expressed between 24 and 48 HPI. The up-regulated genes were principally related to immune response, cytokine activity, locomotion, regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell growth arrest, and antigen procession and presentation. The down-regulated genes were mainly involved in terpenoid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, translation, proteasome degradation, signal transducer activity, and ribosomal proteins, which were representative of the reduced vital activity of PCV2-infected cells. Conclusions PCV2 infection of PAMs causes up-regulation of genes related to inflammation, indicating that PCV2 may induce systematic inflammation. PCV2 persistently induced cytokines, mainly through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1 and TLR9 pathways, which may promote high levels of cytokine secretion. PCV2 may prevent apoptosis in PAMs by up-regulating SERPINB9 expression, possibly to

  5. Laparoscopic gastrectomy after coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Hideki; Takahashi, Norihiko; Tahara, Munenori; Takahashi, Masahiro; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2014-08-01

    We successfully executed laparoscopic distal gastrectomy in two patients who had previously undergone coronary artery bypass grafting using the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA). A laparoscopic distal gastrectomy preserving the RGEA graft with Roux-en-Y reconstruction was performed on two men, one 69 years of age and one 73 years of age. In both cases, the RGEA was used during coronary artery bypass grafting for the posterior descending branch. The laparoscopic approach helped avoid injury to the RGEA associated with laparotomy and retractor placement. In addition, the locations of ports necessary for laparoscopy were situated away from the RGEA graft and from adhesions resulting from bypass. Using typical laparoscopic settings, we were able to easily identify the grafted RGEA. Thus, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is not only less invasive than open gastrectomy procedures, but it is also associated with a lower risk of injury to the RGEA graft.

  6. Percutaneous transradial artery approach for coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Kiemeneij, F; Laarman, G J

    1993-10-01

    A new approach for implantation of Palmaz Schatz coronary stents is reported. We describe the technique and rationale of coronary stenting with miniaturized angioplasty equipment via the radial artery. This technique is illustrated in three patients. One patient underwent Palmaz Schatz stent implantation for a saphenous vene coronary bypass graft stenosis, the second patient for a restenosis in the anterior descending coronary artery after atherectomy, and the third patient for a second restenosis after balloon angioplasty in the circumflex coronary artery.

  7. Syphilitic Coronary Artery Ostial Stenosis Resulting in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nakazone, Marcelo A.; Machado, Maurício N.; Barbosa, Raphael B.; Santos, Márcio A.; Maia, Lilia N.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities are well-known manifestations of tertiary syphilis infections which although not frequent, are still causes of morbidity and mortality. A less common manifestation of syphilitic aortitis is coronary artery ostial narrowing related to aortic wall thickening. We report a case of a 46-year-old male admitted due to acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction submitted to primary percutaneous coronary intervention successfully. Coronary angiography showed a suboccluded ostial lesion of left main coronary artery. VDRL was titrated to 1/512. The patient was discharged with treatment including benzathine penicillin. Previous case reports of acute myocardial infarction in association with syphilitic coronary artery ostial stenosis have been reported, but the fact that the patient was treated by percutaneous coronary intervention is unique in this case. PMID:21052501

  8. Diffuse coronary artery ectasia in a patient with left main coronary artery trifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Desperak, Piotr; Bujak, Kamil; Głowacki, Jan; Gąsior, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The term coronary ectasia is reserved to describe a diffuse dilatation of coronary artery segments that have a diameter that exceeds the size of normal adjacent coronary segments by 1.5 times. The occurrence of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) ranges from 3% to 8% in the group of patients undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography. The CAE is associated with traditional risk factors and often co-exists with coronary atherosclerosis, which suggests that ectasia may represent an advanced form of atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical implications and management of patients in whom the occurrence of CAE is observed, especially in patients without concomitant obstructive atherosclerosis. Here, we present a rare case of a 62-year-old patient with multiple CAEs and left main trifurcation. PMID:27785148

  9. Coronary artery bypass is superior to drug-eluting stents in multivessel coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Robert A

    2006-06-01

    Percutaneous intervention for the treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease continues to displace coronary artery bypass graft surgery. But controlled trials of percutaneous intervention versus coronary bypass, in meta-analysis, have shown a significant survival advantage for coronary bypass. Studies of bare metal stents have not presented any data to prompt reversal of this conclusion for all but the small portion of patients most suited for stenting. Drug-eluting stents have no survival advantage compared with bare metal stents. Data from real-world registries have shown that the current therapy of multivessel disease patients has resulted in a relative excess mortality of as much as 46% in patients with initial stenting compared with patients with initial coronary bypass. Ethical considerations demand that patients with multivessel disease be informed of the documented mortality benefit of coronary bypass graft surgery.

  10. Benefits of exercise training on coronary blood flow in coronary artery disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Rebecca S.; Sturek, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Every 34 seconds an American experiences a myocardial infarction or cardiac death. Approximately 80% of these coronary artery disease (CAD)-related deaths are attributable to modifiable behaviors, such as a lack of physical exercise training (ET). Regular ET decreases CAD morbidity and mortality through systemic and cardiac-specific adaptations. ET increases myocardial oxygen demand acting as a stimulus to increase coronary blood flow and thus myocardial oxygen supply, which reduces myocardial infarction and angina. ET augments coronary blood flow through direct actions on the vasculature that improve endothelial and coronary smooth muscle function, enhancing coronary vasodilation. Additionally, ET promotes collateralization, thereby, increasing blood flow to ischemic myocardium and also treats macrovascular CAD by attenuating the progression of coronary atherosclerosis and restenosis, potentially through stabilization of atherosclerotic lesions. In summary, ET can be used as a relatively safe and inexpensive way to prevent and treat CAD. PMID:25446554

  11. Adverse Hospital Events for Mentally Ill Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Glance, Laurent G; Cai, Xueya; Mukamel, Dana B

    2008-01-01

    Context Patients with mental disorders show higher burden of coronary heart disease, and may face special safety issues during in-hospital cardiac care. Objectives To compare the postoperative complication rate between patients with and without mental disorders undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective analyses of New York state hospital claims between 1997 and 2004 (N=135,701). Complications were defined using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (AHRQ PSI). Principal Findings Mental disorders were significantly associated with higher anesthesia complications (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=6.44, p<.001), decubitus ulcer (AOR=1.42, p=.006), postoperative hip fracture (AOR=3.29, p<.001), and overall complication rate representing nine PSIs (AOR=1.27, p<.001). Conclusions Mentally ill patients undergoing CABG surgery are more likely to experience potentially preventable complications and injuries. The mechanism underlying this observation warrants further study. PMID:18665856

  12. A case of giant saphenous vein graft aneurysm followed serially after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Akutsu, Naotaka; Hiro, Takafumi; Oya, Toshiyuki; Fukamachi, Daisuke; Haruta, Hironori; Iida, Korehito; Kougo, Takaaki; Mineki, Takashi; Nishida, Toshihiko; Murata, Nobuhiro; Oshima, Toru; Hata, Hiroaki; Shiono, Motomi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Saphenous vein graft aneurysm (SVGA) is one of the chronic complications after coronary aorta bypass grafting (CABG) and may be caused by atherosclerosis-like phenomena of the vein graft, weakness around the vein valve, rupturing of the suture of the graft anastomosis, or perioperative graft injury. We describe a case of a large, growing saphenous vein graft aneurysm that was followed serially by chest radiography and computed tomography. Eighteen years after CABG, an SVGA (23 × 24 mm) was incidentally detected. The patient was asymptomatic and was followed conservatively. Four years later, coronary computed tomographic angiography showed that the giant aneurysm had grown to 52.1 by 63.8 mm and revealed a second, smaller aneurysm. Finally, the SVG was ultimately resected without bypass via off-pump surgery. Therefore, this case suggested that aggressive treatment that includes surgical intervention should be considered before the aneurysm becomes larger, even if it is asymptomatic.

  13. Stent-based percutaneous coronary interventions in small coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Roguin, Ariel; Grenadier, Ehud

    2006-01-01

    A third to half of all percutaneous coronary interventions involve small diameter vessels of less than 3 mm. Small vessel size is a predictor of restenosis after balloon angioplasty, as well as after stent placement. Stents deployed in small arteries, have a higher metal-to-artery ratio; this may increase the risk of sub-acute thrombosis or restenosis. Various studies have shown that stent design, stent coating, and stent strut thickness may determine event-free survival. Dedicated stents for small vessels with less amount of metal, appropriate expansion to the vessel size with correct radial force and cells morphology, and less prothrombotic properties, may further improve the results of stenting in this setting (thinner struts, fewer cells, or loops per circumference). This review provides an update on the current status, review the major trials and define the clinical utility of small vessel stenting, particularly in the era of drug-eluting stents.

  14. Rudimentary coronary artery in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Arqué, J M; Fernández, B; Fernández, M C; Fernández-Gallego, T; Rodríguez, C; Sans-Coma, V

    2009-08-01

    Congenital underdevelopment of one or more main branches of the coronary arteries has been reported in man, but not in non-human mammals. In man, this defective coronary artery arrangement may cause myocardial ischaemia and even sudden death. The main goal of this study was to describe the coronary artery distribution patterns associated with the presence of a markedly underdeveloped (rudimentary) coronary artery in Syrian hamsters. Moreover, an attempt was made to explain the morphogenesis of these patterns, according to current knowledge on coronary artery development. Eleven affected hamsters belonging to a laboratory inbred family were examined by means of internal casts of the heart, great arterial trunks and coronary arteries. The aortic valve was tricuspid (normal) in seven hamsters and bicuspid in the other four. A rudimentary coronary artery arose from the right side of the aortic valve in four specimens, from the left side of the aortic valve in a further three, and from the dorsal aortic sinus in the remaining four. In all cases, a second, well-developed coronary artery provided for all the coronary blood flow. Except for the existence of a rudimentary coronary artery, the present anomalous coronary artery distribution patterns are similar to coronary artery patterns reported in Syrian hamsters, dogs and humans in association with a solitary coronary ostium in aorta. We suggest that an unusual prolonged time interval in the development of the embryonic coronary stems might be a key factor in the formation of coronary arteries displaying significantly dissimilar developmental degrees.

  15. Allergic acute coronary syndrome (Kounis syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Lovely; Masrur, Shihab; Parker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis rarely manifests as a vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. The variability in the underlying pathogenesis produces a wide clinical spectrum of this syndrome. We present three cases of anaphylactic acute coronary syndrome that display different clinical variants of this phenomenon. The main pathophysiological mechanism of the allergic anginal syndromes is the inflammatory mediators released during a hypersensitivity reaction triggered by food, insect bites, or drugs. It is important to appropriately recognize and treat Kounis syndrome in patients with exposure to a documented allergen. PMID:26130889

  16. Transradial approach for coronary angiography and interventions in patients with coronary bypass grafts: tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Hamon, Martial; Amoroso, Giovanni; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand

    2008-08-01

    Among patients undergoing coronary procedures, patients with coronary artery bypass grafts represent an important, high risk subgroup. Routine transradial approach may be successfully adopted in these patients to reduce access-site complications. However, transradial cannulation of the grafts may result technically demanding. In this article we discuss the specific technical issues and we present a series of tips and tricks which may facilitate angiography and interventions on both internal mammary and aorto-coronary grafts.

  17. Unusual Malignant Coronary Artery Anomaly: Results of Coronary Angiography, MR Imaging, and Multislice CT

    SciTech Connect

    Apitzsch, Jonas; Kuehl, Harald P.; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of a man with an uncommon anomaly of the origin and course of the left coronary artery. Clinical, coronary angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and multislice computed tomography findings of this intermittently symptomatic 49 year-old patient with the rare anomaly of his left coronary artery stemming from the right sinus of Valsalva and taking an interarterial and intraseptal course are presented. The diagnostic value of the different imaging modalities is discussed.

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  19. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  1. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  2. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran ...

  4. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen from a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries ...

  5. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  6. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  7. Spinal Cord Injury Map

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counseling About Blog Facing Disability Jeff Shannon Donate Spinal Cord Injury Map Loss of function depends on what ... control. Learn more about spinal cord injuries. A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed ...

  8. Direct communication between the left circumflex and the right coronary arteries: a very rare coronary anomaly circulation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcos Danillo Peixoto; Cavalcanti, Rafael R. César; Kajita, Alexandre H.; Miranda, Thais; Kajita, Luiz J.; Horta, Pedro E.; Ribeiro, Expedito E.

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies (CAA) are congenital changes in their origin, course, and/or structure. Intercoronary communication (ICC) is a very rare subset with uni- or bidirectional blood flow between two or more coronary arteries. We present the case of a 58-year-old man with an acute coronary syndrome whose coronary angiography incidentally showed a surprising and very rare communication between the right coronary and left circumflex arteries. PMID:26885496

  9. The coronary circulation in exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, α- and β-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest

  10. Distinct Differences on Neointima Formation in Immunodeficient and Humanized Mice after Carotid or Femoral Arterial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Jill; van Ark, Joris; van Dijk, Marcory C.; Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention is widely adopted to treat patients with coronary artery disease. However, restenosis remains an unsolved clinical problem after vascular interventions. The role of the systemic and local immune response in the development of restenosis is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the human immune system on subsequent neointima formation elicited by vascular injury in a humanized mouse model. Immunodeficient NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIL2rgtm1Wjl(NSG) mice were reconstituted with human (h)PBMCs immediately after both carotid wire and femoral cuff injury were induced in order to identify how differences in the severity of injury influenced endothelial regeneration, neointima formation, and homing of human inflammatory and progenitor cells. In contrast to non-reconstituted mice, hPBMC reconstitution reduced neointima formation after femoral cuff injury whereas hPBMCs promoted neointima formation after carotid wire injury 4 weeks after induction of injury. Neointimal endothelium and smooth muscle cells in the injured arteries were of mouse origin. Our results indicate that the immune system may differentially respond to arterial injury depending on the severity of injury, which may also be influenced by the intrinsic properties of the arteries themselves, resulting in either minimal or aggravated neointima formation. PMID:27759053

  11. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of porcine skin: implications for human wound healing studies

    PubMed Central

    VARDAXIS, N. J.; BRANS, T. A.; BOON, M. E.; KREIS, R. W.; MARRES, L. M.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of porcine skin as examined by light microscopy is reviewed and its similarities to and differences from human skin are highlighted. Special imaging techniques and staining procedures are described and their use in gathering morphological information in porcine skin is discussed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was employed to examine the structure of porcine skin and the findings are presented as an adjunct to the information already available in the literature. It is concluded that CLSM provides valuable additional morphological information to material examined by conventional microscopy and is useful for wound healing studies in the porcine model. PMID:9183682

  12. Effects of porcine oocytes on the expression levels of transcripts encoding glycolytic enzymes in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yuta; Onuma, Asuka; Fujioka, Yoshie A; Emori, Chihiro; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Sugiura, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Oocytes play critical roles in regulating the expression of transcripts encoding the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in granulosa cells in mice, but whether this is the case in pigs or other mammals has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether porcine oocytes regulate the expression levels of these transcripts in granulosa cells in vitro. Porcine cumulus cells expressed higher levels of PFKP and LDHA transcripts than mural granulosa cells (MGCs). However, co-culturing with oocytes had no significant effect on the isolated cumulus cells. While murine oocytes promoted the expression of both Pfkp and Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs, porcine oocytes promoted the expression of only Pfkp, but not Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs. Neither murine nor porcine oocytes affected PFKP and LDHA expression by porcine MGCs. Moreover, in the presence of porcine follicular fluid, porcine oocytes maintained the expression of PFKP, but not LDHA by porcine cumulus cells. Therefore, porcine oocytes are capable of regulating the expression of PFKP but not LDHA in granulosa cells in coordination with unknown factor(s) present in the follicular fluid.

  13. Indications, algorithms, and outcomes for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Yerokun, Babatunde A.; Williams, Judson B.; Gaca, Jeffrey; Smith, Peter K.; Roe, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), guideline recommendations and treatment pathways focus on revascularization for definitive treatment if the patient is an appropriate candidate. Despite the widespread use of revascularization for NSTE-ACS, most patients undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention, whereas a minority of patients undergo coronary artery bypass grafting. Focusing specifically on the USA, the contemporary utilization, preoperative and perioperative considerations, and outcomes of NSTE-ACS patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting have not been comprehensively reviewed. PMID:26945187

  14. Functional assessment of a left coronary-pulmonary artery fistula by coronary flow reserve

    PubMed Central

    Sasi, Viktor; Forster, Tamás; Ungi, Imre

    2014-01-01

    We report a 71-year-old man who presented with atypical chest pain. Coronary angiography did not reveal left main or proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, but a fistulous communication with a stronger tube-like fistula was present originating from the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery and emptying into the main pulmonary artery. Fractional flow reserve and coronary flow reserve measurements were performed to gain more data on the potential functional aspects of this fistula. With the present case, the importance of functional evaluation of these fistulas is demonstrated. PMID:25061466

  15. Number of coronary ostia in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with normal and anomalous coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Durán, A C; Fernández, M C; Fernández, B; Fernández-Gallego, T; Arqué, J M; Sans-Coma, V

    2007-12-01

    Little attention is being paid to the presence of accessory coronary artery ostia in man and non-human mammals due to their limited clinical relevance. However, information about their frequency and the cardiac territories irrigated by the vessels arising from them is of interest to obtain an accurate survey of the establishment of the coronary artery system in each species. The aim here was to compare the incidence and significance of the accessory coronary ostia in Syrian hamsters with normal coronary arteries and several coronary anomalies characterized by the absence of a left coronary artery originating from the left aortic sinus. The hearts from 2829 hamsters were examined using a corrosion-cast technique, micro-dissection, histochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscopy. Overall, 148 specimens displayed accessory ostia. A limited number of them belonged to the conal artery which supplies the wall of the right ventricular outflow tract. The other accessory ostia led to the septal artery, a vessel which irrigates the most part of the interventricular septum. The incidence of accessory ostia in normal and anomalous coronary artery patterns was quite similar. This suggests that the morphogenetic deviations producing the coronary artery anomalies reported in this study do not alter the connections of the septal and conal arteries to the aorta. The present observations lead to the notion that in the Syrian hamster, the septal artery should be regarded as a third coronary artery.

  16. [Gigantic coronary aneurysm arisen from coronary fistula between the left circumflex artery and the left ventricle].

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Andou, H; Yasutsune, T; Iwai, T; Fukumura, F; Tanaka, J

    2008-12-01

    A 71-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to abnormality detected by a chest roentgenogram. He had no symptoms except for slight chest oppression. He was found to have a giant coronary aneurysm. It was originated from a coronary artery (left circum flex branch) left ventricular fistula. The orifice of this fistula to the left ventricle was also dilated and formed diverticulum. Ligation of the feeding coronary branch, closure of the aneurysmal fistula in the left ventricular wall and aneurysmectomy were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative course was uneventful. A giant aneurysm originated from a coronary-left ventricular fistula was considered to be very rare.

  17. Early Post-Operative Coronary Thrombosis Following Repair of a Proximal Coronary Artery Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Bryan; Taub, Cynthia C

    2016-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal coronary artery fistulas are often a treatment challenge. We hereby, report a case of aneurysmal left main coronary artery to coronary sinus fistula repair, complicated by an early post-operative thrombosis of the left main coronary artery, necessitating an orthotropic heart transplant. Routine use of peri-procedural and long-term anti-coagulation is usually not a standard recommendation in these cases; however, early institution of the same may prevent flow stasis, thrombus formation and unfavourable outcomes pre- or post-operatively. PMID:28208917

  18. [Results of emergency coronary artery bypass surgery after failed coronary angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Imazeki, T; Yokoyama, M; Murai, N; Kurimoto, Y; Sakurada, M; Simizu, Y

    1995-06-01

    In the past 7 years, 9 emergent or urgent coronary artery bypass operations after failed percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) were performed among 947 (PTCA). Since the introduction of coronary perfusion catheter system for the support of coronary perfusion during PTCA we could reduce the number of emergent cases and these patients could be operated on semi-emergently and securely without endangering co-medical staffs in a hurry. It is also unnecessary to be on standby all the time when the PTCA is being undertaken. Two acute myocardial infarction cases died in the early phase of this study (operative mortality 22%) and none after the introduction of coronary perfusion system during PTCA.

  19. Coronary DSA: enhancing coronary tree visibility through discriminative learning and robust motion estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Prummer, Simone; Chen, Terrence; Ostermeier, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-02-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a well-known technique for improving the visibility and perceptibility of blood vessels in the human body. Coronary DSA extends conventional DSA to dynamic 2D fluoroscopic sequences of coronary arteries which are subject to respiratory and cardiac motion. Effective motion compensation is the main challenge for coronary DSA. Without a proper treatment, both breathing and heart motion can cause unpleasant artifacts in coronary subtraction images, jeopardizing the clinical value of coronary DSA. In this paper, we present an effective method to separate the dynamic layer of background structures from a fluoroscopic sequence of the heart, leaving a clean layer of moving coronary arteries. Our method combines the techniques of learning-based vessel detection and robust motion estimation to achieve reliable motion compensation for coronary sequences. Encouraging results have been achieved on clinically acquired coronary sequences, where the proposed method considerably improves the visibility and perceptibility of coronary arteries undergoing breathing and cardiac movement. Perceptibility improvement is significant especially for very thin vessels. The potential clinical benefit is expected in the context of obese patients and deep angulation, as well as in the reduction of contrast dose in normal size patients.

  20. An assessment of transcriptional changes in porcine skin exposed to bromine vapor.

    PubMed

    Rogers, James V; Price, Jennifer A; Wendling, Morgan Q S; Perry, Mark R; Reid, Frances M; Kiser, Robyn C; Graham, John S

    2011-01-01

    Bromine is an industrial chemical that can cause severe cutaneous burns. This study was a preliminary investigation into the effect of cutaneous exposure to bromine vapor using a weanling swine burn model and microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated bromine vapor concentration of 0.69 g L(-1) for 10 or 20 min. At 48 h postexposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Arrays. Expression analysis revealed that bromine vapor exposure for 10 or 20 min promoted similar transcriptional changes in the number of significantly modulated probe sets. A minimum of 83% of the probe sets was similar for both exposure times. Ingenuity pathways analysis revealed eight common biological functions among the top 10 functions of each experimental group, in which 30 genes were commonly shared among 19 significantly altered signaling pathways. Transcripts encoding heme oxygenase 1, interleukin-1β, interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were identified as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study is an initial assessment of the transcriptional responses to cutaneous bromine vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for bromine-induced skin injury.