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Sample records for porcine enteropathogenic escherichia

  1. Association of Escherichia coli with the Small Intestinal Epithelium I. Comparison of Enteropathogenic and Nonenteropathogenic Porcine Strains in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bertschinger, Hans U.; Moon, Harley W.; Whipp, Shannon C.

    1972-01-01

    Two enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EEC) differed from a nonenteropathogenic strain of E. coli (NEEC) in their association with porcine small intestinal epithelium. The EEC characteristically were found along villi from tip to base and contiguous to the brush border. They were not in crypts. In contrast, the NEEC characteristically remained in the central lumen near the tips of villi and was only occasionally contiguous to the brush border. No organisms were detected within epithelial cells. The difference in distribution between EEC and NEEC was apparent in ligated jejunal loops 45 min postexposure. The association between host and bacterial cells was most consistently demonstrated on frozen sections of intestine, as other histological techniques removed many bacteria. However, cellular details of the association were best demonstrated in chemically fixed tissues. Images PMID:4564680

  2. Association of Escherichia coli with the small intestinal epithelium. I. Comparison of enteropathogenic and nonenteropathogenic porcine strains in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, H U; Moon, H W; Whipp, S C

    1972-04-01

    Two enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EEC) differed from a nonenteropathogenic strain of E. coli (NEEC) in their association with porcine small intestinal epithelium. The EEC characteristically were found along villi from tip to base and contiguous to the brush border. They were not in crypts. In contrast, the NEEC characteristically remained in the central lumen near the tips of villi and was only occasionally contiguous to the brush border. No organisms were detected within epithelial cells. The difference in distribution between EEC and NEEC was apparent in ligated jejunal loops 45 min postexposure. The association between host and bacterial cells was most consistently demonstrated on frozen sections of intestine, as other histological techniques removed many bacteria. However, cellular details of the association were best demonstrated in chemically fixed tissues.

  3. Colonization of porcine small intestine by Escherichia coli: ileal colonization and adhesion by pig enteropathogens that lack K88 antigen and by some acapsular mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, B; Moon, H W; Isaacson, R E

    1976-01-01

    Seven K88-negative porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, representing three different serogroups, caused severe diarrhea and characteristically colonized the ileum, but not the jejunum, of intragastrically exposed newborn pigs. Bacterial counts of intestinal contents and wall, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy all suggested that these strains colonized the ileum by adhesion to the villous epithelium. However, in ligated intestinal loops, these enteropathogenic E. coli strains adhered to jejunal epithelium as well as to ileal epithelium. Acapsular (K-) mutants, derived from one of the principal strains, retained their colonizing and adhesive abilities, whereas K- mutants from three other enteropathogenic E. coli strains did not. It is suggested that: (i) these K88-negative enteropathogenic E. coli colonize the ileum by adhesion, and (ii) the adhesion of some K-88-negative strains is mediated by surface factors other than, or in addition to, the polysaccharide K antigen. Images PMID:776834

  4. Colonization of porcine small intestine by Escherichia coli: ileal colonization and adhesion by pig enteropathogens that lack K88 antigen and by some acapsular mutants.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Moon, H W; Isaacson, R E

    1976-04-01

    Seven K88-negative porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, representing three different serogroups, caused severe diarrhea and characteristically colonized the ileum, but not the jejunum, of intragastrically exposed newborn pigs. Bacterial counts of intestinal contents and wall, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy all suggested that these strains colonized the ileum by adhesion to the villous epithelium. However, in ligated intestinal loops, these enteropathogenic E. coli strains adhered to jejunal epithelium as well as to ileal epithelium. Acapsular (K-) mutants, derived from one of the principal strains, retained their colonizing and adhesive abilities, whereas K- mutants from three other enteropathogenic E. coli strains did not. It is suggested that: (i) these K88-negative enteropathogenic E. coli colonize the ileum by adhesion, and (ii) the adhesion of some K-88-negative strains is mediated by surface factors other than, or in addition to, the polysaccharide K antigen.

  5. Colonization of porcine small intestine by Escherichia coli: colonization and adhesion factors of pig enteropathogens that lack K88.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R E; Nagy, B; Moon, H W

    1977-04-01

    The colonizing and adhesive attributes of enterotoxigenic acapsular and/or nonpiliated mutants from K88-negative enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains were compared with their capsulated and piliated parents (parents were piliated when grown in vitro and in vivo). Acapsular, nonpiliated mutants from three different colonizing strains of enteropathogenic E. coli lost their ability to colonize the ileum of newborn pigs. Acapsular, piliated and capsular, nonpiliated mutants were derived from one of the parental strains (987), and both mutants lacked the ability to colonize the ileum of pigs. The only mutants available from a fourth strain (431) were acapsular and piliated, and they colonized as well as their parents. These data indicate that both capsule and pili are involved in colonization by strain 987. In contrast, capsule is not required for colonization by strain 431, but pili may be.

  6. Two distinct groups of porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains of serogroup O45 are revealed by comparative genomic hybridization and virulence gene microarray

    PubMed Central

    Bruant, Guillaume; Zhang, Yongxiang; Garneau, Philippe; Wong, Justin; Laing, Chad; Fairbrother, John M; Gannon, Victor PJ; Harel, Josée

    2009-01-01

    Background Porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (PEPEC) strains of serogroup O45 cause post-weaning diarrhea and produce characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Most O45 PEPEC strains possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), encoding the virulence factors required for production of A/E lesions, and often possess the paa gene, which is thought to contribute to the early stages of PEPEC pathogenicity. In this study, nine O45 PEPEC strains and a rabbit enteropathogenic (REPEC) strain, known to produce A/E lesions in vivo, were characterized using an E. coli O157-E. coli K12 whole genome microarray and a virulence gene-specific microarray, and by PCR experiments. Results Based on their virulence gene profiles, the 10 strains were considered to be atypical EPEC. The differences in their genomes pointed to the identification of two distinct evolutionary groups of O45 PEPEC, Groups I and II, and provided evidence for a contribution of these genetic differences to their virulence in pigs. Group I included the REPEC strain and four O45 PEPEC strains known to induce severe A/E lesions in challenged pigs whereas Group II was composed of the five other O45 PEPEC strains, which induced less severe or no A/E lesions in challenged pigs. Significant differences between Groups I and II were found with respect to the presence or absence of 50 O-Islands (OIs) or S-loops and 13 K-islands (KIs) or K-loops, including the virulence-associated islands OI#1 (S-loop#1), OI#47 (S-loop#71), OI#57 (S-loop#85), OI#71 (S-loop#108), OI#115, OI#122, and OI#154 (S-loop#253). Conclusion We have genetically characterized a collection of O45 PEPEC strains and classified them into two distinct groups. The differences in their virulence gene and genomic island content may influence the pathogenicity of O45 PEPEC strains, and explain why Group I O45 PEPEC strains induced more severe A/E lesions in explants and challenged pigs than Group II strains. PMID:19709428

  7. An overview of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Elias, Waldir P; Vieira, Mônica A M; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2009-08-01

    The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) pathotype is currently divided into two groups, typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical EPEC (aEPEC). The property that distinguishes these two groups is the presence of the EPEC adherence factor plasmid, which is only found in tEPEC. aEPEC strains are emerging enteropathogens that have been detected worldwide. Herein, we review the serotypes, virulence properties, genetic relationships, epidemiology, reservoir and diagnosis of aEPEC, including those strains not belonging to the classical EPEC serogroups (nonclassical EPEC serogroups). The large variety of serotypes and genetic virulence properties of aEPEC strains from nonclassical EPEC serogroups makes it difficult to determine which strains are truly pathogenic.

  8. [Virulence mechanisms of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, Ana Elvira; Ariza-Rojas, Sandra Catherine; Vargas-Cárdenas, Fabiola Andrea; Vargas-Remolina, Lizeth Viviana

    2016-08-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a global public health problem, especially in developing countries and is one of the causes of mortality in children under five. ADD etiologic agents include viruses, bacteria and parasites in that order. Escherichia coli bacteria it is classified as a major diarrheagenic agent and transmitted by consuming contaminated water or undercooked foods. This review compiled updates on information virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms involved in adhesion and colonization of seven pathotypes of E. coli called enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and diffusely-adherent E. coli (DAEC). A final pathotype, adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) associated with Crohn's disease was also reviewed. The diarrheagenic pathotypes of E. coli affect different population groups and knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction with the human is important to guide research towards the development of vaccines and new tools for diagnosis and control.

  9. Colonization of porcine intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: selection of piliated forms in vivo, adhesion of piliated forms to epithelial cells in vitro, and incidence of a pilus antigen among porcine enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, B; Moon, H W; Isaacson, R E

    1977-01-01

    In contrast to K88-positive porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), K88-negative porcine ETEC strains did not adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. However, they did adhere to intestinal epithelium in vivo. Growth of one such ETEC (strain 987) in pig small intestine consistently yielded a greater percentage of piliated cells than did growth in vitro. This increase was demonstrable by electron microscopy, by change in colonial morphology, and by agglutination in specific antisera against the pili of strain 987. In contrast to the stored stock culture (which contained very few piliated cells), richly piliated forms of strain 987 did adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. A series of porcine E. coli strains was tested for agglutinability in antiserum against the pili of strain 987, and several K88-negative ETEC strains were agglutinated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that pili facilitate intestinal adhesion and colonization by K88-negative ETEC strains. Images PMID:326676

  10. Colonization of porcine intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: selection of piliated forms in vivo, adhesion of piliated forms to epithelial cells in vitro, and incidence of a pilus antigen among porcine enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Moon, H W; Isaacson, R E

    1977-04-01

    In contrast to K88-positive porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), K88-negative porcine ETEC strains did not adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. However, they did adhere to intestinal epithelium in vivo. Growth of one such ETEC (strain 987) in pig small intestine consistently yielded a greater percentage of piliated cells than did growth in vitro. This increase was demonstrable by electron microscopy, by change in colonial morphology, and by agglutination in specific antisera against the pili of strain 987. In contrast to the stored stock culture (which contained very few piliated cells), richly piliated forms of strain 987 did adhere to isolated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. A series of porcine E. coli strains was tested for agglutinability in antiserum against the pili of strain 987, and several K88-negative ETEC strains were agglutinated. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that pili facilitate intestinal adhesion and colonization by K88-negative ETEC strains.

  11. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, M. Regina F.; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Ramos, Sonia R. T. S.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes may be agents of endemic infantile diarrhea. PMID:6339384

  12. Evidence of Pathogenic Subgroups among Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Scaletsky, Isabel C. A.; Aranda, Katia R. S.; Souza, Tamara B.; Silva, Neusa P.; Morais, Mauro B.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the characterization of 126 atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) isolates from 1,749 Brazilian children. Classic aEPEC strains were more frequently found in children with diarrhea than in controls (P < 0.001), showing their importance as acute diarrhea agents in our country. Only aEPEC strains carrying either the ehxA or paa gene were significantly associated with diarrhea. PMID:19759223

  13. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B.; Carr, Anthony P.; Gaunt, M. Casey

    2016-01-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea. PMID:27587889

  14. Intimate host attachment: enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Lai, YuShuan; Rosenshine, Ilan; Leong, John M.; Frankel, Gad

    2013-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli use a novel infection strategy to colonize the gut epithelium, involving translocation of their own receptor, Tir, via a type III secretion system and subsequent formation of attaching and effecting (A/E) lesions. Following integration into the host cell plasma membrane of cultured cells, and clustering by the outer membrane adhesin intimin, Tir triggers multiple actin polymerization pathways involving host and bacterial adaptor proteins that converge on the host Arp2/3 actin nucleator. Although initially thought to be involved in A/E lesion formation, recent data have shown that the known Tir-induced actin polymerization pathways are dispensable for this activity, but can play other major roles in colonization efficiency, in vivo fitness and systemic disease. In this review we summarize the roadmap leading from the discovery of Tir, through the different actin polymerization pathways it triggers, to our current understanding of their physiological functions. PMID:23927593

  15. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection Triggers Host Phospholipid Metabolism Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y.; Lau, B.; Smith, S.; Troyan, K.; Barnett Foster, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) specifically recognizes phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the outer leaflet of host epithelial cells. EPEC also induces apoptosis in epithelial cells, which results in increased levels of outer leaflet PE and increased bacterial binding. Consequently, it is of interest to investigate whether EPEC infection perturbs host cell phospholipid metabolism and whether the changes play a role in the apoptotic signaling. Our findings indicate that EPEC infection results in a significant increase in the epithelial cell PE level and a corresponding decrease in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) level. PE synthesis via both the de novo pathway and the serine decarboxylation pathway was enhanced, and de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via CDP-choline was reduced. The changes were transitory, and the maximum change was noted after 4 to 5 h of infection. Addition of exogenous PC or CDP-choline to epithelial cells prior to infection abrogated EPEC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that EPEC infection inhibits the CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase step in PC synthesis, which is reportedly inhibited during nonmicrobially induced apoptosis. On the other hand, incorporation of exogenous PE by the host cells enhanced EPEC-induced apoptosis and necrosis without increasing bacterial adhesion. This is the first report that pathogen-induced apoptosis is associated with significant changes in PE and PC metabolism, and the results suggest that EPEC adhesion to a host membrane phospholipid plays a role in disruption of host phospholipid metabolism. PMID:15557596

  16. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection triggers host phospholipid metabolism perturbations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Lau, B; Smith, S; Troyan, K; Barnett Foster, D E

    2004-12-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) specifically recognizes phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the outer leaflet of host epithelial cells. EPEC also induces apoptosis in epithelial cells, which results in increased levels of outer leaflet PE and increased bacterial binding. Consequently, it is of interest to investigate whether EPEC infection perturbs host cell phospholipid metabolism and whether the changes play a role in the apoptotic signaling. Our findings indicate that EPEC infection results in a significant increase in the epithelial cell PE level and a corresponding decrease in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) level. PE synthesis via both the de novo pathway and the serine decarboxylation pathway was enhanced, and de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via CDP-choline was reduced. The changes were transitory, and the maximum change was noted after 4 to 5 h of infection. Addition of exogenous PC or CDP-choline to epithelial cells prior to infection abrogated EPEC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that EPEC infection inhibits the CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase step in PC synthesis, which is reportedly inhibited during nonmicrobially induced apoptosis. On the other hand, incorporation of exogenous PE by the host cells enhanced EPEC-induced apoptosis and necrosis without increasing bacterial adhesion. This is the first report that pathogen-induced apoptosis is associated with significant changes in PE and PC metabolism, and the results suggest that EPEC adhesion to a host membrane phospholipid plays a role in disruption of host phospholipid metabolism.

  17. [Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia.

  18. Bundle-forming pilus retraction enhances enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zahavi, Eitan E.; Lieberman, Joshua A.; Donnenberg, Michael S.; Nitzan, Mor; Baruch, Kobi; Rosenshine, Ilan; Turner, Jerrold R.; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Feinstein, Naomi; Zlotkin-Rivkin, Efrat; Aroeti, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important human pathogen that causes acute infantile diarrhea. The type IV bundle-forming pili (BFP) of typical EPEC strains are dynamic fibrillar organelles that can extend out and retract into the bacterium. The bfpF gene encodes for BfpF, a protein that promotes pili retraction. The BFP are involved in bacterial autoaggregation and in mediating the initial adherence of the bacterium with its host cell. Importantly, BFP retraction is implicated in virulence in experimental human infection. How pili retraction contributes to EPEC pathogenesis at the cellular level remains largely obscure, however. In this study, an effort has been made to address this question using engineered EPEC strains with induced BFP retraction capacity. We show that the retraction is important for tight-junction disruption and, to a lesser extent, actin-rich pedestal formation by promoting efficient translocation of bacterial protein effectors into the host cells. A model is proposed whereby BFP retraction permits closer apposition between the bacterial and the host cell surfaces, thus enabling timely and effective introduction of bacterial effectors into the host cell via the type III secretion apparatus. Our studies hence suggest novel insights into the involvement of pili retraction in EPEC pathogenesis. PMID:21613538

  19. In vitro evolution of an archetypal enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H; Assatourian, Lillian; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Rasko, David A; Donnenberg, Michael S

    2013-10-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries. EPEC strain E2348/69 is used worldwide as a prototype to study EPEC genetics and disease. However, isolates of E2348/69 differ phenotypically, reflecting a history of in vitro selection. To identify the genomic and phenotypic changes in the prototype strain, we sequenced the genome of the nalidixic acid-resistant (Nal(r)) E2348/69 clone. We also sequenced a recent nleF mutant derived by one-step PCR mutagenesis from the Nal(r) strain. The sequencing results revealed no unintended changes between the mutant and the parent strain. However, loss of the pE2348-2 plasmid and 3 nonsynonymous mutations were found in comparison to the published streptomycin-resistant (Str(r)) E2348/69 reference genome. One mutation is a conservative amino acid substitution in ftsK. Another, in gyrA, is a mutation known to result in resistance to nalidixic acid. The third mutation converts a stop codon to a tryptophan, predicted to result in the fusion of hflD, the lysogenization regulator, to purB. The purB gene encodes an adenylosuccinate lyase involved in purine biosynthesis. The Nal(r) clone has a lower growth rate than the Str(r) isolate when cultured in minimal media, a difference which is corrected upon addition of adenine or by genetic complementation with purB. Addition of adenine or genetic complementation also restored the invasion efficiency of the Nal(r) clone. This report reconciles longstanding inconsistencies in phenotypic properties of an archetypal strain and provides both reassurance and cautions regarding intentional and unintentional evolution in vitro.

  20. Characterization of fimbriae produced by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Girón, J A; Ho, A S; Schoolnik, G K

    1993-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) express rope-like bundles of filaments, termed bundle-forming pili (BFP) (J. A. Girón, A. S. Y. Ho, and G. K. Schoolnik, Science 254:710-713, 1991). Expression of BFP is associated with localized adherence to HEp-2 cells and the presence of the EPEC adherence factor plasmid. In this study, we describe the identification of rod-like fimbriae and fibrillae expressed simultaneously on the bacterial surface of three prototype EPEC strains. Upon fimbrial extraction from EPEC B171 (O111:NM), three fimbrial subunits with masses of 16.5, 15.5, and 14.7 kDa were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Their N-terminal amino acid sequence showed homology with F9 and F7(2) fimbriae of uropathogenic E. coli and F1845 of diffuse-adhering E. coli, respectively. The mixture of fimbrial subunits (called FB171) exhibited mannose-resistant agglutination of human erythrocytes only, and this activity was not inhibited by alpha-D-Gal(1-4)-beta-Gal disaccharide or any other described receptor analogs for P, S, F, M, G, and Dr hemagglutinins of uropathogenic E. coli, which suggests a different receptor specificity. Hemagglutination was inhibited by extracellular matrix glycoproteins, i.e., collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin, and to a lesser extent by gangliosides, fetuin, and asialofetuin. Scanning electron microscopic studies performed on clusters of bacteria adhering to HEp-2 cells revealed the presence of structures resembling BFP and rod-like fimbriae linking bacteria to bacteria and bacteria to the eukaryotic cell membrane. We suggest a role of these surface appendages in the interaction of EPEC with eukaryotic cells as well as in the overall pathogenesis of intestinal disease caused by EPEC. Images PMID:7901197

  1. Effects of static magnetic fields on the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Peña, María A; Tavizon, Gustavo; Puente, José L; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia; Hernández-Chiñas, Ulises; Eslava, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    This study reports the effects of exposing cells of the prototypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69 to static magnetic fields (SMF) of varying intensities to observe their capacity to autoaggregate and the effect on cell adherence. The results showed that bacteria exposure over the course of 5 min to an intensity of 53 mT reduced autoaggregation by 28%. However, with intensities of up to 100 mT with the same exposure time, bacteria autoaggregation was reduced by approximately 50%; and after 30 min at the same intensity, it was indistinguishable from that observed in a non-autoaggregative strain. Furthermore, it was observed that SMF treatment also modified the typical localized adherence pattern of EPEC E2348/69. The observed effects are not related to bacteria damage. The above was confirmed because, after a 107 mT SMF treatment over the course of 30 min, cell viability and membrane permeability were the same to that observed in untreated controls. The obtained results suggest that the SMF effect on the E2348/69 EPEC strain alters the expression of the bundle-forming pilus (BFP), due to the fact that the same strain without the EPEC adherence factor plasmid that encodes the BFP operon was unable to autoaggregate. Electron microscopic analyses revealed structural differences between cells exposed to SMF with respect to untreated controls. In conclusion, the SMF treatment of 107 mT for 30 min reduced EPEC E2348/69 autoaggregation and modified its adherence pattern, with both events likely being associated with changes in BFP expression. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:570-578, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The plasmid-encoded regulator activates factors conferring lysozyme resistance on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Salinger, Nina; Kokona, Bashkim; Fairman, Robert; Okeke, Iruka N

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced lysozyme resistance of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli requires the plasmid-encoded regulator, Per, and is mediated by factors outside the locus for enterocyte effacement. EspC, a Per-activated serine protease autotransporter protein, conferred enhanced resistance on nonpathogenic E. coli, and a second Per-regulated, espC-independent lysozyme resistance mechanism was identified.

  3. The Plasmid-Encoded Regulator Activates Factors Conferring Lysozyme Resistance on Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Salinger, Nina; Kokona, Bashkim; Fairman, Robert; Okeke, Iruka N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that enhanced lysozyme resistance of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli requires the plasmid-encoded regulator, Per, and is mediated by factors outside the locus for enterocyte effacement. EspC, a Per-activated serine protease autotransporter protein, conferred enhanced resistance on nonpathogenic E. coli, and a second Per-regulated, espC-independent lysozyme resistance mechanism was identified. PMID:18997020

  4. Modulation of the Inflammasome Signaling Pathway by Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Hilo; Karino, Masaki; Tobe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity is an essential component in the protection of a host against pathogens. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) are known to modulate the innate immune responses of infected cells. The interference is dependent on their type III secretion system (T3SS) and T3SS-dependent effector proteins. Furthermore, these cytosolically injected effectors have been demonstrated to engage multiple immune signaling pathways, including the IFN/STAT, MAPK, NF-κB, and inflammasome pathways. In this review, recent work describing the interaction between EPEC/EHEC and the inflammasome pathway will be discussed. PMID:27617233

  5. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli contamination at different stages of the chicken slaughtering process.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M Z; Padola, N L; Parma, A E; Lucchesi, P M A

    2011-11-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is a foodborne pathogen that produces potentially fatal infant diarrhea, noticeably in developing countries. The aim of this study was to detect EPEC contamination by PCR at different stages of the chicken slaughtering process. We collected swabs from chicken cloacae and washed carcasses (external and visceral cavity) during the slaughtering process in 3 sampling occasions. Unwashed eviscerated carcasses were also sampled (at the visceral cavity) in the second and third sampling occasions. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was detected in 6 to 28% of cloacal samples, 39 and 56% of unwashed eviscerated carcasses, and 4 to 58% of washed carcasses. None of the samples were positive for bfpA, suggesting contamination with atypical EPEC. The detection of EPEC at different stages of the chicken slaughtering process showed that the proportion of contaminated samples remained or even increased during processing. In addition, the high proportion of contaminated carcasses during chicken processing represents a risk for the consumers and a challenge to improve procedures for those working in the sanitary control service.

  6. Epidemiological survey of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from children with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Regua, A H; Bravo, V L; Leal, M C; Lobo Leite, M E

    1990-08-01

    Escherichia coli was isolated in 382 (94 per cent) of 406 children from 0 to 3 years of age who had been hospitalized for diarrhoea at the Hospital Municipal Salles Neto, Rio de Janeiro. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains were isolated in 67 samples (18 per cent), distributed among the serogroups that were tested as follows: 0111 (33 per cent); 0125 (19 per cent); 0126, 0127, and 0142 (9 per cent); 0128 and 0119 (8 per cent); 055 (5 per cent); 0114 (2 per cent). No strains of EPEC belonging to serogroups 086, 0126, and 0158 were found. Among the samples in which EPEC strains were isolated, 15.0 per cent were children living in dwellings which had piped systems of water supply and drain, whereas with regard to those living in houses without such facilities, this percentage raised to 24 per cent. Similar results were found when the availability of water supply of drainage were taken separately.

  7. Diarrhea, bacteremia and multiorgan dysfunction due to an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strain with enteropathogenic E. coli genes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Robert; Nisa, Shahista; Hazen, Tracy H; Horneman, Amy; Amoroso, Anthony; Rasko, David A; Donnenberg, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    A 55-year-old man with well-controlled HIV had severe diarrhea for 3 weeks and developed multiorgan dysfunction and bacteremia due to Escherichia coli. The genome of the patient's isolate had features characteristic of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and genes distantly related to those defining enteropathogenic E. coli.

  8. Shiga toxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in water and fish from pay-to-fish ponds.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L F; Barbosa, M M C; de Rezende Pinto, F; Guariz, C S L; Maluta, R P; Rossi, J R; Rossi, G A M; Lemos, M V F; do Amaral, L A

    2016-03-01

    Escherichia coli is part of the normal microflora of the intestines of mammals. However, among the enteric pathogens, it is one of the leading causes of intestinal diseases, especially Shiga toxigenic E. coli, which can cause diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and complications like haemolytic uraemic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopaenic purpura. Escherichia coli is considered a serious public health problem. Water and fish samples were subjected to biochemical tests to confirm the presence of E. coli and by PCR to verify the presence of pathogenic strains (O157, enteropathogenic and shiga toxigenic) in water and fish (skin, gastrointestinal tract and muscles) from pay-to-fish ponds located in the Córrego Rico watershed in the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 115 E. coli isolates from fish or water, five (4·34%) contained eae and stx2 genes, one had only the eae gene and two had the stx1 gene. An isolate containing the stx2 gene was also found in the water sample. In addition, eight isolates (6·95%) from the fish gastrointestinal tract contained rfbEO157:H7 (O157 gene), and three (2·61%) contained stx2 and eae genes, demonstrating the potential risk to the environment and public health. The results provide useful basic information for the proper management of these environments and animals in order to prevent faecal pollution, reducing health risks to the Brazilian population. Pay-to-fish ponds are a common commercial activity in Brazil. Samples of water and Oreochromis niloticus were examined by PCR to detect the presence of pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (O157, enteropathogenic and shiga toxigenic). Several pathogenic strains were detected in this study, providing useful epidemiological information for the proper management of these environments and animals in order to prevent faecal pollution, reducing health risks to the Brazilian population. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Escherichia albertii, a novel human enteropathogen, colonizes rat enterocytes and translocates to extra-intestinal sites

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Denise; Hernandes, Rodrigo T.; Liberatore, Ana Maria A.; Abe, Cecilia M.; de Souza, Rodrigo B.; Romão, Fabiano T.; Sperandio, Vanessa; Koh, Ivan H.

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death of children up to five years old in the developing countries. Among the etiological diarrheal agents are atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), one of the diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes that affects children and adults, even in developed countries. Currently, genotypic and biochemical approaches have helped to demonstrate that some strains classified as aEPEC are actually E. albertii, a recently recognized human enteropathogen. Studies on particular strains are necessary to explore their virulence potential in order to further understand the underlying mechanisms of E. albertii infections. Here we demonstrated for the first time that infection of fragments of rat intestinal mucosa is a useful tool to study the initial steps of E. albertii colonization. We also observed that an E. albertii strain can translocate from the intestinal lumen to Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and liver in a rat model. Based on our finding of bacterial translocation, we investigated how E. albertii might cross the intestinal epithelium by performing infections of M-like cells in vitro to identify the potential in vivo translocation route. Altogether, our approaches allowed us to draft a general E. albertii infection route from the colonization till the bacterial spreading in vivo. PMID:28178312

  10. [Lactose intolerance in hospitalized infants with acute diarrhea due to classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coil (EPEC)].

    PubMed

    Moreira, C R; Fagundes-Neto, U

    1997-01-01

    Three hundred and eleven hospitalized weaned infants with acute diarrhea, all under 12 months of age, were studied in order to evaluate the development of lactose intolerance and its association with age, nutritional status, birth weight, dehydration and enteropathogenic agents identified in fecal samples. After been rehydrated the infants received whole cow' milk assuring the intake of 100 kcal/kg per day. Lactose intolerance was defined according t the following criteria: 1) persistence of diarrhea associated with weight loss during 48 hours, 2) development of vomiting and/or abdominal distention associated with excretion of carbohydrate in feces and/or acids tools, 3) metabolic acidosis associated with abdominal distention at anytime of refeeding period. Lactose intolerance was detected in 52.1% (162/311) of the patients and it was significantly associated with age under 6 months (P < 0.01), birth weight under 3000 grams (P < 0.01), development of dehydration (P < 0.01) and with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) serotypes infection (P < 0.01).

  11. Escherichia albertii, a novel human enteropathogen, colonizes rat enterocytes and translocates to extra-intestinal sites.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Denise; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Liberatore, Ana Maria A; Abe, Cecilia M; Souza, Rodrigo B de; Romão, Fabiano T; Sperandio, Vanessa; Koh, Ivan H; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death of children up to five years old in the developing countries. Among the etiological diarrheal agents are atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), one of the diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes that affects children and adults, even in developed countries. Currently, genotypic and biochemical approaches have helped to demonstrate that some strains classified as aEPEC are actually E. albertii, a recently recognized human enteropathogen. Studies on particular strains are necessary to explore their virulence potential in order to further understand the underlying mechanisms of E. albertii infections. Here we demonstrated for the first time that infection of fragments of rat intestinal mucosa is a useful tool to study the initial steps of E. albertii colonization. We also observed that an E. albertii strain can translocate from the intestinal lumen to Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and liver in a rat model. Based on our finding of bacterial translocation, we investigated how E. albertii might cross the intestinal epithelium by performing infections of M-like cells in vitro to identify the potential in vivo translocation route. Altogether, our approaches allowed us to draft a general E. albertii infection route from the colonization till the bacterial spreading in vivo.

  12. Role of F1C fimbriae, flagella, and secreted bacterial components in the inhibitory effect of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on atypical enteropathogenic E. coli infection.

    PubMed

    Kleta, Sylvia; Nordhoff, Marcel; Tedin, Karsten; Wieler, Lothar H; Kolenda, Rafal; Oswald, Sibylle; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A; Bleiss, Wilfried; Schierack, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is recognized as an important intestinal pathogen that frequently causes acute and persistent diarrhea in humans and animals. The use of probiotic bacteria to prevent diarrhea is gaining increasing interest. The probiotic E. coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is known to be effective in the treatment of several gastrointestinal disorders. While both in vitro and in vivo studies have described strong inhibitory effects of EcN on enteropathogenic bacteria, including pathogenic E. coli, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effect of EcN on infections of porcine intestinal epithelial cells with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) with respect to single infection steps, including adhesion, microcolony formation, and the attaching and effacing phenotype. We show that EcN drastically reduced the infection efficiencies of aEPEC by inhibiting bacterial adhesion and growth of microcolonies, but not the attaching and effacing of adherent bacteria. The inhibitory effect correlated with EcN adhesion capacities and was predominantly mediated by F1C fimbriae, but also by H1 flagella, which served as bridges between EcN cells. Furthermore, EcN seemed to interfere with the initial adhesion of aEPEC to host cells by secretion of inhibitory components. These components do not appear to be specific to EcN, but we propose that the strong adhesion capacities enable EcN to secrete sufficient local concentrations of the inhibitory factors. The results of this study are consistent with a mode of action whereby EcN inhibits secretion of virulence-associated proteins of EPEC, but not their expression.

  13. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Tir recruits cellular SHP-2 through ITIM motifs to suppress host immune response.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dapeng; Quan, Heming; Wang, Lin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Haipeng; Chen, Jianxia; Cao, Xuetao; Ge, Baoxue

    2013-09-01

    Immune responses to pathogens are regulated by immune receptors containing either an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). The important diarrheal pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) require delivery and insertion of the bacterial translocated intimin receptor (Tir) into the host plasma membrane for pedestal formation. The C-terminal region of Tir, encompassing Y483 and Y511, shares sequence similarity with cellular ITIMs. Here, we show that EPEC Tir suppresses the production of inflammatory cytokines by recruitment of SHP-2 and subsequent deubiquitination of TRAF6 in an ITIM dependent manner. Our findings revealed a novel mechanism by which the EPEC utilize its ITIM motifs to suppress and evade the host innate immune response, which could lead to the development of novel therapeutics to prevent bacterial infection.

  14. Afa, a diffuse adherence fibrillar adhesin associated with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rogéria; Ordoñez, Juana G; de Oliveira, Rosana R; Trabulsi, Luiz R; Baldwin, Thomas J; Knutton, Stuart

    2002-05-01

    O55 is one of the most frequent enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O serogroups implicated in infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis analysis showed that this serogroup includes two major electrophoretic types (ET), designated ET1 and ET5. ET1 corresponds to typical EPEC, whilst ET5 comprises strains with different combinations of virulence genes, including those for localized adherence (LA) and diffuse adherence (DA). Here we report that ET5 DA strains possess a DA adhesin, designated EPEC Afa. An 11.6-kb chromosomal region including the DA adhesin operon from one O55:H(-) ET5 EPEC strain was sequenced and found to encode a protein with 98% identity to AfaE-1, an adhesin associated with uropathogenic E. coli. Although described as an afimbrial adhesin, we show that both AfaE-1 and EPEC Afa possess fine fibrillar structures. This is the first characterization and demonstration of an Afa adhesin associated with EPEC.

  15. Phage biocontrol of enteropathogenic and shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat products

    PubMed Central

    Tomat, David; Migliore, Leonel; Aquili, Virginia; Quiberoni, Andrea; Balagué, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Ten bacteriophages were isolated from faeces and their lytic effects assayed on 103 pathogenic and non-pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. Two phages (DT1 and DT6) were selected based on their host ranges, and their lytic effects on pathogenic E. coli strains inoculated on pieces of beef were determined. We evaluated the reductions of viable cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli strains on meat after exposure to DT6 at 5 and 24°C for 3, 6, and 24 h and the effect of both phages against an enteropathogenic E. coli strain. Significant viable cell reductions, compared to controls without phages, at both temperatures were observed, with the greatest decrease taking place within the first hours of the assays. Reductions were also influenced by phage concentration, being the highest concentrations, 1.7 × 1010 plaque forming units per milliliter (PFU/mL) for DT1 and 1.4 × 1010 PFU/mL for DT6, the most effective. When enteropathogenic E. coli and Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7) strains were tested, we obtained viable cell reductions of 0.67 log (p = 0.01) and 0.77 log (p = 0.01) after 3 h incubation and 0.80 log (p = 0.01) and 1.15 log (p = 0.001) after 6 h. In contrast, all nonpathogenic E. coli strains as well as other enterobacteria tested were resistant. In addition, phage cocktail was evaluated on two strains and further reductions were observed. However, E. coli bacteriophage insensitive mutants (BIMs) emerged in meat assays. BIMs isolated from meat along with those isolated by using the secondary culture method were tested to evaluate resistance phenotype stability and reversion. They presented low emergence frequencies (6.5 × 10−7–1.8 × 10−6) and variable stability and reversion. Results indicate that isolated phages were stable on storage, negative for all the virulence factors assayed, presented lytic activity for different E. coli virotypes and could be useful in reducing Shiga toxigenic E. coli and enteropathogenic E

  16. Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Chhana Based Indian Sweets in Relation to Public Health.

    PubMed

    Maity, T K; Kumar, Rakesh; Misra, A K

    2010-10-01

    Chhana based milk products viz. rossogolla, kanchagolla,narampak sandesh and karapak sandesh are very popular in eastern part of India and gaining popularity in other parts of the country. A wide variation in manufacture method, microbial quality and shelf-life of these traditional milk products were observed by previous research. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of contamination of chhana based milk products available in Kolkata city with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) serogroups. Random samples of different chhana based milk products were collected from different parts of Kolkata city in aseptic condition, cultured in selective media and examined for biochemical tests. Among 240 samples, E. coli was isolated from 67 (27.91%) of them. Potential EPEC was present in 52 samples (21.66%) and 55 of the isolates were EPEC. Eleven serogroups were identified viz. O26, O55, O111, O119, O114, O125, O142, O86, O126, O127, O128. Among all these serogroups, O55 (23.66%) was the most prevalent. Though recent studies on virulence factors indicate that not all strains serologically classified as EPEC are able to attaching/effacing lesion, it is believed that the isolation of EPEC serogroups from chhana based milk products represent a potential risk for public health particularly children, as well as an indicative of the presence of other enteropathogens. Considering the public health importance of sweetmeat consumers, the product should be prepared hygienically reducing the microbial load present in it. The result indicates that strict preventive measures should be adopted to ensure contamination free sweetmeats for the safety of the consumers.

  17. Flagellar Cap Protein FliD Mediates Adherence of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to Enterocyte Microvilli

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Suely C. F.; Luiz, Wilson B.; Vieira, Mônica A. M.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.; Garcia, Bruna G.; Sinigaglia-Coimbra, Rita; Sampaio, Jorge L. M.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of flagella correlates with different aspects of bacterial pathogenicity, ranging from adherence to host cells to activation of inflammatory responses by the innate immune system. In the present study, we investigated the role of flagella in the adherence of an atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strain (serotype O51:H40) to human enterocytes. Accordingly, isogenic mutants deficient in flagellin (FliC), the flagellar structural subunit; the flagellar cap protein (FliD); or the MotAB proteins, involved in the control of flagellar motion, were generated and tested for binding to differentiated Caco-2 cells. Binding of the aEPEC strain to enterocytes was significantly impaired in strains with the fliC and fliD genes deleted, both of which could not form flagella on the bacterial surface. A nonmotile but flagellated MotAB mutant also showed impaired adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In accordance with these observations, adhesion of aEPEC strain 1711-4 to Caco-2 cells was drastically reduced after the treatment of Caco-2 cells with purified FliD. In addition, incubation of aEPEC bacteria with specific anti-FliD serum impaired binding to Caco-2 cells. Finally, incubation of Caco-2 cells with purified FliD, followed by immunolabeling, showed that the protein was specifically bound to the microvillus tips of differentiated Caco-2 cells. The aEPEC FliD or anti-FliD serum also reduced the adherence of prototype typical enteropathogenic, enterohemorrhagic, and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, our findings further strengthened the role of flagella in the adherence of aEPEC to human enterocytes and disclosed the relevant structural and functional involvement of FliD in the adhesion process. PMID:26831466

  18. Prevalence of Pilus Antigens, Enterotoxin Types, and Enteropathogenicity Among K88-Negative Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from Neonatal Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H. W.; Kohler, E. M.; Schneider, R. A.; Whipp, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that were isolated from neonatal pigs and that did not react in preliminary tests for pilus antigen K88 were subjected to additional tests for K88 and for pilus antigens K99 and 987P. Four such isolates produced K88, 9 isolates produced K99, 55 isolates produced 987P, and the remaining 43 isolates produced none of the three pilus antigens (3P−). Immunofluorescence tests of ileal sections from pigs were more sensitive for 987P detection than was serum agglutination of bacteria grown from the ileum. Most ETEC that produced K88, K99, or 987P were enteropathogenic (adhered to ileal villi, colonized intensively, and caused profuse diarrhea) when given to neonatal pigs. In contrast, only 3 of the 43 ETEC that produced none of the pilus antigens were enteropathogenic. The isolates were also tested for the type of enterotoxin produced. The K88+ isolates all produced heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) detectable in cultured adrenal cells (i.e., were LT+). None of the 987P+, K99+, or enterpathogenic 3P− isolates produced LT. However (except for a single K99+ isolate), they all produced heat-stable enterotoxin detectable in infant mice (STa+). Sixteen isolates produced neither LT nor STa but did produce enterotoxin detectable in ligated intestinal loops of pigs (STb). Most of these LT− STa− STb+ isolates were also K88−, K99−, and 987P− and non-enteropathogenic. One of them was K99+ and enteropathogenic. Our conclusions are as follows. (i) Most enteropathogenic ETEC from neonatal pigs produce either K88, 987P, or K99; however, there are some that produce none of the three antigens. (ii) Immunofluorescence tests for pilus antigens produced in vivo are recommended for the diagnosis of ETEC infections. (iii) Reports of LT− STa− STb+ swine ETEC are confirmed; furthermore, such isolates can be enteropathogenic. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6102079

  19. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of diarrhea associated with enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative and diffuse-adherent Escherichia coli in Egyptian children.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salwa F; Shaheen, Hind I; Abdel-Messih, Ibrahim Adib; Mostafa, Manal; Putnam, Shannon D; Kamal, Karim A; Sayed, Abdel Nasser El; Frenck, Robert W; Sanders, John W; Klena, John D; Wierzba, Thomas F

    2014-10-01

    A total of 220 enteroadherent Escherichia coli were identified from 729 Egyptian children with diarrhea using the HEp-2 adherence assay. Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC = 38) was common among children <6 months old and provoked vomiting, while diffuse-adhering E.coli (DAEC = 109) induced diarrheal episodes of short duration, and enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC = 73) induced mild non-persistent diarrhea. These results suggest that EPEC is associated with infantile diarrhea in Egyptian children.

  20. Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Clinical Isolates of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Atypical EPEC, and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by a One-Step Multiplex PCR Method

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel; Hagedorn, Peter; Brast, Sabine; Heusipp, Gerhard; Bielaszewska, Martina; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Karch, Helge; Schmidt, M. Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), atypical enteropathogenic E. coli, and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli differ in their virulence factor profiles, clinical manifestations, and prognosis, and they require different therapeutic measures. We developed and evaluated a robust multiplex PCR to identify these pathogroups based on sequences complementary to escV, bfpB, stx1, and stx2. PMID:16825399

  1. Adhesion and its role in the virulence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Law, D

    1994-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) organisms are an important cause of diarrheal disease in young children. The virulence of EPEC is a multifactorial process and involves a number of distinct stages. Initial adherence to intestinal mucosa is mediated by fimbriae which bring about a distinct form of adhesion, localized adhesion. Intimate adhesion of the bacterium to the eukaryotic membrane occurs, resulting in the activation of signal transduction pathways. Microvilli are disrupted and effaced from the apical membrane which then cups around the organism to form pedestal structures, the attaching and effacing lesion. Diarrhea may be produced by alteration of the permeability of the apical membrane and also through a malabsorption mechanism. The pathways involved in the production of the attaching and effacing lesion are described. EPEC organisms were originally thought to belong to a number of distinct serogroups; it is now apparent that many isolates belonging to these serogroups are not pathogenic or belong to other pathogenic groups of E. coli. In addition, isolates falling outside of these serogroups are considered to be true EPEC. The definition of EPEC based on serotyping is inaccurate and should be replaced by methods that specifically detect the virulence properties of EPEC. Images PMID:8055465

  2. Attaching and effacing activities of rabbit and human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in pig and rabbit intestines.

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H W; Whipp, S C; Argenzio, R A; Levine, M M; Giannella, R A

    1983-01-01

    Three strains of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), originally isolated from humans and previously shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers by unknown mechanisms, and one rabbit EPEC strain were shown to attach intimately to and efface microvilli and cytoplasm from intestinal epithelial cells in both the pig and rabbit intestine. The attaching and effacing activities of these EPEC were demonstrable by light microscopic examination of routine histological sections and by transmission electron microscopy. It was suggested that intact colostrum-deprived newborn pigs and ligated intestinal loops in pigs and rabbits may be useful systems to detect EPEC that have attaching and effacing activities and for studying the pathogenesis of such infections. The lesions (attachment and effacement) produced by EPEC in these systems were multifocal, with considerable animal-to-animal variation in response to the same strain of EPEC. The EPEC strains also varied in the frequency and extent of lesion production. For example, three human EPEC strains usually caused extensive lesions in rabbit intestinal loops, whereas two other human EPEC strains usually did not produce lesions in this system. Images PMID:6350186

  3. Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Aline; Sommer, Felix; Zhang, Kaiyi; Repnik, Urska; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, André; Kühnel, Mark; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Litvak, Yael; Fulde, Marcus; Rosenshine, Ilan; Hornef, Mathias W.

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the investigation of the host-pathogen interaction in vivo has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Using RT-PCR and global transcriptome analysis, high throughput 16S rDNA sequencing as well as immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we characterize the EPEC-host interaction following oral challenge of newborn mice. Spontaneous colonization of the small intestine and colon of neonate mice that lasted until weaning was observed. Intimate attachment to the epithelial plasma membrane and microcolony formation were visualized only in the presence of a functional bundle forming pili (BFP) and type III secretion system (T3SS). Similarly, a T3SS-dependent EPEC-induced innate immune response, mediated via MyD88, TLR5 and TLR9 led to the induction of a distinct set of genes in infected intestinal epithelial cells. Infection-induced alterations of the microbiota composition remained restricted to the postnatal period. Although EPEC colonized the adult intestine in the absence of a competing microbiota, no microcolonies were observed at the small intestinal epithelium. Here, we introduce the first suitable mouse infection model and describe an age-dependent, virulence factor-dependent attachment of EPEC to enterocytes in vivo. PMID:27159323

  4. Shiga toxigenic and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in the feces and carcasses of slaughtered pigs.

    PubMed

    Borges, Clarissa Araújo; Beraldo, Lívia Gerbasi; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Cardozo, Marita Vedovelli; Guth, Beatriz Ernestina Cabilio; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; de Ávila, Fernando Antônio

    2012-12-01

    Escherichia coli is a pathogen of major importance in swine and public health. To determine the prevalence of Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), samples were collected from the feces and carcasses of swines. In total, 441 samples were collected in four samplings, of which 141 samples tested positive for either the stx1, stx2, and/or eae genes. From the positive samples, one STEC and 15 atypical EPEC (aEPEC) isolates were obtained, and all originated from the same sampling. In addition to eae, lpfA(O157/OI-141), ehxA, toxB, and lpfA(O113) were present in the aEPEC isolates. The only stx2-containing isolate carried stx2e and belonged to serotype O103:HNT. Resistance to four or more antimicrobials was found in almost half of the isolates, and some isolates shared the same fingerprint patterns by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The presence of certain virulence genes and the high level of resistance to antimicrobials, as well as the possible fecal contamination of carcasses showed that some of the isolates are of public health concern.

  5. Lack of inhibition of adhesion of an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by polycarbophil.

    PubMed

    Mack, D R; Blain-Nelson, P L; Mauger, J W

    1993-12-01

    Anionic polyacrylic acid polymers, such as polycarbophil, have a number of properties that would make them suitable carriers for sustained antibiotic release formulations in the intestinal tract. However, little is known with regards to possible microbial adhesion to polycarbophil. The aim of this study was to evaluate for such an interaction using the rabbit enteric pathogen Escherichia coli RDEC-1 (serotype O15:H-). RDEC-1 mediates attaching and effacing binding to intestinal epithelium in a manner morphologically identical to that observed in both human enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli infections. RDEC-1 bacteria were grown to promote the expression of the mannose-resistant AF/R1 adhesion pili. A nonpiliated mutant, strain M34, was used as a negative control. Using radioactive labeling of bacteria, we quantitated adhesion of piliated RDEC-1 in the presence of polycarbophil using an in vitro adhesion assay system. Binding of piliated RDEC-1 in the adhesion assay was greater than for nonpiliated M34 for all concentrations of bacteria greater than 10(9) (P < .05). Polycarbophil did not cause concentration-dependent inhibition of piliated RDEC-1 binding (P > .05). We conclude polycarbophil does not interfere with the AF/R1 adhesin ligand of RDEC-1. Use of this polymer as a mucoadhesive drug delivery vehicle for nonabsorbable antibiotics in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections would not be expected to interfere with the protective effects of intestinal mucins.

  6. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic and shiga toxin encoding Escherichia coli strains from poultry in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Doregiraee, Fatemeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Nayeri Fasaei, Bahar; Charkhkar, Saeed; Tajedin, Elahe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains in healthy broilers in Iran. Background: STEC and EPEC strains as diarrheagenic E. coli are among the most prevalent causative agents in acute diarrhea. Domestic animals, mainly cattle and sheep, have been implicated as the principal reservoirs of these pathotypes; however their prevalence among the broilers is varied among different countries. Patients and methods: A total of 500 cloacal swab samples from broilers of five different poultry houses (A-E) were collected to investigate the presence of stx1, stx2, hly, eae, and bfp virulence genes among the E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction. The shiga toxin encoding strains were evaluated serologically to detect their interaction with a commercial antiserum against O157 antigen. Results: Out of the 500 collected samples, 444 E. coli strains were isolated. Three strains (0.67%) presented at least one of the studied virulence genes (stx2, hly and eae), two strains were identified as STEC (stx2+, O157:nonH7) and one as an atypical EPEC strains (eae+ bfp-). Conclusion: The study established the presence of STEC and atypical EPEC in healthy broilers in Iran. Poultry might serve as vectors for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to human populations. PMID:26744615

  7. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Walsham, Alistair D. S.; MacKenzie, Donald A.; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L.; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains. PMID:26973622

  8. Distribution of tccP in Clinical Enterohemorrhagic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates‡

    PubMed Central

    Garmendia, Junkal; Ren, Zhihong; Tennant, Sharon; Midolli Viera, Monica Aparecida; Chong, Yuwen; Whale, Andrew; Azzopardi, Kristy; Dahan, Sivan; Sircili, Marcelo Palma; Franzolin, Marcia Regina; Trabulsi, Luiz R.; Phillips, Alan; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Xu, Jianguo; Robins-Browne, Roy; Frankel, Gad

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are diarrheagenic pathogens that colonize the gut through the formation of attaching and effacing lesions, which depend on the translocation of effector proteins via a locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded type III secretion system. Recently, two effector proteins, EspJ and TccP, which are encoded by adjacent genes on prophage CP-933U in EHEC O157:H7, have been identified. TccP consists of a unique N-terminus region and several proline-rich domains. In this project we determined the distribution of tccP in O157:H7, in non-O157 EHEC, and in typical and atypical EPEC isolates. All the EHEC O157:H7 strains tested were tccP+. Unexpectedly, tccP was also found in non-O157 EHEC, and in typical and atypical EPEC isolates, particularly in strains belonging to serogroups O26 (EHEC), O119 (typical EPEC), and O55 (atypical EPEC). We recorded some variation in the length of tccP, which reflects diversity in the number of the proline-rich repeats. These results show the existence of a class of “attaching and effacing” pathogens which express a combination of EPEC and EHEC virulence determinants. PMID:16272509

  9. Molecular analysis of typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from children with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Nakhjavani, Farrokh Akbari; Emaneini, Mohammad; Hosseini, Hossein; Iman-Eini, Hossein; Aligholi, Marzieh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Haghi-Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Taherikalani, Morovat; Mirsalehian, Akbar

    2013-02-01

    Diarrhoea continues to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among infants and children in developing countries. To investigate the incidence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic relationships of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in children with diarrhoea, a total of 612 stool specimens were collected in Tehran, Iran, and cultured to isolate strains of EPEC. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of the isolates according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. The presence of eae, stx and bfp-A genes was determined by PCR. The genetic relationships between EPEC isolates were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of the 412 strains of E. coli obtained from 612 diarrhoeal stool specimens, 23 (5.6 %) were identified as EPEC, of which seven (30.4 %) were classified as typical strains of EPEC and 16 (69.6 %) were classified as atypical. Out of the 23 EPEC isolates, 69.5 % were resistant to ampicillin, 39.1 % were resistant to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole, 30.4 % were resistant to cefpodoxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and aztreonam, and 26.1 % were resistant to imipenem. The isolates were classified into 21 pulsotypes by PFGE profiles. The present study shows that typical and atypical EPEC isolates displayed considerable heterogeneity in PFGE profiles and EPEC infections were only sporadic in Tehran. Overall 69 % of isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested.

  10. The Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Effector Cif Induces Delayed Apoptosis in Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Watrin, Claude; Oswald, Eric; Taieb, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    The cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) belongs to a family of bacterial toxins, the cyclomodulins, which modulate the host cell cycle. Upon injection into the host cell by the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Cif induces both G2 and G1 cell cycle arrests. The cell cycle arrests correlate with the accumulation of p21waf1 and p27kip1 proteins that inhibit CDK-cyclin complexes, whose activation is required for G1/S and G2/M transitions. Increases of p21 and p27 levels are independent of p53 transcriptional induction and result from protein stabilization through inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway. In this study, we show that Cif not only induces cell cycle arrest but also eventually provokes a delayed cell death. Indeed, 48 h after infection with EPEC expressing Cif, cultured IEC-6 intestinal cells were positive for extracellular binding of annexin V and exhibited high levels of cleaved caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase release, indicating evidence of apoptosis. Cif was necessary and sufficient for inducing this late apoptosis, and the cysteine residue of the catalytic site was required for Cif activity. These results highlight a more complex role of Cif than previously thought, as a cyclomodulin but also as an apoptosis inducer. PMID:19786559

  11. Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Aline; Sommer, Felix; Zhang, Kaiyi; Repnik, Urska; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, André; Kühnel, Mark; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Litvak, Yael; Fulde, Marcus; Rosenshine, Ilan; Hornef, Mathias W

    2016-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the investigation of the host-pathogen interaction in vivo has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Using RT-PCR and global transcriptome analysis, high throughput 16S rDNA sequencing as well as immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we characterize the EPEC-host interaction following oral challenge of newborn mice. Spontaneous colonization of the small intestine and colon of neonate mice that lasted until weaning was observed. Intimate attachment to the epithelial plasma membrane and microcolony formation were visualized only in the presence of a functional bundle forming pili (BFP) and type III secretion system (T3SS). Similarly, a T3SS-dependent EPEC-induced innate immune response, mediated via MyD88, TLR5 and TLR9 led to the induction of a distinct set of genes in infected intestinal epithelial cells. Infection-induced alterations of the microbiota composition remained restricted to the postnatal period. Although EPEC colonized the adult intestine in the absence of a competing microbiota, no microcolonies were observed at the small intestinal epithelium. Here, we introduce the first suitable mouse infection model and describe an age-dependent, virulence factor-dependent attachment of EPEC to enterocytes in vivo.

  12. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in children in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Behiry, Iman K; Abada, Emad A; Ahmed, Entsar A; Labeeb, Rania S

    2011-01-01

    In this study we isolate and identify the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causing diarrhea in children less than five years in Cairo, Egypt, during different seasons. Children younger than five years with diarrhea, attending the Pediatric Gastroenterology Intensive Care Unit of the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital in one year period were our group of study. Our control group was age and sex matched concurrent healthy children. The identified E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial disc diffusion susceptibility test and further identified for EPEC serotype by slide agglutination test, using antiserum E. coli somatic trivalent I (O111, O55, O26) according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Out of 134 patients 5.2% of them revealed EPEC in the fecal sample, while the 20 children control group showed no EPEC isolates in their samples. Our EPEC frequency showed variations from the compared results of other studies. Higher rate of EPEC (18.7%) was found in patients between 2 to 3 years, while EPEC rate was (7.5%) in patients less than 6 months old, with P < 0.05. EPEC was identified from fecal specimens as a unique pathogen or associated with other pathogens in acute and chronic diarrhea in children. EPEC were detected in all seasons except in winter, and was predominant in summer season. Four (57%) EPEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ticarcillin, and cotrimoxazole, and (14.3%) to the third generation cephalosporins.

  13. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Associated with Diarrhea in Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Behiry, Iman K.; Abada, Emad A.; Ahmed, Entsar A.; Labeeb, Rania S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we isolate and identify the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causing diarrhea in children less than five years in Cairo, Egypt, during different seasons. Children younger than five years with diarrhea, attending the Pediatric Gastroenterology Intensive Care Unit of the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital in one year period were our group of study. Our control group was age and sex matched concurrent healthy children. The identified E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial disc diffusion susceptibility test and further identified for EPEC serotype by slide agglutination test, using antiserum E. coli somatic trivalent I (O111, O55, O26) according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Out of 134 patients 5.2% of them revealed EPEC in the fecal sample, while the 20 children control group showed no EPEC isolates in their samples. Our EPEC frequency showed variations from the compared results of other studies. Higher rate of EPEC (18.7%) was found in patients between 2 to 3 years, while EPEC rate was (7.5%) in patients less than 6 months old, with P < 0.05. EPEC was identified from fecal specimens as a unique pathogen or associated with other pathogens in acute and chronic diarrhea in children. EPEC were detected in all seasons except in winter, and was predominant in summer season. Four (57%) EPEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ticarcillin, and cotrimoxazole, and (14.3%) to the third generation cephalosporins. PMID:22262949

  14. Proteomic analysis of the intestinal epithelial cell response to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hardwidge, Philip R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Isabel; Goode, David; Donohoe, Sam; Eng, Jimmy; Goodlett, David R; Aebersold, Reudi; Finlay, B Brett

    2004-05-07

    We present the first large scale proteomic analysis of a human cellular response to a pathogen. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an enteric human pathogen responsible for much childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. EPEC uses a type III secretion system (TTSS) to inject bacterial proteins into the cytosol of intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in diarrhea. We analyzed the host response to TTSS-delivered EPEC effector proteins by infecting polarized intestinal epithelial monolayers with either wild-type or TTSS-deficient EPEC. Host proteins were isolated and subjected to quantitative profiling using isotope-coded affinity tagging (ICAT) combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. We identified over 2000 unique proteins from infected Caco-2 monolayers, of which approximately 13% are expressed differentially in the presence of TTSS-delivered EPEC effector proteins. We validated these data in silico and through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. The identified changes extend cytoskeletal observations made in less relevant cell types and generate testable hypotheses with regard to host proteins potentially involved in EPEC-induced diarrhea. These data provide a framework for future biochemical analyses of host-pathogen interactions.

  15. Lambs are an important source of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernando H; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F; Elias, Waldir P; Leão, Sylvia C; Marzoa, Juan; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta S

    2016-11-30

    Food-producing animals can harbor Escherichia coli strains with potential to cause diseases in humans. In this study, the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was investigated in fecal samples from 130 healthy sheep (92 lambs and 38 adults) raised for meat in southern Brazil. EPEC was detected in 19.2% of the sheep examined, but only lambs were found to be positive. A total of 25 isolates was characterized and designated atypical EPEC (aEPEC) as tested negative for bfpA gene and BFP production. The presence of virulence markers linked to human disease as ehxA, paa, and lpfAO113 was observed in 60%, 24%, and 88% of the isolates, respectively. Of the 11 serotypes identified, eight were described among human pathogenic strains, while three (O1:H8, O11:H21 and O125:H19) were not previously detected in aEPEC. Associations between intimin subtypes and phylogroups were observed, including eae-θ2/A, eae-β1/B1, eae-α2/B2 and eae-γ1/D. Although PFGE typing of 16 aEPEC isolates resulted in 14 unique pulsetypes suggesting a genetic diversity, specific clones were found to be distributed in some flocks. In conclusion, potentially pathogenic aEPEC strains are present in sheep raised for meat, particularly in lambs, which can better contribute to dissemination of these bacteria than adult animals.

  16. The Global Regulator Ler Is Necessary for Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Colonization of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mellies, Jay L.; Barron, Alex M. S.; Haack, Kenneth R.; Korson, Andrew S.; Oldridge, Derek A.

    2006-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infant diarrhea in developing countries and is useful for general investigations of the bacterial infection process. However, the study of the molecular pathogenesis of EPEC has been hampered by the lack of genetically tractable, convenient animal models. We have therefore developed the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a small animal model of infection for this diarrheal pathogen. We found that nematodes died faster on nematode growth medium in the presence of EPEC pathogens than in the presence of the laboratory control strain MG1655. Increased numbers of pathogens in the gut, determined by standard plate count assays and fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein-expressing bacteria, correlated with killing. Deletion of the gene encoding the global regulator Ler severely reduced the ability of EPEC to colonize the nematode gut and could be complemented by providing the ler gene on a multicopy plasmid in trans. Neither the type III secretion system nor the type IV bundle-forming pilus was required for colonization. Combined, the similarities and distinct differences between EPEC infection of nematodes and that of humans offer a unique opportunity to study several stages of the infection process, namely, attachment, colonization, and persistence, in a genetically tractable, inexpensive, and convenient in vivo system. PMID:16368958

  17. Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli evolved different strategies to resist antimicrobial peptides

    PubMed Central

    Thomassin, Jenny-Lee; Brannon, John R.; Kaiser, Julienne; Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) are enteric human pathogens that colonize the large and small intestines, respectively. To establish infection EHEC and EPEC must overcome innate host defenses, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by the intestinal epithelium. Gram-negative pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to resist AMPs, including outer-membrane proteases that degrade AMPs. We showed that the protease OmpT degrades the human AMP LL-37 more rapidly in EHEC than in EPEC. Promoter-swap experiments showed that this is due to differences in the promoters of the two genes, leading to greater ompT expression and subsequently greater levels of OmpT in EHEC. Here, we propose that the different ompT expression in EHEC and EPEC reflects the varying levels of LL-37 throughout the human intestinal tract. These data suggest that EHEC and EPEC adapted to their specific niches by developing distinct AMP-specific resistance mechanisms. PMID:22895086

  18. Recognition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Determinants by Human Colostrum and Serum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Parissi-Crivelli, Aurora; Parissi-Crivelli, Joaquín M.; Girón, Jorge A.

    2000-01-01

    Human colostra and sera collected from Mexican mothers and their children at birth and 6 months thereafter were studied for the presence of antibodies against the bundle-forming pilus and several chromosomal virulence gene products (intimin and secreted proteins EspA and EspB) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Among 21 colostrum samples studied, 76, 71.5, 57, and 47% of them contained immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against EspA, intimin, EspB, and BfpA, respectively. Interestingly, there was a difference in IgG response to EPEC antigens between the sera from neonates and sera from the same children 6 months later. While the number of neonates reacting to Esps and intimin diminished when they reached 6 months of age, those reacting with BfpA increased from 9 to 71%. Intimin from an enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain was also recognized by most of the samples reacting with EPEC intimin. These data suggest that Bfp and Esps elicit an antibody response during the early days of life of neonates and support the value of breast-feeding in areas of the world where bacterial diarrheal infections are endemic. PMID:10878066

  19. PerC and GrlA independently regulate Ler expression in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Víctor H; Villalba, Miryam I; García-Angulo, Víctor A; Vázquez, Alejandra; Martínez, Luary C; Jiménez, Rafael; Puente, José L

    2011-10-01

    Ler, encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, induces the expression of LEE genes by counteracting the silencing exerted by H-NS. Ler expression is modulated by several global regulators, and is activated by GrlA, which is also LEE-encoded. Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains contain the EAF plasmid, which carries the perABC locus encoding PerC. The precise role of PerC in EPEC virulence gene regulation has remained unclear, mainly because EPEC strains lacking the pEAF still express the LEE genes and because PerC is not present in other A/E pathogens such as Citrobacter rodentium. Here, we describe that either PerC or GrlA can independently activate ler expression and, in consequence, of LEE genes depending on the growth conditions. Both PerC and GrlA, with the aid of IHF, counteract the repression exerted by H-NS on ler and can also further increase its activity. Our results substantiate the role of PerC and GrlA in EPEC virulence gene regulation and suggest that these convergent regulatory mechanisms may have represented an evolutionary adaptation in EPEC to co-ordinate the expression of plasmid- and chromosome-encoded virulence factors needed to successfully colonize its intestinal niche.

  20. The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli effector Cif induces delayed apoptosis in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Watrin, Claude; Oswald, Eric; Taieb, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    The cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) belongs to a family of bacterial toxins, the cyclomodulins, which modulate the host cell cycle. Upon injection into the host cell by the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Cif induces both G(2) and G(1) cell cycle arrests. The cell cycle arrests correlate with the accumulation of p21(waf1) and p27(kip1) proteins that inhibit CDK-cyclin complexes, whose activation is required for G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions. Increases of p21 and p27 levels are independent of p53 transcriptional induction and result from protein stabilization through inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway. In this study, we show that Cif not only induces cell cycle arrest but also eventually provokes a delayed cell death. Indeed, 48 h after infection with EPEC expressing Cif, cultured IEC-6 intestinal cells were positive for extracellular binding of annexin V and exhibited high levels of cleaved caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase release, indicating evidence of apoptosis. Cif was necessary and sufficient for inducing this late apoptosis, and the cysteine residue of the catalytic site was required for Cif activity. These results highlight a more complex role of Cif than previously thought, as a cyclomodulin but also as an apoptosis inducer.

  1. The serine protease Pic as a virulence factor of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Afonso G; Abe, Cecilia M; Nunes, Kamila O; Moraes, Claudia T P; Chavez-Dueñas, Lucia; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Barbosa, Angela S; Piazza, Roxane M F; Elias, Waldir P

    2016-01-01

    Autotransporter proteins (AT) are associated with bacterial virulence attributes. Originally identified in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), Shigella flexneri 2a and uropathogenic E. coli, the serine protease Pic is one of these AT. We have previously detected one atypical enteropathogenic E. coli strain (BA589) carrying the pic gene. In the present study, we characterized the biological activities of Pic produced by BA589 both in vitro and in vivo. Contrarily to other Pic-producers bacteria, pic in BA589 is located on a high molecular weight plasmid. PicBA589 was able to agglutinate rabbit erythrocytes, cleave mucin and degrade complement system molecules. BA589 was able to colonize mice intestines, and an intense mucus production was observed. The BA589Δpic mutant lost the capacity to colonize as well as the above-mentioned in vitro activities. Thus, Pic represents an additional virulence factor in aEPEC strain BA589, associated with adherence, colonization and evasion from the innate immune system.

  2. Biological Activities of Uric Acid in Infection Due to Enteropathogenic and Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Broome, Jacqueline E.; Lis, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, we identified xanthine oxidase (XO) as an important enzyme in the interaction between the host and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC). Many of the biological effects of XO were due to the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme. We wondered, however, if uric acid generated by XO also had biological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Uric acid triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, including increased submucosal edema and release of extracellular DNA from host cells. While uric acid alone was unable to trigger a chloride secretory response in intestinal monolayers, it did potentiate the secretory response to cyclic AMP agonists. Uric acid crystals were formed in vivo in the lumen of the gut in response to EPEC and STEC infections. While trying to visualize uric acid crystals formed during EPEC and STEC infections, we noticed that uric acid crystals became enmeshed in the neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) produced from host cells in response to bacteria in cultured cell systems and in the intestine in vivo. Uric acid levels in the gut lumen increased in response to exogenous DNA, and these increases were enhanced by the actions of DNase I. Interestingly, addition of DNase I reduced the numbers of EPEC bacteria recovered after a 20-h infection and protected against EPEC-induced histologic damage. PMID:26787720

  3. Role of Lactosyl Glycan Sequences in Inhibiting Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Vanmaele, Rosa P.; Heerze, Louis D.; Armstrong, Glen D.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we found that asialo-lactosamine sequences served as receptors for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In the present report, we have extended these earlier results by examining the ability of lactosamine- or fucosylated lactosamine-bovine serum albumin (BSA) glycoconjugates to inhibit EPEC, strain E2348/69, binding to HEp-2 cells. We found that, consistent with our previous findings with CHO cells, N-acetyllactosamine-BSA was the most effective inhibitor of EPEC localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, with Lewis X-BSA being the next best inhibitor. Further investigation revealed that coincubating EPEC E2348/69 with these BSA glycoconjugates alone caused a decrease in the expression of the bundle-forming pilus structural subunit (BfpA) and intimin by the bacteria. BfpA and intimin expression were reduced to the greatest extent by N-acetyllactosamine–BSA and Lewis X-BSA, respectively. These results suggest that the glycoconjugate inhibition of EPEC binding to HEp-2 cells might be achieved, wholly or in part, by an active mechanism that is distinct from simple competitive antagonism of receptor-adhesin interactions. PMID:10377105

  4. High Prevalence of Virulence Genes in Specific Genotypes of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanmei; Bai, Xiangning; Jin, Yujuan; Hu, Bin; Wang, Hong; Sun, Hui; Fan, Ruyue; Fu, Shanshan; Xiong, Yanwen

    2017-01-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains are emerging enteropathogens that have been detected worldwide. A collection of 228 aEPEC strains (121 from diarrheal patients, 27 from healthy carriers, 47 from animals and 33 from raw meats) were investigated for serotypes, virulence gene profiles and phylogenetic relationships. Sixty-six O serogroups were identified. Serogroup O51 was the most prevalent, followed by O119, O26 and O76. For the 20 virulence genes detected, statistically significant differences were observed in the overall prevalence of efa1 (lifA), nleB, nleE, set/ent, paa, and ehxA genes among strains from diarrheal patients, healthy carriers, animals and raw meats, respectively. Strains from diarrheal patients had significantly higher levels of efa1 (lifA) (29.8 vs. 0%, P = 0.0002), nleB (41.3 vs. 7.4%, P = 0.0004), nleE (43.8 vs. 7.4%, P = 0.0002) and set/ent (41.3 vs. 7.4%, P = 0.0004) genes than strains obtained from healthy carriers. The paa gene was identified more often in isolates from raw meats (63.6 vs. 14.8%, P < 0.0001), animals (42.6 vs. 14.8%, P < 0.0122), and diarrheal patients (36.4 vs. 14.8%, P < 0.0225) than in strains obtained from healthy carriers. The ehxA gene was detected more frequently in strains from raw meats than in strains from diarrheal patients (27.3 vs. 2.5%, P = 0.0000) and healthy carriers (27.3 vs. 7.4%, P = 0.0474). The phylogenetic marker, yjaA, was more frequently observed in strains among healthy carriers than in diarrheal patient strains. Among the 228 aEPEC strains, 79 sequence types (STs) were identified. The prominent STs, which comprised strains carrying the four OI-122 genes and lpfA, were ST40, ST328, and ST29. Overall, the results indicate that aEPEC strains isolated in China are highly heterogeneous. aEPEC strains that are potentially more pathogenic appear to be related to specific STs or clonal complexes and serotypes. The high prevalence of diarrhea-associated genes in animal or raw meat

  5. Association of cytolethal distending toxin-II gene-positive Escherichia coli with Escherichia albertii, an emerging enteropathogen.

    PubMed

    Hinenoya, Atsushi; Yasuda, Noritomo; Mukaizawa, Natsuko; Sheikh, Sikander; Niwa, Yuko; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Asakura, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Teizo; Nagita, Akira; Albert, M John; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2017-09-19

    Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing Escherichia coli have been isolated from patients with diarrhea, sepsis and urinary tract infection. CDT of E. coli is divided into five types (CDT-I through CDT-V) based on differences in amino acid sequences and its genomic location. However, in our recent studies, a few strains of cdt-II gene-positive bacteria, initially identified as atypical E. coli, were re-identified as Escherichia albertii, an emerging enteropathogen, by extensive characterization including multilocus sequence (MLS) analysis and sugar utilization tests. This finding prompted us to investigate if bacteria previously identified as cdt-II gene-positive E. coli might be E. albertii. In the present study, we therefore re-examined the identity of 20 cdt-II gene-positive bacteria isolated from children with diarrhea, which were initially identified as atypical E. coli. By extensive sugar utilization tests, these bacteria showed a closer relatedness to E. albertii than E. coli, because they did not ferment any of the tested sugars including dulcitol, lactose, d-melibiose, l-rhamnose and d-xylose. Further, both phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequences of 7 housekeeping genes (MLS analysis) and rpoB gene showed that all the cdt-II gene-positive bacteria belonged to a distinct lineage of E. albertii from those of E. coli and Shigella boydii. They were also positive by an E. albertii-specific PCR. Taken together, these data suggest that cdt-II gene-positive bacteria previously identified as E. coli are actually E. albertii. Therefore, we suggest a new definition for cdt-II gene-positive E. coli as E. albertii with the inclusion of CDT-II in E. albertii CDT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. PerC Manipulates Metabolism and Surface Antigens in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mellies, Jay L.; Platenkamp, Amy; Osborn, Jossef; Ben-Avi, Lily

    2017-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is an important cause of profuse, watery diarrhea in infants living in developing regions of the world. Typical strains of EPEC (tEPEC) possess a virulence plasmid, while related clinical isolates that lack the pEAF plasmid are termed atypical EPEC (aEPEC). tEPEC and aEPEC tend to cause acute vs. more chronic type infections, respectively. The pEAF plasmid encodes an attachment factor as well as a regulatory operon, perABC. PerC, a poorly understood regulator, was previously shown to regulate expression of the type III secretion system through Ler. Here we elucidate the regulon of PerC using RNA sequencing analysis to better our understanding of the role of the pEAF in tEPEC infection. We demonstrate that PerC controls anaerobic metabolism by increasing expression of genes necessary for nitrate reduction. A tEPEC strain overexpressing PerC exhibited a growth advantage compared to a strain lacking this regulator, when grown anaerobically in the presence of nitrate, conditions mimicking the human intestine. We show that PerC strongly down-regulates type I fimbriae expression by manipulating fim phase variation. The quantities of a number of non-coding RNA molecules were altered by PerC. In sum, this protein controls niche adaptation, and could help to explain the function of the PerC homologs (Pch), many of which are encoded within prophages in related, Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:28224117

  7. Feedback Effects of Host-Derived Adenosine on Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Crane, John K.; Shulgina, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of watery diarrhea in children in developing countries. After adhering intimately to small intestinal cells, EPEC secretes effector proteins into host cells, altering host cell functions and causing cell damage and death. We previously showed that EPEC infection triggers the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from host cells and that ATP is broken down to ADP, AMP, and adenosine. Adenosine produced from the breakdown of extracellular ATP triggers fluid secretion in cultured intestinal monolayers and may be an important mediator of EPEC-induced diarrhea. In this study we examined whether adenosine has any effects on EPEC bacteria themselves. Adenosine stimulated EPEC growth in several types of media in vitro. Adenosine also altered the pattern of EPEC adherence to cultured cells from a classic localized adherence pattern to a more diffuse adherence pattern. Adenosine changed the pattern of expression of virulence factors in EPEC, inhibiting the expression of the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) and enhancing expression of the EPEC secreted proteins (Esps). The ability of adenosine to inhibit BFP was dependent on the Plasmid-encoded Regulator (Per). In vivo, experimental manipulations of adenosine levels had strong effects on the outcome of EPEC infection in rabbit intestinal loops. Reduction in adenosine levels by addition of exogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) reduced numbers of EPEC bacteria recovered by over 10-fold in rabbit intestine in vivo. Conversely, inhibitors of ADA increased EPEC-induced fluid secretion, the number of EPEC bacteria recovered from intestinal fluid, and increased the in vivo expression of espA and espB. In addition to its previously reported effects on host cells and tissues, adenosine also has strong effects on EPEC bacteria, stimulating EPEC growth, altering its adherence pattern, and changing the expression of several important virulence genes. Adenosine is released from host

  8. Detection of Shiga toxigenic (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli in dairy buffalo.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Lívia Gerbasi; Borges, Clarissa Araújo; Maluta, Renato Pariz; Cardozo, Marita Vedovelli; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; de Ávila, Fernando Antônio

    2014-05-14

    Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and Shiga toxigenic (STEC) Escherichia coli are among the bacteria most associated with enteric diseases in man. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of STEC and EPEC in dairy buffalo and then characterize these isolates genetically. To determine the prevalence of these bacteria, samples were collected from the feces and milk of buffaloes. In total, 256 samples were collected in 3 samplings, of which 76 samples tested positive for either the stx1, stx2 or eae genes or a combination thereof. From the positive samples, 22 STEC and 11 atypical EPEC (aEPEC) isolates were obtained. The isolates showed 23 different genetic profiles. No profile was very frequent in STEC isolates. On the other hand, the profile eae+, ehxA+, iha+, efa1+, toxB+, paa+, lpfAO113+ was found in 45% of the aEPEC isolates. In addition to stx1, stx2 and eae, the genes ehxA, efa1, saa, lpfAO113, lpfAO157/OI-141, lpfAO157/OI-154, toxB and iha were present in the isolates. Serogroup O26 was found in 26% of the aEPEC. Other serogroups detected include O87, O145, O176 and O179. The isolates were sensitive to almost all drugs tested and some isolates shared the same fingerprint patterns by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-PCR (ERIC-PCR). The results suggest that, besides major reservoirs of STEC, buffaloes are also aEPEC reservoirs. The detection of a serogroup (O26), and putative virulence genes (efa1 ehxA, paa and lpfAO113), previously associated with aEPEC isolated from humans with diarrhea in aEPEC from buffaloes should be studied further.

  9. Antigen Detection in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Using Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Isolated from Human Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Manjarrez-Hernandez, H. A.; Gavilanes-Parra, S.; Chavez-Berrocal, E.; Navarro-Ocaña, A.; Cravioto, A.

    2000-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) produces a characteristic attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion in the small intestines of infected children. The immune response to EPEC infection remains poorly characterized. The molecular targets that elicit protective immunity against EPEC disease are unknown. In this study protein antigens from EPEC were identified using secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies isolated from milk from Mexican women by Western blot analysis. Purified sIgA antibodies, which inhibit the adherence of EPEC to cells, reacted to many EPEC proteins, the most prominent of which were intimin (a 94-kDa outer membrane protein) and two unknown proteins with apparent molecular masses of 80 and 70 kDa. A culture supernatant protein of 110 kDa also reacted strongly with the sIgA antibodies. The molecular size of this protein and its reactivity with specific anti-EspC antiserum suggest that it is EPEC-secreted protein C (EspC). These EPEC surface protein antigens were consistently recognized by all the different sIgA samples obtained from 15 women. Screening of clinical isolates of various O serogroups from cases of severe infantile diarrhea revealed that all EPEC strains able to produce the A/E lesion showed expression of intimin and the 80- and 70-kDa proteins. Such proteins reacted strongly with the purified sIgA pool. Moreover, nonvirulent E. coli strains were unable to generate a sIgA response. The immunogenic capacities of the 80- and 70-kDa proteins as virulence antigens have not been previously reported. The strong sIgA response to intimin and the 80- and 70-kDa proteins obtained in this study indicates that such antigens stimulate intestinal immune responses and may elicit protective immunity against EPEC disease. PMID:10948121

  10. Serotypes, virulence genes, and PFGE patterns of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from Cuban pigs with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Miguel; Lazo, Leonel; Blanco, Jesús E; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; López, Cecilia; González, Enrique A; Blanco, Jorge

    2006-03-01

    Thirty-six enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from Cuban pigs with diarrhea were serotyped and screened by PCR for the presence of virulence genes. The 36 isolates belonged to 11 O serogroups and 14 O:H serotypes, with 53% of the isolates belonging to only two serotypes: O141:H- (13 isolates) and O157:H19 (6 isolates). Genes coding for STb, STa, VT2e, and LT toxins were identified in 69, 61, 53, and 6% of the isolates, respectively. The most prevalent fimbrial adhesin was F18, detected in 22 (61%) isolates. The gene encoding F6 (P987) colonization factor was identified in three (8%) isolates. None of the 36 isolates assayed contained genes encoding F4 (K88), F5 (K99), or F41. The seropathotype O141:H-:STa/STb/VT2e/F18 (13 isolates) was the most frequently detected, followed by O157:H19:VT2e/F18 (5 isolates). A genetic diversity study, carried out by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 24 representative isolates, revealed 21 distinct restriction patterns clustered in 18 groups (I-XVIII). Isolates of the same serotype were placed together in a dendrogram, but isolates of serotype O157:H19 showed a high degree of polymorphism. The results of this study demonstrate the presence in Cuba of different clusters among one of the most prevalent serotypes isolated from pigs with diarrhea. Further experiments are needed to determine whether some of these clusters have appeared recently; if so, their evolution, as well as their possible association with pathogenicity in farms should be studied.

  11. Tissue Tropism of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Belonging to the O55 Serogroup

    PubMed Central

    Fitzhenry, R. J.; Reece, S.; Trabulsi, L. R.; Heuschkel, R.; Murch, S.; Thomson, M.; Frankel, G.; Phillips, A. D.

    2002-01-01

    Four enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains belonging to the O55 serogroup (G21 and G30 [both O55:H6], G35 [O55:H−], and G58 [O55:H7]) were tested for their tissue tropism by using human intestinal in vitro organ culture. Strains showed restricted adhesion with attaching-and-effacing activity to follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches, with no apparent adhesion to duodenum or colon. G35 and G58 express intimin γ and show a similar tropism to intimin γ-expressing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7. However, strains G21 and G30 were unusual because they expressed intimin α and had a restricted tissue tropism of intimin γ phenotype. The amino acid sequence of the carboxy-terminal 280 amino acids of intimin from G21 was determined. Comparison with the prototype intimin α from strain E2348/69 (O127:H6) showed a single amino acid difference (corresponding to Val907 and Ala907 in the whole intimins). This mutation was reproduced by site-directed mutagenesis in an intimin α plasmid template, pCVD438, with the hypothesis that it may induce a change in tropism. However, when the mutated plasmid was placed in both EPEC and EHEC backgrounds, duodenal adhesion in a manner similar to strain E2348/69 was evident upon in vitro organ culture. Thus, additional factor(s) unrelated to intimin exist in the O55:H6 genome that influence human intestinal tissue tropism. PMID:12117946

  12. Tir Is Essential for the Recruitment of Tks5 to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Pedestals

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Helene H.; Pedersen, Hans N.; Stenkjær, Eva; Pedersen, Gitte A.; Login, Frédéric H.; Nejsum, Lene N.

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a bacterial pathogen that infects the epithelial lining of the small intestine and causes diarrhea. Upon attachment to the intestinal epithelium, EPEC uses a Type III Secretion System to inject its own high affinity receptor Translocated intimin receptor (Tir) into the host cell. Tir facilitates tight adhesion and recruitment of actin-regulating proteins leading to formation of an actin pedestal beneath the infecting bacterium. The pedestal has several similarities with podosomes, which are basolateral actin-rich extensions found in some migrating animal cells. Formation of podosomes is dependent upon the early podosome-specific scavenger protein Tks5, which is involved in actin recruitment. Although Tks5 is expressed in epithelial cells, and podosomes and EPEC pedestals share many components in their structure and mechanism of formation, the potential role of Tks5 in EPEC infections has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the subcellular localization of Tks5 in epithelial cells and to investigate if Tks5 is recruited to the EPEC pedestal. In an epithelial MDCK cell line stably expressing Tks5-EGFP, Tks5 localized to actin bundles. Upon infection, EPEC recruited Tks5-EGFP. Tir, but not Tir phosphorylation was essential for the recruitment. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that Tks5-EGFP was recruited instantly upon EPEC attachment to host cells, simultaneously with actin and N-WASp. EPEC infection of cells expressing a ΔPX-Tks5 deletion version of Tks5 showed that EPEC was able to both infect and form pedestals when the PX domain was deleted from Tks5. Future investigations will clarify the role of Tks5 in EPEC infection and pedestal formation. PMID:26536015

  13. Tir Is Essential for the Recruitment of Tks5 to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Pedestals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helene H; Pedersen, Hans N; Stenkjær, Eva; Pedersen, Gitte A; Login, Frédéric H; Nejsum, Lene N

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a bacterial pathogen that infects the epithelial lining of the small intestine and causes diarrhea. Upon attachment to the intestinal epithelium, EPEC uses a Type III Secretion System to inject its own high affinity receptor Translocated intimin receptor (Tir) into the host cell. Tir facilitates tight adhesion and recruitment of actin-regulating proteins leading to formation of an actin pedestal beneath the infecting bacterium. The pedestal has several similarities with podosomes, which are basolateral actin-rich extensions found in some migrating animal cells. Formation of podosomes is dependent upon the early podosome-specific scavenger protein Tks5, which is involved in actin recruitment. Although Tks5 is expressed in epithelial cells, and podosomes and EPEC pedestals share many components in their structure and mechanism of formation, the potential role of Tks5 in EPEC infections has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the subcellular localization of Tks5 in epithelial cells and to investigate if Tks5 is recruited to the EPEC pedestal. In an epithelial MDCK cell line stably expressing Tks5-EGFP, Tks5 localized to actin bundles. Upon infection, EPEC recruited Tks5-EGFP. Tir, but not Tir phosphorylation was essential for the recruitment. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that Tks5-EGFP was recruited instantly upon EPEC attachment to host cells, simultaneously with actin and N-WASp. EPEC infection of cells expressing a ΔPX-Tks5 deletion version of Tks5 showed that EPEC was able to both infect and form pedestals when the PX domain was deleted from Tks5. Future investigations will clarify the role of Tks5 in EPEC infection and pedestal formation.

  14. Protection of rabbits against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) using an intimin null mutant

    PubMed Central

    Stakenborg, Tim; Vandekerchove, Dominique; Mariën, Jonas; Laevens, Hans; Imberechts, Hein; Peeters, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diarrhea and mortality resulting from infections with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are of major economic importance in the rabbit meat industry. There is a growing need for an effective vaccine to cope with these problems and to reduce the use of antibiotics. EPEC are characterized by an attaching and effacing virulence mechanism. This is partly mediated by the intimate binding between an adhesin, called intimin, and a translocated receptor (Tir) of prokaryote origin. We constructed an intimin deletion mutant of the rabbit EPEC (REPEC) wild-type strain 97/241.6 (bio-/serogroup 3-/O15) and examined its protective capacity. Results After verifying its complete loss of virulence, we used the attenuated strain in vaccination-challenge experiments in which complete protection against a homologous, but virulent, strain was observed. The attenuated strain was able to persist in the intestinal lumen, where it elicited an immune response against EPEC-related virulence proteins, as was shown using an EspB-specific ELISA. Despite the priming of an immune response and the generation of specific antibodies, the intimin mutant was not able to fully protect rabbits against challenges with REPEC strains of other bio-/serogroups. Conclusion These data indicate that protection against REPEC infections is at least partly bio-/serogroup dependent and a multivalent vaccine may be needed for protection against the full range of REPEC types. Such a combination vaccine may be developed using intimin null mutants, as the latter were clearly shown to be safe and effective against homologous infections. PMID:16796739

  15. Survey and Experimental Infection of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Inoue, Takashi; Morita, Hanako; Yasuda, Masahiko; Ueno, Masami; Kawai, Kenji; Itoh, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used for biomedical research but can be afflicted with diarrhea—a serious and potentially lethal health problem. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is thought to be the causative pathogen of hemorrhagic typhlocolitis in common marmosets, but the actual incidence of the disease and the relationship between EPEC and hematochezia are unknown. This study investigated the prevalence of EPEC infection in common marmosets and the association between EPEC and hematochezia. A total of 230 stool or rectal swab samples were collected from 230 common marmosets (98 clinically healthy, 85 diarrhea, and 47 bloody stool samples) and tested by culture-based detection and PCR amplification of VT1, VT2, LT, ST, eae, and bfp genes. Healthy animals were divided into three groups (n = 4 each for high and low concentration groups and n = 2 as negative control), and those in the experimental groups were perorally inoculated with a 2-ml of suspension of EPEC R811 strain adjusted to 5 × 108 (high concentration) and 5 × 104 (low concentration) CFU/ ml. Two animals in each group were examined 3 and 14 days post-inoculation (DPI). EPEC was detected in 10 of 98 clinically healthy samples (10.2%), 17 of 85 diarrhea samples (20%), and all 47 bloody stool samples (100%), with a significant difference detected between presence of EPEC and sample status (P < 0.01). Acute hematochezia was observed in all animals of the high-concentration group but not in other groups at 1 or 2 DPI. A histopathological examination revealed the attachment of gram-negative bacilli to epithelial apical membranes and desquamated epithelial cells in the cecum of animals in the high-concentration group at 3 DPI. These findings suggest that EPEC is a causative agent of hemorrhagic typhlocolitis in common marmosets. PMID:27501144

  16. Effects of bfp Mutations on Biogenesis of Functional Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Type IV Pili

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, Ravi P.; Stone, Kelly D.; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli expresses a type IV fimbria known as the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) that is required for autoaggregation and localized adherence (LA) to host cells. A cluster of 14 genes is sufficient to reconstitute BFP biogenesis in a laboratory strain of E. coli. We have undertaken a systematic mutagenesis of the individual genes to determine the effect of each mutation on BFP biogenesis and LA. Here we report the construction and analysis of nonpolar mutations in six genes of the bfp cluster, bfpG, bfpB, bfpC, bfpD, bfpP, and bfpH, as well as the further analysis of a previously described bfpA mutant strain that is unable to express bundlin, the pilin protein. We found that mutations in bfpB, which encodes an outer membrane protein; bfpD, which encodes a putative nucleotide-binding protein; and bfpG and bfpC, which do not have sequence homologues in other type IV pilus systems, do not affect prebundlin expression or processing but block both BFP biogenesis and LA. The mutation in bfpP, the prepilin peptidase gene, does not affect prebundlin expression but blocks signal sequence cleavage of prebundlin, BFP biogenesis, and LA. The mutation in bfpH, which is predicted to encode a lytic transglycosylase, has no effect on prebundlin expression, prebundlin processing, BFP biogenesis, or LA. For each mutant for which altered phenotypes were detected, complementation with a plasmid containing the corresponding wild-type allele restored the wild-type phenotypes. We also found that association of prebundlin or bundlin with sucrose density flotation gradient fractions containing both inner and outer membrane proteins does not require any accessory proteins. These studies indicate that many bfp gene products are required for biogenesis of functional type IV pili but that mutations in the individual genes do not lead to the identification of new phases of pilus assembly. PMID:10762251

  17. SOS Regulation of the Type III Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Mellies, Jay L.; Haack, Kenneth R.; Galligan, Derek C.

    2007-01-01

    Genomes of bacterial pathogens contain and coordinately regulate virulence-associated genes in order to cause disease. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a major cause of watery diarrhea in infants and a model gram-negative pathogen, expresses a type III secretion system (TTSS) that is encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and is necessary for causing attaching and effacing intestinal lesions. Effector proteins encoded by the LEE and in cryptic prophage are injected into the host cell cytoplasm by the TTTS apparatus, ultimately leading to diarrhea. The LEE is comprised of multiple polycistronic operons, most of which are controlled by the global, positive regulator Ler. Here we demonstrated that the LEE2 and LEE3 operons also responded to SOS signaling and that this regulation was LexA dependent. As determined by a DNase I protection assay, purified LexA protein bound in vitro to a predicted SOS box located in the divergent, overlapping LEE2/LEE3 promoters. Expression of the lexA1 allele, encoding an uncleavable LexA protein in EPEC, resulted in reduced secretion, particularly in the absence of the Ler regulator. Finally, we obtained evidence that the cryptic phage-located nleA gene encoding an effector molecule is SOS regulated. Thus, we demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, that genes encoding components of a TTSS are regulated by the SOS response, and our data might explain how a subset of EPEC effector proteins, encoded in cryptic prophages, are coordinately regulated with the LEE-encoded TTSS necessary for their translocation into host cells. PMID:17237173

  18. Ler interdomain linker is essential for anti-silencing activity in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mellies, Jay L.; Larabee, Fredrick J.; Zarr, Melissa A.; Horback, Katy L.; Lorenzen, Emily; Mavor, David

    2008-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) expresses a type III secretion system (T3SS) required for pathogenesis. Regulation of the genes encoding the T3SS is complex; two major regulators control transcription, the silencer H-NS, and the related H-NS-like protein Ler. Our laboratory is interested in understanding the molecular differences that distinguish the anti-silencer Ler from H-NS, and how Ler differentially regulates EPEC virulence genes. Here, we demonstrate that mutated Ler proteins either containing H-NS α-helices 1 and 2, missing from Ler, or truncated for the 11 aa C-terminal extension compared with the related H-NS protein, did not appreciably alter Ler function. In contrast, mutating the proline at position 92 of Ler, in the conserved C-terminal DNA binding motif, eliminated Ler activity. Inserting 11 H-NS-specific amino acids, 11 alanines or 6 alanines into the Ler linker severely impaired the ability of Ler to increase LEE5 transcription. To extend our analysis, we constructed six chimeric proteins containing the N terminus, linker region or C terminus of Ler in different combinations with the complementary domains of H-NS, and monitored their in vivo activities. Replacing the Ler linker domain with that of H-NS, or replacing the Ler C-terminal, DNA binding domain with that of H-NS eliminated the ability of Ler to increase transcription at the LEE5 promoter. Thus, the linker and C-terminal domains of Ler and H-NS are not functionally equivalent. Conversely, replacing the H-NS linker region with that of Ler caused increased transcription at LEE5 in a strain deleted for hns. In summary, the interdomain linker specific to Ler is necessary for anti-silencing activity in EPEC. PMID:19047730

  19. The Secreted Effector Protein EspZ Is Essential for Virulence of Rabbit Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, John Scott; Byrd, Wyatt; Ramamurthy, Shylaja; Ledvina, Hannah E.; Khirfan, Khaldoon; Riggs, Michael W.; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Vedantam, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    Attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens adhere intimately to intestinal enterocytes and efface brush border microvilli. A key virulence strategy of A/E pathogens is the type III secretion system (T3SS)-mediated delivery of effector proteins into host cells. The secreted protein EspZ is postulated to promote enterocyte survival by regulating the T3SS and/or by modulating epithelial signaling pathways. To explore the role of EspZ in A/E pathogen virulence, we generated an isogenic espZ deletion strain (ΔespZ) and corresponding cis-complemented derivatives of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and compared their abilities to regulate the T3SS and influence host cell survival in vitro. For virulence studies, rabbits infected with these strains were monitored for bacterial colonization, clinical signs, and intestinal tissue alterations. Consistent with data from previous reports, espZ-transfected epithelial cells were refractory to infection-dependent effector translocation. Also, the ΔespZ strain induced greater host cell death than did the parent and complemented strains. In rabbit infections, fecal ΔespZ strain levels were 10-fold lower than those of the parent strain at 1 day postinfection, while the complemented strain was recovered at intermediate levels. In contrast to the parent and complemented mutants, ΔespZ mutant fecal carriage progressively decreased on subsequent days. ΔespZ mutant-infected animals gained weight steadily over the infection period, failed to show characteristic disease symptoms, and displayed minimal infection-induced histological alterations. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining of intestinal sections revealed increased epithelial cell apoptosis on day 1 after infection with the ΔespZ strain compared to animals infected with the parent or complemented strains. Thus, EspZ-dependent host cell cytoprotection likely prevents epithelial cell death and sloughing and thereby

  20. Multiplicity of serogroups and adhesins in enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from acute diarrhea in Senegal.

    PubMed Central

    Darfeuille-Michaud, A; Forestier, C; Masseboeuf, R; Rich, C; M'Boup, S; Joly, B; Denis, F

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 228 children with diarrhea in Senegal from 1982 to 1984. Among these E. coli involved in cases of diarrhea, we found that 20.3% were enteropathogenic E. coli. Only 3.9% of the strains adhered to the brush borders of human intestinal enterocytes, and they belonged to different serotypes. All these adhesion-positive strains possessed genes encoding for the heat-stable enterotoxin, but their adhesive factors were different regarding serology with anti-colonization factor sera, hemagglutination patterns, electron microscopy structures, or major surface protein subunits. PMID:2885338

  1. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Uses NleA to Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Hilo; Sugimoto, Nakaba; Tobe, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) are related strains capable of inducing severe gastrointestinal disease. For optimal infection, these pathogens actively modulate cellular functions through the deployment of effector proteins in a type three secretion system (T3SS)-dependent manner. In response to enteric pathogen invasion, the Nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing (NLRP) inflammasome has been increasingly recognized as an important cytoplasmic sensor against microbial infection by activating caspase-1 and releasing IL-1β. EPEC and EHEC are known to elicit inflammasome activation in macrophages and epithelial cells; however, whether the pathogens actively counteract such innate immune responses is unknown. Using a series of compound effector-gene deletion strains of EPEC, we screened and identified NleA, which could subdue host IL-1β secretion. It was found that the reduction is not because of blocked NF-κB activity; instead, the reduction results from inhibited caspase-1 activation by NleA. Immunostaining of human macrophage-like cells following infection revealed limited formation of inflammasome foci with constituents of total caspase-1, ASC and NLRP3 in the presence of NleA. Pulldown of PMA-induced differentiated THP-1 lysate with purified MBP-NleA reveals that NLRP3 is a target of NleA. The interaction was verified by an immunoprecipitation assay and direct interaction assay in which purified MBP-NleA and GST-NLRP3 were used. We further showed that the effector interacts with regions of NLRP3 containing the PYD and LRR domains. Additionally, NleA was found to associate with non-ubiquitinated and ubiquitinated NLRP3 and to interrupt de-ubiquitination of NLRP3, which is a required process for inflammasome activation. Cumulatively, our findings provide the first example of EPEC-mediated suppression of inflammasome activity in which NieA plays a novel role in controlling the host immune response through targeting of

  2. The secreted effector protein EspZ is essential for virulence of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, John Scott; Byrd, Wyatt; Ramamurthy, Shylaja; Ledvina, Hannah E; Khirfan, Khaldoon; Riggs, Michael W; Boedeker, Edgar C; Vedantam, Gayatri; Viswanathan, V K

    2015-03-01

    Attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens adhere intimately to intestinal enterocytes and efface brush border microvilli. A key virulence strategy of A/E pathogens is the type III secretion system (T3SS)-mediated delivery of effector proteins into host cells. The secreted protein EspZ is postulated to promote enterocyte survival by regulating the T3SS and/or by modulating epithelial signaling pathways. To explore the role of EspZ in A/E pathogen virulence, we generated an isogenic espZ deletion strain (ΔespZ) and corresponding cis-complemented derivatives of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and compared their abilities to regulate the T3SS and influence host cell survival in vitro. For virulence studies, rabbits infected with these strains were monitored for bacterial colonization, clinical signs, and intestinal tissue alterations. Consistent with data from previous reports, espZ-transfected epithelial cells were refractory to infection-dependent effector translocation. Also, the ΔespZ strain induced greater host cell death than did the parent and complemented strains. In rabbit infections, fecal ΔespZ strain levels were 10-fold lower than those of the parent strain at 1 day postinfection, while the complemented strain was recovered at intermediate levels. In contrast to the parent and complemented mutants, ΔespZ mutant fecal carriage progressively decreased on subsequent days. ΔespZ mutant-infected animals gained weight steadily over the infection period, failed to show characteristic disease symptoms, and displayed minimal infection-induced histological alterations. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining of intestinal sections revealed increased epithelial cell apoptosis on day 1 after infection with the ΔespZ strain compared to animals infected with the parent or complemented strains. Thus, EspZ-dependent host cell cytoprotection likely prevents epithelial cell death and sloughing and thereby

  3. Paralysis and killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli requires the bacterial tryptophanase gene.

    PubMed

    Anyanful, Akwasi; Dolan-Livengood, Jennifer M; Lewis, Taiesha; Sheth, Seema; Dezalia, Mark N; Sherman, Melanie A; Kalman, Lisa V; Benian, Guy M; Kalman, Daniel

    2005-08-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli, including enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are major causes of food and water-borne disease. We have developed a genetically tractable model of pathogenic E. coli virulence based on our observation that these bacteria paralyse and kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Paralysis and killing of C. elegans by EPEC did not require direct contact, suggesting that a secreted toxin mediates the effect. Virulence against C. elegans required tryptophan and bacterial tryptophanase, the enzyme catalysing the production of indole and other molecules from tryptophan. Thus, lack of tryptophan in growth media or deletion of tryptophanase gene failed to paralyse or kill C. elegans. While known tryptophan metabolites failed to complement an EPEC tryptophanase mutant when presented extracellularly, complementation was achieved with the enzyme itself expressed either within the pathogen or within a cocultured K12 strains. Thus, an unknown metabolite of tryptophanase, derived from EPEC or from commensal non-pathogenic strains, appears to directly or indirectly regulate toxin production within EPEC. EPEC strains containing mutations in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), a pathogenicity island required for virulence in humans, also displayed attenuated capacity to paralyse and kill nematodes. Furthermore, tryptophanase activity was required for full activation of the LEE1 promoter, and for efficient formation of actin-filled membranous protrusions (attaching and effacing lesions) that form on the surface of mammalian epithelial cells following attachment and which depends on LEE genes. Finally, several C. elegans genes, including hif-1 and egl-9, rendered C. elegans less susceptible to EPEC when mutated, suggesting their involvement in mediating toxin effects. Other genes including sek-1, mek-1, mev-1, pgp-1,3 and vhl-1, rendered C. elegans more

  4. CsrA and TnaB coregulate tryptophanase activity to promote exotoxin-induced killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shantanu; Anyanful, Akwasi; Kalman, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli(EPEC) requires the tnaA-encoded enzyme tryptophanase and its substrate tryptophan to synthesize diffusible exotoxins that kill the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we demonstrate that the RNA-binding protein CsrA and the tryptophan permease TnaB coregulate tryptophanase activity, through mutually exclusive pathways, to stimulate toxin-mediated paralysis and killing of C. elegans.

  5. A novel serotype of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) as a major pathogen in an outbreak of infantile diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Barlow, R S; Hirst, R G; Norton, R E; Ashhurst-Smith, C; Bettelheim, K A

    1999-12-01

    An outbreak of infantile diarrhoea was investigated in 32 children, all <2 years old, in the tropical north of Australia. Rotavirus (63%) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (59%) were the most common pathogens identified. Of the 19 EPEC isolates, 14 (74%) were of serotype O126:H12, hitherto unreported as an EPEC serotype. Other pathogens isolated included Salmonella spp. (16%), Campylobacter spp. (3%), Giardia (3%) and Shigella spp. (3%). EPEC-related gastro-enteritis is an uncommon but recognised cause of diarrhoeal outbreaks in Australia and clinicians need to be aware of the possibility of this serotype being implicated. This report highlights the disadvantages of relying on serotyping alone for the recognition of EPEC.

  6. The EspB Protein of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Is Targeted to the Cytoplasm of Infected HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathleen A.; O’Connell, Colin B.; Luther, Paul W.; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    The EspB protein of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is exported via a type III secretion apparatus. EspB is critical for signaling the host cell and for the development of the attaching and effacing lesion characteristic of EPEC infection. We used cellular fractionation and confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the cellular location of EspB during infection of HeLa cells. Both methods indicated that EspB is targeted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Using mutants, we found that EspB targeting to the host cell cytoplasm requires the type III secretion apparatus and the secreted proteins EspA and EspD, but not intimin. These results provide insights into the function of the type III secretion apparatus of EPEC and the functions of the Esp proteins. PMID:9784563

  7. Differences in virulence gene expression between atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Horcajo, Pilar; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Carrión, Javier; De La Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A.; Orden, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains may be due, at least partially, to different expression patterns of some virulence genes. To investigate this hypothesis, the virulence gene expression patterns of 6 atypical EPEC strains isolated from healthy and diarrheic ruminants were compared using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after growing the bacteria in culture medium alone or after binding it to HeLa epithelial cells. Some virulence genes in strains from diarrheic animals were upregulated relative to their expression in strains from healthy animals. When bacteria were cultured in the presence of HeLa cells, the ehxA and efa1/lifA genes, previously associated with the production of diarrhea, were expressed at higher levels in strains from diarrheic animals than in strains from healthy animals. Thus, the expression levels of some virulence genes may help determine which atypical EPEC strains cause diarrhea in ruminants. PMID:24082409

  8. Differences in virulence gene expression between atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy ruminants.

    PubMed

    Horcajo, Pilar; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Carrión, Javier; De La Fuente, Ricardo; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José A; Orden, José A

    2013-04-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains may be due, at least partially, to different expression patterns of some virulence genes. To investigate this hypothesis, the virulence gene expression patterns of 6 atypical EPEC strains isolated from healthy and diarrheic ruminants were compared using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after growing the bacteria in culture medium alone or after binding it to HeLa epithelial cells. Some virulence genes in strains from diarrheic animals were upregulated relative to their expression in strains from healthy animals. When bacteria were cultured in the presence of HeLa cells, the ehxA and efa1/lifA genes, previously associated with the production of diarrhea, were expressed at higher levels in strains from diarrheic animals than in strains from healthy animals. Thus, the expression levels of some virulence genes may help determine which atypical EPEC strains cause diarrhea in ruminants.

  9. Comparative analysis of virulence determinants, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and serogrouping of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli versus typical enteropathogenic E. coli in India.

    PubMed

    Malvi, Supriya; Appannanavar, Suma; Mohan, Balvinder; Kaur, Harsimran; Gautam, Neha; Bharti, Bhavneet; Kumar, Yashwant; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-10-01

    The epidemiology of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and the significance of isolation of atypical EPEC (aEPEC) in childhood diarrhoea have not been well studied in an Indian context. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate virulence determinants, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and serogrouping of typical EPEC (tEPEC) versus aEPEC causing diarrhoea in children. A total of 400 prospective and 500 retrospective E. coli isolates were included. PCR was performed for eae, bfpA, efa, nleB, nleE, cdt, ehxA and paa genes. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute's disc diffusion test was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility. Phenotypic screening of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) production, and molecular detection of bla(NDM-1), bla(VIM), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(IMP) and bla(KPC) were performed. aEPEC (57.6 %) were more common as compared with tEPEC (42.3 %). The occurrence of virulence genes was observed to be three times higher in aEPEC as compared with tEPEC, efa1 (14.7 % of aEPEC, 4 % of tEPEC) being the most common. Most of the isolates did not belong to the classical EPEC O-serogroups. The highest resistance was observed against amoxicillin (93.22 %) followed by quinolones (83 %), cephalosporins (37.28 %), cotrimoxazole (35.59 %) and carbapenems (30.5 %). Overall equal numbers of aEPEC (41.17 %) and tEPEC (40 %) were observed to be multidrug-resistant. Fifteen EPEC strains demonstrated presence of ESBLs, five produced AmpC and four each produced metallo-β-lactamases and KPC-type carbapenemases; eight, seven and one isolate(s) each were positive for bla(VIM), bla(CTX-M-15) and bla(NDM-1), respectively. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time on carbapenem resistance and the presence of bla(NDM-1) and bla(CTX-M-15) in EPEC isolates from India.

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Formation of an EscL-EscQ-EscN Type III Complex in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Biemans-Oldehinkel, Esther; Sal-Man, Neta; Deng, Wanyin; Foster, Leonard J.; Finlay, B. Brett

    2011-01-01

    We characterized Orf5 and SepQ, two type III secretion (T3S) system proteins in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, and showed that they are essential for T3S, associated with the bacterial membrane, and interact with EscN. Our findings suggest that Orf5 and SepQ are homologs of YscL and YscQ from Yersinia, respectively. PMID:21804003

  11. Functional Characterization of EscK (Orf4), a Sorting Platform Component of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Injectisome.

    PubMed

    Soto, Eduardo; Espinosa, Norma; Díaz-Guerrero, Miguel; Gaytán, Meztlli O; Puente, José L; González-Pedrajo, Bertha

    2017-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a supramolecular machine used by many bacterial pathogens to translocate effector proteins directly into the eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infantile diarrheal disease in underdeveloped countries. EPEC virulence relies on a T3SS encoded within a chromosomal pathogenicity island known as the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this work, we pursued the functional characterization of the LEE-encoded protein EscK (previously known as Orf4). We provide evidence indicating that EscK is crucial for efficient T3S and belongs to the SctK (OrgA/YscK/MxiK) protein family, whose members have been implicated in the formation of a sorting platform for secretion of T3S substrates. Bacterial fractionation studies showed that EscK localizes to the inner membrane independently of the presence of any other T3SS component. Combining yeast two-hybrid screening and pulldown assays, we identified an interaction between EscK and the C-ring/sorting platform component EscQ. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved residues revealed amino acids that are critical for EscK function and for its interaction with EscQ. In addition, we found that T3S substrate overproduction is capable of compensating for the absence of EscK. Overall, our data suggest that EscK is a structural component of the EPEC T3SS sorting platform, playing a central role in the recruitment of T3S substrates for boosting the efficiency of the protein translocation process. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence determinant for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) colonization of intestinal epithelial cells. Multiple EPEC effector proteins are injected via the T3SS into enterocyte cells, leading to diarrheal disease. The T3SS is encoded within a genomic pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Here we unravel the function of EscK, a previously uncharacterized

  12. Functional Characterization of EscK (Orf4), a Sorting Platform Component of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Injectisome

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Eduardo; Espinosa, Norma; Díaz-Guerrero, Miguel; Gaytán, Meztlli O.; Puente, José L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a supramolecular machine used by many bacterial pathogens to translocate effector proteins directly into the eukaryotic host cell cytoplasm. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of infantile diarrheal disease in underdeveloped countries. EPEC virulence relies on a T3SS encoded within a chromosomal pathogenicity island known as the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). In this work, we pursued the functional characterization of the LEE-encoded protein EscK (previously known as Orf4). We provide evidence indicating that EscK is crucial for efficient T3S and belongs to the SctK (OrgA/YscK/MxiK) protein family, whose members have been implicated in the formation of a sorting platform for secretion of T3S substrates. Bacterial fractionation studies showed that EscK localizes to the inner membrane independently of the presence of any other T3SS component. Combining yeast two-hybrid screening and pulldown assays, we identified an interaction between EscK and the C-ring/sorting platform component EscQ. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved residues revealed amino acids that are critical for EscK function and for its interaction with EscQ. In addition, we found that T3S substrate overproduction is capable of compensating for the absence of EscK. Overall, our data suggest that EscK is a structural component of the EPEC T3SS sorting platform, playing a central role in the recruitment of T3S substrates for boosting the efficiency of the protein translocation process. IMPORTANCE The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an essential virulence determinant for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) colonization of intestinal epithelial cells. Multiple EPEC effector proteins are injected via the T3SS into enterocyte cells, leading to diarrheal disease. The T3SS is encoded within a genomic pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Here we unravel the function of EscK, a

  13. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli. PMID:27309855

  14. Thiophenone Attenuates Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O103:H2 Virulence by Interfering with AI-2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Witsø, Ingun Lund; Valen Rukke, Håkon; Benneche, Tore; Aamdal Scheie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Interference with bacterial quorum sensing communication provides an anti-virulence strategy to control pathogenic bacteria. Here, using the Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O103:H2, we showed for the first time that thiophenone TF101 reduced expression of lsrB; the gene encoding the AI-2 receptor. Combined results of transcriptional and phenotypic analyses suggested that TF101 interfere with AI-2 signalling, possibly by competing with AI-2 for binding to LsrB. This is supported by in silico docking prediction of thiophenone TF101 in the LsrB pocket. Transcriptional analyses furthermore showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with expression of the virulence genes eae and fimH. In addition, TF101 reduced AI-2 induced E. coli adhesion to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. TF101, on the other hand, did not affect epinephrine or norepinephrine enhanced E. coli adhesion. Overall, our results showed that thiophenone TF101 interfered with virulence expression in E. coli O103:H2, suggestedly by interfering with AI-2 mediated quorum sensing. We thus conclude that thiophenone TF101 might represent a promising future anti-virulence agent in the fight against pathogenic E. coli.

  15. Role of host xanthine oxidase in infection due to enteropathogenic and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Crane, John K

    2013-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) has been recognized as an important host defense enzyme for decades. In our recent study in Infection and Immunity, we found that enteropathogenic and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (EPEC and STEC) were far more resistant to killing by the XO pathway than laboratory E. coli strains used in the past. Although XO plus hypoxanthine substrate rarely generated enough H2O2 to kill EPEC and STEC, the pathogens were able to sense the H2O2 and react to it with an increase in expression of virulence factors, most notably Shiga toxin (Stx). H2O2 produced by XO also triggered a chloride secretory response in T84 cell monolayers studied in the Ussing chamber. Adding exogenous XO plus its substrate in vivo did not decrease the number of STEC bacteria recovered from ligated intestinal loops, but instead appeared to worsen the infection and increased the amount of Stx2 toxin produced. XO plus hypoxanthine also increases the ability of Stx2 to translocate across intestinal monolayers. With regard to EPEC and STEC, the role of XO appears more complex and subtle than what has been reported in the past, since XO also plays a role in host-pathogen signaling, in regulating virulence in pathogens, in Stx production and in toxin translocation. Uric acid produced by XO may also be in itself an immune modulator in the intestinal tract. PMID:23811846

  16. Role of host xanthine oxidase in infection due to enteropathogenic and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Crane, John K

    2013-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) has been recognized as an important host defense enzyme for decades. In our recent study in Infection and Immunity, we found that enteropathogenic and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (EPEC and STEC) were far more resistant to killing by the XO pathway than laboratory E. coli strains used in the past. Although XO plus hypoxanthine substrate rarely generated enough H 2O 2 to kill EPEC and STEC, the pathogens were able to sense the H2O2 and react to it with an increase in expression of virulence factors, most notably Shiga toxin (Stx). H 2O 2 produced by XO also triggered a chloride secretory response in T84 cell monolayers studied in the Ussing chamber. Adding exogenous XO plus its substrate in vivo did not decrease the number of STEC bacteria recovered from ligated intestinal loops, but instead appeared to worsen the infection and increased the amount of Stx2 toxin produced. XO plus hypoxanthine also increases the ability of Stx2 to translocate across intestinal monolayers. With regard to EPEC and STEC, the role of XO appears more complex and subtle than what has been reported in the past, since XO also plays a role in host-pathogen signaling, in regulating virulence in pathogens, in Stx production and in toxin translocation. Uric acid produced by XO may also be in itself an immune modulator in the intestinal tract.

  17. A novel EspA-associated surface organelle of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli involved in protein translocation into epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Knutton, S; Rosenshine, I; Pallen, M J; Nisan, I; Neves, B C; Bain, C; Wolff, C; Dougan, G; Frankel, G

    1998-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), like many bacterial pathogens, employ a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins across the bacterial cell. In EPEC, four proteins are known to be exported by a type III secretion system_EspA, EspB and EspD required for subversion of host cell signal transduction pathways and a translocated intimin receptor (Tir) protein (formerly Hp90) which is tyrosine-phosphorylated following transfer to the host cell to become a receptor for intimin-mediated intimate attachment and 'attaching and effacing' (A/E) lesion formation. The structural basis for protein translocation has yet to be fully elucidated for any type III secretion system. Here, we describe a novel EspA-containing filamentous organelle that is present on the bacterial surface during the early stage of A/E lesion formation, forms a physical bridge between the bacterium and the infected eukaryotic cell surface and is required for the translocation of EspB into infected epithelial cells. PMID:9545230

  18. Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains form Biofilm on Abiotic Surfaces Regardless of Their Adherence Pattern on Cultured Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Culler, Hebert F.; Mota, Cristiane M.; Abe, Cecilia M.; Elias, Waldir P.; Sircili, Marcelo P.; Franzolin, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the capacity of biofilm formation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces. Ninety-one aEPEC strains, isolated from feces of children with diarrhea, were analyzed by the crystal violet (CV) assay on an abiotic surface after 24 h of incubation. aEPEC strains representing each HEp-2 cell type of adherence were analyzed after 24 h and 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation at 37°C on abiotic and cell surfaces by CFU/cm2 counting and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces occurred in 55 (60.4%) of the aEPEC strains. There was no significant difference in biofilm biomass formation on an abiotic versus prefixed cell surface. The biofilms could be visualized by CLSM at various developmental stages. aEPEC strains are able to form biofilm on an abiotic surface with no association with their adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells with the exception of the strains expressing UND (undetermined adherence). This study revealed the capacity of adhesion and biofilm formation by aEPEC strains on abiotic and biotic surfaces, possibly playing a role in pathogenesis, mainly in cases of persistent diarrhea. PMID:24883330

  19. Hfq reduces envelope stress by controlling expression of envelope-localized proteins and protein complexes in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Stefanie L; Raivio, Tracy L

    2014-05-01

    Gram-negative bacteria possess several envelope stress responses that detect and respond to damage to this critical cellular compartment. The σ(E) envelope stress response senses the misfolding of outer membrane proteins (OMPs), while the Cpx two-component system is believed to detect the misfolding of periplasmic and inner membrane proteins. Recent studies in several Gram-negative organisms found that deletion of hfq, encoding a small RNA chaperone protein, activates the σ(E) envelope stress response. In this study, we assessed the effects of deleting hfq upon activity of the σ(E) and Cpx responses in non-pathogenic and enteropathogenic (EPEC) strains of Escherichia coli. We found that the σ(E) response was activated in Δhfq mutants of all E. coli strains tested, resulting from the misregulation of OMPs. The Cpx response was activated by loss of hfq in EPEC, but not in E. coli K-12. Cpx pathway activation resulted in part from overexpression of the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) in EPEC Δhfq. We found that Hfq repressed expression of the BFP via PerA, a master regulator of virulence in EPEC. This study shows that Hfq has a more extensive role in regulating the expression of envelope proteins and horizontally acquired virulence genes in E. coli than previously recognized.

  20. Characterization of the universal stress protein F from atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and its prevalence in Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Cristiane S.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Caravelli, Andressa; Silva, Anderson; Polatto, Juliana M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) are heterogeneous strains in terms of serotypes, adherence patterns and the presence of novel virulence factors. This heterogeneity is intriguing, promoting studies trying to characterize these novel proteins and to better comprehend this pathotype group. In a previous study analyzing low‐molecular mass proteomes of four representative aEPEC strains of three different adhesion phenotypes, we classified proteins according to their annotated function, with most of them being involved in metabolism and transport; while some of them were classified as hypothetical proteins. The majority of the hypothetical proteins were homologue products of genes identified in the genome of enterohemorrhagic E. coli. One of the hypothetical proteins was annotated as Z2335, with orthologue in EPEC, and by bioinformatics analysis, this protein was revealed to be the universal stress protein F (UspF). Thus, herein we successfully obtained a recombinant UspF protein from aEPEC, which is a α/β, ATP‐binding protein involved in stress response, with comparable protein production among the four studied strains, but showing noteworthy differences when cultivated in different stress conditions, also present in other enterobacterial species, such as Shigella sonnei and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, our results confirm that the Usp protein superfamily encompasses a conserved group of proteins involved in stress resistance in aEPEC and other Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:27616205

  1. Characterization of Monkey Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Human Typical and Atypical EPEC Serotype Isolates from Neotropical Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Vania M.; Gyles, Carlton L.; Ziebell, Kim; Ribeiro, Marcela A.; Catão-Dias, José L.; Sinhorini, Idércio L.; Otman, Jamile; Keller, Rogéria; Trabulsi, Luiz R.; Pestana de Castro, Antônio F.

    2003-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has been associated with infantile diarrhea and mortality in humans in developing countries. While diarrhea is also a major problem among primates kept in captivity, the role of E. coli is unclear. This study was designed to characterize diarrheagenic E. coli recovered from the feces of 56 New World nonhuman primates, primarily marmosets (Callithrix spp.). Seventeen of the 56 primates had signs of diarrhea and/or enteritis. E. coli recovered from feces from these animals was tested by PCR for genes encoding virulence factors of diarrheagenic E. coli and for patterns of adherence to HeLa cells. In addition, isolates were characterized by the fluorescence actin staining test and by their ability to induce attaching and effacing lesions. PCR for the eae gene was positive in 10 of the 39 (27%) apparently healthy animals and in 8 of the 17 (47%) animals with diarrhea and/or enteritis. Colonies of eae+ E. coli were serotyped and examined by PCR for genes encoding EPEC virulence markers. The eae+ E. coli isolates recovered from both healthy and sick nonhuman primates demonstrated virulence-associated attributes similar to those of EPEC strains implicated in human disease and are designated monkey EPEC. The results presented here indicate that EPEC may be a significant pathogen for nonhuman primates, deserving further investigation. The similarities between the affected animals investigated in this study and human EPEC infections suggest that marmosets may represent an important model for EPEC in humans. PMID:12624055

  2. Characterization of the universal stress protein F from atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and its prevalence in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Cristiane S; Torres, Alfredo G; Caravelli, Andressa; Silva, Anderson; Polatto, Juliana M; Piazza, Roxane M F

    2016-12-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) are heterogeneous strains in terms of serotypes, adherence patterns and the presence of novel virulence factors. This heterogeneity is intriguing, promoting studies trying to characterize these novel proteins and to better comprehend this pathotype group. In a previous study analyzing low-molecular mass proteomes of four representative aEPEC strains of three different adhesion phenotypes, we classified proteins according to their annotated function, with most of them being involved in metabolism and transport; while some of them were classified as hypothetical proteins. The majority of the hypothetical proteins were homologue products of genes identified in the genome of enterohemorrhagic E. coli. One of the hypothetical proteins was annotated as Z2335, with orthologue in EPEC, and by bioinformatics analysis, this protein was revealed to be the universal stress protein F (UspF). Thus, herein we successfully obtained a recombinant UspF protein from aEPEC, which is a α/β, ATP-binding protein involved in stress response, with comparable protein production among the four studied strains, but showing noteworthy differences when cultivated in different stress conditions, also present in other enterobacterial species, such as Shigella sonnei and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, our results confirm that the Usp protein superfamily encompasses a conserved group of proteins involved in stress resistance in aEPEC and other Enterobacteriaceae. © 2016 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  3. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli protein secretion is induced in response to conditions similar to those in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, B; Abe, A; Stein, M; Finlay, B B

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenicity of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is associated with the expression and secretion of specific bacterial factors. EspB is one such secreted protein which is required to trigger host signaling pathways resulting in effacement of microvilli and cytoskeletal rearrangements. These events presumably contribute to the ensuing diarrhea associated with EPEC infections. EPEC encounters several environmental changes and stimuli during its passage from the external environment into the host gastrointestinal tract. In this paper we show that the secretion of EspB is subject to environmental regulation, and maximal secretion occurs under conditions reminiscent of those in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, secretion is maximal at 37 degrees C, pH 7, and physiological osmolarity. In addition, maximal secretion requires the presence of sodium bicarbonate and calcium and is stimulated by millimolar concentrations of Fe(NO3)3. The secretion of the four other EPEC-secreted proteins appears to be modulated in a manner similar to that of EspB. Our results also show that secretion is not dependent on CO2, as originally reported by Haigh et al. (FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 129: 63-67, 1995), but that CO2 more likely acts as a component of the medium buffering system, since CO2 dependence was abolished by the use of alternative buffers. PMID:9199427

  4. Detection of Escherichia coli Enteropathogens by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction from Children's Diarrheal Stools in Two Caribbean–Colombian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Arzuza, Octavio; Urbina, Delfina; Bai, Jing; Guerra, Julio; Montes, Oscar; Puello, Marta; Mendoza, Ketty; Castro, Gregorio Y.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Acute diarrheal disease is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing world and Escherichia coli intestinal pathogens are important causative agents. Information on the epidemiology of E. coli intestinal pathogens and their association with diarrheal disease is limited because no diagnostic testing is available in countries with limited resources. To evaluate the prevalence of E. coli intestinal pathogens in a Caribbean–Colombian region, E. coli clinical isolates from children with diarrhea were analyzed by a recently reported two-reaction multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Gomez-Duarte et al., Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2009;63:1–9). The phylogenetic group from all E. coli isolates was also typed by a single-reaction multiplex polymerase chain reaction. We found that among 139 E. coli strains analyzed, 20 (14.4%) corresponded to E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes. Enterotoxigenic, shiga-toxin–producing, enteroaggregative, diffuse adherent, and enteropathogenic E. coli pathotypes were detected, and most of them belonged to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal pathogens. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli diarrheogenic isolates in Colombia and the first report on the potential role of E. coli in childhood diarrhea in this geographic area. PMID:19839760

  5. Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli deliver a novel effector called Cif, which blocks cell cycle G2/M transition.

    PubMed

    Marchès, Olivier; Ledger, Terence Neil; Boury, Michèle; Ohara, Masaru; Tu, Xuanlin; Goffaux, Frédéric; Mainil, Jacques; Rosenshine, Ilan; Sugai, Motoyuki; De Rycke, Jean; Oswald, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are closely related pathogens. Both use a type III secretion system (TTSS) encoded by the 'locus of enterocyte effacement' (LEE) to subvert and attach to epithelial cells through the injection of a repertoire of effector molecules. Here, we report the identification of a new TTSS translocated effector molecule called Cif, which blocks cell cycle G2/M transition and induces the formation of stress fibres through the recruitment of focal adhesions. Cif is not encoded by the LEE but by a lambdoid prophage present in EPEC and EHEC. A cif mutant causes localized effacement of microvilli and intimately attaches to the host cell surface, but is defective in the ability to block mitosis. When expressed in TTSS competent LEE-positive pathogens, Cif is injected into the infected epithelial cells. These cells arrested at the G2/M phase displayed accumulation of inactive phosphorylated Cdk1. In conclusion, Cif is a new member of a growing family of bacterial cyclomodulins that subvert the host eukaryotic cell cycle.

  6. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of Escherichia coli isolates carrying virulence factors of both enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Luo, Qingwei; Shetty, Amol C; Daugherty, Sean C; Fleckenstein, James M; Rasko, David A

    2017-06-14

    Escherichia coli that are capable of causing human disease are often classified into pathogenic variants (pathovars) based on their virulence gene content. However, disease-associated hybrid E. coli, containing unique combinations of multiple canonical virulence factors have also been described. Such was the case of the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in 2011, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. Among the pathovars of diarrheagenic E. coli that cause significant human disease are the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the current study we use comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and functional studies to characterize isolates that contain virulence factors of both EPEC and ETEC. Based on phylogenomic analysis, these hybrid isolates are more genomically-related to EPEC, but appear to have acquired ETEC virulence genes. Global transcriptional analysis using RNA sequencing, demonstrated that the EPEC and ETEC virulence genes of these hybrid isolates were differentially-expressed under virulence-inducing laboratory conditions, similar to reference isolates. Immunoblot assays further verified that the virulence gene products were produced and that the T3SS effector EspB of EPEC, and heat-labile toxin of ETEC were secreted. These findings document the existence and virulence potential of an E. coli pathovar hybrid that blurs the distinction between E. coli pathovars.

  7. Detection of Escherichia coli enteropathogens by multiplex polymerase chain reaction from children's diarrheal stools in two Caribbean-Colombian cities.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G; Arzuza, Octavio; Urbina, Delfina; Bai, Jing; Guerra, Julio; Montes, Oscar; Puello, Marta; Mendoza, Ketty; Castro, Gregorio Y

    2010-02-01

    Acute diarrheal disease is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the developing world and Escherichia coli intestinal pathogens are important causative agents. Information on the epidemiology of E. coli intestinal pathogens and their association with diarrheal disease is limited because no diagnostic testing is available in countries with limited resources. To evaluate the prevalence of E. coli intestinal pathogens in a Caribbean-Colombian region, E. coli clinical isolates from children with diarrhea were analyzed by a recently reported two-reaction multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Gomez-Duarte et al., Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2009;63:1-9). The phylogenetic group from all E. coli isolates was also typed by a single-reaction multiplex polymerase chain reaction. We found that among 139 E. coli strains analyzed, 20 (14.4%) corresponded to E. coli diarrheagenic pathotypes. Enterotoxigenic, shiga-toxin-producing, enteroaggregative, diffuse adherent, and enteropathogenic E. coli pathotypes were detected, and most of them belonged to the phylogenetic groups A and B1, known to be associated with intestinal pathogens. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli diarrheogenic isolates in Colombia and the first report on the potential role of E. coli in childhood diarrhea in this geographic area.

  8. EscA is a crucial component of the type III secretion system of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sal-Man, Neta; Biemans-Oldehinkel, Esther; Sharon, David; Croxen, Matthew A; Scholz, Roland; Foster, Leonard J; Finlay, B Brett

    2012-06-01

    The virulence of many Gram-negative pathogens is associated with type III secretion systems (T3SSs), which deliver virulence effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. Components of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) T3SS are encoded within the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). While most LEE-encoded T3SS proteins in EPEC have assigned names and functions, a few of them remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied a small LEE-encoded protein, Orf15, that shows no homology to other T3SS/flagellar proteins and is only present in attaching and effacing pathogens, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Citrobacter rodentium. Our findings demonstrated that it is essential for type III secretion (T3S) and that it is localized to the periplasm and associated with the inner membrane. Membrane association was driven by the N-terminal 19 amino acid residues, which were also shown to be essential for T3S. Consistent with its localization, Orf15 was found to interact with the EPEC T3SS outer membrane ring component, EscC, which was previously shown to be embedded within the outer membrane and protruding into the periplasmic space. Interestingly, we found that the predicted coiled-coil structure of Orf15 is critical for the protein's function. Overall, our findings suggest that Orf15 is a structural protein that contributes to the structural integrity of the T3S complex, and therefore we propose to rename it EscA.

  9. DNA looping-dependent autorepression of LEE1 P1 promoters by Ler in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Abhayprasad; Shin, Minsang; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Lim, Hyung-Ju; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Paik, Soon-Young; Takeyasu, Kunio; Tobe, Toru; Yen, Hilo; Lee, Gwangrog; Choy, Hyon E.

    2014-01-01

    Ler, a homolog of H-NS in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), plays a critical role in the expression of virulence genes encoded by the pathogenic island, locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Although Ler acts as an antisilencer of multiple LEE operons by alleviating H-NS–mediated silencing, it represses its own expression from two LEE1 P1 promoters, P1A and P1B, that are separated by 10 bp. Various in vitro biochemical methods were used in this study to elucidate the mechanism underlying transcription repression by Ler. Ler acts through two AATT motifs, centered at position −111.5 on the coding strand and at +65.5 on the noncoding strand, by simultaneously repressing P1A and P1B through DNA-looping. DNA-looping was visualized using atomic force microscopy. It is intriguing that an antisilencing protein represses transcription, not by steric exclusion of RNA polymerase, but by DNA-looping. We propose that the DNA-looping prevents further processing of open promoter complex (RPO) at these promoters during transcription initiation. PMID:24920590

  10. Clonal relations of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H16 strains isolated from various sources from several countries.

    PubMed

    Feng, Peter C H; Keys, Christine; Lacher, David W; Beutin, Lothar; Bentancor, Adriana; Heuvelink, Annet; Afset, Jan E; Rumi, Valeria; Monday, Steven

    2012-12-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) is comprised of a large heterogeneous group of strains and serotypes that carry the intimin gene (eae) but no other EPEC virulence factors. In a previous study, we examined a few aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype from the U.S. and France and found these to be nearly homologous, and speculated that the same strain had been disseminated or perhaps they are part of a large clonal group that exists worldwide. To test that hypothesis, we examined additional 45 strains isolated from various sources from 4 other countries and determined that although there are a few eae-negative O157:H16 strains, most are aEPEC that carried eae and specifically, the ε-eae allele. Analysis by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing showed that as a whole, O157:H16 strains are phylogenetically diverse and have different sequence types and PFGE profiles. But the aEPEC strains within the O157:H16 serotype, regardless of the eae allele carried, are a highly conserved and homologous group of sequence type (ST)-171 strains that shared similar PFGE profiles. These aEPEC strains of O157:H16 serotype are not closely related to any of the major EPEC and enterohemorrhagic E. coli clonal lineages and appear to be part of a large clonal group that are prevalent worldwide.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Outer Membrane Proteome from an Atypical and a Typical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Taddei, Carla R; Oliveira, Fernanda F; Piazza, Roxane M F; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Klitzke, Clécio F; Serrano, Solange M T; Martinez, Marina B; Elias, Waldir P; Sant Anna, Osvaldo A

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the proteomic profile of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from one strain of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) and one of typical EPEC (tEPEC). The OMPs fractions were obtained using sarcosine extraction, and analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE, respectively). The 1DE OMPs analysis of typical and atypical EPEC evidenced similar patterns; however, the 2DE OMP profile from the aEPEC revealed more protein spots in the 40- to 70-kDa region. 2DE image analysis identified 159 protein spots in both strains whereas 53 protein spots were observed only in tEPEC and 128 were observed only in aEPEC. Remarkably, 41.5% of aEPEC spots showed higher levels of expression compared to tEPEC, some of which with two, others four or even five times more. Twenty-four selected spots were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and they corresponded to proteins involved in cell structure and metabolism, as well as in gene regulation. Some of these proteins showed similarity with proteins identified in other E. coli pathotypes. Besides, the differential expression of some proteins in aEPEC may suggest that it could be related to their features that ascertain the adaptation to distinct environments and the worldwide spread distribution of these pathogens.

  12. A Comparative Study of the Outer Membrane Proteome from an Atypical and a Typical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Carla R; Oliveira, Fernanda F; Piazza, Roxane M. F; Paes Leme, Adriana F.; Klitzke, Clécio F; Serrano, Solange M. T; Martinez, Marina B; Elias, Waldir P; Sant´Anna, Osvaldo A

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the proteomic profile of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from one strain of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) and one of typical EPEC (tEPEC). The OMPs fractions were obtained using sarcosine extraction, and analyzed by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1DE and 2DE, respectively). The 1DE OMPs analysis of typical and atypical EPEC evidenced similar patterns; however, the 2DE OMP profile from the aEPEC revealed more protein spots in the 40- to 70-kDa region. 2DE image analysis identified 159 protein spots in both strains whereas 53 protein spots were observed only in tEPEC and 128 were observed only in aEPEC. Remarkably, 41.5% of aEPEC spots showed higher levels of expression compared to tEPEC, some of which with two, others four or even five times more. Twenty-four selected spots were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and they corresponded to proteins involved in cell structure and metabolism, as well as in gene regulation. Some of these proteins showed similarity with proteins identified in other E. coli pathotypes. Besides, the differential expression of some proteins in aEPEC may suggest that it could be related to their features that ascertain the adaptation to distinct environments and the worldwide spread distribution of these pathogens. PMID:21804903

  13. Lactoferrin and free secretory component of human milk inhibit the adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Andréa Nascimento; Giugliano, Loreny Gimenes

    2001-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea caused by Escherichia coli is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is considered one of the major causes of diarrhoea in children living in developing countries. The ability of diarrhoeagenic strains of E. coli to adhere to and colonize the intestine is the first step towards developing the disease. EPEC strains adhere to enterocytes and HeLa cells in a characteristic pattern known as localized adherence. Many epidemiological studies of diarrhoea have shown that breast-feeding protects infants from intestinal infections. Both immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin elements of human milk are thought to contribute to the protection from diarrhoeal agents. Results The effects of human milk and its protein components on the localized adherence of EPEC were investigated. Non-immunoglobulin components of human milk responsible for the inhibition of EPEC adhesion to HeLa cells were isolated by chromatographic fractionation of human whey proteins. Besides secretory immunoglobulin A, which has been previously reported to affect the adhesion of EPEC, free secretory component (fSC) and lactoferrin (Lf) were isolated. Even in concentrations lower than those usually found in whole milk, fSC and Lf were able to inhibit the adhesion of EPEC. α-lactalbumin was also isolated, but showed no activity on EPEC adhesion. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the immunoglobulin fraction, the free secretory component and lactoferrin of human milk inhibit EPEC adhesion to HeLa cells. These results indicate that fSC and Lf may be important non-specific defence factors against EPEC infections. PMID:11690544

  14. Competitive inhibition of adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Clostridium difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1027

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shi-Shun; Zhang, Zhen-Shu; Wang, Ji-De; Lai, Zhuo-Sheng; Wang, Qun-Ying; Pan, Ling-Jia; Ren, Yue-Xin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe competitive inhibition of adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1027 (B. ado 1027). METHODS: The binding of bacteria to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo was counted by adhesion assay. The inhibition of adherence of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo by purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 was evaluated quantitatively by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The purified adhesin at the concentration of 10 µg/mL, 20 µg/mL and 30 µg/mL except at 1 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL could inhibit significantly the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo. Moreover, we observed that a reduction in bacterial adhesion was occurred with increase in the concentration of adhesin, and MFI (Mean fluorescent intensity) was decreased with increase in the concentration of adhesin. CONCLUSION: The purified adhesin of B. ado 1027 can inhibit the adhesion of ETEC, EPEC and C. difficile to intestinal epithelial cell line Lovo in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:15162538

  15. Designed Coiled-Coil Peptides Inhibit the Type Three Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Larzábal, Mariano; Mercado, Elsa C.; Vilte, Daniel A.; Salazar-González, Hector; Cataldi, Angel; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are two categories of E. coli strains associated with human disease. A major virulence factor of both pathotypes is the expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS), responsible for their ability to adhere to gut mucosa causing a characteristic attaching and effacing lesion (A/E). The TTSS translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell that subvert mammalian cell biochemistry. Methods/Principal Findings We examined synthetic peptides designed to inhibit the TTSS. CoilA and CoilB peptides, both representing coiled-coil regions of the translocator protein EspA, and CoilD peptide, corresponding to a coiled–coil region of the needle protein EscF, were effective in inhibiting the TTSS dependent hemolysis of red blood cells by the EPEC E2348/69 strain. CoilA and CoilB peptides also reduced the formation of actin pedestals by the same strain in HEp-2 cells and impaired the TTSS-mediated protein translocation into the epithelial cell. Interestingly, CoilA and CoilB were able to block EspA assembly, destabilizing the TTSS and thereby Tir translocation. This blockage of EspA polymerization by CoilA or CoilB peptides, also inhibited the correct delivery of EspB and EspD as detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with the CoilA peptide showed a reduction of the length of EspA filaments. Conclusions Our data indicate that coiled-coil peptides can prevent the assembly and thus the functionality of the TTSS apparatus and suggest that these peptides could provide an attractive tool to block EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:20140230

  16. Plasmids coding for drug resistance and localized adherence to HeLa cells in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O55:H- and O55:H6.

    PubMed Central

    Laporta, M Z; Silva, M L; Scaletsky, I C; Trabulsi, L R

    1986-01-01

    Plasmids coding for drug resistance and localized adherence (LA) to HeLa cells were found in two enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains belonging to serotypes O55:H- and O55:H6. Strain 49-81 HSJ (O55:H-) carries two plasmids, one coding for both ampicillin resistance (Apr) and LA (pMS49). Strain 71-82 HSJ (O55:H6) harbors only one plasmid, coding for resistance to sulfadiazine, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, ampicillin, and LA (pMS71). Plasmids pMS49 and pMS71 were transferred to E. coli K-12 711 and from this strain to E. coli K-12 J53. Curing with acridine orange of an Apr LA+ transconjugant showed that both characteristics were lost simultaneously. The plasmids have a molecular weight of approximately 55 X 10(6) and are the first naturally recombinant plasmids coding for adherence and drug resistance described in enteropathogenic E. coli. Images PMID:3510986

  17. Disruption the Outer Membrane of Enteropathogenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli using Proanthocyanidins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins (PACs) have been reported as a natural antibacterial agent to suppress the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins on destabilizing the outer...

  18. Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires intimin for enteropathogenicity in calves.

    PubMed

    Dean-Nystrom, E A; Bosworth, B T; Moon, H W; O'Brien, A D

    1998-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains require intimin to induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in newborn piglets. Infection of newborn calves with intimin-positive or intimin-negative EHEC O157:H7 demonstrated that intimin is needed for colonization, A/E lesions, and disease in cattle. These results suggest that experiments to determine if intimin-based vaccines reduce O157:H7 levels in cattle are warranted.

  19. Virulence, Antimicrobial Resistance Properties and Phylogenetic Background of Non-H7 Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O157

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Mithila; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; Zhou, Kai; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157 that do not produce Shiga toxin and do not possess flagellar antigen H7 are of diverse H serotypes. In this study, the antibiotic resistance properties, genotype of a set of virulence associated genes and the phylogenetic background of E. coli O157:non-H7 groups were compared. Whole genome sequencing was performed on fourteen O157:non-H7 isolates collected in the STEC-ID-net study. The genomes were compared with E. coli O157 genomes and a typical Enteropathogenic E. coli (tEPEC) genome downloaded from NCBI. Twenty-six (86%) of the analyzed genomes had the intimin encoding gene eae but of different types mostly correlating with their H types, e.g., H16, H26, H39, and H45 carried intimin type ε, β, κ, and α, respectively. They belonged to several E. coli phylogenetic groups, i.e., to phylogenetic group A, B1, B2, and D. Seven (50%) of our collected O157:non-H7 isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Several mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, insertion elements, and pathogenicity islands, carrying a set of virulence and resistance genes were found in the E. coli O157:non-H7 isolates. Core genome phylogenetic analysis showed that O157:non-H7 isolates probably evolved from different phylogenetic lineages and were distantly related to the E. coli O157:H7 lineage. We hypothesize that independent acquisition of mobile genetic elements by isolates of different lineages have contributed to the different molecular features of the O157:non-H7 strains. Although distantly related to the STEC O157, E. coli O157:non-H7 isolates from multiple genetic background could be considered as pathogen of concern for their diverse virulence and antibiotic resistance properties. PMID:27733849

  20. Antimicrobial Resistant Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Houseflies Infesting Fish in Food Markets in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Songe, Mwansa M.; Hang’ombe, Bernard M.; Knight-Jones, Theodore J. D.; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases and is a leading cause of death in developing countries. This is often caused by contaminated food. Poor food hygiene standards are exacerbated by the presence of flies which can transmit a variety of infectious microorganisms, particularly through animal source foods. This fact becomes especially important in developing countries like Zambia, where fish is a highly valued source of protein. Our interest in this study was to identify if the flies that beset food markets in Zambia carry important pathogenic bacteria on their bodies, and subsequently if these bacteria carry resistance genes to commonly used antibiotics, which would indicate problems in eradicating these pathogens. The present study took into account fish vendors’ and consumers’ perception of flies and interest in interventions to reduce their numbers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with (1) traders (comprised of randomly selected males and females) and (2) consumers (including randomly selected males and females). Thereafter, we collected flies found on fish in markets in Mongu and Lusaka districts of Zambia. For the entire study, a total of 418 fly samples were analyzed in the laboratory and Salmonella spp. and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated from the flies. Further laboratory screening revealed that overall, 17.2% (72/418) (95% CI; 43.2%–65.5%) of total samples analyzed contained Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. These significant findings call for a strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy in Zambia and the development of sustainable interventions to reduce fly numbers in food markets and improve food safety and hygiene. PMID:28036049

  1. Characterization of enteropathogenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle and deer in a shared agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pallavi; Sha, Qiong; Lacher, David W; Del Valle, Jacquelyn; Mosci, Rebekah E; Moore, Jennifer A; Scribner, Kim T; Manning, Shannon D

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen. Cattle are suggested to be an important reservoir for STEC; however, these pathogens have also been isolated from other livestock and wildlife. In this study we sought to investigate transmission of STEC, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) between cattle and white-tailed deer in a shared agroecosystem. Cattle feces were collected from 100 animals in a Michigan dairy farm in July 2012, while 163 deer fecal samples were collected during two sampling periods (March and June). The locations of deer fecal pellets were recorded via geographic information system mapping and microsatellite multi-locus genotyping was used to link the fecal samples to individual deer at both time points. Following subculture to sorbitol MacConkey agar and STEC CHROMagar, the pathogens were characterized by serotyping, stx profiling, and PCR-based fingerprinting; multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on a subset. STEC and EHEC were cultured from 12 to 16% of cattle, respectively, and EPEC was found in 36%. Deer were significantly less likely to have a pathogen in March vs. June where the frequency of STEC, EHEC, and EPEC was 1, 6, and 22%, respectively. PCR fingerprinting and MLST clustered the cattle- and deer-derived strains together in a phylogenetic tree. Two STEC strains recovered from both animal species shared MLST and fingerprinting profiles, thereby providing evidence of interspecies transmission and highlighting the importance of wildlife species in pathogen shedding dynamics and persistence in the environment and cattle herds.

  2. Characteristics of Escherichia coli strains belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli serogroups isolated in Italy from children with diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Giammanco, A; Maggio, M; Giammanco, G; Morelli, R; Minelli, F; Scheutz, F; Caprioli, A

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-five Escherichia coli strains belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) serogroups were examined for phenotypic and genetic factors associated with virulence. The strains were isolated in Italy from children with diarrhea and identified as EPEC by clinical laboratories using commercially available antisera. O:H serotyping showed that 35 strains (27 of O26, O111, and O128 serogroups) belonged to 11 serotypes considered to be classical EPEC O:H serotypes. The other 20 isolates were classified as 15 nonclassical EPEC O:H serotypes. All the potential EPEC virulence factors associated with bacterial adhesion (localized adherence, fluorescentactin staining test positivity, presence of the attaching and effacing [eaeA] gene), the production of verotoxin, and the positivity with the enterohemorrhagic E. coli probe were significantly more frequent among isolates belonging to classical than nonclassical serotypes. Strains displaying an aggregative adhesion and hybridizing with the enteroaggregative DNA probe were found in serogroups O86, O111, and O126. Verotoxin-producing isolates belonged to serogroups O26, O111, and O128. Only one of the isolates hybridized with the EPEC adherence factor (EAF) probe, but 33 strains gave positive results with the eae probe, confirming that the former is more suitable in epidemiological studies in European countries. These results indicate that up to 75% of strains identified as EPEC by commercial antisera may possess potential virulence properties and/or belong to classical EPEC O:H serotypes and suggest that O grouping is still a useful diagnostic tool for presumptive identification of diarrheagenic E. coli in clinical laboratories. PMID:8904439

  3. Crk Adaptors Negatively Regulate Actin Polymerization in Pedestals Formed by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) by Binding to Tir Effector

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Benito-León, María; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2014-01-01

    Infections by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) cause diarrhea linked to high infant mortality in developing countries. EPEC adheres to epithelial cells and induces the formation of actin pedestals. Actin polymerization is driven fundamentally through signaling mediated by Tir bacterial effector protein, which inserts in the plasma membrane of the infected cell. Tir binds Nck adaptor proteins, which in turn recruit and activate N-WASP, a ubiquitous member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family of proteins. N-WASP activates the Arp2/3 complex to promote actin polymerization. Other proteins aside from components of the Tir-Nck-N-WASP pathway are recruited to the pedestals but their functions are unknown. Here we investigate the function of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Crk adaptors (CrkI/II) and the paralog protein CrkL during pedestal formation by EPEC. We found that the Crk isoforms act as redundant inhibitors of pedestal formation. The SH2 domain of CrkII and CrkL binds to phosphorylated tyrosine 474 of Tir and competes with Nck to bind Tir, preventing its recruitment to pedestals and thereby inhibiting actin polymerization. EPEC infection induces phosphorylation of the major regulatory tyrosine in CrkII and CrkL, possibly preventing the SH2 domain of these proteins from interacting with Tir. Phosphorylated CrkII and CrkL proteins localize specifically to the plasma membrane in contact with EPEC. Our study uncovers a novel role for Crk adaptors at pedestals, opening a new perspective in how these oncoproteins regulate actin polymerization. PMID:24675776

  4. Outer Membrane Targeting, Ultrastructure, and Single Molecule Localization of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Type IV Pilus Secretin BfpB

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Joshua A.; Frost, Nicholas A.; Hoppert, Michael; Fernandes, Paula J.; Vogt, Stefanie L.; Raivio, Tracy L.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Type IV pili (T4P) are filamentous surface appendages required for tissue adherence, motility, aggregation, and transformation in a wide array of bacteria and archaea. The bundle-forming pilus (BFP) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a prototypical T4P and confirmed virulence factor. T4P fibers are assembled by a complex biogenesis machine that extrudes pili through an outer membrane (OM) pore formed by the secretin protein. Secretins constitute a superfamily of proteins that assemble into multimers and support the transport of macromolecules by four evolutionarily ancient secretion systems: T4P, type II secretion, type III secretion, and phage assembly. Here, we determine that the lipoprotein transport pathway is not required for targeting the BfpB secretin protein of the EPEC T4P to the OM and describe the ultrastructure of the single particle averaged structures of the assembled complex by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, we use photoactivated localization microscopy to determine the distribution of single BfpB molecules fused to photoactivated mCherry. In contrast to findings in other T4P systems, we found that BFP components predominantly have an uneven distribution through the cell envelope and are only found at one or both poles in a minority of cells. In addition, we report that concurrent mutation of both the T4bP secretin and the retraction ATPase can result in viable cells and found that these cells display paradoxically low levels of cell envelope stress response activity. These results imply that secretins can direct their own targeting, have complex distributions and provide feedback information on the state of pilus biogenesis. PMID:22247509

  5. Antimicrobial Resistant Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Houseflies Infesting Fish in Food Markets in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Knight-Jones, Theodore J D; Grace, Delia

    2016-12-28

    Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases and is a leading cause of death in developing countries. This is often caused by contaminated food. Poor food hygiene standards are exacerbated by the presence of flies which can transmit a variety of infectious microorganisms, particularly through animal source foods. This fact becomes especially important in developing countries like Zambia, where fish is a highly valued source of protein. Our interest in this study was to identify if the flies that beset food markets in Zambia carry important pathogenic bacteria on their bodies, and subsequently if these bacteria carry resistance genes to commonly used antibiotics, which would indicate problems in eradicating these pathogens. The present study took into account fish vendors' and consumers' perception of flies and interest in interventions to reduce their numbers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with (1) traders (comprised of randomly selected males and females) and (2) consumers (including randomly selected males and females). Thereafter, we collected flies found on fish in markets in Mongu and Lusaka districts of Zambia. For the entire study, a total of 418 fly samples were analyzed in the laboratory and Salmonella spp. and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were isolated from the flies. Further laboratory screening revealed that overall, 17.2% (72/418) (95% CI; 43.2%-65.5%) of total samples analyzed contained Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. These significant findings call for a strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy in Zambia and the development of sustainable interventions to reduce fly numbers in food markets and improve food safety and hygiene.

  6. Cross-Reactive Protection against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection by Enteropathogenic E. coli in a Mouse Model ▿

    PubMed Central

    Calderon Toledo, Carla; Arvidsson, Ida; Karpman, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are related attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. The genes responsible for the A/E pathology are carried on a chromosomal pathogenicity island termed the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Both pathogens share a high degree of homology in the LEE and additional O islands. EHEC prevalence is much lower in areas where EPEC is endemic. This may be due to the development of antibodies against common EPEC and EHEC antigens. This study investigated the hypothesis that EPEC infections may protect against EHEC infections. We used a mouse model to inoculate BALB/c mice intragastrically, first with EPEC and then with EHEC (E. coli O157:H7). Four control groups received either a nonpathogenic E. coli (NPEC) strain followed by EHEC (NPEC/EHEC), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by EHEC (PBS/EHEC), EPEC/PBS, or PBS/PBS. Mice were monitored for weight loss and symptoms. EPEC colonized the intestine after challenge, and mice developed serum antibodies to intimin and E. coli secreted protein B (encoded in the LEE). Prechallenge with an EPEC strain had a protective effect after EHEC infection, as only a few mice developed mild symptoms, from which they recovered. These mice had an increase in body weight similar to that in control animals, and tissue morphology exhibited mild intestinal changes and normal renal histology. All mice that were not prechallenged with the EPEC strain developed mild to severe symptoms after EHEC infection, with weight loss as well as intestinal and renal histopathological changes. These data suggest that EPEC may protect against EHEC infection in this mouse model. PMID:21402761

  7. Estimating the Prevalence of Potential Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Intimin Gene Diversity in a Human Community by Monitoring Sanitary Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Pagaling, Eulyn

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the understanding of bacterial enteric diseases in the community and their virulence factors relies almost exclusively on clinical disease reporting and examination of clinical pathogen isolates. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of an alternative approach that monitors potential enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) prevalence and intimin gene (eae) diversity in a community by directly quantifying and characterizing target virulence genes in the sanitary sewage. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) quantification of the eae, stx1, and stx2 genes in sanitary sewage samples collected over a 13-month period detected eae in all 13 monthly sewage samples at significantly higher abundance (93 to 7,240 calibrator cell equivalents [CCE]/100 ml) than stx1 and stx2, which were detected sporadically. The prevalence level of potential EPEC in the sanitary sewage was estimated by calculating the ratio of eae to uidA, which averaged 1.0% (σ = 0.4%) over the 13-month period. Cloning and sequencing of the eae gene directly from the sewage samples covered the majority of the eae diversity in the sewage and detected 17 unique eae alleles belonging to 14 subtypes. Among them, eae-β2 was identified to be the most prevalent subtype in the sewage, with the highest detection frequency in the clone libraries (41.2%) and within the different sampling months (85.7%). Additionally, sewage and environmental E. coli isolates were also obtained and used to determine the detection frequencies of the virulence genes as well as eae genetic diversity for comparison. PMID:24141131

  8. Characterization of enteropathogenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle and deer in a shared agroecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pallavi; Sha, Qiong; Lacher, David W.; Del Valle, Jacquelyn; Mosci, Rebekah E.; Moore, Jennifer A.; Scribner, Kim T.; Manning, Shannon D.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen. Cattle are suggested to be an important reservoir for STEC; however, these pathogens have also been isolated from other livestock and wildlife. In this study we sought to investigate transmission of STEC, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) between cattle and white-tailed deer in a shared agroecosystem. Cattle feces were collected from 100 animals in a Michigan dairy farm in July 2012, while 163 deer fecal samples were collected during two sampling periods (March and June). The locations of deer fecal pellets were recorded via geographic information system mapping and microsatellite multi-locus genotyping was used to link the fecal samples to individual deer at both time points. Following subculture to sorbitol MacConkey agar and STEC CHROMagar, the pathogens were characterized by serotyping, stx profiling, and PCR-based fingerprinting; multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed on a subset. STEC and EHEC were cultured from 12 to 16% of cattle, respectively, and EPEC was found in 36%. Deer were significantly less likely to have a pathogen in March vs. June where the frequency of STEC, EHEC, and EPEC was 1, 6, and 22%, respectively. PCR fingerprinting and MLST clustered the cattle- and deer-derived strains together in a phylogenetic tree. Two STEC strains recovered from both animal species shared MLST and fingerprinting profiles, thereby providing evidence of interspecies transmission and highlighting the importance of wildlife species in pathogen shedding dynamics and persistence in the environment and cattle herds. PMID:25883908

  9. Crk adaptors negatively regulate actin polymerization in pedestals formed by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) by binding to Tir effector.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Pelegrin, Elvira; Meiler, Eugenia; Martín-Villa, José Manuel; Benito-León, María; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2014-03-01

    Infections by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) cause diarrhea linked to high infant mortality in developing countries. EPEC adheres to epithelial cells and induces the formation of actin pedestals. Actin polymerization is driven fundamentally through signaling mediated by Tir bacterial effector protein, which inserts in the plasma membrane of the infected cell. Tir binds Nck adaptor proteins, which in turn recruit and activate N-WASP, a ubiquitous member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family of proteins. N-WASP activates the Arp2/3 complex to promote actin polymerization. Other proteins aside from components of the Tir-Nck-N-WASP pathway are recruited to the pedestals but their functions are unknown. Here we investigate the function of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Crk adaptors (CrkI/II) and the paralog protein CrkL during pedestal formation by EPEC. We found that the Crk isoforms act as redundant inhibitors of pedestal formation. The SH2 domain of CrkII and CrkL binds to phosphorylated tyrosine 474 of Tir and competes with Nck to bind Tir, preventing its recruitment to pedestals and thereby inhibiting actin polymerization. EPEC infection induces phosphorylation of the major regulatory tyrosine in CrkII and CrkL, possibly preventing the SH2 domain of these proteins from interacting with Tir. Phosphorylated CrkII and CrkL proteins localize specifically to the plasma membrane in contact with EPEC. Our study uncovers a novel role for Crk adaptors at pedestals, opening a new perspective in how these oncoproteins regulate actin polymerization.

  10. Occurrence and Characterization of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in Retail Ready-to-Eat Foods in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuhong; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that potentially causes infant and adult diarrhea. The occurrence and characteristics of EPEC in retail ready-to-eat (RTE) foods have not been thoroughly investigated in China. This study aimed to investigate EPEC occurrence in retail RTE foods sold in the markets of China and to characterize the isolated EPEC by serotyping, virulence gene analyses, antibiotic susceptibility test, and molecular typing based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). From May 2012 to April 2013, 459 RTE food samples were collected from retail markets in 24 cities of China. E. coli in general, and EPEC specifically, were detected in 144 (31.4%) and 39 (8.5%) samples, respectively. Cold vegetable in sauce was the food type most frequently contaminated with EPEC (18.6%). Of 39 EPEC isolates, 38 were atypical EPEC (eae+) and 1 was typical EPEC (eae+bfpA+) by multiplex PCR assays. The virulence genes espA, espB, tir, and iha were detected in 12, 9, 2, and 1 of 39 isolates, respectively, while genes toxB, etpD, katP, and saa were not detected. O-antigen serotyping results showed that among 28 typeable isolates, the most common serotype was O119, followed by O26, O111, and O128. Many isolates were resistant to tetracycline (64.1%; 25/39), ampicillin (48.7%; 19/39), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (48.7%; 19/39). ERIC-PCR indicated high genetic diversity in EPEC strains, which classified 42 strains (39 isolates and 3 reference strains) into 32 different profiles with a discrimination index of 0.981. The findings of this study highlight the need for close surveillance of the RTE foods at the level of production, packaging, and storage to minimize risks of foodborne disease.

  11. Expression of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli map is significantly different than that of other type III secreted effectors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai; Rizvi, Jason; Hecht, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded effectors EspF and Map are multifunctional and have an impact on the tight junction barrier while the non-LEE-encoded proteins NleH1 and NleH2 possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. In order to address the temporal expression of these important genes in vivo, their promoters were cloned upstream of the luxCDABE operon, and luciferase expression was measured in EPEC-infected mice by bioluminescence using an in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Bioluminescent images of living mice, of excised whole intestines, and of whole intestines longitudinally opened and washed were assessed. The majority of bioluminescent bacteria localized in the cecum by 3 h postinfection, indicating that the cecum is not only a major colonization site of EPEC but also a site of EPEC effector gene expression in mice. espF, nleH1, and nleH2 were abundantly expressed over the course of infection. In contrast, map expression was suppressed at 2 days postinfection, and at 4 days postinfection it was totally abolished. After 2 to 4 days postinfection, when map is suppressed, EPEC colonization is significantly reduced, indicating that map may be one of the factors required to maintain EPEC colonization. This was confirmed in a competitive colonization study and in two models of chronic infection, repeated exposure to ketamine and Citrobacter rodentium infection. Our data suggest that map expression contributes to the maintenance of EPEC colonization. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from children with and without diarrhoea in Delhi and the National Capital Region, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Pankaj Kumar; Ali, Arif

    2010-10-01

    A total of 17 typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) were isolated from 396 children with and without diarrhoea. Out of 12 EPEC isolates from patients with diarrhoea, 3 (25 %) were atypical EPEC while 9 (75 %) were typical EPEC. It was observed that atypical EPEC strains had colonized the intestines of healthy children and its isolation rates were higher in healthy children than in children with diarrhoea. Interestingly all of the atypical EPEC isolates carried a megaplasmid, mostly comparable with the size of EPEC adherence factor (EAF) encoding gene but no virulence gene was detected in this megaplasmid. Studies also indicated that multidrug resistance EPEC are emerging and all the atypical EPEC strains showed significantly less resistance to all antimicrobial agents used in this study than typical EPEC. This study also supports the opinion that Shiga toxin-producing E. coli does not pose a major threat to human health in India. Subtyping analysis reveals that eae-α1, eae-β2 and eae-λ could be common EPEC subtypes prevalent in children with diarrhoea in Delhi. The present study is believed to be the first report of the detection of atypical EPEC from children without diarrhoea and records of isolation of eae-γ1, eae-γ2 and the rare eae-λ subtype in India. The data also indicated that typical EPEC are a common cause of diarrhoea and atypical EPEC are emerging as colonizers of the intestine of children with and without diarrhoea in Delhi and the National Capital Region, India.

  13. Molecular Characterization of GrlA, a Specific Positive Regulator of ler Expression in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Rafael; Cruz-Migoni, Sara B.; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Bustamante, Víctor H.; Puente, José L.

    2010-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infections are characterized by the formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on the surfaces of infected epithelial cells. The genes required for the formation of A/E lesions are located within the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Ler is the key regulatory factor controlling the expression of LEE genes. Expression of the ler gene is positively regulated by GrlA, which is encoded by the LEE. Here, we analyze the mechanism by which GrlA positively regulates ler expression and show that in the absence of H-NS, GrlA is no longer essential for ler activation, further confirming that GrlA acts in part as an H-NS antagonist on the ler promoter. Single-amino-acid mutants were constructed to test the functional significance of the putative helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif found in the N-terminal half of GrlA, as well as at the C-terminal domain of the protein. Several mutations within the HTH motif, but not all, completely abolished GrlA activity, as well as specific binding to its target sequence downstream from position −54 in the ler regulatory region. Some of these mutants, albeit inactive, were still able to interact with the negative regulator GrlR, indicating that loss of activity was not a consequence of protein misfolding. Additional residues in the vicinity of the HTH domain, as well as at the end of the protein, were also shown to be important for GrlA activity as a transcriptional regulator, but not for its interaction with GrlR. In summary, GrlA consists of at least two functional domains, one involved in transcriptional activation and DNA binding and the other in heterodimerization with GrlR. PMID:20622062

  14. Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction for Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: A Tool for Investigation of Asymptomatic Versus Symptomatic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Francesca; Mercado, Erik; Ruiz, Joaquim; Ecker, Lucie; Lopez, Giovanni; Mispireta, Monica; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains are pediatric pathogens commonly isolated from both healthy and sick children with diarrhea in areas of endemicity. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial load of EPEC isolated from stool samples from children with and without diarrhea to determine whether bacterial load might be a useful tool for further study of this phenomenon. Methods. EPEC was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of colonies isolated on MacConkey plates from 53 diarrheal and 90 healthy children aged <2 years. DNA was isolated from stool samples by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction. To standardize quantification by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), the correlation between fluorescence threshold cycle and copy number of the intimin gene of EPEC E2348/69 was determined. Results. The detection limit of qRT-PCR was 5 bacteria/mg stool. The geometric mean load in diarrhea was 299 bacteria/mg (95% confidence interval [CI], 77–1164 bacteria/mg), compared with 29 bacteria/mg (95% CI, 10–87 bacteria/mg) in control subjects (P = .016). Bacterial load was significantly higher in children with diarrhea than in control subjects among children <12 months of age (178 vs 5 bacteria/mg; P = .006) and among children with EPEC as the sole pathogen (463 vs 24 bacteria/mg; P = .006). Conclusions. EPEC load measured by qRT-PCR is higher in diarrheal than in healthy children. qRT-PCR may be useful to study the relationship between disease and colonization in settings of endemicity. PMID:22028433

  15. Biofilm Formation by and Multicellular Behavior of Escherichia coli O55:H7, an Atypical Enteropathogenic Strain ▿

    PubMed Central

    Weiss-Muszkat, Michal; Shakh, Dana; Zhou, Yizhou; Pinto, Riky; Belausov, Eddy; Chapman, Matthew R.; Sela, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important causal agent of diarrheal illness throughout the world. Nevertheless, researchers have only recently begun to explore its capacity to form biofilms. Strain O55:H7 (DMS9) is a clinical isolate belonging to the atypical EPEC (aEPEC) group, which displays a high degree of genetic relatedness to enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Strain DMS9 formed a robust biofilm on an abiotic surface at 26°C, but not at 37°C. It also formed a dense pellicle at the air-liquid interface and developed a red, rough, and dry (RDAR) morphotype on Congo red agar. Unlike a previously described E. coli O157:H7 strain, the aEPEC strain seems to express cellulose. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify biofilm-deficient mutants. One of the mutants was inactivated in the csgFG genes, required for assembly and secretion of curli fimbriae, while a second mutant had a mutation in crl, a thermosensitive global regulator that modulates σS activity and downstream expression of curli and cellulose. The two mutants were deficient in their biofilm formation capabilities and did not form a pellicle at the air-liquid interface. Unlike in Salmonella, the csgFG mutant in aEPEC completely lost the RDAR phenotype, while the crl mutant displayed a unique RDAR “pizza”-like morphotype. Genetic complementation of the two mutants resulted in restoration of the wild-type phenotype. This report is the first to describe and analyze a multicellular behavior in aEPEC and support a major role for curli and the crl regulator in biofilm development at low temperatures corresponding to the nonmammalian host environment. PMID:20080991

  16. [Epidemic of gastroenteritis in Noumea (New Caledonia) caused by an enterotoxinogenic strain of Escherichia coli (0l26:B16) believed to be enteropathogenic].

    PubMed

    Germani, Y; Amat, F; Brethes, B; Begaud, E; Plassart, H

    1985-01-01

    A strain of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli 0126:B16 has been isolated in fifteen children and one adult during a severe outbreak. One infant is dead. The strain produced heat-stable enterotoxin, attach to rabbit enterocytes but did not have colonization factor antigen CFA/I or CFA/II. Its hemagglutination type was the same that the E. coli H10407, CFA/I+. It presented a resistance at eight antibiotics and, with the loss of enterotoxigenicity, there was a loss of resistance at ampicillin and of the capacity to attach to enterocytes.

  17. Specific Properties of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Diarrheal Patients and Comparison to Strains from Foods and Fecal Specimens from Cattle, Swine, and Healthy Carriers in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Wakushima, Mitsuko; Aota, Tetsu; Yoshida, Yuka; Kita, Toshimasa; Maehara, Tomofumi; Ogasawara, Jun; Choi, Changsun; Kamata, Yoichi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2013-01-01

    For exhaustive detection of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, we previously developed a colony-hybridization method using hydrophobic grid-membrane filters in combination with multiplex real-time PCR. To assess the role of domestic animals as the source of atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), a total of 679 samples (333 from foods, fecal samples from 227 domestic animals, and 119 from healthy people) were examined. Combining 48 strains previously isolated from patients and carriers, 159 aEPEC strains were classified by phylogroup, virulence profile, and intimin typing. Phylogroup B1 was significantly more prevalent among aEPEC from patients (50%) and bovine samples (79%) than from healthy carriers (16%) and swine strains (23%), respectively. Intimin type β1 was predominant in phylogroup B1; B1-β1 strains comprised 26% of bovine strains and 25% of patient strains. The virulence profile groups Ia and Ib were also observed more frequently among bovine strains than among porcine strains. Similarly, virulence group Ia was detected more frequently among patient strains than strains of healthy carriers. A total of 85 strains belonged to virulence group I, and 63 of these strains (74%) belonged to phylogroup B1. The present study suggests that the etiologically important aEPEC in diarrheal patients could be distinguished from aEPEC strains indigenous to humans based on type, such as B1, Ia, and β1/γ1, which are shared with bovine strains, while the aEPEC strains in healthy humans are different, and some of these were also present in porcine samples. PMID:23220963

  18. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Del Serrone, Paola; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) oil (NO) was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO) ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000). The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL). There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC. PMID:26064900

  19. Quantitation of the Adherence of an Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to Isolated Rabbit Intestinal Brush Borders

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Christopher P.; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Formal, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    Two assays were developed to quantitate the adherence of an Escherichia coli strain (RDEC-1) known to colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine of rabbits to brush borders isolated from rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. In the first assay, the mean adherence per rabbit brush border was determined by counting the number of organisms adhering to each of 40 brush borders under phase microscopy. The mean adherence of RDEC-1 (11.5 ± 0.7 per rabbit brush border) was significantly greater than adherence of two nonpathogenic strains: HS (2.7 ± 0.4 per rabbit brush border) and 640 (0.8 ± 0.1 per rabbit brush border). A similar distinction between the adherence of RDEC-1 and the control (nonadherent) organisms could be made more rapidly by determining the percentage of the total number of brush borders which had 10 or more adherent organisms; this second assay was used to define the optimum conditions for adherence. Maximum adherence was seen within 15 min. Adherence was temperature dependent, with adherence after 1 min at 37°C being fourfold greater than that at 4°C. The pH optimum for adherence was between 6.5 and 7.0, and adherence was abolished below pH 5.0. With the first, more sensitive assay, the effect of electrolytes and a number of hexoses and hexosamines on adherence was analyzed. RDEC-1 adherence was inhibited at high ionic strengths; however, adherence was not influenced at moderately high concentrations (20 mg/ml) by either d-mannose or l-fucose, in contrast to the case for other reported enteric pathogens. These two quantitative in vitro assays for adherence produce consistent results and have been used to partially characterize the adherence of RDEC-1 to rabbit brush borders. Images PMID:44705

  20. Structural and Functional Analysis of BipA, a Regulator of Virulence in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Haitian; Hahm, Joseph; Diggs, Stephen; ...

    2015-07-10

    The translational GTPase BipA regulates the expression of virulence and pathogenicity factors in several eubacteria. BipA-dependent expression of virulence factors occurs under starvation conditions, such as encountered during infection of a host. Under these conditions, BipA associates with the small ribosomal subunit. BipA also has a second function to promote the efficiency of late steps in biogenesis of large ribosomal subunits at low temperatures, presumably while bound to the ribosome. During starvation, the cellular concentration of stress alarmone guanosine-3', 5'-bis pyrophosphate (ppGpp) is increased. This increase allows ppGpp to bind to BipA and switch its binding specificity from ribosomes tomore » small ribosomal subunits. A conformational change of BipA upon ppGpp binding could explain the ppGpp regulation of the binding specificity of BipA. Here, we present the structures of the full-length BipA from Escherichia coli in apo, GDP-, and ppGpp-bound forms. The crystal structure and small-angle x-ray scattering data of the protein with bound nucleotides, together with a thermodynamic analysis of the binding of GDP and of ppGpp to BipA, indicate that the ppGpp-bound form of BipA adopts the structure of the GDP form. This suggests furthermore, that the switch in binding preference only occurs when both ppGpp and the small ribosomal subunit are present. Finally, this molecular mechanism would allow BipA to interact with both the ribosome and the small ribosomal subunit during stress response.« less

  1. Molecular Profiling of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains Isolated from French Coastal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Balière, C.; Rincé, A.; Delannoy, S.; Fach, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains may be responsible for food-borne infections in humans. Twenty-eight STEC and 75 EPEC strains previously isolated from French shellfish-harvesting areas and their watersheds and belonging to 68 distinguishable serotypes were characterized in this study. High-throughput real-time PCR was used to search for the presence of 75 E. coli virulence-associated gene targets, and genes encoding Shiga toxin (stx) and intimin (eae) were subtyped using PCR tests and DNA sequencing, respectively. The results showed a high level of diversity between strains, with 17 unique virulence gene profiles for STEC and 56 for EPEC. Seven STEC and 15 EPEC strains were found to display a large number or a particular combination of genetic markers of virulence and the presence of stx and/or eae variants, suggesting their potential pathogenicity for humans. Among these, an O26:H11 stx1a eae-β1 strain was associated with a large number of virulence-associated genes (n = 47), including genes carried on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) or other pathogenicity islands, such as OI-122, OI-71, OI-43/48, OI-50, OI-57, and the high-pathogenicity island (HPI). One O91:H21 STEC strain containing 4 stx variants (stx1a, stx2a, stx2c, and stx2d) was found to possess genes associated with pathogenicity islands OI-122, OI-43/48, and OI-15. Among EPEC strains harboring a large number of virulence genes (n, 34 to 50), eight belonged to serotype O26:H11, O103:H2, O103:H25, O145:H28, O157:H7, or O153:H2. IMPORTANCE The species E. coli includes a wide variety of strains, some of which may be responsible for severe infections. This study, a molecular risk assessment study of E. coli strains isolated from the coastal environment, was conducted to evaluate the potential risk for shellfish consumers. This report describes the characterization of virulence gene profiles and stx/eae polymorphisms of E. coli

  2. Role of Tir and Intimin in the Virulence of Rabbit Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotype O103:H2

    PubMed Central

    Marchès, Olivier; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Boullier, Séverine; Mainil, Jacques; Charlier, Gérard; Raymond, Isabelle; Pohl, Pierre; Boury, Michèle; De Rycke, Jean; Milon, Alain; Oswald, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Attaching and effacing (A/E) rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (REPEC) strains belonging to serogroup O103 are an important cause of diarrhea in weaned rabbits. Like human EPEC strains, they possess the locus of enterocyte effacement clustering the genes involved in the formation of the A/E lesions. In addition, pathogenic REPEC O103 strains produce an Esp-dependent but Eae (intimin)-independent alteration of the host cell cytoskeleton characterized by the formation of focal adhesion complexes and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into bundles of stress fibers. To investigate the role of intimin and its translocated coreceptor (Tir) in the pathogenicity of REPEC, we have used a newly constructed isogenic tir null mutant together with a previously described eae null mutant. When human HeLa epithelial cells were infected, the tir mutant was still able to induce the formation of stress fibers as previously reported for the eae null mutant. When the rabbit epithelial cell line RK13 was used, REPEC O103 produced a classical fluorescent actin staining (FAS) effect, whereas both the eae and tir mutants were FAS negative. In a rabbit ligated ileal loop model, neither mutant was able to induce A/E lesions. In contrast to the parental strain, which intimately adhered to the enterocytes and destroyed the brush border microvilli, bacteria of both mutants were clustered in the mucus without reaching and damaging the microvilli. The role of intimin and Tir was then analyzed in vivo by oral inoculation of weaned rabbits. Although both mutants were still present in the intestinal flora of the rabbits 3 weeks after oral inoculation, neither mutant strain induced any clinical signs or significant weight loss in the inoculated rabbits whereas the parental strain caused the death of 90% of the inoculated rabbits. Nevertheless, an inflammatory infiltrate was present in the lamina propria of the rabbits infected with both mutants, with an inflammatory response greater

  3. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics associated with biofilm formation in clinical isolates of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) have been recently described in the prototype typical EPEC E2348/69 strain and in an atypical EPEC O55:H7 strain. In this study, we sought to evaluate biofilm formation in a collection of 126 atypical EPEC strains isolated from 92 diarrheic and 34 nondiarrheic children, belonging to different serotypes. The association of biofilm formation and adhesin-related genes were also investigated. Results Biofilm formation occurred in 37 (29%) strains of different serotypes, when the assays were performed at 26°C and 37°C for 24 h. Among these, four strains (A79, A87, A88, and A111) formed a stronger biofilm than did the others. The frequency of biofilm producers was higher among isolates from patients compared with isolates from controls (34.8% vs 14.7%; P = 0.029). An association was found between biofilm formation and expression of type 1 fimbriae and curli (P < 0.05). Unlike the previously described aEPEC O55:H7, one aEPEC O119:HND strain (A111) formed a strong biofilm and pellicle at the air-liquid interface, but did not express curli. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify biofilm-deficient mutants. Transposon insertion sequences of six mutants revealed similarity with type 1 fimbriae (fimC, fimD, and fimH), diguanylate cyclase, ATP synthase F1, beta subunit (atpD), and the uncharacterized YjiC protein. All these mutants were deficient in biofilm formation ability. Conclusion This study showed that the ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces and form biofilm is present in an array of aEPEC strains. Moreover, it seems that the ability to form biofilms is associated with the presence of type 1 fimbriae and diguanylate cyclase. Characterization of additional biofilm formation mutants may reveal other mechanisms involved in biofilm formation and bring new insights into aEPEC adhesion and pathogenesis. PMID:25012525

  4. Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of the Bacterial Arginine Glycosyltransferase Effector NleB1 from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wong Fok Lung, Tania; Giogha, Cristina; Creuzburg, Kristina; Ong, Sze Ying; Pollock, Georgina L.; Zhang, Ying; Fung, Ka Yee; Pearson, Jaclyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) interferes with host cell signaling by injecting virulence effector proteins into enterocytes via a type III secretion system (T3SS). NleB1 is a novel T3SS glycosyltransferase effector from EPEC that transfers a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moiety in an N-glycosidic linkage to Arg117 of the Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD). GlcNAcylation of FADD prevents the assembly of the canonical death-inducing signaling complex and inhibits Fas ligand (FasL)-induced cell death. Apart from the DXD catalytic motif of NleB1, little is known about other functional sites in the enzyme. In the present study, members of a library of 22 random transposon-based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleB1 were tested for their ability to block caspase-8 activation in response to FasL during EPEC infection. Immunoblot analysis of caspase-8 cleavage showed that 17 mutant derivatives of NleB1, including the catalytic DXD mutant, did not inhibit caspase-8 activation. Regions of interest around the insertion sites with multiple or single amino acid substitutions were examined further. Coimmunoprecipitation studies of 34 site-directed mutants showed that the NleB1 derivatives with the E253A, Y219A, and PILN(63–66)AAAA (in which the PILN motif from residues 63 to 66 was changed to AAAA) mutations bound to but did not GlcNAcylate FADD. A further mutant derivative, the PDG(236–238)AAA mutant, did not bind to or GlcNAcylate FADD. Infection of mice with the EPEC-like mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium expressing NleBE253A and NleBY219A showed that these strains were attenuated, indicating the importance of residues E253 and Y219 in NleB1 virulence in vivo. In summary, we identified new amino acid residues critical for NleB1 activity and confirmed that these are required for the virulence function of NleB1. PMID:26883593

  5. TccP2-mediated subversion of actin dynamics by EPEC 2 - a distinct evolutionary lineage of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Whale, Andrew D; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Ooka, Tadasuke; Beutin, Lothar; Schüller, Stephanie; Garmendia, Junkal; Crowther, Lynette; Vieira, Mônica A M; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Krause, Gladys; Phillips, Alan D; Gomes, Tania A T; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Frankel, Gad

    2007-06-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of infantile diarrhoea in developing countries. While colonizing the gut mucosa, EPEC triggers extensive actin-polymerization activity at the site of intimate bacterial attachment, which is mediated by avid interaction between the outer-membrane adhesin intimin and the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector Tir. The prevailing dogma is that actin polymerization by EPEC is achieved following tyrosine phosphorylation of Tir, recruitment of Nck and activation of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP). In closely related enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157 : H7, actin polymerization is triggered following recruitment of the T3SS effector TccP/EspF(U) (instead of Nck) and local activation of N-WASP. In addition to tccP, typical EHEC O157 : H7 harbour a pseudogene (tccP2). However, it has recently been found that atypical, sorbitol-fermenting EHEC O157 carries functional tccP and tccP2 alleles. Interestingly, intact tccP2 has been identified in the incomplete genome sequence of the prototype EPEC strain B171 (serotype O111 : H-), but it is missing from another prototype EPEC strain E2348/69 (O127 : H7). E2348/69 and B171 belong to two distinct evolutionary lineages of EPEC, termed EPEC 1 and EPEC 2, respectively. Here, it is reported that while both EPEC 1 and EPEC 2 triggered actin polymerization via the Nck pathway, tccP2 was found in 26 of 27 (96.2 %) strains belonging to EPEC 2, and in none of the 34 strains belonging to EPEC 1. It was shown that TccP2 was: (i) translocated by the locus of enterocyte effacement-encoded T3SS; (ii) localized at the tip of the EPEC 2-induced actin-rich pedestals in infected HeLa cells and human intestinal in vitro organ cultures ex vivo; and (iii) essential for actin polymerization in infected Nck-/- cells. Therefore, unlike strains belonging to EPEC 1, strains belonging to EPEC 2 can trigger actin polymerization using both Nck and TccP2 actin

  6. SepD/SepL-Dependent Secretion Signals of the Type III Secretion System Translocator Proteins in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B.; Li, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type III protein secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for the pathogenesis of attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and Citrobacter rodentium. These pathogens use the T3SS to sequentially secrete three categories of proteins: the T3SS needle and inner rod protein components; the EspA, EspB, and EspD translocators; and many LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors. SepD and SepL are essential for translocator secretion, and mutations in either lead to hypersecretion of effectors. However, how SepD and SepL control translocator secretion and secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors is poorly understood. In this report, we show that the secreted T3SS components, the translocators, and both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors all carry N-terminal type III secretion and translocation signals. These signals all behave like those of the effectors and are sufficient for mediating type III secretion and translocation by wild-type EPEC and hypersecretion by the sepD and sepL mutants. Our results extended previous observations and suggest that the secretion hierarchy of the different substrates is determined by a signal other than the N-terminal secretion signal. We identified a domain located immediately downstream of the N-terminal secretion signal in the translocator EspB that is required for SepD/SepL-dependent secretion. We further demonstrated that this EspB domain confers SepD/SepL- and CesAB-dependent secretion on the secretion signal of effector EspZ. Our results thus suggest that SepD and SepL control and regulate secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors by recognizing translocator-specific export signals. IMPORTANCE Many bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like protein secretion apparatus, termed the type III protein secretion system (T3SS), to secrete and inject numerous proteins directly into

  7. Is Shiga Toxin-Negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 Enteropathogenic or Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli? Comprehensive Molecular Analysis Using Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D.; de Boer, Richard F.; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M. D.; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains. PMID:26311863

  8. Is Shiga Toxin-Negative Escherichia coli O157:H7 Enteropathogenic or Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli? Comprehensive Molecular Analysis Using Whole-Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, Mithila; Zhou, Kai; Mellmann, Alexander; Morabito, Stefano; Croughs, Peter D; de Boer, Richard F; Kooistra-Smid, Anna M D; Rossen, John W A; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2015-11-01

    The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (nonmotile) isolates from patients with gastrointestinal complaints. Isolates were characterized by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and their virulence properties and phylogenetic relationship were determined. Because of the presence of the eae gene but lack of the bfpA gene, the stx-negative isolates were considered atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC). However, they had phenotypic characteristics similar to those of the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates and belonged to the same sequence type, ST11. Furthermore, EPEC and STEC isolates shared similar virulence genes, the locus of enterocyte effacement region, and plasmids. Core genome phylogenetic analysis using a gene-by-gene typing approach showed that the sorbitol-fermenting (SF) stx-negative isolates clustered together with an SF STEC isolate and that one non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) stx-negative isolate clustered together with NSF STEC isolates. Therefore, these stx-negative isolates were thought either to have lost the Stx phage or to be a progenitor of STEC O157:H7/NM. As detection of STEC infections is often based solely on the identification of the presence of stx genes, these may be misdiagnosed in routine laboratories. Therefore, an improved diagnostic approach is required to manage identification, strategies for treatment, and prevention of transmission of these potentially pathogenic strains.

  9. Isolation of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Shiga toxin 1 and 2f-producing Escherichia coli from avian species in India.

    PubMed

    Farooq, S; Hussain, I; Mir, M A; Bhat, M A; Wani, S A

    2009-06-01

    To study the prevalence and characterize atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in avian species in India. Two hundred and twelve faecal samples collected from 62 chickens, 50 ducks and 100 pigeons were investigated for the presence of stx(1), stx(2), eae and ehxA virulence genes by multiplex PCR. In all, 42 E. coli isolates (25 chicken, 2 duck and 15 pigeon) possessed at least one virulence gene. Out of these, nine (4.24%) isolates were STEC and 33 (15.56%) were EPEC. All isolates from duck and chicken were EPEC while among 15 pigeon isolates nine (60%) were STEC and six (40%) were EPEC. Among the STEC isolates four each carried stx(1) or stx(2) and one possessed both stx(1) and stx(2). Subtype analysis of stx revealed the presence of stx(2f) in four STEC isolates. None of the STEC isolates carried stx(1c), stx(2c), stx(2d) or stx(2e). Isolates carrying stx(2f) demonstrated vero cell toxicity. One each belonged to serogroup O17 and O78, while one was rough and the other untypeable. All EPEC isolates were atypical as they lacked bfpA. This appears to be the first report of detection of stx(2f) from India. The study established the presence of stx(1) and stx(2f) containing E. coli in pigeons and atypical EPEC in poultry in India. Pigeons might serve as vectors for transmission of STEC to environment and humans. Taking into account the close contact between fanciers and pigeons, these findings warrant a more critical appraisal of these zoonotic pathogens in pigeons and humans.

  10. Genetic characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolates from goat's milk and goat farm environment.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Suárez, María-Elena; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Blanco, Miguel; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Santos, Jesús A

    2016-11-07

    The aim of this study was to characterize a collection of 44 Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from goat milk and goat farm environment. Of the 19 STEC isolates, five (26.3%) carried the stx1 gene, four (21.1%) the stx2 gene and 10 (52.6%) presented both stx genes. Six (31.6%) STEC strains were eae-positive and belonged to serotypes related to severe human disease (O157:H7 and O5:HNM). Another seven STEC strains were of serotype O146:H21 and three of serotype O166:H28, also linked to human disease. The STEC strains isolated from goat milk were of serotypes potentially pathogenic for humans. All the 25 EPEC isolates were considered atypical (aEPEC) and one aEPEC strain was of serotype O26:H11, a serotype frequently isolated in children with diarrhea. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 23 sequence types (ST) were detected, 14 of them newly described. Twelve STs grouped STEC isolates and 11 STs grouped EPEC isolates. Genetic typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 38 patterns which grouped in 10 clusters. Well-defined groups were also observed for strains of pathogenic serotypes. In conclusion, strains of STEC and aEPEC belonging to serotypes related to severe human disease have been detected in goat milk and the goat farm environment. Ruminants are an important reservoir of STEC strains and the role of these animals as carriers of other pathogenic types of E. coli seems to be an emerging concern.

  11. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of adherence of Escherichia coli O103 enteropathogenic and/or enterohemorrhagic strain GV in enteric infection in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Licois, D; Reynaud, A; Federighi, M; Gaillard-Martinie, B; Guillot, J F; Joly, B

    1991-01-01

    The GV strain (serotype O103:H2:K-), originally isolated from a diarrheic rabbit, is an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain that produces diarrhea without synthesizing the classical enterotoxins and that is not invasive. This strain is characterized by a 117-kb plasmid (pREC-1). Histological study of the gut by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed on the GV strain, on a derivative strain cured of pREC-1, and on transconjugants obtained by transfer of pREC-1 to nonpathogenic strains E. coli K-12 and 6100, not belonging to the O103 serogroup. The GV strain adhered to the epithelial cells of the ileum and large intestine, whereas the cured GV strain did not. Transfer of plasmid pREC-1 to E. coli K-12 or 6100 allowed the bacteria to attach to the intestinal mucosa in the same manner as that of the wild-type GV strain. Thus, pREC-1 seems to play an important role in attachment to and colonization of the intestinal tract of rabbits by E. coli serogroup O103. Scanning electron microscopy showed numerous bacteria attached together and closely associated with intestinal villi. Transmission electron microscopy revealed effacing lesions characteristic of enteropathogenic E. coli strains: effacing of microvilli and cuplike projections (pedestal formations) associated with an acute inflammatory and hemorrhagic response. In contrast with the results reported for rabbit pathogenic O15 strains, it appeared that the Peyer's patches were not involved in the early stages of infection with the O103 GV strain. This strain may represent a model for the study of the virulence and pathogenic effects of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. Images PMID:1894377

  12. Involvement of the mannose receptor and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway of the microdomain of the integral membrane protein after enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ma, Yanlei; Moyer, Mary Pat; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Chenzhang; Qin, Huanlong

    2012-04-01

    The microdomain of the integral membrane protein (MIMP) has been shown to adhere to mucin and to antagonize the adhesion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to epithelial cells; however, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we further identified the receptor of MIMP on NCM460 cells and investigated the mechanism (the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway) following the interaction of MIMP and its corresponding receptor, mannose receptor. We first identified the target receptor of MIMP on the surfaces of NCM460 cells using immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry technology. We also verified the mannose receptor and examined the degradation and activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The results indicated that MIMP adhered to NCM460 cells by binding to the mannose receptor and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK stimulated after EPEC infection via inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 5 pathway. These findings indicated that MIMPs relieve the injury of NCM460 cells after enteropathogenic E. coli infection through the mannose receptor and inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, both of which may therefore be potential therapeutic targets for intestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Characterization of the C-terminal domains of intimin-like proteins of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, and Hafnia alvei.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, G; Candy, D C; Everest, P; Dougan, G

    1994-01-01

    Surface proteins called intimins (Int), which are homologous to the invasin protein (Inv) of Yersinia spp., play a role in inducing brush border damage, termed attachment and effacement, which follows infection by enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii biotype 4280, and Hafnia alvei. Maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusions containing the C-terminal 280 amino acids of Int-like proteins of strains of enteropathogenic E. coli, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, H. alvei, and C. freundii biotype 4280 and of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Inv were constructed and purified. The 3' end of the gene for the H. alvei Int-like protein was sequenced and showed homology to corresponding regions of other Int-encoding genes. Binding of MBP-Int-like and MBP-Inv fusion proteins to HEp-2 cells was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. MBP-Inv induced attachment and spreading of HEp-2 cells to plastic-coated wells, but MBP-Int-like fusion proteins did not. Preincubation of HEp-2 cells with MBP-Inv, but not with MBP-Int-like fusion proteins, inhibited MBP-Inv-induced cell attachment. Fixed staphylococci and fluorescent polymer microspheres coated with both MBP-Int-like and MBP-Inv fusion proteins showed enhanced adhesion to HEp-2 cells. These fusion proteins will facilitate studies of the role of intimin in the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with members of the family Enterobacteriaeceae that induce attachment and effacement. Images PMID:8168946

  14. Survival of multi-drug resistant enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella paratyphi in Vembanadu lake as a function of saltwater barrier along southwest coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Abhirosh; Suson, P S; Thomas, A P; Hatha, Mohamed; Mazumder, Asit

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the survival response of multi-drug resistant enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella paratyphi to the salinity fluctuations induced by a saltwater barrier constructed in Vembanadu lake, which separates the lake into a freshwater dominated southern and brackish water dominated northern part. Therefore, microcosms containing freshwater, brackish water and microcosms with different saline concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 ppt) inoculated with E. coli/S. paratyphi were monitored up to 34 days at 20 and 30 °C. E. coli and S. paratyphi exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) survival at 20 °C compared to 30 °C in all microcosms. Despite fresh/brackish water, E. coli and S. paratyphi showed prolonged survival up to 34 days at both temperatures. They also demonstrated better survival potential at all tested saline concentrations except 25 ppt where a significantly higher (p < 0.0001) decay was observed. Therefore, enhanced survival exhibited by the multi-drug resistant enteropathogenic E. coli and S. paratyphi over a wide range of salinity levels suggest that they are able to remain viable for a very long time at higher densities in all seasons of the year in Vembanadu lake irrespective of saline concentrations, and may pose potential public health risks during recreational activities.

  15. SepD/SepL-dependent secretion signals of the type III secretion system translocator proteins in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wanyin; Yu, Hong B; Li, Yuling; Finlay, B Brett

    2015-04-01

    The type III protein secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for the pathogenesis of attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens, including enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and Citrobacter rodentium. These pathogens use the T3SS to sequentially secrete three categories of proteins: the T3SS needle and inner rod protein components; the EspA, EspB, and EspD translocators; and many LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors. SepD and SepL are essential for translocator secretion, and mutations in either lead to hypersecretion of effectors. However, how SepD and SepL control translocator secretion and secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors is poorly understood. In this report, we show that the secreted T3SS components, the translocators, and both LEE- and non-LEE-encoded effectors all carry N-terminal type III secretion and translocation signals. These signals all behave like those of the effectors and are sufficient for mediating type III secretion and translocation by wild-type EPEC and hypersecretion by the sepD and sepL mutants. Our results extended previous observations and suggest that the secretion hierarchy of the different substrates is determined by a signal other than the N-terminal secretion signal. We identified a domain located immediately downstream of the N-terminal secretion signal in the translocator EspB that is required for SepD/SepL-dependent secretion. We further demonstrated that this EspB domain confers SepD/SepL- and CesAB-dependent secretion on the secretion signal of effector EspZ. Our results thus suggest that SepD and SepL control and regulate secretion hierarchy between translocators and effectors by recognizing translocator-specific export signals. Many bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like protein secretion apparatus, termed the type III protein secretion system (T3SS), to secrete and inject numerous proteins directly into the host cells to

  16. β1-Chain Integrins Are Not Essential for Intimin-Mediated Host Cell Attachment and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-Induced Actin Condensation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Magoun, Loranne; Leong, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Intimin is a bacterial outer membrane protein required for intimate attachment of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC) to mammalian cells. β1-chain integrins have been proposed as candidate receptors for intimin. We found that binding of mammalian cells to immobilized intimin was not detectable unless mammalian cells were preinfected with EPEC or EHEC. β1-chain integrin antagonists or inactivation of the gene encoding the β1-chain did not affect binding of preinfected mammalian cells to intimin or the actin condensation associated with the attachment of EPEC. The results indicate that β1-chain integrins are not essential for intimin-mediated cell attachment or EPEC-mediated actin polymerization. PMID:10085058

  17. DsbA directs efficient expression of outer membrane secretin EscC of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli type III secretion apparatus.

    PubMed

    Miki, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Nobuhiko; Kim, Yeongsuk; Abe, Akio; Danbara, Hirofumi

    2008-02-01

    The formation of disulfide bond is essential for the folding, activity, and stability of many secreted proteins of Gram-negative bacteria. The disulfide oxidoreductase, DsbA, introduces disulfide bonds into exported proteins from the cytoplasm. In pathogenic bacteria, DsbA is required to process virulence determinants for their folding and assembly. In this study, we investigated the role of DsbA in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Here, we show that the DsbA is required for stable expression of outer membrane secretin EscC. DsbA has no effect on LEE transcription as measured with LEE-lacZ fusions. Replacement of either cysteine residue 136 or 155 of EscC with a serine resulted in reduced level of EscC, similar to the effect of the dsbA mutation. These results demonstrate the role of DsbA in assembly of the type III secretion apparatus.

  18. Passive immunisation of neonatal lambs against infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli via colostrum of ewes immunised with crude and purified K99 pili.

    PubMed

    Altmann, K; Mukkur, T K

    1983-09-01

    Lambs sucking ewes immunised four to five weeks before parturition with crude preparations of K99 and purified K99 pili of single subunit composition were protected against challenge infection with heterologous enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. In contrast, the majority of lambs sucking sham-immunised ewes suffered severe diarrhoea and dehydration, followed by death in nearly half of the affected lambs. Protection was related to the presence of antibody in the colostral whey and lamb sera. K99-specific antibody activity in the colostral whey was found to be confined to IgM and IgG (IgG1 and IgG2) but not to the IgA class.

  19. The Flagella of an Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain Are Required for Efficient Interaction with and Stimulation of Interleukin-8 Production by Enterocytes In Vitro▿

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Suely C. F.; Gomes, Tânia A. T.; Pichon, Christophe; du Merle, Laurence; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Abe, Cecilia M.; Sampaio, Jorge L. M.; Le Bouguénec, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    The ability of some typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains to adhere to, invade, and increase interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro has been demonstrated. However, few studies regarding these aspects have been performed with atypical EPEC (aEPEC) strains, which are emerging enteropathogens in Brazil. In this study, we evaluated a selected aEPEC strain (1711-4) of serotype O51:H40, the most prevalent aEPEC serotype in Brazil, in regard to its ability to adhere to and invade Caco-2 and T84 cells and to elicit IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells. The role of flagella in aEPEC 1711-4 adhesion, invasion, and IL-8 production was investigated by performing the same experiments with an isogenic aEPEC mutant unable to produce flagellin (FliC), the flagellum protein subunit. We demonstrated that this mutant (fliC mutant) had a marked decrease in the ability to adhere to T84 cells and invade both T84 and Caco-2 cells in gentamicin protection assays and by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the aEPEC 1711-4 fliC mutant had a reduced ability to stimulate IL-8 production by Caco-2 cells in early (3-h) but not in late (24-h) infections. Our findings demonstrate that flagella of aEPEC 1711-4 are required for efficient adhesion, invasion, and early but not late IL-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:19620340

  20. [Annual distribution of serotypes of Salmonella, Shigella, and infantile enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in the Republic of Argentina, 1979-1981].

    PubMed

    Eiguer, T; Butta, N

    1983-01-01

    We report data of isolation of 3,665 strains of Salmonella, 1,855 of Shigella and 697 of E. coli infantile enteropathogenic (EPI) from different sources: human, animal, food and water, in Argentina during the triennium 1979-1981, considering their importance in the chain of transmission of enterobacteria. It appears that S. typhimurium is the most common among all the isolated serotypes of Salmonella, following in order of importance, S. oranienburg, S. derby, S. panama, S. agona, S. anatum, S. newport, S. bredeney and S. montevideo. It is important to emphasize the appearance of new Shigella serotypes in Argentina, particularly Sh. dysenteriae 2. We found that E. coli EPI 0111:B4 was the most frequent serotype and in 1981 the serotype 0112:B13 was also found.

  1. Generation of a restriction minus enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69 strain that is efficiently transformed with large, low copy plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Neil; Price, Nancy L; Ward, Jordan D; Raivio, Tracy L

    2008-01-01

    Background Many microbes possess restriction-modification systems that protect them from parasitic DNA molecules. Unfortunately, the presence of a restriction-modification system in a given microbe also hampers genetic analysis. Although plasmids can be successfully conjugated into the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain E2348/69 and optimized protocols for competent cell preparation have been developed, we found that a large, low copy (~15) bioluminescent reporter plasmid, pJW15, that we modified for use in EPEC, was exceedingly difficult to transform into E2348/69. We reasoned that a restriction-modification system could be responsible for the low transformation efficiency of E2348/69 and sought to identify and inactivate the responsible gene(s), with the goal of creating an easily transformable strain of EPEC that could complement existing protocols for genetic manipulation of this important pathogen. Results Using bioinformatics, we identified genes in the unfinished enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69 genome whose predicted products bear homology to the HsdM methyltransferases, HsdS specificity subunits, and HsdR restriction endonucleases of type I restriction-modification systems. We constructed a strain carrying a deletion of the conserved enzymatic domain of the EPEC HsdR homologue, NH4, and showed that its transformation efficiency was up to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the parent strain. Further, the modification capacity of NH4 remained intact, since plasmids that were normally recalcitrant to transformation into E2348/69 could be transformed upon passage through NH4. NH4 was unaffected in virulence factor production, since bundle forming pilus (BFP) subunits and type III secreted (T3S) proteins were present at equivalent levels to those seen in E2348/69. Further, NH4 was indistinguishable from E2348/69 in tissue culture infection model assays of localized adherence and T3S. Conclusion We have shown that EPEC

  2. Association of vitamin D status with incidence of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli diarrhoea in children of urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A M S; Soares Magalhaes, R J; Long, K Z; Ahmed, T; Alam, Md A; Hossain, Md I; Islam, Md M; Mahfuz, M; Mondal, D; Haque, R; Mamun, A A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the association between vitamin D status and diarrhoeal episodes by enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli in underweight and normal-weight children aged 6-24 months in urban Bangladesh. Cohorts of 446 normal-weight and 466 underweight children were tested separately for ETEC, EPEC and EAEC from diarrhoeal stool samples collected during 5 months of follow-up while considering vitamin D status at enrolment as the exposure. Cox proportional hazards models with unordered failure events of the same type were used to determine diarrhoeal risk factors after adjusting for sociodemographic and concurrent micronutrient status. Vitamin D status was not independently associated with the risk of incidence of ETEC, EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight children, but moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency was associated with reduced risk for EPEC diarrhoea upon adjustment. Among normal-weight children, insufficient vitamin D status and moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency were independently associated with 44% and 38% reduced risk of incidence of EAEC diarrhoea, respectively. These children were at higher risk of ETEC diarrhoea with vitamin D deficiency status when adjusted for micronutrient status only. This study demonstrates for the first time that normal-weight children with insufficient vitamin D status have a reduced risk of EAEC diarrhoea than children with sufficient status. Moderate-to-severe deficiency of serum retinol is associated with reduced risk of EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight and normal-weight children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Tip of the Iceberg: On the Roles of Regulatory Small RNAs in the Virulence of Enterohemorrhagic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Shantanu; Egan, Marisa; Jenkins, Valerie; Muche, Sarah; El-Fenej, Jihad

    2016-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli are gastrointestinal pathogens that disrupt the intestinal microvilli to form attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on infected cells and cause diarrhea. This pathomorphological trait is encoded within the pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The LEE houses a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), which upon assembly bridges the bacterial cytosol to that of the host and enables the bacterium to traffic dozens of effectors into the host where they hijack regulatory and signal transduction pathways and contribute to bacterial colonization and disease. Owing to the importance of the LEE to EHEC and EPEC pathogenesis, much of the research on these pathogens has centered on its regulation. To date, over 40 proteinaceous factors have been identified that control the LEE at various hierarchical levels of gene expression. In contrast, RNA-based regulatory mechanisms that converge on the LEE have only just begun to be unraveled. In this minireview, we highlight major breakthroughs in small RNAs (sRNAs)-dependent regulation of the LEE, with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and/or LEE-encoded targets. PMID:27709103

  4. Bacterial-Chromatin Structural Proteins Regulate the Bimodal Expression of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Leh, Hervé; Khodr, Ahmad; Bouger, Marie-Christine; Sclavi, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli. One key regulator of bimodal LEE1 and LEE5 expression is ler expression, which fluctuates in response to different growth conditions. Under conditions in vitro considered to be equivalent to nonoptimal conditions for virulence, the opposing regulatory effects of H-NS and Ler can lead to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations. H-NS and Ler share nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region, but H-NS binding results in local DNA structural modifications distinct from those generated through Ler binding, at least in vitro. Thus, we show how two nucleoid-binding proteins can contribute to the epigenetic regulation of bacterial virulence and lead to opposing bacterial fates. This finding implicates for the first time bacterial-chromatin structural proteins in the bimodal regulation of gene expression. PMID:28790204

  5. Saccharomyces boulardii Preserves the Barrier Function and Modulates the Signal Transduction Pathway Induced in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli-Infected T84 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Czerucka, Dorota; Dahan, Stephanie; Mograbi, Baharia; Rossi, Bernard; Rampal, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    Use of the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment of infectious diarrhea has attracted growing interest. The present study designed to investigate the effect of this yeast on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)-associated disease demonstrates that S. boulardii abrogated the alterations induced by an EPEC strain on transepithelial resistance, [3H]inulin flux, and ZO-1 distribution in T84 cells. Moreover, EPEC-mediated apoptosis of epithelial cells was delayed in the presence of S. boulardii. The yeast did not modify the number of adherent bacteria but lowered by 50% the number of intracellular bacteria. Infection by EPEC induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in T84 cells, including p46 and p52 SHC isoforms, that was attenuated in the presence of S. boulardii. Similarly, EPEC-induced activation of the ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway was diminished in the presence of the yeast. Interestingly, inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway with the specific inhibitor PD 98059 decreased EPEC internalization, suggesting that modulation of the ERK1/2 MAP pathway might account for the lowering of the number of intracellular bacteria observed in the presence of S. boulardii. Altogether, this study demonstrated that S. boulardii exerts a protective effect on epithelial cells after EPEC adhesion by modulating the signaling pathway induced by bacterial infection. PMID:10992512

  6. Genetic Characterization of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Ewes' Milk, Sheep Farm Environments, and Humans by Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa

    2013-01-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water. PMID:23872571

  7. Genetic characterization of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from ewes' milk, sheep farm environments, and humans by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Otero, Verónica; Rodríguez-Calleja, José-María; Otero, Andrés; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A

    2013-10-01

    A collection of 81 isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) was obtained from samples of bulk tank sheep milk (62 isolates), ovine feces (4 isolates), sheep farm environment (water, 4 isolates; air, 1 isolate), and human stool samples (9 isolates). The strains were considered atypical EPEC organisms, carrying the eae gene without harboring the pEAF plasmid. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 19 sequence types (ST) were detected, with none of them having been previously reported for atypical EPEC. The most frequent ST included 41 strains isolated from milk and human stool samples. Genetic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 57 patterns which grouped in 24 clusters. Comparison of strains isolated from the different samples showed phylogenetic relationships between milk and human isolates and also between milk and water isolates. The results obtained show a possible risk for humans due to the presence of atypical EPEC in ewes' milk and suggest a transmission route for this emerging pathogen through contaminated water.

  8. The inhibition of COPII trafficking is important for intestinal epithelial tight junction disruption during enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium infection.

    PubMed

    Thanabalasuriar, Ajitha; Kim, Jinoh; Gruenheid, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause severe illnesses in humans. Citrobacter rodentium is a related mouse pathogen that serves as a small animal model for EPEC and EHEC infections. EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium translocate bacterial virulence proteins directly into host intestinal cells via a type III secretion system (T3SS). Non-LEE-encoded effector A (NleA) is a T3SS effector that is common to EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium. NleA interacts with and inhibits the mammalian COPII complex, impairing cellular secretion; this interaction is required for bacterial virulence. Although diarrhea is a hallmark of EPEC, EHEC and C. rodentium infections, the underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. One of the essential functions of the intestine is to maintain a barrier between the lumen and submucosa. Tight junctions seal the space between adjacent epithelial cells creating this barrier. Consequently, it is thought that the disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium could result in a loss of barrier function. In this study, we demonstrate that NleA mediated COPII inhibition is required for EPEC- and C. rodentium-mediated disruption of tight junction proteins and increases in fecal water content.

  9. Phenotypic and genetic features of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from diarrheal children in the Ribeirão Preto metropolitan area, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Nakazato, Gerson; Falcão, Juliana P; Irino, Kinue; Martinez, Roberto; Darini, Ana Lúcia C; Hernandes, Rodrigo Tavanelli

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to characterize a collection of 60 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolates from diarrheic feces of patients in the Ribeirão Preto metropolitan area regarding different phenotypic and molecular features. We examined antibiotic resistance profiles, occurrence of virulence factors-encoding genes, intimin subtypes and the correlation of serotypes among typical (tEPEC) and atypical (aEPEC) EPEC isolates. The results demonstrated that atypical EPEC was more heterogeneous than typical EPEC concerning the characteristics investigated and 45.2% do not belong to classical EPEC serogroups. Intimin subtype β was the most frequent among the EPEC isolates (46.7%), being detected in both tEPEC and aEPEC. The majority of aEPEC isolates presented localized adherence-like (LAL) pattern to HEp-2 cells, although aEPEC isolates displaying diffuse adherence (DA) or non-adherent were also detected. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was found for ampicillin, cephalothin, sulfonamide and tetracycline. In general, tEPEC isolates were more resistant to the antimicrobials tested than aEPEC isolates.

  10. Action of phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharides on immune and hematological responses and fecal consistency of dogs experimentally infected with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, E.M.M.F.; Silva, I.S.; Nakazato, G.; Onselem, V.J.V.; Corrêa, R.A.C.; Araujo, F.R.; Chang, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic action of phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) was investigated regarding its prebiotic activity on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Diarrhea was induced in dogs by experimental infection with EPEC strains. Then MOS was supplied once a day, in water for 20 days. Immunological (IgA and IgG), hematological (lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes) and bacteriological variables (PCR detection of the eae gene of EPEC recovered from stool culture), as well as occurrence of diarrhea were evaluated. All strains caused diarrhea at 24, 48 and 72 h after infection. PCR results indicated that E. coli isolated from stool culture of all infected animals had the eae gene. There was no significant difference among groups as to number of blood cells in the hemogram and IgA and IgG production. MOS was effective in recovering of EPEC-infected dogs since prebiotic-treated animals recovered more rapidly from infection than untreated ones (p < 0.05). This is an important finding since diarrhea causes intense dehydration and nutrient loss. The use of prebiotics for humans and other animals with diarrhea can be an alternative for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPEC infections. PMID:24294246

  11. [Isolation of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H16 identified in a diarrhea case in a child and his household contacts in La Pampa Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Silveyra, Ivana M; Pereyra, Adriana M; Alvarez, María G; Villagran, Mariana D; Baroni, Andrea B; Deza, Natalia; Carbonari, Claudia C; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Rivas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major causative agent of acute diarrhea in children in developing countries. This pathotype is divided into typical EPEC (tEPEC) and atypical EPEC (aEPEC), based on the presence of the bfp virulence factor associated with adhesion, encoded in the pEAF plasmid. In the present study, the isolation of aEPEC O157:H16 from a bloody diarrhea case in a child and his household contacts (mother, father and sister) is described. The strain was characterized as E. coli O157:H16 eae-ɛ-positive, sorbitol fermenter with β-glucuronidase activity, susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and negative for virulence factors stx1, stx2, ehxA and bfp. XbaI-PFGE performed on all isolates showed the AREXHX01.1040 macrorestriction pattern, with 100% similarity. These results highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance of E. coli O157-associated diarrhea cases identified in children and their family contacts, as well as the incorporation of molecular techniques that allow the detection of the different E. coli pathotypes.

  12. Late Establishment of the Attaching and Effacing Lesion Caused by Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Depends on Protein Expression Regulated by Per

    PubMed Central

    Bueris, Vanessa; Huerta-Cantillo, Jazmín; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando; Ruiz, Renato M.; Cianciarullo, Aurora M.

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is classified as typical (tEPEC) or atypical (aEPEC) based on the presence or absence of the E. coli adherence factor plasmid (pEAF), respectively. The hallmark of EPEC infection is the formation of the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on the gut mucosa. We compared the kinetics of A/E lesion formation induced by aEPEC and tEPEC. The examination of infected HEp-2 cells clearly demonstrated delayed A/E lesion formation by aEPEC in comparison to tEPEC. This delay was associated with the expression of locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded virulence factors (i.e., intimin and EspD). Indeed, the insertion of a plasmid containing perABC, a transcriptional regulator of virulence factors involved in A/E formation, into aEPEC strains increased and accelerated the formation of A/E lesions. Interestingly, the enhanced expression and translocation of LEE-encoded proteins, such as those expressed in LEE5 (intimin) and LEE4 (EspD), in aEPEC (perABC) was independent of bacterial adhesion. The secretion kinetics of these two proteins representing LEE5 and LEE4 expression correlated with A/E lesion formation. We conclude that the lack of Per in the regulation network of virulence genes is one of the main factors that delay the establishment of A/E lesions induced by aEPEC strains. PMID:25385791

  13. Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Enteroinvasive E. coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli, and Enterotoxigenic E. coli on tomatoes from public markets in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Andjavier

    2013-09-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) are important foodborne pathogens in various countries, including Mexico. However, no data exist on the presence of DEP on fresh tomatoes (Solanum lycopericum) from Mexico. The frequency of fecal coliforms (FC), E. coli, and DEP were determined for two tomato varieties. One hundred samples of a saladette tomato variety and 100 samples of a red round tomato variety were collected from public markets in Pachuca, Mexico. Each tomato sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. For the 100 saladette samples, coliform bacterial, FC, E. coli, and DEP were identified in 100, 70, 60, and 10% of samples, respectively. For the 100 red round samples, coliform bacterial, FC, E. coli, and DEP were identified in 100, 75, 65, and 11% of samples, respectively. Identified DEP included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). STEC were isolated from 6% of saladette samples and 5% of red round samples. ETEC were isolated from 3% of saladette samples and 4% of red round samples. EPEC were isolated from 2% of saladette samples and 3% of red round samples, and EIEC were isolated from 1% of saladette samples. Both STEC and ETEC were identified in two saladette samples and 1 red round sample. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in any STEC-positive samples.

  14. Behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on alfalfa sprouts.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, M Del Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-08-01

    Data about the behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on seeds and alfalfa sprouts are not available. The behavior of STEC, EIEC, ETEC, and EPEC was determined during germination and sprouting of alfalfa seeds at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C and on alfalfa sprouts at 3 ± 2°C. When alfalfa seeds were inoculated with STEC, EIEC, ETEC, or EPEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 and 6 log CFU/g after 1 day at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seed germination and stored at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C, no growth was observed for any DEP during sprouting at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C for 9 days. Refrigeration reduced significantly (P < 0.0.5) the number of viable DEPs on sprouts after 20 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance for the safety of the sprouts.

  15. Characterization of Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Harboring the astA Gene That Were Associated with a Waterborne Outbreak of Diarrhea in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Saito, Shioko; Miyajima, Yoshimichi; Amano, Ken-Ichi; Enomoto, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The virulence traits of the Escherichia coli strain associated with a waterborne diarrhea outbreak were examined. Forty-one of 75 students (ages 12 to 15) in Akita Prefecture, Japan, showed clinical symptoms. Seven E. coli Ouk:K-:H45 isolates were isolated from the patients as the causative agent of this outbreak. One isolate (EC-3605) showed the presence of E. coli attaching-and-effacing (eaeA) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) genes and the absence of Shiga toxin (stx1 and stx2) genes. A polymorphic enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) adherence factor plasmid was detected in EC-3605 with a major structural gene deletion and a regulatory gene frameshift mutation, revealing that EC-3605 represents an atypical EPEC strain harboring the astA gene. The role that atypical EPEC strains harboring the astA gene play in human disease is unclear. Our results, along with those of others, present a possibility that these strains comprise a distinct category of diarrheagenic E. coli and that astA affects the age distribution of atypical-EPEC infection. PMID:12734245

  16. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes investigation revealed atypical enteropathogenic E. coli as putative emerging diarrheal agents in children living in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Regiane C B; Dos Santos, Bruna C; Dos Santos, Luis F; Vieira, Melissa A; Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Mondelli, Alessandro L; Sadatsune, Terue; Sforcin, José M; Gomes, Tânia A T; Hernandes, Rodrigo T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes, a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide, among diarrheal and healthy children, up to 5 years of age, living in the city of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. DEC, investigated by PCR detection of virulence factor-encoding genes associated with the distinct pathotypes, was isolated from 18.0% of the patients, and 19.0% of the controls, with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), the most frequent pathotype, being detected in equal proportion between patients and controls (10.0%). Among the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolates, only one isolate was able to produce the localized adherence pattern to HeLa cells, being thus the only typical EPEC identified. All the remaining EPEC were classified as atypical (aEPEC), and detected in 8.0% and 8.5% of the patients and controls, respectively. Regarding the serotypes, 26.5% of the analyzed EPEC isolates belonged to classical EPEC-serogroups, and the only two STEC found were serotyped as O26:H11 (patient) and O119:H7 (control). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 43.6%, 29.5% and 2.6% of the DEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and gentamicin, respectively. Our data indicate that EAEC remains prevalent among children living in Botucatu, and revealed atypical EPEC as emerging putative diarrheal agents in this geographical region. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Localized Adherence-Like Pattern as a Second Pattern of Adherence of Classic Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 Cells That Is Associated with Infantile Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Scaletsky, Isabel C. A.; Pedroso, Margareth Z.; Oliva, Carlos A. G.; Carvalho, Rozane L. B.; Morais, Mauro B.; Fagundes-Neto, Ulysses

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains that cause nonbloody diarrhea in infants are known to present three distinct patterns of adherence to epithelial cells, namely, localized (LA), diffuse (DA), and aggregative (AA) adherence. Strains with LA (typical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli [EPEC]) are well recognized as a cause of secretory diarrhea, but the role of strains with DA (DAEC) is controversial, and strains with AA (EAEC) have been more frequently related to persistent diarrhea whereas its relationship with acute diarrhea is not well defined. To determine the relationship of the different types of E. coli adherence patterns with acute diarrhea (lasting less than 14 days) and persistent diarrhea (lasting more than 14 days) in São Paulo, Brazil, we studied stool specimens from 40 infants under 1 year of age with diarrhea and 40 age-matched control infants without any gastrointestinal symptoms. Twenty-eight (35.0%) of eighty cases yielded adherent E. coli (HEp-2 cells). Strains with localized and aggregative adherence were associated with acute and persistent diarrhea. A total of 11.2% of the adherent strains were typical EPEC serotypes and hybridized with the enteroadherence factor probe; 5.0% were EAEC and hybridized with the EAEC probe. DAEC strains were isolated from 10.0% of patients and 7.5% of controls and did not hybridize with the two probes used (daaC and AIDA-I). Strains with a localized adherence-like pattern (atypical EPEC) were found significantly more frequently (P = 0.028) in cultures from children with diarrhea (17.5%) than in controls (2.5%). PMID:10377120

  18. Distribution of Integrons and Phylogenetic Groups among Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Children <5 Years of Age in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Taru; Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, V. G.; Wani, Sayim; Shah, Dheeraj; Maroof, Khan A.; Sharma, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    Integrons by means of horizontal gene transfer carry multidrug resistance genes (MDR) among bacteria, including E. coli. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles and the genes associated with them, to gain insights in the distribution of phylogroups, prevalence, and characterization of class 1, 2 and 3 integrons among Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) isolates, from children upto 5 years of age from Delhi and National Capital Region (NCR), India. A total of 120 E. coli isolates, including 80 from diarrheagenic E. coli (cases) and 40 from healthy isolates (controls) were recruited in this study. After isolation of E. coli, screening for EPEC was done by conventional multiplex PCR. Antibiotic suseptibility test was performed using disk diffusion method and further confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) by E-test. The presence and characterization of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes were performed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Phylogeny determination was carried out by quadruplex PCR. EPEC strains were found in 64 of the 80 diarrheagenic cases, out of which 38 were MDR. In the 40 healthy controls, 23 were found to be EPEC strain, out of which only 2 were MDR. Amongst 80 diarrheagenic cases, class 1 integron were observed in 43 isolates, class 2 integron in 12 isolates and 9 isolates were found with co-existence of both. Similarly, in healthy controls; class 1 integron in 9 and class 2 integron in 7 isolates were observed with co-existence in 3 isolates. None of the isolates included class 3 integron. The dfr was the most commonly identified gene cassette within the integron-positive isolates. Phylogenetic studies showed considerable representation of phylogroup B2 in both diarrheagenic cases and healthy controls. This study reiterates the importance of class 1 integron predominantly for acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes among EPEC isolates. Furthermore, it also ascertains the possible association between

  19. Phylogenetic distribution of tir-cytoskeleton coupling protein (tccP and tccP2) genes in atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Martins, Fernando H; Nepomuceno, Roberto; Piazza, Roxane M F; Elias, Waldir P

    2017-06-15

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector Tir to induce actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. While some EPEC require tyrosine phosphorylation (Y-P) of Tir to trigger actin assembling, certain strains whose Tir is not tyrosine phosphorylated utilize the T3SS effector Tir-cytoskeleton coupling protein (TccP/TccP2) for efficient actin polymerization. The presence of tccP/tccP2 in typical EPEC belonging to distinct evolutionary lineages is well established but, in contrast, little is known about the distribution of these genes in atypical EPEC (aEPEC) showing distinct phylogenetic background. In this study, we screened 72 pathogenic aEPEC for the presence of tccP/tccP2 genes, and further characterized positive strains regarding tir type, phylogroups and production of TccP/TccP2. The tccP and/or tccP2 genes were detected in 45.8% of the strains, with a predominance of tccP2 allele. Most of these strains carried tirY-P, suggesting that can trigger actin polymerization using both Tir tyrosine phosphorylation and TccP/TccP2 pathways. aEPEC strains carrying tccP or tccP2 were significantly associated to phylogroups E and B1, respectively. We also observed a strain-to-strain variation regarding TccP/TccP2 production. Our results demonstrate a wide distribution of tccP/tccP2 genes among pathogenic aEPEC strains, as well associations between specific alleles and phylogenetic backgrounds. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A three-dimensional tissue culture model for the study of attach and efface lesion formation by enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Humberto M; Teel, Louise D; Goping, Gertrud; O'Brien, Alison D

    2005-12-01

    We sought to develop a practical and representative model to study the interactions of enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively) with human intestinal tissue. For this purpose, human intestinal epithelial HCT-8 cells were cultured under low-shear microgravity conditions in a rotating cell culture system. After 10 days, layered cell aggregates, or 'organoids', developed. Three lines of evidence indicated that these organoids exhibited traits characteristic of normal tissue. First, the organoids expressed normal intestinal tissue markers in patterns that suggested greater cellular differentiation in the organoids than conventionally grown monolayers. Second, the organoids produced higher levels of intestinally expressed disaccharidases and alkaline phosphatase on a cell basis than did conventionally cultured monolayers. Third, HCT-8 organoid tissue developed microvilli and desmosomes characteristic of normal tissue, as revealed by electron microscopy. Because the low-shear microgravity condition is proposed by modelling studies to more closely approximate conditions in the intestinal microvilli, we also tested the impact of microgravity of bacterial growth and virulence gene expression. No influence on growth rates was observed but intimin expression by EHEC was elevated during culture in microgravity as compared with normal gravity. That the responses of HCT-8 organoids to infection with wild-type EPEC or EHEC under microgravitational conditions approximated infection of normal tissue was demonstrated by the classical appearance of the resultant attaching and effacing lesions. We concluded that the low shear microgravity environment promoted growth of intestinal cell organoids with greater differentiation than was seen in HCT-8 cells maintained in conventional tissue culture and provided a reduced gravity environment for study of bacterial-host cell interactions.

  1. Characterization of a Large Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Found in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain B171 and Its Relatedness to Plasmids of Diverse E. coli and Shigella Strains.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Nagaraj, Sushma; Okeke, Iruka N; Rasko, David A

    2017-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid, pB171_90, has a completed sequence length of 90,229 bp, a GC content of 54.55%, and carries protein-encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer, resistance to tetracycline (tetA), sulfonamides (sulI), and mercury, as well as several virulence-associated genes, including the transcriptional regulator hha and the putative calcium sequestration inhibitor (csi). In silico detection of the pB171_90 genes among 4,798 publicly available E. coli genome assemblies indicates that the unique genes of pB171_90 (csi and traI) are primarily restricted to genomes identified as EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli However, conserved regions of the pB171_90 plasmid containing genes involved in replication, stability, and antibiotic resistance were identified among diverse E. coli pathotypes. Interestingly, pB171_90 also exhibited significant similarity with a sequenced plasmid from Shigella dysenteriae type I. Our findings demonstrate the mosaic nature of EPEC antibiotic resistance plasmids and highlight the need for additional sequence-based characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids harbored by pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Nck adaptors, besides promoting N-WASP mediated actin-nucleation activity at pedestals, influence the cellular levels of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Tir effector

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Pelegrin, Elvira; Kenny, Brendan; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to human intestinal cells triggers the formation of disease-associated actin rich structures called pedestals. The latter process requires the delivery, via a Type 3 secretion system, of the translocated Intimin receptor (Tir) protein into the host plasma membrane where binding of a host kinase-modified form to the bacterial surface protein Intimin triggers pedestal formation. Tir-Intimin interaction recruits the Nck adaptor to a Tir tyrosine phosphorylated residue where it activates neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP); initiating the major pathway to actin polymerization mediated by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. Previous studies with Nck-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) identified a key role for Nck in pedestal formation, presumed to reflect a lack of N-WASP activation. Here, we show the defect relates to reduced amounts of Tir within Nck-deficient cells. Indeed, Tir delivery and, thus, pedestal formation defects were much greater for MEFs than HeLa (human epithelial) cells. Crucially, the levels of two other effectors (EspB/EspF) within Nck-deficient MEFs were not reduced unlike that of Map (Mitochondrial associated protein) which, like Tir, requires CesT chaperone function for efficient delivery. Interestingly, drugs blocking various host protein degradation pathways failed to increase Tir cellular levels unlike an inhibitor of deacetylase activity (Trichostatin A; TSA). Treatments with TSA resulted in significant recovery of Tir levels, potentiation of actin polymerization and improvement in bacterial attachment to cells. Our findings have important implications for the current model of Tir-mediated actin polymerization and opens new lines of research in this area. PMID:25482634

  3. Role of EscP (Orf16) in Injectisome Biogenesis and Regulation of Type III Protein Secretion in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Monjarás Feria, Julia; García-Gómez, Elizabeth; Espinosa, Norma; Minamino, Tohru; Namba, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into enterocyte host cells, leading to diarrheal disease. The T3SS is encoded within the chromosomal locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). The function of some of the LEE-encoded proteins remains unknown. Here we investigated the role of the Orf16 protein in T3SS biogenesis and function. An orf16 deletion mutant showed translocator and effector protein secretion profiles different from those of wild-type cells. The orf16 null strain produced T3S structures with abnormally long needles and filaments that caused weak hemolysis of red blood cells. Furthermore, the number of fully assembled T3SSs was also reduced in the orf16 mutant, indicating that Orf16, though not essential, is required for efficient T3SS assembly. Analysis of protein secretion revealed that Orf16 is a T3SS-secreted substrate and regulates the secretion of the inner rod component EscI. Both pulldown and yeast two-hybrid assays showed that Orf16 interacts with the C-terminal domain of an inner membrane component of the secretion apparatus, EscU; the inner rod protein EscI; the needle protein EscF; and the multieffector chaperone CesT. These results suggest that Orf16 regulates needle length and, along with EscU, participates in a substrate specificity switch from early substrates to translocators. Taken together, our results suggest that Orf16 acts as a molecular measuring device in a way similar to that of members of the Yersinia YscP and flagellar FliK protein family. Therefore, we propose that this protein be renamed EscP. PMID:22923600

  4. Characterization of two virulence proteins secreted by rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, EspA and EspB, whose maximal expression is sensitive to host body temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, A; Kenny, B; Stein, M; Finlay, B B

    1997-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and rabbit EPEC (RDEC-1) cause unique histopathological features on intestinal mucosa, including attaching/effacing (A/E) lesions. Due to the human specificity of EPEC, RDEC-1 has been used as an animal model to study EPEC pathogenesis. At least two of the previously identified EPEC-secreted proteins, EspA and EspB, are required for triggering host epithelial signal transduction pathways, intimate adherence, and A/E lesions. However, the functions of these secreted proteins and their roles in pathogenesis have not been characterized. To investigate the function of EspA and EspB in RDEC-1, the espA and espB genes were cloned and their sequences were compared to that of EPEC O127. The EspA proteins showed high similarity (88.5% identity), while EspB was heterogeneous in internal regions (69.8% identity). However, RDEC-1 EspB was identical to that of enterohemorrhagic E. coli serotype O26. Mutations in RDEC-1 espA and espB revealed that the corresponding RDEC-1 gene products are essential for triggering of host signal transduction pathways and invasion into HeLa cells. Complementation with plasmids containing EPEC espA or/and espB genes into RDEC-1 mutant strains demonstrated that they were functionally interchangeable, although the EPEC proteins mediated higher levels of invasion. Furthermore, maximal expression of RDEC-1 and EPEC-secreted proteins occurred at their respective host body temperatures, which may contribute to the lack of EPEC infectivity in rabbits. PMID:9284118

  5. The RNA binding protein CsrA is a pleiotropic regulator of the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shantanu; Edwards, Adrianne Nehrling; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu; Merlin, Didier; Romeo, Tony; Kalman, Daniel

    2009-09-01

    The attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogen enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) forms characteristic actin-filled membranous protrusions upon infection of host cells termed pedestals. Here we examine the role of the RNA binding protein CsrA in the expression of virulence genes and proteins that are necessary for pedestal formation. The csrA mutant was defective in forming actin pedestals on epithelial cells and in disrupting transepithelial resistance across polarized epithelial cells. Consistent with reduced pedestal formation, secretion of the translocators EspA, EspB, and EspD and the effector Tir was substantially reduced in the csrA mutant. Purified CsrA specifically bound to the sepL espADB mRNA leader, and the corresponding transcript levels were reduced in the csrA mutant. In contrast, Tir synthesis was unaffected in the csrA mutant. Reduced secretion of Tir appeared to be in part due to decreased synthesis of EscD, an inner membrane architectural protein of the type III secretion system (TTSS) and EscF, a protein that forms the protruding needle complex of the TTSS. These effects were not mediated through the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) transcriptional regulator GrlA or Ler. In contrast to the csrA mutant, multicopy expression of csrA repressed transcription from LEE1, grlRA, LEE2, LEE5, escD, and LEE4, an effect mediated by GrlA and Ler. Consistent with its role in other organisms, CsrA also regulated flagellar motility and glycogen levels. Our findings suggest that CsrA governs virulence factor expression in an A/E pathogen by regulating mRNAs encoding translocators, effectors, or transcription factors.

  6. Nck adaptors, besides promoting N-WASP mediated actin-nucleation activity at pedestals, influence the cellular levels of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Tir effector.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Pelegrin, Elvira; Kenny, Brendan; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) binding to human intestinal cells triggers the formation of disease-associated actin rich structures called pedestals. The latter process requires the delivery, via a Type 3 secretion system, of the translocated Intimin receptor (Tir) protein into the host plasma membrane where binding of a host kinase-modified form to the bacterial surface protein Intimin triggers pedestal formation. Tir-Intimin interaction recruits the Nck adaptor to a Tir tyrosine phosphorylated residue where it activates neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP); initiating the major pathway to actin polymerization mediated by the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. Previous studies with Nck-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) identified a key role for Nck in pedestal formation, presumed to reflect a lack of N-WASP activation. Here, we show the defect relates to reduced amounts of Tir within Nck-deficient cells. Indeed, Tir delivery and, thus, pedestal formation defects were much greater for MEFs than HeLa (human epithelial) cells. Crucially, the levels of two other effectors (EspB/EspF) within Nck-deficient MEFs were not reduced unlike that of Map (Mitochondrial associated protein) which, like Tir, requires CesT chaperone function for efficient delivery. Interestingly, drugs blocking various host protein degradation pathways failed to increase Tir cellular levels unlike an inhibitor of deacetylase activity (Trichostatin A; TSA). Treatments with TSA resulted in significant recovery of Tir levels, potentiation of actin polymerization and improvement in bacterial attachment to cells. Our findings have important implications for the current model of Tir-mediated actin polymerization and opens new lines of research in this area.

  7. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Vaccinia Virus Do Not Require the Family of WASP-Interacting Proteins for Pathogen-Induced Actin Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Garber, John J.; Takeshima, Fuminao; Antón, Inés M.; Oyoshi, Michiko K.; Lyubimova, Anna; Kapoor, Archana; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Chen, Feng; Alt, Frederick W.; Geha, Raif S.; Leong, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and vaccinia virus trigger actin assembly in host cells by activating the host adaptor Nck and the actin nucleation promoter neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP). EPEC translocates effector molecules into host cells via type III secretion, and the interaction between the translocated intimin receptor (Tir) and the bacterial membrane protein intimin stimulates Nck and N-WASP recruitment, leading to the formation of actin pedestals beneath adherent bacteria. Vaccinia virus also recruits Nck and N-WASP to generate actin tails that promote cell-to-cell spread of the virus. In addition to Nck and N-WASP, WASP-interacting protein (WIP) localizes to vaccinia virus tails, and inhibition of actin tail formation upon ectopic expression of WIP mutants led to the suggestion that WIP is required for this process. Similar studies of WIP mutants, however, did not affect the ability of EPEC to form actin pedestals, arguing against an essential role for WIP in EPEC-induced actin assembly. In this study, we demonstrate that Nck and N-WASP are normally recruited by vaccinia virus and EPEC in the absence of WIP, and neither WIP nor the WIP family members CR16 and WIRE/WICH are essential for pathogen induced actin assembly. In addition, although Nck binds EPEC Tir directly, N-WASP is required for its localization during pedestal formation. Overall, these data highlight similar pathogenic strategies shared by EPEC and vaccinia virus by demonstrating a requirement for both Nck and N-WASP, but not WIP or WIP family members in pathogen-induced actin assembly. PMID:22966049

  8. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and vaccinia virus do not require the family of WASP-interacting proteins for pathogen-induced actin assembly.

    PubMed

    Garber, John J; Takeshima, Fuminao; Antón, Inés M; Oyoshi, Michiko K; Lyubimova, Anna; Kapoor, Archana; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Chen, Feng; Alt, Frederick W; Geha, Raif S; Leong, John M; Snapper, Scott B

    2012-12-01

    The human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and vaccinia virus trigger actin assembly in host cells by activating the host adaptor Nck and the actin nucleation promoter neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP). EPEC translocates effector molecules into host cells via type III secretion, and the interaction between the translocated intimin receptor (Tir) and the bacterial membrane protein intimin stimulates Nck and N-WASP recruitment, leading to the formation of actin pedestals beneath adherent bacteria. Vaccinia virus also recruits Nck and N-WASP to generate actin tails that promote cell-to-cell spread of the virus. In addition to Nck and N-WASP, WASP-interacting protein (WIP) localizes to vaccinia virus tails, and inhibition of actin tail formation upon ectopic expression of WIP mutants led to the suggestion that WIP is required for this process. Similar studies of WIP mutants, however, did not affect the ability of EPEC to form actin pedestals, arguing against an essential role for WIP in EPEC-induced actin assembly. In this study, we demonstrate that Nck and N-WASP are normally recruited by vaccinia virus and EPEC in the absence of WIP, and neither WIP nor the WIP family members CR16 and WIRE/WICH are essential for pathogen induced actin assembly. In addition, although Nck binds EPEC Tir directly, N-WASP is required for its localization during pedestal formation. Overall, these data highlight similar pathogenic strategies shared by EPEC and vaccinia virus by demonstrating a requirement for both Nck and N-WASP, but not WIP or WIP family members in pathogen-induced actin assembly.

  9. Generation of recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guérin and Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing BfpA and intimin as vaccine vectors against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Halyka Luzorio Franzotti; Scaramuzzi, Karina; Nascimento, Ivan Pereira; Da Costa Ferreira, Jorge M; Abe, Cecilia M; Piazza, Roxane M F; Kipnis, Andre; Dias da Silva, Wilmar

    2012-09-07

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important cause of diarrhea in children. EPEC adheres to the intestinal epithelium and causes attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (Smeg) and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains were constructed to express either BfpA or intimin. The entire bfpA gene and a portion of the intimin gene were amplified by PCR from EPEC genomic DNA and inserted into the pMIP12 vector at the BamHI/KpnI sites. The pMIP_bfpA and pMIP_intimin vectors were introduced separately into Smeg and BCG. Recombinant clones were selected based on kanamycin resistance and designated rSmeg_pMIP_(bfpA or intimin) and rBCG_pMIP_(bfpA or intimin). The expression of bfpA and intimin was detected by Immunoblotting using polyclonal anti-BfpA and anti-intimin antibodies. The immunogenicity of these proteins was assessed in C57BL/6 mice by assaying the feces and serum for the presence of anti-BfpA and anti-intimin IgA and IgG antibodies. TNF-α and INF-γ were produced in vitro by spleen cells from mice immunized with recombinant BfpA, whereas TNF-γ was produced in mice immunized with recombinant intimin. The adhesion of EPEC (E2348/69) to HEp-2 target cells was blocked by IgA or IgG antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant BfpA or intimin but not by antibodies from non-immunized mice. Immunogenic non-infectious vectors containing relevant EPEC virulence genes may be promising vaccine candidates.

  10. Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance and β-lactamase Genotypic Features of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yong; Shan, Xue-feng; Deng, Haijun; Huang, Yu-jun; Mu, Xiao-ping; Huang, Ai-long; Long, Quan-xin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, drug resistance and β-lactamase genotype distribution of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from pediatric patients with diarrhea in southern China. The prevalence of EPEC in children with diarrhea was 3.53%. The commonest serotypes were O55:K59 and O126:K71, and the typical EPEC were more prevalent than atypical EPEC (51 vs 7). Isolates from this region were most commonly found to be resistant to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole, followed by chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime. More than 96% of the strains were susceptible to cefoperazone/sulbactam and imipenem. The most common β-lactamase genotypes identified in 58 strains were blaCTX-M-1 (60.3%), blaTEM (56.9%), blaCTX-M-9 (27.6%), and blaSHV (15.5%). Among 58 isolates, 22 strains were found to harbor one β-lactamase gene, and the proportions of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and ceftazidime, were 81.8%, 63.6%, 40.9%, 18.2%, and 9.1%, respectively. A further 30 strains carrying multiple β-lactamase genes had increased resistance to the above antimicrobial agents (100%, 83.3%, 70.0%, 60.0%, and 30.0%, respectively). In contrast, antibiotic resistance in the last 6 strains without a detectable β-lactamase gene was substantially reduced. Drug resistance may be associated with the β-lactamase gene number, with a greater the number of β-lactamase genes resulting in higher antibiotic resistance.

  11. Distribution, Functional Expression, and Genetic Organization of Cif, a Phage-Encoded Type III-Secreted Effector from Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Loukiadis, Estelle; Nobe, Rika; Herold, Sylvia; Tramuta, Clara; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ooka, Tadasuke; Morabito, Stefano; Kérourédan, Monique; Brugère, Hubert; Schmidt, Herbert; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Oswald, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). One of these effectors is Cif, encoded outside the LEE by a lambdoid prophage. In this study, we demonstrated that the Cif-encoding prophage of EPEC strain E22 is inducible and produces infectious phage particles. We investigated the distribution and functional expression of Cif in 5,049 E. coli strains of human, animal, and environmental origins. A total of 115 E. coli isolates from diverse origins and geographic locations carried cif. The presence of cif was tightly associated with the LEE, since all the cif-positive isolates were positive for the LEE. These results suggested that the Cif-encoding prophages have been widely disseminated within the natural population of E. coli but positively selected within the population of LEE-positive strains. Nonetheless, 66% of cif-positive E. coli strains did not induce a typical Cif-related phenotype in eukaryotic cells due to frameshift mutations or insertion of an IS element in the cif gene. The passenger region of the prophages carrying cif was highly variable and showed various combinations of IS elements and genes coding for other effectors such as nleB, nleC, nleH, nleG, espJ, and nleA/espI (some of which were also truncated). This diversity and the presence of nonfunctional effectors should be taken into account to assess EPEC and EHEC pathogenicity and tropism. PMID:17873042

  12. Distribution, functional expression, and genetic organization of Cif, a phage-encoded type III-secreted effector from enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Loukiadis, Estelle; Nobe, Rika; Herold, Sylvia; Tramuta, Clara; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ooka, Tadasuke; Morabito, Stefano; Kérourédan, Monique; Brugère, Hubert; Schmidt, Herbert; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Oswald, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). One of these effectors is Cif, encoded outside the LEE by a lambdoid prophage. In this study, we demonstrated that the Cif-encoding prophage of EPEC strain E22 is inducible and produces infectious phage particles. We investigated the distribution and functional expression of Cif in 5,049 E. coli strains of human, animal, and environmental origins. A total of 115 E. coli isolates from diverse origins and geographic locations carried cif. The presence of cif was tightly associated with the LEE, since all the cif-positive isolates were positive for the LEE. These results suggested that the Cif-encoding prophages have been widely disseminated within the natural population of E. coli but positively selected within the population of LEE-positive strains. Nonetheless, 66% of cif-positive E. coli strains did not induce a typical Cif-related phenotype in eukaryotic cells due to frameshift mutations or insertion of an IS element in the cif gene. The passenger region of the prophages carrying cif was highly variable and showed various combinations of IS elements and genes coding for other effectors such as nleB, nleC, nleH, nleG, espJ, and nleA/espI (some of which were also truncated). This diversity and the presence of nonfunctional effectors should be taken into account to assess EPEC and EHEC pathogenicity and tropism.

  13. Comparison by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and antimicrobial resistance among atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from food samples and human and animal faecal specimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Nakamura, H; Kage-Nakadai, E; Hara-Kudo, Y; Nishikawa, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing discriminated diarrhoeagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) from aEPEC indigenous to domestic animals or healthy people. MLVA genotyping of 142 aEPEC strains isolated from foods and faecal samples of domestic animals and humans revealed 126 distinct MLVA profiles that distributed to four clusters, yielding a Simpson's index of diversity (D) of 99·8%. Cluster 2 included 87% of cattle isolates and 67% of patient isolates. The plurality (15/34, 44%) of strains from healthy humans mapped to Cluster 1, while half (18/41, 44%) of the swine strains belonged to Cluster 4. Testing for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that 52 strains (37%) of aEPEC were resistant to one or more agents; only 10 strains (7%) exhibited resistance to more than three agents. Strains isolated from swine or food exhibited a wider variety of resistance phenotypes than bovine or human strains. MLVA assigned the aEPEC isolates from cattle and patients to Cluster 2, distinct from aEPEC from other sources. Hog yards may be a larger source of drug-resistant strains than are cattle ranches. MLVA suggests that human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC are derived from cattle and are distinct from strains carried by healthy people and other animals. Cattle appear to be reservoirs of human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Role of secreted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the infection mechanism of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: interaction of the extracellular enzyme with human plasminogen and fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Egea, L; Aguilera, L; Giménez, R; Sorolla, M A; Aguilar, J; Badía, J; Baldoma, L

    2007-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (EC 1.2.1.12) is an anchorless, multifunctional protein displayed on the surface of several fungi and Gram-positive pathogens, which contributes to their adhesion and virulence. To date a role for extracellular GAPDH in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative bacteria has not been described. The aim of this study was to analyze the extracellular localization of GAPDH in enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli strains and to examine its interaction with host components that could be related to the infection mechanism. Recombinant E. coli GAPDH was purified and polyclonal antibodies were obtained. Western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy showed that GAPDH is located on the bacterial surface and released to the culture medium of EHEC and EPEC strains. GAPDH export in these Gram-negative pathogens depends on the external medium, is not mediated by vesicles and leads to an extracellular active enzyme. Non-pathogenic E. coli strains do not secrete GAPDH. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis showed that in E. coli GAPDH is present at least in two major forms with different isoelectric points. Of these forms, the more basic is secreted. Purified GAPDH was found to bind human plasminogen and fibrinogen in Far-Western blot and ELISA-based assays. In addition, GAPDH remained associated with colonic Caco-2 epithelial cells after adhesion of EHEC or EPEC. These observations indicate that exported GAPDH may act as a virulence factor which could contribute to EHEC and EPEC pathogenesis. This is the first description of an extracellular localization for this enzyme, with a function other than its glycolytic role in Gram-negative pathogens.

  15. RNA-Seq analysis of isolate- and growth phase-specific differences in the global transcriptomes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli prototype isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Tracy H.; Daugherty, Sean C.; Shetty, Amol; Mahurkar, Anup A.; White, Owen; Kaper, James B.; Rasko, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are a leading cause of diarrheal illness among infants in developing countries. E. coli isolates classified as typical EPEC are identified by the presence of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) and the bundle-forming pilus (BFP), and absence of the Shiga-toxin genes, while the atypical EPEC also encode LEE but do not encode BFP or Shiga-toxin. Comparative genomic analyses have demonstrated that EPEC isolates belong to diverse evolutionary lineages and possess lineage- and isolate-specific genomic content. To investigate whether this genomic diversity results in significant differences in global gene expression, we used an RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) approach to characterize the global transcriptomes of the prototype typical EPEC isolates E2348/69, B171, C581-05, and the prototype atypical EPEC isolate E110019. The global transcriptomes were characterized during laboratory growth in two different media and three different growth phases, as well as during adherence of the EPEC isolates to human cells using in vitro tissue culture assays. Comparison of the global transcriptomes during these conditions was used to identify isolate- and growth phase-specific differences in EPEC gene expression. These analyses resulted in the identification of genes that encode proteins involved in survival and metabolism that were coordinately expressed with virulence factors. These findings demonstrate there are isolate- and growth phase-specific differences in the global transcriptomes of EPEC prototype isolates, and highlight the utility of comparative transcriptomics for identifying additional factors that are directly or indirectly involved in EPEC pathogenesis. PMID:26124752

  16. The lpf Gene Cluster for Long Polar Fimbriae Is Not Involved in Adherence of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli or Virulence of Citrobacter rodentium

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuno, Ichiro; Mundy, Rosanna; Frankel, Gad; Chong, Yuwen; Phillips, Alan D.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Kaper, James B.

    2006-01-01

    Using the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) genome sequence, we found that EPEC E2348/69 has an lpfABCDE gene cluster homologous (about 60% identical at the protein level) to the Salmonella long polar fimbria (LPF) operon. To determine whether this operon is essential for adherence, the lpfABCDE23 genes were deleted from EPEC strain E2348/69 by allelic exchange. Analysis of the resulting EPECΔlpfABCDE23 strain showed no change in adherence to HeLa cells or to human intestinal biopsy cells in the in vitro organ culture (IVOC) system compared to the wild type. Sera from volunteers experimentally infected with E2348/69 showed no antibody response to the major subunit protein, LpfA. These results suggested that the lpfE23 gene cluster is not necessary for EPEC adherence and attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation on human biopsy samples and is not expressed during human infection. We also identified an lpf gene cluster in Citrobacter rodentium strain ICC168 (lpfcr). A ΔlpfAcr mutant of ICC168 retained wild-type adherence and A/E lesion-forming activity on HeLa cells. C3H/HeJ mice were infected with a wild-type C. rodentium strain and its lpfAcr isogenic mutant. Both strains were recovered at high levels in stools, and there were no significant differences between the groups both in terms of the number of CFU/organ (colon and cecum) and in terms of the amount of hyperplasia, as measured by weight. Similar results were observed in a second mouse strain, C57BL/6. These data suggest that in addition to playing no apparent role in EPEC pathogenesis, lpfcr is not required for C. rodentium virulence in either the C3H/HeJ or C57BL/6 mouse model. PMID:16368980

  17. Modelling of infection by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains in lineages 2 and 4 ex vivo and in vivo by using Citrobacter rodentium expressing TccP.

    PubMed

    Girard, Francis; Crepin, Valérie F; Frankel, Gad

    2009-04-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains colonize the human gut mucosa via attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesion formation, while in vitro they employ diverse strategies to trigger actin polymerization. Strains belonging to the EPEC-1 lineage trigger strong actin polymerization via tyrosine phosphorylation of the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector Tir, recruitment of Nck, and activation of N-WASP. Strains belonging to EPEC-2 and EPEC-4 can trigger strong actin polymerization by dual mechanisms, since while employing the Tir-Nck pathway they can additionally activate N-WASP via the T3SS effectors TccP2 and TccP, respectively. It is currently not known if the ability to trigger actin polymerization by twin mechanisms increases in vivo virulence or fitness. Since mice are resistant to EPEC infection, in vivo studies are frequently done using the murine model pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, which shares with EPEC-1 strains the ability to induce A/E lesions and trigger strong actin polymerization via the Tir:Nck pathway. In order to model infections with EPEC-2 and EPEC-4, we constructed C. rodentium strains expressing TccP. Using a mouse intestinal in vitro organ culture model and oral gavage into C57BL/6 mice, we have shown that TccP can cooperate with Tir of C. rodentium. The recombinant strains induced typical A/E lesions ex vivo and in vivo. Expression of TccP did not alter C. rodentium colonization dynamics or pathology. In competition with the wild-type strain, expression of TccP in C. rodentium did not confer a competitive advantage.

  18. Molecular typing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of enteropathogenic and shigatoxin producing Escherichia coli isolated from food handlers in three areas of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Oundo, J O; Iijima, Y; Boga, H I; Muli, F; Kariuki, S

    2009-06-01

    To determine the aetiology, epidemiology and sanitary factors of carriage of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) in food-handlers working in tourist hotels in three popular tourist destinations in Kenya. Cross sectional laboratory based study. Three tourist destinations of Nairobi, Malindi and Diani in Kenya. Food handlers who were working in hotels frequented by tourists in the three study sites. Overall, during the period of April 2003 to May 2004, a total of 1399 food handlers stool samples were collected and analysed. EPEC expressing the eaeA gene and STEC expressing the stx2 gene were detected in 11/1399 (0.8%) and 2/1399 (0.1%) of the study subjects respectively. The mean age of the subjects from whom EPEC and STEC were isolated was similar (32.6 years) to those from whom no EPEC and STEC were isolated (32.5 years). Prior use of antibiotics, water source and toilet types were not significantly associated with the isolation of EPEC and STEC (p>0.05). There were 11 resistance patterns with six isolates (6/13, 46.2%) showing multidrug resistance. High prevalence of resistance was observed to co-trimoxazole (55.6%), chloramphenicol (33.3%), ampicillin (22.2%) and tetracycline (22.2%). High concentrations of antibiotics were required to achieve MIC90 for tetracycline, (>64 mg ml(-1)) and ampicillin (>256 mg ml(-1)). Cluster analysis of the Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles revealed that the EPEC and STEC isolates belonged to two main genotypes with 11 distinct DNA fragment profiles. This is the first report in Africa on the isolation of STEC from food handlers working in tourist hotels. These food handlers who carry the STEC and EPEC could potentially infect tourists and other people through food or water contamination in the hotel settings and thus our findings are of great public health importance.

  19. Prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli on coriander.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Segovia-Cruz, Jesús A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence and behavior of multidrug-resistant diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes on coriander was determined. One hundred coriander samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli were determined using the most probable number procedure. Diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to sixteen antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEPs strains by standard test. The behavior of multidrug-resistant DEPs isolated from coriander was determined on coriander leaves and chopped coriander at 25°± 2 °C and 3°± 2 °C. Generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 43 and 7% of samples. Nine DEPs strains were isolated from positive coriander samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, 4%) enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, 2%) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, 1%). All isolated DEPs strains exhibited multi-resistance to antibiotics. On inoculated coriander leaves stored at 25°± 2 °C or 3°± 2 °C, no growth was observed for multidrug-resistant DEPs strains. However, multidrug-resistant DEPs strains grew in chopped coriander: after 24 h at 25° ± 2 °C, DEPs strains had grown to approximately 3 log CFU/g. However, at 3°± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence and behavior of multidrug-resistant STEC, ETEC and EPEC on coriander and chopped coriander. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissection of the Role of Pili and Type 2 and 3 Secretion Systems in Adherence and Biofilm Formation of an Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain

    PubMed Central

    Hernandes, Rodrigo T.; De la Cruz, Miguel A.; Yamamoto, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) strains are diarrheal pathogens that lack bundle-forming pilus production but possess the virulence-associated locus of enterocyte effacement. aEPEC strain 1551-2 produces localized adherence (LA) on HeLa cells; however, its isogenic intimin (eae) mutant produces a diffuse-adherence (DA) pattern. In this study, we aimed to identify the DA-associated adhesin of the 1551-2 eae mutant. Electron microscopy of 1551-2 identified rigid rod-like pili composed of an 18-kDa protein, which was identified as the major pilin subunit of type 1 pilus (T1P) by mass spectrometry analysis. Deletion of fimA in 1551-2 affected biofilm formation but had no effect on adherence properties. Analysis of secreted proteins in supernatants of this strain identified a 150-kDa protein corresponding to SslE, a type 2 secreted protein that was recently reported to be involved in biofilm formation of rabbit and human EPEC strains. However, neither adherence nor biofilm formation was affected in a 1551-2 sslE mutant. We then investigated the role of the EspA filament associated with the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) in DA by generating a double eae espA mutant. This strain was no longer adherent, strongly suggesting that the T3SS translocon is the DA adhesin. In agreement with these results, specific anti-EspA antibodies blocked adherence of the 1551-2 eae mutant. Our data support a role for intimin in LA, for the T3SS translocon in DA, and for T1P in biofilm formation, all of which may act in concert to facilitate host intestinal colonization by aEPEC strains. PMID:23897608

  1. In vitro adhesion of Escherichia coli to porcine small intestinal epithelial cells: pili as adhesive factors.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacson, R E; Fusco, P C; Brinton, C C; Moon, H W

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains with pili (K99 or 987P) known to facilitate intestinal colonization adhered in vitro to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. These strains adhered equally to both ileal and jejunal epithelial cells. A laboratory E. coli strain that has type 1 pili also adhered to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. When nonpiliated cells derived from 987P+, K99+, or type 1 pilus+ strains were used for in vitro adhesion assays, they failed to adhere. The attachment of piliated bacteria to epithelial cells was a saturable process that plateaued at 30 to 40 bacterial cells attached per epithelial cell. Competitive inhibition of bacterial cell attachment to epithelial cells with purified pili showed that only purified 987P competed against the 987P+ strain and only purified type 1 pili competed against the type 1 pilus+ strain. Competition between a K99+ strain and K99 was not consistently achieved. K99+, 987P+, and type 1 pilus+ bacteria could be prevented from adhering to epithelial cells by Fab fragments specific for K99, 987P, or type 1 pili, respectively. Fab fragments specific for non-K99 bacterial surface antigens did not inhibit adhesion of the K99+ strain. It is concluded that adhesion of E. coli to porcine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro is mediated by pili and that the epithelial cells used apparently had different receptors for different pili. PMID:357285

  2. In vitro adhesion of Escherichia coli to porcine small intestinal epithelial cells: pili as adhesive factors.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R E; Fusco, P C; Brinton, C C; Moon, H W

    1978-08-01

    Escherichia coli strains with pili (K99 or 987P) known to facilitate intestinal colonization adhered in vitro to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. These strains adhered equally to both ileal and jejunal epithelial cells. A laboratory E. coli strain that has type 1 pili also adhered to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. When nonpiliated cells derived from 987P+, K99+, or type 1 pilus+ strains were used for in vitro adhesion assays, they failed to adhere. The attachment of piliated bacteria to epithelial cells was a saturable process that plateaued at 30 to 40 bacterial cells attached per epithelial cell. Competitive inhibition of bacterial cell attachment to epithelial cells with purified pili showed that only purified 987P competed against the 987P+ strain and only purified type 1 pili competed against the type 1 pilus+ strain. Competition between a K99+ strain and K99 was not consistently achieved. K99+, 987P+, and type 1 pilus+ bacteria could be prevented from adhering to epithelial cells by Fab fragments specific for K99, 987P, or type 1 pili, respectively. Fab fragments specific for non-K99 bacterial surface antigens did not inhibit adhesion of the K99+ strain. It is concluded that adhesion of E. coli to porcine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro is mediated by pili and that the epithelial cells used apparently had different receptors for different pili.

  3. Identification of Escherichia coli F4ac-binding proteins in porcine milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, Predrag; Huang, Yanyun Y; Lockerbie, Betty; Shahriar, Farshid; Kelly, John; Gordon, John R; Middleton, Dorothy M; Loewen, Matthew E; Kidney, Beverly A; Simko, Elemir

    2015-04-01

    F4ac-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) must attach to the intestinal mucosa to cause diarrhea in piglets. Prevention of bacterial attachment to the intestinal mucosa is the most effective defense against ETEC-induced diarrhea. Porcine milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) were shown to be able to inhibit attachment of ETEC to the intestinal brush border; however, the specific components of porcine MFGM that inhibited attachment of ETEC to enterocytes were not identified. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to identify F4ac-binding MFGM proteins by overlay Western blot and affinity chromatography. The proteome of porcine MFGM was characterized and the following F4ac-binding proteins were detected by overlay Western blot and affinity chromatography: lactadherin, butyrophilin, adipophilin, acyl-CoA synthetase 3, and fatty acid-binding protein 3. The biological function of these proteins was not investigated but it is possible that their interaction with F4ac fimbria interferes with bacterial attachment and colonization.

  4. Detection and genetic analysis of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (EAST1) gene in clinical isolates of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The enteroaggregative E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) encoded by astA gene has been found in enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. However, it is not sufficient to simply probe strains with an astA gene probe due to the existence of astA mutants (type 1 and type 2 SHEAST) and EAST1 variants (EAST1 v1-4). In this study, 222 EPEC (70 typical and 152 atypical) isolates were tested for the presence of the astA gene sequence by PCR and sequencing. Results The astA gene was amplified from 54 strains, 11 typical and 43 atypical. Sequence analysis of the PCR products showed that 25 strains, 7 typical and 18 atypical, had an intact astA gene. A subgroup of 7 atypical strains had a variant type of the astA gene sequence, with four non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions. The remaining 22 strains had mutated astA gene with nucleotide deletions or substitutions in the first 8 codons. The RT-PCR results showed that the astA gene was transcribed only by the strains carrying either the intact or the variant type of the astA gene sequence. Southern blot analysis indicated that astA is located in EAF plasmid in typical strains, and in plasmids of similar size in atypical strains. Strains carrying intact astA genes were more frequently found in diarrheic children than in non-diarrheic children (p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, our data suggest that the presence of an intact astA gene may represent an additional virulence determinant in both EPEC groups. PMID:24884767

  5. Rapid latex particle agglutination test for Escherichia coli strains of porcine origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, R A; Yang, Z S; Moseley, S L; Moon, H W

    1983-01-01

    A latex particle agglutination test previously shown to be suitable for the rapid identification of Escherichia coli strains of human origin producing heat-labile enterotoxin (R. A. Finkelstein and Z. Yang, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:23-28) is equally applicable to strains of porcine origin. PMID:6361056

  6. Biotype, serotype, and pathogenicity of attaching and effacing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Geeroms, R; Orskov, F

    1988-01-01

    A total of 568 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy and diarrheic rabbits were separated into 11 different biotypes according to the fermentation patterns of four carbohydrates. Strains belonging to biotypes 1 to 3, 6, and 8 induced lesions characteristic for attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC). They attached to the intestinal epithelium of the terminal small intestine and the large intestine of 5-week-old rabbits after experimental infection and caused effacement of the microvillous brush border. However, pathogenicity for weaned rabbits, as judged by diarrhea score, anorexia, and reduced weight gain, varied according to the biotypes of the strains. Strains belonging to biotypes 1 and 6 produced only discrete clinical signs, strains belonging to biotypes 2 and 3+ (motile) induced diarrhea and growth depression, whereas strains belonging to biotypes 3- (immotile) and 8 caused severe clinical signs and high mortality. This confirms evidence from the field. Biotypes 3- and 8, accounting for 35.5 and 7.1% of AEEC strains in weaned diarrheic rabbits, respectively, were not detected in weaned healthy rabbits, while biotype 2 was the predominant strain in weaned healthy rabbits (62.3%). Finally, serotyping showed a close relationship between biotype and serotype of the AEEC examined. Most strains of biotypes 1+ and 2+ tested were O109:K-:H2 and O132:K-:H2, respectively, whereas all strains tested of biotype 3- were O15:K-:H- and those of biotype 8 were O103:K-:H2. These data indicate that specific clones of AEEC might be involved in juvenile rabbit enteritis. It was concluded that determination of biotypes allows the screening of highly pathogenic AEEC in weaned rabbits (biotypes 3- and 8). PMID:3286497

  7. Structural and Functional Analysis of BipA, a Regulator of Virulence in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Haitian; Hahm, Joseph; Diggs, Stephen; Perry, J. Jefferson P.; Blaha, Gregor

    2015-07-10

    The translational GTPase BipA regulates the expression of virulence and pathogenicity factors in several eubacteria. BipA-dependent expression of virulence factors occurs under starvation conditions, such as encountered during infection of a host. Under these conditions, BipA associates with the small ribosomal subunit. BipA also has a second function to promote the efficiency of late steps in biogenesis of large ribosomal subunits at low temperatures, presumably while bound to the ribosome. During starvation, the cellular concentration of stress alarmone guanosine-3', 5'-bis pyrophosphate (ppGpp) is increased. This increase allows ppGpp to bind to BipA and switch its binding specificity from ribosomes to small ribosomal subunits. A conformational change of BipA upon ppGpp binding could explain the ppGpp regulation of the binding specificity of BipA. Here, we present the structures of the full-length BipA from Escherichia coli in apo, GDP-, and ppGpp-bound forms. The crystal structure and small-angle x-ray scattering data of the protein with bound nucleotides, together with a thermodynamic analysis of the binding of GDP and of ppGpp to BipA, indicate that the ppGpp-bound form of BipA adopts the structure of the GDP form. This suggests furthermore, that the switch in binding preference only occurs when both ppGpp and the small ribosomal subunit are present. Finally, this molecular mechanism would allow BipA to interact with both the ribosome and the small ribosomal subunit during stress response.

  8. Inhibition of Adhesion of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 Cells by Binding of a Novel Peptide to EspB Protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Duoyun; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Zheng, Jin-Xin; Pan, Wei-Guang; Yang, Wei-Zhi; Yu, Zhi-Jian; Deng, Qi-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries. The translocator EspB is a key virulence factor in the process of the attaching and effacing effect of EPEC and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the bacteria. In this study, we aimed to select the peptides binding to EspB protein by phage display library and further investigate whether these peptides can decrease the extent of invasion and virulence of EPEC on host cells by targeting to EspB protein. The expression and purification of EspB protein from E. coli was demonstrated by Western blotting. The Ph.D. 12-mer peptide phage display library was used to screen the candidate peptides binding specifically to EspB protein. Furthermore, the affinity of these candidate peptides bound to EspB was identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, we investigated whether these screened peptides could decrease the adherence ratio of EPEC to HEp-2 cells with increasing concentration. Successful purification of EspB protein from pET21b-EspB-transformed E. coli was identified by Western blotting. Then, the candidate peptides including phages 6, 7, 8, and 12 were screened by the Ph.D. 12-mer peptide phage display library and ELISA test demonstrated that their affinity binding to EspB protein was high compared with the control. Functional analysis indicated that synthetic peptide-6 (YFPYSHTSPRQP) significantly decreased the adherence ratio of EPEC to HEp-2 cells with increasing concentration (P < 0.01). Peptide-6 (100 µg/mL) could lead to a 40 % decrease in the adherence ratio of EPEC to HEp-2 cells compared with control (P < 0.01). However, the other three peptides at different concentrations showed only a slight ability to block the adherence of EPEC to host cells. Our data provided a potential strategy to inhibit the adhesion of EPEC to epithelial cells by a candidate peptide targeted toward EspB protein.

  9. Study of polymorphisms in tir, eae and tccP2 genes in enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli of serogroup O26.

    PubMed

    Bardiau, Marjorie; Labrozzo, Sabrina; Mainil, Jacques G

    2011-05-30

    Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli are responsible for food poisoning (enteritis and enterotoxaemia) in humans in developed countries. Cattle are considered to be an important reservoir of EHEC and EPEC strains for humans. Moreover, some of the strains, belonging to the O26, O111, O118 serogroups, for example, are also responsible for digestive disorders in calves. The Translocated intimin receptor (Tir), the intimin (Eae) and the Tir-cytoskeleton coupling protein (TccP) represent three virulence factors implicated in the intimate attachment of the bacteria to the eukaryotic cell. Major variants have already been described for these genes among the different serogroups but minor variations have not often been studied. In this study, we examined the polymorphisms of the tir, eae and tccP2 genes of O26 strains (EPEC and EHEC isolated from bovines and from humans) with the aim to determine whether these polymorphisms are host specific or not. Of the 70 tested strains, 10 strains (14% of the strains) presented one or several polymorphisms in the tir and eae genes, which have never previously been described. Concerning tccP2 detection, 47 of the 70 strains (67% of the strains) were found to be positive for this gene. Most of the strains were found to possess tccP2 variants described in strains of serogroup O26. Nevertheless, three strains had tccP2 genes respectively described in strains of serogroup O111, O103 and O55. Moreover, none of the polymorphisms was statistically specific to the bovine or the human isolates. Nevertheless, the two major variants of tccP2 were statistically associated with the pathotype (EPEC or EHEC). In conclusion, tir and eae gene polymorphisms were found not to be numerous and not to be predominantly synonymous. Moreover, no difference was observed between human and bovine strains regarding the presence of polymorphisms. Finally, some tccP2 variants appeared to be pathotype specific. Further investigations

  10. Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enterohemorrhagic E. coli, and Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, Douglas J.; Galli, Lucía; Sankarapani, Vinoth; Soler, Michael; Rivas, Marta; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic E. coli strains are enteric pathogens associated with food safety threats and which remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the current study, we investigated whether enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains can be rapidly and specifically differentiated with multiplex PCR (mPCR) utilizing selected biomarkers associated with each strain’s respective virulence genotype. Primers were designed to amplify multiple intimin (eae) and long polar fimbriae (lpfA) variants, the bundle-forming pilus gene bfpA, and the Shiga toxin-encoding genes stx1 and stx2. We demonstrated consistent amplification of genes specific to the prototype EHEC O157:H7 EDL933 (lpfA1-3, lpfA2-2, stx1, stx2, and eae-γ) and EPEC O127:H6 E2348/69 (eae-α, lpfA1-1, and bfpA) strains using the optimized mPCR protocol with purified genomic DNA (gDNA). A screen of gDNA from isolates in a diarrheagenic E. coli collection revealed that the mPCR assay was successful in predicting the correct pathotype of EPEC and EHEC clones grouped in the distinctive phylogenetic disease clusters EPEC1 and EHEC1, and was able to differentiate EHEC1 from EHEC2 clusters. The assay detection threshold was 2 × 104 CFU per PCR reaction for EHEC and EPEC. mPCR was also used to screen Argentinean clinical samples from hemolytic uremic syndrome and diarrheal patients, resulting in 91% sensitivity and 84% specificity when compared to established molecular diagnostic procedures. In conclusion, our mPCR methodology permitted differentiation of EPEC, STEC and EHEC strains from other pathogenic E. coli; therefore, the assay becomes an additional tool for rapid diagnosis of these organisms. PMID:22919600

  11. Cloning and characterization of bfpTVW, genes required for the transcriptional activation of bfpA in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tobe, T; Schoolnik, G K; Sohel, I; Bustamante, V H; Puente, J L

    1996-09-01

    Expression of the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is regulated at the transcriptional level by growth phase, temperature, calcium and ammonium. Genes required for the transcriptional activation of bfpA were localized to a 1.8 kb fragment of the enteroadherent factor (EAF) plasmid of EPEC that is separated from the bfp operon by 6 kb. Within this fragment three identically oriented and closely spaced open reading frames (ORFs) were identified and designated bfpT, bfpV and bfpW. bfpT is predicted to encode a 31.8 kDa protein that shares homology with the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, including the presence of a conserved C-terminal DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif. Insertional inactivation of bfpT led to the loss of bfpA transcription, BfpA protein production and the localized adherence (LA) phenotype; this mutant phenotype could be complemented by introduction of bfpTVW and, on separate plasmids, bfpT + bfpW. However, introduction of bfpT + bfpV, bfpV alone, bfpW alone, or bfpV + bfpW did not enable recovery of the wild-type phenotype. Maximal efficiency of bfpA transcription required all three genes, but bfpV and bfpW each enhanced transcription providing bfpT was also present. A series of deletions of the bfpA upstream promoter region was prepared; with respect to the bfpA transcription start site, sequence between nucleotides -94 and -55 was found to bind bfpT. BfpT also bound a DNA fragment containing the eaeA promoter region on the EPEC chromosome. From these results we conclude that bfpTV W causes transcriptional activation of bfpA, and possibly eaeA, by a trans-acting mechanism that may co-ordinately regulate the expression of EPEC virulence determinants.

  12. Role of EscU auto-cleavage in promoting type III effector translocation into host cells by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Type III secretion systems (T3SS) of bacterial pathogens coordinate effector protein injection into eukaryotic cells. The YscU/FlhB group of proteins comprises members associated with T3SS which undergo a specific auto-cleavage event at a conserved NPTH amino acid sequence. The crystal structure of the C-terminal portion of EscU from enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) suggests this auto-cleaving protein provides an interface for substrate interactions involved in type III secretion events. Results We demonstrate EscU must be auto-cleaved for bacteria to efficiently deliver type III effectors into infected cells. A non-cleaving EscU(N262A) variant supported very low levels of in vitro effector secretion. These effector proteins were not able to support EPEC infection of cultured HeLa cells. In contrast, EscU(P263A) was demonstrated to be partially auto-cleaved and moderately restored effector translocation and functionality during EPEC infection, revealing an intermediate phenotype. EscU auto-cleavage was not required for inner membrane association of the T3SS ATPase EscN or the ring forming protein EscJ. In contrast, in the absence of EscU auto-cleavage, inner membrane association of the multicargo type III secretion chaperone CesT was altered suggesting that EscU auto-cleavage supports docking of chaperone-effector complexes at the inner membrane. In support of this interpretation, evidence of novel effector protein breakdown products in secretion assays were linked to the non-cleaved status of EscU(N262A). Conclusions These data provide new insight into the role of EscU auto-cleavage in EPEC. The experimental data suggests that EscU auto-cleavage results in a suitable binding interface at the inner membrane that accommodates protein complexes during type III secretion events. The results also demonstrate that altered EPEC genetic backgrounds that display intermediate levels of effector secretion and translocation can be isolated and studied

  13. Biorecognition of Escherichia coli K88 adhesin for glycated porcine albumin.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Ramos-Clamont, Gabriela; Candia-Plata, Ma María del Carmen; Vázquez-Moreno, Luz

    2009-03-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) that expresses galactose-reactive lectins, like K88 adhesin, causes high mortality among piglets. Carbohydrates that compete for adhesion could serve as an alternative for disease prevention. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was modified by non-enzymatic glycation with lactose to produce PSA-Lac or PSA-Glc beta (1-4) Gal, as confirmed by reduction of available free amino groups, increased molecular mass and by Ricinus communis lectin recognition. E. coli K88 binds to PSA-Lac treatments containing three and four lactoses, respectively. In addition, PSA-Lac partially inhibited K88 strain adherence to mucins. These results suggest that neoglycoconjugates obtained by non-enzymatic glycation of proteins may serve in the prophylaxis of piglets' diarrhea.

  14. Clay mineral type effect on bacterial enteropathogen survival in soil.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Fiona P; Moynihan, Emma; Griffiths, Bryan S; Hillier, Stephen; Owen, Jason; Pendlowski, Helen; Avery, Lisa M

    2014-01-15

    Enteropathogens released into the environment can represent a serious risk to public health. Soil clay content has long been known to have an important effect on enteropathogen survival in soil, generally enhancing survival. However, clay mineral composition in soils varies, and different clay minerals have specific physiochemical properties that would be expected to impact differentially on survival. This work investigated the effect of clay materials, with a predominance of a particular mineral type (montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite), on the survival in soil microcosms over 96 days of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Dublin, and Escherichia coli O157. Clay mineral addition was found to alter a number of physicochemical parameters in soil, including cation exchange capacity and surface area, and this was specific to the mineral type. Clay mineral addition enhanced enteropathogen survival in soil. The type of clay mineral was found to differentially affect enteropathogen survival and the effect was enteropathogen-specific. © 2013.

  15. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells: role of bundle-forming pili (BFP), EspA filaments and intimin.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Jennifer; Lai, Li-Ching; Shaw, Robert K; Straatman-Iwanowska, Anna; Donnenberg, Michael S; Frankel, Gad; Knutton, Stuart

    2004-03-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), an important paediatric diarrhoeal pathogen, employs multiple adhesins to colonize the small bowel and produces characteristic 'attaching and effacing' (A/E) lesions on small intestinal enterocytes. EPEC adhesins that have been associated with A/E adhesion and intestinal colonization include bundle-forming pili (BFP), EspA filaments and intimin. BFP are involved in bacteria-bacteria interaction and microcolony formation but their role in cell adhesion remains unclear; EspA filaments are components of the EPEC type III secretion system but since they interact directly with host cells they may also function as adhesins; intimin is the well characterized intimate EPEC adhesin which binds the translocated intimin receptor, Tir. However, other uncharacterized host cell receptors have been implicated in intimin-mediated adhesion. In this study, the role of BFP, EspA filaments and intimin in EPEC adhesion to intestinal brush border cells was assessed by observing adhesion of wild-type EPEC strain E2348/69 and a set of isogenic single, double and triple mutants in bfpA, espA and eae (intimin gene) to differentiated human intestinal Caco-2 cells. E2348/69 (bfpA(+) espA(+) eae(+)) adhered rapidly (<10 min) to the brush border of Caco-2 cells and subsequently produced microcolonies and typical A/E lesions. Non-intimate brush border adhesion of double mutant strain UMD880 (bfpA(+) espA(-) eae(-)) also occurred rapidly, whereas adhesion of strain UMD886 (bfpA(-) espA(+) eae(-)) occurred later in the infection (>1 h) and with much lower efficiency; confocal microscopy indicated BFP and EspA-mediated adhesion, respectively. Strain UMD883 (bfpA(-) espA(-) eae(+)), which is unable to translocate Tir, was non-adherent although this strain was able to form intimate attachment and A/E lesions when co-cultured with strain CVD206 (bfpA(+) espA(+) eae(-)) which supplied Tir to the membrane. Single mutant strains CVD206 (bfpA(+) espA(+) eae

  16. BfpI, BfpJ, and BfpK Minor Pilins Are Important for the Function and Biogenesis of Bundle-Forming Pili Expressed by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Martinez de la Peña, Claudia F.; De Masi, Leon; Nisa, Shahista; Mulvey, George; Tong, Jesse; Donnenberg, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remains a significant cause of infant diarrheal illness and associated morbidity and mortality in developing countries. EPEC strains are characterized by their ability to colonize the small intestines of their hosts by a multistep program involving initial loose attachment to intestinal epithelial cells followed by an intimate adhesion phase. The initial loose interaction of typical EPEC with host intestinal cells is mediated by bundle-forming pili (BFP). BFP are type 4b pili (T4bP) based on structural and functional properties shared with T4bP expressed by other bacteria. The major structural subunit of BFP is called bundlin, a T4b pilin expressed from the bfpA gene in the BFP operon, which contains three additional genes that encode the pilin-like proteins BfpI, BfpJ, and BfpK. In this study, we show that, in the absence of the BFP retraction ATPase (BfpF), BfpI, BfpJ, and BfpK are dispensable for BFP biogenesis. We also demonstrate that these three minor pilins are incorporated along with bundlin into the BFP filament and contribute to its structural integrity and host cell adhesive properties. The results confirm that previous findings in T4aP systems can be extended to a model T4bP such as BFP. IMPORTANCE Bundle-forming pili contribute to the host colonization strategy of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. The studies described here investigate the role for three minor pilin subunits in the structure and function of BFP in EPEC. The studies also suggest that these subunits could be antigens for vaccine development. PMID:26712935

  17. Erythrocyte and Porcine Intestinal Glycosphingolipids Recognized by F4 Fimbriae of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Coddens, Annelies; Valis, Erik; Benktander, John; Ångström, Jonas; Breimer, Michael E.; Cox, Eric; Teneberg, Susann

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic F4-fimbriated Escherichia coli is associated with diarrheal disease in neonatal and postweaning pigs. The F4 fimbriae mediate attachment of the bacteria to the pig intestinal epithelium, enabling an efficient delivery of diarrhea-inducing enterotoxins to the target epithelial cells. There are three variants of F4 fimbriae designated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, respectively, having different antigenic and adhesive properties. In the present study, the binding of isolated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae, and F4ab/ac/ad-fimbriated E. coli, to glycosphingolipids from erythrocytes and from porcine small intestinal epithelium was examined, in order to get a comprehensive view of the F4-binding glycosphingolipids involved in F4-mediated hemagglutination and adhesion to the epithelial cells of porcine intestine. Specific interactions between the F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae and both acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were obtained, and after isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids and characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, distinct carbohydrate binding patterns were defined for each fimbrial subtype. Two novel glycosphingolipids were isolated from chicken erythrocytes, and characterized as GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer and GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4GlcNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer. These two compounds, and lactosylceramide (Galß4Glcß1Cer) with phytosphingosine and hydroxy fatty acid, were recognized by all three variants of F4 fimbriae. No binding of the F4ad fimbriae or F4ad-fimbriated E. coli to the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids occurred. However, for F4ab and F4ac two distinct binding patterns were observed. The F4ac fimbriae and the F4ac-expressing E. coli selectively bound to galactosylceramide (Galß1Cer) with sphingosine and hydroxy 24:0 fatty acid, while the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4ab fimbriae and the F4ab-fimbriated bacteria were characterized as galactosylceramide, sulfatide (SO3-3Galß1Cer), sulf

  18. Differential effects of clathrin and actin inhibitors on internalization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella choleraesuis in porcine jejunal Peyer’s patches

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benedict T.; Brown, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Peyer's patches constitute both an inductive immune site and an enteropathogen invasion route. Peyer's patch mucosae from porcine jejunum were mounted in Ussing chambers, and either Salmonella choleraesuis vaccine strain SC-54 or non-pathogenic rodent and porcine E. coli strains contacted the Peyer's patch mucosa for 90 min. Internalized bacteria were quantified by a gentamicin resistance assay. Monodansylcadaverine (300 µM, luminal addition), an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, significantly inhibited internalization of both E. coli strains relative to tissues untreated with the inhibitor; internalization of SC-54 was unaffected. The actin-disrupting agent cytochalasin D (10 µM, luminal addition), inhibited internalization of pig-adapted E. coli but not that of rodent-adapted E. coli or SC-54. Internalization of SC-54 and non-pathogenic E. coli in Peyer's patches appears to occur through different cellular routes. PMID:16326046

  19. Cytoskeleton-modulating effectors of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: role of EspL2 in adherence and an alternative pathway for modulating cytoskeleton through Annexin A2 function.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Toru

    2010-06-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are attaching/effacing pathogens that possess a type III secretion system and deliver a variety of effectors into host cells for successful infection. EHEC produces at least 20 effector families with various functions. Reorganization of the cellular cytoskeleton at the adherent site is a hallmark of these pathogens. EspL2 of EHEC is a novel effector class that can modulate the cellular cytoskeleton. By interacting with and activating Annexin A2, EspL2 contributes to the formation of a condensed microcolony and may adhere to host cells in a translocated intimin receptor-independent manner. The interaction of EspL2 with Annexin A2 increases F-actin bundling activity and strengthens the membrane-cytoskeleton linkage, resulting in the condensation of actin fibers and the induction of a pseudopod-like structure. Membrane microdomains, namely the lipid raft, which is rich in Annexin A2, may be a platform by which EHEC/EPEC infection modulates cellular signaling and the cytoskeleton.

  20. Detection of Secretory Immunoglobulin A in Human Colostrum as Mucosal Immune Response against Proteins of the Type Three Secretion System of Salmonella, Shigella and Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli

    PubMed Central

    Durand, David; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Bellomo, Sicilia M. E.; Contreras, Carmen A.; Bustamante, Víctor H.; Ruiz, Joaquim; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Some enteropathogens use the type three secretion system (T3SS) to secrete proteins that allows them to interact with enterocytes and promote bacterial attachment or intracellular survival. These proteins are Salmonella invasion proteins (Sip), invasion plasmid antigens (Ipa) of Shigella and E. coli secreted proteins (Esp) of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). There are no previous studies defining the presence of colostral sIgA against all these three major enteric pathogens. Objective To evaluate the presence of sIgA in colostrum against proteins of the T3SS of Salmonella, Shigella and EPEC. Methods We collected 76 colostrum samples from puerperal women in Lima, Peru. These samples were reacted with T3SS proteins extracted from bacterial culture supernatants and evaluated by Western Blot. Results Antibodies were detected against Salmonella antigens SipA in 75 samples (99%), SipC in 62 (82%) and SipB in 31 (41%); against Shigella antigens IpaC in 70 (92%), IpaB in 68 (89%), IpaA in 66 (87%) and IpaD in 41 (54%); and against EPEC EspC in 70 (92%), EspB-D in 65 (86%) and EspA in 41 (54%). 10% of samples had antibodies against all proteins evaluated; and 42% against all except one protein. There was no sample negative to all these proteins. Conclusions The extraordinarily high frequency of antibodies in colostrum of puerperal women detected in this study against these multiple enteric pathogens, shows evidence of immunological memory and prior exposure to these pathogens, in addition to its possible protective role against infection. PMID:23538526

  1. Intimin, tir, and shiga toxin 1 do not influence enteropathogenic responses to shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in bovine ligated intestinal loops.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Mark P; Marchès, Olivier; Campbell, June; Huter, Veronika; Frankel, Gad; Phillips, Alan D; Oswald, Eric; Wallis, Timothy S

    2002-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherchia coli (STEC) comprises a group of attaching and effacing (A/E) enteric pathogens of animals and humans. Natural and experimental infection of calves with STEC may result in acute enteritis or subclinical infection, depending on serotype- and host-specific factors. To quantify intestinal secretory and inflammatory responses to STEC in the bovine intestine, serotypes that are associated with human disease (O103:H2 and O157:H7) were introduced into ligated mid-ileal loops in gnotobiotic and conventional calves, and fluid accumulation and recruitment of radiolabeled neutrophils were measured after 12 h. STEC serotype O103:H2, but not serotype O157:H7, elicited strong enteropathogenic responses. To determine if the inflammatory response to STEC O103:H2 in calves requires Shiga toxin 1 or intimate bacterial attachment to the intestinal epithelium, defined mutations were made in the stx1, eae, and tir genes. Our data indicate that some STEC induce intestinal inflammatory responses in calves by a mechanism that is independent of A/E-lesion formation, intimin, or Shiga toxin 1. This may have implications for strategies to reduce STEC carriage in cattle.

  2. Intimin, Tir, and Shiga Toxin 1 Do Not Influence Enteropathogenic Responses to Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Bovine Ligated Intestinal Loops

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Mark P.; Marchès, Olivier; Campbell, June; Huter, Veronika; Frankel, Gad; Phillips, Alan D.; Oswald, Eric; Wallis, Timothy S.

    2002-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherchia coli (STEC) comprises a group of attaching and effacing (A/E) enteric pathogens of animals and humans. Natural and experimental infection of calves with STEC may result in acute enteritis or subclinical infection, depending on serotype- and host-specific factors. To quantify intestinal secretory and inflammatory responses to STEC in the bovine intestine, serotypes that are associated with human disease (O103:H2 and O157:H7) were introduced into ligated mid-ileal loops in gnotobiotic and conventional calves, and fluid accumulation and recruitment of radiolabeled neutrophils were measured after 12 h. STEC serotype O103:H2, but not serotype O157:H7, elicited strong enteropathogenic responses. To determine if the inflammatory response to STEC O103:H2 in calves requires Shiga toxin 1 or intimate bacterial attachment to the intestinal epithelium, defined mutations were made in the stx1, eae, and tir genes. Our data indicate that some STEC induce intestinal inflammatory responses in calves by a mechanism that is independent of A/E-lesion formation, intimin, or Shiga toxin 1. This may have implications for strategies to reduce STEC carriage in cattle. PMID:11796630

  3. Effect of vitamin E nutritional supplementation on the pathological changes induced in the ileum of rabbits by experimental infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tsalie, E; Kouzi, K; Poutahidis, T; Abas, Z; Sarris, K; Iliadis, N; Kaldrymidou, E

    2006-05-01

    A well-established rabbit model of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) disease was used to examine whether vitamin E (VE) nutritional supplementation had an effect on the pathological changes induced in the bowel by EPEC. Quantitative methods were used to evaluate the influence of VE on bacterial colonization, intestinal mucosal architecture and inflammation, and intestinal epithelial proliferation and apoptosis. VE did not affect EPEC colonization and did not give significant protection against EPEC-induced changes and diarrhoea. Although VE had no effect on the EPEC-related increase of enterocyte apoptosis, it clearly contributed to an acceleration of epithelial cell proliferation in the ileal crypts. This finding may explain why ileal morphometry undertaken in this study showed that VE ameliorated somewhat the effects of EPEC on intestinal mucosal architecture. Quantitative studies on inflammatory cells in the intestinal mucosa revealed that VE nutritional supplementation resulted in an increased neutrophilic and mononuclear inflammatory cell response to EPEC infection, which did not contribute, however, to the clearance of infection.

  4. Hfq and three Hfq-dependent small regulatory RNAs-MgrR, RyhB and McaS-coregulate the locus of enterocyte effacement in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Shantanu; Egan, Marisa; Ramirez, Jasmine; Xander, Christian; Jenkins, Valerie; Muche, Sarah; El-Fenej, Jihad; Palmer, Jamie; Mason, Elisabeth; Storm, Elizabeth; Buerkert, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a significant cause of infantile diarrhea and death in developing countries. The pathogenicity island locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is essential for EPEC to cause diarrhea. Besides EPEC, the LEE is also present in other gastrointestinal pathogens, most notably enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Whereas transcriptional control of the LEE has been meticulously examined, posttranscriptional regulation, including the role of Hfq-dependent small RNAs, remains undercharacterized. However, the past few years have witnessed a surge in the identification of riboregulators of the LEE in EHEC. Contrastingly, the posttranscriptional regulatory landscape of EPEC remains cryptic. Here we demonstrate that the RNA-chaperone Hfq represses the LEE of EPEC by targeting the 5' untranslated leader region of grlR in the grlRA mRNA. Three conserved small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs)-MgrR, RyhB and McaS-are involved in the Hfq-dependent regulation of grlRA MgrR and RyhB exert their effects by directly base-pairing to the 5' region of grlR Whereas MgrR selectively represses grlR but activates grlA, RyhB represses gene expression from the entire grlRA transcript. Meanwhile, McaS appears to target the grlRA mRNA indirectly. Thus, our results provide the first definitive evidence that implicates multiple sRNAs in regulating the LEE and the resulting virulence of EPEC.

  5. The Ruler Protein EscP of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System Is Involved in Calcium Sensing and Secretion Hierarchy Regulation by Interacting with the Gatekeeper Protein SepL

    PubMed Central

    Shaulov, Lihi; Gershberg, Jenia; Deng, Wanyin; Finlay, B. Brett

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a multiprotein complex that plays a central role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. To ensure that effector proteins are efficiently translocated into the host cell, bacteria must be able to sense their contact with the host cell. In this study, we found that EscP, which was previously shown to function as the ruler protein of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli T3SS, is also involved in the switch from the secretion of translocator proteins to the secretion of effector proteins. In addition, we demonstrated that EscP can interact with the gatekeeper protein SepL and that the EscP-SepL complex dissociates upon a calcium concentration drop. We suggest a model in which bacterial contact with the host cell is accompanied by a drop in the calcium concentration that causes SepL-EscP complex dissociation and triggers the secretion of effector proteins. PMID:28049143

  6. Towards a Molecular Definition of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC): Detection of Genes Located on O Island 57 as Markers To Distinguish EHEC from Closely Related Enteropathogenic E. coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Sabine; Beutin, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    Among strains of Shiga-toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC), seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) are associated with severe clinical illness in humans. These strains are also called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the development of methods for their reliable detection from food has been challenging thus far. PCR detection of major EHEC virulence genes stx1, stx2, eae, and O-serogroup-specific genes is useful but does not identify EHEC strains specifically. Searching for the presence of additional genes issued from E. coli O157:H7 genomic islands OI-122 and OI-71 increases the specificity but does not clearly discriminate EHEC from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains. Here, we identified two putative genes, called Z2098 and Z2099, from the genomic island OI-57 that were closely associated with EHEC and their stx-negative derivative strains (87% for Z2098 and 91% for Z2099). Z2098 and Z2099 were rarely found in EPEC (10% for Z2098 and 12% for Z2099), STEC (2 and 15%), and apathogenic E. coli (1% each) strains. Our findings indicate that Z2098 and Z2099 are useful genetic markers for a more targeted diagnosis of typical EHEC and new emerging EHEC strains. PMID:23325824

  7. Presence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella in fresh beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice from public markets in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Unpasteurized juice has been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks for many years. Beetroot is a vegetable grown all over the world in temperate areas. In Mexico beetroot is consumed cooked in salads or raw as fresh unpasteurized juices. No data about the microbiological quality or safety of unpasteurized beetroot juices are available. Indicator bacteria, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) and Salmonella frequencies were determined for fresh unpasteurized beetroot juice from restaurants. One hundred unpasteurized beetroot juice samples were collected from public markets in Pachuca, Mexico. Frequencies in these samples were 100%, 75%, 53%, 9% and 4% of positive samples, for coliform bacteria, fecal coliforms, E. coli, DEP and Salmonella, respectively. Identified DEP included enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Identified Salmonella serotypes included Typhimurium and Enteritidis. This is the first report of microbiological quality and atypical EPEC, ETEC, non-O157 STEC and Salmonella isolation from fresh raw beetroot juice in Mexico. Fresh raw beetroot juice from markets is very probably an important factor contributing to the endemicity of atypical EPEC, ETEC, non-O157 STEC and Salmonella-related gastroenteritis in Mexico. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Higher atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (a-EPEC) bacterial loads in children with diarrhea are associated with PCR detection of the EHEC factor for adherence 1/lymphocyte inhibitory factor A (efa1/lifa) gene.

    PubMed

    Slinger, Robert; Lau, Kimberley; Slinger, Michael; Moldovan, Ioana; Chan, Francis

    2017-03-23

    Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (t-EPEC) are known to cause diarrhea in children but it is uncertain whether atypical EPEC (a-EPEC) do, since a-EPEC lack the bundle-forming pilus (bfp) gene that encodes a key adherence factor in t-EPEC. In culture-based studies of a-EPEC, the presence of another adherence factor, called EHEC factor for adherence/lymphocyte activation inhibitor (efa1/lifA), was strongly associated with diarrhea. Since a-EPEC culture is not feasible in clinical laboratories, we designed an efa1/lifA quantitative PCR assay and examined whether the presence of efa1/lifA was associated with higher a-EPEC bacterial loads in pediatric diarrheal stool samples. Fecal samples from children with diarrhea were tested by qPCR for EPEC (presence of eae gene) and for shiga toxin genes to exclude enterohemorrhagic E. coli, which also contain the eae gene. EPEC containing samples were then tested for the bundle-forming pilus gene found in t-EPEC and efa1/lifA. The eae gene quantity in efa1/lifA-positive and negative samples was compared. Thirty-nine of 320 (12%) fecal samples tested positive for EPEC and 38/39 (97%) contained a-EPEC. The efa1/lifA gene was detected in 16/38 (42%) a-EPEC samples. The median eae concentration for efa1/lifA positive samples was significantly higher than for efa1/lifA negative samples (median 16,745 vs. 1183 copies/µL, respectively, p = 0.006). Atypical enteropathogenic E. coli-positive diarrheal stool samples containing the efa1/lifA gene had significantly higher bacterial loads than samples lacking this gene. This supports the idea that efa1/lifA contributes to diarrheal pathogenesis and suggests that, in EPEC-positive samples, efa/lifA may be a useful additional molecular biomarker.

  9. Clonal relatedness of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O101 strains of human and porcine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Franke, S; Harmsen, D; Caprioli, A; Pierard, D; Wieler, L H; Karch, H

    1995-01-01

    Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli (SLTEC) O101 has recently been associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. In this study, SLTEC O101 strains from humans and pigs were characterized for clonal relatedness by nucleotide sequence analysis of their slt genes, DNA finger-printing of genomic DNA, and determination of virulence factors. The slt genes of five E. coli O101 strains were cloned and sequenced. For all strains, the deduced amino acid sequences of the B subunits were identical to those of the SLT-IIe present in the classical SLTEC O139 strains that cause edema disease in pigs. The A subunit revealed more than 99% homology to that of SLT-IIe. DNA fingerprinting revealed a high degree of genetic relatedness between the human and porcine O101 isolates. None of the O101 strains investigated had virulence factors frequently found in porcine (F107 fimbriae or heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxins) or human SLTEC strains (eaeA or enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin). The absence of virulence factors typical of SLT-I- and SLT-II-producing E. Coli together with the presence of SLT-IIe, a toxin previously seen only in porcine E. coli, suggests a new pathogenic mechanism for E. coli O101 infection of humans. For diagnostic purposes, we recommend the use of PCR primers and DNA probes complementary to slt-IIe to correctly identify such strains and to further evaluate their role in human diseases. PMID:8586696

  10. Clonal relatedness of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli O101 strains of human and porcine origin.

    PubMed

    Franke, S; Harmsen, D; Caprioli, A; Pierard, D; Wieler, L H; Karch, H

    1995-12-01

    Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli (SLTEC) O101 has recently been associated with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. In this study, SLTEC O101 strains from humans and pigs were characterized for clonal relatedness by nucleotide sequence analysis of their slt genes, DNA finger-printing of genomic DNA, and determination of virulence factors. The slt genes of five E. coli O101 strains were cloned and sequenced. For all strains, the deduced amino acid sequences of the B subunits were identical to those of the SLT-IIe present in the classical SLTEC O139 strains that cause edema disease in pigs. The A subunit revealed more than 99% homology to that of SLT-IIe. DNA fingerprinting revealed a high degree of genetic relatedness between the human and porcine O101 isolates. None of the O101 strains investigated had virulence factors frequently found in porcine (F107 fimbriae or heat-stable or heat-labile enterotoxins) or human SLTEC strains (eaeA or enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin). The absence of virulence factors typical of SLT-I- and SLT-II-producing E. Coli together with the presence of SLT-IIe, a toxin previously seen only in porcine E. coli, suggests a new pathogenic mechanism for E. coli O101 infection of humans. For diagnostic purposes, we recommend the use of PCR primers and DNA probes complementary to slt-IIe to correctly identify such strains and to further evaluate their role in human diseases.

  11. Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Bautista-De León, Haydee; Vázquez-Barrios, Ma Estela; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2013-09-16

    The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EscO, a Functional and Structural Analog of the Flagellar FliJ Protein, Is a Positive Regulator of EscN ATPase Activity of the Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Injectisome

    PubMed Central

    Romo-Castillo, Mariana; Andrade, Angel; Espinosa, Norma; Monjarás Feria, Julia; Soto, Eduardo; Díaz-Guerrero, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are multiprotein molecular devices used by many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. A T3SS is also used for protein export in flagellar assembly, which promotes bacterial motility. The two systems are evolutionarily related, possessing highly conserved components in their export apparatuses. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) employs a T3SS, encoded by genes in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, to colonize the human intestine and cause diarrheal disease. In the present work, we investigated the role of the LEE-encoded EscO protein (previously Orf15 or EscA) in T3SS biogenesis. We show that EscO shares similar properties with the flagellar FliJ and the Yersinia YscO protein families. Our findings demonstrate that EscO is essential for secretion of all categories of T3SS substrates. Consistent with its central role in protein secretion, it was found to interact with the ATPase EscN and its negative regulator, EscL, of the export apparatus. Moreover, we show that EscO stimulates EscN enzymatic activity; however, it is unable to upregulate ATP hydrolysis in the presence of EscL. Remarkably, EscO partially restored the swimming defect of a Salmonella flagellar fliJ mutant and was able to stimulate the ATPase activity of FliI. Overall, our data indicate that EscO is the virulence counterpart of the flagellar FliJ protein. PMID:24706741

  13. Identification of the Secretion and Translocation Domain of the Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Effector Cif, Using TEM-1 β-Lactamase as a New Fluorescence-Based Reporter

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Xavier; Oswald, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) strains are human and animal pathogens that inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system (TTSS). Cif is an effector protein which induces host cell cycle arrest and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Cif is encoded by a lambdoid prophage present in most of the EPEC and EHEC strains. In this study, we analyzed the domain that targets Cif to the TTSS by using a new reporter system based on a translational fusion of the effector proteins with mature TEM-1 β-lactamase. Translocation was detected directly in living host cells by using the fluorescent β-lactamase substrate CCF2/AM. We show that the first 16 amino acids (aa) of Cif were necessary and sufficient to mediate translocation into the host cells. Similarly, the first 20 aa of the effector proteins Map, EspF, and Tir, which are encoded in the same region as the TTSS, mediated secretion and translocation in a type III-dependent but chaperone-independent manner. A truncated form of Cif lacking its first 20 aa was no longer secreted and translocated, but fusion with the first 20 aa of Tir, Map, or EspF restored both secretion and translocation. In addition, the chimeric proteins were fully able to trigger host cell cycle arrest and stress fiber formation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Cif is composed of a C-terminal effector domain and an exchangeable N-terminal translocation signal and that the TEM-1 reporter system is a convenient tool for the study of the translocation of toxins or effector proteins into host cells. PMID:15292151

  14. Identification of the secretion and translocation domain of the enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli effector Cif, using TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a new fluorescence-based reporter.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Xavier; Oswald, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) strains are human and animal pathogens that inject effector proteins into host cells via a type III secretion system (TTSS). Cif is an effector protein which induces host cell cycle arrest and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Cif is encoded by a lambdoid prophage present in most of the EPEC and EHEC strains. In this study, we analyzed the domain that targets Cif to the TTSS by using a new reporter system based on a translational fusion of the effector proteins with mature TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Translocation was detected directly in living host cells by using the fluorescent beta-lactamase substrate CCF2/AM. We show that the first 16 amino acids (aa) of Cif were necessary and sufficient to mediate translocation into the host cells. Similarly, the first 20 aa of the effector proteins Map, EspF, and Tir, which are encoded in the same region as the TTSS, mediated secretion and translocation in a type III-dependent but chaperone-independent manner. A truncated form of Cif lacking its first 20 aa was no longer secreted and translocated, but fusion with the first 20 aa of Tir, Map, or EspF restored both secretion and translocation. In addition, the chimeric proteins were fully able to trigger host cell cycle arrest and stress fiber formation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Cif is composed of a C-terminal effector domain and an exchangeable N-terminal translocation signal and that the TEM-1 reporter system is a convenient tool for the study of the translocation of toxins or effector proteins into host cells.

  15. Behavior of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on whole and sliced jalapeño and serrano peppers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC) on whole and slices of jalapeño and serrano peppers as well as in blended sauce at 25 ± 2 °C and 3 ± 2 °C was investigated. Chili peppers were collected from markets of Pachuca city, Hidalgo, Mexico. On whole serrano and jalapeño stored at 25 ± 2 °C or 3 ± 2 °C, no growth was observed for EPEC, ETEC, EIEC and non-O157-STEC rifampicin resistant strains. After twelve days at 25 ± 2 °C, on serrano peppers all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEP) strains had decreased by a total of approximately 3.7 log, whereas on jalapeño peppers the strains had decreased by approximately 2.8 log, and at 3 ± 2 °C they decreased to approximately 2.5 and 2.2 log respectively, on serrano and jalapeño. All E. coli pathotypes grew onto sliced chili peppers and in blended sauce: after 24 h at 25 ± 2 °C, all pathotypes had grown to approximately 3 and 4 log CFU on pepper slices and sauce, respectively. At 3 ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EscO, a functional and structural analog of the flagellar FliJ protein, is a positive regulator of EscN ATPase activity of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli injectisome.

    PubMed

    Romo-Castillo, Mariana; Andrade, Angel; Espinosa, Norma; Monjarás Feria, Julia; Soto, Eduardo; Díaz-Guerrero, Miguel; González-Pedrajo, Bertha

    2014-06-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are multiprotein molecular devices used by many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. A T3SS is also used for protein export in flagellar assembly, which promotes bacterial motility. The two systems are evolutionarily related, possessing highly conserved components in their export apparatuses. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) employs a T3SS, encoded by genes in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, to colonize the human intestine and cause diarrheal disease. In the present work, we investigated the role of the LEE-encoded EscO protein (previously Orf15 or EscA) in T3SS biogenesis. We show that EscO shares similar properties with the flagellar FliJ and the Yersinia YscO protein families. Our findings demonstrate that EscO is essential for secretion of all categories of T3SS substrates. Consistent with its central role in protein secretion, it was found to interact with the ATPase EscN and its negative regulator, EscL, of the export apparatus. Moreover, we show that EscO stimulates EscN enzymatic activity; however, it is unable to upregulate ATP hydrolysis in the presence of EscL. Remarkably, EscO partially restored the swimming defect of a Salmonella flagellar fliJ mutant and was able to stimulate the ATPase activity of FliI. Overall, our data indicate that EscO is the virulence counterpart of the flagellar FliJ protein. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Presence of Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli and Enterotoxigenic E. coli, on Raw Nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) and in Nopalitos Salads from Local Retail Markets in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Cerna-Cortes, Jorge F; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, Mdel Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angelica; Gutiérrez-Alcántara, Eduardo J; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2016-05-01

    The presence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in food is a significant public health concern. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs) are foodborne bacteria. In Mexico, DEPs have been associated with diarrheal illness. There is no information about the presence of multidrug-resistant DEPs on fresh vegetables and in cooked vegetable salads in Mexico. "Nopalitos" (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is a Cactacea extensively used as a fresh green vegetable throughout Mexico. The presence of generic E. coli and multidrug-resistant DEPs on raw whole and cut nopalitos and in nopalitos salad samples was determined. One hundred raw whole nopalitos (without prickles) samples, 100 raw nopalitos cut into small square samples, and 100 cooked nopalitos salad samples were collected from markets. Generic E. coli was determined using the most probable number procedures. DEPs were identified using two multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated DEP strains by standard test. Of the 100 whole nopalitos samples, 100 cut nopalitos samples, and 100 nopalitos salad samples, generic E. coli and DEPs were identified, respectively, in 80% and 10%, 74% and 10%, and 64% and 8%. Eighty-two DEP strains were isolated from positive nopalitos samples. The identified DEPs included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least six antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of multidrug-resistant and antibiotic resistance profiles of STEC, ETEC, and EPEC on raw nopalitos and in nopalitos salads in Mexico.

  18. Characterization of EspC, a 110-kilodalton protein secreted by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli which is homologous to members of the immunoglobulin A protease-like family of secreted proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, M; Kenny, B; Stein, M A; Finlay, B B

    1996-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) secretes at least five proteins. Two of these proteins, EspA and EspB (previously called EaeB), activate signal transduction pathways in host epithelial cells. While the role of the other three proteins (39, 40, and 110 kDa) remains undetermined, secretion of all five proteins is under the control of perA, a known positive regulator of several EPEC virulence factors. On the basis of amino-terminal protein sequence data, we cloned and sequenced the gene which encodes the 110-kDa secreted protein and examined its possible role in EPEC signaling and interaction with epithelial cells. In accordance with the terminology used for espA and espB, we called this gene espC, for EPEC-secreted protein C. We found significant homology between the predicted EspC protein sequence and a family of immunoglobulin A (IgA) protease-like proteins which are widespread among pathogenic bacteria. Members of this protein family are found in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (Tsh), Haemophilus influenzae (Hap), and Shigella flexneri (SepA). Although these proteins and EspC do not encode IgA protease activity, they have considerable homology with IgA protease from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and H. influenzae and appear to use a export system for secretion. We found that genes homologous to espC also exist in other pathogenic bacteria which cause attaching and effacing lesions, including Hafnia alvei biotype 19982, Citrobacter freundii biotype 4280, and rabbit diarrheagenic E. coli (RDEC-1). Although these strains secrete various proteins similar in molecular size to the proteins secreted by EPEC, we did not detect secretion of a 110-kDa protein by these strains. To examine the possible role of EspC in EPEC interactions with epithelial cells, we constructed a deletion mutant in espC by allelic exchange and characterized the mutant by standard tissue culture assays. We found that EspC is not necessary for mediating EPEC-induced signal transduction in He

  19. Interleukin-8, CXCL1, and MicroRNA miR-146a Responses to Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Enteropathogenic E. coli in Human Intestinal Epithelial T84 and Monocytic THP-1 Cells after Apical or Basolateral Infection.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Harshana; Cichon, Christoph; Ölschläger, Tobias A; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Bacterium-host interactions in the gut proceed via directly contacted epithelial cells, the host's immune system, and a plethora of bacterial factors. Here we characterized and compared exemplary cytokine and microRNA (miRNA) responses of human epithelial and THP-1 cells toward the prototype enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69 (O127:H6) and the probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) (O6:K5:H1). Human T84 and THP-1 cells were used as cell culture-based model systems for epithelial and monocytic cells. Polarized T84 monolayers were infected apically or basolaterally. Bacterial challenges from the basolateral side resulted in more pronounced cytokine and miRNA responses than those observed for apical side infections. Interestingly, the probiotic EcN also caused a pronounced transcriptional increase of proinflammatory CXCL1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels when human T84 epithelial cells were infected from the basolateral side. miR-146a, which is known to regulate adaptor molecules in Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB signaling, was found to be differentially regulated in THP-1 cells between probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. To assess the roles of flagella and flagellin, we employed several flagellin mutants of EcN. EcN flagellin mutants induced reduced IL-8 as well as CXCL1 responses in T84 cells, suggesting that flagellin is an inducer of this cytokine response. Following infection with an EPEC type 3 secretion system (T3SS) mutant, we observed increased IL-8 and CXCL1 transcription in T84 and THP-1 cells compared to that in wild-type EPEC. This study emphasizes the differential induction of miR-146a by pathogenic and probiotic E. coli strains in epithelial and immune cells as well as a loss of probiotic properties in EcN interacting with cells from the basolateral side. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. In vitro activity of rifaximin against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and other enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from travellers returning to the UK.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Katie L; Mushtaq, Shazad; Richardson, Judith F; Doumith, Michel; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Cheasty, Tom; Wain, John; Livermore, David M; Woodford, Neil

    2014-05-01

    Rifaximin is licensed in the EU and USA for treating travellers' diarrhoea caused by non-invasive bacteria. Selection for resistance mechanisms of public health significance might occur if these are linked to rifamycin resistance. Rifaximin MICs were determined by agar dilution for 90 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica, typhoidal S. enterica and Campylobacter spp., an additional 60 E. coli with CTX-M ESBLs isolated from patients with travellers' diarrhoea, and 30 non-diarrhoeal carbapenemase-producing E. coli. Comparators were rifampicin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and doxycycline. Isolates with rifaximin MICs>32 mg/L were screened for arr genes, and critical rpoB regions were sequenced. Rifaximin was active at ≤32 mg/L against 436/450 (96.9%) diverse Enterobacteriaceae, whereas 81/90 (90%) Campylobacter spp. were resistant to rifaximin at ≥128 mg/L. Rifaximin MICs were ≥128 mg/L for two Shigella and five MDR E. coli producing NDM (n = 3), OXA-48 (n = 1) or CTX-M-15 (n = 1). Two of the five MDR E. coli had plasmids harbouring arr-2 together with bla(NDM), and two (one each with bla(NDM) and bla(CTX-M-15)) had His526Asn substitutions in RpoB. The rifamycin resistance mechanism remained undefined in one MDR E. coli isolate (with bla(OXA-48)) and the two Shigella isolates. Rifaximin showed good in vitro activity against diverse Enterobacteriaceae but was largely inactive against Campylobacter spp. Rifaximin has potential to co-select MDR E. coli in the gut flora, but much stronger associations were seen between ESBL and/or carbapenemase production and resistance to alternative treatments for travellers' diarrhoea, notably ciprofloxacin and azithromycin.

  1. Campylobacter hyointestinalis: an opportunistic enteropathogen?

    PubMed Central

    Minet, J; Grosbois, B; Megraud, F

    1988-01-01

    A new case of Campylobacter hyointestinalis-associated diarrhea in a human is reported. The medical history of the patient was significant for immunodeficiency because of an evolutive chronic myeloid leukemia. The diarrhea rapidly stopped after administration of oral erythromycin. No other enteropathogenic agent was found by routine examination of stools. Although neither serology nor autopsy was available, this observation appears to be suggestive of the possible enteropathogenicity of C. hyointestinalis for patients at risk. PMID:3230140

  2. Characterization of shiga toxin subtypes and virulence genes in Porcine shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a...

  3. DNA sequence analysis of the composite plasmid pTC conferring virulence and antimicrobial resistance for porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Péter Z; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Blum-Oehler, Gabriele; Olasz, Ferenc; Szabó, Mónika; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Hacker, Jörg; Nagy, Béla

    2012-01-01

    In this study the plasmid pTC, a 90 kb self-conjugative virulence plasmid of the porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain EC2173 encoding the STa and STb heat-stable enterotoxins and tetracycline resistance, has been sequenced in two steps. As a result we identified five main distinct regions of pTC: (i) the maintenance region responsible for the extreme stability of the plasmid, (ii) the TSL (toxin-specific locus comprising the estA and estB genes) which is unique and characteristic for pTC, (iii) a Tn10 transposon, encoding tetracycline resistance, (iv) the tra (plasmid transfer) region, and (v) the colE1-like origin of replication. It is concluded that pTC is a self-transmissible composite plasmid harbouring antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. pTC belongs to a group of large conjugative E. coli plasmids represented by NR1 with a widespread tra backbone which might have evolved from a common ancestor. This is the first report of a completely sequenced animal ETEC virulence plasmid containing an antimicrobial resistance locus, thereby representing a selection advantage for spread of pathogenicity in the presence of antimicrobials leading to increased disease potential. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Characterization of porcine intestinal receptors for the K88ac fimbrial adhesin of Escherichia coli as mucin-type sialoglycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, A K; Baker, D R; Bosworth, B T; Casey, T A; Benfield, D A; Francis, D H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two K88ac adhesion receptors (210 and 240 kDa) which are present in membrane preparations from adhesive but not nonadhesive porcine intestinal brush border cells; these adhesin receptors are postulated to be important determinants of the susceptibility of pigs to K88ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections (A.K. Erickson, J.A. Willgohs, S.Y. McFarland, D.A. Benfield, and D.F. Francis, Infect. Immun. 60:983-988, 1992). We now describe a procedure for the purification of these two receptors. Receptors were solubilized from adhesive intestinal brush border vesicles using deoxycholate and were purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and then by hydroxyapatite chromatography. Amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the two receptors have similar amino acid compositions. The most distinguishing characteristic of both receptors is a high percentage of threonine and proline residues. Neuraminidase treatment caused the K88ac adhesin receptors to migrate with a slower mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels, indicating that these receptors are sialoglycoproteins. Results from lectin-binding studies indicated that the receptors contain O-linked oligosaccharides composed of galactosyl (beta-1,3)N-acetylgalactosamine, alpha-linked fucose, galactosyl(beta-1,4)N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Collectively, these characteristics indicate that the K88ac adhesin receptors are mucin-type sialoglycoproteins. Images PMID:7960120

  5. Towards a vaccine for attaching/effacing Escherichia coli: a LEE encoded regulator (ler) mutant of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is attenuated, immunogenic, and protects rabbits from lethal challenge with the wild-type virulent strain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengru; Feng, Shuzhang; Thate, Timothy E; Kaper, James B; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2006-05-01

    The ler (LEE encoded regulator) gene product is a central regulator for the genes encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island of attaching/effacing (A/E) pathogens, including human enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) as well as animal isolates. Although an in vivo role for Ler in bacterial virulence has not been documented, we hypothesized that a Ler deletion mutant should be attenuated for virulence but might retain immunogenicity. The goals of this study were to genetically characterize ler of a rabbit EPEC (rEPEC) strain (O103:H2), to examine the effect of ler on in vivo virulence, and to determine if intragastric inoculation of an attenuated rEPEC ler mutant was immunogenic and could protect rabbits against subsequent challenge with the wild-type virulent parent strain. The predicted ler gene product of rEPEC strain O103:H2 shares high homology (over 95% amino acid identity) with the Lers of another rEPEC strain RDEC-1 (O15:H-) and human EPEC and EHEC. A defined internal ler deletion mutant of rEPEC O103:H2 showed reduced production of secreted proteins. Although orogastric inoculation of rabbits with the virulent parent O103:H2 strain induced severe diarrhea, significant weight loss and early mortality with adherent mucosal bacteria found at sacrifice, the isogeneic ler mutant strain was well tolerated. Animals gained weight and showed no clinical signs of disease. Examination of histological sections of intestinal segments revealed the absence of mucosal bacterial adherence. This result demonstrates an essential role for Ler in in vivo pathogenicity of A/E E. coli. Single dose orogastric immunization with the rEPEC ler mutant induced serum IgG antibody to whole bacteria (but not to intimin). Immunized animals were protected against enteric infection with the WT virulent parent strain exhibiting normal weight gain, absence of diarrhea and absence of mucosally adherent bacteria at sacrifice. Such

  6. Study of high density Escherichia coli fermentation for production of porcine somatotropin protein.

    PubMed

    Chang, L L; Hwang, L Y; Hwang, C F; Mou, D G

    1991-12-27

    Recombinant E. coli strains and culture conditions were studied for the fermentation expression of porcine somatotropin (PST) inclusion bodies under the control of a pL promoter. Our objective was to achieve high cell density together with a high level of recombinant protein expression. Improved fermentation conditions included oxygen enrichment, yeast extract (YE) effect, optimal specific growth to switch on gene expression, and feeding strategies. To maintain a low residual glucose concentration, a medium feed rate was controlled on a real-time basis by using cell density information estimated from on-line carbon dioxide monitoring of a fermentor's exhaust gas. The optimal specific growth rate required to initiate a temperature shift in our system was found to be around 0.2 hr-1. The cell density and PST expression level could reach 55 OD600 and 35%, respectively, after 16 hours of cultivation under optimal conditions by applying computer-controlled nutrient feed. In our recombinant host/vector system, the location of cl gene appears to affect gene expression under YE-supplemented and/or a high cell density culture condition. With cl gene placed on plasmid, our E. coli host no longer showed sensitivity toward YE in PST gene expression.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Commensal Escherichia coli Adapted to Different Compartments of the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sam; Gordon, David M.; Chin, James; Brouwers, Huub J. M.; Njuguna, Peter; Groves, Mitchell D.; Zhang, Ren

    2012-01-01

    The role of Escherichia coli as a pathogen has been the focus of considerable study, while much less is known about it as a commensal and how it adapts to and colonizes different environmental niches within the mammalian gut. In this study, we characterize Escherichia coli organisms (n = 146) isolated from different regions of the intestinal tracts of eight pigs (dueodenum, ileum, colon, and feces). The isolates were typed using the method of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and screened for the presence of bacteriocin genes and plasmid replicon types. Molecular analysis of variance using the RAPD data showed that E. coli isolates are nonrandomly distributed among different gut regions, and that gut region accounted for 25% (P < 0.001) of the observed variation among strains. Bacteriocin screening revealed that a bacteriocin gene was detected in 45% of the isolates, with 43% carrying colicin genes and 3% carrying microcin genes. Of the bacteriocins observed (H47, E3, E1, E2, E7, Ia/Ib, and B/M), the frequency with which they were detected varied with respect to gut region for the colicins E2, E7, Ia/Ib, and B/M. The plasmid replicon typing gave rise to 25 profiles from the 13 Inc types detected. Inc F types were detected most frequently, followed by Inc HI1 and N types. Of the Inc types detected, 7 were nonrandomly distributed among isolates from the different regions of the gut. The results of this study indicate that not only may the different regions of the gastrointestinal tract harbor different strains of E. coli but also that strains from different regions have different characteristics. PMID:22798360

  8. Susceptibility of porcine intestine to pilus-mediated adhesion by some isolates of piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli increases with age.

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, B; Casey, T A; Whipp, S C; Moon, H W

    1992-01-01

    Two porcine isolates of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (serogroup O157 and O141) derived from fatal cases of postweaning diarrhea and lacking K88, K99, F41, and 987P pili (4P- ETEC) were tested for adhesiveness to small-intestinal epithelia of pigs of different ages. Neither strain adhered to isolated intestinal brush borders of newborn (1-day-old) pigs in the presence of mannose. However, mannose-resistant adhesion occurred when brush borders from 10-day- and 3- and 6-week-old pigs were used. Electron microscopy revealed that both strains produced fine (3.5-nm) and type 1 pili at 37 degrees C but only type 1 pili at 18 degrees C. Mannose-resistant in vitro adhesion to brush borders of older pigs correlated with the presence of fine pili. These strains produced predominantly fine pili in ligated intestinal loops of both older and newborn pigs, but adherence was greater in loops in older pigs. Immunoelectron microscopic studies, using antiserum raised against piliated bacteria and absorbed with nonpiliated bacteria, of samples from brush border adherence studies revealed labelled appendages between adherent bacteria and intestinal microvilli. Orogastric inoculation of pigs weaned at 10 and 21 days of age indicated significantly (P less than 0.001) higher levels of adhesion by the ETEC to the ileal epithelia of older pigs than to that of younger ones. We suggest that small-intestinal adhesion and colonization by these ETEC isolates is dependent on receptors that develop progressively with age during the first 3 weeks after birth. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the fine pili described mediate intestinal adhesion by the 4P- ETEC strains studied. Images PMID:1347758

  9. Susceptibility of porcine intestine to pilus-mediated adhesion by some isolates of piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli increases with age.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Casey, T A; Whipp, S C; Moon, H W

    1992-04-01

    Two porcine isolates of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (serogroup O157 and O141) derived from fatal cases of postweaning diarrhea and lacking K88, K99, F41, and 987P pili (4P- ETEC) were tested for adhesiveness to small-intestinal epithelia of pigs of different ages. Neither strain adhered to isolated intestinal brush borders of newborn (1-day-old) pigs in the presence of mannose. However, mannose-resistant adhesion occurred when brush borders from 10-day- and 3- and 6-week-old pigs were used. Electron microscopy revealed that both strains produced fine (3.5-nm) and type 1 pili at 37 degrees C but only type 1 pili at 18 degrees C. Mannose-resistant in vitro adhesion to brush borders of older pigs correlated with the presence of fine pili. These strains produced predominantly fine pili in ligated intestinal loops of both older and newborn pigs, but adherence was greater in loops in older pigs. Immunoelectron microscopic studies, using antiserum raised against piliated bacteria and absorbed with nonpiliated bacteria, of samples from brush border adherence studies revealed labelled appendages between adherent bacteria and intestinal microvilli. Orogastric inoculation of pigs weaned at 10 and 21 days of age indicated significantly (P less than 0.001) higher levels of adhesion by the ETEC to the ileal epithelia of older pigs than to that of younger ones. We suggest that small-intestinal adhesion and colonization by these ETEC isolates is dependent on receptors that develop progressively with age during the first 3 weeks after birth. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the fine pili described mediate intestinal adhesion by the 4P- ETEC strains studied.

  10. Production of soluble truncated spike protein of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli through refolding.

    PubMed

    Piao, Da-Chuan; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Bok, Jin-Duck; Cho, Chong-Su; Hong, Zhong-Shan; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains, from 2013 to 2014, in North American and Asian countries have greatly threatened global swine industry. Therefore, development of effective vaccines against PEDV variant strains is urgently needed. Recently, it has been reported that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of S1 domain of PEDV spike protein is responsible for binding to the 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a possible sugar co-receptor. Therefore, the NTD of S1 domain could be an attractive target for the development of subunit vaccines. In this study, the NTD spanning amino acid residues 25-229 (S25-229) of S1 domain of PEDV variant strain was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in the form of inclusion bodies (IBs). S25-229 IBs were solubilized in 20 mM sodium acetate (pH 4.5) buffer containing 8 M urea and 1 mM dithiothreitol with 95% yield. Solubilized S25-229 IBs were refolded by 10-fold flash dilution and purified by one-step cation exchange chromatography with >95% purity and 20% yield. The CD spectrum of S25-229 showed the characteristic pattern of alpha helical structure. In an indirect ELISA, purified S25-229 showed strong reactivity with mouse anti-PEDV sera. In addition, immunization of mice with 20 μg of purified S25-229 elicited highly potent serum IgG titers. Finally, mouse antisera against S25-229 showed immune reactivity with native PEDV S protein in an immunofluorescence assay. These results suggest that purified S25-229 may have potential to be used as a subunit vaccine against PEDV variant strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on epithelial barrier disruption caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunpeng; Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-04-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) play an important role in maintaining the mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) was reported to protect the intestinal barrier function of early-weaned piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 challenge; however, the underlying cellular mechanism of this protection was unclear. Here, an established intestinal porcine epithelia cell (IPEC-J2) model was used to investigate the protective effects and related mechanisms of L. plantarum on epithelial barrier damages induced by ETEC K88. Epithelial permeability, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and abundance of TJ proteins, were determined. Pre-treatment with L. plantarum for 6h prevented the reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) (P<0.05), inhibited the increased transcript abundances of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) (P<0.05), decreased expression of claudin-1, occludin and zonula occludens (ZO-1) (P<0.05) and protein expression of occludin (P<0.05) of IPEC-J2 cells caused by ETEC K88. Moreover, the mRNA expression of negative regulators of toll-like receptors (TLRs) [single Ig Il-1-related receptor (SIGIRR), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3), and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1)] in IPEC-J2 cells pre-treated with L. plantarum were higher (P<0.05) compared with those in cells just exposed to K88. Furthermore, L. plantarum was shown to regulate proteins of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicated that L. plantarum may improve epithelial barrier function by maintenance of TEER, inhibiting the reduction of TJ proteins, and reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by ETEC K88, possibly through modulation of TLRs, NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Gene expression profiling of porcine mammary epithelial cells after challenge with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Alexandra; Bardehle, Danilo; Oster, Michael; Günther, Juliane; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus; Kemper, Nicole

    2015-05-06

    Postpartum Dysgalactia Syndrome (PDS) represents a considerable health problem of postpartum sows, primarily indicated by mastitis and lactation failure. The poorly understood etiology of this multifactorial disease necessitates the use of the porcine mammary epithelial cell (PMEC) model to identify how and to what extent molecular pathogen defense mechanisms prevent bacterial infections at the first cellular barrier of the gland. PMEC were isolated from three lactating sows and challenged with heat-inactivated potential mastitis-causing pathogens Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) for 3 h and 24 h, in vitro. We focused on differential gene expression patterns of PMEC after pathogen challenge in comparison with the untreated control by performing microarray analysis. Our results show that a core innate immune response of PMEC is partly shared by E. coli and S. aureus. But E. coli infection induces much faster and stronger inflammatory response than S. aureus infection. An immediate and strong up-regulation of genes encoding cytokines (IL1A and IL8), chemokines (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL6) and cell adhesion molecules (VCAM1, ICAM1, and ITGB3) was explicitly obvious post-challenge with E. coli inducing a rapid recruitment and activation of cells of host defense mediated by IL1B and TNF signaling. In contrast, S. aureus infection rather induces the expression of genes encoding monooxygenases (CYP1A1, CYP3A4, and CYP1B1) initiating processes of detoxification and pathogen elimination. The results indicate that the course of PDS depends on the host recognition of different structural and pathogenic profiles first, which critically determines the extent and effectiveness of cellular immune defense after infection.

  13. Pathotyping and antibiotic resistance of porcine enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains from Switzerland (2014-2015).

    PubMed

    Brand, P; Gobeli, S; Perreten, V

    2017-07-01

    A total of 131 porcine E. coli were isolated in 2014 and 2015 from the gut of 115 pigs raised in Switzerland and suffering from diarrhea. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, serotypes, virulence factors and genetic diversity. Serotypes were assigned by agglutination tests and virulence genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the measurement of the MIC of 14 antibiotics and by the detection of the corresponding genes using microarray and PCR approaches. Genetic diversity was determined by repetitive palindromic PCR (rep- PCR) revealing a heterogenous population. Half of the E. coli isolates possessing virulence factors could not be assigned to any of the 19 serotypes tested, but contained toxins and adhesins similarly to the sero-typable E. coli isolates. The most prevalent E. coli serotypes found were K88ac (18%), O139:K82 (6%), O141:K85ac (5%), O108:K`V189` (5%), O119:K`V113` (3%) and O157:K`V17` (2%). The combination of toxins EAST-1, STb and LT-I and adhesin F4 characterizing ETEC was the most frequent. The shigatoxin Stx2e (STEC) and intimin Eae (EPEC) were also detected, but less frequently. Seventy percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 29% were resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (50%) associated to resistance genes tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C), sulfamethoxazole (49%) [sul1, sul2 and sul3], trimethoprim (34%) [dfr], nalidixic acid (29%), ampicillin (26%) [blaTEM-1], gentamicin (17%) [aac(3) -IIc, aac(3) -IVa and aac(3) -VIa], chloramphenicol (17%) [catAI and catAIII], and ciprofloxacin (8%) [mutations in GyrA (S83L) and ParC (S80I)]. All isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, colistin and tigecycline. Pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland could frequently not be assigned to a known serotype even if they contained diarrhea-causing virulence factors. They

  14. Genetic relatedness and virulence properties of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains of serotype O119:H6 expressing localized adherence or localized and aggregative adherence-like patterns on HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Bruna G; Ooka, Tadasuke; Gotoh, Yasuhiro; Vieira, Mônica A M; Yamamoto, Denise; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Girão, Dennys M; Sampaio, Suely C F; Melo, Alexis Bonfim; Irino, Kinue; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2016-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) induce attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in enterocytes and produce the bundle-forming pilus (BFP) contributing to the localized adherence (LA) pattern formation on HeLa cells. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) produce aggregative adherence (AA) on HeLa cells and form prominent biofilms. The ability to produce LA or AA is an important hallmark to classify fecal E. coli isolates as EPEC or EAEC, respectively. E. coli strains of serotype O119:H6 exhibit an LA+ phenotype and have been considered as comprising a clonal group of EPEC strains. However, we have recently identified O119:H6 EPEC strains that produce LA and an AA-like pattern concurrently (LA/AA-like+). In this study, we evaluated the relatedness of three LA/AA-like+ and three LA+ O119:H6 strains by comparing their virulence and genotypic properties. We first found that the LA/AA-like+ strains induced actin accumulation in HeLa cells (indicative of A/E lesions formation) and formed biofilms on abiotic surfaces more efficiently than the LA+ strains. MLST analysis showed that the six strains all belong to the ST28 complex. All strains carried multiple plasmids, but as plasmid profiles were highly variable, this cannot be used to differentiate LA/AA-like+ and LA+ strains. We further obtained their draft genome sequences and the complete sequences of four plasmids harbored by one LA/AA-like+ strain. Analysis of these sequences and comparison with 37 fully sequenced E. coli genomes revealed that both O119:H6 groups belong to the E. coli phylogroup B2 and are very closely related with only 58-67 SNPs found between LA/AA-like+ and LA+ strains. Search of the draft sequences of the six strains for adhesion-related genes known in EAEC and other E. coli pathotypes detected no genes specifically present in LA/AA-like+ strains. Unexpectedly however, we found that a large plasmid distinct from pEAF is responsible for the AA-like phenotype of the LA/AA-like+ strains. Although we

  15. Sequences related to the major subunit gene fedA of F107 fimbriae in porcine Escherichia coli strains that express adhesive fimbriae.

    PubMed

    Imberechts, H; Van Pelt, N; De Greve, H; Lintermans, P

    1994-06-15

    Porcine Escherichia coli strains isolated from cases of postweaning diarrhea or edema disease were analysed for the presence of fedA, the major subunit gene of F107 fimbriae. The E. coli isolates were known to contain colonisation factor '8813', or to express F107, 2134P or other fimbriae, different from F4, F5, F6, and F41. PCR with fedA-specific primers, restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR product, and nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that 2134P pili, colonisation factor '8813' and fimbriae identified on Australian strains of the O141 serotype belong to one family of F107 fimbrial antigens.

  16. Characterization of a cfr-Carrying Plasmid from Porcine Escherichia coli That Closely Resembles Plasmid pEA3 from the Plant Pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongmin; Sun, Bin; Wang, Yang; Lei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The multiresistance gene cfr was found in two porcine Escherichia coli isolates, one harboring it on the conjugative 33,885-bp plasmid pFSEC-01, the other harboring it in the chromosomal DNA. Sequence analysis of pFSEC-01 revealed that a 6,769-bp fragment containing the cfr gene bracketed by two IS26 elements was inserted into a plasmid closely related to pEA3 from the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora, suggesting that pFSEC-01 may be transferred between different bacterial genera of both animal and plant origin. PMID:26525796

  17. Characterization of a cfr-Carrying Plasmid from Porcine Escherichia coli That Closely Resembles Plasmid pEA3 from the Plant Pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rongmin; Sun, Bin; Wang, Yang; Lei, Lei; Schwarz, Stefan; Wu, Congming

    2015-11-02

    The multiresistance gene cfr was found in two porcine Escherichia coli isolates, one harboring it on the conjugative 33,885-bp plasmid pFSEC-01, the other harboring it in the chromosomal DNA. Sequence analysis of pFSEC-01 revealed that a 6,769-bp fragment containing the cfr gene bracketed by two IS26 elements was inserted into a plasmid closely related to pEA3 from the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora, suggesting that pFSEC-01 may be transferred between different bacterial genera of both animal and plant origin.

  18. Age-specific colonization of porcine intestinal epithelium by 987P-piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, E A; Whipp, S C; Moon, H W

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal (less than 1-day-old), 3- and 7-day old, and older (3-week-old postweaning) pigs were challenged by intragastric inoculation with 987P-piliated (987P+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 987. Neonatal pigs were colonized (i.e., there were greater than or equal to 10(8) CFU of test strain per 10-cm ileal segment) and developed diarrhea. Intestinal colonization and the incidence and severity of diarrhea were lower in 3- and 7-day old pigs than in neonates. Older pigs were not colonized and did not develop diarrhea following oral inoculation with five strains of 987P+ ETEC. Strain 987 (987P+) adhered in vitro to intestinal epithelial cell brush borders isolated from both neonatal (sensitive) and older (resistant) pigs. The in vivo growth and expression of 987P pilus by strain 987 in ligated ileal loops created in neonatal and older pigs were similar. The in vivo adherence of 987P+ ETEC to intestinal epithelium in ligated ileal loops in neonatal and older pigs was compared. In neonatal pigs, most of the bacteria were in layers associated with the villous epithelium. In older pigs, most of the bacteria were associated with mucus-like material in the intestinal lumen. We concluded that swine develop an innate resistance to 987P+ ETEC by 3 weeks of age. This resistance does not appear to be due to an absence of 987P-specific receptors in the intestines of the older pig or to an inability of 987P+ bacteria to grow and express pili in the older pig. We hypothesized that the resistance of older pigs to 987P-mediated disease is due to release of 987P-specific receptors into the intestinal lumen, where these receptors facilitate bacterial clearance rather than bacterial adherence to intestinal epithelium and colonization. Images PMID:2562837

  19. Age-specific colonization of porcine intestinal epithelium by 987P-piliated enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dean, E A; Whipp, S C; Moon, H W

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal (less than 1-day-old), 3- and 7-day old, and older (3-week-old postweaning) pigs were challenged by intragastric inoculation with 987P-piliated (987P+) enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 987. Neonatal pigs were colonized (i.e., there were greater than or equal to 10(8) CFU of test strain per 10-cm ileal segment) and developed diarrhea. Intestinal colonization and the incidence and severity of diarrhea were lower in 3- and 7-day old pigs than in neonates. Older pigs were not colonized and did not develop diarrhea following oral inoculation with five strains of 987P+ ETEC. Strain 987 (987P+) adhered in vitro to intestinal epithelial cell brush borders isolated from both neonatal (sensitive) and older (resistant) pigs. The in vivo growth and expression of 987P pilus by strain 987 in ligated ileal loops created in neonatal and older pigs were similar. The in vivo adherence of 987P+ ETEC to intestinal epithelium in ligated ileal loops in neonatal and older pigs was compared. In neonatal pigs, most of the bacteria were in layers associated with the villous epithelium. In older pigs, most of the bacteria were associated with mucus-like material in the intestinal lumen. We concluded that swine develop an innate resistance to 987P+ ETEC by 3 weeks of age. This resistance does not appear to be due to an absence of 987P-specific receptors in the intestines of the older pig or to an inability of 987P+ bacteria to grow and express pili in the older pig. We hypothesized that the resistance of older pigs to 987P-mediated disease is due to release of 987P-specific receptors into the intestinal lumen, where these receptors facilitate bacterial clearance rather than bacterial adherence to intestinal epithelium and colonization.

  20. Association of Escherichia coli with the Small Intestinal Epithelium II. Variations in Association Index and the Relationship Between Association Index and Enterosorption in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bertschinger, Hans U.; Moon, Harley W.; Whipp, Shannon C.

    1972-01-01

    The association between small intestinal epithelium and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EEC) was studied in ligated intestinal loops of pigs and rabbits. The association indexes (degree of association) for each of two porcine EEC strains varied widely among pigs and independently of each other. Significant litter-to-litter variations in association indexes among colostrum-deprived newborn pigs were interpreted to be the result of congenital resistance to association with specific EEC in some pigs. Since enterosorption occurred in loops with low association indexes, it was not necessary for EEC to establish a high association index for them to cause enterosorption in ligated intestinal loops. Two strains of EEC which are enteropathogenic for humans caused enterosorption in ligated loops in pigs 3 weeks old or less but not in 6-week-old pigs. Images PMID:4564681

  1. Role of fimbriae F18 for actively acquired immunity against porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, E; Bertschinger, H U

    1997-02-01

    Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enterotoxaemic (ETEEC) Escherichia (E.) coli that express F18 (F107) fimbriate colonize the small intestine and cause diarrhoea and/or oedema disease in weaned pigs. So far, two antigenic variants of F18 can be distinguished with a common antigenic factor designated 'a' and two specific factors called 'b' and 'c'. In this study the existence of crosswise anti-colonization immunity between E. coli strains that express F18ab or F18ac fimbrial variants, respectively, was demonstrated. Weaned pigs of susceptible genotype with respect to susceptibility to adhesion of E. coli with fimbriae F18 were inoculated with E. coli strains 3064STM (0157:K-:H-:F18ab; resistant to streptomycin) and 8199RIF (0141ab:K-:H4:F18ac; resistant to rifampicin). The faecal shedding was compared subsequent to immunization and homologous or heterologous challenge. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to measure IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies against the F18ab and F18ac antigens in saliva, faeces, serum and intestinal wash samples. About 8 log CFU/g of the inoculated strains were found in faeces of all pigs following immunization as well as in non-immunized controls after challenge. Bacterial counts of the inoculated strains after challenge were between 2 and 5 log lower, without any difference between homologous and heterologous challenge. Intestinal colonization with fimbriated E. coli resulted in production of significantly increased levels of anti-fimbrial antibodies, especially IgA, in serum and intestinal wash samples. There were higher levels of homologous than of heterologous anti-fimbrial antibodies. Production of antibodies against F18a or against another common fimbrial antigen is probably responsible for crosswise anti-colonization immunity between E. coli strains with F18ab and F18ac fimbrial variants. Serum F18-specific IgA may be a useful indicator of a mucosal immune response directed against F18 fimbriae.

  2. Characterization of Shiga toxin subtypes and virulence genes in porcine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGES

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M.; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; ...

    2016-04-21

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using amore » Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx2e (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx1a (14%), stx2d (3%), and stx1c (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx2d were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx2a and stx2c, the stx2d variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfAO113 and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfAO26, lpfAO157, fedA, orfA, and orfB. Furthermore, the present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles associated with human infections.« less

  3. Characterization of Shiga Toxin Subtypes and Virulence Genes in Porcine Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M.; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha; Bagi, Lori K.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Boccia, Federica; Anastasio, Aniello; Pepe, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using a Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx2e (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx1a (14%), stx2d (3%), and stx1c (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx2d were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx2a and stx2c, the stx2d variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfAO113 and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfAO26, lpfAO157, fedA, orfA, and orfB. The present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles associated with human infections. PMID:27148249

  4. Prospective study of enteropathogens in two communities of Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vergara, M; Quiroga, M; Grenon, S; Pegels, E; Oviedo, P; Deschutter, J; Rivas, M; Binsztein, N; Claramount, R

    1996-01-01

    Children under five years of age, from two communities of different socio-economic strata (97 from Zaiman and 55 from Las Dolores) were examined epidemiologically during 2 years, by means of quarterly visits of the working team, who carried out the collection of faecal samples. During the study, one or more enteropathogens were identified in 73.9% of samples in children from Zaiman and in 58.3% of the samples from Las Dolores, being associated to diarrhoea in 70.5% and to asymptomatic infections in 65.7%. The number of diarrheic episodes was higher in Zaiman (15.45%) than in Las Dolores (12.35%), being more frequent in the spring-summer seasons. In Zaiman, the bacterial enteropathogen proportion was relevantly higher (p < 0.005) in children with diarrhoea, whereas the presence of parasites was more frequent in asymptomatic children (p < 0.01). Rotavirus had an even distribution within diarrheic and asymptomatic children. In Las Dolores, no relevant differences were found in the detection of enteroparasites between diarrheic and asymptomatic children. Mixed infections were detected; enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-rotavirus and ETEC-parasites being the most frequent ones. ETEC was involved in 85% of these infections. These data, together with the high enteropathogen carriage, suggest an elevated level of environmental contamination. The latter plays an important role in diarrheic diseases, and added to the most extreme poverty, it affects children's lives.

  5. Carbohydrate-binding specificities of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains in porcine jejunal (IPEC-J2) cells and porcine mucin.

    PubMed

    Valeriano, Valerie Diane; Bagon, Bernadette B; Balolong, Marilen P; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial lectins are carbohydrate-binding adhesins that recognize glycoreceptors in the gut mucus and epithelium of hosts. In this study, the contribution of lectin-like activities to adhesion of Lactobacillus mucosae LM1 and Lactobacillus johnsonii PF01, which were isolated from swine intestine, were compared to those of the commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Both LM1 and PF01 strains have been reported to have good adhesion ability to crude intestinal mucus of pigs. To confirm this, we quantified their adhesion to porcine gastric mucin and intestinal porcine enterocytes isolated from the jejunum of piglets (IPEC-J2). In addition, we examined their carbohydrate-binding specificities by suspending bacterial cells in carbohydrate solutions prior to adhesion assays. We found that the selected carbohydrates affected the adherences of LM1 to IPEC-J2 cells and of LGG to mucin. In addition, compared to adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells, adhesion to mucin by both LM1 and LGG was characterized by enhanced specific recognition of glycoreceptor components such as galactose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Hydrophobic interactions might make a greater contribution to adhesion of PF01. A similar adhesin profile between a probiotic and a pathogen, suggest a correlation between shared pathogen-probiotic glycoreceptor recognition and the ability to exclude enteropathogens such as Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 40253. These findings extend our understanding of the mechanisms of the intestinal adhesion and pathogen-inhibition abilities of probiotic Lactobacillus strains.

  6. Secretory IgA and antibodies to Escherichia coli in porcine colostrum and milk and their significance in the alimentary tract of the young pig

    PubMed Central

    Porter, P.; Noakes, D. E.; Allen, W. D.

    1970-01-01

    Specific antisera prepared in rabbits against porcine immunoglobulins have been used in the measurement of IgG, IgA and IgM in porcine colostrum and milk throughout the first weeks of lactation. The immunoglobulins account for more than 60 per cent of the colostral whey protein and approximately 80 per cent of the immunoglobulin is IgG. During the first 2–3 days of lactation IgG and IgM fall to approximately one-tenth of the original level but IgA shows only a two- to three-fold decrease and becomes the predominant immunoglobulin in sow milk. Antibodies to Escherichia coli 0141 and 08 antigens were predominantly associated with IgA although IgM is an important antibody in colostrum. Immunofluorescent studies of IgA in mammary tissue provide some evidence for local synthesis. The passage of sow milk IgA through the alimentary tract was studied in young pigs with re-entrant fistulae prepared in the small intestine. The observations are discussed in relation to the function of IgA as an antibody providing protection in the alimentary tract. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:4906627

  7. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

  8. Enteropathogen carriage by healthy individuals living in an area with poor sanitation.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, G.; Troncoso, M.; Araya, M.; Espinoza, J.; Brunser, O.

    1983-01-01

    Faecal carriage of bacterial enteropathogens (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), shigellae and salmonellae) was studied in 265 individuals: 65 infants 3-6 months of age (50 bottle-fed and 15 breast-fed), 100 school-age children 8-10 years of age and 100 adults 21-50 years of age. All were apparently healthy, did not have gastrointestinal symptoms, had not received antibiotics in the preceding fortnight and were not malnourished. Enteropathogens were isolated from the faeces of 24 individuals (9.1%). Cultures were positive for enteropathogens in 20% of the infants (both breast- and bottle-fed), 8% of school-age children and 3% of the adults. EPEC was the most frequent isolate. Twelve different serotypes were detected. The highest recoveries were E. coli 026:K60 and 044 . K74. Shigella was detected only in school-age children (2%) and salmonella only in adults (1%). Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica were studied only in the school-age children: there was one isolate of each of them. Most enteropathogens isolated were susceptible to the majority of the antibiotics tested. Only four E. coli strains, isolated from bottle-fed infants, could be considered multi-resistant. Two of the strains wer E. coli 044:K74 and 020a020c:K61. The remainder were E. coli 0111:K58 and wee capable of transferring some of their antibiotic resistance traits to a recipient strain. PMID:6363528

  9. Roles of Hcp family proteins in the pathogenesis of the porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Wang, Xiangru; Shou, Jin; Zong, Bingbing; Zhang, Yanyan; Tan, Jia; Chen, Jing; Hu, Linlin; Zhu, Yongwei; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen

    2016-05-27

    Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) is considered a vital component of the functional T6SS (Type VI Secretion System), which is a newly discovered secretion system. Our laboratory has previously sequenced the whole genome of porcine extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strain PCN033, and identified an integrated T6SS encoding three different hcp family genes. In this study, we first identified a functional T6SS in porcine ExPEC strain PCN033, and demonstrated that the Hcp family proteins were involved in bacterial competition and the interactions with other cells. Interestingly, the three Hcp proteins had different functions. Hcp2 functioned predominantly in bacterial competition; all three proteins were involved in the colonization of mice; and Hcp1 and Hcp3 were predominantly contributed to bacterial-eukaryotic cell interactions. We showed an active T6SS in porcine ExPEC strain PCN033, and the Hcp family proteins had different functions in their interaction with other bacteria or host cells.

  10. The chronic enteropathogenic disease schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Olveda, David U; Olveda, Remigio M; McManus, Donald P; Cai, Pengfei; Chau, Thao N P; Lam, Alfred K; Li, Yuesheng; Harn, Donald A; Vinluan, Marilyn L; Ross, Allen G P

    2014-11-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic enteropathogenic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. The disease afflicts approximately 240 million individuals globally, causing approximately 70 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Chronic infections with morbidity and mortality occur as a result of granuloma formation in the intestine, liver, or in the case of Schistosoma haematobium, the bladder. Various methods are utilized to diagnose and evaluate liver fibrosis due to schistosomiasis. Liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard, but it is invasive. Diagnostic imaging has proven to be an invaluable method in assessing hepatic morbidity in the hospital setting, but has practical limitations in the field. The potential of non-invasive biological markers, serum antibodies, cytokines, and circulating host microRNAs to diagnose hepatic fibrosis is presently undergoing evaluation. This review provides an update on the recent advances made with respect to gastrointestinal disease associated with chronic schistosomiasis.

  11. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii and β-galactomannan oligosaccharide on porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells challenged in vitro with Escherichia coli F4 (K88).

    PubMed

    Badia, Roger; Zanello, Galliano; Chevaleyre, Claire; Lizardo, Rosil; Meurens, François; Martínez, Paz; Brufau, Joaquim; Salmon, Henri

    2012-01-25

    Probiotic and prebiotics, often called "immune-enhancing" feed additives, are believed to deal with pathogens, preventing the need of an immune response and reducing tissue damage. In this study, we investigated if a recently developed β-galactomannan (βGM) had a similar protective role compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii (Scb), a proven probiotic, in the context of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. ETEC causes inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage in piglets, resulting in large economic loses worldwide. We observed that Scb and βGM products inhibited in vitro adhesion of ETEC on cell surface of porcine intestinal IPI-2I cells. Our data showed that Scb and βGM decreased the mRNA ETEC-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, GM-CSF and chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL8 on intestinal IPI-2I. Furthermore, we investigated the putative immunomodulatory role of Scb and βGM on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) per se and under infection conditions. We observed a slight up-regulation of mRNA for TNF-α and CCR7 receptor after co-incubation of DC with Scb and βGM. However, no differences were found in DC activation upon ETEC infection and Scb or βGM co-culture. Therefore, our results indicate that, similar to probiotic Scb, prebiotic βGM may protect intestinal epithelial cells against intestinal pathogens. Finally, although these products may modulate DC activation, their effect under ETEC challenge conditions remains to be elucidated.

  12. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii and β-galactomannan oligosaccharide on porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells challenged in vitro with Escherichia coli F4 (K88)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic and prebiotics, often called "immune-enhancing" feed additives, are believed to deal with pathogens, preventing the need of an immune response and reducing tissue damage. In this study, we investigated if a recently developed β-galactomannan (βGM) had a similar protective role compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii (Scb), a proven probiotic, in the context of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. ETEC causes inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage in piglets, resulting in large economic loses worldwide. We observed that Scb and βGM products inhibited in vitro adhesion of ETEC on cell surface of porcine intestinal IPI-2I cells. Our data showed that Scb and βGM decreased the mRNA ETEC-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, GM-CSF and chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL8 on intestinal IPI-2I. Furthermore, we investigated the putative immunomodulatory role of Scb and βGM on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) per se and under infection conditions. We observed a slight up-regulation of mRNA for TNF-α and CCR7 receptor after co-incubation of DC with Scb and βGM. However, no differences were found in DC activation upon ETEC infection and Scb or βGM co-culture. Therefore, our results indicate that, similar to probiotic Scb, prebiotic βGM may protect intestinal epithelial cells against intestinal pathogens. Finally, although these products may modulate DC activation, their effect under ETEC challenge conditions remains to be elucidated. PMID:22277078

  13. Mucosally-directed adrenergic nerves and sympathomimetic drugs enhance non-intimate adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to porcine cecum and colon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunsheng; Lyte, Mark; Stevens, Mark P.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Brown, David R.

    2008-01-01

    The sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine has been found to increase mucosal adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in explants of murine cecum and porcine distal colon. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that norepinephrine augments the initial, loose adherence of this important pathogen to the intestinal mucosa. In mucosal sheets of porcine cecum or proximal, spiral and distal colon mounted in Ussing chambers, norepinephrine (10 µM, contraluminal addition) increased mucosal adherence of wild-type E. coli O157:H7 strain 85–170; in the cecal mucosa, this effect occurred within 15 – 90 min after bacterial inoculation. In addition, norepinephrine transiently increased short-circuit current in cecal and colonic mucosal sheets, a measure of active anion transport. Norepinephrine was effective in promoting cecal adherence of a non-O157 E. coli strain as well as E. coli O157:H7 eae or espA mutant strains that are incapable of intimate mucosal attachment. Nerve fibers immunoreactive for the norepinephrine synthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase appeared in close proximity to the cecal epithelium, and the norepinephrine reuptake blocker cocaine, like norepinephrine and the selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist UK-14,304, increased E. coli O157:H7 adherence. These results suggest that norepinephrine, acting upon the large bowel mucosa, modulates early, non-intimate adherence of E. coli O157:H7 and probably other mucosa-associated bacteria. Sympathetic nerves innervating the cecocolonic mucosa may link acute stress exposure or psychostimulant abuse with an increased microbial colonization of the intestinal surface. This in turn may alter host susceptibility to enteric infections. PMID:16687138

  14. Prevalence of diarrhea and enteropathogens in racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, E; Riehl, J; Banse, H; Kass, P H; Nelson, S; Marks, S L

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea is highly prevalent in racing sled dogs, although the underlying causes are poorly understood. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) and Clostridium difficile Toxin A and B are associated with diarrhea in racing sled dogs. One hundred and thirty-five sled dogs. Freshly voided feces were obtained from 55 dogs before racing and from 80 dogs after 400 miles of racing. Samples were visually scored for diarrhea, mucus, blood, and melena. CPE and C. difficile Toxin A and B were detected by ELISA. Samples were cultured for C. perfringens, C. difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157; Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected via immunofluorescence. Diarrhea occurred in 36% of dogs during racing, and hematochezia, fecal mucus or melena, or all 3 occurred in 57.5% of dogs. Salmonella was isolated from 78.2% of dogs before racing, and from 71.3% of dogs during racing. C. perfringens and C. difficile were isolated from 100 and 58.2% of dogs before racing, and from 95 and 36.3% of dogs during racing. Dogs were more likely to test positive for CPE during than before racing (18.8 versus 5.5%, P = .021); however, no enteropathogens or their respective toxins were significantly associated with hematochezia or diarrhea. Sled dogs participating in long distance racing have a high prevalence of diarrhea and hematochezia that is not associated with common enteropathogens. It is possible that diarrhea and hematochezia represent the effect of prolonged exercise on the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Expression and plasmid transfer of genes coding for the fimbrial antigen F107 in porcine Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Wittig, W; Prager, R; Stamm, M; Streckel, W; Tschäpe, H

    1994-08-01

    Expression of the fimbrial antigen F107 of porcine E. coli strains on agar plates was achieved by microaerobic cultivation. For part of the strains of some types, addition of alizarin yellow and eosin to the agar medium proved to be necessary. Some of these strains reacted distinctly positive only when the small colonies growing between the larger ones on alizarin-yellow agar were tested. The fimbrial antigen of the Swiss strain 107/86 was provisionally designated the F107ab variant and that of the Hungarian strain 2134P and the Czech strain 8813, the F107ac variant. The F107 genetic determinants were found to be often linked with those encoding haemolysin production and are frequently carried by plasmids.

  16. Analysis of antigenic determinants in cholera enterotoxin and heat-labile enterotoxins from human and porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Y; Honda, T; Sima, H; Tsuji, T; Miwatani, T

    1983-01-01

    Antigenic determinants of cholera enterotoxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin from a human strain (LTh) and a porcine strain (LTp) were analyzed by Ouchterlony double-gel diffusion test against anti-CT, anti-LTh, and anti-LTp, which were treated by immunoaffinity column chromatography. The results showed the existence of the following antigenic determinants: (i) antigenic determinants unique to CT, LTh, and LTp, respectively; (ii) an antigenic determinant common to CT, LTh, and LTp; (iii) an antigenic determinant common to CT and LTh, but not LTp; and (iv) an antigenic determinant common to LTh and LTp, but not CT. On the basis of these results, an antigenic scheme for CT, LTh, and LTp is proposed. Images PMID:6190758

  17. Requirement for capsular antigen KX105 and fimbrial antigen CS1541 in the pathogenicity of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O8:KX105 strains.

    PubMed Central

    Broes, A; Fairbrother, J M; Jacques, M; Larivière, S

    1989-01-01

    The requirement for capsular antigen KX105 and fimbrial antigen CS1541 in the pathogenicity of porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O8:KX105 strains lacking the colonization factor antigens K88, K99, 987P and F41 was investigated using two encapsulated strains and their acapsular variants, one of which produced the fimbrial antigen CS1541 in vitro. None of the strains adhered in vitro to enterocytes isolated from newborn colostrum-deprived piglets. All of the strains caused diarrhea in orally infected, hysterotomy-derived, colostrum-deprived piglets although a great variability in the clinical response of the piglets was observed. Colonization of the small intestine of infected piglets by these strains was only moderate and no differences in the ability to colonize the small intestine was noted between the strains. All of the strains reacted in the indirect fluorescent antibody test with both CS1541 and 987P antisera when applied to organisms in the intestines of infected piglets. A control strain expressing the 987P fimbrial adhesin also reacted with the CS1541 antiserum applied to organisms in the intestines of an infected piglet. It was concluded that capsular antigen KX105 was not essential for intestinal colonization and production of diarrhea in hysterotomy-derived colostrum-deprived pigs, and that fimbrial antigen CS1541 does not promote in vitro adherence to enterocyte brush borders but could be important in bacterial colonization in vivo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2563336

  18. Porcine circovirus type 2 protective epitope densely carried by chimeric papaya ringspot virus-like particles expressed in Escherichia coli as a cost-effective vaccine manufacture alternative.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Brenda Eugenia; Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Jimenez-García, Mónica Noemí; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel

    2017-05-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) still represents a major problem to the swine industry worldwide, causing high mortality rates in infected animals. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have gained attention for vaccine development, serving both as scaffolds for epitope expression and immune response enhancers. The commercial subunit vaccines against PCV2 consist of VLPs formed by the self-assembly of PCV2 capsid protein (CP) expressed in the baculovirus vector system. In this work, a PCV2 protective epitope was inserted into three different regions of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) CP, namely, the N- and C-termini and a predicted antigenic region located near the N-terminus. Wild-type and chimeric CPs were modeled in silico, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report that shows the formation of chimeric VLPs using PRSV as epitope-presentation scaffold. Moreover, it was found that PCV2 epitope localization strongly influences VLP length. Also, the estimated yields of the chimeric VLPs at a small-scale level ranged between 65 and 80 mg/L of culture medium. Finally, the three chimeric VLPs induced high levels of immunoglobulin G against the PCV2 epitope in immunized BALB/c mice, suggesting that these chimeric VLPs can be used for swine immunoprophylaxis against PCV2. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Effect of bovine colostrum, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma on the in vitro growth of probiotic bacteria and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Pouliot, Yves; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Lessard, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of defatted colostrum (Col), defatted decaseinated colostrum whey, cheese whey, and spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) as supplements of a growth medium (de Man - Rogosa - Sharpe (MRS) broth) on the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria, probiotic bacteria, and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using automated spectrophotometry (in vitro system), we evaluated the effect of the 4 supplements on maximum growth rate (μ(max)), lag time (LagT), and biomass (OD(max)) of 12 lactic acid bacteria and probiotic bacteria and of an E. coli culture. Enrichment of MRS broth with a Col concentration of 10 g/L increased the μ(max) of 5 of the 12 strains by up to 55%. Negative effects of Col or SDPP on growth rates were also observed with 3 probiotic strains; in one instance μ(max) was reduced by 40%. The most effective inhibitor of E. coli growth was SDPP, and this effect was not linked to its lysozyme content. The positive effect of enrichment with the dairy-based ingredient might be linked to enrichment in sugars and increased buffering power of the medium. These in vitro data suggest that both Col and SDPP could be considered as supplements to animal feeds to improve intestinal health because of their potential to promote growth of probiotic bacteria and to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli.

  20. Altered Cytokine Expression and Barrier Properties after In Vitro Infection of Porcine Epithelial Cells with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Probiotic Enterococcus faecium

    PubMed Central

    Günzel, Dorothee; Bondzio, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of the probiotic feed additive Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium) on porcine jejunal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) during an in vitro challenge with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Cells were incubated with E. faecium, ETEC, or both, and the effects on barrier function and structure and intra- and intercellular signaling were determined. Coincubation with E. faecium abolished the ETEC-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance (Rt) (p ≤ 0.05). No differences were seen in the expression levels of the intercellular connecting tight junction proteins examined. However, for the first time, a reorganization of the monolayer was observed in ETEC-infected cells but not in coincubated cells. ETEC induced an increase in cytotoxicity that was prevented by coincubation (p ≤ 0.05), whereas apoptosis rates were not affected by bacterial treatment. ETEC increased the mRNA expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-6 which could be prevented by coincubation for TNF-α mRNA expression and IL-6 protein (p ≤ 0.05). Likewise, cAMP concentrations elevated by ETEC were reduced in coincubated cells (p ≤ 0.05). These findings indicate a protective effect of the probiotic E. faecium on inflammatory responses during infection with ETEC. PMID:28607532

  1. Porcine gonadogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  2. Two or more enteropathogens are associated with diarrhoea in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Gloria Luz; Monroy, Eric; García-González, Octavio; Alonso, Javier; Negrete, Erasmo; Vaca, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal diseases constitute a major public health problem, particularly in the developing world, where the rate of mortality and morbidity is very high. The purpose of this study was to conduct a 2 years and 3 months study in order to determine the prevalence of five enteropathogen diarrheogenic agents in Mexico City. Methods Faecal samples were obtained from 300 Mexican children diagnosed as positive for diarrhoea, aged > 2 to < 12 years old, and from 80 children matched for age but with no symptoms of the disease (control group). Two multiplex PCR were used to detect Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. In addition, the two protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Giardia intestinalis were detected by conventional methods. Results All diarrhoeal samples were positive for one or more enteropathogens. The most common enteropathogens in diarrhoeal samples were E. histolytica/E. dispar (70.3%), Salmonella (ohio 28.3%; typhimurium 16.3%; infantis 8%; anatum 0.6%; Newport 0.3%), G. intestinalis (33%), E. coli (ETEC 13.3%; EPEC 9.3%; VTEC 8.6%; EIEC 1%) and Shigella spp. (flexneri 1.6%, sonnei 1%). Infections by two (24%) three (16%) and four (12%) pathogens were observed. Conclusion This study revealed that 52% of the patients were infected by more than one enteropathogen, notably E. histolitica/E. dispar and Salmonella ohio. These results are useful for clinicians to improve the empiric treatment used in such cases. PMID:18162140

  3. Incidence of bacterial enteropathogens in foods from Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, L V; Ferguson, L E; Hogan, P; Thurman, D; Morgan, D R; DuPont, H L; Ericsson, C D

    1983-01-01

    We examined food consumption patterns of U.S. students temporarily living in Guadalajara, Mexico. Consumption of foods prepared in Mexican homes was associated with an increased risk of acquisition of diarrhea. Foods from commercial sources and private Mexican homes in Guadalajara were subsequently examined for contamination with coliforms, fecal coliforms, and bacterial enteropathogens. For comparison, selected restaurant foods were obtained in Houston, Tex. Food obtained from Mexican homes showed generally higher counts of coliforms and fecal coliforms than those obtained from commercial sources in Mexico and Houston. The foods in Mexico, both from homes and commercial sources, commonly contained Escherichia coli and occasionally enterotoxigenic E. coli. Foods in Houston were not contaminated with E. coli or enterotoxigenic E. coli. Salmonella (17 isolates), Shigella (4 isolates), and Aeromonas hydrophila (1 isolate) were found only in the foods obtained from Mexican homes. Enterotoxigenic non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae was recovered with approximately equal frequency from all food sources. PMID:6354085

  4. Autonomic Neurotransmitters Modulate Immunoglobulin A Secretion in Porcine Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Lisa D.; Xie, Yonghong; Lyte, Mark; Vulchanova, Lucy; Brown, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays a crucial role in mucosal surface defense. We tested the hypothesis that colonic sIgA secretion is under enteric neural control. Immunohistochemistry of the porcine distal colonic mucosa revealed presumptive cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers apposed to secretory component (SC)-positive crypt epithelial cells and neighboring IgA+ plasmacytes. The cholinomimetic drug carbamylcholine elicited rapid, atropine-sensitive IgA secretion into the luminal fluid bathing mucosal explants mounted in Ussing chambers. The adrenergic receptor agonist norepinephrine also increased IgA secretion, an action inhibited by phentolamine. These effects were independent of agonist-induced anion secretion. In Western blots of luminal fluid, both agonists increased the density of protein bands co-immunoreactive for IgA and SC. Mucosal exposure to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli did not affect IgA secretion, and carbamylcholine treatment did not affect mucosal adherence of this enteropathogen. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine, acting respectively through muscarinic cholinergic and alpha-adrenergic receptors in the colonic mucosa, stimulate sIgA secretion and may enhance mucosal defense in vivo. PMID:17320195

  5. [Enteropathogenicity of hemolysing El Tor Vibrios].

    PubMed

    Zykin, L F; Sviatoĭ, V I; Zotova, R S

    1978-02-01

    The authors studied the enteropathogenic properties of 11 strains of hemolysing E1 Tor vibrios, of which 8 in enteric administration to suckling rabbits caused no death of the animals, and 3 caused the animal death with the phenomena of diarrhea, but without any typical cholerogenicity syndrome. In case of administration with mucine the pathogenic properties were revealed in 6 strains more. Use of strains grown on media with starch for the infection led, in individual cases, to the manifestation of enteropathogenic properties. Consequently, the strains of hemolysing E1 for vibrios under study should be regarded as weakly virulent, and some--as avirulent ones.

  6. Effect of porcine-derived mucosal competitive exclusion culture on antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli from growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Kim, L M; Gray, Jeffery T; Bailey, J Stan; Jones, Richard D; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2005-01-01

    While use of antimicrobial drugs in livestock production has made a significant impact on animal health, welfare, and productivity, interest in suitable alternatives such as pre/probiotics, organic acids, and cultures of normal flora or "competitive exclusion" cultures from young animals has increased significantly in the wake of the antimicrobial resistance issue. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of porcine-derived mucosal competitive exclusion (PCE) culture on both the antimicrobial susceptibility of commensal E. coli and on growth performance in piglets. Two replicate trials were conducted using growing piglets fed standard antimicrobial-free production diets. Piglets in the treatment group were orally dosed with PCE (10(10) cfu/mL) twice within 24 h of birth, at weaning, and 18-24 h post-weaning; control group piglets were dosed with sterile broth as a placebo. Fecal samples from all piglets were cultured for commensal E. coli at dosing times and when feed type was changed. A significantly higher proportion of E. coli from PCE-treated piglets demonstrated resistance to tetracycline (p < 0.0001), and streptomycin (p < 0.0001) when compared to controls. Resistance to streptomycin resistance in E. coli from piglets treated with PCE culture was variable, returning to baseline levels by day 21 (weaning). Piglets treated with the PCE culture demonstrated improved feed efficiencies when compared to control piglets (p < 0.005) during feeding of the starter and first growth diets. The PCE culture used in the present study had previously been shown to effectively exclude Salmonella in pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report characterizing the effect of a competitive exclusion culture on antimicrobial resistance of commensal E. coli.

  7. Genetic Diversity among Escherichia coli Isolates Carrying f18 Genes from Pigs with Porcine Postweaning Diarrhea and Edema Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Béla; Wilson, Richard A.; Whittam, Thomas S.

    1999-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis was applied to detect allelic variation and multilocus genotypes (electrophoretic types [ETs]) among 43 Escherichia coli isolates from weaned pigs suffering from edema disease or from diarrhea. ETs were analyzed in relation to O serogroups and virulence genes (sta, stb, lt, stx2, and f18) by DNA hybridization. Genomic diversity was the lowest in serogroup O138, while virulence genes (stx2 and f18) were the most uniform in serogroup O139. In general, the serogroups or toxin and F18 fimbria types were not related to selected ETs, suggesting that the toxin and f18 fimbria genes in E. coli isolates from pigs with postweaning diarrhea or edema disease occur in a variety of chromosomal backgrounds. PMID:10203547

  8. Pilus Production, Hemagglutination, and Adhesion by Porcine Strains of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Lacking K88, K99, and 987P Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Awad-Masalmeh, M.; Moon, H. W.; Runnels, P. L.; Schneider, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Three strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli which adhered, colonized intensively, and caused disease in pig intestine, but which did not produce pili of the K88, K99, or 987P antigen types were designated 3P− ETEC. The 3P− ETEC caused mannose-resistant hemagglutination, adhered to porcine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and produced pili. However, most bacteria taken directly from the intestine of pigs infected with 3P− ETEC appeared to be nonpiliated. Two preparations were isolated from the 3P− ETEC. One (material A) contained pili, caused mannose-sensitive hemagglutination, and did not inhibit adhesion of whole bacteria to epithelial cells in vitro. The other (material B) had no demonstrable pili, caused mannose-resistant hemagglutination, and blocked ahesion of bacteria to epithelial cells in vitro. Antiserum against an acapsular mutant (K−) of one 3P− ETEC strain was absorbed to remove antibodies directed against somatic (O) antigen. The absorbed antiserum agglutinated all three 3P− ETEC strains grown in the K− form at 37°C, but not when they were grown at 18°C. The absorbed antiserum blocked the hemagglutinating activity of material B, but not of material A. It also reacted (via indirect immunofluorescence) with all of the 3P− ETEC when they were grown in pig intestine. The results were interpreted to indicate that: (i) the epithelial adhesive and mannose-resistant hemagglutinating activities of the 3P− ETEC strains may be mediated by an antigen contained in material B; (ii) this antigen either is not pilus associated or is associated with pili that are not demonstrable by the methods used here; (iii) the 3P− ETEC strains produce type 1 pili which do not mediate their adhesion to intestinal epithelium of pigs. Images PMID:6119295

  9. Enteropathogenic and enteroaggregative E. coli in stools of children with acute gastroenteritis in Davidson County, Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Monique A.; Iqbal, Junaid; Zhang, Chengxian; McHenry, Rendie; Cleveland, Brent E.; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia; Fonnesbeck, Chris; Payne, Daniel C.; Chappell, James D.; Halasa, Natasha; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective acute gastroenteritis (AGE) surveillance was conducted in the inpatient and emergency room settings at a referral pediatric hospital to determine the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in children<12 years of age with AGE in Davidson County, Tennessee. Subjects 15 days to 11 years of age, who presented with diarrhea and/or vomiting, were enrolled. Stool specimens were processed for detection of DEC using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. From December 1, 2011, to June 30, 2012, a total of 79 (38%) out of 206 stool specimens from children with AGE tested positive for E. coli. A total of 12 (5.8%) out of 206 stool specimens from children with AGE were positive for a DEC. Eight (67%) out of these 12 were positive for enteropathogenic E. coli, and the remaining 4 were positive for enteroaggregative E. coli. DEC clinical isolates clustered with known E. coli enteropathogens according to multilocus sequencing typing. PMID:26298817

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of selected bacterial enteropathogens in Latin America and worldwide.

    PubMed

    Santos, J I; De la Maza, L; Tanaka, J

    1989-01-01

    We conducted an in vitro susceptibility study of bacterial pathogens to various antimicrobials. Strains of Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae collected in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez were tested against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, gentamicin, and furazolidone. Over the 3-decade period, the resistance of enteropathogens to furazolidone showed the least overall increase. Klebsiella susceptibility to the aminoglycosides decreased during the same period. Worldwide reports of enteropathogenic resistance to antimicrobials are also reviewed. In comparing the results of these worldwide studies with our own, we conclude that there is a need for periodic surveillance and testing of bacterial resistance to antimicrobials.

  11. [Healthy carriers of enteropathogenic micro-organisms among the child population of Seville].

    PubMed

    García, J L; Márquez, S; Alvarez-Dardet, C; Perea, E J

    1989-11-01

    We have studied for 1-year period a group of 144 children (31 newborn infants, 62 aged 1 year and 51 aged 2 years) who were randomly selected from the registrar's office of Sevilla with the purpose of determining the incidence of diarrhoea and the prevalence of enteropathogenic microorganisms. Two samples of faeces (one at the beginning and the second by the second semester of the 1-year period) were obtained from all children which were processed for culture and parasite and rotavirus examination. We found a prevalence rate of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli carriers (EPEC) of 7%, of Giardia lamblia of 4% and of rotavirus of 14%. The state of EPEC was more frequent among children from high social-economic status. The state of G. lamblia carrier was six-fold higher in children with body weight alterations and in non-vaccinated or incompletely vaccinated children.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae decreases inflammatory responses induced by F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Galliano; Meurens, François; Berri, Mustapha; Chevaleyre, Claire; Melo, Sandrine; Auclair, Eric; Salmon, Henri

    2011-05-15

    Probiotic yeasts may provide protection against intestinal inflammation induced by enteric pathogens. In piglets, infection with F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) leads to inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage. In this study, we investigated whether the yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc, strain CNCM I-3856) and S. cerevisiae variety boulardii (Sb, strain CNCM I-3799) decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in intestinal epithelial IPI-2I cells cultured with F4+ ETEC. Results showed that viable Sc inhibited the ETEC-induced TNF-α gene expression whereas Sb did not. In contrast, killed Sc failed to inhibit the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. This inhibition was dependent on secreted soluble factors. Sc culture supernatant decreased the TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL2 and CCL20 ETEC-induced mRNA. Furthermore, Sc culture supernatant filtrated fraction < 10 kDa displayed the same effects excepted for TNF-α. Thus, our results extended to Sc (strain CNCM I-3856) the inhibitory effects of some probiotic yeast strains onto inflammation.

  13. The Interplay between Entamoeba and Enteropathogenic Bacteria Modulates Epithelial Cell Damage

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Moroyoqui, José Manuel; del Carmen Domínguez-Robles, M.; Franco, Elizabeth; Meza, Isaura

    2008-01-01

    Background Mixed intestinal infections with Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and bacteria with exacerbated manifestations of disease are common in regions where amoebiasis is endemic. However, amoeba–bacteria interactions remain largely unexamined. Methodology Trophozoites of E. histolytica and E. dispar were co-cultured with enteropathogenic bacteria strains Escherichia coli (EPEC), Shigella dysenteriae and a commensal Escherichia coli. Amoebae that phagocytosed bacteria were tested for a cytopathic effect on epithelial cell monolayers. Cysteine proteinase activity, adhesion and cell surface concentration of Gal/GalNAc lectin were analyzed in amoebae showing increased virulence. Structural and functional changes and induction of IL-8 expression were determined in epithelial cells before and after exposure to bacteria. Chemotaxis of amoebae and neutrophils to human IL-8 and conditioned culture media from epithelial cells exposed to bacteria was quantified. Principal Findings E. histolytica digested phagocytosed bacteria, although S. dysenteriae retained 70% viability after ingestion. Phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria augmented the cytopathic effect of E. histolytica and increased expression of Gal/GalNAc lectin on the amoebic surface and increased cysteine proteinase activity. E. dispar remained avirulent. Adhesion of amoebae and damage to cells exposed to bacteria were increased. Additional increases were observed if amoebae had phagocytosed bacteria. Co-culture of epithelial cells with enteropathogenic bacteria disrupted monolayer permeability and induced expression of IL-8. Media from these co-cultures and human recombinant IL-8 were similarly chemotactic for neutrophils and E. histolytica. Conclusions Epithelial monolayers exposed to enteropathogenic bacteria become more susceptible to E. histolytica damage. At the same time, phagocytosis of pathogenic bacteria by amoebae further increased epithelial cell damage. Significance The in vitro system

  14. Pharmacodynamic modelling of in vitro activity of tetracycline against a representative, naturally occurring population of porcine Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils; Matthews, Louise; Damborg, Peter; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-11-24

    The complex relationship between drug concentrations and bacterial growth rates require not only the minimum inhibitory concentration but also other parameters to capture the dynamic nature of the relationship. To analyse this relationship between tetracycline concentration and growth of Escherichia coli representative of those found in the Danish pig population, we compared the growth of 50 randomly selected strains. The observed net growth rates were used to describe the in vitro pharmacodynamic relationship between drug concentration and net growth rate based on E max model with three parameters: maximum net growth rate (amax); concentration for a half-maximal response (E max); and the Hill coefficient (γ). The net growth rate in the absence of antibiotic did not differ between susceptible and resistant isolates (P = 0.97). The net growth rate decreased with increasing tetracycline concentrations, and this decline was greater in susceptible strains than resistant strains. The lag phase, defined as the time needed for the strain to reach an OD600 value of 0.01, increased exponentially with increasing tetracycline concentration. The pharmacodynamic parameters confirmed that the αmax between susceptible and resistant strains in the absence of a drug was not different. EC 50 increased linearly with MIC on a log-log scale, and γ was different between susceptible and resistant strains. The in vitro model parameters described the inhibition effect of tetracycline on E. coli when strains were exposed to a wide range of tetracycline concentrations. These parameters, along with in vivo pharmacokinetic data, may be useful in mathematical models to predict in vivo competitive growth of many different strains and for development of optimal dosing regimens for preventing selection of resistance.

  15. Development of a risk-based methodology for estimating survival and growth of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli on iceberg-lettuce exposed at short-term storage in foodservice centers.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caturla, M Y; Valero, A; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2012-09-01

    Ready-to-eat lettuce is a food commodity prone to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms if processing and distribution conditions as well as handling practices are not effective. A challenge testing protocol was applied to ready-to-eat iceberg-lettuce samples by inoculating different initial contamination levels (4.5, 3.5 and 2.5 log cfu/g) of Escherichia coli strain (serotype O158:H23) subsequently stored at 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24°C for 6h. A polynomial regression model for log difference (log(diff)) was developed at each inoculum level studied through the calculation of the effective static temperature (T(eff)). Furthermore, the developed model was integrated within a risk-based approach with real time/Temperature (t/T) data collected in three Spanish foodservice centers: school canteens, long-term care facilities (LTCF) and hospitals. Statistical distributions were fitted to t/T data and estimated log(diff) values were obtained as model outputs through a Monte Carlo simulation (10,000 iterations). The results obtained at static conditions indicated that the maintenance of the lettuce at 8°C slightly reduced the E. coli population from -0.4 to -0.5 log cfu/g. However, if chill chain is not maintained, E. coli can grow up to 1.1 log cfu/g at temperatures above 16°C, even at low contamination levels. Regarding log(diff) estimated in foodservice centers, very low risk was obtained (log(diff)<1.0 log cfu in all cases). Mean T(eff) values obtained in hospitals were the lowest ones (11.1°C) and no growth of E. coli was predicted in >92% of simulated cases. The results presented in this study could serve food operators to set time/Temperature requirements for ready-to-eat foods in foodservice centers, providing a scientific basis through the use of predictive modeling. These findings may also serve to food safety managers to better define the control measures to be adopted in foodservice centers in order to prevent food-borne infections. Copyright © 2012

  16. Effect of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin, cholera toxin and theophylline on ion transport in porcine colon

    PubMed Central

    Argenzio, R. A.; Whipp, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    1. The effect of heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) of Escherichia coli, cholera toxin (CT), and theophylline (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) on ion and water transport was studied with an in vivo isolated loop system of the pig colon. 2. All three agents abolished net Na absorption as a result of a decrease in the lumen to blood Na flux alone. With all three agents, net Cl absorption was reduced, but not abolished, and net HCO3 secretion was elicited. Luminal pCO2 was reduced with CT and theophylline from that observed in normal Ringer alone. 3. Theophylline resulted in a prompt and sustained increase in both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels in colonic mucosa studied in vitro. ST selectively elevated cyclic GMP, whereas CT selectively elevated cyclic AMP. These responses paralleled the time course and magnitude of response of the transepithelial electrical potential difference (ψLB) measured in vivo. 4. Ion replacement studies in the presence or absence of theophylline showed that in the absence of Na, Cl absorption was slightly reduced and HCO3 secretion was elicited; no further additive effects of theophylline in the absence of luminal Na were observed. In the absence of luminal Cl, net Na absorption was abolished and HCO3 was absorbed; theophylline resulted in significant net Na and HCO3 secretion. Theophylline also increased ψLB in the absence of either luminal Na or Cl. 5. Results suggest that in the presence of theophylline or enterotoxin, the coupled Na—H and Cl—HCO3 exchange processes that are normally responsible for at least half of the net NaCl absorption by this tissue are interrupted. Active HCO3 secretion is observed and Cl absorption under these conditions can be entirely explained as a consequence of ψLB. Thus, these studies indicate that the colon may participate in the production of diarrhoea of enterotoxigenic origin. They also suggest an important functional role of cyclic

  17. Characterization of Shiga toxin subtypes and virulence genes in porcine Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Baranzoni, Gian Marco; Fratamico, Pina M.; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Patel, Isha; Bagi, Lori K.; Delannoy, Sabine; Fach, Patrick; Boccia, Federica; Anastasio, Aniello; Pepe, Tiziana

    2016-04-21

    Similar to ruminants, swine have been shown to be a reservoir for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), and pork products have been linked with outbreaks associated with STEC O157 and O111:H-. STEC strains, isolated in a previous study from fecal samples of late-finisher pigs, belonged to a total of 56 serotypes, including O15:H27, O91:H14, and other serogroups previously associated with human illness. The isolates were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a high-throughput real-time PCR system to determine the Shiga toxin (Stx) subtype and virulence-associated and putative virulence-associated genes they carried. Select STEC strains were further analyzed using a Minimal Signature E. coli Array Strip. As expected, stx2e (81%) was the most common Stx variant, followed by stx1a (14%), stx2d (3%), and stx1c (1%). The STEC serogroups that carried stx2d were O15:H27, O159:H16 and O159:H-. Similar to stx2a and stx2c, the stx2d variant is associated with development of hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and reports on the presence of this variant in STEC strains isolated from swine are lacking. Moreover, the genes encoding heat stable toxin (estIa) and enteroaggregative E. coli heat stable enterotoxin-1 (astA) were commonly found in 50 and 44% of isolates, respectively. The hemolysin genes, hlyA and ehxA, were both detected in 7% of the swine STEC strains. Although the eae gene was not found, other genes involved in host cell adhesion, including lpfAO113 and paa were detected in more than 50% of swine STEC strains, and a number of strains also carried iha, lpfAO26, lpfAO157, fedA, orfA, and orfB. Furthermore, the present work provides new insights on the distribution of virulence factors among swine STEC strains and shows that swine may carry Stx1a-, Stx2e-, or Stx2d-producing E. coli with virulence gene profiles

  18. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: a review.

    PubMed

    Heaton, J C; Jones, K

    2008-03-01

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products is commonly viewed as a potential risk factor for infection with enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157, with recent outbreaks linked to lettuce, spinach and tomatoes. Routes of contamination are varied and include application of organic wastes to agricultural land as fertilizer, contamination of waters used for irrigation with faecal material, direct contamination by livestock, wild animals and birds and postharvest issues such as worker hygiene. The ability of pathogens to survive in the field environment has been well studied, leading to the implementation of guidelines such as the Safe Sludge Matrix, which aim to limit the likelihood of viable pathogens remaining at point-of-sale. The behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere is a growing field of research, and it is suggested that inclusion in phyllosphere biofilms or internalization within the plant augments the survival. Improved knowledge of plant-microbe interactions and the interaction between epiphytic and immigrant micro-organisms on the leaf surface will lead to novel methods to limit enteropathogen survival in the phyllosphere.

  19. Prediction of Intra-Species Protein-Protein Interactions in Enteropathogens Facilitating Systems Biology Study

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Jana, Tanmoy; Das, Santasabuj; Saha, Sudipto

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions in Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been studied extensively using high throughput methods such as tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid method. This can in turn be used to understand the mechanisms of bacterial cellular processes. However, experimental characterization of such huge amount of interactions data is not available for other important enteropathogens. Here, we propose a support vector machine (SVM)-based prediction model using the known PPIs data of E. coli that can be used to predict PPIs in other enteropathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia entrocolitica. Different features such as domain-domain association (DDA), network topology, and sequence information were used in developing the SVM model. The proposed model using DDA, degree and amino acid composition features has achieved an accuracy of 82% and 62% on 5-fold cross validation and blind E. coli datasets, respectively. The predicted interactions were validated by Gene Ontology (GO) semantic similarity measure and String PPIs database (experimental PPIs only). Finally, we have developed a user-friendly webserver named EnPPIpred to predict intra-species PPIs in enteropathogens, which will be of great help for the experimental biologists. The webserver EnPPIpred is freely available at http://bicresources.jcbose.ac.in/ssaha4/EnPPIpred/. PMID:26717407

  20. Prediction of Intra-Species Protein-Protein Interactions in Enteropathogens Facilitating Systems Biology Study.

    PubMed

    Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Jana, Tanmoy; Das, Santasabuj; Saha, Sudipto

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions in Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been studied extensively using high throughput methods such as tandem affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry and yeast two-hybrid method. This can in turn be used to understand the mechanisms of bacterial cellular processes. However, experimental characterization of such huge amount of interactions data is not available for other important enteropathogens. Here, we propose a support vector machine (SVM)-based prediction model using the known PPIs data of E. coli that can be used to predict PPIs in other enteropathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia entrocolitica. Different features such as domain-domain association (DDA), network topology, and sequence information were used in developing the SVM model. The proposed model using DDA, degree and amino acid composition features has achieved an accuracy of 82% and 62% on 5-fold cross validation and blind E. coli datasets, respectively. The predicted interactions were validated by Gene Ontology (GO) semantic similarity measure and String PPIs database (experimental PPIs only). Finally, we have developed a user-friendly webserver named EnPPIpred to predict intra-species PPIs in enteropathogens, which will be of great help for the experimental biologists. The webserver EnPPIpred is freely available at http://bicresources.jcbose.ac.in/ssaha4/EnPPIpred/.

  1. Selection of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains towards their inhibitory activity against poultry enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kizerwetter-Swida, Magdalena; Binek, Marian

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacilli were isolated from chicken gastrointestinal tract and examined for their potentially probiotic properties towards their inhibitory activity against poultry enteropathogenic bacteria. Biochemical tests, ITS-PCR and cell wall protein analysis were used to characterize the Lactobacillus isolates. The identification of isolated Lactobacillus strains based on phenotypic properties was not always satisfactory. ITS-PCR together with protein profile were found to be helpful in strain identification. Lactobacilli were tested for the inhibitory activity against selected strains of poultry enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens). Examined supernatants from Lactobacillus broth cultures demonstrated major antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens. Lower antimicrobial activity were observed against E. coli and Salmonella Enteritidis. The strongest inhibition effect were obtained using supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain 3D. Results received from this study confirmed that identification of Lactobacillus spp. is often tedious. Some isolates, which are in vitro antagonistic against enteropathogenic bacteria may be considered as potential candidates for poultry probiotics, especially in controlling necrotic enteritis caused by C. perfringens.

  2. Salmonellae and other enteropathogenic bacteria in the intestines of wall geckos in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, H C; Oguike, J U; Sakazaki, R

    1986-01-01

    The aerobic bacterial flora of the intestine of 150 wall geckos (Hemidactylus brookei) was investigated. A variety of bacteria was recovered including 35 isolates of Salmonella and several other species of Enterobacteriaceae, viz. Shigella sonnei - 2, Edwardsiella tarda - 4, Enterobacter spp - 8, Citrobacter freudii - 3, Serratia marcescens - 3, Proteus spp - 35, Klebsiella pneumoniae - 13, and Escherichia coli - 17, isolates. Eight Salmonella serotypes were identified, the predominant ones being S. hvittingfoss and S. typhimurium. The significance of these findings for the spread of human enteropathogens is discussed.

  3. Enteropathogens in pups from pet shops and breeding facilities.

    PubMed

    Dupont, S; Butaye, P; Claerebout, E; Theuns, S; Duchateau, L; Van de Maele, I; Daminet, S

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate faecal and clinical scores and presence of several enteropathogens possibly implicated in the development of diarrhoea in pups aged between 6 and 16 weeks independently of their health status. Pups were selected from pet shops and breeding facilities and assigned a faecal and clinical score. Standard isolation methods were used to determine presence of parasites, viruses and bacteria in faecal samples. For Escherichia coli, virulence genes were assessed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Fifty-six pups were included in this study. Eighteen had no diarrhoea, 22 had no significant clinical signs related to gastroenteritis. Samples were positive for Toxocara canis (n=29), Giardia duodenalis (n=35), Cystoisospora (n=22), E. coli (n=47) and Clostridium perfringens (n=20). In four E. coli positive samples, genes were detected that correlate with pathogenicity in other animal species. A significant positive correlation between the presence of T. canis and faecal score was found. Puppies obtained from a pet shop or breeding facility have a high risk of gastrointestinal disease. Furthermore, infectious agents may be present independently of faecal or clinical score. The identification of possible pathogenic E. coli strains suggests that their role in diarrhoea warrant further investigation. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Multiple-class antimicrobial resistance surveillance in swine Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis isolates from Ontario and the impact of the 2004-2006 Porcine Circovirus type-2 Associated Disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; Fairles, Jim; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this work was to describe trends in multiple-class antimicrobial resistance present in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis from Ontario swine 1998-2010. Temporal changes in multiple-class resistance varied by the pathogens examined; significant yearly changes were apparent for the E. coli and P. multocida data. Although not present in the E. coli data, significant increases in multiple-class resistance within P. multocida isolates occurred from 2003 to 2005, coinciding with the expected increase in antimicrobials used to treat clinical signs of Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) before it was confirmed. Prospective temporal scan statistics for multiple-class resistance suggest that significant clusters of increased resistance may have been found in the spring of 2004; months before the identification of the PCVAD outbreak in the fall of 2004. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of dietary catechols on the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Freestone, Primrose P E; Walton, Nicholas J; Haigh, Richard D; Lyte, Mark

    2007-11-01

    The dietary constituents that may act, in the broadest sense, as co-factors to enable bacterial enteropathogens to replicate in gastrointestinal environments are still largely unknown. Recent work has demonstrated that certain non-nutritional components of food, such as the catecholamines, can contribute to the ability of Gram-negative pathogens to replicate in iron-restrictive media that may be reflective of gastrointestinal environments. The present report examines whether other, non-catecholamine, dietary catechols, which occur widely in plant foods, can also influence enteropathogen growth in an iron-restrictive environment such as might be found in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we have examined the ability of a range of catechol-rich foodstuffs, ranging from beverages (tea and coffee) to fruit and vegetable extracts, as well as purified preparations of commonly consumed dietary catechols (catechins, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and tannic acid), to modulate the growth of the Gram-negative enteric pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica SV Enteriditis. Time-dependent growth in response to dietary catechols (0.05-5.0% v/v of beverage or fruit/vegetable extracts; 10-200 microM of purified catechols) was examined in an iron-replete, rich medium as well as in an iron-limited, basal medium designed to reflect the iron-restricted environment that is more characteristic of human and animal tissues. Results obtained in iron-replete, rich medium demonstrated dose-dependent bacteriostatic effects for certain catechols, consistent with previous studies. However, in iron-restricted medium, all of the dietary catechols produced marked growth stimulation of up to 4 logs greater than non-supplemented controls. Mechanistic studies measuring the uptake of radiolabelled (55)Fe from (55)Fe-labelled lactoferrin and transferrin in bacteria grown in the presence or absence of dietary catechols demonstrated that the ability of catechols to

  6. Antibacterial efficacy of five medicinal plants against multidrug-resistant enteropathogenic bacteria infecting under-5 hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Rath, Shakti; Padhy, Rabindra N

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate in vitro antibacterial effectiveness of five medicinal plants used by an Indian aborigine, against 8 multidrug-resistant (MDR) enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of under-5 hospitalized children. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of eight clinically isolated strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei and Vibrio cholerae were assessed by disc-diffusion method. Antibacterial activities of 8 solvent-extracts of leaves and bark of five medicinal plants were monitored by the agar-well diffusion method. The microbroth dilution method was used to assess minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Qualitative phytochemical analyses of active plant extracts were carried out. Ethanol, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica leaf tissue were most effective against 8 MDR pathogens in vitro. Similarly, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Terminalia alata leaf tissue; chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Terminalia arjuna leaf tissue and ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of Paederia foetida leaf tissue were most effective in inhibiting in vitro growth of the 8 MDR enteropathogens. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of H. antidysenterica bark tissue; acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of T. alata bark tissue and acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of T. arjuna bark tissue were most effective in controlling enteropathogen growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of the 3 most antimicrobial leaf and bark extracts from the five plants were in the range of 1.56 to 50 mg/mL. These 5 plants exhibited in vitro control over a cohort of 8 enteropathogenic bacterial strains isolated from clinical samples.

  7. Identification of enteropathogens in infantile diarrhea in a study performed in the city of Posadas, Misiones, República Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vergara, M; Quiroga, M; Grenón, S; Villalba, V; Pegels, E; Chade, M; González, C; Binsztein, N; Eiguer, T; Depetris, A

    1992-01-01

    The following work informs of the results of isolation, frequency and distribution of enteropathogens in children under five years old, without previous antibiotic treatment, less than seven days with diarrhoea, ambulatory or in Hospital "Dr. Ramón Madariaga" de Posadas, Misiones, República Argentina, from June 1986 to May 1989. From a total of 972 children with diarrhoea, 78% required to be hospitalized. The greatest number of cases were found during spring and summer in children from 1 to 11 months of age. Distribution of the main enteropathogens was: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (29.4%), parasites (22%), Shigella (16.3%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (14%) and rotavirus (12.9%). Highest incidence of rotavirus was registered in the coldest months and Shigella, ETEC, Salmonella and parasites in the warm months. The group of most affected children were from 1 to 11 months of age, with higher incidence of EPEC, Salmonella and rotavirus, and parasites were found in older children. ETEC and Shigella had no relationship with the age of children. The most frequent association was EPEC with rotavirus. This is the first finding of Salmonella zaiman in humans and of Salmonella hadar in Argentina. Cryptosporidium, etiological agent of serious diarrhoea in the immunocompetent, was isolated in 3.9% of our cases.

  8. Detection of Zoonotic Enteropathogens in Children and Domestic Animals in a Semirural Community in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Karla; Graham, Jay P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Animals are important reservoirs of zoonotic enteropathogens, and transmission to humans occurs more frequently in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where small-scale livestock production is common. In this study, we investigated the presence of zoonotic enteropathogens in stool samples from 64 asymptomatic children and 203 domestic animals of 62 households in a semirural community in Ecuador between June and August 2014. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), which were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in children and domestic animals (30.7% and 10.5%, respectively). Four sequence types (STs) of C. jejuni and four STs of aEPEC were identical between children and domestic animals. The apparent sources of human infection were chickens, dogs, guinea pigs, and rabbits for C. jejuni and pigs, dogs, and chickens for aEPEC. Other pathogens detected in children and domestic animals were Giardia lamblia (13.1%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.1%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (2.6%). Salmonella enterica was detected in 5 dogs and Yersinia enterocolitica was identified in 1 pig. Even though we identified 7 enteric pathogens in children, we encountered evidence of active transmission between domestic animals and humans only for C. jejuni and aEPEC. We also found evidence that C. jejuni strains from chickens were more likely to be transmitted to humans than those coming from other domestic animals. Our findings demonstrate the complex nature of enteropathogen transmission between domestic animals and humans and stress the need for further studies. IMPORTANCE We found evidence that Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia, and aEPEC organisms were the most common zoonotic enteropathogens in children and domestic animals in a region close to Quito, the capital of Ecuador. Genetic analysis of the isolates suggests transmission of some genotypes

  9. Detection of Zoonotic Enteropathogens in Children and Domestic Animals in a Semirural Community in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vasco, Karla; Graham, Jay P; Trueba, Gabriel

    2016-07-15

    Animals are important reservoirs of zoonotic enteropathogens, and transmission to humans occurs more frequently in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where small-scale livestock production is common. In this study, we investigated the presence of zoonotic enteropathogens in stool samples from 64 asymptomatic children and 203 domestic animals of 62 households in a semirural community in Ecuador between June and August 2014. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess zoonotic transmission of Campylobacter jejuni and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), which were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in children and domestic animals (30.7% and 10.5%, respectively). Four sequence types (STs) of C. jejuni and four STs of aEPEC were identical between children and domestic animals. The apparent sources of human infection were chickens, dogs, guinea pigs, and rabbits for C. jejuni and pigs, dogs, and chickens for aEPEC. Other pathogens detected in children and domestic animals were Giardia lamblia (13.1%), Cryptosporidium parvum (1.1%), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) (2.6%). Salmonella enterica was detected in 5 dogs and Yersinia enterocolitica was identified in 1 pig. Even though we identified 7 enteric pathogens in children, we encountered evidence of active transmission between domestic animals and humans only for C. jejuni and aEPEC. We also found evidence that C. jejuni strains from chickens were more likely to be transmitted to humans than those coming from other domestic animals. Our findings demonstrate the complex nature of enteropathogen transmission between domestic animals and humans and stress the need for further studies. We found evidence that Campylobacter jejuni, Giardia, and aEPEC organisms were the most common zoonotic enteropathogens in children and domestic animals in a region close to Quito, the capital of Ecuador. Genetic analysis of the isolates suggests transmission of some genotypes of C. jejuni and a

  10. Association between enteropathogens and malnutrition in children aged 6–23 mo in Bangladesh: a case-control study123

    PubMed Central

    Taniuchi, Mami; Uddin, Md Jashim; Sobuz, Shihab Uddin; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Gaffar, SM Abdul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, AM Shamsir; Petri, William A; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early exposure to enteropathogens has been associated with malnutrition in children in low-resource settings. However, the contribution of individual enteropathogens remains poorly defined. Molecular diagnostics offer an increase in sensitivity for detecting enteropathogens but have not been comprehensively applied to studies of malnutrition. Objective: We sought to identify enteropathogens associated with malnutrition in Bangladesh. Design: Malnourished children [weight-for-age z score (WAZ) <−2] aged 6–23 mo in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and identified by active community surveillance were enrolled as cases, and normal-weight children (WAZ >−1) of the same age and from the same community were enrolled as controls. Stools were collected at enrollment and, for cases, after a 5-mo nutritional intervention. Enrollment and follow-up stools were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 32 enteropathogens with the use of a custom-developed TaqMan Array Card. Results: Enteropathogen testing was performed on 486 cases and 442 controls upon enrollment and 365 cases at follow-up. At enrollment, the detection of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.83), Campylobacter spp. (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.91), heat-labile enterotoxin-producing E. coli (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.33), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.46), norovirus genogroup I (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.25), and Giardia (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.49) were associated with malnourished cases, and the total burden of these pathogens remained associated with malnutrition after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. The number of these pathogens at follow-up was negatively associated with the change in WAZ during the intervention (−0.10 change in WAZ per pathogen detected; 95% CI: −0.14, −0.06), whereas the number at enrollment was positively associated with the change in WAZ (0.05 change in WAZ per pathogen detected; 95% CI: 0.00, 0

  11. Association between enteropathogens and malnutrition in children aged 6-23 mo in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; Taniuchi, Mami; Uddin, Md Jashim; Sobuz, Shihab Uddin; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Gaffar, Sm Abdul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, M Munirul; Ahmed, Am Shamsir; Petri, William A; Haque, Rashidul; Houpt, Eric R; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2017-05-01

    Background: Early exposure to enteropathogens has been associated with malnutrition in children in low-resource settings. However, the contribution of individual enteropathogens remains poorly defined. Molecular diagnostics offer an increase in sensitivity for detecting enteropathogens but have not been comprehensively applied to studies of malnutrition.Objective: We sought to identify enteropathogens associated with malnutrition in Bangladesh.Design: Malnourished children [weight-for-age z score (WAZ) <-2] aged 6-23 mo in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and identified by active community surveillance were enrolled as cases, and normal-weight children (WAZ >-1) of the same age and from the same community were enrolled as controls. Stools were collected at enrollment and, for cases, after a 5-mo nutritional intervention. Enrollment and follow-up stools were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for 32 enteropathogens with the use of a custom-developed TaqMan Array Card.Results: Enteropathogen testing was performed on 486 cases and 442 controls upon enrollment and 365 cases at follow-up. At enrollment, the detection of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.83), Campylobacter spp. (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.91), heat-labile enterotoxin-producing E. coli (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.33), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.46), norovirus genogroup I (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.25), and Giardia (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.49) were associated with malnourished cases, and the total burden of these pathogens remained associated with malnutrition after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. The number of these pathogens at follow-up was negatively associated with the change in WAZ during the intervention (-0.10 change in WAZ per pathogen detected; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.06), whereas the number at enrollment was positively associated with the change in WAZ (0.05 change in WAZ per pathogen detected; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.10).Conclusions: A

  12. Infection with bacterial enteropathogens in Swedish travellers to South-East Asia--a prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Ahrén, C. M.; Jertborn, M.; Herclik, L.; Kaijser, B.; Svennerholm, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    Infection with potential bacterial enteropathogens was studied prospectively in 94 Swedish travellers. Three faecal samples were collected, regardless of diarrhoeal symptoms, after each of three 1-week stays in Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan. The specimens were analyzed for salmonella, shigella, yersinia, campylobacter and different enterotoxin-producing bacteria. A potential enteropathogen was identified in 30% (28/94) of the participants, i.e. in 26% of the healthy and in 39% of the travellers with diarrhoea. The most common isolates were enterotoxigenic bacteria of different species (14%), salmonella (11%) and campylobacter (7%). By performing enterotoxin-tests on six different colonies from the primary culture of each specimen enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as well as enterotoxin-producing Klebsiella sp., Citrobacter sp. and Morganella morganii were identified. The latter strains were as prevalent as ETEC. In the 33 participants with diarrhoea enterotoxigenic bacteria (18%) and campylobacter (18%) were the most common isolates. Campylobacter-infected travellers developed symptomatic disease (6/7) significantly (P less than 0.02) more often than those infected with salmonella (3/10) or enterotoxigenic bacteria (6/13; 2 ETEC, 4 other species). PMID:2209737

  13. Enteropathogenic and enteroaggregative E. coli in stools of children with acute gastroenteritis in Davidson County, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Foster, Monique A; Iqbal, Junaid; Zhang, Chengxian; McHenry, Rendie; Cleveland, Brent E; Romero-Herazo, Yesenia; Fonnesbeck, Chris; Payne, Daniel C; Chappell, James D; Halasa, Natasha; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2015-11-01

    This prospective acute gastroenteritis (AGE) surveillance was conducted in the inpatient and emergency room settings at a referral pediatric hospital to determine the prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in children <12years of age with AGE in Davidson County, Tennessee. Subjects 15 days to 11 years of age, who presented with diarrhea and/or vomiting, were enrolled. Stool specimens were processed for detection of DEC using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. From December 1, 2011, to June 30, 2012, a total of 79 (38%) out of 206 stool specimens from children with AGE tested positive for E. coli. A total of 12 (5.8%) out of 206 stool specimens from children with AGE were positive for a DEC. Eight (67%) out of these 12 were positive for enteropathogenic E. coli, and the remaining 4 were positive for enteroaggregative E. coli. DEC clinical isolates clustered with known E. coli enteropathogens according to multilocus sequencing typing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk of diarrhoea from shallow groundwater contaminated with enteropathogens in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sadhana; Haramoto, Eiji; Malla, Rabin; Nishida, Kei

    2015-03-01

    Shallow groundwater is the main water source among many alternatives in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, which has a rapidly growing population and intermittent piped water supply. Although human pathogens are detected in groundwater, its health effects are unclear. We estimated risk of diarrhoea from shallow groundwater use using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Escherichia coli, Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst levels were analysed in dug and tube wells samples. E. coli concentrations were converted to those of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Risks from EPEC in dug wells and from Cryptosporidium and Giardia in both dug and tube wells were higher than the acceptable limit (<10⁻⁴ infections/person-year) for both drinking and bathing exposures. Risk from protozoan enteropathogens increased the total risk 10,000 times, indicating that ignoring protozoans could lead to serious risk underestimation. Bathing exposure considerably increased risk, indicating that it is an important pathway. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment decreased the risk six-fold and decreased risk overestimation. Because removal efficiency of POU water treatment has the largest impact on total risk, increasing the coverage and efficiency of POU water treatment could be a practical risk management strategy in the Kathmandu Valley and similar settings.

  15. A FaeG-FedF-LT192 fusion elicits protective anti-adhesin and antitoxin antibodies against porcine enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains expressing K88 or F18 fimbriae and heat-labile (LT) and/or heat-stable (ST) toxins are the major cause of diarrhea in young pigs. Effective vaccines inducing anti-adhesin (anti-K88 & anti-F18) and antitoxin (anti-LT & anti-ST) 5 immunity would provide ...

  16. The expression of adhesin EF-Tu in response to mucin and its role in Lactobacillus adhesion and competitive inhibition of enteropathogens to mucin.

    PubMed

    Dhanani, A S; Bagchi, T

    2013-08-01

    To analyse the expression of EF-Tu in Lactobacillus strains with response to mucin exposure and its role in interfering with adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin. The Lactobacillus strains were analysed for their ability to adhere to immobilized mucin in microtiter plates. Lactobacillus delbrueckii M and Lactobacillus plantarum CS24.2 showed statistically significant adhesion to mucin, which was similar to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, the best binding probiotic strain. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Lact. delbrueckii M, Lact. plantarum CS23 and Lact. plantarum CS24.2 were able to effectively antagonize the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi to mucin. In the presence of Lactobacillus adhesin - EF-Tu, the adhesion of Lact. delbrueckii M and the strains of Lact. plantarum to mucin was significantly inhibited. Similarly, EF-Tu also reduced the adhesion of enteropathogens to mucin. Furthermore, the relative fold change in gene expression analysis showed significant up-regulation of EF-Tu gene in the strains of Lact. plantarum and Lact. delbrueckii M when exposed to mucin for 3 h. The study shows the significant role of EF-Tu in lactobacilli adhesion and enteropathogens inhibition. The study suggests EF-Tu as an important factor linked to the Lactobacillus adhesion as well as enteropathogen inhibition. Lactobacillus plantarum CS23 and Lact. plantarum CS24.2 can be used as potential probiotic strains. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC): bioinformatics support for research on biodefense-relevant enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Jeremy D; Plunkett, Guy; Anderson, Bradley D; Baumler, David J; Biehl, Bryan S; Burland, Valerie; Cabot, Eric L; Darling, Aaron E; Mau, Bob; Neeno-Eckwall, Eric C; Pot, David; Qiu, Yu; Rissman, Anna I; Worzella, Sara; Zaremba, Sam; Fedorko, Joel; Hampton, Tom; Liss, Paul; Rusch, Michael; Shaker, Matthew; Shaull, Lorie; Shetty, Panna; Thotakura, Silpa; Whitmore, Jon; Blattner, Frederick R; Greene, John M; Perna, Nicole T

    2008-01-01

    ERIC, the Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (www.ericbrc.org), is a new web portal serving as a rich source of information about enterobacteria on the NIAID established list of Select Agents related to biodefense-diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pestis. More than 30 genomes have been completely sequenced, many more exist in draft form and additional projects are underway. These organisms are increasingly the focus of studies using high-throughput experimental technologies and computational approaches. This wealth of data provides unprecedented opportunities for understanding the workings of basic biological systems and discovery of novel targets for development of vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics. ERIC brings information together from disparate sources and supports data comparison across different organisms, analysis of varying data types and visualization of analyses in human and computer-readable formats.

  18. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of a transgenic tobacco plant expressing the recombinant fusion protein of GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin in pigs.

    PubMed

    Chia, Min-Yuan; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Chan, Hui-Ting; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling; Chang, Hui-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Ming; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren

    2011-04-15

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) can be used as an adjuvant for co-administered antigens. Our previous study showed that the expression of neutralizing epitope GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in transgenic tobacco plant (GP5-T) could induce PRRSV-specific immune responses in pigs. A transgenic tobacco plant co-expressing LTB and PRRSV GP5 as a fusion protein (LTB-GP5-T) was further constructed and its immunogenicity was evaluated. Pigs were given orally three consecutive doses of equal concentration of recombinant GP5 protein expressed in leaves of LTB-GP5-T or GP5-T at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks post-initial immunization. Pigs receiving LTB-GP5-T or GP5-T developed PRRSV-specific antibody- and cell-mediated immunity and showed significantly lower viremia and tissue viral load and milder lung lesions than wild type tobacco plant (W-T). The LTB-GP5-T-treated group had relatively higher immune responses than the GP5-T-treated group, although the differences were not statistically significant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral administration of synthetic porcine beta-defensin-2 improves growth performance and cecal microbial flora and down-regulates the expression of intestinal toll-like receptor-4 and inflammatory cytokines in weaned piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiru; Xu, Ling; Shi, Baoshi; Deng, Huang; Lai, Xin; Liu, Jingyan; Sun, Zhihong

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic porcine beta-defensin-2 (pBD-2) was tested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth-promoters in pig production. Thirty 21-day weaned piglets were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, and orally dosed with either sterile water (CON), pBD-2 (BD) or neomycin sulphate (NS) twice daily for 21 days. pBD-2 and NS led to higher growth performance, jejunum villus height and increased expression of insulin-like growth factor-I compared with the CON group (P < 0.05). Hemolytic E. coli scores from rectal swabs, and copy numbers of E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis and Streptococcus in the cecal digesta of the BD- or NS-treated piglets were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Messenger RNA levels of toll-like receptor 4, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-8 in the jejunum mucosa of the BD and NS groups were lower than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). Copy numbers of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in the cecal digesta of the BD group were higher than those of the CON and NS groups (P < 0.05). Therefore, pBD-2 has antimicrobial activity in piglets, and it can improve growth performance, reduce inflammatory cytokine expression and affect intestinal morphological indices in the same way as probiotics. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Immunologic Control of Diarrheal Disease Due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Classical Enteropathogenic (Serotyped) Escherichia coli Strains of Proven Pathogenicity. Infect. Immun. 38:798-801, 1982. 8. Levine, M.M. Vacunas Contra...Microbiol., 18:808-815, 1983. 8 15. Levine, M.M., Lanata, C. Progresos en Vacunas Contra Diarrea Bacteriana. Adelantos Microbiol. Enferm. Inf., 2:67-117

  1. Binding of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin to rat intestinal cells and brush border membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, J C; Jaso-Friedman, L; Robertson, D C

    1984-01-01

    The association of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 431 with isolated rat intestinal epithelial cells and brush border membranes was characterized. Specific binding of strain 431 125I-STa to a single class of specific high-affinity receptors was saturable and temperature dependent and reached a maximum between 5 and 10 min. A 1,000-fold excess of unlabeled 431 STa competitively displaced 90 to 95% of radiolabeled enterotoxin bound to brush border membranes. In contrast, specific binding of 431 125I-STa to intestinal cells ranged from 40 to 65%. The number of STa-specific receptors on rat intestinal cells determined by Scatchard analysis was 47,520 +/- 14,352 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) per cell, with affinity constants (KaS) of 2.55 X 10(11)and 4.32 x 10(11) liters/mol determined for intestinal cells and brush border membranes, respectively. Villus intestinal cells appeared to possess about twice as many STa receptors as did crypt cells. Dissociation of specifically bound 431 125I-STa from intestinal cells and brush border membranes was minimal (2 to 5%). In addition, neither the rate nor the extent of dissociation was increased by a 1,000-fold excess of unlabeled homologous 431 Sta. Binding experiments with 431 125I-STa and brush border membranes showed that purified unlabeled STas from enterotoxigenic E. coli strains 667 (class 1 porcine enteropathogen), B-41 (bovine enteropathogen), and human strains 213C2 (Mexico) and 153961-2 (Dacca, Bangledesh) exhibited patterns of competitive inhibition similar to those of homologous unlabeled 431 STa (class 2 enteropathogen). A lipid extract which contained gangliosides and glycolipids exhibited dose-dependent competitive inhibition of heat-labile enterotoxin binding to brush border membranes but did not inhibit binding of 431 125I-STa. Purified heat-labile enterotoxin from strain 286C2 did not inhibit binding of 431 STa to brush border membranes. Pronase treatment of

  2. High Iron-Sequestrating Bifidobacteria Inhibit Enteropathogen Growth and Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Gutierrez, Pamela; de Wouters, Tomas; Werder, Julia; Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines. Single and co-cultures were carried out anaerobically in chemically semi-defined low iron (1.5 μM Fe) medium (CSDLIM) without and with added ferrous iron (30 μM Fe). Surface properties of the tested strains were measured by bacterial adhesion to solvent xylene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and to extracellular matrix molecules, mucus II, collagen I, fibrinogen, fibronectin. HT29-MTX mucus-secreting intestinal cell cultures were used to study bifidobacteria competition, inhibition and displacement of the enteropathogens. During co-cultures in CSDLIM we observed strain-dependent inhibition of bifidobacterial strains on enteropathogens, independent of pH, organic acid production and supplemented iron. Bp PV8-2 significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited S. Typhi N15 and EHEC after 24 h compared to single culture growth. In contrast Bk PV20-2 showed less inhibition on S. Typhi N15 than Bp PV8-2, and no inhibition on EHEC. Affinity for intestinal cell surface glycoproteins was strain-specific, with high affinity of Bp PV8-2 for mucin and Bk PV20-2 for fibronectin. Bk PV20-2 showed high adhesion potential (15.6 ± 6.0%) to HT29-MTX cell layer compared to Bp PV8-2 (1.4 ± 0.4%). In competition, inhibition and displacement tests, Bp PV8-2 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced S. Typhi N15 and EHEC adhesion, while Bk PV20-2 was only active on S. Typhi N15 adhesion. To conclude, bifidobacterial strains selected for their high iron binding

  3. Studies of bactericidal activity to Escherichia coli of porcine serum and colostral immunoglobulins and the role of lysozyme with secretory IgA

    PubMed Central

    Hill, I. R.; Porter, P.

    1974-01-01

    Gel filtration and immune inhibition techniques were used to study bactericidal activities of IgG, IgM and IgA against smooth strains of Escherichia coli 0141 and 08 in sow serum and colostrum and post-colostral piglet serum. Bactericidal activity in sow sera was primarily associated with IgM and a low molecular weight IgG component, 7S IgG activity was less frequently observed. In colostral whey fractions and post-colostral piglet sera, in the absence of lysozyme, bactericidal antibody activity was associated with IgM and 7S IgG. In post-colostral serum bactericidal antibody was also attributable to a low molecular weight form of IgG. IgA in serum from the sow and neonate showed no bactericidal activity, even in the presence of lysozyme, whereas in colostrum secretory 11S IgA had bactericidal activity, but only in the presence of complement and lysozyme. PMID:4212358

  4. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Edna Donizetti Rossi; Germini, Marcela Cristina Braga Yassaka; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Lobo, Patrícia dos Santos; Fraga, Valéria Daltibari; Conceição, Luciana Moran; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Rossit, Andréa Regina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens. PMID:25651323

  5. Prevalence, prediction and risk factors of enteropathogens in normal and non-normal faeces of young Dutch dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Chris J M; Holzhauer, Menno; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Swart, Wim A J M; Lam, Theo J G M

    2010-02-01

    Between January and April 2007, 424 calves under 22 days of age from 108 Dutch dairy herds were sampled to estimate the prevalence of non-normal faeces ('custard-like'-yellowish-coloured with custard consistency or diarrhoea: watery-like faeces) and the shedding of enteropathogens Escherichia coli K99 (E. coli), Coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum), Rotavirus and Clostridium perfringens (Cl. perfringens). In addition, information was collected on animal characteristics and herd-management practices. The probability of detecting each one of five enteropathogens given a calf with 'custard-like' faeces or diarrhoea was estimated using Bayes' rule and was based on the predicted probabilities from a multinominal model including each of five enteropathogens as independent variables. In addition, putative risk factors for the presence of each of five enteropathogens were analysed using logistic regression models with random herd effects. Fifty-seven percent of calves had faeces of normal colour (brownish) and consistency (firm), 23.8% (95%CI: 19.8-28.2%) had 'custard-like' faeces and 19.1% (95%CI: 15.5-23.2%) had diarrhoea. E. coli was the least detected enteropathogen (2.6% (95%CI: 1.3-4.6%) of calves, 9% (95%CI: 5-16%) of herds) and Cl. perfringens was most detected (54.0% (95%CI: 49.1-58.8%) of calves, 85% (95%CI: 77-91%) of herds). E. coli and Coronavirus were detected incidentally in only one or two calves per herd, whereas C. parvum and Cl. perfringens were frequently detected in up to four calves per herd. For calves with 'custard-like' faeces, the probability of detecting Rotavirus from a calf in its first week of age was 0.31 whereas for a calf in its second week, there was a 0.66 probability of detecting C. parvum. The probabilities of detecting E. coli, Rotavirus and C. parvum in calves with diarrhoea in their first week of age were 0.10, 0.20 and 0.43, respectively. In calves with diarrhoea between 1 and 2 weeks of age, the probability of detecting

  6. Fimbrial subunit protein FaeG expressed in transgenic tobacco inhibits the binding of F4ac enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to porcine enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Joensuu, Jussi J; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Riipi, Tero; Snoeck, Veerle; Palva, E Tapio; Teeri, Teemu H; Lång, Hannu; Cox, Eric; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Niklander-Teeri, Viola

    2004-06-01

    Plants offer a promising alternative for the production of foreign proteins for pharmaceutical purposes in tissues that are consumed as food and/or feed. Our long-term strategy is to develop edible vaccines against piglet diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 ETEC) in feed plants. In this work, we isolated a gene, faeG, encoding for a major F4ac fimbrial subunit protein. Our goal was to test whether the FaeG protein, when isolated from its fimbrial background and produced in a plant cell, would retain the key properties of an oral vaccine, that is, stability in gastrointestinal conditions, binding to intestinal receptors and inhibition of the F4 ETEC attachment. For this purpose, tobacco was first transformed with a faeG construct that included a transit peptide encoding sequence to target the FaeG protein to the chloroplast. The best transgenic lines produced FaeG protein in amounts of 1% total soluble protein. The stability of the plant-produced FaeG was tested in fluids simulating piglet gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) conditions. Plant-produced FaeG proved to be stable up to 2 h under these conditions. The binding and inhibition properties were tested with isolated piglet villi. These results showed that the plant-produced FaeG could bind to the receptors on the villi and subsequently inhibit F4 ETEC binding in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the first two prerequisites for the development of an oral vaccine have been met.

  7. Inhibition of enteropathogens adhesion to human enterocyte-like HT-29 cells by a dairy strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Zárate, G; Palacios, J M; Villena, J; Zúñiga-Hansen, M E

    2016-06-01

    Adhesion to the host intestinal mucosa is considered relevant for orally delivered probiotics as it prolongs their persistence in the gut and their health promoting effects. Classical propionibacteria are microorganisms of interest due to their role as dairy starters as well as for their functions as probiotics. Propionibacterium acidipropionici Q4, is a dairy strain isolated from a Swiss-type cheese made in Argentina that displays probiotic potential. In the present work we assessed the ability of this strain to adhere to the human enterocyte-like HT-29 cell line and to counteract the adhesion of two common human enteropathogens, such as Escherichia coli C3 and Salmonella Enteritidis 90/390. The results were compared with those obtained with the well-known probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. P. acidipropionici Q4 showed a high adhesion capacity, even higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG (42.3±4.4% and 36.2±2.3%, respectively), whereas adhesion of enteropathogens was significantly lower (25.2±2.2% for E. coli and 21.0±3.4% for S. Enteritidis). Propionibacteria as well as lactobacilli were able to inhibit by exclusion and competition the adherence of E. coli C3 and S. Enteritidis 90/390 whereas only L. rhamnosus GG displaced S. Enteritidis from HT-29 intestinal cells. Inhibition of pathogens by propionibacteria was not exerted by antimicrobials or coaggregation but was mainly due to exclusion by cell surface components, such as proteins and carbohydrates. The relevance of cell surface proteins (CSP) for preventing pathogens infection was confirmed by their concentration dependent effect observed for both pathogens: 100 µg/ml of CSP inhibited E. coli attachment almost as untreated propionibacteria, whereas it partially inhibited the attachment of S. Enteritidis. Results suggest that P. acidipropionici Q4 could be considered for the development of propionibacteria containing functional foods helpful in counteracting enteropathogen infection.

  8. High Detection Rates of Enteropathogens in Asymptomatic Children Attending Day Care

    PubMed Central

    Enserink, Remko; Scholts, Rianne; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Duizer, Erwin; Vennema, Harry; de Boer, Richard; Kortbeek, Titia; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Smit, Henriette; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroenteritis morbidity is high among children under the age of four, especially amongst those who attend day care. Objective To determine the prevalence of a range of enteropathogens in the intestinal flora of children attending day care and to relate their occurrence with characteristics of the sampled child and the sampling season. Methods We performed three years of enteropathogen surveillance in a network of 29 child day care centers in the Netherlands. The centers were instructed to take one fecal sample from ten randomly chosen children each month, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms at time of sampling. All samples were analyzed for the molecular detection of 16 enteropathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses by real-time multiplex PCR. Results Enteropathogens were detected in 78.0% of the 5197 fecal samples. Of the total, 95.4% of samples were obtained from children who had no gastroenteritis symptoms at time of sampling. Bacterial enteropathogens were detected most often (most prevalent EPEC, 19.9%), followed by parasitic enteropathogens (most prevalent: D. fragilis, 22.1%) and viral enteropathogens (most prevalent: norovirus, 9.5%). 4.6% of samples related to children that experienced symptoms of gastroenteritis at time of sampling. Only rotavirus and norovirus were significantly associated with gastroenteritis among day care attendees. Conclusions Our study indicates that asymptomatic infections with enteropathogens in day care attendees are not a rare event and that gastroenteritis caused by infections with these enteropathogens is only one expression of their presence. PMID:24586825

  9. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nataro, James P.; Kaper, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with corresponding distinct pathogenic schemes. Taken together, these organisms probably represent the most common cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide. Several distinct clinical syndromes accompany infection with diarrheagenic E. coli categories, including traveler’s diarrhea (enterotoxigenic E. coli), hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (enterohemorrhagic E. coli), persistent diarrhea (enteroaggregative E. coli), and watery diarrhea of infants (enteropathogenic E. coli). This review discusses the current level of understanding of the pathogenesis of the diarrheagenic E. coli strains and describes how their pathogenic schemes underlie the clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and epidemiologic investigation of these important pathogens. PMID:9457432

  10. Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium and Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in a Pig and Human Epithelial Intestinal Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Lodemann, Ulrike; Strahlendorf, Julia; Schierack, Peter; Klingspor, Shanti; Aschenbach, Jörg R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to elucidate the effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 on epithelial integrity in intestinal epithelial cells and whether pre- and coincubation with this strain can reproducibly prevent damage induced by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Porcine (IPEC-J2) and human (Caco-2) intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with bacterial strains and epithelial integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and mannitol flux rates. E. faecium alone increased TEER of Caco-2 cells without affecting mannitol fluxes whereas the E. coli strains decreased TEER and concomitantly increased mannitol flux rates in both cell lines. Preincubation with E. faecium had no effect on the TEER decrease induced by E. coli in preliminary experiments. However, in a second set of experiments using a slightly different protocol, E. faecium ameliorated the TEER decrease induced by ETEC at 4 h in IPEC-J2 and at 2, 4, and 6 h in Caco-2 cells. We conclude that E. faecium positively affected epithelial integrity in monoinfected Caco-2 cells and could ameliorate the damage on TEER induced by an ETEC strain. Reproducibility of the results is, however, limited when experiments are performed with living bacteria over longer periods. PMID:25883829

  11. Highly selective trapping of enteropathogenic E. coli on Fabry-Pérot sensor mirrors.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena P; Truong, Vi Khanh; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Mitik-Dineva, Natasa; Day, Daniel; Jones, Robert T; Crawford, Russell J; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2012-05-15

    Untreated recycled water, such as sewage and graywater, will almost always contain a wide range of agents that are likely to present risks to human health, including chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms. The microbial hazards, such as large numbers of enteric pathogens that can cause gastroenteric illness if ingested, are the main cause of concern for human health. The presence of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) serotype is of particular concern, as this group of bacteria is responsible for causing severe infant and travelers' diarrhea, gastroenteritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A biosensing system based on an optical Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity, capable of directly detecting the presence of EPEC within 5 min, has been developed using a simple micro-thin double-sided adhesive tape and two semi-transparent FP mirror plates. The system utilizes a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or glass substrates sputtered by 40-nm-thick gold thin films serving as FP mirrors. Mirrors have been activated using 0.1M mercaptopropionic acid, influencing an immobilization density of the translocated intimin receptor (TIR) of 100 ng/cm(2). The specificity of recognition was confirmed by exposing TIR functionalized surfaces to four taxonomically related and/or distantly related bacterial strains. It was found that the TIR-functionalized surfaces did not show any bacterial capture for these other bacterial strains within a 15 min incubation period.

  12. Lack of Tir ubiquitylation contributes to enteropathogenic E. coli remaining extracellular during nonphagocytic cell infections.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann E; Guttman, Julian A

    2012-08-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an extracellular pathogen that alters many host subcellular components during its infectious processes. We have previously shown that EPEC hijacks a large assortment of host cell endocytic components and uses these proteins to form protruding structures called "pedestals" rather than triggering internalization of the bacteria. Other invasive pathogens that also recruit similar endocytic components have been shown to enter their host cells on the ubiquitylation of their host cell receptors. Therefore, we hypothesize that EPEC remains extracellular by maintaining its receptor, translocated intimin receptor (Tir), in an unubiquitylated state. Using immunoprecipitation-Western blots, we demonstrate no association of ubiquitin with Tir. To further elucidate the effect Tir ubiquitylation would have on EPEC during their infections, we engineered Tir-ubiquitin fusion constructs, expressed them in host epithelial cells, and infected them with Δtir EPEC. We found these cells induced a significant increase in EPEC invasion as compared with cells that expressed the Tir construct that lacked ubiquitin conjugation. Our results indicate that the lack of EPEC receptor ubiquitylation is a contributing factor that these microbes use to prevent their internalization into epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Enteropathogenic E. coli-induced barrier function alteration is not a consequence of host cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Weflen, Andrew; Koutsouris, Athanasia; Roxas, Jennifer L.; Hecht, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that perturbs intestinal epithelial function. Many of the alterations in the host cells are mediated by effector molecules that are secreted directly into epithelial cells by the EPEC type III secretion system. The secreted effector molecule EspF plays a key role in redistributing tight junction proteins and altering epithelial barrier function. EspF has also been shown to localize to mitochondria and trigger membrane depolarization and eventual host cell death. The relationship, if any, between EspF-induced host cell death and epithelial barrier disruption is presently not known. Site-directed mutation of leucine 16 (L16E) of EspF impairs both mitochondrial localization and consequent host cell death. Although the mutation lies within a region critical for type III secretion, EspF(L16E) is secreted efficiently from EPEC. Despite its inability to promote cell death, EspF(L16E) was not impaired for tight junction alteration or barrier disruption. Consistent with this, the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPH, despite reducing EPEC-induced host cell death, had no effect on infection-mediated barrier function alteration. Thus EPEC alters the epithelial barrier independent of its ability to induce host cell death. PMID:18356531

  14. Enteropathogens associated with diarrhea among military personnel during Operation Bright Star 96, in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Oyofo, B A; Peruski, L F; Ismail, T F; el-Etr, S H; Churilla, A M; Wasfy, M O; Petruccelli, B P; Gabriel, M E

    1997-06-01

    This study investigated the microbial causes of diarrheal disease among U.S. troops deployed near Alexandria, Egypt, during October 1995. Bacterial causes associated with 19 cases of diarrhea included: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), 42% (21% heat-stable, 11% heat-labile, and 11% heat-stable/ heat-labile producers); enteropathogenic E. coli (5.3%); and enteroadherent E. coli (42%). Four cases of diarrhea were associated with enteroaggregative E. coli based on probe analysis for enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin 1. Protozoan causes included; Entamoeba histolytica (11%), E. hartmanni (5%), E. nana (5%), Blastocystis hominis (5%), Chilomastix mesnili (11%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5%), Entamoeba coli (5%), and Cryptosporidium (5%). Shigella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, Campylobacter, and Salmonella were not detected. Of the eight ETEC cases, one was colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I only, one was both CFA/I and CFA/III, three were CFA/II, two were CFA/IV, and two were CFA-negative. Antibiograms of the ETEC and enteroadherent E. coli strains showed that all isolates were susceptible to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid but resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and sulfamethoxazole.

  15. Single Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction To Detect Diverse Loci Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    López-Saucedo, Catalina; Cerna, Jorge F.; Villegas-Sepulveda, Nicolas; Thompson, Rocío; Velazquez, F. Raul; Torres, Javier; Tarr, Phillip I.

    2003-01-01

    We developed and tested a single multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that detects enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, and Shiga-toxin–producing Escherichia coli. This PCR is specific, sensitive, and rapid in detecting target isolates in stool and food. Because of its simplicity, economy, and efficiency, this protocol warrants further evaluation in large, prospective studies of polymicrobial substances. PMID:12533296

  16. tir- and stx- positive Escherichia coli in stream waters in a metropolitan area

    Treesearch

    James A. Higgins; Kenneth T. Belt; Jeffrey S. Karns; Jonathan Russell-Anelli; Daniel R. Shelton

    2005-01-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, which may include the enteropathogenic E. coli and the enterohemorrhagic E. coli, are a significant cause of diarrheal disease among infants and children in both developing and developed areas. Disease outbreaks related to freshwater exposure have been documented, but the presence...

  17. Multiplex PCR for Diagnosis of Enteric Infections Associated with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Roberto; Vidal, Maricel; Lagos, Rossana; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria

    2004-01-01

    A multiplex PCR for detection of three categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli was developed. With this method, enterohemorrhagic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli were identified in fecal samples from patients with hemorrhagic colitis, watery diarrhea, or hemolytic-uremic syndrome and from food-borne outbreaks. PMID:15071051

  18. Fast and sensitive detection of enteropathogenic Yersinia by immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe; Simon, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 10(3) CFU/ml to 8.8 × 10(4) CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 10(5) CFU/ml to 10(6) CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Fast and Sensitive Detection of Enteropathogenic Yersinia by Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Jérôme; Savin, Cyril; Lamourette, Patricia; Devilliers, Karine; Volland, Hervé; Carniel, Elisabeth; Créminon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the two Yersinia species that are enteropathogenic for humans, are distributed worldwide and frequently cause diarrhea in inhabitants of temperate and cold countries. Y. enterocolitica is a major cause of foodborne disease resulting from consumption of contaminated pork meat and is further associated with substantial economic cost. However, investigation of enteropathogenic Yersinia species is infrequently performed routinely in clinical laboratories because of their specific growth characteristics, which make difficult their isolation from stool samples. Moreover, current isolation procedures are time-consuming and expensive, thus leading to underestimates of the incidence of enteric yersiniosis, inappropriate prescriptions of antibiotic treatments, and unnecessary appendectomies. The main objective of the study was to develop fast, sensitive, specific, and easy-to-use immunoassays, useful for both human and veterinary diagnosis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 and Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I and III were produced. Pairs of MAbs were selected by testing their specificity and affinity for enteropathogenic Yersinia and other commonly found enterobacteria. Pairs of MAbs were selected to develop highly sensitive enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and lateral flow immunoassays (LFIs or dipsticks) convenient for the purpose of rapid diagnosis. The limit of detection of the EIAs ranged from 3.2 × 103 CFU/ml to 8.8 × 104 CFU/ml for pathogenic serotypes I and III of Y. pseudotuberculosis and pathogenic bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 4/O:3 of Y. enterocolitica and for the LFIs ranged from 105 CFU/ml to 106 CFU/ml. A similar limit of detection was observed for artificially contaminated human feces. PMID:25355759

  20. Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reassessment of the Enteropathogenicity of Mesophilic Aeromonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Teunis, Peter; Figueras, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch’s postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study. In the present study we reassess the enteropathogenicity of Aeromonas using dose response models for microbial infection and acute illness. The analysis uses the data from the human challenge study and additional data from selected outbreak investigations where the numbers exposed and the dose were reported, allowing their inclusion as “natural experiments”. In the challenge study several cases of asymptomatic shedding were found (26.3%, 15/57), however, only 3.5% (2/57) of those challenged with Aeromonas developed acute enteric symptoms (i.e., diarrhea). The “natural experiments” showed a much higher risk of illness associated with exposure to Aeromonas, even at moderate to low doses. The median dose required for 1% illness risk, was ~1.4 × 104 times higher in the challenge study (1.24 × 104 cfu) compared to natural exposure events (0.9 cfu). The dose response assessment presented in this study shows that the combined challenge and outbreak data are consistent with high infectivity of Aeromonas, and a wide range of susceptibility to acute enteric illness. To illustrate the outcomes, we simulate the risk associated with concentrations of Aeromonas found in different water and food matrices, indicating the disease burden potentially associated with these bacteria. In conclusion this study showed that Aeromonas is highly infectious, and that human susceptibility to illness may be high, similar to

  2. Evaluation of a Single Procedure Allowing the Isolation of Enteropathogenic Yersinia along with Other Bacterial Enteropathogens from Human Stools

    PubMed Central

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most Gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other Gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools. PMID:22911756

  3. Evaluation of a single procedure allowing the isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia along with other bacterial enteropathogens from human stools.

    PubMed

    Savin, Cyril; Leclercq, Alexandre; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia are among the most frequent agents of human diarrhea in temperate and cold countries. However, the incidence of yersiniosis is largely underestimated because of the peculiar growth characteristics of pathogenic Yersinia, which make their isolation from poly-contaminated samples difficult. The use of specific procedures for Yersinia isolation is required, but is expensive and time consuming, and therefore is not systematically performed in clinical pathology laboratories. A means to circumvent this problem would be to use a single procedure for the isolation of all bacterial enteropathogens. Since the Statens Serum Institut enteric medium (SSI) has been reported to allow the growth at 37°C of most gram-negative bacteria, including Yersinia, our study aimed at evaluating its performances for Yersinia isolation, as compared to the commonly used Yersinia-specific semi-selective Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin medium (CIN) incubated at 28°C. Our results show that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis growth was strongly inhibited on SSI at 37°C, and therefore that this medium is not suitable for the isolation of this species. All Yersinia enterocolitica strains tested grew on SSI, while some non-pathogenic Yersinia species were inhibited. The morphology of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI allowed their differentiation from various other gram-negative bacteria commonly isolated from stool samples. However, in artificially contaminated human stools, the recovery of Y. enterocolitica colonies on SSI at 37°C was difficult and was 3 logs less sensitive than on CIN at 28°C. Therefore, despite its limitations, the use of a specific procedure (CIN incubated at 28°C) is still required for an efficient isolation of enteropathogenic Yersinia from stools.

  4. Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of Three Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O91:H21 Isolates, Two from Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Patients and One of Porcine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Morales, Christina Q.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents three genomes of O91:H21 isolates, two from hemolytic uremic syndrome patients and one of porcine origin. Genome analyses reveal that one of the human isolates contains both Shiga toxin-encoding genes (stx1 and stx2), and all three isolates contain putative adhesin (iha and eaeH) and antibiotic resistance (ampC) genes. PMID:25301649

  5. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen's extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease.

  6. Optimization of Quantitative PCR Methods for Enteropathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Gratz, Jean; Amour, Caroline; Nshama, Rosemary; Walongo, Thomas; Maro, Athanasia; Mduma, Esto; Platts-Mills, James; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James; Haverstick, Doris M.; Kabir, Furqan; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Silapong, Sasikorn; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mason, Carl; Begum, Sharmin; Haque, Rashidul; Praharaj, Ira; Kang, Gagandeep; Houpt, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Detection and quantification of enteropathogens in stool specimens is useful for diagnosing the cause of diarrhea but is technically challenging. Here we evaluate several important determinants of quantification: specimen collection, nucleic acid extraction, and extraction and amplification efficiency. First, we evaluate the molecular detection and quantification of pathogens in rectal swabs versus stool, using paired flocked rectal swabs and whole stool collected from 129 children hospitalized with diarrhea in Tanzania. Swabs generally yielded a higher quantification cycle (Cq) (average 29.7, standard deviation 3.5 vs. 25.3 ± 2.9 from stool, P<0.001) but were still able to detect 80% of pathogens with a Cq < 30 in stool. Second, a simplified total nucleic acid (TNA) extraction procedure was compared to separate DNA and RNA extractions and showed 92% (318/344) sensitivity and 98% (951/968) specificity, with no difference in Cq value for the positive results (ΔCq(DNA+RNA-TNA) = -0.01 ± 1.17, P = 0.972, N = 318). Third, we devised a quantification scheme that adjusts pathogen quantity to the specimen’s extraction and amplification efficiency, and show that this better estimates the quantity of spiked specimens than the raw target Cq. In sum, these methods for enteropathogen quantification, stool sample collection, and nucleic acid extraction will be useful for laboratories studying enteric disease. PMID:27336160

  7. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW <5 kDa were obtained. All ultrafiltrates had antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. NCM ultrafiltrates revealed the highest antibacterial activity in respect to negative control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  8. Escherichia coli adherence to HEp-2 cells with prefixed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Lopez, H M; Gonzalez-Lugo, G M

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new method which uses cold absolute methanol-prefixed cells for adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to HEp-2 cells. We found that a method using bacteria grown in Penassay broth to 10(6) to 10(7) CFU/ml and incubated with prefixed cells for 3 h at 37 degrees C, showed 100% sensitivity and specificity against a method using live cells. PMID:7615770

  9. Prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Foods and Fecal Specimens Obtained from Cattle, Pigs, Chickens, Asymptomatic Carriers, and Patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shaobo; Zheng, Dongming; Fujihara, Sami; Wakabayashi, Akiyo; Okahata, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Masakazu; Saeki, Atsunori; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-07-24

    The source and routes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) remain poorly understood. To investigate the involvement of domestic animals in the dissemination of DEC, the prevalence of DEC in foods and fecal specimens from cattle, pigs, chickens, healthy carriers, and patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan was investigated using a multiplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction assay. The most abundant virulence genes were astA and eae, which had a prevalence 46.8% and 27.4%, respectively. Additionally, stx1 (26.6%) and stx2 (45.9%) were prevalent in cattle feces, while est (8.5%) and elt (7.6%) were prevalent in pig feces. afaB was the second-most prevalent gene in patients and healthy carriers, and it had detection rates of 5.1% and 8.1%, respectively. In contrast, afaB was not detected in animal feces or foods, except for three porcine fecal samples. The aggR gene was more prevalent in humans than in foods or animal feces. Both Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli carried by cattle may be sources for diarrheal diseases in humans. Pigs may be a source for human enterotoxigenic E. coli infections, whereas humans are expected to be the reservoir for diffusely adhering E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, and enteroinvasive E. coli.

  10. Seasonal variation of enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; Macias-Rosales, Rocío; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen A; Cortés-López, M Carmen; Aguilar-Benavides, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The present study estimates the prevalence of some enteropathogens in infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea. From 2006 to 2007, 5459 consecutive stool samples were evaluated. Cryptosporidium parvum was the parasite identified with the higher frequency (5.1%), followed by Giardia lamblia (1.2%). Campylobacter jejuni was isolated in 858 cases (15.7%) and was the most frequent enteropathogen overall. The rates of C parvum, Shigella, and Salmonella were higher in the summer. Rotavirus had the expected winter peak and it was the third enteropathogen because of its frequency. Overall frequency of stool-reducing substances was 15.6% and was associated with a rotavirus-positive test.

  11. Toxigenic Escherichia Coli and Childhood Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Dave H.; Anselmo, Carl R.; Thrupp, Lauri D.; Wishnow, Rodney M.

    1976-01-01

    Stool specimens were examined from 40 children with diarrhea who were under three years of age to determine the incidence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in endemic diarrhea. Heat-labile E. coli enterotoxin was assayed in the very sensitive and reproducible cultured adrenal tumor cell system. Toxigenic E. coli were isolated from only one stool specimen and in this case infection with Shigella dysenteriae was also present. None of the eight classic enteropathogenic E. coli isolates were positive in the adrenal assay. This study suggests that heat-labile enterotoxin-producing E. coli are not an important cause of endemic childhood diarrhea in Southern California. PMID:775792

  12. Heat susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens. Implications for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Bandres, J C; Mathewson, J J; DuPont, H L

    1988-10-01

    The heat susceptibility of four bacterial enteropathogens in foods and water was studied to develop effective recommendations for travelers to regions where diarrheal diseases are important health problems. All enteropathogens tested survived well in foods stored at refrigerator temperature (4 degrees C), room temperature (25 degrees C), and 50 degrees C, which is too hot to touch. Tap water had to be heated above 65 degrees C to reliably kill all bacterial enteropathogens. At 13 of the 14 tourist-oriented hotels in four countries, water from the hot water tap did not reach temperatures of 65 degrees C. The implications of this study are that food and water that are too hot to touch may still be contaminated with bacterial enteropathogens. Travelers should be advised that food, water, or beverages are safe only if they have been brought to boiling or near-boiling temperatures prior to consumption.

  13. Characteristics of adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to human and animal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Endo, S; Yokota, T; Echeverria, P

    1991-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain (serotype O127a:H2) that had been isolated from a child with diarrhea in Thailand and that was negative for the virulence factors of the four categories of diarrheagenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic) and that showed an aggregative pattern of adherence to HeLa cells was investigated for adherence to native or Formalin-fixed human and animal mucosa. The hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability of the bacteria were resistant to D-mannose and were strictly regulated by environmental conditions. Genetic data supported the close relation between the hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability. In accordance with the adherence pattern on tissue-cultured cells, the bacteria adhered to human and animal mucosa, as evidenced by a direct gold-labeling analysis. In human intestines, Formalin-fixed mucous coatings, epithelial cells of colonic mucosa, epithelial cells of ileal single lymphoid follicles and Peyer's patches, and the absorptive cells of jejunal or ileal villi provided adherence targets. Adherence to M cells in the Peyer's patch-associated epithelium was also confirmed. The adherence levels to native jejunal or ileal human villi were low, as was the case with the corresponding Formalin-fixed villi. In human urinary tract, the superficial epithelial cells of both native and Formalin-fixed ureter provided striking adherence targets. In animal (porcine and rabbit) small intestines, the bacteria adhered to the native villi to a lesser extent than to the Formalin-fixed villi. The adherence levels were compared with those of enterotoxigenic E. coli with colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I pili or CFA/II pili. The data suggested unique mucosa adherence characteristics of the enteroaggregative E. coli strain. The possibility of the adherence ability as a virulence factor was discussed. Images PMID:1680107

  14. Text-mining of PubMed abstracts by natural language processing to create a public knowledge base on molecular mechanisms of bacterial enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Zaremba, Sam; Ramos-Santacruz, Mila; Hampton, Thomas; Shetty, Panna; Fedorko, Joel; Whitmore, Jon; Greene, John M; Perna, Nicole T; Glasner, Jeremy D; Plunkett, Guy; Shaker, Matthew; Pot, David

    2009-06-10

    The Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC; http://www.ericbrc.org) has a goal of providing bioinformatics support for the scientific community researching enteropathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. Rapid and accurate identification of experimental conclusions from the scientific literature is critical to support research in this field. Natural Language Processing (NLP), and in particular Information Extraction (IE) technology, can be a significant aid to this process. We have trained a powerful, state-of-the-art IE technology on a corpus of abstracts from the microbial literature in PubMed to automatically identify and categorize biologically relevant entities and predicative relations. These relations include: Genes/Gene Products and their Roles; Gene Mutations and the resulting Phenotypes; and Organisms and their associated Pathogenicity. Evaluations on blind datasets show an F-measure average of greater than 90% for entities (genes, operons, etc.) and over 70% for relations (gene/gene product to role, etc). This IE capability, combined with text indexing and relational database technologies, constitute the core of our recently deployed text mining application. Our Text Mining application is available online on the ERIC website (http://www.ericbrc.org/portal/eric/articles). The information retrieval interface displays a list of recently published enteropathogen literature abstracts, and also provides a search interface to execute custom queries by keyword, date range, etc. Upon selection, processed abstracts and the entities and relations extracted from them are retrieved from a relational database and marked up to highlight the entities and relations. The abstract also provides links from extracted genes and gene products to the ERIC Annotations database, thus providing access to comprehensive genomic annotations and adding value to both the text-mining and annotations systems.

  15. Mechanisms of DRA recycling in intestinal epithelial cells: effect of enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Tarunmeet; Kumar, Anoop; Priyamvada, Shubha; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Hodges, Kim; Alrefai, Waddah A; Hecht, Gail A; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2015-12-15

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a food-borne pathogen that causes infantile diarrhea worldwide. EPEC decreases the activity and surface expression of the key intestinal Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanger SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)], contributing to the pathophysiology of early diarrhea. Little is known about the mechanisms governing membrane recycling of DRA. In the current study, Caco-2 cells were used to investigate DRA trafficking under basal conditions and in response to EPEC. Apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity was measured as DIDS-sensitive (125)I(-) uptake. Cell surface biotinylation was performed to assess DRA endocytosis and exocytosis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chlorpromazine (60 μM) increased apical Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange activity. Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, also increased function and surface levels of DRA via decreased endocytosis. Perturbation of microtubules by nocodazole revealed that intact microtubules are essential for basal exocytic (but not endocytic) DRA recycling. Mice treated with colchicine showed a decrease in DRA surface levels as visualized by confocal microscopy. In response to EPEC infection, DRA surface expression was reduced partly via an increase in DRA endocytosis and a decrease in exocytosis. These effects were dependent on the EPEC virulence genes espG1 and espG2. Intriguingly, the EPEC-induced decrease in DRA function was unaltered in the presence of dynasore, suggesting a clathrin-independent internalization of surface DRA. In conclusion, these studies establish the role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and microtubules in the basal surface expression of DRA and demonstrate that the EPEC-mediated decrease in DRA function and apical expression in Caco-2 cells involves decreased exocytosis.

  16. Single Multiplex PCR Assay To Identify Simultaneously the Six Categories of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Associated with Enteric Infections

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Maricel; Kruger, Eileen; Durán, Claudia; Lagos, Rosanna; Levine, Myron; Prado, Valeria; Toro, Cecilia; Vidal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    We designed a multiplex PCR for the detection of all categories of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. This method proved to be specific and rapid in detecting virulence genes from Shiga toxin-producing (stx1, stx2, and eae), enteropathogenic (eae and bfp), enterotoxigenic (stII and lt), enteroinvasive (virF and ipaH), enteroaggregative (aafII), and diffuse adherent (daaE) Escherichia coli in stool samples. PMID:16208019

  17. Profiles of enteropathogens in asymptomatic children from indigenous communities of Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Judith; González, Fanny; Díaz, Tulia; Peña-Guillén, Jesús; Araque, María

    2011-04-26

    In Latin America, gastrointestinal infections represent one of the main causes of death among indigenous groups, with a mortality rate three times greater than in the general population. In this study, the carrier state of enteropathogens and the epidemiological risk factor in asymptomatic children from indigenous communities of Mérida, Venezuela, were determined. Fifty-eight healthy children, 5 years of age and under, were clinically and epidemiologically evaluated. Fecal samples were tested for a range of classic enteropathogens. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) were performed by dilution methods. Of the specimens studied, there were 34 (58.6%) positive samples, and a single enteropathogen was detected in 22 (64.6%) of these. Associations of two and three enteropathogens were observed in 10 (29.3%) and two (5.8%) cases, respectively. Blastocystis hominis (16; 47.0%) and Salmonella spp. (15; 43.9%) were the most frequently detected enteropathogens. Carriage of enteropathogens was most frequent in children older than two years. The variety of food in the daily diet was the risk factor strongly associated with the presence of parasites and/or enteric bacteria (p = 0.024 < 0.05 and p = 0.000 < 0.05, respectively). The majority of these bacteria were susceptible to the antibiotics tested in vitro. This study shows a high prevalence of enteropathogen carriage in asymptomatic children aged five and under from indigenous communities; this result is statistically related to the consumption of food. These findings stress the need of continuous epidemiological surveillance in vulnerable populations, as an important step to prevent the morbidity and mortality due to gastrointestinal infections.

  18. Enteropathogens identified in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Tupler, Tiffany; Levy, Julie K; Sabshin, Stephanie J; Tucker, Sylvia J; Greiner, Ellis C; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2012-08-01

    To determine the frequency of enteropathogens in dogs entering an animal shelter with normal feces or diarrhea. Cross-sectional study. 100 dogs evaluated at an open-admission municipal animal shelter in Florida. Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours after admission from 50 dogs with normal feces and 50 dogs with diarrhea. Feces were tested by fecal flotation, antigen testing, PCR assay, and electron microscopy for selected enteropathogens. 13 enteropathogens were identified. Dogs with diarrhea were significantly more likely to be infected with ≥ 1 enteropathogens (96%) than were dogs with normal feces (78%). Only Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin A gene was significantly more common in dogs with diarrhea (64%) than in dogs with normal feces (40%). Other enteropathogens identified in dogs with and without diarrhea included hookworms (58% and 48%, respectively), Giardia spp (22% and 16%, respectively), canine enteric coronavirus (2% and 18%, respectively), whipworms (12% and 8%, respectively), Cryptosporidium spp (12% and 2%, respectively), ascarids (8% and 8%, respectively), Salmonella spp (2% and 6%, respectively), Cystoisospora spp (2% and 4%, respectively), canine distemper virus (8% and 0%, respectively), Dipylidium caninum (2% and 2%, respectively), canine parvovirus (2% and 2%, respectively), and rotavirus (2% and 0%, respectively). Dogs entered the shelter with a variety of enteropathogens, many of which are pathogenic or zoonotic. Most infections were not associated with diarrhea or any specific dog characteristics, making it difficult to predict the risk of infection for individual animals. Guidelines for preventive measures and empirical treatments that are logistically and financially feasible for use in shelters should be developed for control of the most common and important enteropathogens.

  19. Occurrence and phenotypic properties of verotoxin producing Escherichia coli in sporadic cases of gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Burnens, A P; Boss, P; Orskov, F; Orskov, I; Schaad, U B; Müller, F; Heinzle, R; Nicolet, J

    1992-07-01

    Five verotoxin producing Escherichia coli strains were detected in 405 patients with infectious gastroenteritis and 3 such strains were detected in 11 patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome in Switzerland. Production of verotoxin 2 was associated with the latter three strains. Four strains reacted with the probe for the virulence plasmid of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and six reacted with a recently described probe for the eae gene of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. None of the strains was of serotype O157:H7. The methods available at present for detecting toxins or toxin genes will reliably detect all such verotoxin producing strains.

  20. Secretome Biomarkers for the Identification and Differentiation of Enterohemorrhagic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    filter membranes were washed with 100 mM of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) then centrifuged for 20 min at 14,100×g. Proteins from the whole-cell and... membrane for 20 min it was shaken, followed by centrifugation at 14,100×g for 40 min. The filter units were then transferred to new receptor tubes, and...YP_001463426.1 Multidrug efflux system subunit MdtA EC O139:H28 Transport Transporter activity Plasma membrane YP_002292692.1 Conserved

  1. [Characterization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains isolated during the chicken slaughtering process].

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mónica Z; Sanz, Marcelo E; Padola, Nora L; Lucchesi, Paula M A

    2014-01-01

    In Argentina, EPEC is one of the most prevalent agents isolated from children with diarrhea. Because contamination with this pathotype could occur during slaughter, the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize EPEC strains obtained from live animals (cloacae), eviscerated carcasses, washed carcasses and water from chillers. Twenty nine isolates of atypical EPEC were characterized. These isolates presented a wide variety of serotypes, some of which (O2:H40, O8:H19 and O108:H9) had been reported in other animal species. Serotype O45:H8, previously isolated from children with diarrhea was also found. Isolates of serotypes O2:H40, O108:H9 and O123:H32 were detected at different stages of the slaughtering process, suggesting that the process is not adequately performed. This latter fact highlights the importance of reinforcing control and hygienic measures at different stages of the chicken slaughtering process in order to reduce microbial contamination.

  2. Commensal effect of pectate lyases secreted from Dickeya dadantii on the proliferation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 from leafy greens are serious food-safety concerns at the present period. Several phytopathogens have been suggested to help persistence and proliferation of the human enteropathogens in phyllosphere. In this work, influence of virulence ...

  3. Insights into Evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Complete Genome Sequence of Closely Related O55:H7 Precursor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In spite of this, only two EPEC genomes have been fully sequenced: the typical, model EPEC strain E2348/69 (O127:H6), and the contemporary, atypical EPEC strain CB9615 (O55:H7, Ger...

  4. Potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli in healthy, pasture-raised sheep on farms and at the abattoir in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maluta, Renato Pariz; Fairbrother, John Morris; Stella, Ariel Eurides; Rigobelo, Everlon Cid; Martinez, Roberto; de Ávila, Fernando Antonio

    2014-02-21

    Sheep harbor pathogenic Escherichia coli, which may cause severe disease in humans. In this study, the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was examined in sheep feces and carcasses on three farms and at an abattoir in Brazil. The isolates were further characterized for the presence of markers recently associated with disease in humans, to investigate their possible origin and role as food-borne pathogens. At the abattoir, 99 carcass samples yielded two STEC and 10 EPEC isolates while 101 fecal samples yielded five EPEC and eight STEC isolates. On the other hand, on the farms, 202 samples yielded 44 STEC and eight EPEC isolates. The 77 isolates were typed by PFGE. Isolates with the same PFGE pattern and also those that were not restricted with XbaI were termed as "clones" (n=49). The isolates of any one clone mostly originated from the same sampling site. In addition, seven isolates encoded for novel Stx2 variants and five for Stx2e, the subtype related to porcine edema disease, which was for the first time isolated from sheep feces and carcasses. Also, three stx2-only isolates harbored genes of predicted Stx2 variants that were formed by A and B subunits of different types including Stx2a and Stx2d. The EPEC isolates were heterogeneous, 21 (91.3%) of them possessing efa1, ehxA, lpfAO113 or paa genes associated with diarrhea in humans. Thus, using markers recently associated with disease, we have demonstrated that E. coli similar to those pathogenic for humans are present in the sheep intestinal microflora, particularly at the abattoir, underlining the potential for food-borne transmission.

  5. Expression of interleukin-18 by porcine airway and intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Yoshihiro; Goji, Noriko; Tsuji, Noriko M; Mikami, Osamu; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Yokomizo, Yuichi; Mori, Yasuyuki

    2002-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) in porcine airway and intestinal epithelium. We found constitutive protein expression of precursor IL-18 in primary culture of porcine airway epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that porcine IL-18 was localized in the porcine airway epithelium and that it was significantly upregulated with experimental endotoxemia induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inoculation. We also confirmed by immunohistochemical staining that IL-18 was expressed in porcine intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, the concentration of IL-18 in intestinal cell lysates of 1-day-old piglets was about 3-fold and 6-fold less than that in those of 1-month-old and 6-month-old piglets, respectively. Exogenous IL-18 was able to induce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the peripheral blood of 1-day-old piglets, whereas concanavalin A (ConA) was not able to induce IFN-gamma in the same condition. These results suggest that mucosal epithelial cells are among the major sources of IL-18 in pig and that IL-18 may be useful as a therapeutic agent for the enhancement of immune responses and as a vaccine adjuvant, especially in neonatal piglets.

  6. Enteropathogenic E. coli Effectors EspG1/G2 Disrupt Microtubules, Contribute to Tight Junction Perturbation and Inhibit Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Glotfelty, Lila G.; Zahs, Anita; Hodges, Kimberley; Shan, Kuangda; Alto, Neal M.; Hecht, Gail A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) uses a type 3 secretion system to transfer effector proteins into the host intestinal epithelial cell. Several effector molecules contribute to tight junction disruption including EspG1 and its homolog EspG2 via a mechanism thought to involve microtubule destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of EspG-mediated microtubule disruption to TJ perturbation. We demonstrate that wild type EPEC infection disassembles microtubules and induces the progressive movement of occludin away from the membrane and into the cytosol. Deletion of espG1/G2 attenuates both of these phenotypes. In addition, EPEC infection impedes barrier recovery from calcium switch, suggesting that inhibition of TJ restoration, not merely disruption, prolongs barrier loss. TJs recover more rapidly following infection with ΔespG1/G2 than with wild type EPEC, demonstrating that EspG1/G2 perpetuate barrier loss. Although EspG regulates ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and p21-activated kinase (PAK), these activities are not necessary for microtubule destruction or perturbation of TJ structure and function. These data strongly support a role for EspG1/G2 and its associated effects on microtubules in delaying the recovery of damaged tight junctions caused by EPEC infection. PMID:24948117

  7. Flies and water as reservoirs for bacterial enteropathogens in urban and rural areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khalil, K; Lindblom, G B; Mazhar, K; Kaijser, B

    1994-12-01

    The study was conducted to isolate and characterize campylobacter, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-labile toxin (ETEC-LT), shigella and salmonella in flies and water. The material for the study, flies (n = 300) and water samples (n = 148), was collected from different localities in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Cultivation of the samples was performed on conventional standard media. Membrane filtration technique was used for water prior to culture. Determination of ETEC-LT was done by GM1 ELISA. Results of our study showed that flies and water were reservoirs for all the four pathogens, campylobacter, ETEC-LT, shigella and salmonella. Flies from the village were carrying fewer enteropathogens, while water from the village was found to be more contaminated as compared to the city. Campylobacter and ETEC-LT were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both flies and water. Thus the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in children of developing countries may be decreased by providing plenty of safe drinking water, improving excreta disposal, toilet facilities and giving education in personal hygiene.

  8. Prevalence of Enteropathogens in Dogs Attending 3 Regional Dog Parks in Northern California.

    PubMed

    Hascall, K L; Kass, P H; Saksen, J; Ahlmann, A; Scorza, A V; Lappin, M R; Marks, S L

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and risk factors for infection with enteropathogens in dogs frequenting dog parks have been poorly documented, and infected dogs can pose a potential zoonotic risk for owners. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of infection with enteropathogens and zoonotic Giardia strains in dogs attending dog parks in Northern California and to compare results of fecal flotation procedures performed at a commercial and university parasitology laboratory. Three-hundred dogs attending 3 regional dog parks in Northern California. Prospective study. Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs, scored for consistency, and owners completed a questionnaire. Specimens were analyzed by fecal centrifugation flotation, DFA, and PCR for detection of 11 enteropathogens. Giardia genotyping was performed for assemblage determination. Enteropathogens were detected in 114/300 dogs (38%), of which 62 (54%) did not have diarrhea. Frequency of dog park attendance correlated significantly with fecal consistency (P = .0039), but did not correlate with enteropathogen detection. Twenty-seven dogs (9%) were infected with Giardia, and genotyping revealed nonzoonotic assemblages C and D. The frequency of Giardia detection on fecal flotation was significantly lower at the commercial laboratory versus the university laboratory (P = .013), and PCR for Giardia was negative in 11/27 dogs (41%) that were positive on fecal flotation or DFA. Enteropathogens were commonly detected in dogs frequenting dog parks, and infection with Giardia correlated with fecal consistency. PCR detection of Giardia had limited diagnostic utility, and detection of Giardia cysts by microscopic technique can vary among laboratories. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Risk factors for neonatal calf diarrhoea and enteropathogen shedding in New Zealand dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Al Mawly, J; Grinberg, A; Prattley, D; Moffat, J; Marshall, J; French, N

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors for neonatal calf diarrhoea, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 97 New Zealand dairy farms. Faecal specimens from 1283 calves were scored as liquid, semi-solid or solid, and analysed for bovine rotavirus (BRV) and coronavirus (BCV), enterotoxigenic K99(+)Escherichia coli (K99), Salmonella spp. and Cryptosporidium parvum. Calf- and farm-level data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the odds of liquid faeces calculated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Among the infectious agents, only C. parvum (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.6; P = 0.02), BRV (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.9; P = 0.01) and co-infection with more than one agent (compared with mono-infection: OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.8; P = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of liquid faeces in calves which were 9 to 21 days old. Housing of calves in open barns so exposing them to the weather was also associated with increased odds of liquid faeces compared with closed barns (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-12.2; P = 0.03). Vaccinating cows against calf enteropathogens (OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P = 0.03), administering waste milk (from mastitis and/or containing antibiotics; OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P = 0.01), the sex of calves (females compared to males OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.07-0.7; P <0.01), and the use of straw for bedding (OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03-0.9; P = 0.03) decreased the odds of liquid faeces. Conversely, in calves that were 1 to 5 days old, only K99 was associated with liquid faeces (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.2-16.1; P = 0.02). In this age group, the odds of liquid faeces were smaller on farms where females took care of the calves, compared with males (OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.01-0.9; P = 0.04).

  10. Molecular Profiling: Catecholamine Modulation of Gene Expression in Enteropathogenic Bacteria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Investigations of the enteric pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus have demonstrated that these bacteria can respond to the presence of catecholamines, including norepinephrine and/or epinephrine, in their environment by modulating g...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Enteropathogenic Bacterium Campylobacter jejuni Strain cj255.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fariha Masood; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Noureen, Nighat; Noreen, Zobia; Titball, Richard W; Champion, Olivia L; Wren, Brendan W; Studholme, David; Bokhari, Habib

    2015-10-22

    The enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a global health disaster, being one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of C. jejuni strain cj255, isolated from a chicken source in Islamabad, Pakistan. The draft genome sequence will aid in epidemiological studies and quarantine of this broad-host-range pathogen.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of the Enteropathogenic Bacterium Campylobacter jejuni Strain cj255

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Fariha Masood; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Noureen, Nighat; Noreen, Zobia; Titball, Richard W.; Champion, Olivia L.; Wren, Brendan W.

    2015-01-01

    The enteropathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a global health disaster, being one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of C. jejuni strain cj255, isolated from a chicken source in Islamabad, Pakistan. The draft genome sequence will aid in epidemiological studies and quarantine of this broad-host-range pathogen. PMID:26494669

  13. Selected enteropathogens and clinical course in children hospitalized with severe acute gastroenteritis in Barbados

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Browne, Chantelle; Scotland, Shauna; Krishnamurthy, Kandamaran; Nielsen, Anders L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected bacterial and viral enteropathogens in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis and the secondary aim was to characterize the clinical course and the outcome. Methodology A retrospective audit of children (<15 years) admitted with acute gastroenteritis during January 2008 to October 2010. Stool samples were analyzed for bacterial pathogens and for the Rotavirus. Demographics, clinical presentations, hospital course and outcome were extracted from the admission records. Results There were 571 children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis, which accounted for 11% of all medical hospitalization in children. Overall, 42.9% of these children were ≤12 months in age. Stool test result was documented in 46.6% of children hospitalized with gastroenteritis and an enteropathogen was isolated in 36.8% of cases with documented stool test result. Non-typhoidal Salmonella species was the most commonly isolated enteropathogen accounting for 21.1% of all the documented cases. Rotavirus was identified as an etiological agent in 9.0%. Of the 56 children who had non-typhoidal salmonella gastroenteritis, 54(96.4%) were younger than 5 years. The median duration of hospitalization was 2 days (Range 1 day to 9 days). There were no deaths. Conclusion Non-typhoidal salmonella was the most common enteropathogen isolated and this was followed by the Rotavirus. PMID:25780359

  14. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  15. Detection and Characterization of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Yersinia Strains from Human, Animal, and Food Samples in San Luis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Favier, Gabriela Isabel; Lucero Estrada, Cecilia; Cortiñas, Teresa Inés; Escudero, María Esther

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Salmonella spp., and Yersinia species was investigated in humans, animals, and foods in San Luis, Argentina. A total of 453 samples were analyzed by culture and PCR. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all the strains was studied, the genomic relationships among isolates of the same species were determined by PFGE, and the potencial virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains was analyzed. Yersinia species showed higher prevalence (9/453, 2.0%, 95% CI, 0.7–3.3%) than STEC (4/453, 0.9%, 95% CI, 0–1.8%) and Salmonella spp. (3/453, 0.7%, 95% CI, 0–1.5%). Y. enterocolitica and Y. intermedia were isolated from chicken carcasses (6/80, 7.5%, 95% CI, 1.5–13.5%) and porcine skin and bones (3/10, 30%, 95% CI, 0–65%). One STEC strain was recovered from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) and STEC stx1/stx2 genes were detected in bovine stools (3/129, 2.3%, 95% CI, 0–5.0%). S. Typhimurium was isolated from human feces (1/70, 1.4%, 95% CI, 0–4.2%) while one S. Newport and two S. Gaminara strains were recovered from one wild boar (1/3, 33%, 95% CI, 0–99%). The knowledge of prevalence and characteristics of these enteropathogens in our region would allow public health services to take adequate preventive measures. PMID:25177351

  16. A simple and rapid identification method for newly emerged porcine Deltacoronavirus with loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fanfan; Ye, Yu; Song, Deping; Guo, Nannan; Peng, Qi; Li, Anqi; Zhou, Xingrong; Chen, Yanjun; Zhang, Min; Huang, Dongyan; Tang, Yuxin

    2017-09-21

    Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes diarrhea and mortality in neonatal piglets. PDCoV has spread to many countries around the world, leading to significant economic losses in the pork industry. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive method for detection of PDCoV in clinical samples is urgently needed. In this study, we developed a single-tube one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay specific for nucleocapsid gene to diagnose and monitor PDCoV infections. The detection limit of RT-LAMP assay was 1 × 10(1) copies of PDCoV, which was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than gel-based one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This assay could specifically amplify PDCoV and had no cross amplification with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine kobuvirus (PKoV), porcine astrovirus (PAstV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classic swine fever virus (CSFV), and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). By screening a panel of clinical specimens (N = 192), this method presented a similar sensitivity with nested RT-PCR and was 1-2 log more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR in detection of PDCoV. The RT-LAMP assay established in this study is a potentially valuable tool, especially in low-resource laboratories and filed settings, for a rapid diagnosis, surveillance, and molecular epidemiology investigation of PDCoV infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work for detection of newly emerged PDCoV with LAMP technology.

  17. Porcine deltacoronavirus infection: Etiology, cell culture for virus isolation and propagation, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Hu, Hui; Saif, Linda J

    2016-12-02

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) (family Coronaviridae, genus Deltacoronavirus) is a novel swine enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. PDCoV diarrhea was first reported in the US in early 2014, concurrently with co-circulation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) (family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus). The origin of PDCoV in pigs and also its sudden emergence or route of introduction into the US still remains unclear. In the US, since 2013-2014, the newly emerged PDCoV and PEDV have spread nationwide, causing a high number of pig deaths and significant economic impacts. The current US PDCoV strains are enteropathogenic and infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites of infection. Similar to PEDV infections, PDCoV infections also cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by transient viremia (viral RNA) that leads to severe diarrhea and/or vomiting, followed by dehydration as the potential cause of death in nursing piglets. At present, differential diagnosis of PDCoV, PEDV, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is essential to control viral diarrheas in US swine. Cell culture-adapted US PDCoV (TC-PDCoV) strains have been isolated and propagated by us and in several other laboratories. TC-PDCoV strains will be useful to develop serologic assays and to evaluate if serial cell-culture passage attenuates TC-PDCoV as a potential vaccine candidate strain. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of epidemic PDCoV strains is currently needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, cell culture isolation and propagation, molecular epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis of PDCoV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J

    2015-05-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. For the last three decades, PEDV infection has resulted in significant economic losses in the European and Asian pig industries, but in 2013-2014 the disease was also reported in the US, Canada and Mexico. The PED epidemic in the US, from April 2013 to the present, has led to the loss of more than 10% of the US pig population. The disappearance and re-emergence of epidemic PED indicates that the virus is able to escape from current vaccination protocols, biosecurity and control systems. Endemic PED is a significant problem, which is exacerbated by the emergence (or potential importation) of multiple PEDV variants. Epidemic PEDV strains spread rapidly and cause a high number of pig deaths. These strains are highly enteropathogenic and acutely infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites. PEDV infections cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by viremia that leads to profound diarrhea and vomiting, followed by extensive dehydration, which is the major cause of death in nursing piglets. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic characteristics of epidemic or endemic PEDV strains is needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis as well as immunoprophylaxis against PEDV infection.

  19. Clinical Implications of Enteroadherent Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Hernández, Margarita M.P.; Martínez-Laguna, Ygnacio; Torres, Alfredo G.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic Escherichia coli that colonize the small intestine primarily cause gastrointestinal illness in infants and travelers. The main categories of pathogenic E. coli that colonize the epithelial lining of the small intestine are enterotoxigenic E. coli enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli. These organisms accomplish their pathogenic process by a complex, coordinated multistage strategy, including non-intimate adherence mediated by various adhesins. These so called “enteroadherent E. coli ” categories subsequently produced toxins or effector proteins that are either secreted to the milieu or injected to the host cell. Finally, destruction of the intestinal microvilli results from the intimate adherence or the toxic effect exerted over the epithelia, resulting in water secretion and diarrhea. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding these enteroadherent E. coli strains and the present clinical understanding of how these organisms colonize the human intestine and cause disease. PMID:22798032

  20. Spectrum of enteropathogens detected by the FilmArray GI Panel in a multicentre study of community-acquired gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Spina, A; Kerr, K G; Cormican, M; Barbut, F; Eigentler, A; Zerva, L; Tassios, P; Popescu, G A; Rafila, A; Eerola, E; Batista, J; Maass, M; Aschbacher, R; Olsen, K E P; Allerberger, F

    2015-08-01

    The European, multicentre, quarterly point-prevalence study of community-acquired diarrhoea (EUCODI) analysed stool samples received at ten participating clinical microbiology laboratories (Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and the UK) in 2014. On four specified days, each local laboratory submitted samples from ≤20 consecutive patients to the Austrian Study Centre for further testing with the FilmArray GI Panel (BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT, USA). Of the 709 samples from as many patients received, 325 (45.8%) tested negative, 268 (37.8%) yielded only one organism, and 116 (16.4%) yielded multiple organisms. Positivity rates ranged from 41% (30 of 73 samples) in France to 74% (59 of 80 samples) in Romania. With the exception of Entamoeba histolytica and Vibrio cholerae, all of the 22 targeted pathogens were detected at least once. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter species, toxigenic Clostridium difficile, enteroaggregative E. coli, norovirus and enterotoxigenic E. coli were the six most commonly detected pathogens. When tested according to local protocols, seven of 128 positive samples (5.5%) yielded multiple organisms. Overall, the FilmArray GI Panel detected at least one organism in 54.2% (384/709) of the samples, as compared with 18.1% (128/709) when testing was performed with conventional techniques locally. This underlines the considerable potential of multiplex PCR to improve routine stool diagnostics in community-acquired diarrhoea. Classic culture methods directed at the isolation of specific pathogens are increasingly becoming second-line tools, being deployed when rapid molecular tests give positive results. This optimizes the yield from stool examinations and dramatically improves the timeliness of diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Periurban outbreaks of bovine calf scours in Northern India caused by Cryptosporidium in association with other enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Brar, A P S; Sood, N K; Kaur, P; Singla, L D; Sandhu, B S; Gupta, K; Narang, D; Singh, C K; Chandra, M

    2017-10-01

    Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl-Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8-14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.

  2. The Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) Tir Effector Inhibits NF-κB Activity by Targeting TNFα Receptor-Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hélène; Mühlen, Sabrina; Dean, Paul; Kenny, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) disease depends on the transfer of effector proteins into epithelia lining the human small intestine. EPEC E2348/69 has at least 20 effector genes of which six are located with the effector-delivery system genes on the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island. Our previous work implied that non-LEE-encoded (Nle) effectors possess functions that inhibit epithelial anti-microbial and inflammation-inducing responses by blocking NF-κB transcription factor activity. Indeed, screens by us and others have identified novel inhibitory mechanisms for NleC and NleH, with key co-operative functions for NleB1 and NleE1. Here, we demonstrate that the LEE-encoded Translocated-intimin receptor (Tir) effector has a potent and specific ability to inhibit NF-κB activation. Indeed, biochemical, imaging and immunoprecipitation studies reveal a novel inhibitory mechanism whereby Tir interaction with cytoplasm-located TNFα receptor-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins induces their proteasomal-independent degradation. Infection studies support this Tir-TRAF relationship but reveal that Tir, like NleC and NleH, has a non-essential contribution in EPEC's NF-κB inhibitory capacity linked to Tir's activity being suppressed by undefined EPEC factors. Infections in a disease-relevant intestinal model confirm key NF-κB inhibitory roles for the NleB1/NleE1 effectors, with other studies providing insights on host targets. The work not only reveals a second Intimin-independent property for Tir and a novel EPEC effector-mediated NF-κB inhibitory mechanism but also lends itself to speculations on the evolution of EPEC's capacity to inhibit NF-κB function. PMID:22144899

  3. The enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) Tir effector inhibits NF-κB activity by targeting TNFα receptor-associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hélène; Mühlen, Sabrina; Dean, Paul; Kenny, Brendan

    2011-12-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) disease depends on the transfer of effector proteins into epithelia lining the human small intestine. EPEC E2348/69 has at least 20 effector genes of which six are located with the effector-delivery system genes on the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island. Our previous work implied that non-LEE-encoded (Nle) effectors possess functions that inhibit epithelial anti-microbial and inflammation-inducing responses by blocking NF-κB transcription factor activity. Indeed, screens by us and others have identified novel inhibitory mechanisms for NleC and NleH, with key co-operative functions for NleB1 and NleE1. Here, we demonstrate that the LEE-encoded Translocated-intimin receptor (Tir) effector has a potent and specific ability to inhibit NF-κB activation. Indeed, biochemical, imaging and immunoprecipitation studies reveal a novel inhibitory mechanism whereby Tir interaction with cytoplasm-located TNFα receptor-associated factor (TRAF) adaptor proteins induces their proteasomal-independent degradation. Infection studies support this Tir-TRAF relationship but reveal that Tir, like NleC and NleH, has a non-essential contribution in EPEC's NF-κB inhibitory capacity linked to Tir's activity being suppressed by undefined EPEC factors. Infections in a disease-relevant intestinal model confirm key NF-κB inhibitory roles for the NleB1/NleE1 effectors, with other studies providing insights on host targets. The work not only reveals a second Intimin-independent property for Tir and a novel EPEC effector-mediated NF-κB inhibitory mechanism but also lends itself to speculations on the evolution of EPEC's capacity to inhibit NF-κB function.

  4. Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the porcine lipasin gene.

    PubMed

    Li, M M; Geng, J; Guo, Y J; Jiao, X Q; Lu, W F; Zhu, H S; Wang, Y Y; Yang, G Y

    2015-11-23

    Lipasin has recently been demonstrated to be involved in lipid metabolism. In this study, two specific primers were used to amplify the lipasin open reading frame from porcine liver tissue. The polymerase chain reaction product was cloned to a pGEM®-T Easy Vector, digested by SalI and NotI, and sequenced. The lipasin fragment was then cloned to a pET21(b) vector and digested by the same restriction enzyme. The recombinant plasmid was transferred to Escherichia coli (BL21), and the lipasin protein was induced with isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The protein obtained was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. A pET-lipasin prokaryotic recombinant expression vector was successfully constructed, and a 25.2-kDa protein was obtained. This study provides a basis for further research on the biological function of porcine lipasin.

  5. Gastroenteritis attributable to 16 enteropathogens in children attending day care: significant effects of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

    PubMed

    Enserink, Remko; van den Wijngaard, Cees; Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; van Asten, Liselotte; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Duizer, Erwin; Kortbeek, Titia; Scholts, Rianne; Nagelkerke, Nico; Smit, Henriette A; Kooistra-Smid, Mirjam; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2015-01-01

    Children attending day care experience substantial gastrointestinal morbidity due to circulating seasonal enteropathogens in the day-care environment. The lack of a distinct clinical presentation of gastroenteritis (GE) in these children, in combination with the high diversity of enteropathogenic agents, complicates the assessment of the individual contributions of enteropathogens that may cause GE. We aimed to estimate the proportion of day-care attendees experiencing GE that could be attributed to a range of enteropathogens circulating in day care in the Netherlands in 2010-2013. Using time-series data from a national laboratory-based and syndrome-based surveillance system in Dutch day-care centers and generalized estimating equation analysis, we modelled the variation in prevalence of 16 enteropathogens of bacterial (8), viral (5) and parasitic origin (3) circulating in day care to the variation of GE incidence among children attending day care. Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Giardia and Cryptosporidium were significantly associated with GE morbidity among day-care attendees in our time-series analysis. Together, these enteropathogens accounted for 39% of the GE morbidity: 11% by rotavirus, 10% by norovirus, 8% by Giardia, 7% by astrovirus and 3% by Cryptosporidium. We demonstrate that circulating viruses and parasites, rather than bacteria, contribute to seasonal GE experienced by children in day care.

  6. [Utilization of LIN (lysine-indole-motility) medium for the preliminary identification of enteropathogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Bockemühl, J; Bednarek, I

    1975-07-01

    A multiple-test medium for the routine laboratory identification of enteropathogenic bacteria is described. The medium has the following formula: Bacto-peptone (Difco) 5 g; yeast extract (Difco) 3 g; casein tryptic digest peptone (Merek) 15 g; glucose 1 g; L-lysine-monohydrochloride (Merck, No. 5700) 5 g; NaCl 5 g; bromcresol purple 0.016 g; agar 2 g; distilled water 1000 ml; final pH 6.6. The medium is dispensed in amounts of 5 ml into tubes of 14 X 85 mm and autoclaved at 120 degrees C for 10 min. The tubes are tightly closed with rubber stoppers. - The medium is inoculated by stabbing to the bottom of the tube. Readings are made after over-night incubation at 37 degrees C. A scheme for the preliminary identification of enteropathogenic bacteria is given, based on LIM medium in conjunction with Kligler's iron agar, and the oxidase reaction.

  7. Wide variety of bioserotypes of enteropathogenic Yersinia in tonsils of English pigs at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Martínez, Pilar; Mylona, Sophia; Drake, Ian; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria; Korkeala, Hannu; Corry, Janet E L

    2010-04-30

    The tonsils of 630 pigs from 45 English farms using three different rearing methods (Assured British Pigs, Open Management and Organic) were examined between 2003 and 2005 in order to investigate if the low incidence of human yersiniosis could be attributed to a low prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia among English pigs. In addition, different isolation methods were compared, possible differences in prevalence among pigs were studied, as well as the prevalence of different bioserotypes of enteropathogenic Yersinia. A high prevalence and a wide diversity of bioserotypes of enteropathogenic Yersinia compared to other European countries were observed. The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was 44% and of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 18%. Overall, 60% of pigs carried enteropathogenic Yersinia. Y. pseudotuberculosis was detected on 78% of farms and Y. enterocolitica on 69%. The most common bioserotypes of Y. enterocolitica were 2/O:9 (33%) and 2/O:5 (26%), and of Y. pseudotuberculosis 2/O:3 (34%), 1/O:1 (26%) and 1/O:4 (24%). Cold enrichment gave the highest isolation rate for both species. Y. enterocolitica was more prevalent (P<0.001) and Y. pseudotuberculosis less prevalent (P<0.05) in winter than in summer in Eastern England. Y. enterocolitica was more common in Eastern England and in assured British pigs, whereas Y. pseudotuberculosis was more common in Western England and in organic pigs. Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:1 was predominant (P<0.05) in Western England. Types 1/O:4 (P<0.05) and 2/O:3 (P<0.001) predominated in Eastern England. The high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 2/O:9 and 2/O:5 found in this study suggests that English pigs are an important reservoir of these bioserotypes whereas in other European countries bioserotype 4/O:3 predominates. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Isolation of enteropathogenic Vibrio in bivalves and mud from the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    García Cortés, V; Antillón, F

    1990-11-01

    The presence of enteropathogenic Vibrio was evaluated in 36 sediment samples and 41 bivalve samples obtained from 3 collecting sites in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Isolation methods for halophilic and non halophilic Vibrio were used. The biochemical profiles of the strains obtained revealed the presence of the following isolates: 224 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 3 V. furnissii, 1 V. damsela and 3 V. fluvialis. V. cholerae was not isolated, due principally to the use of TCBS agar.

  9. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  10. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  11. Prevalence and genetic diversity of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Šernienė, Loreta; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in relation to potential farming risk factors in Lithuania was examined. Pig faeces and carcase swab samples from 11 farms were studied at slaughterhouses. Nine of the 11 farms were visited again 3-5 months later, and pooled feacal samples and environmental samples were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 64% and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in 45% of the sampled pig farms. All obtained isolates belonged to bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:3, respectively. Low biosecurity level was associated with a high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on farms. Characterization with PFGE of 64 Y. enterocolitica and 27 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates revealed seven and two different genotypes, respectively. Dominant enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. genotypes were obtained in both pig feacal and carcase samples. The high contamination of pig carcases (25%) with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. may be an important factor contributing to the high incidence of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cold Shock Proteins: A Minireview with Special Emphasis on Csp-family of Enteropathogenic Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Hietala, Nina; Palonen, Eveliina; Hakakorpi, Anna; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms for coping with stress and adapting to changing environmental conditions. Many bacteria produce small cold shock proteins (Csp) as a response to rapid temperature downshift (cold shock). During cold shock, the cell membrane fluidity and enzyme activity decrease, and the efficiency of transcription and translation is reduced due to stabilization of nucleic acid secondary structures. Moreover, protein folding is inefficient and ribosome function is hampered. Csps are thought to counteract these harmful effects by serving as nucleic acid chaperons that may prevent the formation of secondary structures in mRNA at low temperature and thus facilitate the initiation of translation. However, some Csps are non-cold inducible and they are reported to be involved in various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Csps have been shown to contribute to osmotic, oxidative, starvation, pH and ethanol stress tolerance as well as to host cell invasion. Therefore, Csps seem to have a wider role in stress tolerance of bacteria than previously assumed. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are enteropathogens that can spread through foodstuffs and cause an enteric infection called yersiniosis. Enteropathogenic Yersinia are psychrotrophs that are able to grow at temperatures close to 0°C and thus they set great challenges for the modern food industry. To be able to efficiently control psychrotrophic Yersinia during food production and storage, it is essential to understand the functions and roles of Csps in stress response of enteropathogenic Yersinia. PMID:27499753

  13. Salmonella Typhimurium Diarrhea Reveals Basic Principles of Enteropathogen Infection and Disease-Promoted DNA Exchange.

    PubMed

    Wotzka, Sandra Y; Nguyen, Bidong D; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2017-04-12

    Despite decades of research, efficient therapies for most enteropathogenic bacteria are still lacking. In this review, we focus on Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), a frequent cause of acute, self-limiting food-borne diarrhea and a model that has revealed key principles of enteropathogen infection. We review the steps of gut infection and the mucosal innate-immune defenses limiting pathogen burdens, and we discuss how inflammation boosts gut luminal S. Typhimurium growth. We also discuss how S. Typhimurium-induced inflammation accelerates the transfer of plasmids and phages, which may promote the transmission of antibiotic resistance and facilitate emergence of pathobionts and pathogens with enhanced virulence. The targeted manipulation of the microbiota and vaccination might offer strategies to prevent this evolution. As gut luminal microbes impact various aspects of the host's physiology, improved strategies for preventing enteropathogen infection and disease-inflicted DNA exchange may be of broad interest well beyond the acute infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seasonal Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Vibrio and Their Phages in the Riverine Estuarine Ecosystem of South Bengal

    PubMed Central

    Mookerjee, Subham; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Madhumanti Halder; Palit, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal disease remains an unsolved problem in developing countries. The emergence of new etiological agents (non-cholera vibrios) is a major cause of concern for health planners. We attempted to unveil the seasonal dynamics of entero-pathogenic Vibrios in Gangetic riverine-estuarine ecosystem. 120 surface water samples were collected for a period of one year from 3 sampling sites on the Hooghly river. Five enteropathogenic Vibrio species, V. cholerae (35%), V. parahaemolyticus (22.5%), V. mimicus (19.1%), V. alginolyticus (15.8%) and V. vulnificus (11.6%), were present in the water samples. The vibriophages, V. vulnificus ɸ (17.5%), V. alginolyticus ɸ (17.5%), V. parahaemolyticus ɸ (10%), V. cholerae non-O1/O139 ɸ (26.6%) and V. mimicus ɸ (9.1%), were also detected in these samples. The highest number of Vibrios were noted in the monsoon (20–34°C), and to a lesser extent, in the summer (24–36°C) seasons. Samples positive for phages for any of the identified Vibrio species were mostly devoid of that particular bacterial organism and vice versa. The detection of toxin genes and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in some environmental enteropathogenic Vibrio species in the aquatic niches is a significant outcome. This finding is instrumental in the south Bengal diarrhoeal incidence. PMID:26340543

  15. Seasonal Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Vibrio and Their Phages in the Riverine Estuarine Ecosystem of South Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Subham; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Madhumanti Halder; Palit, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal disease remains an unsolved problem in developing countries. The emergence of new etiological agents (non-cholera vibrios) is a major cause of concern for health planners. We attempted to unveil the seasonal dynamics of entero-pathogenic Vibrios in Gangetic riverine-estuarine ecosystem. 120 surface water samples were collected for a period of one year from 3 sampling sites on the Hooghly river. Five enteropathogenic Vibrio species, V. cholerae (35%), V. parahaemolyticus (22.5%), V. mimicus (19.1%), V. alginolyticus (15.8%) and V. vulnificus (11.6%), were present in the water samples. The vibriophages, V. vulnificus ɸ (17.5%), V. alginolyticus ɸ (17.5%), V. parahaemolyticus ɸ (10%), V. cholerae non-O1/O139 ɸ (26.6%) and V. mimicus ɸ (9.1%), were also detected in these samples. The highest number of Vibrios were noted in the monsoon (20-34°C), and to a lesser extent, in the summer (24-36°C) seasons. Samples positive for phages for any of the identified Vibrio species were mostly devoid of that particular bacterial organism and vice versa. The detection of toxin genes and resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in some environmental enteropathogenic Vibrio species in the aquatic niches is a significant outcome. This finding is instrumental in the south Bengal diarrhoeal incidence.

  16. Cold Shock Proteins: A Minireview with Special Emphasis on Csp-family of Enteropathogenic Yersinia.

    PubMed

    Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Hietala, Nina; Palonen, Eveliina; Hakakorpi, Anna; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved a number of mechanisms for coping with stress and adapting to changing environmental conditions. Many bacteria produce small cold shock proteins (Csp) as a response to rapid temperature downshift (cold shock). During cold shock, the cell membrane fluidity and enzyme activity decrease, and the efficiency of transcription and translation is reduced due to stabilization of nucleic acid secondary structures. Moreover, protein folding is inefficient and ribosome function is hampered. Csps are thought to counteract these harmful effects by serving as nucleic acid chaperons that may prevent the formation of secondary structures in mRNA at low temperature and thus facilitate the initiation of translation. However, some Csps are non-cold inducible and they are reported to be involved in various cellular processes to promote normal growth and stress adaptation responses. Csps have been shown to contribute to osmotic, oxidative, starvation, pH and ethanol stress tolerance as well as to host cell invasion. Therefore, Csps seem to have a wider role in stress tolerance of bacteria than previously assumed. Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are enteropathogens that can spread through foodstuffs and cause an enteric infection called yersiniosis. Enteropathogenic Yersinia are psychrotrophs that are able to grow at temperatures close to 0°C and thus they set great challenges for the modern food industry. To be able to efficiently control psychrotrophic Yersinia during food production and storage, it is essential to understand the functions and roles of Csps in stress response of enteropathogenic Yersinia.

  17. Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

    2014-11-01

    Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes.

  18. Characterization of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) isolated from pigs and sheep

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlicher, Erik; Krause, Gladys; Zweifel, Claudio; Beutin, Lothar; Stephan, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) are characterized by their ability to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions in the gut mucosa of human and animal hosts leading to diarrhoea. The genetic determinants for the production of A/E lesions are located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), a pathogenicity island that also contains the genes encoding intimin (eae). This study reports data on the occurrence of eae positive E. coli carried by healthy pigs and sheep at the point of slaughter, and on serotypes, intimin variants, and further virulence factors of isolated AEEC strains. Results Faecal samples from 198 finished pigs and 279 sheep were examined at slaughter. The proportion of eae positive samples was 89% for pigs and 55% for sheep. By colony dot-blot hybridization, AEEC were isolated from 50 and 53 randomly selected porcine and ovine samples and further characterized. Strains of the serotypes O2:H40, O3:H8 and O26:H11 were found in both pigs and sheep. In pigs O2:H40, O2:H49, O108:H9, O145:H28 and in sheep O2:H40, O26:H11, O70:H40, O146:H21 were the most prevalent serotypes among typable strains. Eleven different intimin types were detected, whereas γ2/θ was the most frequent, followed by β1, ε and γ1. All but two ovine strains tested negative for the genes encoding Shiga toxins. All strains tested negative for the bfpA gene and the EAF plasmid. EAST1 (astA) was present in 18 of the isolated strains. Conclusion Our data show that pigs and sheep are a source of serologically and genetically diverse intimin-harbouring E. coli strains. Most of the strains show characteristics of atypical enteropathogenic E. coli. Nevertheless, there are stx-negative AEEC strains belonging to serotypes and intimin types that are associated with classical enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains (O26:H11, β1; O145:H28, γ1). PMID:18786265

  19. Identification and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacterial enteropathogens from children aged 0-59 months at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: a prospective cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chiyangi, Harriet; Muma, John B; Malama, Sydney; Manyahi, Joel; Abade, Ahmed; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Matee, Mecky I

    2017-02-02

    Bacterial diarrhoeal disease is among the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in children 0-59 months at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. However, most cases are treated empirically without the knowledge of aetiological agents or antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The aim of this study was, therefore, to identify bacterial causes of diarrhoea and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in stool specimens obtained from the children at the hospital. This hospital-based cross-sectional study involved children aged 0-59 months presenting with diarrhoea at paediatrics wards at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, from January to May 2016. Stool samples were cultured on standard media for enteropathogenic bacteria, and identified further by biochemical tests. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used for characterization of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on antibiotics that are commonly prescribed at the hospital using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, which was performed using the Clinical Laboratory Standards International guidelines. Of the 271 stool samples analysed Vibrio cholerae 01 subtype and Ogawa serotype was the most commonly detected pathogen (40.8%), followed by Salmonella species (25.5%), diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (18%), Shigella species (14.4%) and Campylobacter species (3.5%). The majority of the bacterial pathogens were resistant to two or more drugs tested, with ampicillin and co-trimoxazole being the most ineffective drugs. All diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase producers. Five different groups of bacterial pathogens were isolated from the stool specimens, and the majority of these organisms were multidrug resistant. These data calls for urgent revision of the current empiric treatment of diarrhoea in children using ampicillin and co-trimoxazole, and emphasizes the need for

  20. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in finns with or without diarrhea during a round-the-world trip.

    PubMed

    Keskimäki, M; Mattila, L; Peltola, H; Siitonen, A

    2000-12-01

    The incidence of diarrhea and the prevalence of bacterial enteropathogens, viruses, and parasites in feces of subjects with and without diarrhea were evaluated in 204 Finns traveling round the world (from Finland to China, Malaysia, Australia, Fiji, Chile, and Brazil and back to Finland). Special emphasis was placed on the finding of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, Shiga toxin-producing, and enteroaggregative strains) by PCR from growth on primary culture plates. From the PCR-positive samples, corresponding strains were isolated, confirmed as E. coli, and O serotyped. Of all the subjects, 37% experienced a total of 90 episodes of diarrhea. No adenoviruses or rotaviruses were detected, and findings of parasites were insignificant. In contrast, enteropathogenic bacteria were present in 62% of the 65 diarrheal and in 33% of the 127 nondiarrheal samples (P < 0.001); diarrheagenic E. coli strains were found in 35 and 26% of these, respectively (not statistically significant). As a single pathogen, E. coli was found in 20 and 24% of samples (not significant). Of all diarrheagenic E. coli strains, enteropathogenic strains were the most commonly found independently of the clinical picture of the subjects, whereas Salmonella enterica as a single pathogen was the most common non-E. coli organism found in diarrheal samples. Multiple bacterial pathogens were found 10 times more commonly in diarrheal than in nondiarrheal samples (20 versus 2%; P < 0.001).

  1. The growing threat of foodborne bacterial enteropathogens of animal origin.

    PubMed

    DuPont, Herbert L

    2007-11-15

    Campylobacter and Salmonella species and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC; the majority of which are type O157:H7) efficiently enter the human food chain from infected or colonized animals. Poultry contamination with Campylobacter and/or Salmonella species and produce contamination with STEC have become major public health challenges. The global food supply, which allows us to purchase desired items throughout the year, a growing interest in consuming fresh vegetables and fruits, and an increasing number of persons who consume foods at restaurants all assure that the health threats associated with these pathogens will continue. Antibiotic use by humans and food animals selects for the development of resistance among Campylobacter and Salmonella strains, promoting invasive forms of infection and complicating therapy of illness. A comprehensive public health approach is needed that focuses on disease surveillance and infection control in the food industry continuum, from harvesting and processing, to distribution, to later preparation in public eating establishments and in homes. Good Agricultural Practices, including the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Program and validation of critical infection-control points at all stages of the food industry cycle, coupled with other food safety interventions, including irradiation for certain higher-risk foods, should help us improve the quality of food with regard to microbials and reduce human disease.

  2. An in vivo proteomic study of the interaction between Salmonella Typhimurium and porcine ileum mucosa.

    PubMed

    Collado-Romero, Melania; Martins, Rodrigo P; Arce, Cristina; Moreno, Ángela; Lucena, Concepción; Carvajal, Ana; Garrido, Juan J

    2012-04-03

    The enteropathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the main causes of porcine and human enterocolitis. We have used a 2-DE, MALDI-TOF/TOF-based approach to characterize in vivo proteome changes in porcine ileum mucosa after pathogen interaction. Ileum samples from non-infected and orally infected animals were collected at 2 days post infection and S. Typhimurium presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Fifty one proteins, involved in immune response (acute phase response, inflammation and immune response regulation), apoptosis and pathogen-mediated cell invasion, were identified as being differentially expressed after pathogen challenge. Overall, anti-inflammatory signals and a possible down-regulation of dendritic cell maturation were observed. According to this, we identified the up-regulation of FK506-binding protein 4 (FKBP4), a negative regulator of the transcription factor IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4), implicated in Th2 and Th17 response. Transcriptional analysis using RT-qPCR indicated a general trend toward down-regulation of Th2 and Th17 cytokines genes, which would be in agreement with an IRF4 reduced transactivation activity. On the other hand, proteins that could be involved in maturation of Salmonella-containing vacuole and intracellular pathogen survival were up-regulated. Results derived from this study would be valuable to better characterize a possible pathogen led modulation of host responses in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Catecholamines and sympathomimetic drugs decrease early Salmonella Typhimurium uptake into porcine Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Brown, David R; Price, Lisa D

    2008-01-01

    Peyer's patches of the small intestine serve as inductive sites for mucosal immunity as well as targets for invasive enteropathogens, including Salmonella. Because they are innervated by catecholamine-containing enteric nerves, the hypothesis that the endogenous catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine or sympathomimetic drugs alter Salmonella Typhimurium uptake into Peyer's patches was tested. Porcine jejunal Peyer's patch explants were mounted in Ussing chambers and inoculated with a porcine field isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. Salmonella recovery from gentamicin-treated tissues increased significantly between 30 and 90 min of bacterial exposure to the mucosal surface. Addition of the neuronal conduction blocker saxitoxin (0.1 micromol L(-1)) or dopamine (30 micromol L(-1)) to the contraluminal aspect of explants decreased bacterial recovery after 60 min of Salmonella exposure. The effects of dopamine were mimicked by cocaine and methamphetamine (30 micromol L(-1)), which act on catecholaminergic nerve terminals to increase synaptic neurotransmitter concentrations. These results suggest that enteric catecholaminergic nerves modulate Salmonella colonization of Peyer's patches at the earliest stages of infection, in part by altering epithelial uptake of bacteria.

  4. Real-Time Sensing of Enteropathogenic E. coli-Induced Effects on Epithelial Host Cell Height, Cell-Substrate Interactions, and Endocytic Processes by Infrared Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zlotkin-Rivkin, Efrat; Rund, David; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Zahavi, Eitan Erez; Perlson, Eran; Mercone, Silvana; Golosovsky, Michael; Davidov, Dan; Aroeti, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important, generally non-invasive, bacterial pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. The microbe infects mainly the enterocytes of the small intestine. Here we have applied our newly developed infrared surface plasmon resonance (IR-SPR) spectroscopy approach to study how EPEC infection affects epithelial host cells. The IR-SPR experiments showed that EPEC infection results in a robust reduction in the refractive index of the infected cells. Assisted by confocal and total internal reflection microscopy, we discovered that the microbe dilates the intercellular gaps and induces the appearance of fluid-phase-filled pinocytic vesicles in the lower basolateral regions of the host epithelial cells. Partial cell detachment from the underlying substratum was also observed. Finally, the waveguide mode observed by our IR-SPR analyses showed that EPEC infection decreases the host cell's height to some extent. Together, these observations reveal novel impacts of the pathogen on the host cell architecture and endocytic functions. We suggest that these changes may induce the infiltration of a watery environment into the host cell, and potentially lead to failure of the epithelium barrier functions. Our findings also indicate the great potential of the label-free IR-SPR approach to study the dynamics of host-pathogen interactions with high spatiotemporal sensitivity. PMID:24194932

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacterial Enteropathogens Isolated from International Travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India from 2006 to 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang-Latimer, Jeannette; Jafri, Syed; VanTassel, Audrey; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Gurleen, Kaur; Rodriguez, Savio; Nandy, Ranjan K.; Ramamurthy, Thandavaryan; Chatterjee, Santanu; McKenzie, Robin; Steffen, Robert; DuPont, Herbert L.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence rates of travelers' diarrhea (TD) have remained high for the last 50 years. More recently, there have been increasing recommendations for self-initiated therapy and use of prophylactic drugs for TD. We last examined the in vitro susceptibilities of commonly used antibiotics against TD pathogens in 1997. We now examine 456 enteropathogens isolated from adult travelers to Mexico, India, and Guatemala with diarrhea acquired between 2006 and 2008 to determine changes in susceptibility against 10 different antimicrobials by the agar dilution method. Traditional antibiotics, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline, continue to show high levels of resistance. Current first-line antibiotic agents, including fluoroquinolones and azithromycin, showed significantly higher MICs than in our earlier study, and MIC90 levels were above the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute cutoffs for resistance. There were significant geographical differences in resistance patterns when Central America was compared with India. Entertoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates showed increased resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.023) and levofloxacin (P = 0.0078) in India compared with Central America. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) isolates from Central America showed increased resistance to nearly all of the antibiotics tested. Compared to MICs of isolates 10 years prior, there were 4- to 10-fold increases in MIC90 values for ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and azithromycin for both ETEC and EAEC. There were no significant changes in rifaximin MICs. Rising MICs over time imply the need for continuous surveillance of susceptibility patterns worldwide and geographically specific recommendations in TD therapy. PMID:21115800

  6. Propagation of Human Enteropathogens in Constructed Horizontal Wetlands Used for Tertiary Wastewater Treatment ▿

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Lucy, Frances E.; Tamang, Leena; Mashinski, Yessika; Broaders, Michael A.; Connolly, Michelle; Cheng, Hui-Wen A.

    2009-01-01

    Constructed subsurface flow (SSF) and free-surface flow (FSF) wetlands are being increasingly implemented worldwide into wastewater treatments in response to the growing need for microbiologically safe reclaimed waters, which is driven by an exponential increase in the human population and limited water resources. Wastewater samples from four SSF and FSF wetlands in northwestern Ireland were tested qualitatively and quantitatively for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and human-pathogenic microsporidia, with assessment of their viability. Overall, seven species of human enteropathogens were detected in wetland influents, vegetated areas, and effluents: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis, C. meleagridis, C. muris, G. duodenalis, Encephalitozoon hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. SSF wetland had the highest pathogen removal rate (i.e., Cryptosporidium, 97.4%; G. duodenalis, 95.4%); however, most of these values for FSF were in the negative area (mean, −84.0%), meaning that more pathogens were discharged by FSF wetlands than were delivered to wetlands with incoming wastewater. We demonstrate here that (i) the composition of human enteropathogens in wastewater entering and leaving SSF and FSF wetlands is highly complex and dynamic, (ii) the removal and inactivation of human-pathogenic microorganisms were significantly higher at the SSF wetland, (iii) FSF wetlands may not always provide sufficient remediation for human enteropathogens, (iv) wildlife can contribute a substantial load of human zoonotic pathogens to wetlands, (v) most of the pathogens discharged by wetlands were viable, (vi) large volumes of wetland effluents can contribute to contamination of surface waters used for recreation and drinking water abstraction and therefore represent a serious public health threat, and (vii) even with the best pathogen removal rates achieved by SSF wetland, the reduction of pathogens was not enough for a safety reuse of the reclaimed water. To our knowledge, this

  7. Description and burden of travel-related cases caused by enteropathogens reported in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Ravel, André; Nesbitt, Andrea; Marshall, Barbara; Sittler, Nancy; Pollari, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Risk of infections by enteropathogens among individuals traveling outside their country of residence is considered important. Such travel-related cases (TRC) have been poorly estimated and described in Canada. Data from an enhanced, passive surveillance system of diseases caused by enteropathogens within a Canadian community from June 2005 to May 2009 were used to describe TRC in terms of disease (pathogen, symptoms, hospitalization, duration, and timing of sickness relative to return); demographics (age and gender); and travel (destination, length, and accommodation); and to compare them with non-TRC. Among 1,773 reported cases, 446 (25%) were classified as TRC with 9% of them being new immigrants. The main TRC diseases were campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, and giardiasis. Disease onset occurred before return in 42% of TRC. Main destinations were Latin America/Caribbean and Asia. No differences by month and year were observed for onset, departure, and return dates. In addition to new immigrants, three subgroups of TRC based on travel destination, length of travel, type of accommodation, and age were identified and some diseases were more frequently observed in these subgroups. Generally, TRC did not differ from domestic cases in terms of age, gender, symptoms, hospitalization, and disease duration. Campylobacter coli and Salmonella enteritidis were significantly more frequent among TRC. TRC of diseases caused by enteropathogens that are reportable in Canada represent a significant proportion of the burden of the total diseases. Subgroups of TRC exist and are associated with certain diseases. These results help inform the assessment of the actual risk related to travel for each subgroup of travelers and quantify the attribution of traveling abroad to the overall burden of these gastrointestinal diseases. © 2010 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  8. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  13. Porcine Dentin Sialophosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Lu, Yuhe; Hu, Jan C.-C.; Kim, Jung-Wook; Iwata, Takanori; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Hu, Yuanyuan; Fukae, Makoto; Simmer, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is critical for proper mineralization of tooth dentin, and mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects. Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is the C-terminal cleavage product of DSPP that binds collagen and induces intrafibrillar mineralization. We isolated DPP from individual pigs and determined that its N-terminal and C-terminal domains are glycosylated and that DPP averages 155 phosphates per molecule. Porcine DPP is unstable at low pH and high temperatures, and complexing with collagen improves its stability. Surprisingly, we observed DPP size variations on SDS-PAGE for DPP isolated from individual pigs. These variations are not caused by differences in proteolytic processing or degrees of phosphorylation or glycosylation, but rather to allelic variations in Dspp. Characterization of the DPP coding region identified 4 allelic variants. Among the 4 alleles, 27 sequence variations were identified, including 16 length polymorphisms ranging from 3 to 63 nucleotides. None of the length variations shifted the reading frame, and all localized to the highly redundant region of the DPP code. The 4 alleles encode DPP domains having 551, 575, 589, or 594 amino acids and completely explain the DPP size variations. DPP length variations are polymorphic and are not associated with dentin defects. PMID:18359767

  14. Enteroadherent Escherichia coli as a cause of diarrhea among children in Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, J J; Oberhelman, R A; Dupont, H L; Javier de la Cabada, F; Garibay, E V

    1987-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) often exhibits localized adherence or diffuse adherence to HEp-2 cells. We recently provided evidence that HEp-2 cell-adherent or enteroadherent E. coli (EAEC) not belonging to EPEC serogroups was the cause of diarrhea among U.S. travelers to Mexico. In the present study, we looked for EAEC and EPEC in stool specimens from 154 children with acute diarrhea and 137 well children seen at several outpatient clinics in Guadalajara, Mexico. EAEC showing localized adherence (EAEC-L) was isolated from 13.0% of the patients and 0.7% of the controls (P less than 0.0001). EAEC showing diffuse adherence (EAEC-D) was recovered from 20.8% of the patients and 7.3% of the controls (P less than 0.001). EPEC was isolated from 4.5 and 6.7% of the patients and controls, respectively. Among all enteropathogens, only enterotoxigenic E. coli occurred as commonly (21.4%) as EAEC-D and EAEC-L did in children with diarrhea. Of the EAEC-L strains isolated from children with diarrhea, 20% belonged to recognized EPEC serogroups, and 3.1% of EAEC-D strains belonged to recognized EPEC serogroups. This study suggests that EAEC may be an important pediatric enteropathogen in Mexican children with diarrhea and further supports the observation that adherence to HEp-2 cells may be a marker of virulence independent of EPEC serogroup among E. coli strains. PMID:3312288

  15. Concentration and pattern changes of porcine serum apolipoprotein A-I in four different infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Bassols, Anna; Miller, Ingrid

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is a major protein in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and decreased serum levels have been observed in many species in response to inflammatory and infectious challenges. Little is known about the porcine homologue, therefore in this work we have characterized it through biochemical and proteomic techniques. In 2DE, porcine serum Apo A-I is found as three spots, the two more acidic ones corresponding to the mature protein, the more basic spot to the protein precursor. Despite high sequence coverage in LC-MS/MS, we did not find a sequence or PTM difference between the two mature protein species. Besides this biochemical characterization, we measured overall levels and relative species abundance of serum Apo A-I in four different viral and bacterial porcine infectious diseases. Lower overall amounts of Apo A-I were observed in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli infections. In the 2DE protein pattern, an increase of the protein precursor together with a lower level of mature protein species were detected in the porcine circovirus type 2-systemic disease and S. typhimurium infection. These results reveal that both the porcine serum Apo A-I concentration and the species pattern are influenced by the nature of the infectious disease. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Radiation sensitivity of bacteria and virus in porcine xenoskin for dressing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Eu-Ri; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation sensitivities of bacteria and viruses in porcine skin were evaluated to establish the optimum sterilization condition for the dressing material and a xenoskin graft. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used as model pathogens and inoculated at 106-107 log CFU/g. As model viruses, porcine parvovirus (PPV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and poliovirus were used and inoculated at 105-106 TCID50/g into porcine skin. The D10 value of E. coli was found to be 0.25±0.1 kGy. B. subtilis endospores produced under stressful environmental conditions showed lower radiation sensitivity as D10 was 3.88±0.3 kGy in porcine skin. The D10 values of PPV, BVDV, and poliovirus were found to be 1.73±0.2, 3.81±0.2, and 6.88±0.3 kGy, respectively. These results can offer the basic information required for inactivating pathogens by gamma irradiation and achieving dressing material and porcine skin grafts.

  17. Activity of essential oils from Brazilian medicinal plants on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Leme, Ewerton Eduardo; Delarmelina, Camila; Soares, Andressa Almeida; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson

    2007-05-04

    Essential oils obtained from leaves of 29 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened against 13 different Escherichia coli serotypes. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by microdilution method. Essential oil from Cymbopogon martinii exhibited a broad inhibition spectrum, presenting strong activity (MIC between 100 and 500 microg/mL) against 10 out of 13 Escherichia coli serotypes: three enterotoxigenic, two enteropathogenic, three enteroinvasive and two shiga-toxin producers. C. winterianus inhibited strongly two enterotoxigenic, one enteropathogenic, one enteroinvasive and one shiga-toxin producer serotypes. Aloysia triphylla also shows good potential to kill Escherichia coli with moderate to strong inhibition. Other essential oils showed antimicrobial properties, however with a more restricted action against the serotypes studied. Chemical analysis of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil performed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including geraniol, geranyl acetate and trans-cariophyllene, which tested separately, indicated geraniol as antimicrobial active compound. The significant antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon martinii oil suggests that they could serve as a source for compounds with therapeutic potential.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from the feces of healthy infants against enteropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Davoodabadi, Abolfazl; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Sharifi Yazdi, Mohammad Kazem; Amin Harati, Farzaneh

    2015-08-01

    Lactobacilli are normal microflora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are a heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus strains with Probiotic activity may have health Benefits for human. This study investigates the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains obtained from the feces of healthy infants and also explores antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential against enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal samples were collected from 95 healthy infants younger than 18 months. Two hundred and ninety Lactobacillus strains were isolated and assessed for probiotic potential properties including ability to survive in gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0, 0.3% oxgall), adherence to HT-29 cells and antibiotic resistance. Six strains including Lactobacillus fermentum (4 strains), Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum showed good probiotic potential and inhibited the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria including ETEC H10407, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Shigella sonnei ATCC 9290, Salmonella enteritidis H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 23715. These Lactobacillus strains with probiotic potential may be useful for prevention or treatment of diarrhea, but further in vitro and in vivo studies on these strains are still required.

  19. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  20. Escherichia Coli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse biological data may be used to create illustrations of molecules in their cellular context. I describe the scientific results that support a recent textbook illustration of an "Escherichia coli cell". The image magnifies a portion of the bacterium at one million times, showing the location and form of individual macromolecules. Results…

  1. Characteristics of Escherichia coli Serotypes in the Yanomama, a Primitive Indian Tribe of South America

    PubMed Central

    Eveland, W. C.; Oliver, W. J.; Neel, J. V.

    1971-01-01

    From stool samples of isolated subjects from members of the Yanomama tribe of South America, 432 isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained from 72 individuals. Two hundred and four of these strains were typable with a standard panel of 147 O antisera; included in the above were eight enteropathogenic strains. From the untypable strains, antisera were produced, and 13 serologically distinct O serotypes were identified. These data substantiate the ubiquity of known strains of E. coli as microhabitants of man's internal environment. The finding of 13 new O serotypes suggests that, in efforts to understand the ecosystem of primitive man, the internal milieu must also be investigated. PMID:4949511

  2. Tight Junction Disruption Induced by Type 3 Secretion System Effectors Injected by Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde-Silva, Paul; Gonzalez-Lugo, Octavio; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium consists of a single cell layer, which is a critical selectively permeable barrier to both absorb nutrients and avoid the entry of potentially harmful entities, including microorganisms. Epithelial cells are held together by the apical junctional complexes, consisting of adherens junctions, and tight junctions (TJs), and by underlying desmosomes. TJs lay in the apical domain of epithelial cells and are mainly composed by transmembrane proteins such as occludin, claudins, JAMs, and tricellulin, that are associated with the cytoplasmic plaque formed by proteins from the MAGUK family, such as ZO-1/2/3, connecting TJ to the actin cytoskeleton, and cingulin and paracingulin connecting TJ to the microtubule network. Extracellular bacteria such as EPEC and EHEC living in the intestinal lumen inject effectors proteins directly from the bacterial cytoplasm to the host cell cytoplasm, where they play a relevant role in the manipulation of the eukaryotic cell functions by modifying or blocking cell signaling pathways. TJ integrity depends on various cell functions such as actin cytoskeleton, microtubule network for vesicular trafficking, membrane integrity, inflammation, and cell survival. EPEC and EHEC effectors target most of these functions. Effectors encoded inside or outside of locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) disrupt the TJ strands. EPEC and EHEC exploit the TJ dynamics to open this structure, for causing diarrhea. EPEC and EHEC secrete effectors that mimic host proteins to manipulate the signaling pathways, including those related to TJ dynamics. In this review, we focus on the known mechanisms exploited by EPEC and EHEC effectors for causing TJ disruption. PMID:27606286

  3. Prevalence and Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Shellfish-Harvesting Areas and Their Watersheds.

    PubMed

    Balière, Charlotte; Rincé, Alain; Blanco, Jorge; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Harel, Josée; Vogeleer, Philippe; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Gourmelon, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    more strains formed a strong biofilm at 18 than at 30°C. Finally, more than 85% of analyzed strains were found to be sensitive to the 16 tested antibiotics. These data suggest the low risk of human infection by STEC if shellfish from these shellfish-harvesting areas were consumed.

  4. Pathogenicity Island O-122 in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains is associated with diarrhea severity in children from Lima Peru

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Erik H.; Piscoche, Cristian; Contreras, Carmen; Durand, David; Riveros, Maribel; Ruiz, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J.

    2016-01-01

    EPEC is an attaching and effacing diarrheal pathogen that carries a large pathogenicity island, locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). Recently, the pathogenicity island PAI O-122 was described among non-LEE effectors and found to be associated with diarrhea among atypical EPEC strains. It is unknown if incomplete PAI O-122 could be associated with diarrhea duration and severity. To identify these virulence determinants we analyzed 379 EPEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. EPEC was diagnosed by PCR(eae+, stx−) and classified as typical(t-EPEC) or atypical(a-EPEC). To characterize PAI O-122 we amplified three modules by PCR: Module 1(pagC), Module 2(senA, nleB and nleE) and Module 3(lifA/efa-1). To characterize the large ORF lifA/efa-1 we amplified the regions known as efa-N, efa-M and efa-C. Clinical information was obtained from the cohort study. A total of 379 EPEC strains were able to analyze PAI O-122 genes, 128 (10.4%) EPEC strains were isolated from 1235 diarrhea episodes and 251(9.2%) from 2734 healthy controls. t-EPEC strains were isolated from 14.8% (19/128) of children with diarrhea and 25/251(10.0%) from healthy controls. The most frequent PAI O-122 genes were nleE(37.7%), senA(34.6%) and nleB(37.5%), with similar prevalence among diarrhea and control samples. However, lifA/efa-1 was more common among diarrhea cases than healthy control cases (30.5% vs. 21.1%, p<0.05). The presence of complete PAI O-122 was associated with diarrhea episodes of higher severity among single pathogen infection (33.3% vs. 1.8%, p<0.05) mainly due to the presence of a complete lifA/efa-1 gene. In summary, the gene lifA/efa-1 is significantly associated with diarrheal episodes of higher severity, suggesting to be an important virulent factor. PMID:27236730

  5. Prevalence and Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Shellfish-Harvesting Areas and Their Watersheds

    PubMed Central

    Balière, Charlotte; Rincé, Alain; Blanco, Jorge; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Harel, Josée; Vogeleer, Philippe; Giard, Jean-Christophe; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Gourmelon, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    more strains formed a strong biofilm at 18 than at 30°C. Finally, more than 85% of analyzed strains were found to be sensitive to the 16 tested antibiotics. These data suggest the low risk of human infection by STEC if shellfish from these shellfish-harvesting areas were consumed. PMID:26648928

  6. Pathogenicity Island O-122 in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains is associated with diarrhea severity in children from Lima Peru.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Erik H; Piscoche, Cristian; Contreras, Carmen; Durand, David; Riveros, Maribel; Ruiz, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-06-01

    EPEC is an attaching and effacing diarrheal pathogen that carries a large pathogenicity island, locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). Recently, the pathogenicity island PAI O-122 was described among non-LEE effectors and found to be associated with diarrhea among atypical EPEC strains. It is unknown if incomplete PAI O-122 could be associated with diarrhea duration and severity. To identify these virulence determinants we analyzed 379 EPEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. EPEC was diagnosed by PCR(eae+, stx-) and classified as typical(t-EPEC) or atypical(a-EPEC). To characterize PAI O-122 we amplified three modules by PCR: Module 1(pagC), Module 2(senA, nleB and nleE) and Module 3(lifA/efa-1). To characterize the large ORF lifA/efa-1 we amplified the regions known as efa-N, efa-M and efa-C. Clinical information was obtained from the cohort study. A total of 379 EPEC strains were able to analyze PAI O-122 genes, 128 (10.4%) EPEC strains were isolated from 1235 diarrhea episodes and 251(9.2%) from 2734 healthy controls. t-EPEC strains were isolated from 14.8% (19/128) of children with diarrhea and 25/251(10.0%) from healthy controls. The most frequent PAI O-122 genes were nleE(37.7%), senA(34.6%) and nleB(37.5%), with similar prevalence among diarrhea and control samples. However, lifA/efa-1 was more common among diarrhea cases than healthy control cases (30.5% vs. 21.1%, p<0.05). The presence of complete PAI O-122 was associated with diarrhea episodes of higher severity among single pathogen infection (33.3% vs. 1.8%, p<0.05) mainly due to the presence of a complete lifA/efa-1 gene. In summary, the gene lifA/efa-1 is significantly associated with diarrheal episodes of higher severity, suggesting to be an important virulent factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease affecting US swine. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and is recognized as reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of piglets and growing pigs. This book chapter is part of the Office of International E...

  8. Cryopreservation studies with porcine corneas.

    PubMed

    Wusteman, M C; Armitage, J W; Wang, L H; Busza, A L; Pegg, D E

    1999-09-01

    A new technique for the cryopreservation of rabbit corneas in 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, which has been shown to preserve significant structural and functional integrity of the endothelium, was tested in porcine corneas. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide into porcine corneas were measured using proton ( 1 H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effect on structural integrity of exposure to 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide without freezing was first assessed using vital staining (acridine orange and propidium iodide), and optimum temperature conditions for addition and removal of the cryoprotectant were derived. The effects on structural integrity of cryopreservation in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, and of reducing the degree of cell swelling during cryoprotectant removal following cryopreservation, were then evaluated. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide from a 10% w/w solution fitted a single exponential, resulting in a maximum tissue concentration of 14.6% when the addition occurred on ice, and 18.5% when the addition took place at room temperature. The toxic effects of dimethylsulfoxide in porcine corneas were highly temperature dependent and only evident after removal of the cryoprotectant. Unlike rabbit corneas, cryopreservation of porcine corneas in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide induced substantial endothelial injury which was not improved by reducing the degree of cell swelling that occurred during removal of the cryoprotectant. Porcine corneas were substantially more susceptible to the toxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, and to cryopreservation injury, than rabbit corneas. These results underline the importance of species variation in animal studies aimed at the cryopreservation of human tissue for transplantation.

  9. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: Stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1{beta} effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Maresca, Marc; Yahi, Nouara; Younes-Sakr, Lama; Boyron, Marilyn; Caporiccio, Bertrand; Fantini, Jacques

    2008-04-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites responsible of food-mediated intoxication in animals and humans. Deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin are the best known enteropathogenic mycotoxins able to alter intestinal functions resulting in malnutrition, diarrhea, vomiting and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Although their effects on intestinal barrier and transport activities have been extensively characterized, the mechanisms responsible for their pro-inflammatory effect are still poorly understood. Here we investigated if mycotoxin-induced intestinal inflammation results from a direct and/or indirect pro-inflammatory activity of these mycotoxins on human intestinal epithelial cells, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as model and interleukin 8 (IL-8) as an indicator of intestinal inflammation. Deoxynivalenol was the only mycotoxin able to directly increase IL-8 secretion (10- to 15-fold increase). We also investigated if these mycotoxins could indirectly stimulate IL-8 secretion through: (i) a modulation of the action of pro-inflammatory molecules such as the interleukin-1beta (IL-1{beta}), and/or (ii) an increase in the transepithelial passage of non-invasive commensal Escherichia coli. We found that deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and patulin all potentiated the effect of IL-1{beta} on IL-8 secretion (ranging from 35% to 138% increase) and increased the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria (ranging from 12- to 1544-fold increase). In addition to potentially exacerbate established intestinal inflammation, these mycotoxins may thus participate in the induction of sepsis and intestinal inflammation in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins is mediated by both direct and indirect effects.

  10. Structure of the Cyclomodulin Cif from Pathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yun; Jubelin, Gregory; Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens have evolved a sophisticated arsenal of virulence factors to modulate host cell biology. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) use a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) to inject microbial proteins into host cells. The T3SS effector cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) produced by EPEC and EHEC is able to block host eukaryotic cell-cycle progression. We present here a crystal structure of Cif, revealing it to be a divergent member of the superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases that share a common catalytic triad. Mutation of these conserved active site residues abolishes the ability of Cif to block cell-cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrate that irreversible cysteine protease inhibitors do not abolish the Cif cytopathic effect, suggesting that another enzymatic activity may underlie the biological activity of this virulence factor. PMID:18845161

  11. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Children from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cristian; Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.; Arias, María L.

    2010-01-01

    More than 5,000 diarrheal cases per year receive medical care at the National Children's Hospital of Costa Rica, and nearly 5% of them require hospitalization. A total of 173 Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea were characterized at the molecular, serologic, and phenotypic level. Multiplex and duplex polymerase chain reactions were used to detect the six categories of diarrheagenic E. coli. Thirty percent (n = 52) of the strains were positive, indicating a high prevalence among the pediatric population. Enteropathogenic E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli pathotypes were the most prevalent (21% and 19%, respectively). Pathogenic strains were distributed among the four E. coli phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D, with groups A and B1 the most commonly found. This study used molecular typing to evaluate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli reported in Costa Rica and demonstrated the importance of these pathotypes in the pediatric population. PMID:20682870

  12. Structure of the cyclomodulin Cif from pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yun; Jubelin, Gregory; Taieb, Frédéric; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Oswald, Eric; Stebbins, C Erec

    2008-12-12

    Bacterial pathogens have evolved a sophisticated arsenal of virulence factors to modulate host cell biology. Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) use a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) to inject microbial proteins into host cells. The T3SS effector cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) produced by EPEC and EHEC is able to block host eukaryotic cell-cycle progression. We present here a crystal structure of Cif, revealing it to be a divergent member of the superfamily of enzymes including cysteine proteases and acetyltransferases that share a common catalytic triad. Mutation of these conserved active site residues abolishes the ability of Cif to block cell-cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrate that irreversible cysteine protease inhibitors do not abolish the Cif cytopathic effect, suggesting that another enzymatic activity may underlie the biological activity of this virulence factor.

  13. Adherence to HEp-2 cells and enteropathogenic potential of Aeromonas spp.

    PubMed Central

    Grey, P. A.; Kirov, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Aeromonas strains (total = 60) of clinical, water and food origin were tested for adherence to HEp-2 cells. Environmental strains were selected (except for A. caviae) to include primarily those expressing other virulence-associated properties. Adhesion was markedly species-dependent (A. veronii biotype sobria, 15 of 26 [58%]. A caviae, 4 of 12 [33%] and A. hydrophila, 2 of 8 [11%]). A. veronii biotype sobria were adhesive, irrespective of source (62 and 54% for clinical and environmental strains, respectively). Adherent strains of this species were enterotoxin-positive and most (13 of 15) grew at 43 degrees C. A. caviae isolated from clinical specimens contained a higher proportion (75%) of adherent strains than environmental strains (13%). Virulent subsets of A. veronii biotype sobria and A. caviae are adherent to HEp-2 cells. The HEp-2 assay is a useful model for investigating mechanisms of adherence and enteropathogenicity of virulent Aeromonas species. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8472772

  14. Enteropathogenic Esch. coli gastroenteritis in premature infants and children treated with fosfomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, F; Canedo, E; RODRIGUEZ, A; Jaso, E

    1975-01-01

    Forty-two infants, some premature, with enteropathogenic Esch. coli (EPEC) gastroenteritis were treated with an oral suspension of fosfomycin in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg per day. After the treatment there were 11 secondary clinical infections (6 reinfections and 5 relapses) which received a second treatment with fosfomycin. In total, 53 treatments were made with fosfomycin and in 92% of the cases there was both clinical and bacteriological cure. 93% of the EPEC strains were sensitive to fosfomycin in vitro, their minimum inhibitory concentrations being less than 64 mug/ml. The concentration of fosfomycin in blood and faeces was assayed by a diffusion plate microbiological method in a group of these children, showing that this antibiotic is partly absorbed and the rest eliminated in the faeces, where its concentration was found to be very high. Tolerance of the product was good, and there were neither toxic nor side effects. PMID:1103749

  15. The in vitro and in vivo effects of constitutive light expression on a bioluminescent strain of the mouse enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium.

    PubMed

    Read, Hannah M; Mills, Grant; Johnson, Sarah; Tsai, Peter; Dalton, James; Barquist, Lars; Print, Cristin G; Patrick, Wayne M; Wiles, Siouxsie

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescent reporter genes, such as those from fireflies and bacteria, let researchers use light production as a non-invasive and non-destructive surrogate measure of microbial numbers in a wide variety of environments. As bioluminescence needs microbial metabolites, tagging microorganisms with luciferases means only live metabolically active cells are detected. Despite the wide use of bioluminescent reporter genes, very little is known about the impact of continuous (also called constitutive) light expression on tagged bacteria. We have previously made a bioluminescent strain of Citrobacter rodentium, a bacterium which infects laboratory mice in a similar way to how enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) infect humans. In this study, we compared the growth of the bioluminescent C. rodentium strain ICC180 with its non-bioluminescent parent (strain ICC169) in a wide variety of environments. To understand more about the metabolic burden of expressing light, we also compared the growth profiles of the two strains under approximately 2,000 different conditions. We found that constitutive light expression in ICC180 was near-neutral in almost every non-toxic environment tested. However, we also found that the non-bioluminescent parent strain has a competitive advantage over ICC180 during infection of adult mice, although this was not enough for ICC180 to be completely outcompeted. In conclusion, our data suggest that constitutive light expression is not metabolically costly to C. rodentium and supports the view that bioluminescent versions of microbes can be used as a substitute for their non-bioluminescent parents to study bacterial behaviour in a wide variety of environments.

  16. The in vitro and in vivo effects of constitutive light expression on a bioluminescent strain of the mouse enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium

    PubMed Central

    Read, Hannah M.; Mills, Grant; Johnson, Sarah; Tsai, Peter; Dalton, James; Barquist, Lars; Print, Cristin G.; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2016-01-01

    Bioluminescent reporter genes, such as those from fireflies and bacteria, let researchers use light production as a non-invasive and non-destructive surrogate measure of microbial numbers in a wide variety of environments. As bioluminescence needs microbial metabolites, tagging microorganisms with luciferases means only live metabolically active cells are detected. Despite the wide use of bioluminescent reporter genes, very little is known about the impact of continuous (also called constitutive) light expression on tagged bacteria. We have previously made a bioluminescent strain of Citrobacter rodentium, a bacterium which infects laboratory mice in a similar way to how enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) infect humans. In this study, we compared the growth of the bioluminescent C. rodentium strain ICC180 with its non-bioluminescent parent (strain ICC169) in a wide variety of environments. To understand more about the metabolic burden of expressing light, we also compared the growth profiles of the two strains under approximately 2,000 different conditions. We found that constitutive light expression in ICC180 was near-neutral in almost every non-toxic environment tested. However, we also found that the non-bioluminescent parent strain has a competitive advantage over ICC180 during infection of adult mice, although this was not enough for ICC180 to be completely outcompeted. In conclusion, our data suggest that constitutive light expression is not metabolically costly to C. rodentium and supports the view that bioluminescent versions of microbes can be used as a substitute for their non-bioluminescent parents to study bacterial behaviour in a wide variety of environments. PMID:27366640

  17. Quantitative detection of residual porcine host cell DNA by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jen-Ting; Chen, Yu-Chen; Chou, Yu-Chi; Wang, Shih-Rong

    2014-03-01

    All biological products are derived from complex living systems and are often mixed with large numbers of impurities. For reasons of safety, residual host-cell DNA must be eliminated during processing. To assay host-cell DNA content in biopharmaceutical products derived from porcine sources, this study applies the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) method. The optimized assay in this study is based on the pol region of the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV). Assay validation results demonstrate that the proposed assay has appropriate accuracy, preciseness, reproducibility, and sensitivity. Primer and probe specificity are evaluated in real-time Q-PCR reactions using genomic DNA from rabbit, mouse, cat, hamster, monkey, human cell, yeast, and Escherichia coli as templates. The sensitivity of real-time Q-PCR is determined using genomic DNA from the porcine kidney cell line. The reliable detection range is within 0.5-10(5) pg/reaction. The limit of quantitation is 500 fg. The sensitivity of the assay meets the authority criterion. Moreover, the assay is applied to determine the level of host-cell DNA in recombinant human coagulation factor IX (rhFIX) from transgenic pigs. The real-time Q-PCR assay is thus a promising new tool for quantitative detection and clearance validation of residual porcine DNA when manufacturing recombinant therapeutics.

  18. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  20. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Children under the Age of 5 Years from Ifakara, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jordi; Vargas, Martha; Casals, Climent; Urassa, Honorato; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellemberg, David; Gascon, Joaquim

    1999-01-01

    Diarrhea caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria is an important public health problem among children in developing countries. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in 346 children under 5 years of age in Ifakara, Tanzania, were studied. Thirty-eight percent of the cases of diarrhea were due to multiresistant enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, or enteropathogenic E. coli. Strains of all three E. coli categories showed high-level resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, and chloramphenicol but were highly susceptible to quinolones. Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in developing countries need updating. PMID:10582903

  4. Coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of desserts served in public restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Karen J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Jaclyn J; Palumbo, Kathryn L; Galbadage, Thushara; Brown, Eric L; Yiang, Jing; Koo, Hoonmo; DuPont, Margaret W; Ericsson, Charles; Adachi, Javier A; DuPont, Herbert L

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial enteropathogens acquired from contaminated food are the principal causes of travelers' diarrhea (TD). We evaluated desserts obtained from popular restaurants in the tourist city of Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, to determine coliform and Escherichia coli contamination levels and presence of diarrheagenic E. coli known to be important in TD. Contamination for all organisms was seen for desserts served in Guadalajara restaurants. Desserts should be considered as potentially risky foods for development of TD among international visitors to developing regions of the world.

  5. Blocking porcine sialoadhesin improves extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion with human blood

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Joshua P.; Vogel, Thomas; Burlak, Christopher; Coussios, Constantin; Dominguez, Javier; Friend, Peter; Rees, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Patients in fulminant hepatic failure currently do not have a temporary means of support while awaiting liver transplantation. A potential therapeutic approach for such patients is the use of extracorporeal perfusion with porcine livers as a form of “liver dialysis”. During a 72-hour extracorporeal perfusion of porcine livers with human blood, porcine Kupffer cells bind to and phagocytose human red blood cells (hRBC) causing the hematocrit to decrease to 2.5% of the original value. Our laboratory has identified porcine sialoadhesin expressed on Kupffer cells as the lectin responsible for binding N-acetylneuraminic acid on the surface of the hRBC. We evaluated whether blocking porcine sialoadhesin prevents the recognition and subsequent destruction of hRBCs seen during extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion. Ex vivo studies were performed using wild type pig livers perfused with isolated hRBCs for 72-hours in the presence of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody or isotype control. The addition of an anti-porcine sialoadhesin antibody to an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model reduces the loss of hRBC over a 72 hour period. Sustained liver function was demonstrated throughout the perfusion. This study illustrates the role of sialoadhesin in mediating the destruction of hRBCs in an extracorporeal porcine liver xenoperfusion model. PMID:23822217

  6. [Research advances in porcine bocavirus].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2012-03-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV) was considered as a new member of the genus Bocavirus of the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, which was discovered in Swedish swine herds with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in 2009. At present, as an emerging pathogen, it was paid great attention by researchers at home and abroad. This paper referred to some published literatures and reviewed several aspects of PBoV including its finding, classification, genome structure and replication, epidemiology, associativity with diseases, cultural and diagnostic methods.

  7. Ribavirin efficiently suppresses porcine nidovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngnam; Lee, Changhee

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that represent emerging viral pathogens causing heavy economic impacts on the swine industry. Although ribavirin is a well-known antiviral drug against a broad range of both DNA and RNA viruses in vitro, its inhibitory effect and mechanism of action on porcine nidovirus replication remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether ribavirin suppresses porcine nidovirus infection. Our results demonstrated that ribavirin treatment dose-dependently inhibited the replication of both nidoviruses. The antiviral activity of ribavirin on porcine nidovirus replication was found to be primarily exerted at early times post-infection. Treatment with ribavirin resulted in marked reduction of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis, viral protein expression, and progeny virus production in a dose-dependent manner. Investigations into the mechanism of action of ribavirin against PRRSV and PEDV revealed that the addition of guanosine to the ribavirin treatment significantly reversed the antiviral effects, suggesting that depletion of the intracellular GTP pool by inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase may be essential for ribavirin activity. Further sequencing analysis showed that the mutation frequency in ribavirin-treated cells was similar to that in untreated cells, indicating that ribavirin did not induce error-prone replication. Taken together, our data indicate that ribavirin might not only be a good therapeutic agent against porcine nidovirus, but also a potential candidate to be evaluated against other human and animal coronaviruses.

  8. Low prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Baert, Kristof; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Vanantwerpen, Gerty; De Zutter, Lieven; Strubbe, Diederik; Vranckx, Katleen; Lens, Luc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Delmée, Michel; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) have been identified as potential carriers of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agents of yersiniosis, the third most reported bacterial zoonosis in Europe. Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are most often isolated from rats during yersiniosis cases in animals and humans, and from rats inhabiting farms and slaughterhouses. Information is however lacking regarding the extent to which rats act as carriers of these Yersinia spp.. In 2013, 1088 brown rats across Flanders, Belgium, were tested for the presence of Yersinia species by isolation method. Identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR on chromosomal- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, biotyping and serotyping. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 38.4% of the rats. Of these, 53.4% were designated Y. enterocolitica, 0.7% Y. pseudotuberculosis and 49.0% other Yersinia species. Two Y. enterocolitica possessing the virF-, ail- and ystA-gene were isolated. Additionally, the ystB-gene was identified in 94.1% of the other Y. enterocolitica isolates, suggestive for biotype 1A. Three of these latter isolates simultaneously possessed the ail-virulence gene. Significantly more Y. enterocolitica were isolated during winter and spring compared to summer. Based on our findings we can conclude that brown rats are frequent carriers for various Yersinia spp., including Y. pseudotuberculosis and (human pathogenic) Y. enterocolitica which are more often isolated during winter and spring.

  9. Inhibitory effects of recombinant feline interferon on the replication of feline enteropathogenic viruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, M; Nakatani, H; Yoshida, M

    1994-03-01

    Antiviral activities of a recombinant feline interferon (rFeIFN) KT-80 were evaluated against feline enteropathogenic viruses in feline and canine cell lines. Sensitivity to antiviral activities of the rFeIFN varied with cell types; Felis catus whole fetus (fcwf-4) cells were more sensitive than Crandell feline kidney cells, but no sensitivity was found for Madin-Darby canine kidney cells when vesicular stomatitis virus was used as a challenge virus. Reductions were generally IFN dose-dependent and were more consistent when the cells were continuously treated with the rFeIFN than when they were pretreated only before viral challenge. Compared with each virus control culture of fcwf-4 cells, yields of rotavirus, feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV), feline calicivirus and feline infectious peritonitis coronavirus were reduced by ranges of 1.3 to < or = 3.1 log10, 0.6 to 1.6 log2, 0.8 to 3.7 log10 and 0.5 to 0.6 log10, respectively, in the cultures continuously treated with 10 to 10000 U of the rFeIFN. The yield reduction of FPLV was considered to be in part attributable to inhibition of cell growth by the rFeIFN supplemented in the medium.

  10. Rapid CD8+ Function Is Critical for Protection of Neonatal Mice from an Extracellular Bacterial Enteropathogen

    PubMed Central

    Siefker, David T.; Adkins, Becky

    2017-01-01

    Both human and murine neonates are characteristically highly susceptible to bacterial infections. However, we recently discovered that neonatal mice are surprisingly highly resistant to oral infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. This resistance was linked with activation of both innate and adaptive responses, involving innate phagocytes, CD4+ cells, and B cells. We have now extended these studies and found that CD8+ cells also contribute importantly to neonatal protection from Y. enterocolitica. Strikingly, neonatal CD8+ cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) are rapidly mobilized, increasing in proportion, number, and IFNγ production as early as 48 h post infection. This early activation appears to be critical for protection since B2m−/− neonates are significantly more susceptible than wt neonates to primary Y. enterocolitica infection. In the absence of CD8+ cells, Y. enterocolitica rapidly disseminated to peripheral tissues. Within 48 h of infection, both the spleens and livers of B2m−/−, but not wt, neonates became heavily colonized, likely leading to their deaths from sepsis. In contrast to primary infection, CD8+ cells were dispensable for the generation of immunological memory protective against secondary infection. These results indicate that CD8+ cells in the neonatal MLN contribute importantly to protection against an extracellular bacterial enteropathogen but, notably, they appear to act during the early innate phase of the immune response. PMID:28119902

  11. Prevalence of enteropathogenic bacteria in treated effluents and receiving water bodies and their potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Teklehaimanot, Giorgis Z; Genthe, B; Kamika, I; Momba, M N B

    2015-06-15

    The failure of wastewater treatment plants to produce effluents of a high microbiological quality is a matter of great concern in terms of water resource pollution. A more serious concern is that this water source is used by communities in developing countries for multiple purposes, which include drinking, recreation and agriculture. The current study investigated the prevalence and potential health risks of enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio cholerae) in the treated effluents of three selected South African Wastewater Treatment Works as well as their receiving water bodies. Culture-based and polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect and identify the pathogenic bacteria. The conventional methods revealed that of the 272 water samples collected, 236 samples (86.8%) tested presumptively positive for Salmonella spp., 220 samples (80.9%) for Shigella spp. and 253 samples (93.0%) for V. cholerae. Molecular test results indicated that out of the randomly selected presumptive positive samples (145), zero to 60% of samples were positive for S. typhimurium and S. dysenteriae and 20% to 60% for V. cholerae. For the health risk assessment, the daily combined risk of S. typhimurium, S. dysenteriae and V. cholerae infection was above the lowest acceptable risk limit of 10(-4) as estimated by the World Health Organization for drinking water. This study showed that the target treated wastewater effluents and their receiving water bodies could pose a potential health risk to the surrounding communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  13. The prevalence of swine enteropathogens in Brazilian grower and finish herds.

    PubMed

    Viott, A M; Lage, A P; Cruz, E C C; Guedes, R M C

    2013-05-17

    Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp.) and eggs counts (T. suis). The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%). B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil.

  14. The prevalence of swine enteropathogens in Brazilian grower and finish herds

    PubMed Central

    Viott, A.M.; Lage, A.P.; Cruz, E.C.C.; Guedes, R.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea among growing and finishing pigs is an important problem in many herds. The prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, Trichuris suis and the occurrence of mixed infection were investigated. Fecal samples for forty-six herds with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea were randomly collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The enteric pathogens were detected by culture (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), PCR (L. intracellularis and Brachyspira spp.) and eggs counts (T. suis). The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and enterotoxigenic E. coli were 19.56%, 6.52%, 10.86% respectively. Mixed infection was diagnosed in 30.43% of herds, and L. intracellularis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium are main pathogens association (10.87%). B. pilosicoli was diagnosed only in two herds, always associated with mixed infections. B. hyodysenteriae and T. suis were not demonstrated in any sample. These pathogens have been reported world-wide but studies regarding epidemiology in Brazil are few. This study contributes to establish of prevention programs for the control enteropathogens in grower finish herds in Brazil. PMID:24159297

  15. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases. PMID:25861274

  16. The Enteropathogenic E. coli Effector Protein EspF Decreases Sodium Hydrogen Exchanger 3 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Kim; Alto, Neal M.; Ramaswamy, K.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Hecht, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Summary Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) have been previously shown to alter sodium hydrogen exchange (NHE3) activity in human intestinal epithelial cells. To further characterize these observations, PS120 fibroblasts transfected with NHE3 were studied. EPEC E2348/69 infection decreased NHE3 activity in PS120 fibroblasts. The effect on NHE3 was enhanced when PS120 cells were co-transfected with the scaffolding/regulatory proteins NHERF1 or NHERF2 or EBP50 and E3KARP, respectively. The decrease in NHE3 activity was dependent on an intact type III secretion system, although intimate attachment mediated by Tir was not required. Despite its ability to bind to NHERF proteins, the EPEC effector Map had no impact on the regulation of NHE activity. Instead, EspF was found to be responsible for decreased NHE3 activity. However, neither EspF induced apoptosis nor the interaction of EspF with sorting nexin-9, an endocytic protein, were involved. PMID:18433466

  17. Multiple enteropathogenic viruses in a gastroenteritis outbreak in a military exercise of the Portuguese Army.

    PubMed

    Lopes-João, António; Costa, Inês; Mesquita, João R; Oleastro, Mónica; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2015-07-01

    Gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases in the military populations and can diminish operational effectiveness and impede force readiness. The present study investigates the cause and the source of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred during a military exercise of the Portuguese Army, in February 2013. A retrospective investigation was performed and stool samples, food items and water were screened for common foodborne bacteria and viruses, namely Norovirus GI, Norovirus GII, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Sapovirus. From the total of 160 soldiers that participated in the military exercise 20 developed gastroenteritis (attack rate of 12.5%). Symptoms were predominantly vomiting (n=17, 85%) and diarrhoea (n=9, 45%). The first cases occurred 24-48h after drinking water from the creek, the plausible origin of the outbreak. The epidemic peak was registered 2 days after and the last cases 6 days after, upon returning to base. No pathogenic bacteria were found in stools however virological analysis revealed the presence of multiple enteropathogenic viruses, namely Norovirus GI (GI.3), Norovirus GII (GII.4 New Orleans 2009), Astrovirus and Sapovirus, as single or co-infections. Food and water samples were not tested for the presence of viruses due to exhaustion of samples on bacteriological analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a viral gastroenteritis outbreak among military personnel in the Portuguese Army. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.