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Sample records for porcine lungs comparison

  1. Anatomy and bronchoscopy of the porcine lung. A model for translational respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Judge, Eoin P; Hughes, J M Lynne; Egan, Jim J; Maguire, Michael; Molloy, Emer L; O'Dea, Shirley

    2014-09-01

    The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model was overcome with the successful generation of gene-targeted pigs and the publication of the pig genome. As a result, the role of this model is likely to become even more important. For the respiratory medicine field, the similarities between pig and human lungs give the porcine model particular potential for advancing translational medicine. An increasing number of lung conditions are being studied and modeled in the pig. Genetically modified porcine models of cystic fibrosis have been generated that, unlike mouse models, develop lung disease similar to human cystic fibrosis. However, the scientific literature relating specifically to porcine lung anatomy and airway histology is limited and is largely restricted to veterinary literature and textbooks. Furthermore, methods for in vivo lung procedures in the pig are rarely described. The aims of this review are to collate the disparate literature on porcine lung anatomy, histology, and microbiology; to provide a comparison with the human lung; and to describe appropriate bronchoscopy procedures for the pig lungs to aid clinical researchers working in the area of translational respiratory medicine using the porcine model.

  2. Surfactant treatment before first breath for respiratory distress syndrome in preterm lambs: comparison of a peptide-containing synthetic lung surfactant with porcine-derived surfactant

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, Johann M; Smith, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Background In a recent study utilizing a saline-lavaged adult rabbit model, we described a significant improvement in systemic oxygenation and pulmonary shunt after the instillation of a novel synthetic peptide-containing surfactant, Synsurf. Respiratory distress syndrome in the preterm lamb more closely resembles that of the human infant, as their blood gas, pH values, and lung mechanics deteriorate dramatically from birth despite ventilator support. Moreover, premature lambs have lungs which are mechanically unstable, with the advantage of being able to measure multiple variables over extended periods. Our objective in this study was to investigate if Synsurf leads to improved systemic oxygenation, lung mechanics, and histology in comparison to the commercially available porcine-derived lung surfactant Curosurf® when administered before first breath in a preterm lamb model. Materials and methods A Cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia on 18 time-dated pregnant Dohne Merino ewes at 129–130 days gestation. The premature lambs were delivered and ventilated with an expiratory tidal volume of 6–8 mL/kg for the first 30 minutes and thereafter at 8–10 mL/kg. In a randomized controlled trial, the two surfactants tested were Synsurf and Curosurf®, both at a dose of 100 mg/kg phospholipids (1,2-dipalmitoyl-L-α-phosphatidylcholine; 90% in Synsurf, 40% in Curosurf®). A control group of animals was treated with normal saline. Measurements of physiological variables, blood gases, and lung mechanics were made before and after surfactant and saline replacement and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes after treatment. The study continued for 5 hours. Results Surfactant treatment led to a significant improvement in oxygenation within 30 minutes, with the Synsurf group and the Curosurf® group having significantly higher ratios between arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2; P = 0.021) compared to that

  3. Intraoperative combined color and fluorescent images-based sentinel node mapping in the porcine lung: comparison of indocyanine green with or without albumin premixing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yujin; Quan, Yu Hua; Choi, Yeonho; Kim, Choong Ki; Kim, Heezoo; Kim, Hyun Koo; Kim, Beop-Min

    2013-12-01

    We developed a multimodal optical imaging system for intraoperative visualization of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). This study is to validate our system by showing SLNs in the lung through combined optical color and fluorescent image with indocyanine green (ICG) and ICG with human serum albumin (HSA). Identical ICG concentrations of ICG only or ICG:HSA was injected into the rat footpad and porcine lung. Absolute amounts of the fluorescents were scaled on the basis of animal weights. The entire procedures were recorded using color and near-infrared (NIR) charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras simultaneously, and the 2 images were merged by real-time image processing software. All fluorescence intensity signals to background ratio (SBR) and retention rates at SLN for both fluorescents were estimated and compared. This newly developed intraoperative color and fluorescence optical imaging system successfully visualized the SLNs in animal experiments. The SLNs were identified 100% for both rat and pig under in vivo conditions. Real-time image processing software overcame the low signal of NIR fluorescence images. ICG and ICG:HSA provided no significantly different SBR in the SLN images for both rat thigh and pig lung. The intraoperative optical imaging system enabled real-time image-guided surgery during SLN mapping in lung in an animal model. The ICG retention rate was similar to ICG:HSA. ICG alone can be useful for SLN imaging during lung cancer surgery. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decellularization of human and porcine lung tissues for pulmonary tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, John D; Anfang, Rachel; Anandappa, Annabelle; Costa, Joseph; Javidfar, Jeffrey; Wobma, Holly M; Singh, Gopal; Freytes, Donald O; Bacchetta, Matthew D; Sonett, Joshua R; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-09-01

    The only definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure is orthotopic transplantation. Lung extracellular matrix (LECM) holds great potential as a scaffold for lung tissue engineering because it retains the complex architecture, biomechanics, and topologic specificity of the lung. Decellularization of human lungs rejected from transplantation could provide "ideal" biologic scaffolds for lung tissue engineering, but the availability of such lungs remains limited. The present study was designed to determine whether porcine lung could serve as a suitable substitute for human lung to study tissue engineering therapies. Human and porcine lungs were procured, sliced into sheets, and decellularized by three different methods. Compositional, ultrastructural, and biomechanical changes to the LECM were characterized. The suitability of LECM for cellular repopulation was evaluated by assessing the viability, growth, and metabolic activity of human lung fibroblasts, human small airway epithelial cells, and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells over a period of 7 days. Decellularization with 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) showed the best maintenance of both human and porcine LECM, with similar retention of LECM proteins except for elastin. Human and porcine LECM supported the cultivation of pulmonary cells in a similar way, except that the human LECM was stiffer and resulted in higher metabolic activity of the cells than porcine LECM. Porcine lungs can be decellularized with CHAPS to produce LECM scaffolds with properties resembling those of human lungs, for pulmonary tissue engineering. We propose that porcine LECM can be an excellent screening platform for the envisioned human tissue engineering applications of decellularized lungs. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental Evidence of Mechanical Isotropy in Porcine Lung Parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Benjamin; Patnaik, Sourav; Rougeau-Browning, Mary; Brazile, Bryn; Liao, Jun; Prabhu, Raj; Williams, Lakiesha N.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality associated with trauma. Trauma includes injuries associated with accidents and falls as well as blast injuries caused by explosives. The prevalence and mortality of these injuries has made research of pulmonary injury a major priority. Lungs have a complex structure, with multiple types of tissues necessary to allow successful respiration. The soft, porous parenchyma is the component of the lung which contains the alveoli responsible for gas exchange. Parenchyma is also the portion which is most susceptible to traumatic injury. Finite element simulations are an important tool for studying traumatic injury to the human body. These simulations rely on material properties to accurately recreate real world mechanical behaviors. Previous studies have explored the mechanical properties of lung tissues, specifically parenchyma. These studies have assumed material isotropy but, to our knowledge, no study has thoroughly tested and quantified this assumption. This study presents a novel methodology for assessing isotropy in a tissue, and applies these methods to porcine lung parenchyma. Briefly, lung parenchyma samples were dissected so as to be aligned with one of the three anatomical planes, sagittal, frontal, and transverse, and then subjected to compressive mechanical testing. Stress-strain curves from these tests were statistically compared by a novel method for differences in stresses and strains at percentages of the curve. Histological samples aligned with the anatomical planes were also examined by qualitative and quantitative methods to determine any differences in the microstructural morphology. Our study showed significant evidence to support the hypothesis that lung parenchyma behaves isotropically.

  6. Postnatal development of lung T lymphocytes in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Balam-May, Angel J; Ramírez-Estudillo, Carmen; Lazo-Vázquez, Gloria; Vega-López, Marco A

    2014-10-01

    Despite the high prevalence of respiratory diseases in the world and the extensive information available on the mucosal immune system, research on the development of the lung immune system in humans is limited by technical and ethical considerations; therefore, we studied the postnatal development of T lymphocytes in lung lobes in a porcine model. Using less than 36-hour-old (NB), 1-week-weaned (5-week-old -AW-), 3-month-old (3M), and 4-year-old (4YR) healthy, nonvaccinated, specific pathogen free (SPF) Vietnamese miniature pigs, we studied the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, TCR1 (gamma-delta T cells), and CD25+ (IL-2R-alpha) cell subpopulations in lung lobes parenchyma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and cervical lymph nodes (LN) by flow cytometry. No differences among lung lobes were detected in any of the cell subpopulations tested. A low proportion of T cell subsets was detected in NB and 4YR groups in lung and BAL. Besides, the AW and 3M groups showed important changes in T cell subpopulations. These results suggest that in healthy animals the lung lobes behave as a homogeneous immune organ. T cells were detected in very low percentages at birth and in adult life, which may explain the high susceptibility to respiratory infections both early and later in life. Postweaning antigenic challenges and endocrine and sexual maturity at 3M had important effects on the development of the mucosal immune system. It was also evident that changes at mucosal sites were poorly correlated with PBMC and LN.

  7. Comparison of a New Miniaturized Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation System With Integrated Rotary Blood Pump to a Standard System in a Porcine Model of Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Heckmann, Jens; Lyskawa, Kathrin; Strauß, Andreas; Haake, Nils; Wiese, Ingo; Jakob, Heinz; Kamler, Markus; Pizanis, Nikolaus

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, available ECMO systems are large and not well designed for fast delivery, emergency implantation, and interhospital transfer. Therefore, a new miniaturized oxygenator with integrated rotary blood pump (ILIAS) was developed and compared with a standard ECMO system in a large animal model. Acute lung injury was induced with repeated pulmonary saline lavage in 14 pigs until PaO2 /FiO2 -ratio was <100 mm Hg with a positive-end-expiratory-pressure of 5 mbar. Pigs were assigned to the following three groups: group 1 (n = 4): control group with conventional ventilation; group 2 (n = 5): standard vv-ECMO; group 3 (n = 5): vv-ILIAS. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, hemolysis, and coagulation activation were examined over a period of 8 h. No device failed during the observation period. PaCO2 decreased from 59.40 ± 4.14 mm Hg to 48.62 ± 4.50 mm Hg after 1 h in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of PaCO2 from 48.86 ± 7.45 to 40.10 ± 6.02 in the conventional ECMO group (P = not significant [n.s.]). ARDS-induced respiratory acidosis was controlled promptly with a pH of 7.2 ± 0.1 at baseline increasing to 7.4 ± 0.1 in both study groups after 60 min of ECMO support. Mean carbon dioxide transfer was comparable between the conventional ECMO and ILIAS (211.36 ± 78.39 mL/min vs. 219.99 ± 76.72 mL/min, P = n.s.). PaO2 /FiO2 increased from 118.4 ± 15.5 mm Hg to 179.1 ± 72.4 mm Hg in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of oxygenation from 107.1 ± 24.9 mm Hg to 179.0 ± 45.7 mm Hg in the standard ECMO group (P = n.s.). Mean oxygen transfer was calculated with 136.09 ± 30.25 mL/min for the ILIAS and 129.05 ± 36.28 mL/min for the standard ECMO. Hemodynamic instability or significant activation of the plasmatic coagulation was not

  8. Comparison of human and porcine skin for characterization of sunscreens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigmann, Hans-Jürgen; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Bahaban, Virginie; Durat, Fabienne; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    The universal sun protection factor (USPF) characterizing sunscreen efficacy based on spectroscopically determined data, which were obtained using the tape stripping procedure. The USPF takes into account the complete ultraviolet (UV) spectral range in contrast to the classical sun protection factor (SPF). Until now, the USPF determination has been evaluated only in human skin. However, investigating new filters not yet licensed excludes in vivo investigation on human skin but requires the utilization of a suitable skin model. The penetration behavior and the protection efficacy of 10 commercial sunscreens characterized by USPF were investigated, comparing human and porcine skin. The penetration behavior found for typical UV filter substances is nearly identical for both skin types. The comparison of the USPF obtained for human and porcine skin results in a linear relation between both USPF values with a correlation factor R2=0.98. The results demonstrate the possibility for the use of porcine skin to determine the protection efficacy of sunscreens.

  9. KBSH parvovirus: comparison with porcine parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Molitor, T W; Joo, H S; Collett, M S

    1985-01-01

    We compared the molecular, antigenic, and pathogenic properties of KBSH parvovirus to those of porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate NADL-8. KBSH, propagated in swine testes cells in culture, possessed two major capsid polypeptides of 83 and 64 kilodaltons that were similar in size to those of PPV. KBSH-infected cells also contained an 86-kilodalton nonstructural polypeptide that was identical in size to the PPV nonstructural polypeptide (NS-1). The KBSH polypeptides were structurally similar but not identical to the corresponding PPV polypeptides, as revealed by partial proteolysis mapping. Viral replicative-form DNA from KBSH-infected cells was similar in size to PPV replicative-form DNA and exhibited similar but not identical restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns to that of PPV replicative-form DNA. Antigenically, the two viruses were also very closely related. By using heterologous and homologous antisera, the two viruses were indistinguishable in hemagglutination inhibition and immunoprecipitation assays. However, pathogenically these viruses were dramatically different. NADL-8 caused fetal death when injected into swine fetuses in utero and viremia and high persisting antibody titers when administered orally to weaning-age swine. KBSH-inoculated fetuses were normal in appearance, and pigs orally exposed to KBSH failed to establish viremia and demonstrated only transient antibody titers. Thus, KBSH appears to be a PPV that is very closely related to a highly pathogenic PPV isolate, yet is itself nonpathogenic in swine. This reduced pathogenic potential of KBSH may be attributable to its poor ability to replicate in swine. Images PMID:2991553

  10. Three-dimensional scaffolds of acellular human and porcine lungs for high throughput studies of lung disease and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Darcy E.; Bonenfant, Nicholas R.; Sokocevic, Dino; DeSarno, Michael; Borg, Zachary; Parsons, Charles; Brooks, Elice M.; Platz, Joseph; Khalpey, Zain; Hoganson, David M.; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying Wai; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular scaffolds from complex whole organs such as lung are being increasingly studied for ex vivo organ generation and for in vitro studies of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We have established effective methods for efficient de- and recellularization of large animal and human lungs including techniques which allow multiple small segments (∼1–3cm3) to be excised that retain 3-dimensional lung structure. Coupled with the use of a synthetic pleural coating, cells can be selectively physiologically inoculated via preserved vascular and airway conduits. Inoculated segments can be further sliced for high throughput studies. Further, we demonstrate thermography as a powerful noninvasive technique for monitoring perfusion decellularization and for evaluating preservation of vascular and airway networks following human and porcine lung decellularization. Collectively, these techniques are a significant step forward as they allow high throughput in vitro studies from a single lung or lobe in a more biologically relevant, three-dimensional acellular scaffold. PMID:24411675

  11. Microwave ablation with triaxial antennas tuned for lung: results in an in vivo porcine model.

    PubMed

    Durick, Nathan A; Laeseke, Paul F; Broderick, Lynn S; Lee, Fred T; Sampson, Lisa A; Frey, Tina M; Warner, Thomas F; Fine, Jason P; van der Weide, Daniel W; Brace, Christopher L

    2008-04-01

    To prospectively determine in swine the size and shape of coagulation zones created in normal lung tissue by using small-diameter triaxial microwave antennas and to prospectively quantify the effects of bronchial occlusion and multiple antennas on the coagulation zone. The study was approved by the research animal care and use committee, and all husbandry and experimental studies were compliant with the National Research Council's Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Twenty-four coagulation zones (three per animal) were created at thoracotomy in eight female domestic swine (mean weight, 55 kg) by using a microwave ablation system with 17-gauge lung-tuned triaxial antennas. Ablations were performed for 10 minutes each by using (a) a single antenna, (b) a single antenna with bronchial occlusion, and (c) an array of three antennas powered simultaneously. The animals were sacrificed immediately after ablation. The coagulation zones were excised en bloc and sectioned into approximately 4-mm slices for measurement of size, shape, and circularity. Analysis of variance and two-sample t tests were used to identify differences between the three ablation groups. The overall mean diameters of coagulation achieved with a single antenna and bronchial occlusion (4.11 cm +/- 1.09 [standard deviation]) and with multiple-antenna arrays (4.05 cm +/- 0.69) were significantly greater than the overall mean diameter achieved with a single antenna alone (3.09 cm +/- 0.83) (P = .016 for comparison with multiple antennas, P = .032 for comparison with bronchial occlusion). No significant differences in size were seen between the coagulation zones created with bronchial occlusion and those created with multiple antennas (P = .68). The coagulation zones in all groups were very circular (isoperimetric ratio > 0.80) at cross-sectional analysis. A 17-gauge triaxial microwave ablation system tuned for lung tissue yielded large circular zones of coagulation in vivo in porcine lungs

  12. Production of decellularized porcine lung scaffolds for use in tissue engineering†

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Jenna L.; Gard, Ashley L.; Liu, Angela; Leiby, Katherine L.; Schwan, Jonas; Kunkemoeller, Britta; Calle, Elizabeth A.; Sivarapatna, Amogh; Lin, Tylee; Dimitrievska, Sashka; Cambpella, Stuart G.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of work dedicated to producing acellular lung scaffolds for use in regenerative medicine by decellularizing donor lungs of various species. These scaffolds typically undergo substantial matrix damage due to the harsh conditions required to remove cellular material (e.g., high pH, strong detergents), lengthy processing times, or pre-existing tissue contamination from microbial colonization. In this work, a new decellularization technique is described that maintains the global tissue architecture, key matrix components, mechanical composition and cell-seeding potential of lung tissue while effectively removing resident cellular material. Acellular lung scaffolds were produced from native porcine lungs using a combination of Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) at low concentrations in 24 hours. We assessed the effect of matrix decellularization by measuring residual PMID:26426090

  13. Molecular mobility in the monolayers of foam films stabilized by porcine lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Lalchev, Z I; Todorov, R K; Christova, Y T; Wilde, P J; Mackie, A R; Clark, D C

    1996-01-01

    Certain physical properties of a range of foam film types that are believed to exist in vivo in the lung have been investigated. The contribution of different lung surfactant components found in porcine lung surfactant to molecular surface diffusion in the plane of foam films has been investigated for the first time. The influence of the type and thickness of black foam films, temperature, electrolyte concentration, and extract composition on surface diffusion has been studied using the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique. Fluorescent phospholipid probe molecules in foam films stabilized by porcine lung surfactant samples or their hydrophobic extracts consisting of surfactant lipids and hydrophobic lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, exhibited more rapid diffusion than observed in films of its principal lipid component alone, L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl. This effect appears to be due to contributions from minor lipid components present in the total surfactant lipid extracts. The minor lipid components influence the surface diffusion in foam films both by their negative charge and by lowering the phase transition temperature of lung surfactant samples. In contrast, the presence of high concentrations of the hydrophillic surfactant protein A (SP-A) and non-lung-surfactant proteins in the sample reduced the diffusion coefficient (D) of the lipid analog in the adsorbed layer of the films. Hysteresis behavior of D was observed during temperature cycling, with the cooling curve lying above the heating curve. However, in cases where some surface molecular aggregation and surface heterogeneity were observed during cooling, the films became more rigid and molecules at the interfaces became immobilized. The thickness, size, capillary pressure, configuration, and composition of foam films of lung surfactant prepared in vitro support their investigation as realistic structural analogs of the surface films that exist in vivo in the lung

  14. A comprehensive computational model of sound transmission through the porcine lung.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Henry, Brian M; Mansy, Hansen A; Sandler, Richard H; Royston, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive computational simulation model of sound transmission through the porcine lung is introduced and experimentally evaluated. This "subject-specific" model utilizes parenchymal and major airway geometry derived from x-ray CT images. The lung parenchyma is modeled as a poroviscoelastic material using Biot theory. A finite element (FE) mesh of the lung that includes airway detail is created and used in comsol FE software to simulate the vibroacoustic response of the lung to sound input at the trachea. The FE simulation model is validated by comparing simulation results to experimental measurements using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry on the surface of an excised, preserved lung. The FE model can also be used to calculate and visualize vibroacoustic pressure and motion inside the lung and its airways caused by the acoustic input. The effect of diffuse lung fibrosis and of a local tumor on the lung acoustic response is simulated and visualized using the FE model. In the future, this type of visualization can be compared and matched with experimentally obtained elastographic images to better quantify regional lung material properties to noninvasively diagnose and stage disease and response to treatment.

  15. A comprehensive computational model of sound transmission through the porcine lung

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Henry, Brian M.; Mansy, Hansen A.; Sandler, Richard H.; Royston, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive computational simulation model of sound transmission through the porcine lung is introduced and experimentally evaluated. This “subject-specific” model utilizes parenchymal and major airway geometry derived from x-ray CT images. The lung parenchyma is modeled as a poroviscoelastic material using Biot theory. A finite element (FE) mesh of the lung that includes airway detail is created and used in comsol FE software to simulate the vibroacoustic response of the lung to sound input at the trachea. The FE simulation model is validated by comparing simulation results to experimental measurements using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry on the surface of an excised, preserved lung. The FE model can also be used to calculate and visualize vibroacoustic pressure and motion inside the lung and its airways caused by the acoustic input. The effect of diffuse lung fibrosis and of a local tumor on the lung acoustic response is simulated and visualized using the FE model. In the future, this type of visualization can be compared and matched with experimentally obtained elastographic images to better quantify regional lung material properties to noninvasively diagnose and stage disease and response to treatment. PMID:25190415

  16. Abundant DNase I-sensitive bacterial DNA in healthy porcine lungs and its implications for the lung microbiome.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Kelly, Patrick H; Nassar, Boulos S; Rutland, Cedric J; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Dohrn, Cassie L; Costello, Andrew J; Stoltz, David A; Zabner, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Human lungs are constantly exposed to bacteria in the environment, yet the prevailing dogma is that healthy lungs are sterile. DNA sequencing-based studies of pulmonary bacterial diversity challenge this notion. However, DNA-based microbial analysis currently fails to distinguish between DNA from live bacteria and that from bacteria that have been killed by lung immune mechanisms, potentially causing overestimation of bacterial abundance and diversity. We investigated whether bacterial DNA recovered from lungs represents live or dead bacteria in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung samples in young healthy pigs. Live bacterial DNA was DNase I resistant and became DNase I sensitive upon human antimicrobial-mediated killing in vitro. We determined live and total bacterial DNA loads in porcine BAL fluid and lung tissue by comparing DNase I-treated versus untreated samples. In contrast to the case for BAL fluid, we were unable to culture bacteria from most lung homogenates. Surprisingly, total bacterial DNA was abundant in both BAL fluid and lung homogenates. In BAL fluid, 63% was DNase I sensitive. In 6 out of 11 lung homogenates, all bacterial DNA was DNase I sensitive, suggesting a predominance of dead bacteria; in the remaining homogenates, 94% was DNase I sensitive, and bacterial diversity determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was similar in DNase I-treated and untreated samples. Healthy pig lungs are mostly sterile yet contain abundant DNase I-sensitive DNA from inhaled and aspirated bacteria killed by pulmonary host defense mechanisms. This approach and conceptual framework will improve analysis of the lung microbiome in disease.

  17. Gene expression profiling in Salmonella Choleraesuis-infected porcine lung using a long oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Hong; Kuhar, Daniel; Lunney, Joan K; Dawson, Harry; Guidry, Catherine; Uthe, Jolita J; Bearson, Shawn M D; Recknor, Justin; Nettleton, Dan; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2006-07-01

    Understanding the transcriptional response to pathogenic bacterial infection within food animals is of fundamental and applied interest. To determine the transcriptional response to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (SC) infection, a 13,297-oligonucleotide swine array was used to analyze RNA from control, 24-h postinoculation (hpi), and 48-hpi porcine lung tissue from pigs infected with SC. In total, 57 genes showed differential expression (p < 0.001; false discovery rate = 12%). Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of 61 genes was used to confirm the microarray results and to identify pathways responding to infection. Of the 33 genes identified by microarray analysis as differentially expressed, 23 were confirmed by qRT-PCR results. A novel finding was that two transglutaminase family genes (TGM1 and TGM3) showed dramatic increases in expression postinoculation; combined with several other apoptotic genes, they indicated the induction of apoptotic pathways during SC infection. A predominant T helper 1-type immune response occurred during infection, with interferon gamma (IFNG) significantly increased at 48 hpi. Genes induced by IFNs (GBP1, GBP2, C1S, C1R, MHC2TA, PSMB8, TAP1, TAP2) showed increased expression during porcine lung infection. These data represent the first thorough investigation of gene regulation pathways that control an important porcine respiratory and foodborne bacterial infection.

  18. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Porcine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    swine U6 i!D 19, ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) A porcine model of Pseudorronas induced acute lung injury...and the clinical picture seen in ARDS unfolds. Pseudomonas- induced ARDS in the porcine model has been used as an effective and reproducible model of...sepsis- induced ARDS in this laboratory. Because ARDS is mediated by numerous inflammatory mediators, it is likely that treatment will require several

  19. Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Dembinski, Rolf; Pelosi, Paolo; Soodt, Thomas; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf; Bickenbach, Johannes

    2012-10-15

    Lung protective ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) focuses on using low tidal volumes and adequate levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Identifying optimal pressure is difficult because pressure-volume (PV) relations differ regionally. Precise analysis demands local measurements of pressures and related alveolar morphologies. In a porcine model of surfactant depletion (n=24), we combined measuring static pressures with endoscopic microscopy and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to examine regional PV loops and morphologic heterogeneities between healthy (control group; CON) and ALI lungs ventilated with low (LVT) or high tidal volumes (HVT). Quantification included indices for microscopy (Volume Air Index (VAI), Heterogeneity and Circularity Index), EIT analysis and calculation of regional compliances due to generated PV loops. We found that: (1) VAI decreased in lower lobe after ALI, (2) electrical impedance decreased in dorsal regions and (3) PV loops differed regionally. Further studies should prove the potentials of these techniques on individual respiratory settings and clinical outcome.

  20. Host-Pathogen Interactions of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae with Porcine Lung and Tracheal Epithelial Cells▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Eliane; Deslandes, Vincent; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Contreras, Irazù; Nash, John H. E.; Harel, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Olivier, Martin; Jacques, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are of great importance in understanding the pathogenesis of infectious microorganisms. We developed in vitro models to study the host-pathogen interactions of porcine respiratory tract pathogens using two immortalized epithelial cell lines, namely, the newborn pig trachea (NPTr) and St. Jude porcine lung (SJPL) cell lines. We first studied the interactions of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important swine pathogen, using these models. Under conditions where cytotoxicity was absent or low, we showed that A. pleuropneumoniae adheres to both cell lines, stimulating the induction of NF-κB. The NPTr cells consequently secrete interleukin 8, while the SJPL cells do not, since they are deprived of the NF-κB p65 subunit. Cell death ultimately occurs by necrosis, not apoptosis. The transcriptomic profile of A. pleuropneumoniae was determined after contact with the porcine lung epithelial cells by using DNA microarrays. Genes such as tadB and rcpA, members of a putative adhesin locus, and a gene whose product has high homology to the Hsf autotransporter adhesin of Haemophilus influenzae were upregulated, as were the genes pgaBC, involved in biofilm biosynthesis, while capsular polysaccharide-associated genes were downregulated. The in vitro models also proved to be efficient with other swine pathogens, such as Actinobacillus suis, Haemophilus parasuis, and Pasteurella multocida. Our results demonstrate that interactions of A. pleuropneumoniae with host epithelial cells seem to involve complex cross talk which results in regulation of various bacterial genes, including some coding for putative adhesins. Furthermore, our data demonstrate the potential of these in vitro models in studying the host-pathogen interactions of other porcine respiratory tract pathogens. PMID:19139196

  1. Three-dimensional scaffolds of acellular human and porcine lungs for high throughput studies of lung disease and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Darcy E; Bonenfant, Nicholas R; Sokocevic, Dino; DeSarno, Michael J; Borg, Zachary D; Parsons, Charles S; Brooks, Elice M; Platz, Joseph J; Khalpey, Zain I; Hoganson, David M; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying W; Oldinski, Rachael A; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Weiss, Daniel J

    2014-03-01

    Acellular scaffolds from complex whole organs such as lung are being increasingly studied for ex vivo organ generation and for in vitro studies of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We have established effective methods for efficient de and recellularization of large animal and human lungs including techniques which allow multiple small segments (∼ 1-3 cm(3)) to be excised that retain 3-dimensional lung structure. Coupled with the use of a synthetic pleural coating, cells can be selectively physiologically inoculated via preserved vascular and airway conduits. Inoculated segments can be further sliced for high throughput studies. Further, we demonstrate thermography as a powerful noninvasive technique for monitoring perfusion decellularization and for evaluating preservation of vascular and airway networks following human and porcine lung decellularization. Collectively, these techniques are a significant step forward as they allow high throughput in vitro studies from a single lung or lobe in a more biologically relevant, three-dimensional acellular scaffold. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lung Biopsy with Novel Steerable Biopsy Canula: Ex-Vivo Evaluation in Ventilated Porcine Lung Explants

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Philipp J. Fabel, Michael; Bolte, Hendrik; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Jahnke, Thomas; Heller, Martin; Lammer, Johannes; Biederer, Juergen

    2010-08-15

    The purpose was to evaluate ex-vivo a prototype of a novel biopsy canula under CT fluoroscopy-guidance in ventilated porcine lung explants in respiratory motion simulations. Using an established chest phantom for porcine lung explants, n = 24 artificial lesions consisting of a fat-wax-Lipiodol mixture (approx. 70HU) were placed adjacent to sensible structures such as aorta, pericardium, diaphragm, bronchus and pulmonary artery. A piston pump connected to a reservoir beneath a flexible silicone reconstruction of a diaphragm simulated respiratory motion by rhythmic inflation and deflation of 1.5 L water. As biopsy device an 18-gauge prototype biopsy canula with a lancet-like, helically bended cutting edge was used. The artificial lesions were punctured under CT fluoroscopy-guidance (SOMATOM Sensation 64, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany; 30mAs/120 kV/5 mm slice thickness) implementing a dedicated protocol for CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy. The mean-diameter of the artificial lesions was 8.3 {+-} 2.6 mm, and the mean-distance of the phantom wall to the lesions was 54.1 {+-} 13.5 mm. The mean-displacement of the lesions by respiratory motion was 14.1 {+-} 4.0 mm. The mean-duration of CT fluoroscopy was 9.6 {+-} 5.1 s. On a 4-point scale (1 = central; 2 = peripheral; 3 = marginal; 4 = off target), the mean-targeted precision was 1.9 {+-} 0.9. No misplacement of the biopsy canula affecting adjacent structures could be detected. The novel steerable biopsy canula proved to be efficient in the ex-vivo set-up. The chest phantom enabling respiratory motion and the steerable biopsy canula offer a feasible ex-vivo system for evaluating and training CT fluoroscopy-guided lung biopsy adapted to respiratory motion.

  3. Perfusion-Decellularization of Porcine Lung and Trachea for Respiratory Bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Sabashnikov, Anton; Korkmaz, Sevil; Li, Shiliang; Soos, Pal; Ishtok, Roland; Chaimow, Nicole; Pätzold, Ines; Czerny, Natalie; Schmack, Bastian; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, Andre Rüdiger; Karck, Matthias; Szabo, Gabor

    2015-12-01

    Decellularization of native organs may provide an acellular tissue platform for organ regeneration. However, decellularization involves a trade-off between removal of immunogenic cellular elements and preservation of biomechanical integrity. We sought to develop a bioartificial scaffold for respiratory tissue engineering by decellularization of porcine lungs and trachea while preserving organ architecture and vasculature. Lung-trachea preparations from 25 German Landrace pigs were perfused in a modified Langendorff circuit and decellularized by an SDC (sodium deoxycholate)-based perfusion protocol. Decellularization was evaluated by histology and fluorescence microscopy, and residual DNA quantified spectrophotometrically and compared with controls. Airway compliance was evaluated by endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to simulate physiological breathing-induced stretch. Structural integrity was evaluated by bronchoscopy and biomechanical stress/strain analysis by measuring passive tensile strength, all compared with controls. Decellularized lungs and trachea lacked intracellular components but retained specific collagen fibers and elastin. Quantitative DNA analysis demonstrated a significant reduction of DNA compared with controls (32.8 ± 12.4 μg DNA/mg tissue vs. 179.7 ± 35.8 μg DNA/mg tissue, P < 0.05). Lungs and trachea decellularized by our perfusion protocol demonstrated increased airway compliance but preserved biomechanical integrity as compared with native tissue. Whole porcine lungs-tracheae can be successfully decellularized to create an acellular scaffold that preserves extracellular matrix and retains structral integrity and three-dimensional architecture to provide a bioartifical platform for respiratory tissue engineering.

  4. Rosiglitazone dampens pulmonary inflammation in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Mirakaj, Valbona; Mutz, Christian; Vagts, Dierk; Henes, Janek; Haeberle, Helene A; Husung, Susanne; König, Tony; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Rosenberger, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The hallmarks of acute lung injury (ALI) are the compromised alveolar-capillary barrier and the extravasation of leukocytes into the alveolar space. Given the fact that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist rosiglitazone holds significant anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to evaluate whether rosiglitazone could dampen these hallmarks of local pulmonary inflammation in a porcine model of lung injury. For this purpose, we used a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg)-induced ALI. One hundred twenty minutes following the infusion of LPS, we started the exposure to rosiglitazone through inhalation or infusion. We found that intravenous rosiglitazone significantly controlled local pulmonary inflammation as determined through the expression of cytokines within the alveolar compartment. Furthermore, we found a significant reduction of the protein concentration and neutrophil activity within the alveolar space. In summary, we therefore conclude that the treatment with rosiglitazone might dampen local pulmonary inflammation during the initial stages of ALI.

  5. Rapid porcine lung decellularization using a novel organ regenerative control acquisition bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Khalpey, Zain; Qu, Ning; Hemphill, Courtney; Louis, Anthony V; Ferng, Alice S; Son, Tiffany G; Stavoe, Katherine; Penick, Kitsie; Tran, Phat L; Konhilas, John; Lagrand, Destiny S; Garcia, Joe G N

    2015-01-01

    To regenerate discarded lungs that would not normally be used for transplant, ex vivo reseeding after decellularization may produce organs suitable for clinical transplantation and therefore close the donor gap. Organ regenerative control acquisition (Harvard Biosciences, Holliston, MA), a novel bioreactor system that simulates physiological conditions, was used to evaluate a method of rapid decellularization. Although most current decellularization methods are 24-72 hours, we hypothesized that perfusing porcine lungs with detergents at higher pressures for less time would yield comparable bioscaffolds suitable for future experimentation. Methods involved perfusion of 1% Triton X-100 (Triton) and 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate at varied physiological flow rates. Architecture of native and decellularized lungs was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dry gas and liquid ventilation techniques were introduced. Our 7 hour decellularization procedure removes nuclear material while maintaining architecture. Bioscaffolds have the microarchitecture for reseeding of stem cells. Hematoxylin and eosin staining suggested removal of nuclear material, whereas SEM and TEM imaging demonstrated total removal of cells with structural architecture preserved. This process can lead to clinical implementation, thereby increasing the availability of human lungs for transplantation.

  6. ICAM-1-dependent and ICAM-1-independent neutrophil lung infiltration by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Hou, Make; Yan, Meiping; Lü, Xinhui; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Songlin; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Bang; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Guoquan

    2015-08-01

    Neutrophils are innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the first line of host defense. It is also known that neutrophil lung recruitment and infiltration may cause lung injury. The roles of neutrophils in virus infection-induced lung injury are not clear. We explore the mechanisms of neutrophil lung infiltration and the potential biomarkers for lung injury in a swine model of lung injury caused by natural or experimental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Neutrophil lung infiltration was determined by measurement of myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity of lung tissues. Myeloperoxidase expression and enzyme activity were dramatically increased in the naturally and experimentally infected lung tissues. Chemokine analysis by quantitative PCR and ELISA showed that IL-8 expression was increased in both infections, while monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression was increased only in experimentally infected lung tissues. Expression of the cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 was measured by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. VCAM-1 expression was increased in experimentally and naturally infected lungs, whereas ICAM-1 expression was increased only in the naturally infected lung samples. Our results suggest that neutrophil lung infiltrations in the infected animals are both ICAM-1- and -independent and that combined expression of VCAM-1 and IL-8 may serve as the biomarker for lung injury induced by virus infection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Protective ventilation reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue in a porcine pneumonia model.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Jesper; Nyberg, Axel; Lipcsey, Miklos; Melhus, Åsa; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2017-08-31

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure and low tidal volume, i.e. protective ventilation, is recommended in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effect of protective ventilation on bacterial growth during early pneumonia in non-injured lungs is not extensively studied. The main objectives were to compare two different ventilator settings on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue and the development of lung injury. A porcine model of severe pneumonia was used. The protective group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 10 cm H2O and a tidal volume of 6 ml x kg(-1). The control group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O and a tidal volume of 10 ml x kg(-1). 10(11) colony forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated intra-tracheally at baseline, after which the experiment continued for 6 h. Two animals from each group received only saline, and served as sham animals. Lung tissue samples from each animal were used for bacterial cultures and wet-to-dry weight ratio measurements. The protective group displayed lower numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < 0.05) in the lung tissue, and a lower wet-to-dry ratio (p < 0.01) than the control group. The control group deteriorated in arterial oxygen tension/inspired oxygen fraction, whereas the protective group was unchanged (p < 0.01). In early phase pneumonia, protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and higher end expiratory pressure has the potential to reduce the pulmonary bacterial burden and the development of lung injury.

  8. Lung flooding enables efficient lung sonography and tumour imaging in human ex vivo and porcine in vivo lung cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonography has become the imaging technique of choice for guiding intraoperative interventions in abdominal surgery. Due to artefacts from residual air content, however, videothoracoscopic and open intraoperative ultrasound-guided thermoablation of lung malignancies are impossible. Lung flooding is a new method that allows complete ultrasound imaging of lungs and their tumours. Methods Fourteen resected tumourous human lung lobes were examined transpleurally with B-mode ultrasound before (in atelectasis) and after lung flooding with isotonic saline solution. In two swine, the left lung was filled with 15 ml/kg isotonic saline solution through the left side of a double-lumen tube. Lung tumours were simulated by transthoracic ultrasound-guided injection of 5 ml of purified bovine serum albumin in glutaraldehyde, centrally into the left lower lung lobe. The rate of tumour detection, the severity of disability caused by residual gas, and sonomorphology of the lungs and tumours were assessed. Results The ex vivo tumour detection rate was 100% in flooded human lung lobes and 43% (6/14) in atelectatic lungs. In all cases of atelectasis, sonographic tumour imaging was impaired by residual gas. Tumours and atelectatic tissue were isoechoic. In 28% of flooded lungs, a little residual gas was observed that did not impair sonographic tumour imaging. In contrast to tumours, flooded lung tissue was hyperechoic, homogeneous, and of fine-grained structure. Because of the bronchial wall three-laminar structure, sonographic differentiation of vessels and bronchi was possible. In all cases, malignant tumours in the flooded lung appeared well-demarcated from the lung parenchyma. Adenocarcinoma, squamous, and large cell carcinomas were hypoechoic. Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma was slightly hyperechoic. Transpleural sonography identifies endobronchial tumour growth and bronchial wall destruction. With transthoracic sonography, the flooded animal lung can be completely

  9. Comparison of porcine thorax to gelatine blocks for wound ballistics studies.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, A; Carr, D J; Champion, S; Malbon, C

    2016-09-01

    Tissue simulants are typically used in ballistic testing as substitutes for biological tissues. Many simulants have been used, with gelatine amongst the most common. While two concentrations of gelatine (10 and 20 %) have been used extensively, no agreed standard exists for the preparation of either. Comparison of ballistic damage produced in both concentrations is lacking. The damage produced in gelatine is also questioned, with regards to what it would mean for specific areas of living tissue. The aim of the work discussed in this paper was to consider how damage caused by selected pistol and rifle ammunition varied in different simulants. Damage to gelatine blocks 10 and 20 % in concentration were tested with 9 mm Luger (9 × 19 full metal jacket; FMJ) rounds, while damage produced by .223 Remington (5.56 × 45 Federal Premium® Tactical® Bonded®) rounds to porcine thorax sections (skin, underlying tissue, ribs, lungs, ribs, underlying tissue, skin; backed by a block of 10 % gelatine) were compared to 10 and 20 % gelatine blocks. Results from the .223 Remington rifle round, which is one that typically expands on impact, revealed depths of penetration in the thorax arrangement were significantly different to 20 % gelatine, but not 10 % gelatine. The level of damage produced in the simulated thoraxes was smaller in scale to that witnessed in both gelatine concentrations, though greater debris was produced in the thoraxes.

  10. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation Lung Ablation: Preliminary Results in a Porcine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Deodhar, Ajita; Monette, Sebastien; Single, Gordon W.; Hamilton, William C.; Thornton, Raymond H.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Maybody, Majid; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2011-12-15

    Objective: Irreversible electroporation (IRE) uses direct electrical pulses to create permanent 'pores' in cell membranes to cause cell death. In contrast to conventional modalities, IRE has a nonthermal mechanism of action. Our objective was to study the histopathological and imaging features of IRE in normal swine lung. Materials and Methods: Eleven female swine were studied for hyperacute (8 h), acute (24 h), subacute (96 h), and chronic (3 week) effects of IRE ablation in lung. Paired unipolar IRE applicators were placed under computed tomography (CT) guidance. Some applicators were deliberately positioned near bronchovascular structures. IRE pulse delivery was synchronized with the cardiac rhythm only when ablation was performed within 2 cm of the heart. Contrast-enhanced CT scan was performed immediately before and after IRE and at 1 and 3 weeks after IRE ablation. Representative tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Results: Twenty-five ablations were created: ten hyperacute, four acute, and three subacute ablations showed alveolar edema and necrosis with necrosis of bronchial, bronchiolar, and vascular epithelium. Bronchovascular architecture was maintained. Chronic ablations showed bronchiolitis obliterans and alveolar interstitial fibrosis. Immediate post-procedure CT images showed linear or patchy density along the applicator tract. At 1 week, there was consolidation that resolved partially or completely by 3 weeks. Pneumothorax requiring chest tube developed in two animals; no significant cardiac arrhythmias were noted. Conclusion: Our preliminary porcine study demonstrates the nonthermal and extracellular matrix sparing mechanism of action of IRE. IRE is a potential alternative to thermal ablative modalities.

  11. In vivo microscopy in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Bickenbach, Johannes; Czaplik, Michael; Dembinski, Rolf; Pelosi, Paolo; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf

    2010-07-31

    Regional inhomogeneity and alveolar mechanics in a porcine model of acute lung injury (ALI) was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM was performed through thoracic windows of the upper and lower lobes. Image quantification was conducted by use of a volume air index (VAI). Twelve anesthetized, mechanically ventilated pigs were randomized to non-injury (control group, n = 6) or ALI induced by surfactant depletion (ALI group, n = 6). CLSM was performed at baseline, after 1 h at 5 mbar and after 2 h at 15 mbar positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Haemodynamics, respiratory mechanics and calculation of pulmonary ventilation-perfusion distribution by MIGET were determined. At baseline, VAI was not different. In the upper lobes, VAI significantly decreased in ALI compared to control group, with no changes after PEEP application. In the lower lobes, VAI significantly decreased in ALI compared to control group. Incremental PEEP significantly increased VAI in ALI, but not in control group. Haemodynamics were significantly compromised in the ALI group. A significant deterioration in oxygenation and ventilation-perfusion distribution could be seen being restored after PEEP adjustment. The VAI may help to assess regional inhomogeneity of the acutely injured lung.

  12. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  13. Symptoms of hypoglycemia--a comparison between porcine and human insulin.

    PubMed

    Jakober, B; Lingenfelser, T; Glück, H; Maassen, T; Overkamp, D; Renn, W; Eggstein, M

    1990-05-04

    For more than 2 years now it has been controversially debated whether awareness of hypoglycemia is reduced when type I diabetic patients are switched from porcine to human insulin. In order to address this question, we studied nine C-peptide negative diabetics (age 27.6 years, Broca index 106%, duration of diabetes 5.7 years, HbA1, 8.8%) in comparison with eight healthy volunteers (age 22.4 years, Broca index 104%). Following euglycemic monitoring overnight, a controlled hypoglycemia was induced by altering the algorithms of the Biostator. This was done in a double-blind, cross-over fashion using porcine or human insulin on 2 nonconsecutive days. There were no differences between the results obtained with respect to the time course of the study, blood glucose, amount of insulin infused, and concentration of venous free insulin achieved. Of the nine diabetics, eight were aware of hypoglycemia at a higher blood glucose level under porcine insulin. The first symptom of hypoglycemia was perceived at a mean blood glucose level of 61.1 +/- 5.4 mg/dl under porcine insulin and of 44.4 +/- 5.3 mg/dl under human insulin (P less than or equal to 0.05). Thirty symptoms were noted under porcine insulin exclusively or preferentially as opposed to only eight which were observed exclusively or preferentially under human insulin. The healthy volunteers evidenced fewer symptoms at lower blood glucose concentrations than the diabetics. The clear difference between human and porcine insulin could not unequivocally be reproduced in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Comparison of dysfunction with mechanical and porcine mitral valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Magilligan, D J; Oyama, C; Alam, M

    1985-09-01

    We reviewed the incidence of dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter mechanical prosthetic valve and the Hancock porcine prosthetic valve in the mitral position. The Smeloff-Cutter valve was implanted from 1966 to 1972; 107 patients were discharged from the hospital and were at risk for dysfunction. Follow-up averaged 10 +/- 0.7 years SD. The Hancock valve was implanted from 1971 through 1984; 473 patients were at risk and follow-up averaged 4.7 +/- 3.4 years SD. Dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve occurred as thrombosis with incomplete poppet opening in 13 patients. Dysfunction of the Hancock valve occurred as primary tissue failure in 47 patients. At 10 years the freedom from dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve was 84 +/- 5% SE and that for the Hancock valve was 71 +/- 4% SE (p greater than .06). The mortality associated with dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve was 46%; mortality associated with dysfunction of the Hancock valve was 15% (p less than .02). At 10 years the Hancock valve had a greater incidence of dysfunction than the Smeloff-Cutter valve but this difference was not statistically significant. The mortality associated with dysfunction of the Smeloff-Cutter valve, however, was three times that associated with dysfunction of the Hancock valve.

  15. Comparison of porcine and human coagulation by thrombelastometry.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Ulf; Grau, Tamar; Gronchi, Fabrizio; Berger, Steffen; Brandt, Sebastian; Bracht, Hendrik; Marcucci, Carlo; Zachariou, Zacharias; Jakob, Stephan M

    2011-11-01

    Although the pig is a standard model for the evaluation of various diseases in humans, including coagulopathy, it is not clear whether results in animals can be extrapolated to man. In 75 anesthetized pigs, we assessed reagent-supported thrombelastometry (ExTEM®), platelet-blocked thrombelastometry (FibTEM®), and aprotinin thrombelastometry (ApTEM®). Results were compared to values from 13 anesthetized humans. RESULTS (MEDIAN, 95% CI): ExTEM®: While clot strength was comparable in pigs (66 mm, 65-67 mm) and in humans (64 mm, 60-68 mm; NS), clotting time in animals was longer (pigs 64 s, 62-66 s; humans 55 s, 49-71 s; P<0.05) and clot formation time shorter (pigs 52 s, 49-54 s; humans 83 s, 67-98 s, P<0.001). The clot lysis index at 30 minutes was lower in animals (96.9%, 95.1-97.3%) than in humans (99.5%, 98.6-99.9%; P<0.001). ApTEM® showed no hyperfibrinolysis in animals. Modification of the anesthesia protocol in animals resulted in significant ExTEM® changes. FibTEM®: Complete platelet inhibition yielded significantly higher platelet contribution to clot strength in pigs (79%, 76-81%) than in humans (73%, 71-77%; P<0.05), whereas fibrinogen contribution to clot strength was higher in humans (27%, 24-29%) than in animals (21%, 19-24%; P<0.05). Maximum clot firmness is comparable in human and porcine blood. However, clot lysis, platelet and fibrinogen contribution to clot strength, as well as initiation and propagation of clotting, are considerably different between pigs and humans. In addition, anesthesic drugs seem to influence thrombelastometry in animals. Accordingly, coagulation abnormalities in pigs subjected to diseases may not necessarily represent the coagulation profile in sick patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the age-related porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) expression using duplex RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Hye Kwon; Park, Seong Jun; Lee, Chul Seung; Song, Dae Sub; Kang, Bo Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are members of family Retroviridae, genus Gamma retrovirus, and transmitted by both horizontally and vertically like other endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). PERV was initially described in the 1970s having inserted its gene in the host genome of different pig breeds, and three classes, PERV-A, PERV-B, and PERV-C are known. The therapeutic use of living cells, tissues, and organs from animals called xenotransplantation might relieve the limited supply of allografts in the treatment of organ dysfunction. Because of ethical considerations, compatible organ sizes, and physiology, the pig has been regarded as an alternative source for xenotransplantation. Sensitive duplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocols for simultaneously detecting PERV gag mRNA and porcine glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA in one tube was established. To compare the age-related PERV expression patterns of the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and pancreas in commercial pigs, 20 pigs from four age groups (5 heads each in 10 days-, 40 days-, 70 days-, and 110 days-old, respectively) were used in this study. The expression patterns of PERV were statistically different among age groups in lung, liver, and kidney (ANOVA, p < 0.05). These data may support in the selection of appropriate donor pigs expressing low levels of PERV mRNA. PMID:19934597

  17. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornblower, V. D. M.; Yu, E.; Fenster, A.; Battista, J. J.; Malthaner, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  18. Postmortem pump-driven reperfusion of the vascular system of porcine lungs: towards a new model for surgical training.

    PubMed

    Willaert, W; Van Hoof, T; De Somer, F; Grabherr, S; D'Herde, K; Ceelen, W; Pattyn, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to establish a continuous postmortem circulation in the vascular system of porcine lungs and to evaluate the pulmonary distribution of the perfusate. This research is performed in the bigger scope of a revascularization project of Thiel embalmed specimens. This technique enables teaching anatomy, practicing surgical procedures and doing research under lifelike circumstances. After cannulation of the pulmonary trunk and the left atrium, the vascular system was flushed with paraffinum perliquidum (PP) through a heart-lung machine. A continuous circulation was then established using red PP, during which perfusion parameters were measured. The distribution of contrast-containing PP in the pulmonary circulation was visualized on computed tomography. Finally, the amount of leak from the vascular system was calculated. A reperfusion of the vascular system was initiated for 37 min. The flow rate ranged between 80 and 130 ml/min throughout the experiment with acceptable perfusion pressures (range: 37-78 mm Hg). Computed tomography imaging and 3D reconstruction revealed a diffuse vascular distribution of PP and a decreasing vascularization ratio in cranial direction. A self-limiting leak (i.e. 66.8% of the circulating volume) towards the tracheobronchial tree due to vessel rupture was also measured. PP enables circulation in an isolated porcine lung model with an acceptable pressure-flow relationship resulting in an excellent recruitment of the vascular system. Despite these promising results, rupture of vessel walls may cause leaks. Further exploration of the perfusion capacities of PP in other organs is necessary. Eventually, this could lead to the development of reperfused Thiel embalmed human bodies, which have several applications. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Characterization of porcine ASB6 gene and transcripts-comparison of mammalian transcripts.

    PubMed

    Robic, Annie; Faraut, Thomas; Liaubet, Laurence; Riquet, Juliette; Milan, Denis; Lobjois, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    A member of the porcine Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) Box protein family (ASB), designed as ASB6, was sequenced and the genomic organization of the six exons was determined. We present here a detailed analysis of ASB6 transcripts in pigs. We demonstrate the existence of an alternative transcript resulting from intron retention. This secondary transcript, if functional, encodes a protein without SOCS box. A comparison of mammalian ASB6 transcripts is performed to demonstrate the importance of transcripts encoding for a truncated ASB6 protein.

  20. Comparison of emergency eye-wash products in burned porcine eyes.

    PubMed

    Kompa, Sirpa; Schareck, Belinda; Tympner, Jörg; Wüstemeyer, Henrike; Schrage, Norbert F

    2002-04-01

    The long-term prognosis of patients with chemical eye burns depends on immediately rinsing the eye after the trauma. The chemical properties and tolerance of currently used rinsing solutions were examined. NaCl 0.9%, Ringer lactate, balanced salt solution (Aqsia), phosphate buffer, tap water, and Previn were analyzed. The buffer capacities were determined by titration with HCl and NaOH. The osmolarity of the solutions and the osmolarity of 100 healthy and 100 alkali burned porcine corneas were determined by means of freezing point depression. 56 enucleated porcine eyes were burned and rinsed with NaCl solutions of different osmolarities (0-1200 mosmol/l), Previn, NaCl 0.9% or phosphate buffer, respectively. The different swelling behaviors were determined by pachymetric measurements, and the resulting corneal osmolarity after irrigation was assessed. The effect of Previn as a hyperosmolar solution in comparison with isoosmolar phosphate buffer was examined on 10 healthy human eyes. Only phosphate buffer and Previn show high buffer capacities. The osmolarity of the healthy/burned porcine corneas was 329+/-61/1203+/-289 mosmol/kg. Except for Previn (862+/-3 mosmol/l), all solutions are hypo- or almost isoosmolar in comparison with the healthy cornea. Rinsing of the burned corneas causes swelling in all groups in inverse proportion to the osmolarity of the solution. Thus, the lower the solution's osmolarity, the stronger the swelling reaction of the cornea. The resulting corneal osmolarity following rinsing behaves proportionally to the osmolarity of the rinsing solution. Therefore, a high osmolarity of the rinsing solution correlates with a high corneal osmolarity. No long-term effects in healthy eyes were observed after rinsing with Previn or phosphate buffer. Corneal thickness and osmolarity are significantly correlated to the osmolarity of the rinsing solution. Corneal edema dilutes the agent in the stroma. Therefore, we recommend solutions with low osmolarity

  1. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development

    PubMed Central

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-01-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at −80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute. PMID:27558287

  2. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.

    2016-08-01

    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at ‑80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  3. An in-depth comparison of the porcine, murine and human inflammasomes; lessons from the porcine genome and transcriptome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence suggests that swine are a scientifically acceptable intermediate species between rodents and humans to model immune function relevant to humans. The swine genome has recently been sequenced and several preliminary structural and functional analysis of the porcine immunome have been...

  4. Immunohistochemical staining of IFN-gamma positive cells in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected lungs.

    PubMed

    Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Disatian, Sirilak; Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Napakanaporn, Sudarat; Halbur, Patrick G

    2003-01-10

    Paraffin-embedded lungs were obtained from a previous porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-challenged experiment involving three groups: an uninfected control group, a low virulence (LV, Resp PRRSV/Repro)-infected group, and a high virulence (HV, VR-2385)-infected group. Tissues were collected at 3, 7, 10, 14 or 28 days post-inoculation (DPI) (n=5). Lungs were examined to detect IFN-gamma positive cells by immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal antibodies to IFN-gamma. The microscopic lung lesions induced by the HV group were more severe than those in the LV group. A significant increase in number of lymphocytes in the HV group was observed at 10 DPI (24.90+/-9.79%), 14 DPI (22.00+/-11.47%) and 28 DPI (28.95+/-15.11%) (P<0.05). A relative decrease in macrophage numbers was observed and correlated well with the increase in lymphocyte numbers when the disease progressed. IFN-gamma positive cells were demonstrated in both lymphocytes and macrophages, particularly pulmonary alveolar macrophages. A significant increase in IFN-gamma positive cells was found at 7 DPI (15.90+/-13.65%), 10 DPI (46.95+/-13.79%), 14 DPI (10.90+/-5.13%) and 28 DPI (13.40+/-4.89%) in the HV group (P<0.05). The results suggested that the increase in IFN-gamma positive cells in the HV group correlated well with the severity of the lung lesions, which may be because of the presence of PRRSV in the lung.

  5. High flow nasal heliox improves work of breathing and attenuates lung injury in a newborn porcine lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Jassar, R K; Vellanki, H; Zhu, Yan; Hesek, A M; Wang, J; Rodriguez, E; Wolfson, M R; Shaffer, T H

    2015-01-01

    High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been shown to improve ventilation and oxygenation and reduce work of breathing in newborns with respiratory distress. Heliox, decreases resistance to airflow, reduces the work of breathing, facilitates the distribution of inspired gas, and has been shown to attenuate lung inflammation during the treatment of acute lung injury. Heliox delivered by HFNC will decrease resistive load, decrease work of breathing, improve ventilation and attenuate lung inflammation during spontaneous breathing following acute lung injury in the newborn pig. Spontaneously breathing neonatal pigs received Nitrox or Heliox by HFNC and studied over 4 hrs following oleic acid injury. Gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics and systemic inflammation were measured serially. Lung inflammation biomarkers were assessed at termination. Heliox breathing animals demonstrated lower work of breathing reflected by lower tracheal pressure, phase angle and phase relationship. Ventilation efficiency index was greater compared to Nitrox. Heliox group showed less lung inflammation reflected by lower tissue interleukin-6 and 8. High flow nasal Heliox decreased respiratory load, reduced resistive work of breathing indices and attenuated lung inflammatory profile while ventilation was supported at less pressure effort in the presence of acute lung injury.

  6. Monitoring lung contusion in a porcine polytrauma model using EIT: an application study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana Aguiar; Wembers, Carlos Castelar; Horst, Klemens; Pfeifer, Roman; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Hildebrand, Frank; Czaplik, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen; Teichmann, Daniel

    2017-07-26

    Lung contusion is the most common lung injury following blunt chest trauma which, in turn, is associated with high mortality rates (Gavelli et al 2002 Eur. Radiol. 12 1273-94). Lung contusion is characterized by hemorrhage and edema with consecutively reduced compliance. Objective and Approach: In this study, unilateral lung contusion and other traumata were induced in 12 pigs by using a bolt gun machine. To investigate the pathophysiological consequences of lung contusion, information on clinical parameters was collected and monitored regularly while animals were additionally monitored with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) before trauma, and at 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after polytrauma. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the measurement time points in terms of lung compliance ([Formula: see text]) and in global EIT parameters, such as absolute global impedance (aGlobImp) ([Formula: see text]), tidal impedance variation (TIV) ([Formula: see text]) and the center of ventilation (CoV) ([Formula: see text]). Additionally, distinct analyses for the left (non-injured) and right (injured) lung were also performed. In this context, during the progress of lung contusion, significant changes were found for the injured lung in TIV ([Formula: see text]), global inhomogeneity ([Formula: see text]), regional ventilation delay ([Formula: see text]), CoV ([Formula: see text]) and in regions of non-ventilation (rNoVent) ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, TIV and rNoVent were capable to differentiate the injured and the contralateral healthy lung at 4 and 24 h after injury (TIV: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; rNoVent: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). TIV reached a sensitivity of 82% (specificity of 100%) at 4 h and sensitivity of 82% (specificity of 82%) at 24 h after injury, in detecting lung contusion specific consequences. The results indicate that EIT might be a valuable tool to detect and to monitor lung injuries

  7. Detection of respiratory pathogens in porcine lung tissue and lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Moorkamp, Lars; Nathues, Heiko; Spergser, Joachim; Tegeler, Regina; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the detection rate of bacterial agents in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), taken without visual control, to that in affected lung tissue obtained from the same pig at necropsy. BALF and affected lung tissue were examined for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae using PCR, and standard cultural methods were used for Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus suis. All pigs with a history of respiratory symptoms were submitted as live animals for routine diagnostic examination. In each animal the site of lavage, marked by injecting methylene blue, differed from the site of pneumonic lesions. M. hyopneumoniae was detected more frequently in lung tissue than in BALF in cases with moderate or severe lung lesions. The detection rates of M. hyopneumoniae were higher in the BALF of pigs with mild lesions. Cultural examination of BALF was at least as satisfactory as affected lung tissue for detecting B. bronchiseptica, H. parasuis and P. multocida.

  8. Lung mechanical changes following bronchoaspiration in a porcine model: differentiation of direct and indirect mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Gergely H; Peták, Ferenc; Erces, Dániel; Balogh, Adám L; Babik, Barna

    2014-08-01

    Bronchoaspiration results in local deterioration of lung function through direct damage and/or indirect systemic effects related to neurohumoral pathways. We distinguished these effects by selectively intubating the two main bronchi in pigs while a PEEP of 4 or 10cm H2O was maintained. Gastric juice was instilled only into the right lung. Lung mechanical and ventilation defects were assessed by measuring unilateral pulmonary input impedance (ZL,s) and the third phase slope of the capnogram (SIII) for each lung side separately before the aspiration and for 120min thereafter. Marked transient elevations in ZL,s parameters and SIII were observed in the affected lung after aspiration. Elevating PEEP did not affect these responses in the ZL,s parameters, whereas it prevented the SIII increases. None of these indices changed in the intact left lung. These findings furnish evidence of the predominance of the local direct damage over the indirect systemic effects in the development of the deterioration of lung function, and demonstrate the benefit of an initially elevated PEEP following aspiration.

  9. Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure on acoustic wave propagation in experimental porcine lung injury.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Jukka; Nemergut, Michael E; Gavriely, Noam

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on sound propagation through injured lungs, we injected a multifrequency broad-band sound signal into the airway of eight anesthetized, intubated and mechanically ventilated pigs, while recording transmitted sound at three locations bilaterally on the chest wall. Oleic acid injections effected a severe pulmonary oedema predominately in the dependent lung regions, with an average increase in venous admixture from 19 ± 15 to 59 ± 14% (P < 0.001), and a reduction in dynamic respiratory system compliance from 34 ± 7 to 14 ± 4 ml cmH2 O(-1) (P < 0.001). A concomitant decrease in sound transit time was seen in the dependent lung regions (P < 0.05); no statistically significant change occurred in the lateral or non-dependent areas. The application of PEEP resulted in a decrease in venous admixture, increase in respiratory system compliance and return of the sound transit time to pre-injury levels in the dependent lung regions. Our results indicate that sound transmission velocity increases in lung tissue affected by permeability-type pulmonary oedema in a manner reversible during alveolar recruitment with PEEP.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Sheath Cryoprobe for Bronchoscopic Lung Biopsy in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Yarmus, Lonny B; Semaan, Roy W; Arias, Sixto A; Feller-Kopman, David; Ortiz, Ricardo; Bösmüller, Hans; Illei, Peter B; Frimpong, Bernice O; Oakjones-Burgess, Karen; Lee, Hans J

    2016-08-01

    Transbronchial forceps biopsy (FBx) has been the preferred method for obtaining bronchoscopic lung biopsy specimens. Cryoprobe biopsy (CBx) has been shown to obtain larger and higher quality samples, but is limited by its inability to retrieve the sample through the working channel of the bronchoscope, requiring the bronchoscope to leave the airway for sample retrieval. We evaluated a novel device using a sheath cryobiopsy (SCBx). This method allows for specimen retrieval through the working channel of the bronchoscope, with the scope remaining inside the airway. This prospective, randomized controlled, single-blinded porcine study compared a 1.1-mm SCBx probe, a 1.9-mm CBx probe, and 2.0-mm FBx forceps. Assessment of histologic accessibility, sample quantity and quality, number of attempts to acquire and retrieve samples, cryoprobe activation time, fluoroscopy activation time, technical feasibility, and complications were compared. Samples adequate for standard pathologic processing were retrieved with 82.1% of the SCBx specimens, 82.9%% of the CBx specimens, and 30% of the FBx specimens. The histologic accessibility of both SCBx (P = .0002) and CBx (P = .0003) was superior to FBx. Procedure time for FBx was faster than for both SCBx and CBx, but SCBx was significantly faster than CBx (P < .0001). Fluoroscopy time was lower for both SCBx and CBx compared with FBx. There were no significant bleeding events. SCBx is a feasible technique providing a higher quality lung biopsy specimen compared with FBx and can successfully be retrieved through the working channel. Human studies are needed to further assess this technique with additional safety data. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced Airway Surface pH Impairs Bacterial Killing in the Porcine Cystic Fibrosis Lung

    PubMed Central

    Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Hoegger, Mark J.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Ramachandran, Shyam; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Phillip H.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Haagsman, Henk P.; van Eijk, Martin; Bánfi, Botond; Horswill, Alexander R.; Stoltz, David A.; McCray, Paul B.; Welsh, Michael J.; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene 1. Although bacterial lung infection and the resulting inflammation cause most of the morbidity and mortality, how loss of CFTR first disrupts airway host defense has remained uncertain 2–6. We asked what abnormalities impair eradication when a bacterium lands on the pristine surface of a newborn CF airway? To investigate these defects, we interrogated the viability of individual bacteria immobilized on solid grids and placed on the airway surface. As a model we studied CF pigs, which spontaneously develop hallmark features of CF lung disease 7,8. At birth, their lungs lack infection and inflammation, but have a reduced ability to eradicate bacteria 8. Here we show that in newborn wild-type pigs, the thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) rapidly killed bacteria in vivo, when removed from the lung, and in primary epithelial cultures. Lack of CFTR reduced bacterial killing. We found that ASL pH was more acidic in CF, and reducing pH inhibited the antimicrobial activity of ASL. Reducing ASL pH diminished bacterial killing in wild-type pigs, and increasing ASL pH rescued killing in CF pigs. These results directly link the initial host defense defect to loss of CFTR, an anion channel that facilitates HCO3− transport 9–13. Without CFTR, airway epithelial HCO3− secretion is defective, ASL pH falls and inhibits antimicrobial function, and thereby impairs killing of bacteria that enter the newborn lung. These findings suggest that increasing ASL pH might prevent the initial infection in patients with CF and that assaying bacterial killing could report on the benefit of therapeutic interventions. PMID:22763554

  12. The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

  13. Stability profiles of nepenthesin in urea and guanidine hydrochloride: comparison with porcine pepsin A.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Keiko; Metoki, Yuya; Athauda, Senarath B P; Shibata, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Nepenthesin, an aspartic endopeptidase from the pitcher fluid of Nepenthes, was found to be markedly less stable than porcine pepsin A when treated with urea or guanidine hydrochloride. This is in sharp contrast with its remarkably high pH/temperature stability as compared with porcine pepsin A. No protein with such a stability profile has been reported to date.

  14. Capnodynamic assessment of effective lung volume during cardiac output manipulations in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Hällsjö Sander, Caroline; Lönnqvist, Per-Arne; Hallbäck, Magnus; Sipmann, Fernando Suarez; Wallin, Mats; Oldner, Anders; Björne, Håkan

    2016-12-01

    A capnodynamic calculation of effective pulmonary blood flow includes a lung volume factor (ELV) that has to be estimated to solve the mathematical equation. In previous studies ELV correlated to reference methods for functional residual capacity (FRC). The aim was to evaluate the stability of ELV during significant manipulations of cardiac output (CO) and assess the agreement for absolute values and trending capacity during PEEP changes at different lung conditions. Ten pigs were included. Alterations of alveolar carbon dioxide were induced by cyclic reoccurring inspiratory holds. The Sulphur hexafluoride technique for FRC measurements was used as reference. Cardiac output was altered by preload reduction and inotropic stimulation at PEEP 5 and 12 cmH2O both in normal lung conditions and after repeated lung lavages. ELV at baseline PEEP 5 was [mean (SD)], 810 (163) mL and decreased to 400 (42) mL after lavage. ELV was not significantly affected by CO alterations within the same PEEP level. In relation to FRC the overall bias (limits of agreement) was -35 (-271 to 201) mL, and percentage error 36 %. A small difference between ELV and FRC was seen at PEEP 5 cmH2O before lavage and at PEEP 12 cmH2O after lavage. ELV trending capability between PEEP steps, showed a concordance rate of 100 %. ELV was closely related to FRC and remained stable during significant changes in CO. The trending capability was excellent both before and after surfactant depletion.

  15. In Vivo Evaluation of Lung Microwave Ablation in a Porcine Tumor Mimic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Planche, Olivier; Teriitehau, Christophe; Boudabous, Sana; Robinson, Joey Marie; Rao, Pramod; Deschamps, Frederic; Farouil, Geoffroy; Baere, Thierry de

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the microwave ablation of created tumor mimics in the lung of a large animal model (pigs), with examination of the ablative synergy of multiple antennas. Fifty-six tumor-mimic models of various sizes were created in 15 pigs by using barium-enriched minced collected thigh muscle injected into the lung of the same animal. Tumors were ablated under fluoroscopic guidance by single-antenna and multiple-antenna microwaves. Thirty-five tumor models were treated in 11 pigs with a single antenna at 75 W for 15 min, with 15 measuring 20 mm in diameter, 10 measuring 30 mm, and 10 measuring 40 mm. Mean circularity of the single-antenna ablation zones measured 0.64 {+-} 0.12, with a diameter of 35.7 {+-} 8.7 mm along the axis of the antenna and 32.7 {+-} 12.8 mm perpendicular to the feeding point. Multiple-antenna delivery of 75 W for 15 min caused intraprocedural death of 2 animals; modified protocol to 60 W for 10 min resulted in an ablation zone with a diameter of 43.0 {+-} 7.7 along the axis of the antenna and 54.8 {+-} 8.5 mm perpendicular to the feeding point; circularity was 0.70 {+-} 0.10. A single microwave antenna can create ablation zones large enough to cover lung tumor mimic models of {<=}4 cm with no heat sink effect from vessels of {<=}6 mm. Synergic use of 3 antennas allows ablation of larger volumes than single-antenna or radiofrequency ablation, but great caution must be taken when 3 antennas are used simultaneously in the lung in clinical practice.

  16. Comparison of histological structure and biocompatibility between human acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and porcine ADM.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liangpeng; Zheng, Shuquan; Wei, Hong

    2009-02-01

    The present study was to compare the difference of histological structure and biocompatibility between human ADM and porcine ADM. The scaffold structure, collagen arrangement and collagen structure of human ADM and those of porcine ADM were very similar except for a slight difference in their black and white bands assessed by both light microscopy and electron microscopy. The positive immunohistochemical staining results of porcine ADM using human antibodies of collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin and vimentin and the result of SDS-PAGE implied a strong homology between the main proteins of human ADM and porcine ADM. In addition, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference (P<0.05) between the biocompatibility of the two ADMs. Based on these results, we conclude that porcine ADM bears a strong similarity to human ADM, and might be a substitute for human ADM in the future.

  17. Comparison of four decontamination treatments on porcine renal decellularized extracellular matrix structure, composition, and support of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Poornejad, Nafiseh; Nielsen, Jeffery J; Morris, Ryan J; Gassman, Jason R; Reynolds, Paul R; Roeder, Beverly L; Cook, Alonzo D

    2016-03-01

    Engineering whole organs from porcine decellularized extracellular matrix and human cells may lead to a plentiful source of implantable organs. Decontaminating the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds is an essential step prior to introducing human cells. However, decontamination of whole porcine kidneys is a major challenge because the decontamination agent or irradiation needs to diffuse deep into the structure to eliminate all microbial contamination while minimizing damage to the structure and composition of the decellularized extracellular matrix. In this study, we compared four decontamination treatments that could be applicable to whole porcine kidneys: 70% ethanol, 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl, 0.2% peracetic acid in 4% ethanol, and gamma (γ)-irradiation. Porcine kidneys were decellularized by perfusion of 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and the four decontamination treatments were optimized using segments (n = 60) of renal tissue to ensure a consistent comparison. Although all four methods were successful in decontamination, γ-irradiation was very damaging to collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans, leading to less proliferation of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells within the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix. The effectiveness of the other three optimized solution treatments were then all confirmed using whole decellularized porcine kidneys (n = 3). An aqueous solution of 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl was determined to be the best method for decontamination of porcine decellularized extracellular matrix.

  18. Lung adenocarcinomas: comparison between mice and men.

    PubMed

    Popper, Helmut H

    2015-01-01

    A few human tumor types have been modeled in mice using genetic or chemical tools. The final goal of these efforts is to establish models that mimic not only the location and cellular origin of human cancers but also their genetic aberrations and morphologic appearances. The latter has been neglected by most investigators, and comparative histopathology of human versus mouse cancers is not readily available. This issue is exacerbated by the fact that some human malignancies comprise a whole spectrum of cancer subtypes that differ molecularly and morphologically. Lung cancer is a paradigm that appears not only as non-small cell and small-cell lung cancer but comprises a plethora of subtypes with distinct morphologic features. This review discusses species-specific and common morphological features of non-small cell lung cancer in mice and humans. Potential inconsistencies and the need for refined genetic tools are discussed in the context of a comparative analysis between commonly employed RAS-induced mouse tumors and human lung cancers.

  19. Classification of North American Porcine Enteroviruses: a Comparison with European and Japanese Strains 1

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, H. W.; Wang, J. T.; Ammerman, Elizabeth H.

    1971-01-01

    Seventy-two strains of porcine enteroviruses including strains from North America, England, and Japan were compared by cell culture neutralization tests to provide a serological classification of North American strains. From the tests, eight serogroups evolved, with serogroup 8 having a possible three subgroups. There appeared to be some intergroup relationship among certain viruses in groups having the same specific cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell culture. There was no apparent cross-reaction between the group with type II CPE and groups with type I CPE. Antisera produced in nonhost chickens provided a satisfactory antibody source for the tests. It was proposed that satisfactory typing of viruses could be done best by cross-neutralization rather than by one-way neutralization tests. This provided the homologous serum titer as determined in the laboratory conducting the tests which was important where comparisons are made on the basis of per cent of the homologous titer. It was further emphasized that viruses of tissue origin and their antisera have fewer intergroup reactions than viruses of intestinal origin and their antisera. General type strains and specific North American strains were suggested as satisfactory type sera and viruses for seven of the eight groups to facilitate virus identification. PMID:4343411

  20. Regulation of iNOS-Derived ROS Generation by HSP90 and Cav-1 in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus-Infected Swine Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Yan, Meiping; Hou, Make; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Songlin; Liu, Bang; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Guoquan

    2017-08-01

    In the lungs, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is usually expressed in endothelial cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is mainly expressed in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. Both eNOS and iNOS are involved in lung inflammation. While they play several roles in lung inflammation formation and resolution, their expression and activity are also regulated by inflammatory factors. Their expression relationship in virus infection-induced lung injury is not well addressed. In this report, we analyzed expression of both eNOS and iNOS, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of their associated regulatory proteins, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1), in a swine lung injury model induced by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. The combination of upregulation of iNOS and downregulation of eNOS was observed in both natural and experimental PRRSV-infected lungs, while the combination is much enhanced in natural infected lungs. While NO production is much reduced in both infections, ROS was enhanced only in natural infected lungs. Moreover, HSP90 is increased in both natural and experimental infection and less Cav-1 expressed was observed only in the natural PRRSV-infected lungs. Therefore, the increased ROS generation is likely due to the increased iNOS and its unbalanced regulation by HSP90 and Cav-1, and it also likely causes higher endothelial dysfunction in clinical PRRSV-infected lungs.

  1. Sensitive Mie scattering immunoagglutination assay of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from lung tissue samples in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Chang-Hee; Choi, Eun-Jin; Kim, Keesung; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2011-12-01

    A microfluidic immunosensor utilizing Mie scattering immunoaggultination assay was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) from lung tissue samples of domesticated pigs. Antibodies against PRRSV were conjugated to the surface of highly carboxylated polystyrene microparticles (diameter=920nm) and mixed with the diluted PRRSV tissue samples in a Y-shaped microchannel. Antibody-antigen binding induced microparticle immunoagglutination, which was detected by measuring the forward 45° light scattering of 380nm incident beam using microcallipered, proximity fiber optics. For comparison, multi-well experiments were also performed using the same optical detection setup. The detection limit was determined to be 10(-3)TCID(50)ml(-1) for PRRSV dissolved in PBS, while those of previous RT-PCR studies for PRRSV were 10(1)TCID(50)ml(-1) (conventional assays) or <1TCID(50)ml(-1) (quantitative real-time assays). Mie scattering simulations were able to predict the shape of the PRRSV standard curve, indicating that any non-linearity of the standard curve can be interpreted purely as an optical phenomenon. Each assay took less than 5min. A strong correlation could be found between RT-PCR and this method for the lung tissue samples, even though their respective detection mechanisms are different fundamentally (nucleic acids for RT-PCR and virus antigens for light scattering immunoagglutination assay). Several different dilution factors were also tested for tissue samples, and 1/10 and 1/100 were found to be usable. If the microfluidic chips are used only once (i.e. without re-using them), both superior sensitivity and satisfactory specificity can be demonstrated. Specificity studies revealed the presence of Type II PRRSV and non-presence of Type I PRRSV and that the microfluidic chip assay could detect Type II North American strain of PRRSV for the animals tested. This work demonstrates the potential of the Mie

  2. Automated continuous quantitative measurement of proximal airways on dynamic ventilation CT: initial experience using an ex vivo porcine lung phantom

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Tsubakimoto, Maho; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Moriya, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Kotaro; Tsukagoshi, Shinsuke; Inokawa, Hiroyasu; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Teramoto, Ryuichi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of continuous quantitative measurement of the proximal airways, using dynamic ventilation computed tomography (CT) and our research software. Methods A porcine lung that was removed during meat processing was ventilated inside a chest phantom by a negative pressure cylinder (eight times per minute). This chest phantom with imitated respiratory movement was scanned by a 320-row area-detector CT scanner for approximately 9 seconds as dynamic ventilatory scanning. Obtained volume data were reconstructed every 0.35 seconds (total 8.4 seconds with 24 frames) as three-dimensional images and stored in our research software. The software automatically traced a designated airway point in all frames and measured the cross-sectional luminal area and wall area percent (WA%). The cross-sectional luminal area and WA% of the trachea and right main bronchus (RMB) were measured for this study. Two radiologists evaluated the traceability of all measurable airway points of the trachea and RMB using a three-point scale. Results It was judged that the software satisfactorily traced airway points throughout the dynamic ventilation CT (mean score, 2.64 at the trachea and 2.84 at the RMB). From the maximum inspiratory frame to the maximum expiratory frame, the cross-sectional luminal area of the trachea decreased 17.7% and that of the RMB 29.0%, whereas the WA% of the trachea increased 6.6% and that of the RMB 11.1%. Conclusion It is feasible to measure airway dimensions automatically at designated points on dynamic ventilation CT using research software. This technique can be applied to various airway and obstructive diseases. PMID:26445535

  3. Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury due to smoke inhalation and burns.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava; Ivey, Katherine M; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Langer, Thomas; Necsoiu, Corina; Baker, William; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-06-01

    In critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which requires invasive arterial blood gas analysis. Alternative noninvasive technologies include transcutaneous CO2 (tPCO2) and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) monitoring. We evaluated accuracy of tPCO2 and EtCO2 monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury (ALI) due to smoke inhalation and burns. Eight anesthetized Yorkshire pigs underwent mechanical ventilation, wood-bark smoke inhalation injury, and 40% total body surface area thermal injury. tPCO2 was measured with a SenTec system (SenTec AG, Therwil, Switzerland) and EtCO2 with a Capnostream-20 (Oridion Medical, Jerusalem, Israel). These values were compared with PaCO2 measurements from an arterial blood gas analyzer. Paired measurements of EtCO2-PaCO2 (n = 276) and tPCO2-PaCO2 (n = 250) were recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury was defined as PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mmHg; hemodynamic instability was defined as mean arterial pressure ≤ 60 mmHg. Before ALI, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.45; P < 0.0001), which deteriorated after onset of ALI (R = 0.12; P < 0.0001). Before ALI, tPCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation (R = 0.51, P < 0.0001), which was sustained after onset of ALI (R = 0.78; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic stability, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.44; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic instability, EtCO2 did not correlate with PaCO2 (R = 0.03; P = 0.29). tPCO2 monitoring demonstrated strong correlation with PaCO2 during hemodynamic stability (R = 0.80, P < 0.0001), which deteriorated under hemodynamically unstable conditions (R = 0.39; P < 0.0001). Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitors are acceptable for monitoring trends in PaCO2 under conditions of hemodynamic and pulmonary stability. Under

  4. Magnetic resonance elastography of the lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver: correlation of shear stiffness with trans-respiratory system pressures.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with (1) H based magnetic resonance elastography is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (P(ao) ) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different P(ao) values. Mean (±STD error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13), and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for P(ao) values of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm H2O, respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing P(ao) , in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with (1) H magnetic resonance elastography using a noninvasive mechanical driver and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in P(ao) .

  5. Characterization of the porcine synovial fluid proteome and a comparison to the plasma proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Barnaby, Omar; Steen, Hanno; Stensballe, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Synovial fluid is present in all joint cavities, and protects the articular cartilage surfaces in large by lubricating the joint, thus reducing friction. Several studies have described changes in the protein composition of synovial fluid in patients with joint disease. However, the protein concentration, content, and synovial fluid volume change dramatically during active joint diseases and inflammation, and the proteome composition of healthy synovial fluid is incompletely characterized. We performed a normative proteomics analysis of porcine synovial fluid, and report data from optimizing proteomic methods to investigate the proteome of healthy porcine synovial fluid (Bennike et al., 2014 [1]). We included an evaluation of different proteolytic sample preparation techniques, and an analysis of posttranslational modifications with a focus on glycosylation. We used pig (Sus Scrofa) as a model organism, as the porcine immune system is highly similar to human and the pig genome is sequenced. Furthermore, porcine model systems are commonly used large animal models to study several human diseases. In addition, we analyzed the proteome of human plasma, and compared the proteomes to the obtained porcine synovial fluid proteome. The proteome of the two body fluids were found highly similar, underlining the detected plasma derived nature of many synovial fluid components. The healthy porcine synovial fluid proteomics data, human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fluid proteomics data used in the method optimization, human plasma proteomics data, and search results, have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000935. PMID:26543887

  6. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  7. Comparison of lung preservation solutions in human lungs using an ex vivo lung perfusion experimental model.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Israel L; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M; Mariani, Alessandro W; Fernandes, Flávio G; Unterpertinger, Fernando V; Canzian, Mauro; Jatene, Fabio B

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies on lung preservation have always been performed using animal models. We present ex vivo lung perfusion as a new model for the study of lung preservation. Using human lungs instead of animal models may bring the results of experimental studies closer to what could be expected in clinical practice. Brain-dead donors whose lungs had been declined by transplantation teams were used. The cases were randomized into two groups. In Group 1, Perfadex®was used for pulmonary preservation, and in Group 2, LPDnac, a solution manufactured in Brazil, was used. An ex vivo lung perfusion system was used, and the lungs were ventilated and perfused after 10 hours of cold ischemia. The extent of ischemic-reperfusion injury was measured using functional and histological parameters. After reperfusion, the mean oxygenation capacity was 405.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 406.0 mmHg in Group 2 (p = 0.98). The mean pulmonary vascular resistance values were 697.6 and 378.3 dyn·s·cm-5, respectively (p =0.035). The mean pulmonary compliance was 46.8 cm H20 in Group 1 and 49.3 ml/cm H20 in Group 2 (p =0.816). The mean wet/dry weight ratios were 2.06 and 2.02, respectively (p=0.87). The mean Lung Injury Scores for the biopsy performed after reperfusion were 4.37 and 4.37 in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 1.0), and the apoptotic cell counts were 118.75/mm² and 137.50/mm², respectively (p=0.71). The locally produced preservation solution proved to be as good as Perfadex®. The clinical use of LPDnac may reduce costs in our centers. Therefore, it is important to develop new models to study lung preservation.

  8. Feasibility of (68)Ga-labeled Siglec-9 peptide for the imaging of acute lung inflammation: a pilot study in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Retamal, Jaime; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Borges, João Batista; Feinstein, Ricardo; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Antoni, Gunnar; Hedenstierna, Göran; Roivainen, Anne; Larsson, Anders; Velikyan, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for noninvasive, specific and quantitative imaging of inherent inflammatory activity. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) translocates to the luminal surface of endothelial cells upon inflammatory challenge. We hypothesized that in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positron emission tomography (PET) with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) based imaging agent targeting VAP-1 would allow quantification of regional pulmonary inflammation. ARDS was induced by lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamics, respiratory system compliance (Crs) and blood gases were monitored. Dynamic examination using [(15)O]water PET-CT (10 min) was followed by dynamic (90 min) and whole-body examination using VAP-1 targeting (68)Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane-1,4,7-tris-acetic acid-10-ethylene glycol-conjugated Siglec-9 motif peptide ([(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9). The animals received an anti-VAP-1 antibody for post-mortem immunohistochemistry assay of VAP-1 receptors. Tissue samples were collected post-mortem for the radioactivity uptake, histology and immunohistochemistry assessment. Marked reduction of oxygenation and Crs, and higher degree of inflammation were observed in ARDS animals. [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET showed significant uptake in lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. Normalization of the net uptake rate (Ki) for the tissue perfusion resulted in 4-fold higher uptake rate of [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 in the ARDS lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed positive VAP-1 signal in the injured lungs. Detection of pulmonary inflammation associated with a porcine model of ARDS was possible with [(68)Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET when using kinetic modeling and normalization for tissue perfusion.

  9. Feasibility of 68Ga-labeled Siglec-9 peptide for the imaging of acute lung inflammation: a pilot study in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Jaime; Sörensen, Jens; Lubberink, Mark; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Borges, João Batista; Feinstein, Ricardo; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Antoni, Gunnar; Hedenstierna, Göran; Roivainen, Anne; Larsson, Anders; Velikyan, Irina

    2016-01-01

    There is an unmet need for noninvasive, specific and quantitative imaging of inherent inflammatory activity. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) translocates to the luminal surface of endothelial cells upon inflammatory challenge. We hypothesized that in a porcine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), positron emission tomography (PET) with sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) based imaging agent targeting VAP-1 would allow quantification of regional pulmonary inflammation. ARDS was induced by lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Hemodynamics, respiratory system compliance (Crs) and blood gases were monitored. Dynamic examination using [15O]water PET-CT (10 min) was followed by dynamic (90 min) and whole-body examination using VAP-1 targeting 68Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraaza cyclododecane-1,4,7-tris-acetic acid-10-ethylene glycol-conjugated Siglec-9 motif peptide ([68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9). The animals received an anti-VAP-1 antibody for post-mortem immunohistochemistry assay of VAP-1 receptors. Tissue samples were collected post-mortem for the radioactivity uptake, histology and immunohistochemistry assessment. Marked reduction of oxygenation and Crs, and higher degree of inflammation were observed in ARDS animals. [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET showed significant uptake in lungs, kidneys and urinary bladder. Normalization of the net uptake rate (Ki) for the tissue perfusion resulted in 4-fold higher uptake rate of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 in the ARDS lungs. Immunohistochemistry showed positive VAP-1 signal in the injured lungs. Detection of pulmonary inflammation associated with a porcine model of ARDS was possible with [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 PET when using kinetic modeling and normalization for tissue perfusion. PMID:27069763

  10. Identification and examination of a novel 9-bp insert/deletion polymorphism on porcine SFTPA1 exon 2 associated with acute lung injury using an oleic acid-acute lung injury model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuebo; Zhang, Longchao; Wang, Ligang; Qiao, Lijuan; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Lixian

    2015-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant-associated protein (SFTPA1, SP-A) gene has been studied as a candidate gene for lung disease resistance in humans and livestock. The objective of the present study was to identify polymorphisms of the porcine SFTPA1 gene coding region and its association with acute lung injury (ALI). Through DNA sequencing and the PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism method, a novel 9-bp nucleotide insertion (+) or deletion (-) was detected on exon 2 of SFTPA1, which causes a change in three amino acids, namely, alanine (Ala), glycine (Gly) and proline (Pro). Individuals of three genotypes (-/-, +/- and +/+) were divided into equal groups from 60 Rongchang pigs that were genotyped. These pigs were selected for participation in the oleic acid (OA)-ALI model by 1-h and 3-h injections of OA, and there were equal numbers of pigs in the control and injection groups. The lung water content, a marker for acute lung injury, was measured in this study; there is a significant correlation between high lung water content and the presence of the 9-bp indel polymorphism (P < 0.01). The lung water content of the OA injection group was markedly higher than that of the control group and lung water content for the +/+ genotype was significantly higher than that of the others in the 1-h group (P < 0.01). No differences in the expression of the SFTPA1 gene were found among individuals with different SFTPA1 genotypes, indicating that the trait is not caused by a linked polymorphism causing altered expression of the gene. The individuals with the -/- genotype showed lower lung water content than the +/+ genotype pigs, which suggests that polymorphism could be a potential marker for lung disease-resistant pig breeding and that pig can be a potential animal model for human lung disease resistance in future studies.

  11. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    SciTech Connect

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  12. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination.

    PubMed

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive

  13. Porcine gonadogenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  14. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Chinese and low virulent US porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, a new strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has resulted in huge economic losses in the Chinese pig industry. We imported a cDNA clone of the rJXwn06 Chinese strain from which infectious virus was obtained to test the hypothesis that the novel Chinese PRRSV ...

  15. Comparison of the biomechanical tensile and compressive properties of decellularised and natural porcine meniscus.

    PubMed

    Abdelgaied, A; Stanley, M; Galfe, M; Berry, H; Ingham, E; Fisher, J

    2015-06-01

    Meniscal repair is widely used as a treatment for meniscus injury. However, where meniscal damage has progressed such that repair is not possible, approaches for partial meniscus replacement are now being developed which have the potential to restore the functional role of the meniscus, in stabilising the knee joint, absorbing and distributing stress during loading, and prevent early degenerative joint disease. One attractive potential solution to the current lack of meniscal replacements is the use of decellularised natural biological scaffolds, derived from xenogeneic tissues, which are produced by treating the native tissue to remove the immunogenic cells. The current study investigated the effect of decellularisation on the biomechanical tensile and compressive (indentation and unconfined) properties of the porcine medial meniscus through an experimental-computational approach. The results showed that decellularised medial porcine meniscus maintained the tensile biomechanical properties of the native meniscus, but had lower tensile initial elastic modulus. In compression, decellularised medial porcine meniscus generally showed lower elastic modulus and higher permeability compared to that of the native meniscus. These changes in the biomechanical properties, which ranged from less than 1% to 40%, may be due to the reduction of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) content during the decellularisation process. The predicted biomechanical properties for the decellularised medial porcine meniscus were within the reported range for the human meniscus, making it an appropriate biological scaffold for consideration as a partial meniscus replacement.

  16. Comparison of 2 serologic tests for the diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare results from 2 serological assays at the individual- and herd-level for porcine proliferative enteropathy diagnosis. Cohen’s kappa coefficient (k) was used to measure agreement. The tests tend to show better agreement when used at the herd level. PMID:16018563

  17. Genomic sequence and virulence comparison of four type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a ubiquitous and costly virus that exhibits substantial sequence and virulence disparity among diverse isolates. In this study, we compared the whole genomic sequence and virulence of 4 North American Type 2 PRRSV isolates. Among the 4 i...

  18. Comparison of fresh and cultured islets from human and porcine pancreata.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Naziruddin, B; Shimoda, M; Fujita, Y; Chujo, D; Takita, M; Peng, H; Sugimoto, K; Itoh, T; Tamura, Y; Olsen, G S; Kobayashi, N; Onaca, N; Levy, M F; Matsumoto, S

    2010-01-01

    For clinical islet transplantation, many centers have recently introduced of human islet cultures prior to transplantation. They provide flexibility to evaluate isolated islets and pretreat patients. However, isolated islets deteriorate rapidly in culture. In the present study, we compared fresh human and porcine islets with cultured islets for c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Islet isolations from human and porcine pancreata were performed using the standard Ricordi technique with a modified Edmonton protocol. Isolated islets cultured for 24 hours at 37 degrees C with 5% CO(2) in culture medium were evaluated for counts and JNK activity. After 24 hours of culture, the percentages of surviving islets were 86.9% for human and 47.3% for porcine sources. JNK activity in isolated islets declined to a low baseline level after 24-hour culture. Both human and porcine islets deteriorated rapidly in 24-hour cultures, although the in vitro conditions did not induce JNK activation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines used in piglets.

    PubMed

    da Silva, N; Carriquiry, A; O'Neill, K; Opriessnig, T; O'Connor, A M

    2014-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination is globally one of the most commonly used intervention strategies in growing pigs since several products became commercially available in 2006. While multiple trials have described the efficacy of individual PCV2 vaccines relative to non-vaccination, few studies provide product-to-product comparisons of efficacy. Given the well-documented efficacy of PCV2 vaccines, information about the comparative efficacy of available vaccines is more relevant to producers and veterinarians than comparison to non-vaccination. The objective of this study was to provide comparative estimates of changes in average daily gain effect associated with the use of the commercially available PCV2 vaccines. PubMed, CAB Abstracts, AGRICOLA, the USA Department of Agriculture Center for Veterinary Biologics database of licenses and provisions, and the proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, the Allen D. Leman Swine Conference, the Iowa State University Swine Disease Conference for Swine Practitioners, and the International Pig Veterinary Society Congress were used as the sources of information. Trials of licensed PCV2 vaccines administered according to manufacturers' specifications to intensively raised piglets with a known herd porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) status were considered relevant to the meta-analysis. Relevant studies had to report average daily gain (ADG) from weaning to finish and PCV2 infection had to be naturally occurring.

  20. Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging for the determination of tumour movement and its evaluation using a dynamic porcine lung phantom.

    PubMed

    Remmert, G; Biederer, J; Lohberger, F; Fabel, M; Hartmann, G H

    2007-09-21

    A method of four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been implemented and evaluated. It consists of retrospective sorting and slice stacking of two-dimensional (2D) images using an external signal for motion monitoring of the object to be imaged. The presented method aims to determine the tumour trajectories based on a signal that is appropriate for monitoring the movement of the target volume during radiotherapy such that the radiation delivery can be adapted to the movement. For evaluation of the 4D-MRI method, it has been applied to a dynamic lung phantom, which exhibits periodic respiratory movement of a porcine heart-lung explant with artificial pulmonary nodules. Anatomic changes of the lung phantom caused by respiratory motion have been quantified, revealing hysteresis. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the presented method of 4D-MRI. In particular, it enables the determination of trajectories of periodically moving objects with an uncertainty in the order of 1 mm.

  1. NOTE: Four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging for the determination of tumour movement and its evaluation using a dynamic porcine lung phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmert, G.; Biederer, J.; Lohberger, F.; Fabel, M.; Hartmann, G. H.

    2007-09-01

    A method of four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been implemented and evaluated. It consists of retrospective sorting and slice stacking of two-dimensional (2D) images using an external signal for motion monitoring of the object to be imaged. The presented method aims to determine the tumour trajectories based on a signal that is appropriate for monitoring the movement of the target volume during radiotherapy such that the radiation delivery can be adapted to the movement. For evaluation of the 4D-MRI method, it has been applied to a dynamic lung phantom, which exhibits periodic respiratory movement of a porcine heart-lung explant with artificial pulmonary nodules. Anatomic changes of the lung phantom caused by respiratory motion have been quantified, revealing hysteresis. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the presented method of 4D-MRI. In particular, it enables the determination of trajectories of periodically moving objects with an uncertainty in the order of 1 mm.

  2. An innovative approach to induce cross-protective immunity against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in the lungs of pigs through adjuvanted nanotechnology-based vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Binjawadagi, Basavaraj; Dwivedi, Varun; Manickam, Cordelia; Ouyang, Kang; Torrelles, Jordi B; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating respiratory disease of pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus which is a highly mutating RNA virus. Widely used modified live PRRSV vaccines have failed to prevent PRRS outbreaks and reinfections; moreover, safety of the live virus vaccines is questionable. Though poorly immunogenic, inactivated PRRSV vaccine is safe. The PRRSV infects primarily the lung macrophages. Therefore, we attempted to strengthen the immunogenicity of inactivated/killed PRRSV vaccine antigens (KAg), especially in the pig respiratory system, through: 1) entrapping the KAg in biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP-KAg); 2) coupling the NP-KAg with a potent mucosal adjuvant, whole cell lysate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb WCL); and 3) delivering the vaccine formulation twice intranasally to growing pigs. We have previously shown that a single dose of NP-KAg partially cleared the challenged heterologous PRRSV. Recently, we reported that NP-KAg coupled with unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared the viremia of challenged heterologous PRRSV. Since PRRSV is primarily a lung disease, our goal in this study was to investigate lung viral load and various immune correlates of protection at the lung mucosal surfaces and its parenchyma in vaccinated heterologous PRRSV-challenged pigs. Our results indicated that out of five different vaccine-adjuvant formulations, the combination of NP-KAg and unentrapped M. tb WCL significantly cleared detectable replicating infective PRRSV with a tenfold reduction in viral RNA load in the lungs, associated with substantially reduced gross and microscopic lung pathology. Immunologically, strong humoral (enhanced virus neutralization titers by high avidity antibodies) and cell-mediated immune responses (augmented population of interferon-γ secreting CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and reduced secretion of immunosuppressive

  3. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas ARDS Porcine Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    damaged membrane into the lung. When the lymphatic clearance capacity of the lung is exceeded, pulmonary edema occurs and the clinical picture seen in...pigs given intravenous live Pseudomonas. The method has been used in clinical trials with success to differentiate between cardiogenic and...noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (4). This method of the determination of pulmonary leak along with the measure- ment of extravascular lung water by the indicator

  4. An experimental study of the recovery of injured porcine lungs with prolonged normothermic cellular ex vivo lung perfusion following donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    Spratt, John R; Mattison, Lars M; Iaizzo, Paul A; Brown, Roland Z; Helms, Haylie; Iles, Tinen L; Howard, Brian; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Loor, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is an underused source of donor lungs. Normothermic cellular ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is effective in preserving standard donor lungs but may also be useful in the preservation and assessment of DCD lungs. Using a model of DCD and prolonged EVLP, the effects of donor warm ischemia and postmortem ventilation on graft recovery were evaluated. Adult male swine underwent general anesthesia and heparinization. In the control group (n = 4), cardioplegic arrest was induced and the lungs were procured immediately. In the four treatment groups, a period of agonal hypoxia was followed by either 1 h of warm ischemia with (n = 4) or without (n = 4) ventilation or 2 h of warm ischemia with (n = 4) or without (n = 4) ventilation. All lungs were studied on an EVLP platform for 24 h. Hemodynamic measures, compliance, and oxygenation on EVLP were worse in all DCD lungs compared with controls. Hemodynamics and compliance normalized in all lungs after 24 h of EVLP, but DCD lungs demonstrated impaired oxygenation. Normothermic cellular EVLP is effective in preserving and monitoring of DCD lungs. Early donor postmortem ventilation and timely procurement lead to improved graft function. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  5. Administration of intrapulmonary sodium polyacrylate to induce lung injury for the development of a porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Henderson, William R; Barnbrook, Julian; Dominelli, Paolo B; Griesdale, Donald Eg; Arndt, Tara; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen; Ackland, Gareth L; Xu, James; Ayas, Najib T; Sheel, Andrew W

    2014-12-01

    The loss of alveolar epithelial and endothelial integrity is a central component in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, experimental models investigating the mechanisms of epithelial injury are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to design and develop an experimental porcine model of ARDS by inducing lung injury with intrapulmonary administration of sodium polyacrylate (SPA). The present study was performed at the Centre for Comparative Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Human alveolar epithelial cells were cultured with several different concentrations of SPA; a bioluminescence technique was used to assess cell death associated with each concentration. In the anesthetized pig model (female Yorkshire X pigs (n = 14)), lung injury was caused in 11 animals (SPA group) by injecting sequential aliquots (5 mL) of 1% SPA gel in aqueous solution into the distal airway via a rubber catheter through an endotracheal tube. The SPA was dispersed throughout the lungs by manual bag ventilation. Three control animals (CON group) underwent all experimental procedures and measurements with the exception of SPA administration. The mean (± SD) ATP concentration after incubation of human alveolar epithelial cells with 0.1% SPA (0.92 ± 0.27 μM/well) was approximately 15% of the value found for the background control (6.30 ± 0.37 μM/well; p < 0.001). Elastance of the respiratory system (E RS) and the lung (E L) increased in SPA-treated animals after injury (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Chest wall elastance (E CW) did not change in SPA-treated animals. There were no differences in E RS, E L, or E CW in the CON group when pre- and post-injury values were compared. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a significant shift toward neutrophil predominance from before to after injury in SPA-treated animals (p < 0.001) but not in the CON group (p = 0.38). Necropsy revealed

  6. Comparison of normothermic and hypothermic perfusion in porcine kidneys donated after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Blum, Matthew F; Liu, Qiang; Soliman, Basem; Dreher, Paul; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Poggio, Emilio D; Goldfarb, David A; Baldwin, William M; Quintini, Cristiano

    2017-08-01

    Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is an alternative strategy for preserving kidneys donated after cardiac death (DCD). The relative efficacy of prolonged NMP compared to hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) in DCD kidneys with moderate ischemic injury is undetermined. This study compares NMP and HMP kidney preservation in a porcine DCD model. Ten porcine kidneys underwent NMP or HMP preservation following 45 minutes of warm ischemia and 5 hours of cold ischemia. After 8 hours of machine preservation, hemodynamic stability, renal function, perfusate biomarkers, and histologic integrity were assessed in a simulated reperfusion model. During simulated reperfusion, no differences were observed in oxygen consumption, urine production, creatinine clearance, fractional excretion of sodium, proteinuria, and perfusate levels of lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase. Resistance was no different after 30 minutes of simulated reperfusion. Histologically, NMP kidneys demonstrated increased vacuolization after preservation and greater loss of tubular integrity after simulated reperfusion. Perfusate levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were higher in NMP kidneys during preservation, but upon simulated reperfusion, AP and GGT levels were higher in HMP-preserved kidneys. Peak AP and GGT during simulated reperfusion of HMP kidneys were over 14 times higher than peak AP and GGT during preservation of NMP kidneys. NMP provided comparable preservation of renal function as HMP and minimized AP and GGT release upon reperfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome field viruses against homologous and heterologous challenge.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyuhyung; Park, Changhoon; Jeong, Jiwoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare protection provided by type 1 and type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) against homologous and heterologous challenge based on clinical, virological, immunological, and pathological analysis. At 3 and 8 weeks of age, pigs were inoculated intranasally with either 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 1 PRRSV or 3mL of tissue culture fluid containing 10(5) TCID50/mL of type 2 PRRSV. The homologous challenges resulted in a significant boost of the neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) compared to heterologous challenges. The reduction of secondary challenging PRRSV viremia coincided with the appearance of homologous PRRSV-specific NA and IFN-γ-SC. Homologous challenge reduced the severity of lung lesions and levels of PRRSV viremia significantly in pigs in comparison with heterologous challenge. The differences in homologous and heterologous NA and IFN-γ-SC response may explain the differences in protection against homologous and heterologous challenge between type 1 and type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge (immunization) with type 1 PRRSV provided protection against the secondary homologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV but failed to provide protection against the secondary heterologous challenge of type 2 PRRSV. Primary challenge with type 2 PRRSV provided protection against both the secondary homologous challenge with type 2 PRRSV and the secondary heterologous challenge with type 1 PRRSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Aerobic Preservation by Venous Systemic Oxygen Persufflation or Oxygenated Machine Perfusion of Warm-Ischemia-Damaged Porcine Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Kalenski, Julia; Mancina, Elina; Paschenda, Pascal; Beckers, Christian; Bleilevens, Christian; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Boor, Peter; Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H; Doorschodt, Benedict M

    2016-01-01

    The global shortage of donor organs for transplantation has necessitated the expansion of the organ pool through increased use of organs from less ideal donors. Venous systemic oxygen persufflation (VSOP) and oxygenated machine perfusion (OMP) have previously demonstrated beneficial results compared to cold storage (CS) in the preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged kidney grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of VSOP and OMP for the preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged porcine kidneys using the recently introduced Ecosol preservation solution compared to CS using Ecosol or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (HTK). Kidneys from German Landrace pigs (n = 5/group) were retrieved and washed out with either Ecosol or HTK after 45 min of clamping of the renal pedicle. As controls, kidneys without warm ischemia, cold stored for 24 h in HTK, were employed. Following 24 h of preservation by VSOP, OMP, CS-Ecosol, or CS-HTK, renal function and damage were assessed during 1 h using the isolated perfused porcine kidney model. During reperfusion, urine production was significantly higher in the VSOP and OMP groups than in the CS-HTK group; however, only VSOP could demonstrate lower urine protein concentrations and fractional excretion of sodium, which did not differ from the non-warm-ischemia-damaged control group. VSOP, CS-Ecosol, and controls showed better maintenance of the acid-base balance than CS-HTK. Reduced lipid peroxidation, as reflected in postreperfusion tissue thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, was observed in the VSOP group compared to the OMP group, and the VSOP and CS-Ecosol groups had concentrations similar to the controls. The ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione was higher in the VSOP, OMP, and CS-Ecosol groups than in the CS-HTK group and controls, with a higher ratio in the VSOP than in the OMP group. VSOP was associated with mitigation of oxidative stress in comparison to OMP and CS. Preservation of warm

  9. Comparison of lentiviruses pseudotyped with S proteins from coronaviruses and cell tropisms of porcine coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Feng; Ye, Gang; Dong, Wanyu; Zheng, Anjun; He, Qigai; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-02-01

    The surface glycoproteins of coronaviruses play an important role in receptor binding and cell entry. Different coronaviruses interact with their specific receptors to enter host cells. Lentiviruses pseudotyped with their spike proteins (S) were compared to analyze the entry efficiency of various coronaviruses. Our results indicated that S proteins from different coronaviruses displayed varied abilities to mediate pseudotyped virus infection. Furthermore, the cell tropisms of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) have been characterized by live and pseudotyped viruses. Both live and pseudoviruses could infected Vero- CCL-81 (monkey kidney), Huh-7 (human liver), and PK-15 (pig kidney) cells efficiently. CCL94 (cat kidney) cells could be infected efficiently by TGEV but not PEDV. Overall, our study provides new insights into the mechanisms of viral entry and forms a basis for antiviral drug screening.

  10. Comparison of gene expression profiles of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shohei; Okutani, Mie; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare gene expression patterns of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. ANIMALS 10 multiparous sows. PROCEDURES Cytotoxic and CD4-CD8 double-positive T cells were separated from porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. Total RNA was extracted. The cDNA prepared from RNA was amplified, labeled, fragmented, and competitively hybridized to DNA microarray slides. The DNA microarray data were validated by use of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay, and expression of the genes FOS, NFKBI, IFNG, CXCR6, CCR5, ITGB2, CCR7, and SELL was assessed. Finally, DNA microarray data were validated at the protein level by use of flow cytometry via expression of c-Fos and integrin β-2. RESULTS Evaluation of gene expression profiles indicated that in contrast to results for peripheral blood, numerous cell-signaling pathways might be activated in colostrum. Profile analysis also revealed that FOS and NFKBI (genes of transcription factors) were involved in most cell-signaling pathways and that expression of these genes was significantly higher in colostral T cells than in peripheral blood T cells. Furthermore, CCR7 and SELL (genes of T-cell differentiation markers) in colostral T cells had expression patterns extremely similar to those found in effector or effector memory T cells. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All or most of the T cells in colostrum had an effector-like phenotype and thus were more activated than those in peripheral blood. This gene expression profile would enable T cells to migrate to mammary glands, be secreted in colostrum, and likely contribute to passive immunity provided by sows to newborn pigs.

  11. Comparison between cryopreserved and glycerol-preserved allografts in a partial-thickness porcine wound model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Cheonjae; Lim, Kihwan; Lee, Sungjun; Choi, Yanghwan; Choi, Youngwhan; Lee, Jungsuk

    2016-03-01

    Human skin allografts are one of the best temporary biological coverings for severely burned patients. Cryopreserved (CPA) and glycerol-preserved (GPA) allografts are the most widely used types. This study compared the allograft efficiency of both preservation methods under the same conditions. To simulate actual clinical conditions, we used a porcine wound model. In addition, we evaluated the macroscopic and microscopic scoring of graft performance for each method. Porcine cadaver skin 1 mm thick was obtained from one pig. Cryopreserved skin cell viability was 20.8 %, glycerol-preserved skin was 9.08 %, and fresh skin was 58.6 %. We made ten partial-thickness wounds each in two pigs. The take rates on day 2 were 96.23 and 82.65 % in the GPA and CPA group (both n = 9), respectively. After 1 week, the take rates of both groups were nearly equal. The removal rate at week 5 was 98.87 and 94.41 % in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. On microscopic findings at week 2, inflammation was greater in the CPA group. Other findings such as fibroblast hyperplasia and neovascularization were not significantly different between both groups. At week 5, the score of collagen fiber synthesis was 2.67 ± 0.47 and 2.33 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. The epidermal-dermal junction was 2.22 ± 0.79 and 2.00 ± 0.47 in the GPA and CPA group, respectively. These findings suggest that wound healing takes longer in the CPA group. The preservation method of allografts is not a absolute factor in the wound healing process in this wound model.

  12. Effects of Pharmacologic Intervention on Oxygenation, Lung Water and Protein Leak in the Pseudomonas Ards Porcine Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    during the Korean conflict and Da-Nang lung in the Viet Nam war, and now recognized as ARD%ýresults from blast injuries, direct lung contusion, burn ...protocol with the addition of pre-Pseudomonas baseline scintigraphy. Though the animals developed a characteristic ARDS following psuedomonas infusion...1980. 6. Heindel, N.D. : Principles of target tissue localization of radiopharma- ceuticals. In: Heindel, N.D., Burns . H.D., Honda, T., Brady, L.W. (eds

  13. Comparison of Celsior and Perfadex lung preservation solutions in rat lungs subjected to 6 and 12 hours of ischemia using an ex-vivo lung perfusion system.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Arteiro Queiroz; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Braga, Karina Andrighetti de Oliveira; Nepomuceno, Natalia Aparecida; Pazetti, Rogerio; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Canzian, Mauro; Santim, Jacqueline Klarosk; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluated the performance of lungs that were preserved with different solutions (Celsior, Perfadex or saline) in an ex vivo rat lung perfusion system. Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, anticoagulated and randomized into three groups (n = 20). The rats were subjected to antegrade perfusion via the pulmonary artery with Perfadex, Celsior, or saline, followed by 6 or 12 hours of ischemia (4ºC, n = 10 in each group). Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were measured at 10-minute intervals during the reperfusion of heart-lung blocks in an ex vivo system (IL2-Isolated Perfused Rat or Guinea Pig Lung System, Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, Massachusetts, USA; Hugo Sachs Elektronik, Germany) for 60 minutes. The lungs were prepared for histopathology and evaluated for edema following reperfusion. Group comparisons were performed using ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test with a 5% level of significance. Gas exchange was not significantly different between lungs perfused with either Perfadex or Celsior at the same ischemic times, but it was very low in lungs that were preserved with saline. Airway resistance was greater in the lungs that were preserved for 12 hours. Celsior lungs that were preserved for 6 and 12 hours exhibited lower airway resistance (p = 0.01) compared to Perfadex lungs. Pulmonary artery pressure was not different between the groups, and no significant differences in histopathology and apoptosis were observed between the groups. Lungs that were preserved with Celsior or Perfadex exhibited similar gas exchange and histopathological findings. Airway resistance was slightly lower in the Celsior-preserved lungs compared with the Perfadex-preserved lungs.

  14. Treatment of pleural malignancies by photo-induction combined to systemic chemotherapy: Proof of concept on rodent lung tumors and feasibility study on porcine chest cavities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingyu; Gronchi, Fabrizio; Bensimon, Michael; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent Arthur; Wagnières, Georges; Debefve, Elodie; Ris, Hans-Beat; Letovanec, Igor; Peters, Solange; Perentes, Jean Yannis

    2015-12-01

    Low-dose, Visudyne®-mediated photodynamic therapy (photo-induction) was shown to selectively enhance tumor vessel transport causing increased uptake of systemically administered chemotherapy in various tumor types grown on rodent lungs. The present experiments explore the efficacy of photo-induced vessel modulation combined to intravenous (IV) liposomal cisplatin (Lipoplatin®) on rodent lung tumors and the feasibility/toxicity of this approach in porcine chest cavities. Three groups of Fischer rats underwent orthotopic sarcoma (n = 14), mesothelioma (n = 14), or adenocarcinoma (n = 12) implantation on the left lung. Half of the animals of each group had photo-induction (0.0625 mg/kg Visudyne®, 10 J/cm(2) ) followed by IV administration of Lipoplatin® (5 mg/kg) and the other half received Lipoplatin® without photo-induction. Then, two groups of minipigs underwent intrapleural thoracoscopic (VATS) photo-induction (0.0625 mg/kg Visudyne®; 30 J/cm(2) hilum; 10 J/cm(2) apex/diaphragm) with in situ light dosimetry in combination with IV Lipoplatin® administration (5 mg/kg). Protocol I (n = 6) received Lipoplatin® immediately after light delivery and Protocol II (n = 9) 90 minutes before light delivery. Three additional animals received Lipoplatin® and VATS pleural biopsies but no photo-induction (controls). Lipoplatin® concentrations were analyzed in blood and tissues before and at regular intervals after photo-induction using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Photo-induction selectively increased Lipoplatin® uptake in all orthotopic tumors. It significantly increased the ratio of tumor to lung Lipoplatin® concentration in sarcoma (P = 0.0008) and adenocarcinoma (P = 0.01) but not in mesothelioma, compared to IV drug application alone. In minipigs, intrapleural photo-induction combined to systemic Lipoplatin® was well tolerated with no toxicity at 7 days for both treatment protocols. The pleural

  15. Data for identification of porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, by genomic comparison with human and mouse XIC

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The data included in this article shows homologies of genes in porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, to each orthologue in human and mouse XIC. Open sequences of XIC-linked genes in human and mouse were compared to porcine genome and sequence homology of each orthologue to porcine genome was calculated. Sequence information of porcine genes encoded in the genomic regions having sequence homology with the human XIC-linked genes and their 2 Kb upstream regions were downloaded. Obtained information was used to design primer pairs for expression and methylation pattern analyses of XIC-linked genes in pigs. The data represented in here is related and applied to the research article entitled “Dosage compensation of X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC,-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos: Non-chromosome wide initiation of X-chromosome inactivation in blastocysts”, published in Mechanisms of Development Hwang et al., 2015 [1]. PMID:26793753

  16. Data for identification of porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, by genomic comparison with human and mouse XIC.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    The data included in this article shows homologies of genes in porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, to each orthologue in human and mouse XIC. Open sequences of XIC-linked genes in human and mouse were compared to porcine genome and sequence homology of each orthologue to porcine genome was calculated. Sequence information of porcine genes encoded in the genomic regions having sequence homology with the human XIC-linked genes and their 2 Kb upstream regions were downloaded. Obtained information was used to design primer pairs for expression and methylation pattern analyses of XIC-linked genes in pigs. The data represented in here is related and applied to the research article entitled "Dosage compensation of X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC,-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos: Non-chromosome wide initiation of X-chromosome inactivation in blastocysts", published in Mechanisms of Development Hwang et al., 2015 [1].

  17. Comparison of purified olive oil and silver sulfadiazine in the treatment of partial thickness porcine burns.

    PubMed

    Gurfinkel, Reuven; Palivatkel-Naim, Merav; Gleisinger, Ronen; Rosenberg, Lior; Singer, Adam J

    2012-01-01

    Burns are widespread in the developed world, and expensive burn dressings are not universally available. Most burn patients suffer from a partial thickness burn that can be treated conservatively. Nevertheless, the ideal dressing for the burn wound has not been identified. We performed an animal experiment to compare the healing of partial thickness burns treated with silver sulfadiazine (SSD) and olive oil. A randomized controlled animal experiment was conducted on 3 anesthetized domestic pigs in which 51 partial thickness burns were created using a metal bar heated to 400°C and applied to the dorsum of the animals for 20 seconds. The burns were treated every other day with SSD cream (n = 16), purified olive oil (n = 20), or no topical therapy at all (n = 15). Assessment of wound healing was done by drawing and scanning the margins of the wound at the endpoint of the experiment. The remaining open wound area was then calculated using Scion Image version beta 4.0.2 (Scion, Frederick, Md), and the results were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA test. Burns treated with SSD healed faster than control burns (P < .05). There were no differences in the healing rates of wounds treated with olive oil versus controls or SSD. There were no wound infections in any of the 3 study groups. Treatment of partial thickness burns with purified olive oil did not result in faster healing when compared with SSD or dry gauze in a porcine model. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-01-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar. PMID:2024954

  19. Comparison of methods for in vitro testing of susceptibility of porcine Mycoplasma species to antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Ter Laak, E A; Pijpers, A; Noordergraaf, J H; Schoevers, E C; Verheijden, J H

    1991-02-01

    The MICs of 18 antimicrobial agents used against strains of three porcine Mycoplasma species were determined by a serial broth dilution method. Twenty field strains of M. hyorhinis, ten field strains of M. hyopneumoniae, six field strains of M. flocculare, and the type strains of these species were tested. Twelve field strains and the type strain of M. hyorhinis were also tested by an agar dilution method. Tests were read at various time points. When the broth dilution method was used, the final MIC had to be read 2 days after color changes had stopped. MICs of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline were low for the three Mycoplasma species tested. MICs of chlortetracycline were 8 to 16 times higher than MICs of the other tetracyclines. Spiramycin, tylosin, kitasamycin, spectinomycin, tiamulin, lincomycin, and clindamycin were effective against all strains of M. hyorhinis and M. hyopneumoniae. The quinolones were highly effective against M. hyopneumoniae but less effective against M. hyorhinis. The susceptibility patterns for M. hyopneumoniae and M. flocculare were similar.

  20. Comparison of viscoelastic properties of suture versus porcine mitral valve chordae tendineae.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R P; Kunzelman, K S

    1991-12-01

    Recent reports have advocated the use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) suture for replacement or reinforcement of ruptured or elongated mitral valve chordae tendineae. The mechanical properties of PTFE (Gore-Tex) and other sutures were determined and compared to those of porcine mitral valve chordae. The results were analyzed to assess how closely chordal mechanical function may be simulated by synthetic suture materials. Chordae tendineae and suture samples were tested in uniaxial tension using an INSTRON Model 1000 at strain rates of 5 and 10 mm/min. The stress (g/mm2) was plotted versus strain, and the elastic modulus determined as the slope of the curve. Chordae tendineae exhibited a nonlinear viscoelastic stress/strain behavior. The elastic modulus of both suture types tested was significantly higher than that of the chordae. However, the PTFE suture did exhibit some viscoelastic characteristics (hysteresis and creep) that begin to approach the chordal behavior. Chordal viscoelastic behavior results from the inherent composite structure (collagen, elastin, endothelium, water, and ground substance). As yet, no synthetic materials are able to imitate this behavior with the appropriate tensile strength and fatigue resistant characteristics. At present, PTFE appears to be the best synthetic alternative for chordal replacement, due to its limited viscoelastic capabilities. Nevertheless, the need to more nearly approximate the mechanical behavior of mitral valve chordae tendineae with synthetic material warrants further investigation.

  1. Maximum imaging depth comparison in porcine vocal folds using 776-nm vs. 1552-nm excitation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Murat; Ferhanoglu, Onur; Kobler, James B.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2013-02-01

    Vocal fold scarring is one of the major causes of voice disorders and may arise from overuse or post-surgical wound healing. One promising treatment utilizes the injection of soft biomaterials aimed at restoring viscoelasticity of the outermost vibratory layer of the vocal fold, superficial lamina propria (SLP). However, the density of the tissue and the required injection pressure impair proper localization of the injected biomaterial in SLP. To enhance treatment effectiveness, we are investigating a technique to image and ablate sub-epithelial planar voids in vocal folds using ultrafast laser pulses to better localize the injected biomaterial. It is challenging to optimize the excitation wavelength to perform imaging and ablation at depths suitable for clinical use. Here, we compare maximum imaging depth using two photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation with third-harmonic generation imaging modalities for healthy porcine vocal folds. We used a home-built inverted nonlinear scanning microscope together with a high repetition rate (2 MHz) ultrafast fiber laser (Raydiance Inc.). We acquired both two-photon autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signals using 776 nm wavelength and third harmonic generation signals using 1552 nm excitation wavelength. We observed that maximum imaging depth with 776 nm wavelength is significantly improved from 114 μm to 205 μm when third harmonic generation is employed using 1552 nm wavelength, without any observable damage in the tissue.

  2. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Porcine Elastase. This enzyme is associated with the degradation of lung tissue in people suffering from emphysema. It is useful in studying causes of this disease. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Charles Bugg.

  3. Budesonide added to modified porcine surfactant Curosurf may additionally improve the lung functions in meconium aspiration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mikolka, P; Mokrá, D; Kopincová, J; Tomčíková-Mikušiaková, L; Calkovská, A

    2013-01-01

    Severe meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) in newborns is often treated by exogenous surfactant. Because its efficacy is reduced by meconium-induced inflammation, glucocorticoid budesonide was added into surfactant preparation Curosurf to enhance efficacy of the surfactant therapy in experimental model of MAS. Oxygen-ventilated rabbits were intratracheally given meconium (25 mg/ml, 4 ml/kg) to induce respiratory failure. Thirty minutes later, animals were treated by intratracheal budesonide (0.25 mg/kg) or surfactant lung lavage (10 ml/kg, 5 mg phospholipids/ml) repeated twice, followed by undiluted Curosurf (100 mg phospholipids/kg) or by the above mentioned surfactant treatment with the last surfactant dose fortified with budesonide (0.25 mg/kg) or were untreated. Animals were ventilated for additional 5 hours and respiratory parameters were measured regularly. After sacrificing animals, wet-dry lung weight ratio was evaluated and plasma levels of interleukins (IL)-1beta, -6, -8, and TNF-alpha were measured by ELISA method. Efficacy of the given therapies to enhance lung functions and to diminish lung edema formation and inflammation increased from budesonide-only and surfactant-only therapy to surfactant+budesonide therapy. Combined therapy improved gas exchange from 30 min of administration, and showed a longer-lasting effect than surfactant-only therapy. In conclusions, budesonide additionally improved the effects of exogenous surfactant in experimental MAS.

  4. Ex vivo rehabilitation of non-heart-beating donor lungs in preclinical porcine model: delayed perfusion results in superior lung function.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, Daniel P; Stone, Matthew L; Crosby, Ivan K; Lapar, Damien J; Sharma, Ashish K; Webb, David V; Lau, Christine L; Laubach, Victor E; Kron, Irving L

    2012-11-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a promising modality for the evaluation and treatment of marginal donor lungs. The optimal timing of EVLP initiation and the potential for rehabilitation of donor lungs with extended warm ischemic times is unknown. The present study compared the efficacy of different treatment strategies for uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs. Mature swine underwent hypoxic arrest, followed by 60 minutes of no-touch warm ischemia. The lungs were harvested and flushed with 4°C Perfadex. Three groups (n = 5/group) were stratified according to the preservation method: cold static preservation (CSP; 4 hours of 4°C storage), immediate EVLP (I-EVLP: 4 hours EVLP at 37°C), and delayed EVLP (D-EVLP; 4 hours of CSP followed by 4 hours of EVLP). The EVLP groups were perfused with Steen solution supplemented with heparin, methylprednisolone, cefazolin, and an adenosine 2A receptor agonist. The lungs then underwent allotransplantation and 4 hours of recipient reperfusion before allograft assessment for resultant ischemia-reperfusion injury. The donor blood oxygenation (partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio) before death was not different between the groups. The oxygenation after transplantation was significantly greater in the D-EVLP group than in the I-EVLP or CSP groups. The mean airway pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and expression of interleukin-8, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α were all significantly reduced in the D-EVLP group. Post-transplant oxygenation exceeded the acceptable clinical levels only in the D-EVLP group. Uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs with extended warm ischemia can be reconditioned for successful transplantation. The combination of CSP and EVLP in the D-EVLP group was necessary to obtain optimal post-transplant function. This finding, if confirmed clinically, will allow expanded use of nonheart-beating donor lungs. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic

  5. Development of an ex vivo porcine lung model for studying growth, virulence, and signaling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Freya; Muruli, Aneesha; Higgins, Steven; Diggle, Stephen P

    2014-08-01

    Research into chronic infection by bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses various in vitro and live host models. While these have increased our understanding of pathogen growth, virulence, and evolution, each model has certain limitations. In vitro models cannot recapitulate the complex spatial structure of host organs, while experiments on live hosts are limited in terms of sample size and infection duration for ethical reasons; live mammal models also require specialized facilities which are costly to run. To address this, we have developed an ex vivo pig lung (EVPL) model for quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, quorum sensing (QS), virulence factor production, and tissue damage in an environment that mimics a chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. In a first test of our model, we show that lasR mutants, which do not respond to 3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS, exhibit reduced virulence factor production in EVPL. We also show that lasR mutants grow as well as or better than a corresponding wild-type strain in EVPL. lasR mutants frequently and repeatedly arise during chronic CF lung infection, but the evolutionary forces governing their appearance and spread are not clear. Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lasR mutants act as social "cheats" in the lung; rather, our results support the hypothesis that lasR mutants are more adapted to the lung environment. More generally, this model will facilitate improved studies of microbial disease, especially studies of how cells of the same and different species interact in polymicrobial infections in a spatially structured environment. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Development of an Ex Vivo Porcine Lung Model for Studying Growth, Virulence, and Signaling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Muruli, Aneesha; Higgins, Steven; Diggle, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Research into chronic infection by bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uses various in vitro and live host models. While these have increased our understanding of pathogen growth, virulence, and evolution, each model has certain limitations. In vitro models cannot recapitulate the complex spatial structure of host organs, while experiments on live hosts are limited in terms of sample size and infection duration for ethical reasons; live mammal models also require specialized facilities which are costly to run. To address this, we have developed an ex vivo pig lung (EVPL) model for quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, quorum sensing (QS), virulence factor production, and tissue damage in an environment that mimics a chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. In a first test of our model, we show that lasR mutants, which do not respond to 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL)-mediated QS, exhibit reduced virulence factor production in EVPL. We also show that lasR mutants grow as well as or better than a corresponding wild-type strain in EVPL. lasR mutants frequently and repeatedly arise during chronic CF lung infection, but the evolutionary forces governing their appearance and spread are not clear. Our data are not consistent with the hypothesis that lasR mutants act as social “cheats” in the lung; rather, our results support the hypothesis that lasR mutants are more adapted to the lung environment. More generally, this model will facilitate improved studies of microbial disease, especially studies of how cells of the same and different species interact in polymicrobial infections in a spatially structured environment. PMID:24866798

  7. Wood Bark Smoke Induces Lung and Pleural Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 and Stabilizes Its mRNA in Porcine Lung Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    of alveolitis . At 48 h after induction of ALI by WBS, the histologic appearance of SIALI FIG. 3. Identification of PAI-1 in lung tissues of control...florid alveolar edema, which appeared to contain fibrinous debris, interstitial edema, hyaline mem- brane formation, and alveolitis , which involved a

  8. Biomechanical Comparison of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Gelatin Fibrinogen Electrospun Scaffolds to Porcine Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tamimi, E.; Ardila, D. C.; Haskett, D. G.; Doetschman, T.; Slepian, M. J.; Kellar, R. S.; Vande Geest, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Americans. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains a mainstay of therapy for CVD and native vein grafts are limited by issues of supply and lifespan, an effective readily available tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in CABG would provide drastic improvements in patient care. Biomechanical mismatch between vascular grafts and native vasculature has been shown to be the major cause of graft failure, and therefore, there is need for compliance-matched biocompatible TEVGs for clinical implantation. The current study investigates the biaxial mechanical characterization of acellular electrospun glutaraldehyde (GLUT) vapor-crosslinked gelatin/fibrinogen cylindrical constructs, using a custom-made microbiaxial optomechanical device (MOD). Constructs crosslinked for 2, 8, and 24 hrs are compared to mechanically characterized porcine left anterior descending coronary (LADC) artery. The mechanical response data were used for constitutive modeling using a modified Fung strain energy equation. The results showed that constructs crosslinked for 2 and 8 hrs exhibited circumferential and axial tangential moduli (ATM) similar to that of the LADC. Furthermore, the 8-hrs experimental group was the only one to compliance-match the LADC, with compliance values of 0.0006±0.00018 mm Hg−1 and 0.00071±0.00027 mm Hg−1, respectively. The results of this study show the feasibility of meeting mechanical specifications expected of native arteries through manipulating GLUT vapor crosslinking time. The comprehensive mechanical characterization of cylindrical biopolymer constructs in this study is an important first step to successfully develop a biopolymer compliance-matched TEVG. PMID:26501189

  9. [Comparison of modification of surface xenoantigens on bovine and porcine erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Wang, Jie-Xi; Zhang, Yang-Pei

    2005-10-01

    This study was aimed to explore impact of removal of cell membrane G alalpha1-3Gal beta1-4Glc NAc epitopes (called alpha-Gal) and chemical modification of other xenoantigen on bovine red blood cell (bRBC) and porcine red blood cell (pRBC) antigenicity and to compare their modified erythrocytes, in order to provide basis for development of human blood substitute with rich source, high safety and efficacy. bRBC and pRBC were subjected to both enzymatic removal of membrane alpha-Gal with recombinant coffee bean alpha-galactosidase (rC alpha-GalE) and covalent attachment of benzotriazole carbonate-linked methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG-BTC, MW = 20 kD). The effects of treatment were measured by hemagglutination, flow cytometric assay of IgG binding and clinical cross-match testing to human sera. The results showed that although alpha-galactosidase treatment reduced hemagglutination titers to levels similar to negative control, the combination of the treatments was most effective. Clinically used cross-match tests between bRBC, pRBC and human sera demonstrated increased compatibility. Bovine RBC were more robust than pRBC, and had less xenoantigens, and had longer half life than pRBC in vivo. These characteristics suggested that bRBCs were more suitable to investigation as an alternatives to hRBC in clinical transfusion than pRBC. These data suggested that strategies to remove or mask xenoantigens on bRBC reduce antigenicity sufficiently to allow in vitro cross-match compatibility to human sera, and therefore bRBC following modification may be considered as human blood substitute.

  10. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Comparison: Divergent Evolution on Two Continents

    PubMed Central

    Nelsen, Chris J.; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Faaberg, Kay S.

    1999-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently described arterivirus responsible for disease in swine worldwide. Comparative sequence analysis of 3′-terminal structural genes of the single-stranded RNA viral genome revealed the presence of two genotypic classes of PRRSV, represented by the prototype North American and European strains, VR-2332 and Lelystad virus (LV), respectively. To better understand the evolution and pathogenicity of PRRSV, we obtained the 12,066-base 5′-terminal nucleotide sequence of VR-2332, encoding the viral replication activities, and compared it to those of LV and other arteriviruses. VR-2332 and LV differ markedly in the 5′ leader and sections of the open reading frame (ORF) 1a region. The ORF 1b sequence was nearly colinear but varied in similarity of proteins encoded in identified regions. Furthermore, molecular and biochemical analysis of subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) processing revealed extensive variation in the number of sgmRNAs which may be generated during infection and in the lengths of noncoding sequence between leader-body junctions and the translation-initiating codon AUG. In addition, VR-2332 and LV select different leader-body junction sites from a pool of similar candidate sites to produce sgmRNA 7, encoding the viral nucleocapsid protein. The presence of substantial variations across the entire genome and in sgmRNA processing indicates that PRRSV has evolved independently on separate continents. The near-simultaneous global emergence of a new swine disease caused by divergently evolved viruses suggests that changes in swine husbandry and management may have contributed to the emergence of PRRS. PMID:9847330

  11. Biomechanical Comparison of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Gelatin Fibrinogen Electrospun Scaffolds to Porcine Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, E; Ardila, D C; Haskett, D G; Doetschman, T; Slepian, M J; Kellar, R S; Vande Geest, J P

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for Americans. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) remains a mainstay of therapy for CVD and native vein grafts are limited by issues of supply and lifespan, an effective readily available tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) for use in CABG would provide drastic improvements in patient care. Biomechanical mismatch between vascular grafts and native vasculature has been shown to be the major cause of graft failure, and therefore, there is need for compliance-matched biocompatible TEVGs for clinical implantation. The current study investigates the biaxial mechanical characterization of acellular electrospun glutaraldehyde (GLUT) vapor-crosslinked gelatin/fibrinogen cylindrical constructs, using a custom-made microbiaxial optomechanical device (MOD). Constructs crosslinked for 2, 8, and 24 hrs are compared to mechanically characterized porcine left anterior descending coronary (LADC) artery. The mechanical response data were used for constitutive modeling using a modified Fung strain energy equation. The results showed that constructs crosslinked for 2 and 8 hrs exhibited circumferential and axial tangential moduli (ATM) similar to that of the LADC. Furthermore, the 8-hrs experimental group was the only one to compliance-match the LADC, with compliance values of 0.0006±0.00018 mm Hg-1 and 0.00071±0.00027 mm Hg-1, respectively. The results of this study show the feasibility of meeting mechanical specifications expected of native arteries through manipulating GLUT vapor crosslinking time. The comprehensive mechanical characterization of cylindrical biopolymer constructs in this study is an important first step to successfully develop a biopolymer compliance-matched TEVG.

  12. Comparison of solvents for removing pesticides from skin using an in vitro porcine model.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L; Smith, M A; Eiteman, M A; Williams, P L; Boeniger, M F

    2000-01-01

    This study compared four solvents (1-propanol, polyethylene glycol [avg. MW 400], 10% Ivory Liquid and water, and D-TAM) for their ability to remove selected pesticides from an in vitro porcine skin model using a solvent-moistened wipe. Wipes were performed 90 min after pesticide was applied to the skin. The four pesticides selected (glyphosate, alachlor, methyl parathion, and trifluralin) were chosen because of their differences in water solubility. This study also determined whether pretreatment of skin with a solvent prior to pesticide application would either increase or decrease recovery of the pesticide. Recovery efficiencies for all solvents and pesticides were affected by the amount of contaminant on the skin. Although pesticide recoveries from all four solvents were similar (range: 45-57%), on average 1-propanol had significantly higher recoveries, followed by soap and water. There was no significant difference between polyethylene glycol, and D-TAM. When skin was pretreated with any of the four solvents before pesticide application, the recoveries of the more water soluble compounds, glyphosate and alachlor, decreased. When pretreatment with solvent preceded application of trifluralin, the pesticide with the lowest water solubility, recoveries increased. 1-Propanol or soap and water were more effective in removing pesticides from skin than polyethylene glycol or D-TAM, but the amount of pesticide recovered from skin was affected by the chemical characteristics of the pesticide (such as water solubility) and the amount of pesticide originally on the skin. This study provides information useful to the interpretation of skin wipe sample results collected in field studies.

  13. Comparison of Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol for the Vitrification of Immature Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    SOMFAI, Tamás; NAKAI, Michiko; TANIHARA, Fuminori; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; KASHIWAZAKI, Naomi; EGERSZEGI, István; NAGAI, Takashi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to optimize a cryoprotectant treatment for vitrification of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG. After warming, the COCs were in vitro matured (IVM), and surviving oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cultured. The mean survival rate of vitrified oocytes in 35% PG (73.9%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in 35% EG (27.8%). Oocyte maturation rates did not differ among vitrified and non-vitrified control groups. Blastocyst formation in the vitrified EG group (10.8%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in the vitrified PG group (2.0%) but was lower than that in the control group (25.0%). Treatment of oocytes with 35% of each cryoprotectant without vitrification revealed a higher toxicity of PG on subsequent blastocyst development compared with EG. The combination of EG and PG resulted in 42.6% survival after vitrification. The maturation and fertilization rates of the surviving oocytes were similar in the vitrified, control and toxicity control (TC; treated with EG+PG combination without cooling) groups. Blastocyst development in the vitrified group was lower (P<0.05) than that in the control and TC groups, which in turn had similar development rates (10.7%, 18.1% and 23.3%, respectively). In conclusion, 35% PG enabled a higher oocyte survival rate after vitrification compared with 35% EG. However, PG was greatly toxic to oocytes. The combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG yielded reasonable survival rates without toxic effects on embryo development. PMID:23666455

  14. Comparison of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol for the vitrification of immature porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Nakai, Michiko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Egerszegi, István; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to optimize a cryoprotectant treatment for vitrification of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). Immature COCs were vitrified either in 35% ethylene glycol (EG), 35% propylene glycol (PG) or a combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG. After warming, the COCs were in vitro matured (IVM), and surviving oocytes were in vitro fertilized (IVF) and cultured. The mean survival rate of vitrified oocytes in 35% PG (73.9%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in 35% EG (27.8%). Oocyte maturation rates did not differ among vitrified and non-vitrified control groups. Blastocyst formation in the vitrified EG group (10.8%) was higher (P<0.05) than that in the vitrified PG group (2.0%) but was lower than that in the control group (25.0%). Treatment of oocytes with 35% of each cryoprotectant without vitrification revealed a higher toxicity of PG on subsequent blastocyst development compared with EG. The combination of EG and PG resulted in 42.6% survival after vitrification. The maturation and fertilization rates of the surviving oocytes were similar in the vitrified, control and toxicity control (TC; treated with EG+PG combination without cooling) groups. Blastocyst development in the vitrified group was lower (P<0.05) than that in the control and TC groups, which in turn had similar development rates (10.7%, 18.1% and 23.3%, respectively). In conclusion, 35% PG enabled a higher oocyte survival rate after vitrification compared with 35% EG. However, PG was greatly toxic to oocytes. The combination of 17.5% EG and 17.5% PG yielded reasonable survival rates without toxic effects on embryo development.

  15. Comparison of different commercial ELISAs for detection of antibodies against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus in serum.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Tatjana; Wodak, Eveline; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Schmoll, Friedrich

    2014-12-18

    In recent years, several new ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against the porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV) in pig serum have been developed. To interpret the results, specificity and sensitivity data as well as agreement to a reference ELISA must be available. In this study, three commercial ELISAs (INgezim PRRS 2.0 - ELISA II, Priocheck® PRRSV Ab porcine - ELISA III and CIVTEST suis PRRS E/S PLUS - ELISA IV, detecting PRRSV type 1 antibodies) were compared to a standard ELISA (IDEXX PRRS X3 Ab Test - ELISA I). The serum of three pigs vaccinated with an attenuated PRRSV live vaccine (genotype 2) was tested prior to and several times after the vaccination. Furthermore, serum samples of 245 pigs of PRRSV positive herds, 309 pigs of monitored PRRSV negative herds, 256 fatteners of assumed PRRSV negative herds with unknown herd history and 92 wild boars were tested with all four ELISAs. ELISAs II and III were able to detect seroconversion of vaccinated pigs with a similar reliability. According to kappa coefficient, the results showed an almost perfect agreement between ELISA I as reference and ELISA II and III (kappa > 0.8), and substantial agreement between ELISA I and ELISA IV (kappa = 0.71). Sensitivity of ELISA II, III and IV was 96.0%, 100% and 91.5%, respectively. The specificity of the ELISAs determined in samples of monitored PRRSV negative herds was 99.0%, 95.1% and 96.4%, respectively. In assumed negative farms that were not continually monitored, more positive samples were found with ELISA II to IV. The reference ELISA I had a specificity of 100% in this study. All tested ELISAs were able to detect a PRRSV positive herd. The specificity and sensitivity of the tested commercial ELISAs, however, differed. ELISA II had the highest specificity and ELISA III had the highest sensitivity in comparison to the reference ELISA. ELISA IV had a lower sensitivity and specificity than the other ELISAs.

  16. Noninvasive Carbon Dioxide Monitoring in a Porcine Model of Acute Lung Injury Due to Smoke Inhalation and Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which...recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury...instability, we recorded the frequency of changes in the respiratory rate (as set on the ventilator ) and in the FIO2. We defined hemo dynamic instability as

  17. Cloning, chromosome mapping and expression pattern of porcine PLIN and M6PRBP1 genes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xia; Jihong, Yuan; Li, Gan; Bin, Feng; Yi, Zhu; Xiaodong, Chen; Peichao, Zhang; Yang, Zaiqing

    2008-01-01

    The PAT proteins, named after the three PLIN/ADRP/TIP47 (PAT) proteins, PLIN for perilipin, ADRP for adipose differentiation-related protein and TIP47 for tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa, now officially named M6PRBP1 for mannose-6-phosphate receptor binding protein 1, is a set of intracellular lipid droplet binding proteins. They are localized in the outer membrane monolayer enveloping lipid droplets and are involved in the metabolism of intracellular lipid. This work describes the cloning and sequencing of porcine PLIN and M6PRBP1 cDNAs, the chromosome mapping of these two genes, as well as the expression pattern of porcine PAT genes. Sequence analysis shows that the porcine PLIN cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1551 bp encoding 516 amino acids and that the porcine M6PRBP1 cDNA contains a coding region of 1320 bp encoding 439 amino acids. Comparison of PLIN and M6PRBP1 amino-acid sequences among various species reveals that porcine and bovine proteins are the most conserved. Porcine PLIN and M6PRBP1 genes have been mapped to pig chromosomes 7 and 2, respectively, by radiation hybrid analysis using the IMpRH panel. Expression analyses in pig showed a high expression of PLIN mRNA in adipose tissue, M6PRBP1 mRNA in small intestine, kidney and spleen and ADRP mRNA in adipose tissue, lung and spleen.

  18. Biomechanical comparison of three anatomic ACL reconstructions in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Debandi, Aníbal; Maeyama, Akira; Lu, Songcen; Hume, Chad; Asai, Shigehiro; Goto, Bunsei; Hoshino, Yuichi; Smolinski, Patrick; Fu, Freddie H

    2011-05-01

    Different tunnel configurations have been used for double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, controversy still exists as to whether three-tunnel DB with double-femoral tunnels and single-tibial tunnel (2F-1T) or with single-femoral tunnel and double-tibial tunnels (1F-2T) better restores intact knee biomechanics than single-bundle (SB) ACL reconstruction. The purpose was to compare the knee kinematics and in situ force in the grafts among SB and two types of three-tunnel DB ACL reconstructions performed in an anatomic fashion. Twenty-four porcine knees were subjected to an 89-N anterior tibial load (simulated KT-1000 test) at 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion and to a 4-Nm internal tibial torque and 7-Nm valgus torque (simulated pivot-shift test) at 30° and 60° of flexion. The resulting knee kinematics and in situ force in the ACL or replacement grafts were measured using a robotic system for (1) ACL-intact, (2) ACL-deficient, and (3) three ACL reconstructed knees: SB; DB 2F-1T; and DB 1F-2T. During the simulated pivot-shift test, the DB grafts more closely restored the in situ force in the intact ACL at low flexion angle than the SB graft. There were no significant differences in knee kinematics between SB and DB ACL reconstruction. The DB 2F-1T reconstruction did not show a significant difference in knee kinematics or in situ force when compared to the DB 1F-2T technique. The in situ force in the ACL is better restored with an anatomic three-tunnel DB reconstruction in response to the simulated pivot-shift test at low flexion angle when compared to an anatomic SB reconstruction. Both three-tunnel DB ACL reconstructions performed in an anatomic fashion had similar biomechanical behavior. As long as it is performed anatomically, DB ACL reconstruction could be better alternative than SB ACL reconstruction, no matter which three-tunnel procedure, 2F-1T or 1F-2T, is used.

  19. Comparison of Two Gelatin and Thrombin Combination Hemostats in a Porcine Liver Abrasion Model

    PubMed Central

    Atlee, Holly D.; Mannone, Angela J.; Dwyer, Joseph; Lin, Lawrence; Goppelt, Andreas; Redl, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical hemostasis is achieved using adjunctive hemostats when conventional methods fail. Objective: This study compares the effectiveness of two adjunctive gelatin-thrombin hemostats. Hypothesis: To determine effectiveness, hemostats were compared in vivo, in vitro, and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods: In vivo, a heparinized porcine liver abrasion model was used to compare hemostatic success, degree of bleeding, and blood loss at 2, 5, and 10 minutes post-treatment. In vitro, thrombin in the supernatant of each hemostat and Red Blood Cells (RBC'S) in the supernatant of clots formed by each was compared. Results: Ultrastructure of one gelatin was smooth and the other stellate. In vivo, smooth gelatin provided superior hemostatic success at 5 (85% vs. 60%; OR: 5.3; 95% CI: 1.66 to 17.9) and 10 mins (72.5% vs. 47.5%; OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 1.55 to 16.1). Smooth gelatin had a statistically different degree of bleeding at 5 (0.58 ± 0.87 [Mean ± SD] vs. 1.03 ± 1.12; OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.34 to 8.41) and 10 mins (1.13 ± 1.14 vs. 1.65 ± 1.05; OR: 3.87; 95% CI: 1.62 to 9.21). Mean blood loss was less with smooth gelatin at 2 (0.07 ± 0.19 vs. 0.13 ± 0.63 ml/min), 5 (0.04 ± 0.13 vs. 0.23 ± 0.45 ml/min), and 10 mins (0.09 ± 0.24 vs. 0.21 ± 0.32 ml/min). In vitro, supernatant of smooth gelatin had significantly less thrombin (6.81 vs. 10.9 IU/ml, p = .001), and significantly less RBC's than stellate gelatin (0.07 vs. 0.09 × 106/ul, p = .0085). Conclusion: Smooth gelatin has an increased ability to retain thrombin and RBC's in vitro which may explain why it provides superior hemostatic effectiveness, superior control of bleeding, and greater reduced blood loss in vivo. PMID:23514063

  20. Deviation of tracheal pressure from airway opening pressure during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation in a porcine lung model.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Amélie; Zollhoefer, Bernd; Eujen, Ulrike; Kredel, Markus; Rauch, Stefan; Roewer, Norbert; Muellenbach, Ralf M

    2013-04-01

    Oxygenation during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation is secured by a high level of mean airway pressure. Our objective was to identify a pressure difference between the airway opening of the respiratory circuit and the trachea during application of different oscillatory frequencies. Six female Pietrain pigs (57.1 ± 3.6 kg) were first ventilated in a conventional mechanical ventilation mode. Subsequently, the animals were switched to high-frequency oscillatory ventilation by setting mean airway opening pressure 5 cmH(2)O above the one measured during controlled mechanical ventilation. Measurements at the airway opening and at tracheal levels were performed in healthy lungs and after induction of acute lung injury by surfactant depletion. During high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, the airway opening pressure was set at a constant level. The pressure amplitude was fixed at 90 cmH(2)O. Starting from an oscillatory frequency of 3 Hz, the frequency was increased in steps of 3 Hz to 15 Hz and then decreased accordingly. At each frequency, measurements were performed in the trachea through a side-lumen of the endotracheal tube and the airway opening pressure was recorded. The pressure difference was calculated. At every oscillatory frequency, a pressure loss towards the trachea could be shown. This pressure difference increased with higher oscillatory frequencies (3 Hz 2.2 ± 2.1 cmH(2)O vs. 15 Hz 7.5 ± 1.8 cmH(2)O). The results for healthy and injured lungs were similar. Tracheal pressures decreased with higher oscillatory frequencies. This may lead to pulmonary derecruitment. This has to be taken into consideration when increasing oscillatory frequencies and differentiated pressure settings are mandatory.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablated Lesion in the Normal Porcine Lung: Long-Term Follow-Up with MRI and Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Yoshimasa E-mail: yoshimasa03155@ych.or.jp; Nakamura, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Masami; Yamamoto, Akira; Okuma, Tomohisa; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Makiko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in reflecting histopathologic changes after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to the lung and to assess accurately the extent of tissue necrosis for evaluating untreated lesions. Methods. Percutaneous RFA was performed on 72 lung regions in 12 pigs under computed tomographic guidance. After performing MRI, the animals were divided into three experimental phases: in the acute phase, 4 pigs were killed immediately after the procedure; in the subacute phase, 4 pigs were killed at 1 week; and in the chronic phases, 2 pigs were killed at 4 and 8 weeks after the procedure, respectively. MRI-histopathologic correlation was performed. Results. In the acute phase, the inner zone showed hypointensity on T2-weighted images and isointensity on T1-weighted images, with a lack of enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, representing early changes in coagulative necrosis on histopathologic examination. The outer zone showed hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and isointensity on T1-weighted images, with ring-like enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The histopathologic section showed alveolar fluid collections and congestion. In the subacute phase the MR zone pattern was essentially similar to that of the acute phase, but the ablated lesion showed extensive coagulative necrosis with a fibrovascular rim on histopathologic examination. In the chronic phase, there was no change in the zone pattern on MRI. The lesions showed gradual resorption of coagulative necrosis. The area of coagulative necrosis correlated closely with the histopathologic size (p < 0.05). Conclusions. MRI effectively visualized the histopathologic changes after RFA and accurately determined the extent of the necrotic lesion. MRI is potentially a useful modality for evaluating therapeutic efficacy after RFA to the lung.

  2. Infusion of hypertonic saline into the lung parenchyma during radiofrequency ablation of the lungs with multitined expandable electrodes: results using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Iishi, Tatsuhiko; Hiraki, Takao; Mimura, Hidefumi; Gobara, Hideo; Kurose, Taichi; Fujiwara, Hiroyasu; Sakurai, Jun; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Tadashi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2009-06-01

    The present study was performed to clarify the effect of hypertonic saline infusion into the lung parenchyma on radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lungs. A total of 20 ablation zones were created in 3 pigs. The ablation zones were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (n=6) consisted of ablation zones created by applying smaller radiofrequency (RF) power without saline infusion; group 2 (n=5) zones were created by applying greater RF power without saline infusion;and group 3 (n=9) zones were created by applying greater RF power with saline infusion. The techniques of saline infusion included administration of hypertonic saline 1 ml before RFA, followed by continuous administration at a rate of 1 ml/min during the first 2 min after the initiation of RFA. The ablation parameters and coagulation necrosis volumes were compared among the groups. Group 3 had a tendency toward smaller mean impedance than group 1 (p=0.059) and group 2 (p=0.053). Group 3 showed significantly longer RF application time than group 2 (p=0.004) and significantly greater maximum RF power than group 1 (p=0.001) and group 2 (p=0.004). Group 3 showed significantly larger coagulation necrosis volume (mean, 1,421mm3) than group 2 (mean, 858 mm3, p=0.039) and had a tendency toward larger necrosis volume than group 1 (mean, 878 mm3, p=0.077). Although this small study had limited statistical power, hypertonic saline infusion during RFA appeared to enlarge coagulation necrosis of the lung parenchyma.

  3. Comparison of pathogenicities and nucleotide changes between porcine and bovine reassortant rotavirus strains possessing the same genotype constellation in piglets and calves.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Gyu; Kim, Deok-Song; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Kwon, Hyoung-Jun; Zeller, Mark; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Hosmillo, Myra; Ryu, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ji-Yun; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Park, Su-Jin; Kang, Mun-Il; Kwon, Joseph; Choi, Jong-Soon; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2014-08-06

    Although reassortment is one of the most important characteristics of group A rotavirus (RVA) evolution, the host range restriction and/or virulence of reassortant RVAs remain largely unknown. The porcine 174-1 strain isolated from a diarrheic piglet was identified as a reassortant strain, harboring the same genotype constellation as the previously characterized bovine strain KJ56-1. Owing to its same genotype constellation, the pathogenicity of the porcine strain 174-1 in piglets and calves was examined for comparison with that of the bovine reassortant KJ56-1 strain, whose pathogenicity has already been demonstrated in piglets and calves. The porcine 174-1 strain induced diarrhea and histopathological changes in the small intestine of piglets and calves, whereas KJ56-1 had been reported to be virulent only in piglets, but not in calves. Therefore, full genomic sequences of 174-1 and KJ56-1 strains were analyzed to determine whether specific mutations might be associated with clinical and pathological phenotypes. Sequence alignment between the 174-1 and KJ56-1 strains detected one nucleotide substitution at the 3' untranslated region of the NSP3 gene and 16 amino acid substitutions at the VP7, VP4, VP1, VP3, NSP1 and NSP4 genes. These mutations may be critical molecular determinants for different virulence and/or pathogenicity of each strain. This study presents new insights into the host range restriction and/or virulence of RVAs.

  4. Automated segmentation of porcine airway wall layers using optical coherence tomography: comparison with manual segmentation and histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Miranda; Lee, Anthony M. D.; Candido, Tara; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre; Lam, Stephen; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to develop an automated optical coherence tomography (OCT) segmentation method. We evaluated three ex-vivo porcine airway specimens; six non-sequential OCT images were selected from each airway specimen. Histology was also performed for each airway and histology images were co-registered to OCT images for comparison. Manual segmentation of the airway luminal area, mucosa area, submucosa area and the outer airway wall area were performed for histology and OCT images. Automated segmentation of OCT images employed a despecking filter for pre-processing, a hessian-based filter for lumen and outer airway wall area segmentation, and K-means clustering for mucosa and submucosa area segmentation. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that there was very little bias between automated OCT segmentation and histology measurements for the airway lumen area (bias=-6%, 95% CI=-21%-8%), mucosa area, (bias=-4%, 95% CI=-14%-5%), submucosa area (bias=7%, 95% CI=-7%-20%) and outer airway wall area segmentation results (bias=-5%, 95% CI=-14%-5%). We also compared automated and manual OCT segmentation and Bland-Altman analysis indicated that there was negligible bias between luminal area (bias=4%, 95% CI=1%-8%), mucosa area (bias=-3%, 95% CI=-6%-1%), submucosa area (bias=-2%, 95% CI=-10%-6%) and the outer airway wall (bias=-3%, 95% CI=-13%-6%). The automated segmentation method for OCT airway imaging developed here allows for accurate and precise segmentation of the airway wall components, suggesting that translation of this method to in vivo human airway analysis would allow for longitudinal and serial studies.

  5. Magnetic resonance Elastography of the Lung parenchyma in an in situ porcine model with a non-invasive mechanical driver: Correlation of Shear Stiffness with Trans-respiratory system Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Kolipaka, Arunark; Manduca, Armando; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Ehman, Richard L; Araoz, Philip; McGee, Kiaran P

    2011-01-01

    Quantification of the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma is an active field of research due to the association of this metric with normal function, disease initiation and progression. A phase contrast MRI-based elasticity imaging technique known as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is being investigated as a method for measuring the shear stiffness of lung parenchyma. Previous experiments performed with small animals using invasive drivers in direct contact with the lungs have indicated that the quantification of lung shear modulus with 1H based MRE is feasible. This technique has been extended to an in situ porcine model with a noninvasive mechanical driver placed on the chest wall. This approach was tested to measure the change in parenchymal stiffness as a function of airway opening pressure (Pao) in 10 adult pigs. In all animals, shear stiffness was successfully quantified at four different Pao values. Mean (± std error of mean) pulmonary parenchyma density corrected stiffness values were calculated to be 1.48 (±0.09), 1.68 (±0.10), 2.05 (±0.13) and 2.23 (±0.17) kPa for Pao values of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm H2O respectively. Shear stiffness increased with increasing Pao, in agreement with the literature. It is concluded that in an in situ porcine lung shear stiffness can be quantitated with 1H MRE using a noninvasive mechanical driver, and that it is feasible to measure the change in shear stiffness due to change in Pao. PMID:21590723

  6. Performance comparison of quantitative semantic features and lung-RADS in the National Lung Screening Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Liu, Ying; Schabath, Matthew; Gillies, Robert J.

    2016-03-01

    Background: Lung-RADS is the new oncology classification guideline proposed by American College of Radiology (ACR), which provides recommendation for further follow up in lung cancer screening. However, only two features (solidity and size) are included in this system. We hypothesize that additional sematic features can be used to better characterize lung nodules and diagnose cancer. Objective: We propose to develop and characterize a systematic methodology based on semantic image traits to more accurately predict occurrence of cancerous nodules. Methods: 24 radiological image traits were systematically scored on a point scale (up to 5) by a trained radiologist, and lung-RADS was independently scored. A linear discriminant model was used on the semantic features to access their performance in predicting cancer status. The semantic predictors were then compared to lung-RADS classification in 199 patients (60 cancers, 139 normal controls) obtained from the National Lung Screening Trial. Result: There were different combinations of semantic features that were strong predictors of cancer status. Of these, contour, border definition, size, solidity, focal emphysema, focal fibrosis and location emerged as top candidates. The performance of two semantic features (short axial diameter and contour) had an AUC of 0.945, and was comparable to that of lung-RADS (AUC: 0.871). Conclusion: We propose that a semantics-based discrimination approach may act as a complement to the lung-RADS to predict cancer status.

  7. Direct comparison of percutaneous circulatory support systems in specific hemodynamic conditions in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ostadal, Petr; Mlcek, Mikulas; Holy, Frantisek; Horakova, Svatava; Kralovec, Stepan; Skoda, Jan; Petru, Jan; Kruger, Andreas; Hrachovina, Vladimir; Svoboda, Tomas; Kittnar, Otomar; Reddy, Vivek Y; Neuzil, Petr

    2012-12-01

    Several percutaneous circulatory support systems have been recently introduced into clinical practice for the treatment of cardiogenic shock or refractory nontolerated ventricular tachycardia, in support of high-risk catheter interventions and, occasionally, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. To date, however, a direct comparison of the available systems has not been performed. Adult female pigs (weight 50-60 kg) were used throughout the experiment. Under deep anesthesia and mechanical ventilation, 3 percutaneous circulatory support systems were compared: (1) right atrium-aorta, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=4); (2) left atrium-aorta, TandemHeart system (n=4); (3) left ventricle-aorta, Impella 2.5 system (n=4), and (4) left ventricle-aorta with norepinephrine at 0.1 µg/kg per minute (n=4). Hemodynamic efficacy (mean arterial pressure) was measured at 3 specific conditions: ventricular pacing at 200 and 300 beats per minute, and ventricular fibrillation. Although no or only nonsignificant differences were found among the systems at ventricular pacing of 200 and 300 beats per minute, under ventricular fibrillation, the right atrium-aorta system was significantly the most efficacious, followed by the left atrium-aorta system and the left ventricle-aorta system (P<0.001). However, the left ventricle-aorta system with norepinephrine still maintained mean arterial pressure comparable with the left atrium-aorta system. Differences were seen in the hemodynamic efficacy of available percutaneous circulatory support systems, particularly under the most severe hemodynamic condition, ventricular fibrillation.

  8. Comparison of Self-Expanding Polyethylene Terephthalate and Metallic Stents Implanted in Porcine Iliac Arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, Krzysztof; Scheerder, Ivan de; Wang Kai; Verbeken, Eric; Piessens, Jan

    1996-05-15

    Purpose: Comparison of the biocompatibility of self-expanding polyethylene terephthalate (PET) stents with self-expanding metallic stents (Wallstents). Methods: Diameter- and length-matched PET stents and Wallstents were symmetrically implanted in the paired iliac arteries of 13 crossbred domestic swine. Stent deployment was studied angiographically and with intravascular ultrasound immediately after stent implantation. The angiographic stented lumen diameter was measured using quantitative vessel analysis before, immediately after stenting, and at 6-week follow-up. Cross-section histopathology and area morphometry were performed. Results: Immediately poststenting, intravascular ultrasound revealed proximal dislocation of 5 of the 13 PET stents, whereas all metal stents were firmly embedded at the implantation site. At 6-week follow-up, three of the remaining PET stents were totally or subtotally occluded by organized thrombus, whereas all metal stents were patent. Compared with immediately poststenting, the angiographic lumen diameter within the five remaining PET stents was reduced by 30%, and that of the metallic stents was virtually unaltered (p < 0.02). This observation was confirmed by postmortem morphometry, wherein the PET-stented vessel segments a diameter stenosis of 40% was measured vs only 9% in the metallic stents (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: PET-stent deployment is difficult to control due to the lack of radiopacity of this stent. PET stents seem to be more thrombogenic and lead to significantly more neointimal proliferation than metallic stents.

  9. Comparison between Mt-DNA D-Loop and Cyt B primers for porcine DNA detection in meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzah, Azhana; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products in the market using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercial PCR-southern hybridization analysis. Porcine DNA detection in meat products was tested due to some issues associated with the adulteration of food products in Malaysia. This is an important issue especially for Halal authentication which is required for some religious practices such as in Islam and Hinduisms. Many techniques have been developed for determining the Halal status of food products. In this paper, mt-DNA D-loop primer and cytochrome (cyt) b were used to detect the presence of porcine DNA in meat products. Positive and negative controls were always present for each batch of extraction. DNA of raw pork meat was used as a positive control while nucleus free water is used as negative control. A pair of oligonucleotide primer was used namely Pork1 and Pork2 which produced amplicon of 531 base pair (bp) in size. While, PCR-southern hybridization was conducted using primers readily supplied by commercial PCR-Southern hybridization and produced amplicon with 276 bp in size. In the present study, demonstrated that none of the samples were contaminated with porcine residuals but selected samples with pork meat were positive. The species-specific PCR amplification yielded excellent results for identification of pork derivatives in food products and it is a potentially reliable and suitable technique in routine food analysis for Halal certification.

  10. Megavoltage Image-Based Dynamic Multileaf Collimator Tracking of a NiTi Stent in Porcine Lungs on a Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Per R.; Carl, Jesper; Nielsen, Jane; Nielsen, Martin S.; Thomsen, Jakob B.; Jensen, Henrik K.; Kjaergaard, Benedict; Zepernick, Peter R.; Worm, Esben; Fledelius, Walther; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the accuracy and potential limitations of MV image-based dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking in a porcine model on a linear accelerator. Methods and Materials: A thermo-expandable NiTi stent designed for kilovoltage (kV) X-ray visualization of lung lesions was inserted into the bronchia of three anaesthetized Goettingen minipigs. A four-dimensional computed tomography scan was used for planning a five-field conformal treatment with circular multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures. A 22.5 Gy single fraction treatment was delivered to the pigs. The peak-to-peak stent motion was 3 to 8 mm, with breathing periods of 1.2 to 4 s. Before treatment, X-ray images were used for image-guided setup based on the stent. During treatment delivery, continuous megavoltage (MV) portal images were acquired at 7.5 Hz. The stent was segmented in the images and used for continuous adaptation of the MLC aperture. Offline, the tracking error in beam's eye view of the treatment beam was calculated for each MV image as the difference between the MLC aperture center and the segmented stent position. The standard deviations of the systematic error {Sigma} and the random error {sigma} were determined and compared with the would-be errors for a nontracking treatment with pretreatment image-guided setup. Results: Reliable stent segmentation was obtained for 11 of 15 fields. Segmentation failures occurred when image contrast was dominated by overlapping anatomical structures (ribs, diaphragm) rather than by the stent, which was designed for kV rather than MV X-ray visibility. For the 11 fields with reliable segmentation, {Sigma} was 0.5 mm/0.4 mm in the two imager directions, whereas {sigma} was 0.5 mm/1.1 mm. Without tracking, {Sigma} and {sigma} would have been 1.7 mm/1.4 mm and 0.8 mm/1.4 mm, respectively. Conclusion: For the first time, in vivo DMLC tracking has been demonstrated on a linear accelerator showing the potential for improved targeting accuracy. The

  11. Percutaneous renal access training: content validation comparison between a live porcine and a virtual reality (VR) simulation model.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shashikant; Kurien, Abraham; Ganpule, Arvind; Muthu, Veeramani; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2010-12-01

    • To compare the content validity (realism and usefulness) of percutaneous renal access (PRA) obtained on a live porcine model and a high-fidelity computer-based surgical simulator (PERC Mentor, Simbionix; Lod, Israel) in our skills laboratory for trainees interested in PRA training, so as to determine which of the two is a more appropriate and effective training model. • In all, 24 'experts' performed PRA in a live porcine model and using the PERC Mentor. • The porcine model access required a live anaesthetized pig with a pre-placed ureteric catheter. The access was done with flouroscopic guidance using a 22-G 'skinny' needle (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN, USA). • Then the specific task of PRA using a similar case scenario was done using the PERC Mentor. • The experts rated the models using a questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale, consisting of 10- and three-items of realism and usefulness, respectively. • Of the 10 items of realism assessed, the porcine model was rated as better than the PERC Mentor for 'overall realism', 'movement of the kidney', 'tactile feedback of perinephric space', 'fluoroscopic realism' and 'complications encountered' (All P < 0.001). • It was inferior to the PERC Mentor for 'orientation to the flank', 'aspiration', 'repetitive performance' and 'organisational feasibility' (All P < 0.001). • 'Tactile feedback of successful access' was similar in both models (mean [sd] points, 4.24 [0.7] vs 4.6 [0.5]). • Of the three items of usefulness, 'overall usefulness' (4.6 [0.6] vs 4.65 [0.5]) and 'use as a training tool' (4.32 [0.5] vs 4.75 [0.4]) was similar; however, the porcine model was a much better assessment tool (P < 0.001). • Both models have relative advantages and disadvantages. The live porcine model is a more realistic assessment tool for PRA. The specific advantage of the PERC Mentor is of repetitive tasking and easier set up feasibility. • The overall usefulness was same for both

  12. Comparison of Two Commercial Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Modified Live Vaccines against Heterologous Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV Challenge in Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercial type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccines against heterologous type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Vaccination with a type 1 PRRSV vaccine reduced the level of viremia after type 1 PRRSV challenge but did not reduce the level of viremia after the type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs. Increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulated by type 2 PRRSV coincided with the low numbers of type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon gamma-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) in vaccinated pigs after type 2 PRRSV challenge, whereas low levels of IL-10 stimulated by type 1 PRRSV coincided with high numbers of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC in vaccinated pigs after type 1 PRRSV challenge. Additionally, vaccination with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine effectively reduced the lung lesions and type 1 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 1 PRRSV-challenged pigs but did not reduce lung lesions and type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. There were no significant differences between two commercial type 1 PRRSV vaccines against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that vaccinating pigs with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine provides partial protection against respiratory disease with heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge but no protection with heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge. PMID:25855554

  13. Comparison of Two Commercial Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Modified Live Vaccines against Heterologous Type 1 and Type 2 PRRSV Challenge in Growing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyeon; Park, Changhoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Jeong, Jiwoon; Kang, Ikjae; Park, Su-Jin; Chae, Chanhee

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two commercial type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified live vaccines against heterologous type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in growing pigs. Vaccination with a type 1 PRRSV vaccine reduced the level of viremia after type 1 PRRSV challenge but did not reduce the level of viremia after the type 2 PRRSV challenge in pigs. Increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) stimulated by type 2 PRRSV coincided with the low numbers of type 2 PRRSV-specific interferon gamma-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) in vaccinated pigs after type 2 PRRSV challenge, whereas low levels of IL-10 stimulated by type 1 PRRSV coincided with high numbers of type 1 PRRSV-specific IFN-γ-SC in vaccinated pigs after type 1 PRRSV challenge. Additionally, vaccination with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine effectively reduced the lung lesions and type 1 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 1 PRRSV-challenged pigs but did not reduce lung lesions and type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids in type 2 PRRSV-challenged pigs. There were no significant differences between two commercial type 1 PRRSV vaccines against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge based on virological results, immunological responses, and pathological outcomes. This study demonstrates that vaccinating pigs with the type 1 PRRSV vaccine provides partial protection against respiratory disease with heterologous type 1 PRRSV challenge but no protection with heterologous type 2 PRRSV challenge.

  14. A comparison of the techniques of PIXE, PIGE and INAA by reference to the elemental analysis of porcine brain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. D.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1994-12-01

    The trace element concentrations in porcine brain samples as determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis are compared. The matrix composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd were determined by PIXE analysis Na, K, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Br, Rb, and Cs by INAA and Na, Mg and Fe by PIGE analysis. The bulk elements C, N, O, Na Cl and S were found by RBS analysis. Elemental concentrations are obtained using the comparator method of analysis rather than an absolute method, the validity which is examined by comparing the elemental concentrations obtained in porcine brain using two separate certified reference materials.

  15. Prevalence and comparison of serologic assays, necropsy, and tongue examination for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A E; Cama, V; Gilman, R H; Tsang, V C; Pilcher, J B; Chavera, A; Castro, M; Montenegro, T; Verastegui, M; Miranda, E

    1990-08-01

    Swine cysticercosis, a severe zoonotic disease which is part of the Taenia solium life cycle, causes major economic losses in pig husbandry. Throughout South America, farmers diagnose cysticercosis by examining the tongues of their pigs for cysticercus nodules. Farmers do not bring pigs believed to be infected to the slaughterhouse for fear of confiscation. Therefore, reliable statistics on porcine cysticercosis can only be acquired at the household level. We examined the utility of the tongue test as a diagnostic tool for porcine cysticercosis. The results of the tongue test was compared with 2 serologic methods for the detection of cysticercosis, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB), and with necropsy results. We examined 11 animals from an endemic area (Huancayo) and 42 animals from an area free of cysticercosis (Lima). The tongue test has a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 100%, the EITB a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and the ELISA a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 75%. Thus, the tongue examination, being a test essentially without cost and having fair sensitivity and high specificity, can be useful in epidemiological surveys. Prevalence for porcine cysticercosis in Huancayo is 23.4% by tongue examination, 31.2% by necropsy, 37.7% by ELISA, and 51.9% by EITB.

  16. Identification and Comparison of Receptor Binding Characteristics of the Spike Protein of Two Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Feng; Ye, Gang; Liu, Qianqian; Navid, Muhammad Tariq; Zhong, Xiaoli; Li, Youwen; Wan, Chunyun; Xiao, Shaobo; He, Qigai; Fu, Zhen F.; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of Alphacoronavirus, has caused huge economic losses for the global pork industry recently. The spike (S) protein mediates PEDV entry into host cells. Herein, we investigated the interactions between the S protein and its receptor porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) or co-receptor sugars. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the S1 domain is bound to pAPN. The prototype strain demonstrated similar receptor-binding activity compared with the variant field isolate. Three loops at the tips of the β-barrel domains did not play crucial roles in the PEDV S-pAPN association, indicating that PEDV conforms to a different receptor recognition model compared with transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine respiratory CoV (PRCV), and human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63). The N-terminal domain (NTD) of the PEDV S1 domain could bind sugar, a possible co-receptor for PEDV. The prototype strain exhibited weaker sugar-binding activity compared with the variant field isolate. Strategies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) may be helpful for developing vaccines or antiviral drugs for PEDV. Understanding the differences in receptor binding between the prototype and the variant strains may provide insight into PEDV pathogenesis. PMID:26907329

  17. Functional Validation and Comparison Framework for EIT Lung Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging clinical tool for monitoring ventilation distribution in mechanically ventilated patients, for which many image reconstruction algorithms have been suggested. We propose an experimental framework to assess such algorithms with respect to their ability to correctly represent well-defined physiological changes. We defined a set of clinically relevant ventilation conditions and induced them experimentally in 8 pigs by controlling three ventilator settings (tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure and the fraction of inspired oxygen). In this way, large and discrete shifts in global and regional lung air content were elicited. Methods We use the framework to compare twelve 2D EIT reconstruction algorithms, including backprojection (the original and still most frequently used algorithm), GREIT (a more recent consensus algorithm for lung imaging), truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD), several variants of the one-step Gauss-Newton approach and two iterative algorithms. We consider the effects of using a 3D finite element model, assuming non-uniform background conductivity, noise modeling, reconstructing for electrode movement, total variation (TV) reconstruction, robust error norms, smoothing priors, and using difference vs. normalized difference data. Results and Conclusions Our results indicate that, while variation in appearance of images reconstructed from the same data is not negligible, clinically relevant parameters do not vary considerably among the advanced algorithms. Among the analysed algorithms, several advanced algorithms perform well, while some others are significantly worse. Given its vintage and ad-hoc formulation backprojection works surprisingly well, supporting the validity of previous studies in lung EIT. PMID:25110887

  18. Site-specific rectocele repair with dermal graft augmentation: comparison of porcine dermal xenograft (Pelvicol) and human dermal allograft.

    PubMed

    Biehl, Roger C; Moore, Robert D; Miklos, John R; Kohli, Neeraj; Anand, Indu S; Mattox, T Fleming

    2008-01-01

    This study is a retrospective chart review comparing 195 women who underwent rectocele repair with either a porcine dermal xenograft or human allogenic cadaveric dermal graft augmentation over a two year period. A site-specific defect repair was completed prior to augmentation with the graft. Examinations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. Questionnaires were used to assess constipation and dyspareunia. De novo dyspareunia and cure rates for constipation and dyspareunia were not statistically different between the two groups. Site-specific fascial rectocele repairs with xenograft or allograft augmentation were found to have similar complication rates as well as objective and subjective cure rates.

  19. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Darvin, M E; Richter, H; Zhu, Y J; Meinke, M C; Knorr, F; Lademann, J; Gonchukov, S A; Koenig, K

    2014-07-31

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted. (laser biophotonics)

  20. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo laser scanning microscopy and multiphoton tomography application for human and porcine skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, M. E.; Richter, H.; Zhu, Y. J.; Meinke, M. C.; Knorr, F.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Koenig, K.; Lademann, J.

    2014-07-01

    Two state-of-the-art microscopic optical methods, namely, confocal laser scanning microscopy in the fluorescence and reflectance regimes and multiphoton tomography in the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation regimes, are compared for porcine skin ex vivo and healthy human skin in vivo. All skin layers such as stratum corneum (SC), stratum spinosum (SS), stratum basale (SB), papillary dermis (PD) and reticular dermis (RD) as well as transition zones between these skin layers are measured noninvasively at a high resolution, using the above mentioned microscopic methods. In the case of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), measurements in the fluorescence regime were performed by using a fluorescent dye whose topical application on the surface is well suited for the investigation of superficial SC and characterisation of the skin barrier function. For investigations of deeply located skin layers, such as SS, SB and PD, the fluorescent dye must be injected into the skin, which markedly limits fluorescence measurements using CLSM. In the case of reflection CLSM measurements, the obtained results can be compared to the results of multiphoton tomography (MPT) for all skin layers excluding RD. CLSM cannot distinguish between dermal collagen and elastin measuring their superposition in the RD. By using MPT, it is possible to analyse the collagen and elastin structures separately, which is important for the investigation of anti-aging processes. The resolution of MPT is superior to CLSM. The advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed and the differences and similarities between human and porcine skin are highlighted.

  1. Release of EPA and DHA from salmon oil - a comparison of in vitro digestion with human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Aarak, K E; Kirkhus, B; Holm, H; Vogt, G; Jacobsen, M; Vegarud, G E

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, we hypothesised whether in vitro digestion of salmon oil would release different amounts of PUFA depending on the origin of the lipolytic enzymes used. For this purpose, in vitro digestion of salmon oil (SO) was performed using human duodenal juice (HDJ) or a commercial enzyme preparation consisting of porcine pancreatin and bile (PB). The lipolytic effect was determined by measuring the release of fatty acids (FA) using solid-phase extraction and GC-flame ionisation detection, withdrawing samples every 20 min during digestion. The amount of FA released indicated that a plateau was reached after 80 min with approximately similar amounts of FA detected using both HDJ and PB (379 (sd 18) and 352 (sd 23) mg/g SO, respectively). However, the release of 18 : 2, EPA (20 : 5) and DHA (22 : 6) was significantly different during in vitro digestion. At 80 min, HDJ and PB released 43 and 33% of 18 : 2, 14 and 9% of EPA and 11 and 9% of DHA, respectively. Both enzyme preparations released approximately the same amounts of the other FA analysed. The effect of the addition of bile salts (BS) was significantly different in the two enzyme systems, where porcine pancreatin highly responded to the increase in BS concentration, in contrast to HDJ.

  2. Effects of atropine and propranolol on lung inflammation in experimental envenomation: comparison of two buthidae venoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous works had shown that scorpion venom induced neurotransmitter elevation and an inflammatory response associated with various anatomo-pathological modifications. The most dangerous scorpions species in Algeria responsible for these effects are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Androctonus amoreuxi (Aam). Results Comparison of the physiopathological effects induced by the two venoms showed differences in the kinetic of cytokine release and in lung injury. The lung edema was only observed in response to Aah venom and it was correlated with cell infiltration. In order to better understand the involved mechanism in inflammatory response, we used two antagonists, atropine (non-selective muscarinic antagonist) and propranolol (β adrenergic antagonist), which lead to a decrease of cell infiltration but has no effect on edema forming. Conclusion These results suggest another pathway in the development of lung injury following envenomation with Aam or Aah venom. PMID:23849182

  3. Comparison of 2 commercial single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines on pigs dually infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhoon; Kang, Ikjae; Seo, Hwi Won; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines in regard to growth performance, microbiological and immunological analyses, and pathological observation from wean to finish (175 d of age). Pigs were administered M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccines at 7 and 21 d of age, respectively, or both at 21 d old and then challenged with both M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 49 d old. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed between the 2 vaccinated challenged groups in average daily weight gain, nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. Induction of interleukin-10 following PRRSV vaccination does not interfere with the immune responses induced by M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study demonstrated that the single-dose vaccination regimen for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccine is efficacious for controlling coinfection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation.

  4. Comparison of 2 commercial single-dose Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines on pigs dually infected with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV

    PubMed Central

    Park, Changhoon; Kang, Ikjae; Seo, Hwi Won; Jeong, Jiwoon; Choi, Kyuhyung; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 2 different commercial Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines in regard to growth performance, microbiological and immunological analyses, and pathological observation from wean to finish (175 d of age). Pigs were administered M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccines at 7 and 21 d of age, respectively, or both at 21 d old and then challenged with both M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV at 49 d old. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed between the 2 vaccinated challenged groups in average daily weight gain, nasal shedding of M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyopneumoniae-specific interferon-γ secreting cells, and macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions. Induction of interleukin-10 following PRRSV vaccination does not interfere with the immune responses induced by M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. The present study demonstrated that the single-dose vaccination regimen for M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV vaccine is efficacious for controlling coinfection with M. hyopneumoniae and PRRSV based on clinical, microbiological, immunological, and pathological evaluation. PMID:27127338

  5. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (isolate ATCC VR-2385) infection on bactericidal activity of porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs): in vitro comparisons with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs).

    PubMed

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1997-11-01

    Porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) were recovered by in situ pulmonary vascular perfusion with 0.025% collagenase in saline from six 8-week old, crossbred pigs. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the same pigs for comparisons in each assay. The macrophages were exposed to PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) in vitro for 24 h and infection was confirmed by an indirect immunofluorescence test or transmission electron microscopy. Viral particles tended to accumulate in the vesicles of the Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum. Bactericidal function assays were performed on the recovered macrophages to determine the effects of the virus on macrophage functions. In vitro PRRSV infection reduced the bactericidal ability of PIMs from 68.3% to 56.4% (P < 0.09), and PAMs from 69.3% to 61.0% (P > 0.1) at 24 h post-infection. The mean percentage of bacteria killed by macrophages after PRRSV infection was not significantly different among the treatment groups or between the treatment groups and non-infected controls based on colorimetric MTT bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) assay. PRRSV did not affect the ability of PIMs or PAMs to internalize opsonized 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled S. aureus (P > 0.05). PRRSV infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (P < 0.01) by 67.0% in PIMs and by 69.4% in PAMs. PRRSV reduced the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide product (P < 0.01) by 36.5% for PIMs and by 48.1% for PAMs. The results suggest: (1) PIMs should be considered as an important replication site of PRRSV; (2) PRRSV may have a detrimental effect on both PIMs and PAMs; (3) loss of bactericidal function in PIMs may facilitate hematogenous bacterial infections.

  6. Comparison of four software packages for CT lung volumetry in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Stefan F; Molinari, Francesco; Dufresne, Valerie; Gosset, Natacha; Silva, Mario; Bankier, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    To compare CT lung volumetry (CTLV) measurements provided by different software packages, and to provide normative data for lung densitometric measurements in healthy individuals. This retrospective study included 51 chest CTs of 17 volunteers (eight men and nine women; mean age, 30 ± 6 years), who underwent spirometrically monitored CT at total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and mean inspiratory capacity (MIC). Volumetric differences assessed by four commercial software packages were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measurements and benchmarked against the threshold for acceptable variability between spirometric measurements. Mean lung density (MLD) and parenchymal heterogeneity (MLD-SD) were also compared with ANOVA. Volumetric differences ranged from 12 to 213 ml (0.20 % to 6.45 %). Although 16/18 comparisons (among four software packages at TLC, MIC, and FRC) were statistically significant (P < 0.001 to P = 0.004), only 3/18 comparisons, one at MIC and two at FRC, exceeded the spirometry variability threshold. MLD and MLD-SD significantly increased with decreasing volumes, and were significantly larger in lower compared to upper lobes (P < 0.001). Lung volumetric differences provided by different software packages are small. These differences should not be interpreted based on statistical significance alone, but together with absolute volumetric differences. • Volumetric differences, assessed by different CTLV software, are small but statistically significant. • Volumetric differences are smaller at TLC than at MIC and FRC. • Volumetric differences rarely exceed spirometric repeatability thresholds at MIC and FRC. • Differences between CTLV measurements should be interpreted based on comparison of absolute differences. • MLD increases with decreasing volumes, and is larger in lower compared to upper lobes.

  7. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  8. Association of Escherichia coli with the Small Intestinal Epithelium I. Comparison of Enteropathogenic and Nonenteropathogenic Porcine Strains in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Bertschinger, Hans U.; Moon, Harley W.; Whipp, Shannon C.

    1972-01-01

    Two enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EEC) differed from a nonenteropathogenic strain of E. coli (NEEC) in their association with porcine small intestinal epithelium. The EEC characteristically were found along villi from tip to base and contiguous to the brush border. They were not in crypts. In contrast, the NEEC characteristically remained in the central lumen near the tips of villi and was only occasionally contiguous to the brush border. No organisms were detected within epithelial cells. The difference in distribution between EEC and NEEC was apparent in ligated jejunal loops 45 min postexposure. The association between host and bacterial cells was most consistently demonstrated on frozen sections of intestine, as other histological techniques removed many bacteria. However, cellular details of the association were best demonstrated in chemically fixed tissues. Images PMID:4564680

  9. Association of Escherichia coli with the small intestinal epithelium. I. Comparison of enteropathogenic and nonenteropathogenic porcine strains in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, H U; Moon, H W; Whipp, S C

    1972-04-01

    Two enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EEC) differed from a nonenteropathogenic strain of E. coli (NEEC) in their association with porcine small intestinal epithelium. The EEC characteristically were found along villi from tip to base and contiguous to the brush border. They were not in crypts. In contrast, the NEEC characteristically remained in the central lumen near the tips of villi and was only occasionally contiguous to the brush border. No organisms were detected within epithelial cells. The difference in distribution between EEC and NEEC was apparent in ligated jejunal loops 45 min postexposure. The association between host and bacterial cells was most consistently demonstrated on frozen sections of intestine, as other histological techniques removed many bacteria. However, cellular details of the association were best demonstrated in chemically fixed tissues.

  10. A direct comparison of porcine (Strattice™) and bovine (Surgimend™) acellular dermal matrices in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jessica F; Sheena, Yezen; Tarek Saleh, Dina M; Forouhi, Parto; Benyon, Sarah L; Irwin, Michael S; Malata, Charles M

    2017-08-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) assisted implant-based breast reconstruction (IBBR) has grown in popularity over traditional submuscular techniques. Numerous human, bovine or porcine derived ADMs are available with the type used varying considerably worldwide. Yet, comparative evidence for the efficacy of different ADMs particularly xenogenic is limited. This study directly compares early outcomes of porcine (Strattice™) and bovine (Surgimend™) ADMs in IBBR. Retrospective study of sequential experience of immediate IBBR using Strattice or Surgimend ADM. Data was collected for patients undergoing ADM assisted IBBR after prophylactic or therapeutic mastectomy in Cambridge (October 2011-March 2016). Patient demographics, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies, operative details, postoperative management and outcomes were analysed. Total of 81 patients underwent IBBR with ADM; 38 bilateral and 43 unilateral (n = 119 breasts). Strattice was used in 30 breasts (25%) and Surgimend in 89 (75%). Analysis of patient specific variables showed statistical significance only for higher mastectomy weight in the Strattice group (367.1 ± 159.3 g versus 296.3 ± 133.4 g; P = 0.0379). Strattice was associated with higher rates of skin erythema post-operatively (16.7% versus 4.5%; P = 0.044). Analysed per woman or per breast, there was no statistically significant difference in rates of haematoma, infection, wound dehiscence, skin necrosis or seroma, although there was a trend towards more complications with Strattice. This study found significantly higher rates of skin erythema and a trend towards higher complication rates with Strattice in IBBR. Randomised controlled trials comparing different ADM outcomes are needed to inform best practice. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of three magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy in an in vivo porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Joost J; Ahmed, Muneer; Anninga, Bauke; Schuurman, Kimberley; Pinder, Sarah E; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Douek, Michael; ten Haken, Bennie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on the use of radioisotopes, which limits the availability of the procedure worldwide. The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and a handheld magnetometer provides a radiation-free alternative, which was recently evaluated in two clinical trials. The hydrodynamic particle size of the used magnetic tracer differs substantially from the radioisotope tracer and could therefore benefit from optimization. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of three different-sized magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy within an in vivo porcine model. Materials and methods Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed within a validated porcine model using three magnetic nanoparticle tracers, approved for use in humans (ferumoxytol, with hydrodynamic diameter dH =32 nm; Sienna+®, dH =59 nm; and ferumoxide, dH =111 nm), and a handheld magnetometer. Magnetometer counts (transcutaneous and ex vivo), iron quantification (vibrating sample magnetometry), and histopathological assessments were performed on all ex vivo nodes. Results Transcutaneous “hotspots” were present in 12/12 cases within 30 minutes of injection for the 59 nm tracer, compared to 7/12 for the 32 nm tracer and 8/12 for the 111 nm tracer, at the same time point. Ex vivo magnetometer counts were significantly greater for the 59 nm tracer than for the other tracers. Significantly more nodes per basin were excised for the 32 nm tracer compared to other tracers, indicating poor retention of the 32 nm tracer. Using the 59 nm tracer resulted in a significantly higher iron accumulation compared to the 32 nm tracer. Conclusion The 59 nm tracer demonstrated rapid lymphatic uptake, retention in the first nodes reached, and accumulation in high concentration, making it the most suitable tracer for intraoperative sentinel lymph node localization. PMID:25709445

  12. Lung volume assessment for a cross-comparison of two breathing-adapted techniques in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Luc . E-mail: luc.simon@curie.net; Giraud, Philippe; Servois, Vincent; Rosenwald, Jean-Claude

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the validity of gated radiotherapy of lung by using a cross-check methodology based on four-dimensional (4D)-computed tomography (CT) exams. Variations of volume of a breathing phantom was used as an indicator. Methods and Materials: A balloon was periodically inflated and deflated by a medical ventilator. The volume variation ({delta}V) of the balloon was measured simultaneously by a spirometer, taken as reference, and by contouring 4D-CT series (10 phases) acquired by the real-time position management system (RPM). Similar cross-comparison was performed for 2 lung patients, 1 with free breathing (FB), the other with deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique. Results: During FB, {delta}V measured by the spirometer and from 4D-CT were in good agreement: the mean differences for all phases were 8.1 mL for the balloon and 10.5 mL for a patient-test. End-inspiration lung volume has been shown to be slightly underestimated by the 4D-CT. The discrepancy for {delta}V between DIBH and end-expiration, measured from CT and from spirometer, respectively, was less than 3%. Conclusions: Provided that each slice series is correctly associated with the proper breathing phase, 4D-CT allows an accurate assessment of lung volume during the whole breathing cycle ({delta}V error <3% compared with the spirometer signal). Taking the lung volume variation into account is a central issue in the evaluation and control of the toxicity for lung radiation treatments.

  13. Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for their ability to cause disease and secondary bacterial infection in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isola...

  14. Comparison of shape memory polymer foam versus bare metal coil treatments in an in vivo porcine sidewall aneurysm model.

    PubMed

    Horn, John; Hwang, Wonjun; Jessen, Staci L; Keller, Brandis K; Miller, Matthew W; Tuzun, Egemen; Hartman, Jonathan; Clubb, Fred J; Maitland, Duncan J

    2017-10-01

    The endovascular delivery of platinum alloy bare metal coils has been widely adapted to treat intracranial aneurysms. Despite the widespread clinical use of this technique, numerous suboptimal outcomes are possible. These may include chronic inflammation, low volume filling, coil compaction, and recanalization, all of which can lead to aneurysm recurrence, need for retreatment, and/or potential rupture. This study evaluates a treatment alternative in which polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foam is used as an embolic aneurysm filler. The performance of this treatment method was compared to that of bare metal coils in a head-to-head in vivo study utilizing a porcine vein pouch aneurysm model. After 90 and 180 days post-treatment, gross and histological observations were used to assess aneurysm healing. At 90 days, the foam-treated aneurysms were at an advanced stage of healing compared to the coil-treated aneurysms and showed no signs of chronic inflammation. At 180 days, the foam-treated aneurysms exhibited an 89-93% reduction in cross-sectional area; whereas coiled aneurysms displayed an 18-34% area reduction. The superior healing in the foam-treated aneurysms at earlier stages suggests that SMP foam may be a viable alternative to current treatment methods. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1892-1905, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparison of thermal coagulation profiles for bipolar forceps with different cooling mechanisms in a porcine model of spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Roland K.; Than, Khoi D.; Wang, Anthony C.; Park, Paul; Shih, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coagulation accomplished using bipolar forceps is common in neurosurgery. Control of thermal spread from the forceps tips into surrounding neural tissues is a persistent concern, as neural tissues are especially vulnerable to heat injury. The purpose of our investigation was to compare the efficacy of cooling mechanisms for four different bipolar forceps and to understand thermal spread when coagulating vessels on the spinal cord. Methods: Immediately following euthanasia, the dura mater of an ex vivo porcine model was opened to expose vessels on the spinal cord for coagulation. Temperature profiles were measured at generator power of 25 W and at fixed 5-second activation times. The bipolar forceps used in this study included regular stainless steel, titanium, heat-pipe embedded, and SILVERGlide forceps. Temperature was measured by micro-thermistor at the midpoint between the bipolar tips, and 1 and 2 mm away from the midpoint along the centerline. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate temperature differences. Results: Temperature profiles indicated that heat-pipe embedded forceps create the least amount of temperature increase and the highest normalized temperature decreasing slope after activation. The decreasing slope of SILVERGlide forceps is slightly higher than that of regular stainless steel forceps. Conclusions: Bipolar forceps incorporating either heat-pipe embedded technology or SILVERGlide coating can effectively limit excessive thermal spread, thus decreasing potential injury to adjacent tissues when compared with standard stainless steel and titanium bipolar forceps. Of the two, heat-pipe embedded technology appeared safest, having better cooling efficiency at higher temperature. PMID:24083049

  16. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with serum neutralization test for serodiagnosis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin Sik; Song, Dae Sub; Yang, Jeong Sun; Song, Ju Young; Moon, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Tae Yung; Park, Bong Kyun

    2005-12-01

    An indirect porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus (PEDV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the serum neutralization (SN) test by testing 46 samples from experimentally infected sows, 73 samples from naive sows, and 1,024 field sow samples from 48 commercial swine farms of undefined PED status. The SN test and the ELISA were performed using PEDV, KPEDV-9 strain. Viral proteins as a coating antigen of PEDV ELISA were extracted from the cytoplasm of PEDV-infected Vero cells using a non-ionic detergent, Triton X-100, and a simple protocol of PEDV ELISA was followed. The presence of antibodies in these experimental samples was confirmed by SN and ELISA in which the sensitivity of the ELISA was 89.1%, and the corresponding specificity was 94.5%. On testing 1,024 field samples, an overall agreement of 84.2% was generated between the SN and ELISA. This study demonstrates that the PEDV ELISA is a useful serodiagnostic screening test at herd level for detecting swine antibodies against PEDV.

  17. Comparison of Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa versus Polypropylene in Open Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xin; Xiao, Dongdong; Wang, Wenyue; Song, Zhicheng; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanwen; Gu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) with polypropylene in open inguinal hernia repair. Method Electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were used to compare patient outcomes for the two groups via meta-analysis. Result A total of 3 randomized controlled trials encompassing 200 patients were included in the meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in recurrence (P = 0.16), hematomas (P = 0.06), postoperative pain within 30 days (P = 0.45), or postoperative pain after 1 year (P = 0.12) between the 2 groups. The incidence of discomfort was significantly lower (P = 0.0006) in the SIS group. However, the SIS group experienced a significantly higher incidence of seroma (P = 0.03). Conclusions Compared to polypropylene, using SIS in open inguinal hernia repair is associated with a lower incidence of discomfort and a higher incidence of seroma. However, well-designed larger RCT studies with a longer follow-up period are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26252895

  18. A custom tailored model to investigate skin penetration in porcine skin and its comparison with human skin.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Michael E; Houdek, Pia; Gorissen, Sascha; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Wladykowski, Ewa; Volksdorf, Thomas; Grzybowski, Stephan; Kolios, Georgios; Willers, Christoph; Mallwitz, Henning; Moll, Ingrid; Brandner, Johanna M

    2015-09-01

    Reliable models for the determination of skin penetration and permeation are important for the development of new drugs and formulations. The intention of our study was to develop a skin penetration model which (1) is viable and well supplied with nutrients during the period of the experiment (2) is mimicking human skin as far as possible, but still is independent from the problems of supply and heterogeneity, (3) can give information about the penetration into different compartments of the skin and (4) considers specific inter-individual differences in skin thickness. In addition, it should be quick and inexpensive (5) and without ethical implications (6). Using a chemically divers set of four topically approved active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely diclofenac, metronidazole, tazarotene, and terbinafine, we demonstrated that the model allows reliable determination of drug concentrations in different layers of the viable epidermis and dermis. For APIs susceptible for skin metabolism, the extent of metabolic transformation in epidermis and dermis can be monitored. Furthermore, a high degree of accordance in the ability for discrimination of skin concentrations of the substances in different layers was found in models derived from porcine and human skin. Viability, proliferation, differentiation and markers for skin barrier function were surveyed in the model. This model, which we call 'Hamburg model of skin penetration' is particularly suited to support a rational ranking and selection of dermatological formulations within drug development projects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison between splenic fossa and subhepatic fossa auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiao; Wang, Zhifei; Shen, Jie; Yu, Feiyan; Xie, Limei; Pan, Yongming; Lin, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To test the alternative possible locations for the placement of a liver graft and the relevant surgical technique issues, we developed a porcine model of auxiliary partial heterotopic liver transplantation (APHLT) and evaluated the difference between 2 styles of liver transplantation, either subhepatic fossa or splenic fossa APHLT, by comparing survival and biochemical indexes. Thirty‐eight miniature pigs were randomly divided into 2 groups. A left hemihepatic graft without the middle hepatic vein (HV) was procured from the living donor. In group A (n = 9), an 8 mm diameter polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft approximately 2.5 cm long was connected to the left HV while another PTFE graft of the same size was connected to the left portal vein (PV). The liver graft was implanted in the right subhepatic fossa following splenectomy and right nephrectomy. In group B (n = 10), a PTFE graft of the same size was connected to the left HV while the liver graft was implanted in the splenic fossa following splenectomy and left nephrectomy. Survival rate and complications were observed at 2 weeks after transplantation. Data were collected from 5 animals in group A and 6 animals in group B that survived longer than 2 weeks. The liver function and renal function of the recipients returned to normal at 1 week after surgery in both groups. Eighty‐eight percent (14/16) of the PTFE grafts remained patent at 2 weeks after surgery, but 44% of the PTFE grafts (7/16) developed mural thrombus. No significant differences in the survival rate and biochemistry were found between the 2 groups. In conclusion, the splenic fossa APHLT can achieve beneficial outcomes similar to the subhepatic fossa APHLT in miniature pigs, although it also has a high morbidity rate due to hepatic artery thrombosis, PV thrombosis, and PTEF graft mural thrombus formation. Liver Transplantation 22 812–821 2016 AASLD. PMID:26785299

  20. Right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: a comparison between bovine pericardium and porcine small intestinal extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ronak; Johnson, Jason; Kumar, T K S; Philip, Ranjit; Boston, Umar; Knott-Craig, Christopher J

    2017-05-29

    The porcine small intestinal extracellular matrix reportedly has the potential to differentiate into viable myocardial cells. When used in tetralogy of Fallot repair, it may improve right ventricular function. We evaluated right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium. Subjects with non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot with at least 1 year of follow-up were selected. The extracellular matrix and bovine pericardium groups were compared. We used three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricle global longitudinal strain, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to assess right ventricular function. The extracellular matrix group had 11 patients, whereas the bovine pericardium group had 10 patients. No differences between the groups were found regarding sex ratio, age at surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass time. The follow-up period was 28±12.6 months in the extracellular matrix group and 50.05±17.6 months in the bovine pericardium group (p=0.001). The mean three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction (55.7±5.0% versus 55.3±5.2%, p=0.73), right ventricular global longitudinal strain (-18.5±3.0% versus -18.0±2.2%, p=0.44), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursions (1.59±0.16 versus 1.59±0.2, p=0.93) were similar in the extracellular matrix group and in the bovine pericardium group, respectively. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain in healthy children is reported at -29±3% in literature. In a small cohort of the patients undergoing non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, there was no significant difference in right ventricular function between groups having extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium patches followed-up for more than 1 year. Lower right ventricular longitudinal strain noted in both the groups compared to healthy children.

  1. Arterial distribution characteristics of Embozene particles and comparison with other spherical embolic agents in the porcine acute embolization model.

    PubMed

    Stampfl, Sibylle; Bellemann, Nadine; Stampfl, Ulrike; Sommer, Christof M; Thierjung, Heidi; Lopez-Benitez, Ruben; Radeleff, Boris; Berger, Irina; Richter, Goetz M

    2009-12-01

    To determine the arterial distribution pattern of the embolic agent Embozene within the porcine kidney and compare it with those of other spherical embolic agents. Embozene, Embosphere, Bead Block, and Contour SE in size classes of 100-300 microm, 500-700 microm, and 700-900 microm and Embozene and Embosphere in the size class of 40-120 microm were used for total arterial occlusion in minipig kidneys. Organs were evaluated microscopically regarding vascular distribution of the different embolic agents and particle sizes. The following variations of arterial distribution were identified. In the 40-120-microm size class, Embosphere particles penetrated significantly deeper compared with Embozene (P = .04). In the 100-300-microm size class, Bead Block showed a significantly deeper distribution as microscopy identified particles in arteries much smaller than their nominal size. In the 500-700-microm size class, Embosphere and Contour SE showed a deeper distribution. The most uniform arterial distribution was observed in the 700-900 microm size class,. However, few Embosphere and Contour SE particles were found in arcuate arteries, also indicating a distal distribution. Throughout the four most-used size classes, from very small (40-120 microm) to large (700-900 microm), the distribution characteristics of the four tested materials vary substantially. Particularly, small Embosphere particles and small Bead Block particles showed a more distal distribution, as did medium-sized Embosphere and Contour SE particles. In the largest investigated size class, the distribution was more uniform. In general, the Embozene particles are very uniform in size, and they seem to reach vessels closely corresponding to their nominal size.

  2. Effects of foam or gauze on sternum wound contraction, distension and heart and lung damage during negative-pressure wound therapy of porcine sternotomy wounds.

    PubMed

    Malmsjö, Malin; Lindstedt, Sandra; Ingemansson, Richard

    2011-03-01

    The study was performed to compare the effects of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using gauze and foam on wound edge movement and the macroscopic appearance of the heart and lungs after NPWT. Sternotomy wounds were created in 6×70 kg pigs. Negative pressures of -40, -70, -120 and -160 mmHg were applied and the following were evaluated: wound contraction, distension and the macroscopic appearance of the heart and lungs after NPWT. Wound contraction was greater when using foam than gauze (3.5±0.3 cm and 1.3±0.2 cm, respectively, P<0.01). The application of traction to the lateral edges of the sternotomy resulted in greater wound distention with foam than with gauze (5.3±0.3 cm and 3.6±0.2 cm, respectively, P<0.001). After using foam, the surface of the heart was red and mottled, and lung emphysema and sometimes, lung rupture were observed. After using gauze, the organ surface had no markings. The study shows that foam allows greater wound contraction and distension than gauze. This movement of the wound edges may cause damage to the underlying organs. There is less damage to the heart and lungs when using gauze than foam.

  3. A head-to-head hands-on comparison of ERCP mechanical simulator (EMS) and Ex-vivo Porcine Stomach Model (PSM).

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph W; Wang, Dong; Hu, Bing; Lim, Brian; Leung, Felix W

    2011-07-01

    BACKGROUND: ERCP mechanical simulator (EMS) and ex-vivo porcine stomach model (PSM) have been described. No direct comparison was reported on endoscopists' perception regarding their efficacy for ERCP training OBJECTIVE: Comparative assessment of EMS and PSM. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey before and after practice. SETTING: Hands-on practice workshops. SUBJECTS: 22 endoscopists with prior experience in 111±225 (mean±SD) ERCP. INTERVENTIONS: Participants performed scope insertion, selective bile duct cannulation with guide wire and insertion of a single biliary stent. Simulated fluoroscopy with external pin-hole camera (EMS), or with additional transillumination (PSM) was used to monitor exchange of accessories. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Participants rated their understanding and confidence before and after hands-on practice, and credibility of each simulator for ERCP training. Comparative efficacy of EMS and PSM for ERCP education was scored (1=not, 10=very) based on pre and post practice surveys: realism (tissue pliability, papilla anatomy, visual/cannulation realism, wire manipulation, simulated fluoroscopy, overall experience); usefulness (assessment of results, supplementing clinical experience, easy for trainees to learn new skills) and application (overall ease of use, prepare trainees to use real instrument and ease of incorporation into training). RESULTS: Before hands-on practice, both EMS and PSM received high scores. After practice, there was a significantly greater increase in confidence score for EMS than PSM (p<0.003). Participants found EMS more useful for training (p=0.017). LIMITATIONS: Subjective scores. CONCLUSIONS: Based on head-to-head hands-on comparison, endoscopists considered both EMS and PSM credible options for improving understanding and supplementing clinical ERCP training. EMS is more useful for basic learning.

  4. Infection of Differentiated Porcine Airway Epithelial Cells by Influenza Virus: Differential Susceptibility to Infection by Porcine and Avian Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Liang, Chi-Hui; Winter, Christine; Petersen, Henning; Rautenschlein, Silke; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Wu, Chung-Yi; Wong, Chi-Huey; Herrler, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Background Swine are important hosts for influenza A viruses playing a crucial role in the epidemiology and interspecies transmission of these viruses. Respiratory epithelial cells are the primary target cells for influenza viruses. Methodology/Principal Findings To analyze the infection of porcine airway epithelial cells by influenza viruses, we established precision-cut lung slices as a culture system for differentiated respiratory epithelial cells. Both ciliated and mucus-producing cells were found to be susceptible to infection by swine influenza A virus (H3N2 subtype) with high titers of infectious virus released into the supernatant already one day after infection. By comparison, growth of two avian influenza viruses (subtypes H9N2 and H7N7) was delayed by about 24 h. The two avian viruses differed both in the spectrum of susceptible cells and in the efficiency of replication. As the H9N2 virus grew to titers that were only tenfold lower than that of a porcine H3N2 virus this avian virus is an interesting candidate for interspecies transmission. Lectin staining indicated the presence of both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linked sialic acids on airway epithelial cells. However, their distribution did not correlate with pattern of virus infection indicating that staining by plant lectins is not a reliable indicator for the presence of cellular receptors for influenza viruses. Conclusions/Significance Differentiated respiratory epithelial cells significantly differ in their susceptibility to infection by avian influenza viruses. We expect that the newly described precision-cut lung slices from the swine lung are an interesting culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by different pathogens (viral, bacterial and parasitic ones) of swine. PMID:22174804

  5. Infection of differentiated porcine airway epithelial cells by influenza virus: differential susceptibility to infection by porcine and avian viruses.

    PubMed

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Liang, Chi-Hui; Winter, Christine; Petersen, Henning; Rautenschlein, Silke; Hennig-Pauka, Isabel; Schwegmann-Wessels, Christel; Wu, Chung-Yi; Wong, Chi-Huey; Herrler, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Swine are important hosts for influenza A viruses playing a crucial role in the epidemiology and interspecies transmission of these viruses. Respiratory epithelial cells are the primary target cells for influenza viruses. To analyze the infection of porcine airway epithelial cells by influenza viruses, we established precision-cut lung slices as a culture system for differentiated respiratory epithelial cells. Both ciliated and mucus-producing cells were found to be susceptible to infection by swine influenza A virus (H3N2 subtype) with high titers of infectious virus released into the supernatant already one day after infection. By comparison, growth of two avian influenza viruses (subtypes H9N2 and H7N7) was delayed by about 24 h. The two avian viruses differed both in the spectrum of susceptible cells and in the efficiency of replication. As the H9N2 virus grew to titers that were only tenfold lower than that of a porcine H3N2 virus this avian virus is an interesting candidate for interspecies transmission. Lectin staining indicated the presence of both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linked sialic acids on airway epithelial cells. However, their distribution did not correlate with pattern of virus infection indicating that staining by plant lectins is not a reliable indicator for the presence of cellular receptors for influenza viruses. Differentiated respiratory epithelial cells significantly differ in their susceptibility to infection by avian influenza viruses. We expect that the newly described precision-cut lung slices from the swine lung are an interesting culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by different pathogens (viral, bacterial and parasitic ones) of swine.

  6. Virulence and immunogenicity of genetically defined human and porcine isolates of M. avium subsp. hominissuis in an experimental mouse infection.

    PubMed

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Vluggen, Christelle; Roupie, Virginie; Duytschaever, Lucille; Van den Poel, Christophe; Denoël, Joseph; Wattiez, Ruddy; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Fretin, David; Rigouts, Leen; Chapeira, Ophélie; Mathys, Vanessa; Saegerman, Claude; Huygen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) represents a health concern for humans and to a lesser extent for pigs, but its zoonotic potential remains elusive. Using multispacer sequence typing (MST) we previously identified 49 different genotypes of Mah among Belgian clinical and porcine isolates, with 5 MSTs shared by both hosts. Using experimental intranasal infection of BALB/c mice, we compared the virulence and immunogenicity of porcine and clinical human isolates with shared genotype or with a genotype only found in humans or pigs. Bacterial replication was monitored for 20 weeks in lungs, spleen and liver and mycobacteria specific spleen cell IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 production as well as serum antibody responses were analyzed. Isolates varied in virulence, with human and porcine isolates sharing MST22 genotype showing a thousand fold higher bacterial replication in lungs and more dissemination to spleen and liver than the human and porcine MST91 isolates. Virulent MST22 type was also associated with progressive suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses, and increased IL-10 production. Whole genome sequencing of the two virulent isolates with MST22 genotype and two avirulent isolates of genotype MST91 and comparison with two well-studied M. avium subsp. hominissuis reference strains i.e. Mah 104 and Mah TH135, identified in the two MST22 isolates nine specific virulence factors of the mammalian cell entry family, that were identical with Mah 104 strain. Despite the obvious limitations of the mouse model, a striking link of virulence and identity at the genome level of porcine and human isolates with the same multisequence type, for which no correlation of place of residence (humans) or farm of origin (pigs) was observed, seems to point to the existence in the environment of certain genotypes of Mah which may be more infectious both for humans and pigs than other genotypes.

  7. Virulence and immunogenicity of genetically defined human and porcine isolates of M. avium subsp. hominissuis in an experimental mouse infection

    PubMed Central

    Vluggen, Christelle; Roupie, Virginie; Duytschaever, Lucille; Van den Poel, Christophe; Denoël, Joseph; Wattiez, Ruddy; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Fretin, David; Rigouts, Leen; Chapeira, Ophélie; Mathys, Vanessa; Saegerman, Claude; Huygen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) represents a health concern for humans and to a lesser extent for pigs, but its zoonotic potential remains elusive. Using multispacer sequence typing (MST) we previously identified 49 different genotypes of Mah among Belgian clinical and porcine isolates, with 5 MSTs shared by both hosts. Using experimental intranasal infection of BALB/c mice, we compared the virulence and immunogenicity of porcine and clinical human isolates with shared genotype or with a genotype only found in humans or pigs. Bacterial replication was monitored for 20 weeks in lungs, spleen and liver and mycobacteria specific spleen cell IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 production as well as serum antibody responses were analyzed. Isolates varied in virulence, with human and porcine isolates sharing MST22 genotype showing a thousand fold higher bacterial replication in lungs and more dissemination to spleen and liver than the human and porcine MST91 isolates. Virulent MST22 type was also associated with progressive suppression of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses, and increased IL-10 production. Whole genome sequencing of the two virulent isolates with MST22 genotype and two avirulent isolates of genotype MST91 and comparison with two well-studied M. avium subsp. hominissuis reference strains i.e. Mah 104 and Mah TH135, identified in the two MST22 isolates nine specific virulence factors of the mammalian cell entry family, that were identical with Mah 104 strain. Despite the obvious limitations of the mouse model, a striking link of virulence and identity at the genome level of porcine and human isolates with the same multisequence type, for which no correlation of place of residence (humans) or farm of origin (pigs) was observed, seems to point to the existence in the environment of certain genotypes of Mah which may be more infectious both for humans and pigs than other genotypes. PMID:28182785

  8. Comparison of lifestyle risk factors by family history for gastric, breast, lung and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-En; Hirose, Kaoru; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Xiang, Jin; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tajima, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the theoretical impact of lifestyle of a cancer family history in first-degree relatives (CFH) and clarify interactions between CFH and lifestyle factors, hospital-based comparison and case-reference studies were conducted in Nagoya, Japan. Totals of 1988 gastric, 2455 breast, 1398 lung and 1352 colorectal cancer patients, as well as 50,706 non-cancer outpatients collected from 1988 to 1998, were checked for lifestyle factors, which included dietary and physical exercise habits, as well as smoking/drinking status. General lifestyle factors with non-cancer outpatients did not differ by the CFH status. Case-reference analyses showed that frequent intake of fruits, raw vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, cabbage and lettuce, as well as frequent physical exercise, were associated with decreased risk for all four sites of cancer, while habitual smoking increasing the risk of gastric, and more particularly, lung cancer. Interestingly, the study revealed the magnitude of odds ratios for the above lifestyle factors obtained from CFH positives to be similar to those from CFH negatives for these four sites of cancer. There were no significant interactions between CFH and any particular lifestyle factor. In conclusion, our results suggest no appreciable influence of CFH on lifestyle related risk factors for gastric, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. Habitual smoking increased, while frequent physical exercise and raw vegetables intake decreased cancer risk, regardless of the CFH status.

  9. Comparison of the actions of porcine secretin and extracts of chicken duodenum on pancreatic exocrine secretion in the cat and turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, G J

    1975-01-01

    1. Extracts were prepared of chicken duodenum and their actions on pancreatic secretion in urethane anasthetized turkeys and in conscious cats were compared with those of pure natural porcine secretin. 2. The chicken extracts and porcine secretin stimulated dose-dependent increases in the rate of flow, but not the rate of protein secretion, from the pancreas in cats and turkeys. 3. Porcine cholecystokinin stimulated both the rate of flow and the rate of protein secretion from the pancrease in turkeys. 4. The doses of chicken extract required to evoke half maximal rates of flow of pancreatic juice were similar in the turkey (0-55 mg/kg) and in the cat (0-72 mg/kg). The highest concentration of bicarbonate recorded in the turkey responses was 30 m-equiv/l. compared with 112 m-equiv/l. in the cat. 5. The dose of porcine secretin required for half maximal rate of flow in the bird (5-9 mug/kg) was 180 times higher than in the mammal (0-33 mug/kg). In the cat the duration of responses to porcine secretin was significantly greater than to the chicken extract. 6. It is concluded that in birds there is a factor with biological properties similar but not identical to those of porcine secretin, and that this factor may regulate pancreatic secretion by a mechanism resembling the secretin mechanism in mammals. PMID:1133774

  10. Dosimetric comparison of patient setup strategies in stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jianzhou; He, Tongming T.; Betzing, Christopher; Fuss, Martin; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors retrospectively compared the accumulated dose over the treatment course for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer for three patient setup strategies. Methods: Ten patients who underwent lung SBRT were selected for this study. At each fraction, patients were immobilized using a vacuum cushion and were CT scanned. Treatment plans were performed on the simulation CT. The planning target volume (PTV) was created by adding a 5-mm uniform margin to the internal target volume derived from the 4DCT. All plans were normalized such that 99% of the PTV received 60 Gy. The plan parameters were copied onto the daily CT images for dose recalculation under three setup scenarios: skin marker, bony structure, and soft tissue based alignments. The accumulated dose was calculated by summing the dose at each fraction along the trajectory of a voxel over the treatment course through deformable image registration of each CT with the planning CT. The accumulated doses were analyzed for the comparison of setup accuracy. Results: The tumor volume receiving 60 Gy was 91.7 {+-} 17.9%, 74.1 {+-} 39.1%, and 99.6 {+-} 1.3% for setup using skin marks, bony structures, and soft tissue, respectively. The isodose line covering 100% of the GTV was 55.5 {+-} 7.1, 42.1 {+-} 16.0, and 64.3 {+-} 7.1 Gy, respectively. The corresponding average biologically effective dose of the tumor was 237.3 {+-} 29.4, 207.4 {+-} 61.2, and 258.3 {+-} 17.7 Gy, respectively. The differences in lung biologically effective dose, mean dose, and V20 between the setup scenarios were insignificant. Conclusions: The authors' results suggest that skin marks and bony structure are insufficient for aligning patients in lung SBRT. Soft tissue based alignment is needed to match the prescribed dose delivered to the tumors.

  11. Vaccination inhibits TLR2 transcription via suppression of GR nuclear translocation and binding to TLR2 promoter in porcine lung infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Liu, Maojun; Zou, Huafeng; Li, Xian; Shao, Guoqing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-12-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) act respectively as effectors of innate immune and stress responses. The crosstalk between them is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis during the immune response. Vaccination is known to boost adaptive immunity, yet it remains elusive whether vaccination may affect GR/TLR interactions following infection. Duroc×Meishan crossbred piglets were allocated to three groups. The control group (CC) received neither vaccination nor infection; the non-vaccinated infection group (NI) was artificially infected intratracheally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae); while the vaccinated, infected group (VI) was vaccinated intramuscularly with inactivated M. hyopneumoniae one month before infection. The clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were significantly reduced by vaccination. However, vaccination did not affect the concentration of M. hyopneumoniae DNA in the lung. Serum cortisol was significantly decreased in both NI and VI pigs (P<0.01), but only VI pigs demonstrated significantly diminished nuclear GR content. TLRs 1-10 were all expressed in lung, among which TLR2 was the most abundant and was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. Accordingly, GR binding to the GR response element on TLR2 promoter was significantly increased (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. These results suggest that the inhibition of GR nuclear translocation and binding to the TLR2 promoter, which results in diminished TLR2 expression, is associated with the protective effect of vaccination on M. hyopneumoniae-induced lung lesions in the pig.

  12. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberger, Jutta; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb{sup pro}) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb{sup pro} L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. {sup 15}N-HSQC measurements of Lb{sup pro} L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb{sup pro}, lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb{sup pro}, stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb{sup pro} and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb{sup pro}. - Highlights: • We examine self-processing of the leader protease of foot-and-mouth disease virus. • NMR analysis strongly supports intramolecular self-processing. • Self-processing is a dynamic process with no stable complex. • Structural comparison with nsp1α of PRRSV which forms stable intramolecular complex. • Subdomain orientation explains differences in stability of intramolecular complexes.

  13. Changing trends in diagnosis, staging, treatment and survival in lung cancer: comparison of three consecutive cohorts in an Australian lung cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Denton, E J; Hart, D; Wainer, Z; Wright, G; Russell, P A; Conron, M

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer accounts for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The effect of recent changes in demographics and management on outcomes in Australia has not been clearly defined. To compare three consecutive lung cancer cohorts to evaluate emergent differences in diagnosis, management and mortality. For comparative analysis, 2119 lung cancer patients were divided into three successive cohorts. Current death data were sought from the Victorian Cancer Registry. Age at diagnosis, mode of presentation and pathology did not significantly differ between the groups. Significantly more females were diagnosed with lung cancer in the most recent cohort (P = 0.04). Amongst non-small-cell lung cancer patients, there were more adenocarcinomas and less large cell carcinomas in the latest cohort (P = <0.01). More patients from the most recent cohort were staged pathologically and via positron emission tomography and fewer were clinically staged (P = <0.01). The most recent cohort had a greater proportion of Stage IV disease (P = <0.01) and more curative surgical or combined modality radiotherapy and chemotherapy versus palliative radiotherapy or supportive care (P = <0.01). Overall 5-year survival improved significantly in the most recent cohort, even after adjustment for age, gender and stage (P = <0.01). Comparison of three lung cancer patient cohorts diagnosed between 2001 and 2013 highlights emergent changes in lung cancer demographics, management and outcomes. These include recent increases in proportion of females, pathological and positron emission tomography staging, and Stage IV disease, as well as improved survival despite later stage disease. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Initial experience with lung-MRI at 3.0T: Comparison with CT and clinical data in the evaluation of interstitial lung disease activity.

    PubMed

    Lutterbey, G; Grohé, C; Gieseke, J; von Falkenhausen, M; Morakkabati, N; Wattjes, M P; Manka, R; Trog, D; Schild, H H

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of highfield lung-MRI at 3.0T. A comparison with Computed Tomography (CT) and clinical data regarding the assessment of inflammatory activity in patients with diffuse lung disease was performed. Prospective evaluation of 21 patients (15 males, 6 females, 43-80 y) with diffuse lung diseases who underwent clinical work-up inclusive laboratory tests, lung-function tests and transbronchial biopsy. After routine helical CT (additional 12 HRCT) a lung-MRI (3.0 Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) using a T2-weighted, cardiac and respiratory triggered Fast-Spinecho-Sequence (TE/TR=80/1500-2500 ms, 22 transverse slices, 7/2mm slice-thickness/-gap) was performed. A pneumologist classified the cases into two groups: A=temporary acute interstitial disease or chronic interstitial lung disease with acute episode or superimposed infection/B=burned out interstitial lung disease without activity. Two blinded CT-radiologists graded the cases in active/inactive disease on the basis of nine morphological criteria each. A third radiologist rated the MRI-cases as active/inactive, depending on the signal-intensities of lung tissues. The pneumologist classified 14 patients into group A and 7 patients into group B. Using CT, 6 cases were classified as active, 15 cases as inactive disease. With MRI 12 cases were classified as active and 9 cases as inactive. In the complete group of 21 patients MRI decisions and CT decisions respectively were false positive/false negative/correct in 2/4/15 respectively 0/8/13 cases. Correct diagnoses were obtained in 72% (MRI) respectively 62% (CT). In the subgroup of 12 cases including HRCT, MRI respectively CT were false positive/false negative/correct in 2/1/9 respectively 0/5/7 cases. Correct diagnoses were obtained in 75% (MRI) respectively 58% (CT). Highfield MRI of the lung is feasible and performed slightly better compared to CT in the determination of activity in patients with interstitial lung

  15. Comparison of human lung tissue mass measurements from ex vivo lungs and high resolution CT software analysis.

    PubMed

    Henne, Erik; Anderson, Joseph C; Lowe, Norma; Kesten, Steven

    2012-05-14

    Quantification of lung tissue via analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans is increasingly common for monitoring disease progression and for planning of therapeutic interventions. The current study evaluates the quantification of human lung tissue mass by software analysis of a CT to physical tissue mass measurements. Twenty-two ex vivo lungs were scanned by CT and analyzed by commercially available software. The lungs were then dissected into lobes and sublobar segments and weighed. Because sublobar boundaries are not visually apparent, a novel technique of defining sublobar segments in ex vivo tissue was developed. The tissue masses were then compared to measurements by the software analysis. Both emphysematous (n = 14) and non-emphysematous (n = 8) bilateral lungs were evaluated. Masses (Mean ± SD) as measured by dissection were 651 ± 171 g for en bloc lungs, 126 ± 60 g for lobar segments, and 46 ± 23 g for sublobar segments. Masses as measured by software analysis were 598 ± 159 g for en bloc lungs, 120 ± 58 g for lobar segments, and 45 ± 23 g for sublobar segments. Correlations between measurement methods was above 0.9 for each segmentation level. The Bland-Altman analysis found limits of agreement at the lung, lobe and sublobar levels to be -13.11% to -4.22%, -13.59% to 4.24%, and -45.85% to 44.56%. The degree of concordance between the software mass quantification to physical mass measurements provides substantial evidence that the software method represents an appropriate non-invasive means to determine lung tissue mass.

  16. A comparison of conventional surfactant treatment and partial liquid ventilation on the lung volume of injured ventilated small lungs.

    PubMed

    Proquitté, Hans; Hartenstein, Sebastian; Koelsch, Uwe; Wauer, Roland R; Rüdiger, Mario; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2013-08-01

    As an alternative to surfactant therapy (ST), partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorocarbons (PFC) has been considered as a treatment for acute lung injury (ALI) in newborns. The instilled PFC is much heavier than the instilled surfactant and the aim of this study was to investigate whether PLV, compared to ST, increases the end-expiratory volume of the lung (VL). Fifteen newborn piglets (age <12 h, mean weight 678 g) underwent saline lung lavage to achieve a surfactant depletion. Thereafter animals were randomized to PLV (n = 8), receiving PFC PF5080 (3M, Germany) at 30 mL kg(-1), and ST (n = 7) receiving 120 mg Curosurf®. Blood gases, hemodynamics and static compliance were measured initially (baseline), immediately after ALI, and after 240 min mechanical ventilation with either technique. Subsequently all piglets were killed; the lungs were removed in toto and frozen in liquid N2. After freeze-drying the lungs were cut into lung cubes (LCs) with edge lengths of 0.7 cm, to calculate VL. All LCs were weighed and the density of the dried lung tissue was calculated. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups PLV and ST (means ± SD) were noted in body weight (676 ± 16 g versus 679 ± 17 g; P = 0.974) or lung dry weight (1.64 ± 0.29 g versus 1.79 ± 0.48 g; P = 0.48). Oxygenation index and ventilatory efficacy index did not differ significantly between both groups at any time. VL (34.28 ± 6.13 mL versus 26.22 ± 8.1 mL; P < 0.05) and the density of the dried lung tissue (48.07 ± 5.02 mg mL(-1) versus 69.07 ± 5.30 mg mL(-1); P < 0.001), however, differed significantly between the PLV and ST groups. A 4 h PLV treatment of injured ventilated small lungs increased VL by 30% and decreased lung density by 31% compared to ST treatment, indicating greater lung distension after PLV compared to ST.

  17. Distribution of porcine monocytes in different lymphoid tissues and the lungs during experimental Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infection and the role of chemokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Monocytes play an essential role in the defense against bacterial pathogens. Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) monocytes in pigs consist of the main “steady-state” subpopulations: CD14hi/CD163-/SLA-DR- and CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR+. During inflammation, the subpopulation of “inflammatory” monocytes expressing very high levels of CD163, but lacking the SLA-DR molecule (being CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR-) appears in the BM and PB and replaces the CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR+ subpopulation. However, current knowledge of monocyte migration into inflamed tissues in pigs is limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of “inflammatory” CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR- monocytes during experimental inflammation induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) and a possible role for chemokines in attracting “inflammatory” CD14low/CD163+/SLA-DR- monocytes into the tissues. Monocyte subpopulations were detected by flow cytometry. Chemokines and chemokine receptors were detected by RT-qPCR. The “steady-state” monocytes were found in the BM, PB, spleen and lungs of control pigs. After APP-infection, “inflammatory” monocytes replaced the “steady-state” subpopulation in BM, PB, spleen and moreover, they appeared in an unaffected area, demarcation zone and necrotic area of the lungs and in tracheobronchial lymph nodes. They did not appear in mesenteric lymph nodes. Levels of mRNA for various chemokines with their appropriate receptors were found to be elevated in BM (CCL3-CCR1/CCR5, CCL8-CCR2/CCR5, CCL19-CCR7), necrotic area of the lungs (CCL3-CCR1, CCL5-CCR1/CCR3, CCL11-CCR3, CCL22/CCR4) and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (CCL3-CCR1) and therefore they could play a role in attracting monocytes into inflamed tissues. In conclusion, “inflammatory” monocytes appear in different lymphoid tissues and the lungs after APP infection in pigs. Various chemokines could drive this process. PMID:24134635

  18. Lung asbestos burden in shipyard and construction workers with mesothelioma: Comparison with burdens in subjects with asbestosis of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, M.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Although mesothelioma is generally considered to be caused by asbestos, epidemiologic studies indicate that some cases have another cause. In order to determine whether pulmonary asbestos burden can be used to define asbestos-related mesotheliomas, asbestos burden was quantified in 27 shipyard or construction workers with diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum and a history of asbestos exposure. Their burden was significantly greater than the burden found in 19 unexposed men. The burdens were also compared to those of previously reported subjects with asbestosis or lung cancer. The median concentration for total amphibole fibers (2.7 million/g dry lung) in subjects with mesothelioma did not differ significantly from our previously reported median values for 14 subjects with asbestosis (1.3 million/g dry lung) or for 60 asbestos workers with lung cancer (1.3 million/g dry lung). Fiber size distribution for amosite, the most prevalent fiber type, was similar in all three subject groups. Fifteen of 25 (60%) subjects with mesothelioma had mild asbestosis. Asbestos body (AB) concentrations were {ge} 1900/g dry lung, and total amphibole fiber concentrations were {ge}390,000/g dry lung. Counts of ABs{ge}0.5/cm{sup 2} in histologic sections always signified both of these concentrations in extracts. Thus, histologic sections showing {ge}0.5 ABs/cm{sup 2} or extracts containing asbestos body or amphibole fiber concentrations of at least 1900 or 390,000/g dry lung, respectively, will confirm an asbestos related mesothelioma.

  19. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  20. Transcriptomics Comparison between Porcine Adipose and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells during In Vitro Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Elisa; Bionaz, Massimo; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Hurley, Walter L.; Wheeler, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) are considered the gold standard for use in tissue regeneration among mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The abundance and ease of harvest make the adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) an attractive alternative to BMSC. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of ASC and BMSC, respectively isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and femur of 3 adult pigs, during in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation for up to four weeks. At 0, 2, 7, and 21 days of differentiation RNA was extracted for microarray analysis. A False Discovery Rate ≤0.05 for overall interactions effect and P<0.001 between comparisons were used to determine differentially expressed genes (DEG). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and DAVID performed the functional analysis of the DEG. Functional analysis of highest expressed genes in MSC and genes more expressed in MSC vs. fully differentiated tissues indicated low immunity and high angiogenic capacity. Only 64 genes were differentially expressed between ASC and BMSC before differentiation. The functional analysis uncovered a potential larger angiogenic, osteogenic, migration, and neurogenic capacity in BMSC and myogenic capacity in ASC. Less than 200 DEG were uncovered between ASC and BMSC during differentiation. Functional analysis also revealed an overall greater lipid metabolism in ASC, while BMSC had a greater cell growth and proliferation. The time course transcriptomic comparison between differentiation types uncovered <500 DEG necessary to determine cell fate. The functional analysis indicated that osteogenesis had a larger cell proliferation and cytoskeleton organization with a crucial role of G-proteins. Adipogenesis was driven by PPAR signaling and had greater angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, migration, and tumorigenesis capacity. Overall the data indicated that the transcriptome of the two MSC is relatively similar across the conditions studied. In addition, functional analysis

  1. Histopathological comparison of biodegradable polymer and permanent polymer based sirolimus eluting stents in a porcine model of coronary stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Koppara, Tobias; Joner, Michael; Bayer, Gerd; Steigerwald, Kristin; Diener, Tobias; Wittchow, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Biodegradable stent coatings were recently introduced as a potential solution to overcome sustained inflammatory responses observed with permanent polymer-based drug-eluting stents. In a preliminary study, selected biodegradable or permanent polymer-based sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) formulations were screened for effectiveness in comparison to bare metal stents (BMS) at 28 days. Subsequently, the most favourable SES formulation was compared to commercially available SES (Cypher™) at 28, 90 and 180 days to investigate the histopathologic response as well as tissue, blood and organ pharmacokinetics. Overlapping SES implantation was conducted to evaluate vascular healing at 28 days in this particular setting. SES with biodegradable poly (L-lactide) polymer (PLLA) or poly(lactide-co-glycolide) showed the most favourable outcome with regards to reductions in neointimal area in comparison to BMS at 28 days. The PLLA SES showed a similar reduction in neointimal area compared to Cypher™ at 28 days, with significant greater reductions at 90 and 180 days (1.7 ± 0.7 mm² vs. 3.1 ± 1.5 mm², p=0.03 and 1.8 ± 1.2 mm² vs. 3.0 ± 1.5 mm², p=0.01, respectively). Sirolimus vascular tissue concentrations were detectable up to 90 days following implantation. Overlapping stented segments showed favourable histopathologic results with respect to fibrin deposition and endothelialisation at 28 days. In conclusion, the use of PLLA as drug-eluting matrix resulted in mild inflammatory responses in the presence of effective sirolimus tissue concentrations. The greater efficacy observed at long-term follow-up in PLLA SES compared to Cypher™ may be a multifactorial result of stent design, polymer biocompatibility and improved release kinetics.

  2. Transcriptomics comparison between porcine adipose and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Elisa; Bionaz, Massimo; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Hurley, Walter L; Wheeler, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) are considered the gold standard for use in tissue regeneration among mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The abundance and ease of harvest make the adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) an attractive alternative to BMSC. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of ASC and BMSC, respectively isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue and femur of 3 adult pigs, during in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation for up to four weeks. At 0, 2, 7, and 21 days of differentiation RNA was extracted for microarray analysis. A False Discovery Rate ≤0.05 for overall interactions effect and P<0.001 between comparisons were used to determine differentially expressed genes (DEG). Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and DAVID performed the functional analysis of the DEG. Functional analysis of highest expressed genes in MSC and genes more expressed in MSC vs. fully differentiated tissues indicated low immunity and high angiogenic capacity. Only 64 genes were differentially expressed between ASC and BMSC before differentiation. The functional analysis uncovered a potential larger angiogenic, osteogenic, migration, and neurogenic capacity in BMSC and myogenic capacity in ASC. Less than 200 DEG were uncovered between ASC and BMSC during differentiation. Functional analysis also revealed an overall greater lipid metabolism in ASC, while BMSC had a greater cell growth and proliferation. The time course transcriptomic comparison between differentiation types uncovered <500 DEG necessary to determine cell fate. The functional analysis indicated that osteogenesis had a larger cell proliferation and cytoskeleton organization with a crucial role of G-proteins. Adipogenesis was driven by PPAR signaling and had greater angiogenesis, lipid metabolism, migration, and tumorigenesis capacity. Overall the data indicated that the transcriptome of the two MSC is relatively similar across the conditions studied. In addition, functional analysis

  3. The effect of steroid treatment with inhaled budesonide or intravenous methylprednisolone on phosgene-induced acute lung injury in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam; Brown, Roger; Jugg, Bronwen; Platt, Janet; Mann, Thomas; Masey, Charles; Jenner, John; Rice, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Toxic industrial chemicals e.g., phosgene, are widely used as reactive intermediates in industrial processes. Inhalation exposure to these chemicals can result in life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI), to which no specific antidote exists. This study aimed to assess the potential benefit of steroids in treating phosgene induced ALI. Anesthetized pigs were instrumented, exposed to phosgene Ct 2000 mg.min.m(-3) (Ct is the product of concentration [mg.m(-3)] x time [min]), and ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation before being randomized to study part 1: treatment with intravenous glucose saline (20 mL) or methylprednisolone (12.5 mg.kg(-1) in 20 mL) 6 h postexposure or study part 2: treatment with inhaled glucose saline (2 mL) or budesonide (2 mL of 0.5 mg.mL(-1) solution) at 1, 6, 12, and 18 h postexposure. Biochemical parameters and animal physiology were monitored to 24 h postexposure. The results show no change in mortality, lung edema, or shunt fraction; however, some beneficial effects on cardiac parameters e.g., stroke volume, left ventricular stroke work, were noted. Steroids were neither beneficial nor detrimental in the treatment of phosgene induced ALI. This study does not support the use of steroids alone as a treatment, but their use in a combined therapy strategy should be investigated.

  4. Comparison of observer variability and accuracy of different criteria for lung scan interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Petronella J; Hartmann, Ieneke J C; Hoekstra, Otto S; Stokkel, Marcel P M; Postmus, Pieter E; Prins, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    Different criteria have been advocated for the interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) lung scans in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Besides these predefined criteria, many physicians use an integration of the different sets of criteria and their own experience-the so-called Gestalt interpretation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate interobserver variability and accuracy of 3 sets of criteria: the Hull and PIOPED (Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis) criteria and the Gestalt interpretation. Two experienced observers interpreted V/Q scans of all 328 patients according to the 3 different schemes. The diagnostic classification obtained for the different sets of criteria was analyzed against the presence or absence of PE. The interobserver variabilities as assessed by the kappa statistics of the PIOPED and Hull criteria and for the Gestalt interpretation were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.76), 0.79 (95% CI, 0.73-0.85), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72), respectively. The differences in kappa values between the Hull and PIOPED criteria and between the Hull criteria and Gestalt interpretation were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). For 16 patients (14 without PE) with a normal lung scan result according to the Hull criteria, the result according to the PIOPED criteria was low probability. For 21 patients (12 with PE), the scans were intermediate probability according to the PIOPED criteria, whereas the result with the Hull criteria was high probability. Analysis of receiver-operating-characteristic curves yielded a comparable area under the curve for all sets of criteria (0.87-0.90). The Hull, PIOPED, and Gestalt interpretation of V/Q lung scans all have a good accuracy and interobserver variability. However, the reproducibility of the Hull criteria is superior in comparison with that of the other sets of criteria.

  5. Comparison between the 2013-2014 and 2009-2012 annual porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus epidemics in a cohort of sow herds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Steven J P; Perez, Andres; Morrison, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the 2013/2014 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) epidemic in the United States and compare it with the previous 4 y of data from 2009 to 2012. A total of 371 herds participated in the study, representing nearly 1.2 million sows in 15 States. There were significantly fewer PRRSV cases during this study period and the onset of the annual epidemic was delayed approximately 3 wk. Cluster analysis revealed a pattern similar to previous years. The roles of spurious observations, increased awareness of PRRSV epidemics, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus detection in the United States swine herd are considered.

  6. Comparison of effects of glass fibre and glass powder on guinea-pig lungs

    PubMed Central

    Botham, Susan K.; Holt, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Botham, Susan K., and Holt, P. F. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 232-236. Comparison of effects of glass fibre and glass powder on guinea-pig lungs. Following 24 hours inhalation by guinea-pigs of powdered glass dust, the pulmonary effects over the succeeding month differed from those previously observed to follow inhalation of glass fibre in that (1) fewer erythrocytes escaped from the capillaries, (2) very few giant cells were produced, (3) erythrocytes and intracellular glass particles were cleared more readily because junctions between respiratory and terminal bronchioles were not blocked by giant cells, (4) intracellular granules containing Perls-positive material did not appreciably increase in number or intensity of staining during the month, and (5) particles were not coated with Perls-positive material during the time that pseudo-asbestos bodies would be formed from glass fibres. The difference between the effects of chemically similar glass powder and fibre during a month in a guinea-pig lung is considered to be due to the morphology of the inhaled particle. Images PMID:4124978

  7. Comparison of discriminatory power and accuracy of three lung cancer risk models.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, A M; Cassidy, A; Asomaning, K; Raji, O Y; Duffy, S W; Field, J K; Spitz, M R; Christiani, D; Etzel, C J

    2010-07-27

    Three lung cancer (LC) models have recently been constructed to predict an individual's absolute risk of LC within a defined period. Given their potential application in prevention strategies, a comparison of their accuracy in an independent population is important. We used data for 3197 patients with LC and 1703 cancer-free controls recruited to an ongoing case-control study at the Harvard School of Public Health and Massachusetts General Hospital. We estimated the 5-year LC risk for each risk model and compared the discriminatory power, accuracy, and clinical utility of these models. Overall, the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP) and Spitz models had comparable discriminatory power (0.69), whereas the Bach model had significantly lower power (0.66; P=0.02). Positive predictive values were highest with the Spitz models, whereas negative predictive values were highest with the LLP model. The Spitz and Bach models had lower sensitivity but better specificity than did the LLP model. We observed modest differences in discriminatory power among the three LC risk models, but discriminatory powers were moderate at best, highlighting the difficulty in developing effective risk models.

  8. Comparison of static end-expiratory and effective lung volumes for gas exchange in healthy and surfactant-depleted lungs.

    PubMed

    Albu, Gergely; Wallin, Mats; Hallbäck, Magnus; Emtell, Per; Wolf, Andrew; Lönnqvist, Per-Arne; Göthberg, Sylvia; Peták, Ferenc; Habre, Walid

    2013-07-01

    Effective lung volume (ELV) for gas exchange is a new measure that could be used as a real-time guide during controlled mechanical ventilation. The authors established the relationships of ELV to static end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) with varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in healthy and surfactant-depleted rabbit lungs. Nine rabbits were anesthetized and ventilated with a modified volume-controlled mode where periods of five consecutive alterations in inspiratory/expiratory ratio (1:2-1.5:1) were imposed to measure ELV from the corresponding carbon dioxide elimination traces. EELV and the lung clearance index were concomitantly determined by helium wash-out technique. Airway and tissue mechanics were assessed by using low-frequency forced oscillations. Measurements were collected at PEEP 0, 3, 6, and 9 cm H2O levels under control condition and after surfactant depletion by whole-lung lavage. ELV was greater than EELV at all PEEP levels before lavage, whereas there was no evidence for a difference in the lung volume indices after surfactant depletion at PEEP 6 or 9 cm H2O. Increasing PEEP level caused significant parallel increases in both ELV and EELV levels, decreases in ventilation heterogeneity, and improvement in airway and tissue mechanics under control condition and after surfactant depletion. ELV and EELV exhibited strong and statistically significant correlations before (r=0.84) and after lavage (r=0.87). The parallel changes in ELV and EELV with PEEP in healthy and surfactant-depleted lungs support the clinical value of ELV measurement as a bedside tool to estimate dynamic changes in EELV in children and infants.

  9. The comparison of two negative-pressure wound therapy systems in a porcine model of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kathryn E; Lafontaine, Javier; Bills, Jessica; Noble, Deborah; Wight-Carter, Mary; Oni, Georgette; Rohrich, Rod J; Lavery, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two negative-pressure wound healing systems (NPWT), -75 mmHg with a silicone-coated (SC) dressing and -125 mmHg with polyurethane foam dressing (standard of care). In addition, this study compared the effects of two different dressing interfaces, SC dressing and gauze, with -75 mmHg pressure. For both comparisons, two groups of five pigs were evaluated over a 21-day time course. Two excisional wounds were made on each animal and NPWT dressings were applied. A canvas saddle was constructed to hold the NPWT device so the animal had free range of the pen. Dressings were changed twice a week and wound measurements were taken. Specimens for histology and gene expression analyses were taken on day 7 and 21. These data show that there is increased expression in a few genes associated with remodeling and inflammatory processes in the NPWT-125 with polyurethane foam as compared with the NPWT-75 with SC dressing. These two systems, however, are equivalent with respect to wound healing, histology, and gene expression over 21 days of healing. Further, we demonstrate that there is no difference in measure of healing between the SC dressing and a basic gauze dressing.

  10. Inter-algorithm lesion volumetry comparison of real and 3D simulated lung lesions in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Hoye, Jocelyn; Smith, Taylor; Ebner, Lukas; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish volumetric exchangeability between real and computational lung lesions in CT. We compared the overall relative volume estimation performance of segmentation tools when used to measure real lesions in actual patient CT images and computational lesions virtually inserted into the same patient images (i.e., hybrid datasets). Pathologically confirmed malignancies from 30 thoracic patient cases from Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) were modeled and used as the basis for the comparison. Lesions included isolated nodules as well as those attached to the pleura or other lung structures. Patient images were acquired using a 16 detector row or 64 detector row CT scanner (Lightspeed 16 or VCT; GE Healthcare). Scans were acquired using standard chest protocols during a single breath-hold. Virtual 3D lesion models based on real lesions were developed in Duke Lesion Tool (Duke University), and inserted using a validated image-domain insertion program. Nodule volumes were estimated using multiple commercial segmentation tools (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc., Syngo.via, Siemens Healthcare, and IntelliSpace, Philips Healthcare). Consensus based volume comparison showed consistent trends in volume measurement between real and virtual lesions across all software. The average percent bias (+/- standard error) shows -9.2+/-3.2% for real lesions versus -6.7+/-1.2% for virtual lesions with tool A, 3.9+/-2.5% and 5.0+/-0.9% for tool B, and 5.3+/-2.3% and 1.8+/-0.8% for tool C, respectively. Virtual lesion volumes were statistically similar to those of real lesions (< 4% difference) with p >.05 in most cases. Results suggest that hybrid datasets had similar inter-algorithm variability compared to real datasets.

  11. Acute effects of indacaterol on lung hyperinflation in moderate COPD: a comparison with tiotropium.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Andrea; Centanni, Stefano; Cerveri, Isa; Gulotta, Carlo; Foresi, Antonio; Cazzola, Mario; Brusasco, Vito

    2012-01-01

    Evidence has been provided that high-dose indacaterol (300 μg) can reduce lung hyperinflation in moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To study whether low-dose indacaterol (150 μg) also reduces lung hyperinflation in comparison with the recommended dose of tiotropium (18 μg) in moderate COPD. This was a multicenter, randomized, blinded, 3-period cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Spirometry and lung volumes were measured before and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after the administration of single-doses of indacaterol, tiotropium, or placebo. The primary end-point was the change in peak inspiratory capacity (IC). The area under the 4-h curve (AUC(0-4)) for IC, 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were secondary variables. 49 patients completed the study. On average, peak IC and AUC(0-4) for IC were significantly greater after indacaterol than placebo by 177 mL (p = 0.007) and 142 mL (p = 0.001), respectively. Differences in peak IC and AUC(0-4) for IC between tiotropium and placebo were 120 mL (p = 0.07) and 85 mL (p = 0.052), respectively. Differences between indacaterol and tiotropium were statistically insignificant. Peak IC increased by >20% in 12 patients with indacaterol and 9 with tiotropium (p = 0.001), and by >30% in 8 patients with indacaterol and 3 with tiotropium (p = 0.001). The effects of indacaterol and tiotropium on FEV(1) and FVC were statistically significant vs placebo. Low-dose indacaterol has a bronchodilator effect that is similar to the recommended dose of tiotropium, but it is slightly superior in reducing lung hyperinflation. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00999908. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of low- and ultralow-dose computed tomography protocols for quantitative lung and airway assessment.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Emily; Sloan, Chelsea; Newell, John D; Sieren, Jered P; Saylor, Melissa; Vidal, Craig; Hogue, Shayna; De Stefano, Frank; Sieren, Alexa; Hoffman, Eric A; Sieren, Jessica C

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures are increasingly being developed and used to characterize lung disease. With recent advances in CT technologies, we sought to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of lung imaging at low- and ultralow-radiation doses with the use of iterative reconstruction (IR), tube current modulation (TCM), and spectral shaping. We investigated the effect of five independent CT protocols reconstructed with IR on quantitative airway measures and global lung measures using an in vivo large animal model as a human subject surrogate. A control protocol was chosen (NIH-SPIROMICS + TCM) and five independent protocols investigating TCM, low- and ultralow-radiation dose, and spectral shaping. For all scans, quantitative global parenchymal measurements (mean, median and standard deviation of the parenchymal HU, along with measures of emphysema) and global airway measurements (number of segmented airways and pi10) were generated. In addition, selected individual airway measurements (minor and major inner diameter, wall thickness, inner and outer area, inner and outer perimeter, wall area fraction, and inner equivalent circle diameter) were evaluated. Comparisons were made between control and target protocols using difference and repeatability measures. Estimated CT volume dose index (CTDIvol) across all protocols ranged from 7.32 mGy to 0.32 mGy. Low- and ultralow-dose protocols required more manual editing and resolved fewer airway branches; yet, comparable pi10 whole lung measures were observed across all protocols. Similar trends in acquired parenchymal and airway measurements were observed across all protocols, with increased measurement differences using the ultralow-dose protocols. However, for small airways (1.9 ± 0.2 mm) and medium airways (5.7 ± 0.4 mm), the measurement differences across all protocols were comparable to the control protocol repeatability across breath holds. Diameters, wall thickness, wall area fraction

  13. Comparison of Lung Clearance Index and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Lung Disease in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Mirjam; Wielpütz, Mark O; Graeber, Simon Y; Joachim, Cornelia; Sommerburg, Olaf; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Mall, Marcus A

    2017-02-01

    Early onset and progression of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) indicates that sensitive noninvasive outcome measures are needed for diagnostic monitoring and early intervention clinical trials. The lung clearance index (LCI) and chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were shown to detect early lung disease in CF; however, the relationship between the two measures remains unknown. To correlate the LCI with abnormalities detected by MRI and compare the sensitivity of the two techniques to detect responses to therapy for pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF. LCI determined by age-adapted multiple breath washout techniques and MRI studies were performed in 97 clinically stable children with CF across the pediatric age range (0.2-21.1 yr). Furthermore, LCI (n = 26) or MRI (n = 10) were performed at the time of pulmonary exacerbation and after antibiotic therapy. MRI was evaluated using a dedicated morphofunctional score. The LCI correlated with the global MRI score as well as MRI-defined airway wall abnormalities, mucus plugging, and abnormal lung perfusion in infants and toddlers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) and in older children (P < 0.001) with CF. LCI and MRI were sensitive to detect response to antibiotic therapy for pulmonary exacerbations. Our results indicate that LCI and MRI may be useful complementary tools for noninvasive monitoring and as quantitative endpoints in early intervention trials in children with CF. In this context, MRI enables detection of disease heterogeneity, including regional mucus plugging associated with abnormal lung perfusion in early CF lung disease. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 02270476).

  14. Porcine CD3+NKp46+ Lymphocytes Have NK-Cell Characteristics and Are Present in Increased Frequencies in the Lungs of Influenza-Infected Animals

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Kerstin H.; Stadler, Maria; Talker, Stephanie C.; Forberg, Hilde; Storset, Anne K.; Müllebner, Andrea; Duvigneau, J. Catharina; Hammer, Sabine E.; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The CD3−NKp46+ phenotype is frequently used for the identification of natural killer (NK) cells in various mammalian species. Recently, NKp46 expression was analyzed in more detail in swine. It could be shown that besides CD3−NKp46+ lymphocytes, a small but distinct population of CD3+NKp46+ cells exists. In this study, we report low frequencies of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes in blood, lymph nodes, and spleen, but increased frequencies in non-lymphatic organs, like liver and lung. Phenotypic analyses showed that the majority of CD3+NKp46+ cells coexpressed the CD8αβ heterodimer, while a minor subset expressed the TCR-γδ, which was associated with a CD8αα+ phenotype. Despite these T-cell associated receptors, the majority of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes displayed a NK-related phenotype (CD2+CD5−CD6−CD16+perforin+) and expressed mRNA of NKp30, NKp44, and NKG2D at similar levels as NK cells. Functional tests showed that CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes produced IFN-γ and proliferated upon cytokine stimulation to a similar extent as NK cells, but did not respond to the T-cell mitogen, ConA. Likewise, CD3+NKp46+ cells killed K562 cells with an efficiency comparable to NK cells. Cross-linking of NKp46 and CD3 led to degranulation of CD3+NKp46+ cells, indicating functional signaling pathways for both receptors. Additionally, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-infected pigs had reduced frequencies of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes in blood, but increased frequencies in the lung in the early phase of infection. Thus, CD3+NKp46+ cells appear to be involved in the early phase of influenza infections. In summary, we describe a lymphocyte population in swine with a mixed phenotype of NK and T cells, with results so far indicating that this cell population functionally resembles NK cells. PMID:27471504

  15. Porcine CD3(+)NKp46(+) Lymphocytes Have NK-Cell Characteristics and Are Present in Increased Frequencies in the Lungs of Influenza-Infected Animals.

    PubMed

    Mair, Kerstin H; Stadler, Maria; Talker, Stephanie C; Forberg, Hilde; Storset, Anne K; Müllebner, Andrea; Duvigneau, J Catharina; Hammer, Sabine E; Saalmüller, Armin; Gerner, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The CD3(-)NKp46(+) phenotype is frequently used for the identification of natural killer (NK) cells in various mammalian species. Recently, NKp46 expression was analyzed in more detail in swine. It could be shown that besides CD3(-)NKp46(+) lymphocytes, a small but distinct population of CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells exists. In this study, we report low frequencies of CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes in blood, lymph nodes, and spleen, but increased frequencies in non-lymphatic organs, like liver and lung. Phenotypic analyses showed that the majority of CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells coexpressed the CD8αβ heterodimer, while a minor subset expressed the TCR-γδ, which was associated with a CD8αα(+) phenotype. Despite these T-cell associated receptors, the majority of CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes displayed a NK-related phenotype (CD2(+)CD5(-)CD6(-)CD16(+)perforin(+)) and expressed mRNA of NKp30, NKp44, and NKG2D at similar levels as NK cells. Functional tests showed that CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes produced IFN-γ and proliferated upon cytokine stimulation to a similar extent as NK cells, but did not respond to the T-cell mitogen, ConA. Likewise, CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells killed K562 cells with an efficiency comparable to NK cells. Cross-linking of NKp46 and CD3 led to degranulation of CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells, indicating functional signaling pathways for both receptors. Additionally, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-infected pigs had reduced frequencies of CD3(+)NKp46(+) lymphocytes in blood, but increased frequencies in the lung in the early phase of infection. Thus, CD3(+)NKp46(+) cells appear to be involved in the early phase of influenza infections. In summary, we describe a lymphocyte population in swine with a mixed phenotype of NK and T cells, with results so far indicating that this cell population functionally resembles NK cells.

  16. A quantitative comparison analysis of diatoms in the lung tissues and the drowning medium as an indicator of drowning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Ma, Yanbin; Liu, Chao; Wen, Jinfeng; Hu, Sunlin; Shi, He; Zhu, Lingyun

    2016-08-01

    The presence of diatoms in the lung tissues, internal organs and bone marrow is considered as the supportive evidence in the diagnosis of death by drowning. Generally, the diatoms detected in the lung tissues are regarded as insignificant since these diatoms can be detected in the lung tissues of the postmortem immersion bodies. In this study, we analyzed the relationships between the numbers of the diatoms in the lung tissues and the drowning medium. We made a comparison analysis between the diatoms in the lung tissues and the drowning medium using the ratio of diatom numbers in both samples (L/D ratio), utilizing Microwave Digestion - Vacuum Filtration - Automated Scanning Electron Microscopy method. Our data indicate that the L/D ratios in victims of the drowning group were higher than the postmortem immersion group. A higher L/D ratio provides valuable information about the cause of death in drowning victims. Quantitative diatom analysis in the lung tissues, especially combined with the diatom analysis of the drowning medium, provides supportive evidence in determining if a body recovered in water was due to drowning or not.

  17. Radiographic Comparison of Human Lung Shape During Normal Gravity and Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michels, D. B.; Friedman, P. J.; West, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Chest radiographs in five seated normal volunteers at 1 G and 0 G were made with a view toward comparing human lung shape during normal gravity and weightlessness. Lung shape was assessed by measuring lung heights and widths in upper, middle and lower lung regions. No significant differences were found between any of the 1-G and 0-G measurements, although there was a slight tendency for the lung to become shorter and wider at 0 G. The evidence that gravity causes regional differences in ventilation by direct action on the lung is consistent with the theoretical analysis of West and Matthews (1972).

  18. Comparison of 2 Common Radiation Therapy Techniques for Definitive Treatment of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shirvani, Shervin M.; Juloori, Aditya; Allen, Pamela K.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Welsh, James; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Cox, James D.; Chang, Joe Y.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Two choices are widely used for radiation delivery, 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). No randomized comparisons have been conducted in the setting of lung cancer, but theoretical concerns suggest that IMRT may negatively impact disease control. We analyzed a large cohort of limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) patients treated before and after institutional conversion from 3DCRT to IMRT to compare outcomes. Methods and Materials: Patients with LS-SCLC treated with definitive radiation at our institution between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Both multivariable Cox regression and propensity score matching were used to compare oncologic outcomes of 3DCRT and IMRT in the context of other clinically relevant covariables. Acute and chronic toxicities associated with the 2 techniques were compared using Fisher exact and log–rank tests, respectively. Results: A total of 223 patients were treated during the study period, with 119 receiving 3DCRT and 104 receiving IMRT. Their median age was 64 years (range, 39-90 years). Median follow-up times for 3DCRT and IMRT were 27 months (range, 2-147 months) and 22 months (range, 4-83 months), respectively. Radiation modality was not associated with differences in overall survival or disease-free survival in either multivariable or propensity score-matched analyses. IMRT patients required significantly fewer percutaneous feeding tube placements (5% vs 17%, respectively, P=.005). Conclusions: IMRT was not associated with worse oncologic outcomes than those of 3DCRT. IMRT was associated with a lower rate of esophagitis-related percutaneous feeding tube placements.

  19. Actions of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone versus porcine bone only on osteointegration of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; López-Marí, Laura; Guardia, Javier; Marínez-González, José María; Barone, Antonio; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Paredes, Sergio D; Fuentes-Breto, Lorena

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the topical application of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone on the osteointegration on the rough discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface implants in Beagle dogs 3 months after their insertion. In preparation for subsequent insertion of dental implants, lower molars were extracted from 12 Beagle dogs. Each mandible received two parallel wall expanded platform implants with a DCD surface of 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. The implants were randomly assigned to the distal sites on each mandible in the molar area and the gaps were filled with 5 mg lyophilized powdered melatonin and porcine bone and collagenized porcine bone alone. Ten histological sections per implant were obtained for histomorphometric studies. After a 4-wk treatment period, melatonin plus porcine bone significantly increased the perimeter of bone that was in direct contact with the treated implants (P < 0.0001), bone density (P < 0.0001), and new bone formation (P < 0.0001) in comparison with porcine bone alone around the implants. Melatonin plus collagenized porcine bone on DCD surface may act as a biomimetic agent in the placement of endo-osseous dental implants and enhance the osteointegration. Melatonin combined with porcine bone on DCD implants reveals more bone in implant contact at 12 wk (84.5 +/- 1.5%) compared with porcine bone alone treated area (67.17 +/- 1.2%).

  20. Lung preservation in experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury and lung transplantation: a comparison of natural and synthetic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Lars; Boxler, Laura; Mühlfeld, Christian; Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Becker, Laura; Bussinger, Christine; von Stietencron, Immanuel; Madershahian, Navid; Richter, Joachim; Wahlers, Thorsten; Wittwer, Thorsten; Ochs, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant inactivation results from ischemia/reperfusion injury and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of primary graft dysfunction after clinical lung transplantation. Thus, prophylactic administration of exogenous surfactant preparations before the onset of ischemia/reperfusion has proven to be effective in preserving pulmonary structure and function. Various natural and synthetic surfactant preparations exhibit differences regarding the biochemical composition and biophysical properties. In this study we compared the efficacy of preservation of pulmonary structure and function of the natural surfactant preparations Curosurf and Survanta to that of a synthetic surfactant containing an analog of surfactant protein C (SPC-33) in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion injury. The oxygenation capacity and peak inspiratory pressure during the reperfusion period were recorded. By applying design-based stereology at the light- and electron-microscopic level, pathologic alterations, including alveolar edema, injury of the blood-air barrier and the intra-alveolar as well as intracellular surfactant pools, were quantified. The best oxygenation and preservation of lung structure was achieved with Curosurf. Survanta treatment was associated with the most severe injury of the blood-air barrier, and SPC-33 demonstrated signs of microatelectasis. The intra-alveolar surfactant pool after Curosurf and SPC-33 was dominated by active surfactant subtypes, whereas Survanta was associated with the highest fraction of inactive surfactant. The intracellular surfactant pool did not show any differences between the treatment groups. Taken together, Curosurf achieved the best structural and functional lung preservation, whereas Survanta was inferior to both Curosurf and SPC-33. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Four Commercial One-Dose Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccines Administered to Pigs Challenged with PCV2 and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus at 17 Weeks Postvaccination To Control Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex under Korean Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Changhoon; Seo, Hwi Won; Han, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    Under Korean field conditions, coinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is most commonly observed in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Despite the wide use of PCV2 vaccination, PRDC remains a serious respiratory problem. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and compare the efficacy of 4 one-dose PCV2 vaccines on 3-week-old pigs with an experimental PCV2-PRRSV challenge at 17 weeks postvaccination. Regardless of which commercial PCV2 vaccine was used, the vaccination of piglets at 3 weeks of age was efficacious against cochallenge of PCV2 and PRRSV, on the basis of growth performance and PCV2-associated lesions. However, the inactivated chimeric PCV1-2 and the PCV2 vaccines induced higher PCV2-specific neutralizing antibody (NA) titers and PCV2-specific gamma interferon-secreting cells and lower PCV2 viremia levels than the two PCV2 subunit vaccines. The vaccination of piglets against PCV2 at 3 weeks of age was effective in reducing PCV2 viremia and PCV2-associated lesions during the finishing period, which is an age at which pigs are frequently affected by PRDC caused by coinfection with PCV2 and PRRSV under Korean field conditions. PMID:24403524

  2. Formation of reactive aldehydes (MDA, HHE, HNE) during the digestion of cod liver oil: comparison of human and porcine in vitro digestion models.

    PubMed

    Tullberg, Cecilia; Larsson, Karin; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Comi, Irene; Scheers, Nathalie; Vegarud, Gerd; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we investigated lipid oxidation of cod liver oil during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion using two types of in vitro digestion models. In the first type of model, we used human GI juices, while we used digestive enzymes and bile from porcine origin in the second type of model. Human and porcine models were matched with respect to factors important for lipolysis, using a standardized digestion protocol. The digests were analysed for reactive oxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), and 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE) by liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS), and for free fatty acids (FFA) obtained during the digestion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The formation of the oxidation products MDA, HHE, and HNE was low during the gastric digestion, however, it increased during the duodenal digestion. The formation of the oxidation products reached higher levels when digestive juices of human origin were used (60 μM of MDA, 0.96 μM of HHE, and 1.6 μM of HNE) compared to when using enzymes and bile of porcine origin (9.8, and 0.36 μM of MDA; 0.16, and 0.026 μM of HHE; 0.23, and 0.005 μM of HNE, respectively, in porcine models I and II). In all models, FFA release was only detected during the intestinal step, and reached up to 31% of total fatty acids (FA). The findings in this work may be of importance when designing oxidation oriented lipid digestion studies.

  3. The importance of the time interval between insulin injection and breakfast in determining postprandial glycaemic control--a comparison between human and porcine insulin.

    PubMed

    Patrick, A W; Collier, A; Matthews, D M; Macintyre, C C; Clarke, B F

    1988-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of the time interval between insulin injection and breakfast in determining subsequent postprandial glycaemic control and also whether this differed between highly purified porcine insulin and human insulin (crb) in six diabetic patients (age range 24-36 years, duration of diabetes greater than 10 years) usually treated with twice daily Actrapid MC and Monotard MC and with stable insulin requirements and diabetic control. On separate mornings each patient was given, after an overnight fast, their usual dose of either Actrapid MC and Monotard MC or Humulin S and Humulin Zn injected 5, 20, or 40 min before a standard breakfast. The postprandial glycaemic profile was not significantly different at any of the three time intervals with Actrapid MC and Monotard MC. However, with the human insulin the profile was significantly better at the 40 min interval than at the 5 min interval (p less than 0.05) and this was also better than any of the profiles with the porcine insulin, there being a significant difference between the two types of insulin (p less than 0.05). These findings suggest that the time interval between insulin injection and breakfast may be more important with human insulin than with porcine insulin.

  4. Differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis: comparison of diffusion-weighted MRI with PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Li, Long; Wei, Xin-Hua; Guo, Yong-Mei; Huang, Yun-Hai; Lai, Li-Sha; Chen, A-Mei; Liu, Guo-Shun; Xiong, Wei-Feng; Luo, Liang-Ping; Jiang, Xin-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis. 38 consecutive lung cancer patients (26 males, 12 females; age range: 28-71 years; mean age: 49 years) who were referred for thoracic MR imaging examinations were enrolled. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5-T clinical scanner and scanning sequences of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Cancers and atelectasis were measured by mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with a b-value of 500 s/mm(2). PET/CT and DW-MR allowed differentiation of tumor and atelectasis in all 38 cases, but T2WI did not allow differentiation in 9 cases. Comparison of conventional T2WI and DW-MRI indicated a higher contrast noise ratio of the central lung carcinoma than the atelectasis by DW-MRI. ADC maps indicated significantly lower mean ADC in the central lung carcinoma than in the atelectasis (1.83±0.58 vs. 2.90±0.26 mm(2)/s, p<0.0001). ADC values of small cell lung carcinoma were significantly greater than those from squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (p<0.0001 for both). DW-MR imaging provides valuable information not obtained by conventional MR and may be useful for differentiation of central lung carcinoma from atelectasis. Future developments may allow DW-MR imaging to be used as an alternative to PET-CT in imaging of patients with lung cancer.

  5. Differentiation of Central Lung Cancer from Atelectasis: Comparison of Diffusion-Weighted MRI with PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Li, Long; Wei, Xin-Hua; Guo, Yong-Mei; Huang, Yun-Hai; Lai, Li-Sha; Chen, A-Mei; Liu, Guo-Shun; Xiong, Wei-Feng; Luo, Liang-Ping; Jiang, Xin-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis. Materials and Methods 38 consecutive lung cancer patients (26 males, 12 females; age range: 28–71 years; mean age: 49 years) who were referred for thoracic MR imaging examinations were enrolled. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5-T clinical scanner and scanning sequences of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Cancers and atelectasis were measured by mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with a b-value of 500 s/mm2. Results PET/CT and DW-MR allowed differentiation of tumor and atelectasis in all 38 cases, but T2WI did not allow differentiation in 9 cases. Comparison of conventional T2WI and DW-MRI indicated a higher contrast noise ratio of the central lung carcinoma than the atelectasis by DW-MRI. ADC maps indicated significantly lower mean ADC in the central lung carcinoma than in the atelectasis (1.83±0.58 vs. 2.90±0.26 mm2/s, p<0.0001). ADC values of small cell lung carcinoma were significantly greater than those from squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (p<0.0001 for both). Conclusions DW-MR imaging provides valuable information not obtained by conventional MR and may be useful for differentiation of central lung carcinoma from atelectasis. Future developments may allow DW-MR imaging to be used as an alternative to PET-CT in imaging of patients with lung cancer. PMID:23593186

  6. Comparison of lung alveolar and tissue cells in silica-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sjöstrand, M; Absher, P M; Hemenway, D R; Trombley, L; Baldor, L C

    1991-01-01

    The silicon dioxide mineral, cristobalite (CRS) induces inflammation involving both alveolar cells and connective tissue compartments. In this study, we compared lung cells recovered by whole lung lavage and by digestion of lung tissue from rats at varying times after 8 days of exposure to aerosolized CRS. Control and exposed rats were examined between 2 and 36 wk after exposure. Lavaged cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage with phosphate-buffered saline. Lung wall cells were prepared via collagenase digestion of lung tissue slices. Cells from lavage and lung wall were separated by Percoll density centrifugation. The three upper fractions, containing mostly macrophages, were cultured, and the conditioned medium was assayed for effect on lung fibroblast growth and for activity of the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. Results demonstrated that the cells separated from the lung walls exhibited different reaction patterns compared with those cells recovered by lavage. The lung wall cells exhibited a progressive increase in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes compared with a steady state in cells of the lung lavage. This increase in macrophages apparently was due to low density cells, which showed features of silica exposure. Secretion of a fibroblast-stimulating factor was consistently high by lung wall macrophages, whereas lung lavage macrophages showed inconsistent variations. The secretion of NAG was increased in lung lavage macrophages, but decreased at most observation times in lung wall macrophages. No differences were found among cells in the different density fractions regarding fibroblast stimulation and enzyme secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A comparison of fixation methods on lung morphology in a murine model of emphysema.

    PubMed

    Braber, S; Verheijden, K A T; Henricks, P A J; Kraneveld, A D; Folkerts, G

    2010-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by enlargement of the alveoli, which is the most important parameter to assess the presence and severity of this disease. Alveolar enlargement is primarily defined on morphological criteria; therefore, characterization of this disease with morphological parameters is a prerequisite to study the pathogenesis. For this purpose, different methods of lung fixation were evaluated in a murine model of LPS-induced lung emphysema. Five different methods of lung fixation were evaluated: intratracheal instillation of fixatives, in situ fixation, fixed-volume fixation, vascular whole body perfusion, and vacuum inflation. In addition, the effects of three different fixatives (10% formalin, Carnoy's, and agarose/10% formalin solution) and two embedding methods (paraffin and plastic) were investigated on the murine lung morphology. Mice received intranasal administration of LPS to induce alveolar wall destruction. Quantification of air space enlargement was determined by mean linear intercept analysis, and the histological sections were analyzed for the most optimal fixation method. Additionally, routine immunohistological staining was performed on lung tissue of PBS-treated mice. Intratracheal instillation of formalin or agarose/formalin solution, in situ fixation, and fixed-volume fixation provided a normal lung architecture, in contrast to the lungs fixed via whole body perfusion and vacuum inflation. Formalin-fixed lungs resulted in the most optimal lung morphology for lung emphysema analysis when embedded in paraffin, while for Carnoy's fixed lungs, plastic embedding was preferred. The histological findings, the mean linear intercept measurement, and the immunohistochemistry data demonstrated that fixation by intratracheal instillation of 10% formalin or in situ fixation with 10% formalin are the two most optimal methods to fix lungs for alveolar enlargement analysis to study lung emphysema.

  8. Evaluation of Primary Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in Children: Comparison of Radionuclide Perfusion Lung Scan and Angiography.

    PubMed

    Drubach, Laura A; Jenkins, Kathy J; Stamoulis, Catherine; Palmer, Edwin L; Lee, Edward Y

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of radionuclide perfusion lung scanning in the evaluation of primary pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) in pediatric patients by comparing it with angiography. We retrospectively identified pediatric patients with primary PVS who underwent both lung scanning and angiography. A cohort of 34 patients was evaluated. The presence of PVS in the right upper, right lower, left upper, and left lower pulmonary veins on angiograms was recorded. Two nuclear medicine physicians evaluated the lung scans for perfusion defects. Agreement between lung scan and angiographic findings was assessed with contingency tables. Sensitivity and specificity of lung scanning for accurate detection of PVS with angiographic findings as the reference standard were assessed by ROC analysis. Angiography depicted PVS in 90 of the total 136 pulmonary veins (66%). Lung scans correctly depicted 65 (72%) of the cases of PVS diagnosed with angiography. The sensitivity and specificity of lung scans were 76.0% and 88.9% for the right upper pulmonary vein, 70.6% and 94.1% for the right lower pulmonary vein, 77.3% and 58.3% for the left upper pulmonary vein, and 65.4% and 87.5% for the left lower pulmonary vein. Lung scan findings correlate with angiographic findings in the detection of primary PVS in pediatric patients. Perfusion lung scanning may have a role in angiographically diagnosed PVS by noninvasively showing relative perfusion at the tissue level.

  9. Comparison of clinical and pathological tumor, node and metastasis staging of lung cancer: 15-year experience with 530 patients.

    PubMed

    Turk, F; Gursoy, S; Yaldiz, S; Yuncu, G; Yazgan, S; Basok, O

    2011-12-01

    The prognosis of patients with lung cancer depends on early diagnosis and accurate staging. The present staging system for lung cancer is tumor (T), node (N), and metastasis (M) staging (TNM). We compared the accuracy of preoperative (clinical) and postoperative (pathological) TNM staging of lung cancer in this study and emphasized the preoperative mediastinoscopy is useful in selected patients. We performed a retrospective comparison of the clinical and pathological TNM staging of 530 patients with lung cancer treated surgically. The preoperative clinical TNM staging of all patients was based on physical examination, radiological investigations and bronchoscopy. Mediastinoscopy was used routinely for all patients with an indication since 2000. We found the agreement between clinical and pathological TNM staging to be only 46.4%. The comparison between clinical and pathological TNM staging was 6.2-5.3% at stage Ia, 37.9%-36% at stage Ib, 0.7-0.9% at stage IIa, 23-25% at stage IIb, 27.1-16.2% at stage IIIa, and 3.2-14% at stage IIIb respectively. The frequency rates of the different clinical and pathologic stages were 6.2% and 5.3%, for stage Ia, 37.9% and 36% for stage Ib, 0.7% and 0.9% for stage IIa, 23% and 25% for stage IIb, 27.1% and 16.2% for stage IIIa, 3.2% and 14% for stage IIIb respectively. We compared the clinical and pathological staging in patients with non small cell lung cancer submitted to surgical treatment to identify the causes of any discordance. The clinical TNM and staging based on computerized tomography was found to be inaccurate.

  10. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.

  11. One-lung versus two-lung ventilation in the closed-chest anesthetized dog: a comparison of cardiopulmonary parameters.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, S L; Duke, T; Walsh, P J; Remedios, A M; Walker, D; Ferguson, J G

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate cardiopulmonary effects of one-lung ventilation (OLV) versus two-lung ventilation (TLV) in closed-chest anesthetized dogs. Controlled, randomized experiment. Fourteen, 2- to 7-year-old adult dogs, weighing 23 +/- 6 kg. The dogs were anesthetized with acepromazine, morphine, thiopental, and halothane in oxygen, ventilated, and paralyzed with vecuronium. Tidal volume was 10 mL/kg. Respiratory rate was set to maintain end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) at 40 +/- 2 mm Hg before instrumentation then not changed. The left bronchus of 7 dogs was obstructed with a Univent bronchial blocker (Fuji Systems Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Blood gas analysis and hemodynamic measurements were taken at predetermined intervals for 1 hour in the TLV group and at baseline and following bronchial obstruction in the OLV group. Shunt fraction was not significantly different between groups, but in OLV shunt increased from baseline at 5 minutes. Arterial oxygen (PaO2) decreased after baseline in OLV compared with TLV. Arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) increased with OLV and decreased with TLV. In OLV, systemic vascular resistance was variable and decreased compared with TLV. Cardiac index increased over time in both groups but was not affected by treatment. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and diastolic arterial pressure increased with OLV compared with TLV but did not change over time. This study shows that OLV statistically decreases oxygen tension and transiently increases shunt fraction, but with 100% O2 it appears to be a feasible procedure with minimal cardiopulmonary side effects in healthy dogs. OLV is a feasible procedure in anesthetized dogs to better facilitate thoracic procedures such as bronchopleural fistula repair and thoracoscopy.

  12. The emergence of a new strain of porcine circovirus-2 in Ontario and Quebec swine and its association with severe porcine circovirus associated disease — 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Susy; Cai, Hugh Y.; DeLay, Josepha; A.Youssef, Sameh; McEwen, Beverly J.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Tremblay, Donald; Hazlett, Murray; Lusis, Peter; Fairles, Jim; Alexander, Hazel S.; van Dreumel, Tony

    2008-01-01

    In the late fall of 2004 more severe lesions of porcine circovirus-2 associated disease (PCVAD) than usual occurred during an outbreak of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) infection in Ontario nursery and grower/finisher pigs. The lesions were of unprecedented severity and included diffuse bronchointerstitial pneumonia, granulomatous enteritis, vasculitis, interstitial nephritis, and new lesions of splenic infarction. Some affected herds had up to 50% mortality. The outbreak correlated with the sudden emergence of a variant PCV-2, with PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) type 321. Phylogenetic comparison of ORF2 sequences and full genome sequences showed the new variant to be different from the previously dominant RFLP type 422 viruses, and similar to viruses that had occurred in France and other European and Asian countries. A subsequent retrospective study showed a statistically significant increase in the frequency of histological lesions in lymph node, spleen, lung, small intestine, colon and kidney, for pigs spontaneously infected with RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. Viral burden, based on IHC staining in lymph node, also showed a statistically significant increase in pigs infected with the newer variant RFLP type 321, compared with the older RFLP type 422 strain. This enhanced virulence in pigs infected with PCV-2 RFLP type 321 strain may be related to the genetic differences in this new strain of PCV-2. This virus is now the dominant strain of PCV-2 virus found in Ontario and Quebec swine. PMID:18505190

  13. Comparison of elastolytic activity in lung lavage from current, ex- and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Guz, A; Burton, G H; Cooke, N T; Tetley, T D

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of developing a wide variety of lung diseases compared to non-smokers, and there have been many studies of the possible biochemical changes underlying this increased susceptibility. However, although epidemiological and physiological studies have shown that in the ex-smoker, the risk of smoking-related lung diseases falls between that of current and non-smokers, the biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for this intermediate status have not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, the extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage fluid from current, ex- and non-smokers have been compared. Elastolytic enzyme activity was investigated, since it is significantly elevated in lung lavage from smokers, and because it has been implicated in the development of pulmonary emphysema. In the subjects studied, extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage from ex-smokers were intermediate between those from current and non-smokers. There was no correlation between the time of abstinence from smoking, or the number of pack-years smoked and the extracellular elastolytic activities in ex-smokers' lung lavage. Elastolytic activity may remain elevated in ex-smokers' lungs for a number of reasons, including the persistence of particulate matter which may activate phagocytic cells on the lung surface. The possible significance of the raised elastolytic activity remains to be fully determined.

  14. Comparison of Three Antigenic Extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in Serological Diagnosis of Farmer's Lung Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Monod, Michel; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Quadroni, Manfredo; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Aubert, John-David; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen. PMID:19906892

  15. Comparison of three antigenic extracts of Eurotium amstelodami in serological diagnosis of farmer's lung disease.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Rognon, Bénédicte; Monod, Michel; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Quadroni, Manfredo; Fellrath, Jean-Marc; Aubert, John-David; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    In France and Finland, farmer's lung disease (FLD), a hypersensitivity pneumonitis common in agricultural areas, is mainly caused by Eurotium species. The presence of antibodies in patients' serum is an important criterion for diagnosis. Our study aimed to improve the serological diagnosis of FLD by using common fungal particles that pollute the farm environment as antigens. Fungal particles of the Eurotium species were observed in handled hay. A strain of Eurotium amstelodami was grown in vitro using selected culture media; and antigen extracts from sexual (ascospores), asexual (conidia), and vegetative (hyphae) forms were made. Antigens were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to test for immunoglobulin G antibodies from the sera of 17 FLD patients, 40 healthy exposed farmers, and 20 nonexposed controls. The antigens were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and a threshold was then established. The ascospores contained in asci enclosed within cleistothecia were present in 38% of the hay blades observed; conidial heads of aspergillus were less prevalent. The same protocol was followed to make the three antigen extracts. A comparison of the results for FLD patients and exposed controls showed the area under the curve to be 0.850 for the ascospore antigen, 0.731 for the conidia, and 0.690 for the hyphae. The cutoffs that we determined, with the standard deviation for measures being taken into account, showed 67% for sensitivity and 92% for specificity with the ascospore antigen. In conclusion, the serological diagnosis of FLD by ELISA was improved by the adjunction of ascospore antigen.

  16. Positron emission tomographic comparison of diffuse and lobar oleic acid lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, D.P.; Haller, J.W.; Velazquez, M.

    1988-06-01

    We tested whether severity of injury measured from the pulmonary transcapillary escape rate for transferrin (PTCER), lung water accumulation, and changes in regional pulmonary blood flow (PBF) would be similar after oleic acid (OA) injection into either all lung lobes or directly into the pulmonary artery feeding the left caudal lobe (LCL) only. Measurements were made with positron emission tomography. After 0.015 ml/kg OA was injected into the LCL (Lobar, n = 5), lung water increased in the left dorsal region from 37 +/- 5 to 50 +/- 8 ml/100 ml lung (P less than 0.05), PTCER was 533 +/- 59 10(-4)/min, and regional PBF decreased 62%. No significant change occurred in the uninjured right dorsal lung where PTCER was 85 +/- 32. In the left ventral region PTCER was 357 +/- 60, PBF decreased only 31%, and the increase in lung water was less (25 +/- 3 to 30 +/- 6). In contrast after 0.08 ml/kg OA was injected via the right atrium (Diffuse, n = 6), PTCER (283 +/- 94) was lower in the left dorsal region of this group than in the corresponding region of the Lobar group (P less than 0.05). The increase in lung water, however, was the same, but no change occurred in PBF distribution. These results indicate important differences between the two methods of causing lung injury with OA. After injury lung water accumulates primarily in dependent portions of lung and is not always accompanied by a decrease in regional PBF. These decreases, when they occur, may instead indicate severe vascular injury.

  17. A Comparison of a Fully Covered and an Uncovered Segmented Biodegradable Esophageal Stent in a Porcine Model: Preclinical Evaluation of Degradation, Complications, and Tissue Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yadong; Jiao, Chunhua; Cao, Yang; Zhao, Ye; Chen, Yanfang; Fang, Lin; Shi, Ruihua

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study was to compare the degradation, complications, and tissue reactions of two segmented biodegradable esophageal stents in a porcine model. Methods. Uncovered biodegradable segmented stents and fully covered biodegradable segmented stents (FCBDS) were transplanted into the porcine esophagus lumen. Data on biodegradation, complications, and tissue reactions were collected and compared. Results. All animals kept good general conditions. No severe complications and stents migration occurred. Stents degradation commenced at week 3. Compared with uncovered stents, stents structure breakage and complete stents absorption in FCBDS were postponed for 1-2 weeks. Hyperplasia was prominent at early stage and ameliorated at late stage after stents insertion. Tissue reactions in FCBDS were milder than those in uncovered stents in the early stage. A longer degradation period was present in FCBDS than in uncovered stents, while FCBDS induced tissue reaction at late stage was mild. Conclusions. Biodegradable esophageal stents with a segmented trunk may be further evaluated in refractory benign esophagus strictures. This FCBDS may be advantageous compared with uncovered stents for a longer degradation period. PMID:27022391

  18. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  19. COMPARISON OF LUNG ATTENUATION AND HETEROGENEITY BETWEEN CATS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ALLERGIC ASTHMA, NATURALLY OCCURRING ASTHMA AND NORMAL CATS.

    PubMed

    Masseau, Isabelle; Banuelos, Alina; Dodam, John; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling is a prominent feature of feline allergic asthma but requires biopsy for characterization. Computed tomography (CT) has appeal as a minimally invasive diagnostic test. The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to compare indices of airway remodeling between cats with experimentally induced, spontaneous asthma and healthy unaffected cats using CT. We hypothesized that experimental and spontaneous feline asthma would have similar CT airway remodeling characteristics and that these would be significantly different in healthy cats. Experimentally induced asthmatic research cats (n = 5), spontaneously asthmatic pet cats (n = 6), and healthy research cats (n = 5) were scanned unrestrained using a 64-detector row CT scanner. Inspiratory breath-hold CT scans were also performed in experimentally induced asthmatic and healthy cats. Mean ± extent variation of lung attenuation for each cat was determined using an airway inspector software program and CT images were scored for lung heterogeneity by a board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of cat group status. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA (unrestrained scans) and the Student's t-test (anesthetized scans) with significance defined as P < 0.10. Experimentally asthmatic and spontaneously asthmatic cats had significantly (P = 0.028 and P = 0.073, respectively) increased lung attenuation compared to healthy cats. Heterogeneity scores were higher in experimentally induced asthmatic cat than in healthy cats. Objective quantification of lung heterogeneity and lung volume did not differ among the three groups (P = 0.311, P = 0.181, respectively). Findings supported our hypothesis. Inspiratory breath-hold anesthetized CT scans facilitated discrimination between asthmatic and healthy cats in comparison to unrestrained CT scans.

  20. Purification and characterization of human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. Comparison with the porcine counterpart indicates a unique cleavage site on neurotensin.

    PubMed

    Vincent, B; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1996-02-12

    We have purified and characterized human brain endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. The enzyme behaved as a 72 kDa protein and belonged to the metalloprotease family. Human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 cleaved neurotensin at a unique site at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond, leading to the formation of neurotensin(1-10) and neurotensin(11-13). The kinetic parameters displayed by human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 towards a series of natural neuropeptides indicated that bradykinin was the most efficiently proteolysed. Angiotensin I, dynorphins 1-8 and 1-9 and substance P also behaved as good substrates while neuromedin N, angiotensin II, leucine and methionine enkephalin and neurokinin A resisted degradation by human endopeptidase 3.4.24.16. We have purified the porcine counterpart of endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 and compared its ability to cleave neurotensin with that of the enzyme from human origin. It appeared that, besides a major production of neurotensin(1-10), an additional formation of neurotensin(1-8) was observed with the pig enzyme, suggesting a cleavage of neurotensin not only at the Pro10-Tyr11 bond but also at the Arg8-Arg9 peptidyl bond. The latter cleavage appeared reminiscent of endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 since this peptidase was reported to cleave neurotensin at the Arg8-Arg9 bond. Our study indicated that neurotensin(1-10) formation by porcine endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 could be potently blocked with the selective endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 dipeptide inhibitor Pro-Ile without interfering with neurotensin(1-8) formation. By contrast, the formation of the latter product was highly potentiated by dithiothreitol and inhibited by the endopeptidase 3.4.24.15 inhibitor Cpp-Ala-Ala-Tyr-pAB, two effects that were not observed for neurotensin(1-10) production. Altogether, our results indicate that porcine endopeptidase 3.4.24.16 cleaves neurotensin at a unique site, leading to the formation of neurotensin(1-10) and that the production of neurotensin(1-8) is due to contaminating endopeptidase 3.4.24.15.

  1. Quantitative assessment of emphysema from whole lung CT scans: comparison with visual grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Apanosovich, Tatiyana V.; Wang, Jianwei; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2009-02-01

    Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that destroys the alveolar air sacs and induces long-term respiratory dysfunction. CT scans allow for imaging of the anatomical basis of emphysema and for visual assessment by radiologists of the extent present in the lungs. Several measures have been introduced for the quantification of the extent of disease directly from CT data in order to add to the qualitative assessments made by radiologists. In this paper we compare emphysema index, mean lung density, histogram percentiles, and the fractal dimension to visual grade in order to evaluate the predictability of radiologist visual scoring of emphysema from low-dose CT scans through quantitative scores, in order to determine which measures can be useful as surrogates for visual assessment. All measures were computed over nine divisions of the lung field (whole lung, individual lungs, and upper/middle/lower thirds of each lung) for each of 148 low-dose, whole lung scans. In addition, a visual grade of each section was also given by an expert radiologist. One-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the ability of the measures to predict visual grade from quantitative score. We found that all measures were able to distinguish between normal and severe grades (p<0.01), and between mild/moderate and all other grades (p<0.05). However, no measure was able to distinguish between mild and moderate cases. Approximately 65% prediction accuracy was achieved from using quantitative score to predict visual grade, with 73% if mild and moderate cases are considered as a single class.

  2. Lung cancer screening: review and performance comparison under different risk scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Franco, Eduardo L

    2014-02-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignant diseases and is responsible for substantial mortality worldwide. Compared with never smokers, former smokers remain at relatively high risk for lung cancer, accounting for approximately half of all newly diagnosed cases in the US. Screening offers former smokers the best opportunity to reduce their risk of advanced stage lung cancer and there is now evidence that annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is effective in preventing mortality. Studies are being conducted to evaluate whether the benefits of LDCT screening outweigh its costs and potential harms and to determine the most appropriate workup for patients with screen-detected lung nodules. Program efficiency would be optimized by targeting high-risk current smokers, but low uptake among this group is a concern. Former smokers may be invited for screening; however, if fewer long-term current smokers and more former smokers with long quit duration elect to attend, this could have very adverse effects on cost and screening test parameters. To illustrate this point, we present three possible screening scenarios with lung cancer prevalence ranging from between 0.62 and 5.0 %. In summary, cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening may be improved if linked to successful smoking cessation programs and if better approaches are developed to reach very high-risk patients, e.g., long-term current smokers or others based on more accurate risk prediction models.

  3. Comparison of lung burdens of inhaled particles of rats exposed during the day or night

    SciTech Connect

    Hesseltine, G.R.; Wolff, R.K.; Hanson, R.L.; McClellan, R.O.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Inhalation studies frequently involve daytime exposures of nocturnal animals to toxicants. Such exposures may result in different respiratory tract depositions than would be obtained if rodents were exposed at night. Our study assessed the effect of night versus day exposures on lung burdens of particles inhaled by Fischer 344 rats. One group of 15 female rats was exposed to 0.3 micron volume median diameter particles of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) for 11.2 h during the day and a second group of 15 female rats was exposed to the same aerosol for 11.2 h at night. Gallium in the lungs at the end of exposure was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Rats exposed during the night had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher lung burdens than day-exposed rats when burdens were expressed as either microgram Ga2O3/lung (mean +/- SD = 896 +/- 175 versus 698 +/- 150) or microgram Ga2O3/g lung (mean +/- SD = 683 +/- 134 versus 465 +/- 103). The greater amount of material in lungs of rats exposed at night probably reflected increased ventilation accompanying nocturnal activity.

  4. Ventilation imaging of the lung: comparison of hyperpolarized helium-3 MR imaging with Xe-133 scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Altes, Talissa A; Rehm, Patrice K; Harrell, Frank; Salerno, Michael; Daniel, Thomas M; De Lange, Eduard E

    2004-07-01

    To compare hyperpolarized helium-3 (HHe) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lung with standard Xe-133 lung ventilation scintigraphy. We performed a retrospective review of 15 subjects who underwent HHe MRI and Xe-133 lung ventilation imaging. Coronal MRI sections were acquired after a single inhalation of HHe gas, and standard posterior planar lung ventilation scintigraphy was performed during continuous breathing of Xe-133 gas. The first breath scintigram of each patient was compared with a composite MR image composed of the sum of the individual MR images and with the individual helium-3 MR images. Ventilation defects on the two imaging modalities were compared for size, conspicuity, and concordance in presence and location. Assessment was done separately for each of four lung quadrants. Comparing the composite HHe MR images with Xe-133 scintigraphy, ventilation defect size, conspicuity and concordance were the same in 67% (40/60), 63% (38/60), and 62% (37/60) quadrants, respectively. Comparing the individual HHe MR image sections with the Xe-133 ventilation scan, there was concordance between the ventilation defects in 27% (16/60) of quadrants. More defects were identified on the individual HHe MR images in 62% (37/60) of quadrants. There was good agreement between composite HHe MR image and first breath Xe-133 scintigraphic images, supporting the widely held assumption that HHe MRI likely depicts first breath lung ventilation.

  5. Comparison of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection in light and heavy pigs of market age on farms with routine PCV2 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Joo, Han Soo; Davies, Peter R; Han, Jeong Hee

    2012-07-01

    Commercial vaccines against Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are widely used on swine farms. Marked body weight variation at marketing age is a problem on conventional pig farms using all-in/all-out barn management. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PCV2 infection could be a factor influencing body weight variation. Seven conventional farms that routinely used PCV2 vaccination were selected, and 60 serum samples from light and heavy pigs at each site were tested for PCV2 antibody titers and viremia. At 3 farms the mean antibody titer, proportion of viremic pigs, and virus load differed significantly between the light and heavy groups. These preliminary results suggest that PCV2 infection may be a factor contributing to weight variation in vaccinated market-age hogs.

  6. Comparison of ablation zones among different tissues using 2450-MHz cooled-shaft microwave antenna: results in ex vivo porcine models.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Liang, Mengdi; Pan, Hong; Liu, Xiaoan; Jiang, Yanni; Wang, Yufeng; Ling, Lijun; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Shui

    2013-01-01

    For complete tumor ablation in different tissues, it is necessary to investigate the exact coagulation zone of microwave ablation in different tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the extent of microwave ablation zone in muscle, liver and adipose tissue in ex vivo porcine models and assess the shape of microwave coagulation zone among these tissues. Microwave ablations were performed in ex vivo porcine muscle, liver and adipose tissue using 2450-MHz cooled-shaft microwave antenna. The content of water, fat and protein in these three tissues was determined. Two power increments (40 and 80 W) and five time increments (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 minutes) were used in this study. Diameters and shapes of the ablation zones were assessed on gross specimens. The average percentages of water, fat and protein in these three tissues were significantly different (P < 0.001), respectively. The long-axis and short-axis diameters among these three tissues at each time-power combination were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The coagulation zones were all elliptical in muscle, liver and adipose tissue. When microwave ablation was performed in the tissue containing both muscle and adipose tissue, the coagulation zone was also elliptical. Regardless of the output power, the ellipticity index (EI) value of 1 minute treatment duration was higher than that of 10 minutes treatment duration (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the EI value did not decrease significantly when the treatment duration was more than 5 minutes (P > 0.05). The extent of microwave ablation zones was not significantly different among completely different tissues. Microwave ablations with ≥ 5 minutes time duration can induce coagulation zones with clinical desirable shape. Future clinical studies are still required to determine the role of microwave ablation in different tissues.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Different Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Modes—Continuous, Noncontinuous, and With Instillation—on Porcine Excisional Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Lessing, M. Christian; James, Roberta B.; Ingram, Shannon C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) can be delivered in continuous or noncontinuous modes, while NPWT with instillation (NPWTi) couples NPWT with automated delivery and removal of topical wound treatment solutions and suspensions. This porcine study compared granulation response of NPWTi (instillation foam dressing with saline) to NPWT (standard foam dressing) in continuous and noncontinuous modes. Methods: Full-thickness dorsal excisional wounds in pigs were treated with continuous NPWT, intermittent NPWT, dynamic (controlled variable) NPWT, and NPWTi with saline (n = 10 per group). Wound dimensions were determined from 3D images collected on days 0, 2, 5, and 7. On day 7, animals were euthanized and specimens were harvested for histopathological review. Results: Average granulation thickness was not statistically different among continuous (3.29 ± 0.33 mm), intermittent (3.03 ± 0.47 mm), and dynamic (3.40 ± 0.34 mm) NPWT wounds at day 7. Average granulation thickness of NPWTi wounds (4.75 ± 0.54 mm), however, was statistically greater (P < .05) by 44%, 57%, and 40%, respectively, than that of wounds treated with continuous, intermittent, and dynamic NPWT. Analysis of 3D images revealed a greater reduction in wound area and perimeter in NPWTi wounds compared to all NPWT wounds (P < .05). In addition, the average wound fill rate for NPWTi wounds was faster than that for continuous (40%; P < .05), intermittent (25%; P > .05), and dynamic (65%; P < .05) NPWT wounds. Conclusions: Although not confirmed in humans, these porcine data suggest that NPWTi with saline may stimulate a faster rate of wound granulation than NPWT in continuous and noncontinuous modes. PMID:24106564

  8. A dosimetric comparison of whole-lung treatment techniques in the pediatric population

    SciTech Connect

    Bosarge, Christina L. Ewing, Marvene M.; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C.

    2016-07-01

    To demonstrate the dosimetric advantages and disadvantages of standard anteroposterior-posteroanterior (S-AP/PA{sub AAA}), inverse-planned AP/PA (IP-AP/PA) and volumetry-modulated arc (VMAT) radiotherapies in the treatment of children undergoing whole-lung irradiation. Each technique was evaluated by means of target coverage and normal tissue sparing, including data regarding low doses. A historical approach with and without tissue heterogeneity corrections is also demonstrated. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 children scanned from the neck to the reproductive organs were used. For each scan, 6 plans were created: (1) S-AP/PA{sub AAA} using the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), (2) IP-AP/PA, (3) VMAT, (4) S-AP/PA{sub NONE} without heterogeneity corrections, (5) S-AP/PA{sub PB} using the Pencil-Beam algorithm and enforcing monitor units from technique 4, and (6) S-AP/PA{sub AAA[FM]} using AAA and forcing fixed monitor units. The first 3 plans compare modern methods and were evaluated based on target coverage and normal tissue sparing. Body maximum and lower body doses (50% and 30%) were also analyzed. Plans 4 to 6 provide a historic view on the progression of heterogeneity algorithms and elucidate what was actually delivered in the past. Averages of each comparison parameter were calculated for all techniques. The S-AP/PA{sub AAA} technique resulted in superior target coverage but had the highest maximum dose to every normal tissue structure. The IP-AP/PA technique provided the lowest dose to the esophagus, stomach, and lower body doses. VMAT excelled at body maximum dose and maximum doses to the heart, spine, and spleen, but resulted in the highest dose in the 30% body range. It was, however, superior to the S-AP/PA{sub AAA} approach in the 50% range. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses thus associated. Techniques may be selected on a case-by-case basis and by physician preference of target coverage vs normal tissue sparing.

  9. Comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI with perivascular ultrasound to quantify blood flow in the abdomen and introduction of a porcine model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Frydrychowicz, A; Roldan-Alzate, A; Winslow, E; Consigny, D; Campo, C A; Motosugi, U; Johnson, K M; Wieben, O; Reeder, S B

    2017-06-27

    Objectives of this study were to compare radial time-resolved phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow-MRI) with perivascular ultrasound (pvUS) and to explore a porcine model of acute pre-hepatic portal hypertension (PHTN). Abdominal 4D Flow-MRI and pvUS in portal and splenic vein, hepatic and both renal arteries were performed in 13 pigs of approximately 60 kg. In six pigs, measurements were repeated after partial portal vein (PV) ligature. Inter- and intra-reader comparisons and statistical analysis including Bland-Altman (BA) comparison, paired Student's t tests and linear regression were performed. PvUS and 4D Flow-MRI measurements agreed well; flow before partial PV ligature was 322 ± 30 ml/min in pvUS and 297 ± 27 ml/min in MRI (p = 0.294), and average BA difference was 25 ml/min [-322; 372]. Inter- and intra-reader results differed very little, revealed excellent correlation (R (2) = 0.98 and 0.99, respectively) and resulted in BA differences of -5 ml/min [-161; 150] and -2 ml/min [-28; 25], respectively. After PV ligature, PV flow decreased from 356 ± 50 to 298 ± 61 ml/min (p = 0.02), and hepatic arterial flow increased from 277 ± 36 to 331 ± 65 ml/min (p = n.s.). The successful in vivo comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI to perivascular ultrasound revealed good agreement of abdominal blood flow although with considerable spread of results. A model of pre-hepatic PHTN was successfully introduced and acute responses monitored. • Radial 4D Flow-MRI in the abdomen was successfully compared to perivascular ultrasound. • Inter- and intra-reader testing demonstrated excellent reproducibility of upper abdominal 4D Flow-MRI. • A porcine model of acute pre-hepatic portal hypertension was successfully introduced. • 4D Flow-MRI successfully monitored acute changes in a model of portal hypertension.

  10. Comparison of Prevalence and Types of Mutations in Lung Cancers Among Black and White Populations.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joshua D; Lathan, Christopher; Sholl, Lynette; Ducar, Matthew; Vega, Mikenah; Sunkavalli, Ashwini; Lin, Ling; Hanna, Megan; Schubert, Laura; Thorner, Aaron; Faris, Nicholas; Williams, David R; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; van Hummelen, Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States in all ethnic and racial groups. The overall death rate from lung cancer is higher in black patients than in white patients. To compare the prevalence and types of somatic alterations between lung cancers from black patients and white patients. Differences in mutational frequencies could illuminate differences in prognosis and lead to the reduction of outcome disparities by more precisely targeting patients' treatment. Tumor specimens were collected from Baptist Cancer Center (Memphis, Tennessee) over the course of 9 years (January 2004-December 2012). Genomic analysis by massively parallel sequencing of 504 cancer genes was performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, Massachusetts). Overall, 509 lung cancer tumors specimens (319 adenocarcinomas; 142 squamous cell carcinomas) were profiled from 245 black patients and 264 white patients. The frequencies of genomic alterations were compared between tumors from black and white populations. Overall, 509 lung cancers were collected and analyzed (273 women [129 black patients; 144 white patients] and 236 men [116 black patients; 120 white patients]). Using 313 adenocarcinomas and 138 squamous cell carcinomas with genetically supported ancestry, overall mutational frequencies and copy number changes were not significantly different between black and white populations in either tumor type after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Furthermore, specific activating alterations in members of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/Raf pathway including EGFR and KRAS were not significantly different between populations in lung adenocarcinoma. These results demonstrate that lung cancers from black patients are similar to cancers from white patients with respect to clinically actionable genomic alterations and suggest that clinical trials of targeted therapies could significantly benefit patients in both groups.

  11. Angiotensin converting enzyme binding sites in human heart and lung: comparison with rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Vago, T.; Bevilacqua, M.; Conci, F.; Baldi, G.; Ongini, E.; Chebat, E.; Monopoli, A.; Norbiato, G.

    1992-01-01

    1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase which catalyzes the final activation step in the formation of angiotensin II, was identified by radioligand studies in rat heart and lung. In this work we identified ACE binding sites in human left ventricle and lung by radioligand binding using the ACE inhibitor [3H]-ramiprilat in all tissues tested was saturable, temperature and zinc-dependent, and inhibited by EDTA. In human left ventricle homogenate we found a density of binding sites of 121 +/- 15 fmol mg-1 protein (n = 4) with an affinity (Kd) of 850 +/- 55 pM, whereas in rat left ventricle the same values were 23 +/- 4 fmol mg-1 protein and 315 +/- 30 pM, (n = 4), respectively. 3. [3H]-ramiprilat binding to rat (n = 4) and human lung (n = 4) showed a binding site density of 2132 +/- 155 and 1085 +/- 51 fmol mg-1 protein respectively with an affinity of 639 +/- 54 and 325 +/- 22 pM. The lung:heart ratio of ACE binding site density was about 9:1 in man and 100:1 in rat. 4. The binding affinities of 13 ACE inhibitors were evaluated on human heart and lung: the drugs tested showed a wide range of affinities for the ACE binding sites in both tissues, and the affinity for lung was significantly greater than for heart for most of the drugs. 5. The greater potency of some ACE inhibitors in displacing [3H]-ramiprilat in human lung compared with the heart indicates differences between ACE binding sites in these tissues and suggests the possibility of a selective organ-targeted therapeutic approach. PMID:1335341

  12. Ozone inhalation effects in females varying widely in lung size: Comparison with males

    SciTech Connect

    Messineo, T.D.; Adams, W.C. )

    1990-07-01

    It has been suggested that lung size accounts for observed gender differences in responsiveness to the same total inhaled dose of O3. To test the hypothesis that lung size is a determinant of magnitude of response within a gender, two groups of 14 healthy young adult females differing significantly in forced vital capacity (FVC; i.e., small-lung group mean = 3.74 liters (range 3.2-4.0) and large-lung group mean = 5.11 liters (range 4.5-6.2)) were exposed for 1 h to filtered air (FA) and to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. On each occasion, subjects exercised continuously on a cycle ergometer at a work rate that elicited a mean minute ventilation of approximately 47 l/min. For the small-lung group (mean total lung capacity (TLC) = 4.52 liters) exercise O2 uptake was 67% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max), and that for the large-lung group (TLC 6.37 liters) was 61% of VO2max. Statistical analysis revealed significant decrements for both groups in FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and forced expiratory flow rate in the middle half of FVC on exposure to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3. Exercise respiratory frequency increased, and tidal volume decreased significantly in both groups in response to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm O3 exposure. On exposure to 0.30 ppm O3, the number of individual subjective symptoms reported and their severity were significantly greater for both groups than those reported for the FA and 0.18 ppm O3 exposures. Both groups evidenced similar percent changes in pulmonary function and exercise ventilation response, and in subjective symptom response.

  13. Comparison of TGF-β1 and NO production by mesenchymal stem cells isolated from murine lung and adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpur, Zahra; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud; Salehi, Eisa; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are cell sources for tissues regeneration. By secretion of soluble factors including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1) and nitric oxide (NO), MSCs are also able to regulate the immune system. MSCs have been disclosed in lung and adipose tissues with insufficient comparison between the tissues. In this study, specific differentiation and the expression of surface antigens as well as TGF-β1 and NO productive levels were compared in murine lung-derived MSCs (LMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs). MSCs were isolated from murine lung and adipose tissues and cultured. Both cell populations were characterized using multilineage potential and the expression of surface antigenic proteins, CD73, CD105, CD34, CD45, and CD11b. Finally, levels of TGF-β1 and NO were evaluated and compared in ADMSCs and LMSCs. Expression of CD73 and CD105; lack of the expression of CD34, CD45, and CD11b markers; as well as adipocyte and osteocyte differentiations were detected in both adult stem cells. No significant difference was found in TGF-β1 and NO production between two stem cell populations. Our data showed that LMSCs and ADMSCs have comparable phenotype and TGF-β1 and NO production.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pulmonary fibrosis: comparison of cells obtained with lung biopsy and clinical features

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, P L; Turton, C W G; Heard, B; Lukoszek, A; Collins, J V; Salsbury, A J; Turner-Warwick, M

    1980-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage, open lung biopsy, and cell extraction from the biopsy material have been studied in 21 symptomatic patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis (18 with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, fulfilling also the criteria for “usual interstitial pneumonia” (UIP), and three with rapidly progressive disease probably related to asbestos exposure). The total and differential cell counts between the three different samples have been compared as well as the influence on them of smoking and their correlation with steroid responsiveness and later progress. There was no correlation between semiquantitative scores of cell types observed within alveolar spaces and in alveolar walls and the differential or total cell counts obtained from extraction or lung lavage samples. There was, however, some correlation between differential counts obtained from lung lavage and extractions (neutrophils p<0·02, eosinophils p<0·07, lymphocytes p<0·08) suggesting that lung lavage reflects the cellularity of the peripheral parts of the lung in patients without overt bronchial disease. Steroid responsiveness related to the percentage of lymphocytes found in extraction samples (p<0·01) and was associated with a complementary fall in the percentage of macrophages (p<0·02). There was no relationship between steroid response and the numbers of neutrophils or eosinophils in extracted samples. There was a trend towards increased numbers of lymphocytes in the lung wash in those patients responding to steroids. Those cases showing more rapid progression before starting treatment tended to have higher percentages of lymphocytes, neutrophils, or eosinophils in the lung lavage than more slowly deteriorating cases (p<0·01). Follow-up studies showed that three cases having predominant lymphocytes in the lung lavage continued to do well while nine cases with predominant neutrophils or eosinophils or both showed a less satisfactory response to steroids and often deteriorated

  15. Comparison of EGFR mutation rates in lung adenocarcinoma tissue and pleural effusion samples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y; Wang, Z J; Wang, L Q; Hua, D F; Liu, J

    2016-04-04

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the differences in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation rates in tumor tissue and pleural effusion specimens from patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PCR amplification and gene sequencing were used to detect EGFR mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 in tumor tissue and pleural effusion samples from 50 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. The EGFR mutation rate was 34.0% in tissue samples from patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. There were 11 cases with exon 19 mutations and 6 cases with exon 21 mutations. The EGFR mutation rate was 30.0% in pleural effusion specimens, including 10 cases with exon 19 mutation and 5 cases with exon 21 mutations. Although the tissue samples had a slightly higher mutation rate compared to the pleural effusion samples, the difference was not statistically significant. These results indicate that the EGFR mutation rate detected in pleural effusion specimens from patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma is similar to that detected in tumor tissue samples. Therefore, pleural effusion specimens can potentially be used for EGFR mutation detection in advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

  16. Comparison of senescence-associated miRNAs in primary skin and lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Holly, Alice C; Grellscheid, Sushma; van de Walle, Pieter; Dolan, David; Pilling, Luke C; Daniels, Darren J; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Ferrucci, Luigi; Melzer, David; Harries, Lorna W

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs with roles in many cellular processes. Tissue-specific miRNA profiles associated with senescence have been described for several cell and tissue types. We aimed to characterise miRNAs involved in core, rather than tissue-specific, senescence pathways by assessment of common miRNA expression differences in two different cell types, with follow-up of predicted targets in human peripheral blood. MicroRNAs were profiled in early and late passage primary lung and skin fibroblasts to identify commonly-deregulated miRNAs. Expression changes of their bioinformatically-predicted mRNA targets were then assessed in both cell types and in human peripheral blood from elderly participants in the InCHIANTI study. 57/178 and 26/492 microRNAs were altered in late passage skin and lung cells respectively. Three miRNAs (miR-92a, miR-15b and miR-125a-3p) were altered in both tissues. 14 mRNA targets of the common miRNAs were expressed in lung and skin fibroblasts, of which two demonstrated up-regulation in late passage skin and lung cells (LYST; p = 0.02 [skin] and 0.02 [lung] INMT; p = 0.03 [skin] and 0.04 [lung]). ZMPSTE24 and LHFPL2 demonstrated altered expression in late passage skin cells only (p = 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). LHFPL2 was also positively correlated with age in peripheral blood (p value = 6.6 × 10(-5)). We find that the majority of senescence-associated miRNAs demonstrate tissue-specific effects. However, miRNAs showing common effects across tissue types may represent those associated with core, rather than tissue-specific senescence processes.

  17. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ridge, Carole A; McDermott, Shaunagh; Freyne, Bridget J; Brennan, Donal J; Collins, Conor D; Skehan, Stephen J

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic adequacy of lung scintigraphy with that of pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) in the care of pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. Patient characteristics, radiology report content, additional imaging performed, final diagnosis, and diagnostic adequacy were recorded for pregnant patients consecutively referred for lung scintigraphy or pulmonary CTA according to physician preference. Measurements of pulmonary arterial enhancement were performed on all pulmonary CTA images of pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy and pulmonary CTA studies deemed inadequate for diagnosis at the time of image acquisition were further assessed, and the cause of diagnostic inadequacy was determined. The relative contribution of the inferior vena cava to the right side of the heart was measured on nondiagnostic CTA images and compared with that on CTA images of age-matched nonpregnant women, who were the controls. Twenty-eight pulmonary CTA examinations were performed on 25 pregnant patients, and 25 lung scintigraphic studies were performed on 25 pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy was more frequently adequate for diagnosis than was pulmonary CTA (4% vs 35.7%) (p = 0.0058). Pulmonary CTA had a higher diagnostic inadequacy rate among pregnant than nonpregnant women (35.7% vs 2.1%) (p < 0.001). Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava was identified in eight of 10 nondiagnostic pulmonary CTA studies. We found that lung scintigraphy was more reliable than pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava is a common finding at pulmonary CTA of pregnant patients.

  18. Prognostic effects of preoperative obstructive pneumonitis or atelectasis and comparison with tumor size in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zhaofei; Ding, Nan; Dong, Wei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Qu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Background In the eighth TNM staging system proposal, lung cancer with part or complete obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis was classified to T2 category, and dividing lines of T category were changed. We conducted this study to search prognostic effect of preoperative obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis and its comparison with tumor size. Methods We collected clinical characteristics, preoperative hematological indicators, follow-up information of 1,313 lung cancer patients. Chi-square test was used to search relationship between obstruction pneumonitis/atelectasis and other factors. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) curves and cox regression methods were used for survival analysis. Results Preoperative obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis indicated shorter OS (HR: 1.308; 95% CI: 1.058–1.619) and RFS (HR: 1.276; 95% CI: 1.032–1.579) as an independent factor. In comparison with tumor size, we found patients with obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis and T1 size tumor had similar prognosis to those with T2 size but without obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis, and OS, RFS of patients with obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis and T2 size were significantly shorter than those with T2 tumor size but without obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis, while similar to patients with T3 tumor size but without obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis according to division by the eighth edition. We also found obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis was significantly related to higher neutrophil (P<0.001), platelet (P<0.001), monocyte (P<0.001), NLR (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), ESR (P<0.001) and lower LMR (P<0.001). Conclusions Preoperative obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis predicted poor survival independently in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). And we suggested which T staging group the patients with obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis would be divided to should depend on tumor size in the eighth TNM staging system. PMID:28449485

  19. Prognostic effects of preoperative obstructive pneumonitis or atelectasis and comparison with tumor size in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhaofei; Ding, Nan; Dong, Wei; Ni, Yang; Zhang, Tiehong; Qu, Xiao; Du, Jiajun; Liu, Qi

    2017-03-01

    In the eighth TNM staging system proposal, lung cancer with part or complete obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis was classified to T2 category, and dividing lines of T category were changed. We conducted this study to search prognostic effect of preoperative obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis and its comparison with tumor size. We collected clinical characteristics, preoperative hematological indicators, follow-up information of 1,313 lung cancer patients. Chi-square test was used to search relationship between obstruction pneumonitis/atelectasis and other factors. Kaplan-Meier (K-M) curves and cox regression methods were used for survival analysis. Preoperative obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis indicated shorter OS (HR: 1.308; 95% CI: 1.058-1.619) and RFS (HR: 1.276; 95% CI: 1.032-1.579) as an independent factor. In comparison with tumor size, we found patients with obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis and T1 size tumor had similar prognosis to those with T2 size but without obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis, and OS, RFS of patients with obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis and T2 size were significantly shorter than those with T2 tumor size but without obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis, while similar to patients with T3 tumor size but without obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis according to division by the eighth edition. We also found obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis was significantly related to higher neutrophil (P<0.001), platelet (P<0.001), monocyte (P<0.001), NLR (P<0.001), PLR (P=0.002), ESR (P<0.001) and lower LMR (P<0.001). Preoperative obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis predicted poor survival independently in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). And we suggested which T staging group the patients with obstructive pneumonitis/atelectasis would be divided to should depend on tumor size in the eighth TNM staging system.

  20. Alterations of mouse lung tissue dimensions during processing for morphometry: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jan Philipp; Ochs, Matthias

    2014-02-15

    Preservation of original tissue dimensions is an essential prerequisite for morphometric studies. Shrinkage occurring during tissue processing for histology may severely influence the appearance of structures seen under the microscope and stereological calculations. Therefore, shrinkage has to be avoided so that estimates obtained by application of unbiased stereology are indeed unbiased. The present study investigates the alterations of tissue dimensions of mouse lung samples during processing for histology. Different fixatives as well as embedding protocols are considered. Mouse lungs were fixed by instillation of either 4% formalin or a mixture of 1.5% glutaraldehyde/1.5% formaldehyde. Tissue blocks were sampled according to principles of stereology for embedding in paraffin, glycol methacrylate without treatment with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate, and glycol methacrylate including treatment with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate before dehydration. Shrinkage was investigated by stereological measurements of dimensional changes of tissue cut faces. Results show a shrinkage of the cut face areas of roughly 40% per lung during paraffin embedding, 30% during "simple" glycol methacrylate embedding, and <3% during osmium tetroxide/uranyl acetate/glycol methacrylate embedding. Furthermore, the superiority of the glutaraldehyde-containing fixative regarding shrinkage is demonstrated. In conclusion, the use of a glutaraldehyde-containing fixative and embedding in glycol methacrylate with previous treatment of the samples with osmium tetroxide and uranyl acetate before dehydration is recommended for stereological studies of the mouse lung.

  1. Comparison of different follow-up lung registration methods with and without segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaffert, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael

    2004-05-01

    In modern multi slice CT scanners the increasing amount of data also increases the demand on image processing methods that assist the diagnosis. For the detection and classification of lung nodules in a follow up study it is very helpful to have the slices of a previous scan aligned with the slices of the current scan. This is a typical problem of image registration, for which different types of solutions exist. We investigated the accuracy and computation times of a rigid body, an affine, and a spline based elastic registration approach on the complete data set, and compared the results to a method where the registration was preceded by a segmentation of the lung volume. The registration quality was determined on a ground truth of previously determined lung nodule locations by measuring the average distance of corresponding nodules. It was found that an affine registration is slightly better than a rigid body registration, and that both are much faster than the elastic registration, which in turn showed the best registration quality. A good compromise was the affine registration on a previously segmented lung volume, which in total is not much slower than the registration without segmentation, but shows better alignment and higher robustness.

  2. Abnormal ventilation scans in middle-aged smokers. Comparison with tests of overall lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, S.J.; Cunningham, D.A.; Lavender, J.P.; Gibellino, F.; Connellan, S.J.; Pride, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The uniformity of regional ventilation during tidal breathing has been assessed using continuous inhalation of krypton-81m in 43 male, lifelong nonsmokers and 46 male, current cigarette smokers (mean daily consumption 24.1 cigarettes/day) between 44 and 61 yr of age and with mild or no respiratory symptoms. All subjects had normal chest radiographs. The results of the ventilation scans were compared with tests of overall lung function (spirometry, maximal expiratory flow-volume curves, and single-breath N2 test). Diffuse abnormalities of the ventilation scan were found in 19 (41%) of the 46 smokers but in none of the nonsmokers. Focal abnormalities were found in 7 smokers and 3 nonsmokers. Smokers showed the expected abnormalities in overall lung function (reduced FEV1 and VC, increased single-breath N2 slope, and closing volume), but in individual smokers there was only a weak relation between the severity of abnormality of overall lung function and an abnormal ventilation scan. Abnormal scans could be found when overall lung function was normal and were not invariably found when significant abnormalities in FEV1/VC or N2 slope were present. There was no relation between the presence of chronic expectoration and an abnormal scan. The prognostic significance of an abnormal ventilation scan in such smokers remains to be established.

  3. Comparison between lung weight and blood strontium in bodies found in seawater.

    PubMed

    Azparren, J E; Cubero, C; Perucha, E; Martínez, P; Vallejo, G

    2007-05-24

    This paper examines the use of lung weight increase as an indicator of seawater drowning compared to the amount of Sr absorbed by the blood. The study population was limited to male victims older than 20 years. Significant differences between cases of drowning and "non-drowning" were detected in terms of the lung-heart weight ratio (L/H) (p<0.001) or lung-body weight ratio (L/B) (p=0.005). However, using lung weight (L), L/H or L/B to distinguish between seawater drownings and saltwater non-drownings some overlap was produced. The factor rendering least overlap was L/B, which also appeared to be non-dependent on the victim's age. Our findings suggest that a value of L/B higher than 19.5 g/kg could be a useful indicator of death by drowning, but that when a lower value is found, additional drowning diagnoses would be needed to establish the manner of death.

  4. Patients with nontuberculous mycobacteria: comparison of updated and previous diagnostic criteria for lung disease.

    PubMed

    Epson, Erin; Cassidy, Maureen; Marshall-Olson, Angela; Hedberg, Katrina; Winthrop, Kevin L

    2012-09-01

    We classified patients with respiratory nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolates using updated (2007) and previous (1997) American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria for NTM lung disease. We found that a greater proportion of such patients have disease using updated criteria due to improved sensitivity of the microbiologic component of the disease definition.

  5. [Comparison between clinical and surgical-pathological TNM staging in patients with lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wei, Bo; Wang, Tianyou; Gong, Min; Lv, Kejie; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zhicheng

    2005-02-20

    The accuracy of clinical TNM staging correlates with appropriate treatment in patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the agreement between clinical and surgical-pathological staging in patients with lung cancer and analyze its cause in detail. One hundred and fifty patients with lung cancer treated surgically from 2000 were enrolled randomly. Clinical and surgical-pathological staging of them were made respectively according to the International System for Staging Lung Cancer newly revised by UICC. Then concordance was determined between the two staging results with Kappa value, and difference in coincident rate was analyzed among subgroups of T staging. For T staging, the agreement was excellent (Kappa value=0.729), however, the coincident rate of T3 or T4 was significantly lower than that in T1 or T2 group (P < 0.01). The agreement of N staging was poor (Kappa value=0.108), followed by a disappointed conformity of TNM staging (Kappa value=0.287). Clinical T staging based on CT can indicate the location and size of primary tumor precisely. But the borderline may be difficult to estimate when tumor site is near chest wall or mediastinum, so some patients with clinical T4 still have chances to receive complete resection. The conformity of N staging is rather poor. The key point to improve the accuracy of clinical TNM staging should be to seek more reliable techniques for evaluating N status.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Determination of the Local Temperature Distribution during Phacoemulsification and Comparison of Different Surgery Situations within Enucleated Porcine Eyes.

    PubMed

    Buschschlüter, Steffen; von Eicken, Jörn; Koch, Christian; Höh, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    Phacoemulsification, a common treatment for cataract, is accompanied by cell damage at the corneal endothelium. Thermal exposure during treatment has been considered a reason for this damage, but a thorough experimental and theoretical assessment of the local temperature distribution inside the eye had not yet been conducted. Measurements in porcine eyes and a finite-element simulation enabled such an assessment and localized the highest temperature rise very close to the probe. The results described in this study indicate that a distance of 1 mm between the probe and the endothelium should be maintained during treatment as a safety margin, especially when fluid flow is blocked. The highest measured temperature rise with surgically reasonable system settings and unblocked fluid flow was 1.11°C. The finite-element simulation described here is able to calculate the temperature rise at the endothelium and could serve as a tool for comparing arbitrary surgical situations with respect to thermal exposure of the endothelium.

  7. Comparison of self-processing of foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus leader proteinase nsp1α.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Jutta; Kontaxis, Georg; Rancan, Chiara; Skern, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase (Lb(pro)) cleaves itself off the nascent viral polyprotein. NMR studies on the monomeric variant Lb(pro) L200F provide structural evidence for intramolecular self-processing. (15)N-HSQC measurements of Lb(pro) L200F showed specifically shifted backbone signals in the active and substrate binding sites compared to the monomeric variant sLb(pro), lacking six C-terminal residues. This indicates transient intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal extension (CTE) of one molecule and its own active site. Contrastingly, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) leader proteinase nsp1α, with a papain-like fold like Lb(pro), stably binds its own CTE. Parts of the β-sheet domains but none of the α-helical domains of Lb(pro) and nsp1α superimpose; consequently, the α-helical domain of nsp1α is oriented differently relative to its β-sheet domain. This provides a large interaction surface for the CTE with the globular domain, stabilising the intramolecular complex. Consequently, self-processing inactivates nsp1α but not Lb(pro).

  8. Comparison of changes in lung function measured by plethymography and IOS after bronchoprovocation.

    PubMed

    Naji, Nizar; Keung, Elaine; Kane, James; Watson, Rick M; Killian, Kieran J; Gauvreau, Gail M

    2013-04-01

    Lung function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of bronchial asthma. Impulse oscillation (IOS) system is an alternative way to measure lung mechanics for some patients. We investigated the relative sensitivities of IOS, body plethysmography and spirometry in detecting allergen- and methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Twenty-two subjects had single allergen inhalation and 8 subjects had 3 methacholine challenges. The tests were stopped when FEV1 fell by 20%. Lung function was measured using IOS (R5, R20, R5-R20, X5, AX, fres), plethysmography (sRaw, sGaw, FRC, lung volumes) and spirometry (FEV1, FVC, PEF, FEF50%) during inhalation challenges, and expressed as percent change from pre-challenge baseline. All subjects were non-smoking adults with mild allergic asthma. Following allergen challenges, the most sensitive IOS index was R5-R20 and the most sensitive plethysmography and spirometry measurements were sRaw, sGaw and FEF50%. Following methacholine challenge the most sensitive IOS index was AX, the most sensitive plethysmography measurement was sRaw. Overall, IOS (R5-R20, AX, X5Hz) proved to be more sensitive than plethysmography and spirometry measurements following allergen-induced and methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Our result shows that IOS is more sensitive than other lung function tests following allergen and methacholine challenge. In addition, IOS can act as an alternative measurement technique of airway resistance and obstruction in patients where manoeuvres involved in plethysmography and spirometry prove difficult to perform. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of actual tidal volume in neonatal lung model volume control ventilation using three ventilators.

    PubMed

    Toyama, H; Endo, Y; Ejima, Y; Matsubara, M; Kurosawa, S

    2011-07-01

    In neonates, small changes in tidal volumes (V(T)) may lead to complications. Previous studies have shown a significant difference between ventilator-measured tidal volume and tidal volume delivered (actual V(T)). We evaluated the accuracy of three different ventilators to deliver small V(T) during volume-controlled ventilation. We tested Servo 300, 840 ventilator and Evita 4 Neoflow ventilators with lung models simulating normal and injured neonatal lung compliance models. Gas volume delivered from the ventilator into the test circuit (V(TV)) and actual V(T) to the test lung were measured using Ventrak respiration monitors at set V(T) (30 ml). The gas volume increase of the breathing circuit was then calculated. Tidal volumes of the SV300 and PB840 in both lung models were similar to the set V(T) and the actual tidal volumes in the injured model (20.7 ml and 19.8 ml, respectively) were significantly less than that in the normal model (27.4 ml and 23.4 ml). PB840 with circuit compliance compensation could not improve the actual V(T). V(TV) of the EV4N in the normal and the injured models (37.8 ml and 46.6 ml) were markedly increased compared with set V(T), and actual V(T) were similar to set V(T) in the normal and injured model (30.2 ml and 31.9 ml, respectively). EV4N measuring V(T) close to the lung could match actual V(T) to almost the same value as the set V(T) however the gas volume of the breathing circuit was increased. If an accurate value for the patient's actual V(T) is needed, this V(T) must be measured by a sensor located between the Y-piece and the tracheal tube.

  10. Comparison of radiographic and computed tomographic images of the lungs in healthy neonatal foals.

    PubMed

    Schliewert, Eva-Christina; Lascola, Kara M; O'Brien, Robert T; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Wilkins, Pamela A; Foreman, Jonathan H; Mitchell, Mark A; Hartman, Susan K; Kline, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    To compare CT and radiographic images of the lungs in sedated healthy foals positioned in sternal recumbency and to investigate whether a relationship exists between CT-derived measurements of lung attenuation and Paco2 and Pao2. 6 healthy Standardbred foals < 14 days of age. Thoracic CT images were acquired followed by radiographic views with each foal sedated and positioned in sternal recumbency. For each foal, both CT and radiographic images were evaluated for severity and extent of changes by lung regions on the basis of a subjective scoring system by 3 investigators. Quantitative analysis of CT images was also performed. Assessments of Pao2 and Paco2 were performed before sedation, following sedation prior to CT, and after CT prior to radiography. Interobserver agreement for CT and radiographic image scoring was strong (0.73) and fair (0.65), respectively; intraobserver agreement was near perfect for CT (0.97) and radiographic (0.94) image scoring. Increased CT attenuation and radiographic changes were identified for all foals and were preferentially distributed in the caudoventral portion of the lungs. Radiographic scores were significantly lower than CT image scores. A positive correlation (r = 0.872) between lung attenuation and CT image score was identified. A significant increase in Paco2 was not considered clinically relevant. Significant changes in Pao2 were not observed. Results suggested that interpretation of CT images may be less subjective, compared with interpretation of radiographic images. These findings may aid in the evaluation of CT and radiographic images of neonatal foals with respiratory tract disease.

  11. Assessment of CF lung disease using motion corrected PROPELLER MRI: a comparison with CT.

    PubMed

    Ciet, Pierluigi; Serra, Goffredo; Bertolo, Silvia; Spronk, Sandra; Ros, Mirco; Fraioli, Francesco; Quattrucci, Serena; Assael, M Baroukh; Catalano, Carlo; Pomerri, Fabio; Tiddens, Harm A W M; Morana, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    To date, PROPELLER MRI, a breathing-motion-insensitive technique, has not been assessed for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We compared this technique to CT for assessing CF lung disease in children and adults. Thirty-eight stable CF patients (median 21 years, range 6-51 years, 22 female) underwent MRI and CT on the same day. Study protocol included respiratory-triggered PROPELLER MRI and volumetric CT end-inspiratory and -expiratory acquisitions. Two observers scored the images using the CF-MRI and CF-CT systems. Scores were compared with intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI versus CT were calculated. MRI sensitivity for detecting severe CF bronchiectasis was 0.33 (CI 0.09-0.57), while specificity was 100% (CI 0.88-1). ICCs for bronchiectasis and trapped air were as follows: MRI-bronchiectasis (0.79); CT-bronchiectasis (0.85); MRI-trapped air (0.51); CT-trapped air (0.87). Bland-Altman plots showed an MRI tendency to overestimate the severity of bronchiectasis in mild CF disease and underestimate bronchiectasis in severe disease. Motion correction in PROPELLER MRI does not improve assessment of CF lung disease compared to CT. However, the good inter- and intra-observer agreement and the high specificity suggest that MRI might play a role in the short-term follow-up of CF lung disease (i.e. pulmonary exacerbations). PROPELLER MRI does not match CT sensitivity to assess CF lung disease. PROPELLER MRI has lower sensitivity than CT to detect severe bronchiectasis. PROPELLER MRI has good to very good intra- and inter-observer variability. PROPELLER MRI can be used for short-term follow-up studies in CF.

  12. Comparison of open gastrostomy tube to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in lung transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sharven; Ambur, Vishnu; Jayarajan, Senthil; Gaughan, John; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Dauer, Elizabeth; Sjoholm, Lars Ola; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas; Goldberg, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lung transplant patients require a high degree of immunosuppression, which can impair wound healing when surgical procedures are required. We hypothesized that because of impaired healing, lung transplant patients requiring gastrostomy tubes would have better outcomes with open gastrostomy tube (OGT) as compared to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG). Methods The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database (2005–2010) was queried for all lung transplant recipients requiring OGT or PEG. Results There were 215 patients requiring gastrostomy tube, with 44 OGT and 171 PEG. The two groups were not different with respect to age (52.0 vs. 56.9 years, p = 0.40) and Charlson Comorbidity Index (3.3 vs. 3.5, p = 0.75). Incidence of acute renal failure was higher in the PEG group (35.2 vs. 11.8%, p = 0.003). Post-operative pneumonia, myocardial infarction, surgical site infection, DVT/PE, and urinary tract infection were not different. Post-operative mortality was higher in the PEG group (11.2 vs. 0.0%, p = 0.02). Using multiple variable analysis, PEG tube was independently associated with mortality (HR: 1.94, 95%C.I: 1.45–2.58). Variables associated with survival included age, female gender, white race, and larger hospital bed capacity. Discussion OGT may be the preferred method of gastric access for lung transplant recipients. Conclusions In lung transplant recipients, OGT results in decreased morbidity and mortality when compared to PEG. PMID:26900455

  13. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  14. Comparison of sliced lungs with whole lung sets for a torso phantom measured with Ge detectors using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP).

    PubMed

    Kramer, Gary H; Guerriere, Steven

    2003-02-01

    Lung counters are generally used to measure low energy photons (<100 keV). They are usually calibrated with lung sets that are manufactured from a lung tissue substitute material that contains homogeneously distributed activity; however, it is difficult to verify either the activity in the phantom or the homogeneity of the activity distribution without destructive testing. Lung sets can have activities that are as much as 25% different from the expected value. An alternative method to using whole lungs to calibrate a lung counter is to use a sliced lung with planar inserts. Experimental work has already indicated that this alternative method of calibration can be a satisfactory substitute. This work has extended the experimental study by the use of Monte Carlo simulation to validate that sliced and whole lungs are equivalent. It also has determined the optimum slice thicknesses that separate the planar sources in the sliced lung. Slice thicknesses have been investigated in the range of 0.5 cm to 9.0 cm and at photon energies from 17 keV to 1,000 keV. Results have shown that there is little difference between sliced and whole lungs at low energies providing that the slice thickness is 2.0 cm or less. As the photon energy rises the slice thickness can increase substantially with no degradation on equivalence.

  15. TBI lung dose comparisons using bilateral and anteroposterior delivery techniques and tissue density corrections.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Daniel W; Wang, Iris Z; Lakeman, Tara; Hales, Lee D; Singh, Anurag K; Podgorsak, Matthew B

    2015-03-08

    This study compares lung dose distributions for two common techniques of total body photon irradiation (TBI) at extended source-to-surface distance calculated with, and without, tissue density correction (TDC). Lung dose correction factors as a function of lateral thorax separation are approximated for bilateral opposed TBI (supine), similar to those published for anteroposterior-posteroanterior (AP-PA) techniques in AAPM Report 17 (i.e., Task Group 29). 3D treatment plans were created retrospectively for 24 patients treated with bilateral TBI, and for whom CT data had been acquired from the head to the lower leg. These plans included bilateral opposed and AP-PA techniques- each with and without - TDC, using source-to-axis distance of 377 cm and largest possible field size. On average, bilateral TBI requires 40% more monitor units than AP-PA TBI due to increased separation (26% more for 23 MV). Calculation of midline thorax dose without TDC leads to dose underestimation of 17% on average (standard deviation, 4%) for bilateral 6 MV TBI, and 11% on average (standard deviation, 3%) for 23 MV. Lung dose correction factors (CF) are calculated as the ratio of midlung dose (with TDC) to midline thorax dose (without TDC). Bilateral CF generally increases with patient separation, though with high variability due to individual uniqueness of anatomy. Bilateral CF are 5% (standard deviation, 4%) higher than the same corrections calculated for AP-PA TBI in the 6 MV case, and 4% higher (standard deviation, 2%) for 23 MV. The maximum lung dose is much higher with bilateral TBI (up to 40% higher than prescribed, depending on patient anatomy) due to the absence of arm tissue blocking the anterior chest. Dose calculations for bilateral TBI without TDC are incorrect by up to 24% in the thorax for 6 MV and up to 16% for 23 MV. Bilateral lung CF may be calculated as 1.05 times the values published in Table 6 of AAPM Report 17, though a larger patient pool is necessary to better

  16. Interphase chromosome positioning in in vitro porcine cells and ex vivo porcine tissues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In interphase nuclei of a wide range of species chromosomes are organised into their own specific locations termed territories. These chromosome territories are non-randomly positioned in nuclei which is believed to be related to a spatial aspect of regulatory control over gene expression. In this study we have adopted the pig as a model in which to study interphase chromosome positioning and follows on from other studies from our group of using pig cells and tissues to study interphase genome re-positioning during differentiation. The pig is an important model organism both economically and as a closely related species to study human disease models. This is why great efforts have been made to accomplish the full genome sequence in the last decade. Results This study has positioned most of the porcine chromosomes in in vitro cultured adult and embryonic fibroblasts, early passage stromal derived mesenchymal stem cells and lymphocytes. The study is further expanded to position four chromosomes in ex vivo tissue derived from pig kidney, lung and brain. Conclusions It was concluded that porcine chromosomes are also non-randomly positioned within interphase nuclei with few major differences in chromosome position in interphase nuclei between different cell and tissue types. There were also no differences between preferred nuclear location of chromosomes in in vitro cultured cells as compared to cells in tissue sections. Using a number of analyses to ascertain by what criteria porcine chromosomes were positioned in interphase nuclei; we found a correlation with DNA content. PMID:23151271

  17. Meta-analysis of the independent and cumulative effects of multiple genetic modifications on pig lung xenograft performance during ex vivo perfusion with human blood.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donald G; Quinn, Kevin J; French, Beth M; Schwartz, Evan; Kang, Elizabeth; Dahi, Siamak; Phelps, Carol J; Ayares, David L; Burdorf, Lars; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Pierson, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified pigs are a promising potential source of lung xenografts. Ex vivo xenoperfusion is an effective platform for testing the effect of new modifications, but typical experiments are limited by testing of a single genetic intervention and small sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to analyze the individual and aggregate effects of donor genetic modifications on porcine lung xenograft survival and injury in an extensive pig lung xenoperfusion series. Data from 157 porcine lung xenoperfusion experiments using otherwise unmodified heparinized human blood were aggregated as either continuous or dichotomous variables. Lungs were wild type in 17 perfusions (11% of the study group), while 31 lungs (20% of the study group) had one genetic modification, 40 lungs (39%) had 2, and 47 lungs (30%) had 3 or more modifications. The primary endpoint was functional lung survival to 4 h of perfusion. Secondary analyses evaluated previously identified markers associated with known lung xenograft injury mechanisms. In addition to comparison among all xenografts grouped by survival status, a subgroup analysis was performed of lungs incorporating the GalTKO.hCD46 genotype. Each increase in the number of genetic modifications was associated with additional prolongation of lung xenograft survival. Lungs that exhibited survival to 4 h generally had reduced platelet activation and thrombin generation. GalTKO and the expression of hCD46, HO-1, hCD55, or hEPCR were associated with improved survival. hTBM, HLA-E, and hCD39 were associated with no significant effect on the primary outcome. This meta-analysis of an extensive lung xenotransplantation series demonstrates that increasing the number of genetic modifications targeting known xenogeneic lung injury mechanisms is associated with incremental improvements in lung survival. While more detailed mechanistic studies are needed to explore the relationship between gene expression and pathway-specific injury and explore

  18. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, K.C.

    1984-10-01

    An in-vitro dissolution study was conducted on two respirable oxidized depleted uranium samples. The dissolution rates generated from this study were then utilized in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group lung clearance model and a lung clearance model proposed by Cuddihy. Predictions from both models based on the dissolution rates of the amount of oxidized depleted uranium that would be cleared to blood from the pulmonary region following an inhalation exposure were compared. It was found that the predictions made by both models differed considerably. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the differences in the way each model perceives the clearance from the pulmonary region. 33 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  20. A Mathematical Model for Analyzing the Elasticity, Viscosity, and Failure of Soft Tissue: Comparison of Native and Decellularized Porcine Cardiac Extracellular Matrix for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bronshtein, Tomer; Au-Yeung, Gigi Chi Ting; Sarig, Udi; Nguyen, Evelyne Bao-Vi; Mhaisalkar, Priyadarshini S.; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    The clinical success of tissue-engineered constructs commonly requires mechanical properties that closely mimic those of the human tissue. Determining the viscoelastic properties of such biomaterials and the factors governing their failure profiles, however, has proven challenging, although collecting extensive data regarding their tensile behavior is straightforward. The easily calculated Young's modulus remains the most reported mechanical measure, regardless of its limitations, even though single-relaxation-time (SRT) models can provide much more information, which remain scarce due to a lack of manageable tools for implementing these models. We developed an easy-to-use algorithm for applying the Zener SRT model and determining the elastic moduli, viscosity, and failure profiles of materials under different mechanical tests in a user-independent manner. The algorithm was validated on the data resulting from tensile tests on native and decellularized porcine cardiac tissue, previously suggested as a promising scaffold material for cardiac tissue engineering. This analysis yields new and more accurate measurements such as the elastic moduli and viscosity, the model's relaxation time, and information on the factors governing the materials' failure profiles. These measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity and strength of the decellularized acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) are similar to those of native tissue, although its elasticity and apparent viscosity are higher. Nonetheless, reseeding and culturing the ECM with mesenchymal stem cells was shown to partially restore the mechanical properties lost after decellularization. We propose this algorithm as a platform for soft-tissue analysis that can provide comparable and unbiased measures for characterizing viscoelastic biomaterials commonly used in tissue engineering. PMID:23265414

  1. A mathematical model for analyzing the elasticity, viscosity, and failure of soft tissue: comparison of native and decellularized porcine cardiac extracellular matrix for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bronshtein, Tomer; Au-Yeung, Gigi Chi Ting; Sarig, Udi; Nguyen, Evelyne Bao-Vi; Mhaisalkar, Priyadarshini S; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Machluf, Marcelle

    2013-08-01

    The clinical success of tissue-engineered constructs commonly requires mechanical properties that closely mimic those of the human tissue. Determining the viscoelastic properties of such biomaterials and the factors governing their failure profiles, however, has proven challenging, although collecting extensive data regarding their tensile behavior is straightforward. The easily calculated Young's modulus remains the most reported mechanical measure, regardless of its limitations, even though single-relaxation-time (SRT) models can provide much more information, which remain scarce due to a lack of manageable tools for implementing these models. We developed an easy-to-use algorithm for applying the Zener SRT model and determining the elastic moduli, viscosity, and failure profiles of materials under different mechanical tests in a user-independent manner. The algorithm was validated on the data resulting from tensile tests on native and decellularized porcine cardiac tissue, previously suggested as a promising scaffold material for cardiac tissue engineering. This analysis yields new and more accurate measurements such as the elastic moduli and viscosity, the model's relaxation time, and information on the factors governing the materials' failure profiles. These measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity and strength of the decellularized acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) are similar to those of native tissue, although its elasticity and apparent viscosity are higher. Nonetheless, reseeding and culturing the ECM with mesenchymal stem cells was shown to partially restore the mechanical properties lost after decellularization. We propose this algorithm as a platform for soft-tissue analysis that can provide comparable and unbiased measures for characterizing viscoelastic biomaterials commonly used in tissue engineering.

  2. Comparison of Bioabsorbable Suture Anchor Fixation on the Tibial Side for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Free Soft Tissue Graft: Experimental Laboratory Study on Porcine Bone

    PubMed Central

    Na, Suk In; Lee, Jong Min; Park, Ju Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The use of graft tissue fixation using bioabsorbable interference screws (BISs) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction offers various advantages, but limited pullout strength. Therefore, additional tibial fixation is essential for aggressive rehabilitation. We hypothesized that additional graft tissue fixation using bioabsorbable suture anchors (BSA) would provide sufficient pull-out strength. Materials and Methods Twenty four fresh frozen porcine distal femur and patellar tendon preparations were used. All specimens were divided into three groups based on additional fixation methods: A, isolated BIS; B, BIS and BSA; and C, BIS and post cortical screw. Tensile testing was carried out under an axial load. Ultimate failure load and ultimate failure load after cyclic loading were recorded. Results The ultimate failure loads after load to failure testing were 166.8 N in group A, 536.4 N in group B, and 438 N in group C; meanwhile, the ultimate failure loads after load to failure testing with cyclic loading were 140 N in group A, 466.5 N in group B, and 400 N in group C. Stiffness after load to failure testing was 16.5 N/mm in group A, 33.5 N/mm in group B, and 40 N/mm in group C. An additional BSA fixation resulted in a significantly higher ultimate failure load and stiffness than isolated BIS fixation, similar to post screw fixation. Conclusion Additional fixation using a BSA provided sufficient pullout strength for ACL reconstruction. The ultimate failure load of the BSA technique was similar to that of post cortical screws. PMID:24719145

  3. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Michaela P; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; McKelvey, Jessica; Pillai, Suresh D; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-01-01

    Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120-145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0-50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad), Activate DA (Novus International), KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood), Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition), sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C) for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days). Activate DA (0.81) and KEM-GEST (3.28) produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability.

  4. Myocardial scar imaging by standard single-energy and dual-energy late enhancement CT: Comparison with pathology and electroanatomic map in an experimental chronic infarct porcine model.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quynh A; Thai, Wai-Ee; Wai, Bryan; Cordaro, Kevin; Cheng, Teresa; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Xiong, Guanglei; Cheung, Jim W; Altman, Robert; Min, James K; Singh, Jagmeet P; Barrett, Conor D; Danik, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial scar is a substrate for ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death. Late enhancement CT imaging can detect scar, but it remains unclear whether newer late enhancement dual-energy (LE-DECT) acquisition has benefit over standard single-energy late enhancement (LE-CT). We aim to compare late enhancement CT using newer LE-DECT acquisition and single-energy LE-CT acquisitions with pathology and electroanatomic map (EAM) in an experimental chronic myocardial infarction (MI) porcine study. In 8 pigs with chronic myocardial infarction (59 ± 5 kg), we performed dual-source CT, EAM, and pathology. For CT imaging, we performed 3 acquisitions at 10 minutes after contrast administration: LE-CT 80 kV, LE-CT 100 kV, and LE-DECT with 2 postprocessing software settings. Of the sequences, LE-CT 100 kV provided the best contrast-to-noise ratio (all P ≤ .03) and correlation to pathology for scar (ρ = 0.88). LE-DECT overestimated scar (both P = .02), whereas LE-CT images did not (both P = .08). On a segment basis (n = 136), all CT sequences had high specificity (87%-93%) and modest sensitivity (50%-67%), with LE-CT 100 kV having the highest specificity of 93% for scar detection compared to pathology and agreement with EAM (κ = 0.69). Standard single-energy LE-CT, particularly 100 kV, matched better to pathology and EAM than dual-energy LE-DECT for scar detection. Larger human trials as well as more technical studies that optimize varying different energies with newer hardware and software are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of protocols for the analysis of type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by RT-PCR using oral fluids.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Elisa; Martín-Valls, Gerard; Mateu, Enric

    2017-05-01

    The detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in oral fluids (OF) by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is gaining increasing popularity. However, the different steps leading to a result have not been extensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on the performance of qRT-PCR with different sampling materials, conditions of storage of the OF, the need for centrifuging OF, as well as to compare RNA extraction methods and PCR mixes. For the assays, pen-based oral fluids were used, which were pooled and spiked in a serial dilution (up to genotype 10(0) TCID50/mL) of type 1 PRRSV isolate 3267. Centrifugation at 15,000g for 15min resulted in an increase in sensitivity (1-2 PCR cycles) that was significant (P<0.05) at the lowest dilution tested. The TRIzol and MagMAX RNA extraction methods gave the maximum sensitivity, lowest threshold cycle (Ct), at equivalent virus concentrations. The AgPath-ID One-Step RT-PCR Kit PCR mix reagents were more sensitive for the detection of PRRSV using a purified plasmid as standard, but LSI VetMAX PRRSV EU/NA PRRSV reagents resulted in a slightly better sensitivity with OF (p<0.05). The present results may be useful to standardize protocols for optimizing detection of type 1 PRRSV in OF by qRT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of cryoprotectant treatment for the vitrification of immature cumulus-enclosed porcine oocytes: comparison of sugars, combinations of permeating cryoprotectants and equilibration regimens.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Men, Nguyen Thi; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to optimize the cryoprotectant treatment for the preservation of immature porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) by solid surface vitrification. In each experiment, the vitrification solution consisted of 50 mg/ml polyvinyl pyrrolidone, 0.3 M of the actual sugar and in total 35% (v/v) of the actual permeating cryoprotectant (pCPA) combination. After warming, the COCs were subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization and embryo culture. In Experiment 1, trehalose and sucrose were equally effective during vitrification and warming in terms of facilitating oocyte survival and subsequent embryo development. In Experiment 2, when equilibration was performed at 38.5 C in a total of 4% (v/v) pCPA for 15 min, the combination of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol (EG + PG = 1:1) was superior to EG and dimethyl sulfoxide (EG + DMSO = 1:1) in terms of oocyte survival after vitrification and the quality of resultant blastocysts. In Experiment 3, equilibration in 4% (v/v) pCPA for 15 min before vitrification was superior to that in 15% (v/v) CPA for 5 min for achievement of high survival rates irrespective of the pCPA combination used. In Experiment 4, when equilibration was performed in 4% EG + PG for 5 min, 15 min or 25 min, there was no difference in oocyte survival and subsequent embryo development after vitrification and warming; however, the developmental competence of cleaved embryos was tendentiously reduced when equilibration was performed for 25 min. In conclusion, trehalose and sucrose were equally effective in facilitating vitrification, and the optimum pCPA treatment was 5-15 min equilibration in 4% (v/v) of EG + PG followed by vitrification in 35% (v/v) EG + PG.

  7. Comparison of Thermal and Non-Thermal Processing of Swine Feed and the Use of Selected Feed Additives on Inactivation of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV)

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Michaela P.; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E.; Shurson, Gerald C.; McKelvey, Jessica; Pillai, Suresh D.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea, vomiting, and high mortality in suckling pigs. Contaminated feed has been suggested as a vehicle of transmission for PEDV. The objective of this study was to compare thermal and electron beam processing, and the inclusion of feed additives on the inactivation of PEDV in feed. Feed samples were spiked with PEDV and then heated to 120–145°C for up to 30 min or irradiated at 0–50 kGy. Another set of feed samples spiked with PEDV and mixed with Ultracid P (Nutriad), Activate DA (Novus International), KEM-GEST (Kemin Agrifood), Acid Booster (Agri-Nutrition), sugar or salt was incubated at room temperature (~25°C) for up to 21 days. At the end of incubation, the virus titers were determined by inoculation of Vero-81 cells and the virus inactivation kinetics were modeled using the Weibull distribution model. The Weibull kinetic parameter delta represented the time or eBeam dose required to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. For thermal processing, delta values ranged from 16.52 min at 120°C to 1.30 min at 145°C. For eBeam processing, a target dose of 50 kGy reduced PEDV concentration by 3 log. All additives tested were effective in reducing the survival of PEDV when compared with the control sample (delta = 17.23 days). Activate DA (0.81) and KEM-GEST (3.28) produced the fastest inactivation. In conclusion, heating swine feed at temperatures over 130°C or eBeam processing of feed with a dose over 50 kGy are effective processing steps to reduce PEDV survival. Additionally, the inclusion of selected additives can decrease PEDV survivability. PMID:27341670

  8. Comparison of the SYNERGY with the PROMUS (XIENCE V) and bare metal and polymer-only Element control stents in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory J; Huibregtse, Barbara A; Pennington, Douglas E; Dawkins, Keith D

    2012-06-20

    This study evaluated vascular compatibility of the novel platinum chromium alloy Element stent platform delivering abluminal everolimus from a poly-lactide-co-glycolide bioabsorbable polymer (SYNERGY stent), currently undergoing clinical trial, compared with the PROMUS (XIENCE V) and bare metal and polymer-only Element stents. Stents (n=161) were implanted one per coronary artery in 72 swine at a stent-to-artery ratio of 1.1:1. Similar numbers of each device group were explanted at each of 30, 90, 180, and 360 days (except no PROMUS (XIENCE V) stent at 360 days) for pathological analysis. There was no stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction, or strut fractures in any group. Vascular response was similar between the SYNERGY and PROMUS (XIENCE V) stents, with no thrombi and complete endothelialisation on both scanning electron microscopy and histology at 30, 90 and 180 days. There were no significant differences for the morphologic parameters of luminal thrombus, endothelial cell coverage, strut tissue coverage, inflammation, internal elastic lamina (IEL) disruption, external elastic lamina (EEL) disruption and medial smooth muscle cell loss across device groups or between time points, but there was mild but greater (p<0.0001) para-strut fibrin at 30 days for both drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with the bare and polymer-only controls; this difference completely dissipated by 90 days. Inflammation was predominantly minimal to mild for all device types. No morphometric parameters, including intimal thickness, stent profile-based area stenosis, and EEL area were significantly different when comparing the SYNERGY stent with the bare metal Element and polymer-only Element control stents at 90, 180 and 360 days. In this non-injured porcine coronary artery model, the bioabsorbable polymer SYNERGY stent demonstrated vascular compatibility equivalent to the PROMUS (XIENCE V) stent and to the bare metal and polymer-only Element stents.

  9. Comparison of sow and/or piglet vaccination of 3 commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) single-dose vaccines on pigs under experimental PCV2 challenge.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeonsu; Seo, Hwi Won; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-08-27

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of sow and/or piglet vaccination regimen by three commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines on pigs experimentally challenged with PCV2 at 84 days of age based on immunological, virological, and pathological evaluation. One hundred and nineteen piglets born to vaccinated or non-vaccinated sows were divided into 17 groups. A portion of the pigs with or without passively acquired immunity was vaccinated at 21 or 49 days of age. Regardless of the PCV2 vaccine, the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations significantly (P<0.05) reduced PCV2 viremia, induced higher log2 transformed neutralizing antibody titers, and resulted in higher proportion of CD4(+)CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) lymphocyte subsets than the sow vaccination alone, the pig (21 or 49 days of age) vaccination alone, and the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations at various days post challenge. The results showed a significant negative correlation between maternally derived antibodies at the day of vaccination and the increment of antibody titers to PCV2 at 28 days post vaccination in the combination of sow and pig (21 days of age) vaccinations but not the combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations. The combination of sow and pig (49 days of age) vaccinations could be more effective for controlling PCV2 infection if PCV2 the infection occurs during the growing-finishing period in herds. Optimal vaccination strategies must balance the advantage of delayed vaccination with the need to induce immunity prior to exposure to pathogens under field conditions.

  10. Sequence analysis of old and new strains of porcine circovirus associated with congenital tremors in pigs and their comparison with strains involved with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jiwon; Stevenson, Gregory W.; Kiupel, Matti; Harrach, Balázs; Anothayanontha, Lavun; Kanitz, Charles L.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2002-01-01

    The entire genomes of 7 isolates of porcine circovirus (PCV) from pigs with congenital tremors (CT), type A2, or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were cloned and sequenced. One isolate (CT-PCV-P7) originated from the late 1960s from a neonatal pig with CT, type A2. Two recent PCV isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6) were from 2 affected neonatal pigs, from different farms, with unrelated outbreaks of CT; type A2. Four isolates (PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) originated from pigs with PMWS from 4 different farms. A comparative analysis of these PMWS and PCV isolates demonstrated 99% sequence identity with each other, and over 96% sequence identity with previously sequenced PCV2 isolates. The CT-PCV-P5 and CT-PCV-P6 isolates, however, shared 99% of the same identity with each other, and interestingly also with PMWS PCV isolates. There were no consistent genomic differences between PMWS and recent CT isolates. The CT-PCV-P7 showed 98% identity similarity to PK-15-derived PCV1 and demonstrated only 72% identity similarity to either CT-PCV-P5 or CT-PCV-P6. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the old isolate (CT-PCV-P7), and the new isolates (CT-PCV-P5, CT-PCV-P6, PMWS-PCV-P1, PMWS-PCV-P2, PMWS-PCV-P3, PMWS-PCV-P4) were correctly classified as PCV1 and PCV2, respectively. PMID:12418776

  11. Performance of dose calculation algorithms from three generations in lung SBRT: comparison with full Monte Carlo-based dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Jarkko J; Kapanen, Mika K; Hyödynmaa, Simo J; Wigren, Tuija K; Pitkänen, Maunu A

    2014-03-06

    The accuracy of dose calculation is a key challenge in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of the lung. We have benchmarked three photon beam dose calculation algorithms--pencil beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Acuros XB (AXB)--implemented in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), Varian Eclipse. Dose distributions from full Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were regarded as a reference. In the first stage, for four patients with central lung tumors, treatment plans using 3D conformal radiotherapy (CRT) technique applying 6 MV photon beams were made using the AXB algorithm, with planning criteria according to the Nordic SBRT study group. The plans were recalculated (with same number of monitor units (MUs) and identical field settings) using BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc MC codes. The MC-calculated dose distributions were compared to corresponding AXB-calculated dose distributions to assess the accuracy of the AXB algorithm, to which then other TPS algorithms were compared. In the second stage, treatment plans were made for ten patients with 3D CRT technique using both the PBC algorithm and the AAA. The plans were recalculated (with same number of MUs and identical field settings) with the AXB algorithm, then compared to original plans. Throughout the study, the comparisons were made as a function of the size of the planning target volume (PTV), using various dose-volume histogram (DVH) and other parameters to quantitatively assess the plan quality. In the first stage also, 3D gamma analyses with threshold criteria 3%/3mm and 2%/2 mm were applied. The AXB-calculated dose distributions showed relatively high level of agreement in the light of 3D gamma analysis and DVH comparison against the full MC simulation, especially with large PTVs, but, with smaller PTVs, larger discrepancies were found. Gamma agreement index (GAI) values between 95.5% and 99.6% for all the plans with the threshold criteria 3%/3 mm were achieved, but 2%/2 mm

  12. [Lung transplanted patient climbing a mountain higher than 4,000 metres. Comparison with healthy climbers].

    PubMed

    Botella de Maglia, Javier; Fuster Escrivà, Antoni

    2007-09-15

    To ascertain if a bilaterally lung transplanted patient can climb a mountain higher than 4,000 metres and to compare the evolution of his physiological parameters during the ascent with those of healthy mountaineers. Heart rate, blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, Tiffenau test, 25-75 mesoexpiratory flow, peak flow, severity of dyspnoea (analogic score) and symptoms and signs of acute mountain sickness (lake Louise and Serrano-Alcócer scores) were measured in a bilaterally lung transplanted patient and in 4 healthy mountaineers at sea level and at different altitudes during the ascent of Breithorn (4,164 m) from Zermatt in 3 days. All subjects attained the summit. The transplanted patient suffered from an acute mountain sickness at 2,700 m but recovered spontaneously. No other substantial differences were found during the climb between the patient's physiological parameters and those of the healthy controls. On the summit (third day) the patient's SaO2 (90%) was higher than the figure which should be theoretically expected for this altitude among non-acclimatised subjects (81%). Our study confirms that it is possible for a bilaterally lung transplanted patient to climb by his own effort a mountain higher than 4,000 m with no physiological changes other than those experienced by healthy mountaineers. Considering the spontaneous recovery from the acute mountain sickness and the high SaO2 on the summit of Breithorn, we conclude that lung transplantation does not necessarily prevent altitude acclimatisation.

  13. Comparison of inflammatory responses in mouse lungs exposed to atranones A and C from Stachybotrys chartarum.

    PubMed

    Rand, Thomas G; Flemming, J; David Miller, J; Womiloju, Taiwo O

    2006-07-01

    Stachybotrys chartarum isolates can be separated into two distinct chemotypes based on the toxins they produce. One chemotype produces macrocyclic trichothecenes; the other produces atranones (and sometimes simple trichothecenes, e.g., trichodermol and trichodermin). Studies using in vivo models of lung disease revealed that exposure to spores of the atranone producing S. chartarum isolates led to a variety of immunotoxic, inflammatory, and other pathological changes. However, it is unclear from these studies what role the pure atranone toxins sequestered in spores of these isolates exert on lung disease onset. This study examined dose-response (0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, or 20 microg atranone/animal) and time-course (3, 6, 24, and 48 h postinstillation [PI]) relationships associated with inflammatory cell and proinflammatory chemokine/cytokine responses in mouse lungs intratracheally instilled with two pure atranones (either A or C) isolated from S. chartarum. High doses (2.0 to 20 microg toxin/animal) of atranone A and C induced significant inflammatory responses manifested as differentially elevated macrophage, neutrophil, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of intratracheally exposed mice. Compared to controls, BALF macrophage and neutrophil numbers were increased to significant levels from 6 to 48 h (PI). Except for macrophage numbers in atranone A treatment animals, cells exhibited significant dose dependent-like responses. The chemokine/cytokine marker responses were significantly and dose-dependently increased from 3 to 24 h PI and declined to nonsignificant levels at 48 h PI. The results suggest not only that atranones are inflammatory but also that they exhibit different inflammatory potency with different toxicokinetics. Data also suggest that exposure to these toxins in spores of S. chartarum in contaminated building environments could contribute

  14. A comparison of three scoring systems for predicting complications after major lung resection.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Mark K; Durkin, Amy E

    2003-01-01

    Although complications occur frequently after major lung resection, current predictive models are not entirely satisfactory. We devised a new predictive scoring system and compared it to two existing systems. We performed an initial retrospective review of 400 patients who underwent major resection for lung cancer from 1980 to 1995. Predictive covariates (age, spirometry, diffusing capacity) associated with three or more complication groups were used to develop a scoring system. This system (EVAD) was then evaluated against the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) and Cardiopulmonary Risk Index (CPRI) systems for patients operated between 1996 and 2001. Major resection for lung cancer included lobectomy (188) and pneumonectomy (30). Complication categories were: pulmonary (23; 10.5%); cardiovascular (24; 11.0%); infectious (8; 3.6%); other (29; 13.2%); nonfatal (45; 20.6%); and any (53; 24.2%). Death occurred in ten patients (4.6%). Mean EVAD scores were significantly different between groups with and without complications in all categories except infectious complications and death, whereas mean CPRI scores differed only for pulmonary complications, nonfatal complications, and death, and mean POSSUM scores did not appropriately differ for any complications. EVAD predicted incremental risk in all complication categories except cardiovascular, infectious, and death, whereas CPRI predicted incremental risk only for nonfatal and possibly any complications, and POSSUM did not predict incremental risk for any complication category. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated the EVAD system to be equivalent to or better than CPRI and POSSUM for all complication categories. A simple scoring system (EVAD) that utilizes pulmonary function test data and patient age predicts the likelihood of complications after major lung resection. It is easier to use and at least as accurate as other scoring systems

  15. Dosimetric comparison between 10MV-FFF and 6MV-FFF for lung SBRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmus, I. F.; Atalay, E. D.

    2017-02-01

    Plans were prepared by using same non-coplanar fields and physical parameters in 6MV-FFF and 10MV-FFF energies for fourteen lung Stereotactic Body Radio Therapy (SBRT) patients. In two plans which have different energies, critic organ doses, PTV doses, quality of plans (Gradient Index (GI), Homogeneity Index (HI), Conformity Index (CI)) and Monitor Unit (MU) values were compared. Quality controls were performed with 2D-Array Iba MatriXX Evolution® dosimetry system for each plans. As a results, plan with 6MV-FFF energy give better results in terms of CI and GI values. In this way, when more conformal dose distributions were provided, there was a rapid dose decrease at out of target volume. Lower MU values were obtained in plans which was prepared with 10MV-FFF energy. In plan with 10MV-FFF energy lower MU values are obtained. Lower values in heart and spinal cord doses are founded and better results are obtained in Body and Ipsa-Lung V5, V10, V20 values with 6MV-FFF energies. When differences were very small in volume which were taken low dose (V5), these differences increased in volume which were taken high dose (V20). High dose rates can be reached by both two unfiltered energies and can be used in lung SBRT.

  16. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs: A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bossé, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases. PMID:24663285

  17. Comparison between concurrent and sequential chemoradiation for non-small cell lung cancer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Seo-Young; DAS, Amit K; Minna, John D

    2014-02-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend the combination of chemotherapy and thoracic radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Previous meta-analyses have shown that concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) may be superior to sequential chemoradiation (SCRT). However, few previous in vitro studies have analyzed these two treatment schedules. In the current study, four lung cancer cell lines harboring wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor, comprising two squamous and two non-squamous cell lines, were used. The IC10 concentrations of three platinum-based regimens were combined with radiation treatment. Cells were irradiated at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy using a (137)Cs irradiator concurrently or sequentially. Surviving fractions (SFs) were plotted as a function of the radiation dose. In A549 cells, only the docetaxel (Doc) and carboplatin (Carbo) combination showed a significant radiosensitizing effect with CCRT treatment. For the other three cell lines, no difference was identified in the SFs between CCRT and SCRT. An in vitro method of comparing CCRT with SCRT was established using lung cancer cell lines. Overall, no significant difference was detected in the radiosensitizing effect of the two treatment schedules, with the exception of the A549 cell lines treated with Doc/Carbo.

  18. Comparison of efficacy and toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ and conventional chemotherapy on lung cancer metastasis and survival in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer.

  19. Comparison of Efficacy and Toxicity of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Mixture LQ and Conventional Chemotherapy on Lung Cancer Metastasis and Survival in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Chengyu; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX). LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer. PMID:25286158

  20. SU-D-207B-03: A PET-CT Radiomics Comparison to Predict Distant Metastasis in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Coroller, T; Yip, S; Lee, S; Mak, R; Aerts, H; Kim, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Early prediction of distant metastasis may provide crucial information for adaptive therapy, subsequently improving patient survival. Radiomic features that extracted from PET and CT images have been used for assessing tumor phenotype and predicting clinical outcomes. This study investigates the values of radiomic features in predicting distant metastasis (DM) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A total of 108 patients with stage II–III lung adenocarcinoma were included in this retrospective study. Twenty radiomic features were selected (10 from CT and 10 from PET). Conventional features (metabolic tumor volume, SUV, volume and diameter) were included for comparison. Concordance index (CI) was used to evaluate features prognostic value. Noether test was used to compute p-value to consider CI significance from random (CI = 0.5) and were adjusted for multiple testing using false rate discovery (FDR). Results: A total of 70 patients had DM (64.8%) with a median time to event of 8.8 months. The median delivered dose was 60 Gy (range 33–68 Gy). None of the conventional features from PET (CI ranged from 0.51 to 0.56) or CT (CI ranged from 0.57 to 0.58) were significant from random. Five radiomics features were significantly prognostic from random for DM (p-values < 0.05). Four were extracted from CT (CI = 0.61 to 0.63, p-value <0.01) and one from PET which was also the most prognostic (CI = 0.64, p-value <0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant association between radiomic features and DM for patients with locally advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Moreover, conventional (clinically utilized) metrics were not significantly associated with DM. Radiomics can potentially help classify patients at higher risk of DM, allowing clinicians to individualize treatment, such as intensification of chemotherapy) to reduce the risk of DM and improve survival. R.M. has consulting interests with Amgen.

  1. Evaluation and comparison of New 4DCT based strategies for proton treatment planning for lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Patyal, Baldev; Ghebremedhin, Abiel; Bush, David

    2013-03-25

    To evaluate different strategies for proton lung treatment planning based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans. Twelve cases, involving only gross tumor volumes (GTV), were evaluated. Single image sets of (1) maximum intensity projection (MIP3) of end inhale (EI), middle exhale (ME) and end exhale (EE) images; (2) average intensity projection (AVG) of all phase images; and (3) EE images from 4DCT scans were selected as primary images for proton treatment planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) outlined by a clinician were imported into MIP3, AVG, and EE images as planning targets. Initially, treatment uncertainties were not included in planning. Each plan was imported into phase images of 4DCT scans. Relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and mean ipsilateral lung dose of a phase image obtained by averaging the dose in inspiration and expiration phases were used to evaluate the quality of a plan for a particular case. For comparing different planning strategies, the mean of the averaged relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and its standard deviation for each planning strategy for all cases were used. Then, treatment uncertainties were included in planning. Each plan was recalculated in phase images of 4DCT scans. Same strategies were used for plan evaluation except dose-volume histograms of the planning target volumes (PTVs) instead of GTVs were used and the mean and standard deviation of the relative volumes of PTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and the ipsilateral lung dose were used to compare different planning strategies. MIP3 plans without treatment uncertainties yielded 96.7% of the mean relative GTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 5.7% for all cases). With treatment uncertainties, MIP3 plans yielded 99.5% of mean relative PTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 0.7%). Inclusion of treatment uncertainties improved PTV dose coverage but also increased the ipsilateral

  2. Linear and nonlinear analysis of base lung sound in extrinsic allergic alveolitis patients in comparison to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Charleston-Villalobos, S; Albuerne-Sanchez, L; Gonzalez-Camarena, R; Mejia-Avila, M; Carrillo-Rodriguez, G; Aljama-Corrales, T

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary disorders are frequently characterized by the presence of adventitious sounds added to the breathing or base lung sound (BLS). The aim of this work was to assess the features of BLS in extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) patients in comparison to healthy subjects, applying linear and nonlinear analysis techniques. We investigated the multichannel lung sounds on the posterior chest of 16 females, 8 healthy and 8 EAA patients, when breathing at 1.5 L/s. BLS linear features were obtained from the power spectral density (PSD) while nonlinear features were extracted by the concepts of irregularity and complexity, i.e., spectral, sample and multiscale entropy. The results demonstrated that spectral percentiles of BLS were lower in EAA patients than in healthy subjects but statistical significance (p<0.05) was obtained only for expiration at the left apical and both basal regions. Also, the maximum amplitude of the PSD in patients reached statistical significance ( p < 0.05) for the expiratory phase at basal regions. In the case of nonlinear techniques, significant lower values ( p < 0.05) were obtained for EAA patients during both respiratory phases at left apical and both basal regions. In conclusion, we found that BLS in chronic EAA patients is characterized by lower spectral percentiles, lower irregularity and lower complexity than in healthy subjects suggesting the feasibility of its clinical usefulness by screening its temporal alteration.

  3. An international comparison of costs of end-of-life care for advanced lung cancer patients using health administrative data.

    PubMed

    Bremner, Karen E; Krahn, Murray D; Warren, Joan L; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Barrett, Michael J; Liu, Ning; Barbera, Lisa; Yabroff, K Robin

    2015-12-01

    Patterns of end-of-life cancer care differ in Canada and the United States; yet little is known about differences in service-specific and overall costs. The aim of this study was to compare end-of-life costs in Ontario, Canada, and the United States, using administrative health data. Advanced-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who died from cancer at age ⩾ 65.5 years in 2001-2005 were selected from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database (N = 16,858) and the Ontario Cancer Registry (N = 8643). We estimated total and service-specific costs (2009 US dollars) in each of the last 6 months of life from the public payer perspectives for short-term and long-term survivors (lived < 180 and ⩾ 180 days post-diagnosis, respectively). Services were defined for comparisons between systems. Mean monthly costs increased as death approached, were higher in short-term than long-term survivors, and were generally higher in the United States than in Ontario until the month before death, when they were similar (long-term survivors: US$10,464 and US$10,094 (p = 0.53), short-term survivors US$14,455 and US$12,836 (p = 0.11), in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare and Ontario, respectively). Costs for Medicare hospice and Ontario's palliative care components were similar and increased closer to death. Inpatient hospitalization was the main cost driver with similar costs in both cohorts, despite lower utilization in the United States. The compositions of many services and costs differed. Costs for nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were slightly higher in the United States than Ontario until 1 month before death. Administrative data allow exploration and international comparisons of reimbursement policies, health-care delivery, and costs at the end of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Dosimetric comparison of Acuros XB, AAA, and XVMC in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuruta, Yusuke; Nakata, Manabu; Higashimura, Kyoji; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Matsuo, Yukinori; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric performance of Acuros XB (AXB), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and x-ray voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in heterogeneous phantoms and lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans. Methods: Water- and lung-equivalent phantoms were combined to evaluate the percentage depth dose and dose profile. The radiation treatment machine Novalis (BrainLab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany) with an x-ray beam energy of 6 MV was used to calculate the doses in the composite phantom at a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm with a gantry angle of 0°. Subsequently, the clinical lung SBRT plans for the 26 consecutive patients were transferred from the iPlan (ver. 4.1; BrainLab AG) to the Eclipse treatment planning systems (ver. 11.0.3; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The doses were then recalculated with AXB and AAA while maintaining the XVMC-calculated monitor units and beam arrangement. Then the dose-volumetric data obtained using the three different radiation dose calculation algorithms were compared. Results: The results from AXB and XVMC agreed with measurements within ±3.0% for the lung-equivalent phantom with a 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} field size, whereas AAA values were higher than measurements in the heterogeneous zone and near the boundary, with the greatest difference being 4.1%. AXB and XVMC agreed well with measurements in terms of the profile shape at the boundary of the heterogeneous zone. For the lung SBRT plans, AXB yielded lower values than XVMC in terms of the maximum doses of ITV and PTV; however, the differences were within ±3.0%. In addition to the dose-volumetric data, the dose distribution analysis showed that AXB yielded dose distribution calculations that were closer to those with XVMC than did AAA. Means ± standard deviation of the computation time was 221.6 ± 53.1 s (range, 124–358 s), 66.1 ± 16.0 s (range, 42–94 s), and 6.7 ± 1.1 s (range, 5–9 s) for XVMC, AXB, and AAA, respectively. Conclusions: In the

  5. Immune and stress mediators in response to bilateral adnexectomy: comparison of single-port access and conventional laparoscopy in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Meritxell; Sisó, Cristian; Martínez-Zamora, M Àngels; Sarmiento, Laura; Lozano, Francisco; Arias, Maria Teresa; Beltrán, Joan; Balasch, Juan; Carmona, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate systemic markers of immune and stress responses after bilateral adnexectomy performed using 2 different laparoscopic techniques in pigs. Prospective comparative study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University teaching hospital, research hospital, and tertiary care center. Twenty female Yorkshire pigs undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Animals underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (ovary and fallopian tube extraction), performed via conventional laparoscopy (n = 10) or the single-port access approach (n = 10). Injury provokes an acute-phase response, primarily produced by cytokines. The inflammatory response has been well described for major surgery and for conventional laparoscopy; however, little information is currently available for single-port laparoscopy, and none in the gynecologic field. This is the first study to compare serum cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentrations at baseline and in the early postoperative period (2, 4, and 20 hours) after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy performed via conventional laparoscopy (n = 10) or single-port access (n = 10) in a porcine model. The stress response was measured using glucose and cortisol concentrations and the animals' response to surgery via a 6-category observation-based behavior test. Both IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations peaked at 4 hours after surgery, and were significantly lower in the single-port access group (p = .02) than in the conventional laparoscopy group (p = .02). In addition, in the single-port access group, concentrations of stress markers were slightly lower at all intervals recorded and were statistically significant at 2 hours after the operation for glucose concentration (mean [SD], 164.50 [26.73] mg/dL for conventional laparoscopy vs 86.50 [17.93] mg/dL for single-port access; p = .02). Evidence of improved inflammatory and stress responses was recorded in the minimally invasive single-port group. More clinical

  6. Comparison of direct site endovascular repair utilizing expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent grafts versus standard vascular shunts in a porcine (Sus scrofa) model.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Anders J; Neff, Lucas P; Grayson, J Kevin; Clement, Nathan F; DeSoucy, Erik S; Simon Logan, Meryl A; Abbot, Christopher M; Sampson, James B; Williams, Timothy K

    2017-09-01

    The small diameter of temporary vascular shunts for vascular trauma management may restrict flow and result in ischemia or early thrombosis. We have previously reported a clinical experience with direct, open surgical reconstruction using expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent grafts to create a "sutureless" anastomosis as an alternative to standard temporary vascular shunts. We sought to characterize patency and flow characteristics of these grafts compared with standard shunts in a survival model of porcine vascular injury. Twelve Yorkshire-cross swine received a 2-cm-long near-circumferential defect in the bilateral iliac arteries. A 14 Fr Argyle shunt was inserted into one randomly assigned artery, with a self-expanding expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent deployed in the other. At 72 hours, conduit patency was evaluated by angiography. Arterial flow measurements were obtained at baseline, immediately after intervention, and after 72 hours via direct measurement with perivascular flow meters. Blood pressure proximal and distal to the conduits and arterial samples for histopathology were obtained during the terminal procedure. Angiography revealed no difference in patency at 72 hours (p = 1.0). While there was no difference in baseline arterial flow between arteries (p = 0.63), the stent grafts demonstrated significantly improved blood flow compared with shunts both immediately after intervention (390 ± 36 mL/min vs. 265 ± 25 mL/min, p = 0.002) and at 72 hours (261 ± 29 mL/min vs. 170 ± 36 mL/min, p = 0.005). The pressure gradient across the shunts was greater than that of the stent grafts (11.5 mm Hg [interquartile range, 3-19 mm Hg] vs. 3 mm Hg [interquartile range, 3-5 mm Hg], p = 0.013). The speed of deployment was similar between the two devices. Open "sutureless" direct site repair using commercially available stent grafts to treat vascular injury is a technically feasible strategy for damage control management of peripheral vascular injury and

  7. An ex vivo comparison of adenosine and lidocaine solution and University of Wisconsin solution for hypothermic machine perfusion of porcine kidneys: potential for development.

    PubMed

    Hamaoui, Karim; Aftab, Adeel; Gowers, Sally; Boutelle, Martyn; Cook, Terry; Rudd, Donna; Dobson, Geoffrey P; Papalois, Vassilios

    2017-02-01

    The optimal hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) solution has not yet been developed. An adenosine and lidocaine (AL) solution has been shown to be protective in cardiac preservation. The aim of the present study was to examine a modified AL solution with low Ca(2+), 16 mM Mg(2+), and 4% albumin on kidney preservation compared with University Wisconsin solution (UW). Twenty donation of organs after cardiac death porcine kidneys underwent HMP for 10 h (AL, n = 10; UW, n = 10) and then 2 h of normothermic reperfusion. Perfusion dynamics, functional parameters, histology, and real-time microdialysis were used to assess kidney responses and viability. During HMP, modified AL-perfused kidneys maintained higher flow rates (21.5 versus 17.9 mL/min/100 g, P = 0.01), with perfusion flow index during the first 3 h 25% greater than with UW (AL = 0.50 ± 0.2, UW = 0.40 ± 0.17 mL/min/100 g/mmHg; P = 0.03), followed by an increase in UW kidneys which was not significantly different to AL over the remaining 7 h (0.54 versus 0.55 mL/min/100 g/mmHg, respectively). During warm reperfusion, there were no significant differences between the two HMP groups in creatinine clearance, oxygen, and glucose consumption between groups. Modified AL kidneys had significantly lower perfusate lactates (3.1 versus 4.1 mmol/L, P = 0.04) during reperfusion and lower cortical lactate levels (AL = 0.66 ± 0.31, UW = 0.89 ± 0.53 mM, P = 0.33). Histology showed similar degrees of reperfusion injury. We conclude that HMP with modified AL solution showed improved perfusion compared with UW and lower perfusate lactate levels during warm reperfusion. Further modification of the AL composition is warranted and may lead to more rapid kidney stabilization and improved graft viability assessment, potentially expanding donor pools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Spine, Carina, and Tumor as Registration Landmarks for Volumetric Image-Guided Lung Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, Jane Bezjak, Andrea; Franks, Kevin; Le, Lisa W.; Cho, B.C.; Payne, David; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility, reproducibility, and accuracy of volumetric lung image guidance using different thoracic landmarks for image registration. Methods and Materials: In 30 lung patients, four independent observers conducted automated and manual image registrations on Day 1 cone-beam computed tomography data sets using the spine, carina, and tumor (720 image registrations). The image registration was timed, and the couch displacements were recorded. The intraclass correlation was used to assess reproducibility, and the Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare the automatic and manual matching methods. Tumor coverage (accuracy) was assessed through grading the tumor position after image matching against the internal target volume and planning target volume. Results: The image-guided process took an average of 1 min for all techniques, with the exception of manual tumor matching, which took 4 min. Reproducibility was greatest for automatic carina matching (intraclass correlation, 0.90-0.93) and lowest for manual tumor matching (intraclass correlation, 0.07-0.43) in the left-right, superoinferior, and anteroposterior directions, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant difference between the automatic and manual registration methods. The tumor was within the internal target volume 62% and 60% of the time and was outside the internal target volume, but within the planning target volume, 38% and 40% of the time after automatic spine and automatic carina matching, respectively. Conclusion: For advanced lung cancer, the spine or carina can be used equally for cone-beam computed tomography image registration without compromising target coverage. The carina was more reproducible than the spine, but additional analysis is required to confirm its validation as a tumor surrogate. Soft-tissue registration is unsuitable at present, given the limitations in contrast resolution and the high interobserver variability.

  9. Comparison of methods in the detection of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Toni-Maree; Russell, Prudence A; Wright, Gavin; Wainer, Zoe; Pang, Jia-Min; Henricksen, Leigh A; Singh, Shalini; Stanislaw, Stacey; Grille, James; Roberts, Esteban; Solomon, Benjamin; Fox, Stephen B

    2015-04-01

    The use of targeted therapies toward specific oncogenic driver mutations has become a critical factor in the treatment of patients with lung cancer. It is therefore essential to utilize tests with high performance characteristics. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the standard method for detecting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 rearrangements in non-small-cell lung cancer but the utility of other methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is unclear. Three hundred and sixty-two lung cancer patients were tested with FISH, CISH, and IHC using three ALK antibodies (ALK1, 5A4, D5F3) and one ROS1 antibody in the detection of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements. There was a 97.4% concordance (298 of 306) between FISH and CISH for detection of ALK rearrangements. The ROS1 rearrangement status had a 97% (291 of 300) concordance between CISH and FISH. ALK protein expression was observed in 6 of 341 samples with the ALK1 and 5A4 antibodies and 5 of 341 samples with D5F3. All three antibodies stained each of the ALK FISH-positive samples (100% sensitivity). ROS1 protein expression was observed in 2 of 322 samples. One of three samples with a ROS1 rearrangement by FISH showed ROS1 protein expression (33.3% sensitivity). Our findings show good correlation between FISH versus CISH in the detection of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements. FISH versus IHC showed good correlation in the detection of ALK rearrangements but showed weak correlation in the detection of ROS1 rearrangements. These results suggest CISH and IHC could be complimentary detection methods to FISH in the detection of ALK and ROS1 rearrangements.

  10. Lung SBRT: dosimetric and delivery comparison of RapidArc, TomoTherapy, and IMR.

    PubMed

    Weyh, Ashleigh; Konski, Andre; Nalichowski, Adrian; Maier, Jordan; Lack, Danielle

    2013-07-08

    This study seeks to compare fixed-field intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FF IMRT), RapidArc (RA), and helical tomotherapy (HT) to discover the optimal treatment modality to deliver SBRT to the peripheral lung. Eight patients with peripheral primary lung cancer were reviewed. Plans were prescribed a dose of 48 Gy and optimized similarly with heterogeneity corrections. Plan quality was assessed using conformality index (CI100%), homogeneity index (HI), the ratio of the 50% isodose volume to PTV (R50%) to assess intermediate dose spillage, and normal tissue constraints. Delivery efficiency was evaluated using treatment time and MUs. Dosimetric accuracy was assessed using gamma index (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA, 10% threshold), and measured with a PTW ARRAY seven29 and OCTAVIUS phantom. CI100%, HI, and R50% were lowest for HT compared to seven-field coplanar IMRT and two-arc coplanar RA (p < 0.05). Normal tissue constraints were met for all modalities, except maximum rib dose due to close proximity to the PTV. RA reduced delivery time by 60% compared to HT, and 40% when compared to FF IMRT. RA also reduced the mean MUs by 77% when compared to HT, and by 22% compared to FF IMRT. All modalities can be delivered accurately, with mean QA pass rates over 97%. For peripheral lung SBRT treatments, HT performed better dosimetrically, reducing maximum rib dose, as well as improving dose conformity and uniformity. RA and FF IMRT plan quality was equivalent to HT for patients with minimal or no overlap of the PTV with the chest wall, but was reduced for patients with a larger overlap. RA and IMRT were equivalent, but the reduced treatment times of RA make it a more efficient modality.

  11. Lung function in Indian twin children: comparison of genetic versus environmental influence.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, S; Das, N

    1995-01-01

    The relative contributions of genetic and environmental components in the variability of lung function measurements were studied in 54 twin pairs. Thirty pairs of monozygote (MZ) twins and 24 pairs of dizygotic (DZ) twins were examined. All measurements were made with 9-litre closed-circuit-type expirographs using standard spirometric techniques, except for peak expiratory flow rate (PFER) which was recorded with a Wright peak flow meter. Within-pair variances for inspiratory capacity (IC), vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced mid-expiratory flow (FEV25-75%), forced end-expiratory flow (FEF75-85%), maximum expiratory flow (FEF200-1200ml), forced maximum voluntary ventilation MVVF) and PEFR were significantly smaller (p < 0.01) in MZ twins than in DZ twins. Tidal volume (VT), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of forced vital capacity (FEV1%), and forced expiratory time (FET) were not significantly different. Within-pair correlations were all higher in MZ than DZ twins. All measurements except for VT and PEFR showed high levels of heritability (23-99%). All measurements were positively and significantly correlated with physical characteristics such as weight, standing height, surface area, arm-span, chest circumference and age, except FEV1% and FET. Residual values adjusted for physical characteristics showed similar results to unadjusted values in most cases. These data indicate that major lung function measurements are possibly influenced more by genetic than environmental factors. Genetically influenced measurements show higher levels of heritability estimates and suggest that genetic determination of lung function is possibly independent of the influence of physical characteristics.

  12. Comparison between CT tumor size and pathological tumor size in frozen section examinations of lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isaka, Tetsuya; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Naoko; Watanabe, Masato; Imai, Kentaro; Nishii, Teppei; Woo, Tetsukan; Yamada, Kouzo; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Masuda, Munetaka

    2014-07-01

    We examined the appropriate measurement for pathological tumor size by comparing radiological and pathological tumor size of resected lung adenocarcinoma in FSE. We reviewed records of 59 resected specimens of lung adenocarcinoma for FSE from January to December 2008. Specimens were well-inflated with saline by using an injector before cutting into segments. After selecting the tumor segment of maximal diameter, we compared three ways of measuring pathological tumor size by using paired t-test: (I) macroscopic tumor size (MTS), measured with a metal straight ruler, (II) microscopic frozen section tumor size (FSTS), and (III) microscopic paraffin section tumor size (PSTS). We compared each discrepancy rate (DR) [DR=(CT tumor size-pathological tumor size)/CT tumor size×100] (%) between tumors that were air-containing type and solid-density type on CT scans, and also compared the tumors with lepidic component rates (LCR) ≥50% and LCR <50%, by using Mann-Whitney U-tests. FSE could diagnose malignancy with 100% accuracy. The mean CT tumor size was 18.36mm, and the mean pathological tumor sizes (MTS, FSTS, and PSTS) were 17.81, 14.29, and 14.23mm, respectively. FSTS and PSTS were significantly smaller than CT tumor size (p<0.001). The DR calculated with PSTS was significantly larger in air-containing than in solid-density tumors, and also larger in LCR ≥50% than in LCR <50% tumors. FSE with the inflation method diagnosed malignancy with 100% accuracy. The lung specimen must be sufficiently inflated to prevent tissue shrinking, and we propose MTS as the definition for pathological tumor size in FSE. The greater discordance observed between CT tumor size and microscopic tumor size was assumed to be due to shrinkage of the lepidic component in the tumor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CT image construction of a totally deflated lung using deformable model extrapolation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi Naini, Ali; Pierce, Greg; Lee, Ting-Yim; and others

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: A novel technique is proposed to construct CT image of a totally deflated lung from a free-breathing 4D-CT image sequence acquired preoperatively. Such a constructed CT image is very useful in performing tumor ablative procedures such as lung brachytherapy. Tumor ablative procedures are frequently performed while the lung is totally deflated. Deflating the lung during such procedures renders preoperative images ineffective for targeting the tumor. Furthermore, the problem cannot be solved using intraoperative ultrasound (U.S.) images because U.S. images are very sensitive to small residual amount of air remaining in the deflated lung. One possible solution to address these issues is to register high quality preoperative CT images of the deflated lung with their corresponding low quality intraoperative U.S. images. However, given that such preoperative images correspond to an inflated lung, such CT images need to be processed to construct CT images pertaining to the lung's deflated state. Methods: To obtain the CT images of deflated lung, we present a novel image construction technique using extrapolated deformable registration to predict the deformation the lung undergoes during full deflation. The proposed construction technique involves estimating the lung's air volume in each preoperative image automatically in order to track the respiration phase of each 4D-CT image throughout a respiratory cycle; i.e., the technique does not need any external marker to form a respiratory signal in the process of curve fitting and extrapolation. The extrapolated deformation field is then applied on a preoperative reference image in order to construct the totally deflated lung's CT image. The technique was evaluated experimentally using ex vivo porcine lung. Results: The ex vivo lung experiments led to very encouraging results. In comparison with the CT image of the deflated lung we acquired for the purpose of validation, the constructed CT image was very similar. The

  14. Comparison of impulse osillometry system and spirometry for diagnosis of obstructive lung disorders.

    PubMed

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Amra, Babak; Eshaghian, Afrooz; Fardad, Shahriar; Asadian, Assadolah; Roshanzamir, Tooraj; Akbari, Mojtaba; Golshan, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive lung disease is a growing health problem, especially in developed countries. This study aimed to compare Impulse Osillometry System (IOS) and Spirometry for evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and asthma. The study groups contained 87 healthy people, 87 asthmatic patients and 56 COPD patients. Spirometry (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) and IOS (R5, R20, X5) measurements were performed for all the healthy subjects and patients. The results of IOS were compared with spirometric results. Significant differences were detected among the 3 groups (control, COPD and asthma) in terms of all the spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) and some parameters of IOS (R5,R20,X5) measurements (p<0.05). Among COPD patients, sensitivity for X5 (the best value of IOS measurements in the COPD group) was 76%. Also, in asthmatic patients, sensitivity for R20 (the best value of IOS measurements in the asthma group) was 77%. We found a correlation between R5, R20 and X5 with FEV1 in asthmatic patients, but only R5 had this correlation with FEV1 in COPD patients. We concluded that IOS can be an alternative for spirometry in the diagnosis of obstructive lung disease in patients with minimal cooperation. R5 can represent COPD severity.

  15. In silico comparison of photons versus carbon ions in single fraction therapy of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderle, Kristjan; Stroom, Joep; Pimentel, Nuno; Greco, Carlo; Durante, Marco; Graeff, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Stereotactic body image guided radiation therapy (SBRT) shows good results for lung cancer treatment. Better normal tissue sparing might be achieved with scanned carbon ion therapy (PT). Therefore an in silico trial was conducted to find potential advantages of and patients suited for PT. For 19 patients treated with SBRT, PT plans were calculated on 4D-CTs with simulated breathing motion. Prescribed single fraction dose was 24Gy and OAR constraints used for photon planning were respected. Motion was mitigated by rescanning and range-adapted ITVs. Doses were compared to the original SBRT plans. CTV coverage was the same in SBRT and PT. The field-specific PTV including range margins for PT was 1.5 (median, 25-75% 1.3-2.1) times larger than for SBRT. Nevertheless, maximum point dose and mean dose in OARs were higher in SBRT by 2.8 (1.6-3.7) Gy and 0.7 (0.3-1.6) Gy, respectively. Patients with a CTV >2.5cc or with multiple lung lesions showed larger differences in OAR doses in favor of PT. Patients receive less dose in critical OARs such as heart, spinal cord, esophagus, trachea and aorta with PT, while maintaining the same target coverage. Patients with multiple or larger lesions are particularly suited for PT. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Apples and pears? A comparison of two sources of national lung cancer audit data in England

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Ruth H.; Vernon, Sally; Dickinson, Rosie; Wood, Natasha; Harden, Susan; Beckett, Paul; Woolhouse, Ian; Hubbard, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, the method of data collection from NHS trusts in England for the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) was changed from a bespoke dataset called LUCADA (Lung Cancer Data). Under the new contract, data are submitted via the Cancer Outcome and Service Dataset (COSD) system and linked additional cancer registry datasets. In 2014, trusts were given opportunity to submit LUCADA data as well as registry data. 132 NHS trusts submitted LUCADA data, and all 151 trusts submitted COSD data. This transitional year therefore provided the opportunity to compare both datasets for data completeness and reliability. We linked the two datasets at the patient level to assess the completeness of key patient and treatment variables. We also assessed the interdata agreement of these variables using Cohen's kappa statistic, κ. We identified 26 001 patients in both datasets. Overall, the recording of sex, age, performance status and stage had more than 90% agreement between datasets, but there were more patients with missing performance status in the registry dataset. Although levels of agreement for surgery, chemotherapy and external-beam radiotherapy were high between datasets, the new COSD system identified more instances of active treatment. There seems to be a high agreement of data between the datasets, and the findings suggest that the registry dataset coupled with COSD provides a richer dataset than LUCADA. However, it lagged behind LUCADA in performance status recording, which needs to improve over time. PMID:28748189

  17. Comparison of changes in hemodynamics between unilateral and bilateral lung volume reduction for pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, K; Haraguchi, S; Akiyama, H; Hirata, T; Hirai, K; Mikami, I; Tanaka, S

    2001-10-01

    This study was aimed to compare changes in hemodynamics between unilateral (UL) or simultaneous bilateral (BL) lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for chronic obstructive lung disease. Sixteen patients underwent LVRS by stapler resection with neodymium: yttrium-alminum-garnet (Nd: YAG) laser ablation; five underwent BL-LVRS (four by median sternotomy and one by thoracoscopy) and 11 underwent UL-LVRS by thoracoscopy. Four patients had multiple bullae within pulmonary emphysema. At preoperation and 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, hemodynamics and right ventricular performance were evaluated. UL- and BL-LVRS reduced afterload of the right and left ventricle postoperatively. Although the pulmonary arterial resistance increased after surgery, the total pulmonary resistance decreased (p=0.001) in association with the reduced systemic vascular resistance (p=0.001). These reductions improved cardiopulmonary circulation, resulting in increased stroke volume and cardiac output (p=0.003). The right ventricular ejection fraction showed minimal change 48 hours postoperation. Two patients died of pneumonia caused by persistent air leakage. In conclusion, both the UL- and BL-LVRS showed similar effectiveness in terms of improvement in the systemic and cardiopulmonary circulation after LVRS, if there were no postoperative complications. We concluded that we had to reduce and repair the persistent air leakage after LVRS.

  18. Role of inflammation in the lung disease of systemic sclerosis: comparison with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Owens, G R; Paradis, I L; Gryzan, S; Medsger, T A; Follansbee, W P; Klein, H A; Dauber, J H

    1986-03-01

    Alveolar inflammation is thought to underlie the development of pulmonary fibrosis in several forms of diffuse lung disease including the connective tissue diseases. The relationship between inflammation and the clinical manifestations of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), such as skin and lung involvement, is less clear. We therefore evaluated 14 never-smoking patients with systemic sclerosis with pulmonary involvement by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and compared the results with those found in eight nonsmoking patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and eight normal subjects. The patients with scleroderma also underwent gallium citrate Ga 67 scanning. We found that patients with scleroderma and pulmonary involvement have alveolitis that appears to wane with time. In addition, patients with systemic sclerosis have a cellular profile in lavage fluid that appears to differ from that of patients with IPF. Finally, we found a significant correlation between BAL cellular recovery and the single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity in patients with systemic sclerosis but not in patients with IPF. We conclude that inflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary disease of scleroderma and that different mechanisms may lead to fibrosis in IPF and scleroderma.

  19. Comparison of Impulse Osillometry System and Spirometry for Diagnosis of Obstructive Lung Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Eshaghian, Afrooz; Fardad, Shahriar; Asadian, Assadolah; Roshanzamir, Tooraj; Akbari, Mojtaba; Golshan, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background Obstructive lung disease is a growing health problem, especially in developed countries. This study aimed to compare Impulse Osillometry System (IOS) and Spirometry for evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and asthma. Materials and Methods The study groups contained 87 healthy people, 87 asthmatic patients and 56 COPD patients. Spirometry (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) and IOS (R5, R20, X5) measurements were performed for all the healthy subjects and patients. The results of IOS were compared with spirometric results. Results Significant differences were detected among the 3 groups (control, COPD and asthma) in terms of all the spirometric parameters (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) and some parameters of IOS (R5,R20,X5) measurements (p<0.05). Among COPD patients, sensitivity for X5 (the best value of IOS measurements in the COPD group) was 76%. Also, in asthmatic patients, sensitivity for R20 (the best value of IOS measurements in the asthma group) was 77%. We found a correlation between R5, R20 and X5 with FEV1 in asthmatic patients, but only R5 had this correlation with FEV1 in COPD patients. Conclusion We concluded that IOS can be an alternative for spirometry in the diagnosis of obstructive lung disease in patients with minimal cooperation. R5 can represent COPD severity. PMID:25191346

  20. Evaluation and comparison of New 4DCT based strategies for proton treatment planning for lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate different strategies for proton lung treatment planning based on four-dimensional CT (4DCT) scans. Methods and Materials Twelve cases, involving only gross tumor volumes (GTV), were evaluated. Single image sets of (1) maximum intensity projection (MIP3) of end inhale (EI), middle exhale (ME) and end exhale (EE) images; (2) average intensity projection (AVG) of all phase images; and (3) EE images from 4DCT scans were selected as primary images for proton treatment planning. Internal target volumes (ITVs) outlined by a clinician were imported into MIP3, AVG, and EE images as planning targets. Initially, treatment uncertainties were not included in planning. Each plan was imported into phase images of 4DCT scans. Relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and mean ipsilateral lung dose of a phase image obtained by averaging the dose in inspiration and expiration phases were used to evaluate the quality of a plan for a particular case. For comparing different planning strategies, the mean of the averaged relative volumes of GTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and its standard deviation for each planning strategy for all cases were used. Then, treatment uncertainties were included in planning. Each plan was recalculated in phase images of 4DCT scans. Same strategies were used for plan evaluation except dose-volume histograms of the planning target volumes (PTVs) instead of GTVs were used and the mean and standard deviation of the relative volumes of PTVs covered by 95% of prescribed dose and the ipsilateral lung dose were used to compare different planning strategies. Results MIP3 plans without treatment uncertainties yielded 96.7% of the mean relative GTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 5.7% for all cases). With treatment uncertainties, MIP3 plans yielded 99.5% of mean relative PTV covered by 95% of prescribed dose (standard deviations of 0.7%). Inclusion of treatment uncertainties improved PTV dose

  1. Differential Transcriptomic Analysis of Spontaneous Lung Tumors in B6C3F1 Mice: Comparison to Human Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pandiri, Arun R.; Sills, Robert C.; Ziglioli, Vincent; Ton, Thai-Vu T.; Hong, Hue–Hua L.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.; Gerrish, Kevin E.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Shockley, Keith R.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in people and is mainly due to environmental factors such as smoking and radon. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) tests various chemicals and mixtures for their carcinogenic hazard potential. In the NTP chronic bioassay using B6C3F1 mice, the incidence of lung tumors in treated and control animals is second only to the liver tumors. In order to study the molecular mechanisms of chemically induced lung tumors, an understanding of the genetic changes that occur in spontaneous lung (SL) tumors from untreated control animals is needed. The authors have evaluated the differential transcriptomic changes within SL tumors compared to normal lungs from untreated age-matched animals. Within SL tumors, several canonical pathways associated with cancer (eukaryotic initiation factor 2 signaling, RhoA signaling, PTEN signaling, and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling), metabolism (Inositol phosphate metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and purine and pyramidine metabolism), and immune responses (FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, interleukin 8 signaling, and CXCR4 signaling) were altered. Meta-analysis of murine SL tumors and human non–small cell lung cancer transcriptomic data sets revealed a high concordance. These data provide important information on the differential transcriptomic changes in murine SL tumors that will be critical to our understanding of chemically induced lung tumors and will aid in hazard analysis in the NTP 2-year carcinogenicity bioassays. PMID:22688403

  2. Blood gas and hematological changes in experimental peracute porcine pleuropneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Kiorpes, A L; MacWilliams, P S; Schenkman, D I; Bäckström, L R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of experimental, peracute, porcine pleuropneumonia on arterial blood gases, acid base status, the leukogram, and gross and microscopic lung structure was studied in nine growing pigs (mean weight +/- SD 10.6 +/- 2.0 kg). Pigs were inoculated intranasally with a virulent serotype 5 isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and all showed signs typical of the disease within four hours. Death occurred in all pigs from 4.5 to 32 hours postinoculation (mean 14 hours). Gross and microscopic changes were typical of porcine pleuropneumonia in all pigs. Changes in the leukogram included a rapid decline in total white cells, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. Pigs maintained alveolar ventilation throughout the study as arterial CO2 tension was unchanged; however, arterial O2 tension and pH decreased from (mean +/- SD) 95.2 +/- 5.7 torr and 7.463 +/- 0.018 at baseline to 62.1 +/- 12.3 torr and 7.388 +/- 0.045, respectively, within 90 minutes prior to death. The data showed that in this model of peracute porcine pleuropneumonia, progressive ventilatory failure was not a feature of the disease, and the blood gas values and acid base status were maintained within physiological ranges. The histopathological hematological and physiological findings were consistent with the hypothesis that peracute porcine pleuropneumonia resembles septic shock. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2106382

  3. Preliminary clinical experience with a dedicated interventional robotic system for CT-guided biopsies of lung lesions: a comparison with the conventional manual technique.

    PubMed

    Anzidei, Michele; Argirò, Renato; Porfiri, Andrea; Boni, Fabrizio; Anile, Marco; Zaccagna, Fulvio; Vitolo, Domenico; Saba, Luca; Napoli, Alessandro; Leonardi, Andrea; Longo, Flavia; Venuta, Federico; Bezzi, Mario; Catalano, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Evaluate the performance of a robotic system for CT-guided lung biopsy in comparison to the conventional manual technique. One hundred patients referred for CT-guided lung biopsy were randomly assigned to group A (robot-assisted procedure) or group B (conventional procedure). Size, distance from entry point and position in lung of target lesions were evaluated to assess homogeneity differences between the two groups. Procedure duration, dose length product (DLP), precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were evaluated to assess the clinical performance of the robotic system as compared to the conventional technique. All biopsies were successfully performed. The size (p = 0.41), distance from entry point (p = 0.86) and position in lung (p = 0.32) of target lesions were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Procedure duration and radiation dose were significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (p = 0.001). Precision of needle positioning, diagnostic performance of the biopsy and rate of complications were similar in both groups (p = 0.05). Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy can be performed safely and with high diagnostic accuracy, reducing procedure duration and radiation dose in comparison to the conventional manual technique. • CT-guided biopsy is the main procedure to obtain diagnosis in lung tumours. • The robotic device facilitates percutaneous needle placement under CT guidance. • Robot-assisted CT-guided lung biopsy reduces procedure duration and radiation dose.

  4. Comparison of the efficacy of autogenous inactivated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) vaccines with that of commercial vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenges.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, Marc F; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Breedam, Wander; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2012-10-03

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving pathogen of swine. At present, there is a high demand for safe and more effective vaccines that can be adapted regularly to emerging virus variants. A recent study showed that, by the use of a controlled inactivation procedure, an experimental BEI-inactivated PRRSV vaccine can be developed that offers partial protection against homologous challenge with the prototype strain LV. At present, it is however not known if this vaccine can be adapted to currently circulating virus variants. In this study, two recent PRRSV field isolates (07 V063 and 08 V194) were used for BEI-inactivated vaccine production. The main objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of these experimental BEI-inactivated vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenge and to compare it with an experimental LV-based BEI-inactivated vaccine and commercial inactivated and attenuated vaccines. In addition, the induction of challenge virus-specific (neutralizing) antibodies by the different vaccines was assessed. In a first experiment (challenge with 07 V063), vaccination with the experimental homologous (07 V063) inactivated vaccine shortened the viremic phase upon challenge with approximately 2 weeks compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. Vaccination with the commercial attenuated vaccines reduced the duration of viremia with approximately one week compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. In contrast, the experimental heterologous (LV) inactivated vaccine and the commercial inactivated vaccine did not influence viremia. Interestingly, both the homologous and the heterologous experimental inactivated vaccine induced 07 V063-specific neutralizing antibodies upon vaccination, while the commercial inactivated and attenuated vaccines failed to do so.In the second experiment (challenge with 08 V194), use of the experimental homologous (08 V194) inactivated vaccine shortened viremia upon

  5. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  6. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  7. Comparison of the sensitivity of three lung derived cell lines to metals from combustion derived particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Riley, Mark R; Boesewetter, Dianne E; Turner, Rachael A; Kim, Aana M; Collier, Jayne M; Hamilton, Amy

    2005-04-01

    While the effects of inhalation of combustion-derived particulate matter have received extensive study, there remains no reliable means to rapidly quantify inhalation toxicity outside of a laboratory setting. Cell-based biosensors provide a potential solution, but few comparisons have been made of the sensitivity of various cell lines to the wide range of inhalation health hazards that are likely to be encountered. This work compares the response of three immortalized lung cell lines (A549 human epithelia, RLE-6TN rat type II epithelia, and NR8383 rat alveolar macrophages) to metals commonly present in combustion-derived particulate matter. Quantifications of the cell response involved measurement of inhibition of cell culture metabolism (mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity) and cell death (release of lactate dehydrogenase). While these three cell types generally ranked metals in ED50 values similarly (Vcomparison of the sensitivity of three cell types provides a basis for selection of cell types for use in cell-based biosensors.

  8. [Bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted porcine surfactant for alveolar debris removal in newborns treated with mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Lista, G; Castoldi, F; Azzali, A; Compagnoni, G

    2000-01-01

    Lung debris in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) contribute to deteriorate pulmonary function. Surfactant lavage, also with minimal quantity of diluted surfactant, is an effective method for treatment of severe MAS and seems to be useful also in course of RDS evolving to chronic lung disease (CLD), by improving lung mechanics. Authors report a clinical study in which tracheobronchial lavage with surfactant (15 ml/Kg of diluted porcine surfactant) improved significantly lung function in 3 patients with RDS in prolonged mechanical ventilation and in 2 patients with MAS.

  9. Reduction of total lung capacity in obese men: comparison of total intrathoracic and gas volumes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, R. A.; Thomas, E. Louise; Fitzpatrick, J.; Durighel, G.; McCarthy, J.; Morin, S. X.; Ind, P. W.; Bell, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Restriction of total lung capacity (TLC) is found in some obese subjects, but the mechanism is unclear. Two hypotheses are as follows: 1) increased abdominal volume prevents full descent of the diaphragm; and 2) increased intrathoracic fat reduces space for full lung expansion. We have measured total intrathoracic volume at full inflation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 asymptomatic obese men [mean age 52 yr, body mass index (BMI) 35–45 kg/m2] and 7 control men (mean age 50 yr, BMI 22–27 kg/m2). MRI volumes were compared with gas volumes at TLC. All measurements were made with subjects supine. Obese men had smaller functional residual capacity (FRC) and FRC-to-TLC ratio than control men. There was a 12% predicted difference in mean TLC between obese (84% predicted) and control men (96% predicted). In contrast, differences in total intrathoracic volume (MRI) at full inflation were only 4% predicted TLC (obese 116% predicted TLC, control 120% predicted TLC), because mediastinal volume was larger in obese than in control [heart and major vessels (obese 1.10 liter, control 0.87 liter, P = 0.016) and intrathoracic fat (obese 0.68 liter, control 0.23 liter, P < 0.0001)]. As a consequence of increased mediastinal volume, intrathoracic volume at FRC in obese men was considerably larger than indicated by the gas volume at FRC. The difference in gas volume at TLC between the six obese men with restriction, TLC < 80% predicted (OR), and the eight obese men with TLC > 80% predicted (ON) was 26% predicted TLC. Mediastinal volume was similar in OR (1.84 liter) and ON (1.73 liter), but total intrathoracic volume was 19% predicted TLC smaller in OR than in ON. We conclude that the major factor restricting TLC in some obese men was reduced thoracic expansion at full inflation. PMID:20299612

  10. [Comparison of 51 element contents in normal human lung tissue over twenty years].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Ouyang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Ya-Qiong; Xie, Qing; Chu, Hong-Da; Wu, Quan; Fan, Ti-Qiang; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Changes in content and distribution of elements in human tissues may reflect changes in environmental backgrounds, and are closely related to human health. To investigate the change in element background in normal lung tissue in different stage, we used ICP-MS, ICP-AES and GFAAS to determine 51 element contents in normal human lung samples of 1982-83 year (n = 7) and compare with those of 2004-05 year (n = 16). Samples were from healthy male adults who died suddenly, and were treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion method. The results show that the contents of 23 elements (Na, Mg, P, K, As, Mo, Ag, Ba, Bi, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu) are significantly higher, and 6 elements (Zn, Ga, Ge, Se, Au and Zr) are significantly lower in the 2004-05 samples than those in the 1982-83 samples. This difference would be related to the changes in environmental backgrounds and people's living habit during twenty years. The distinctive decrease in contents of the 2004-05 samples for most measured rare earth elements (REEs) may be due to more rational usage of REEs in present, while were the soil and corps were largely abused in 1980s in China. The significant increase in contents of some useful micro-elements (Zn and Se ) in the present samples maybe because of the increased intake of these elements as people own more health consciousness. Besides, the increased contents of heavy metal Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni in the present samples may be related to the deterioration of air quality as industrialization course. More than half of measured elements have been significantly changed over twenty years, indicating that some normal value ranges of element contents should be adjusted according to the difference.

  11. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tissue: In Vivo Experimental Comparison of Microwave and Radiofrequency

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, Laura Bozzi, Elena; Faviana, Pinuccia; Cioni, Dania; Della Pina, Clotilde; Sbrana, Alberto; Fontanini, Gabriella; Lencioni, Riccardo

    2010-08-15

    This study was designed to compare feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation versus radiofrequency (RF) ablation of lung tissue in a rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were submitted to MW (n = 10, group A) or RF ablation (n = 10, group B). The procedures were performed with a prototype MW ablation device with a 1.6-cm radiating section antenna (Valleylab MW Ablation System) and with a 2-cm exposed-tip RF electrode (Cool-tip RF Ablation System). At immediate computed tomography increase in density, maximum diameters (D1-D3) of ablation zones were measured and ablation volume was calculated. Histopathologic assessment was performed 3 and 7 days after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in nine of 10 rabbits in each group. One death occurred in group B. Complications included pneumothorax (group A, n = 4; group B, n = 4), abscess (group A, n = 1; group B, n = 1), and thoracic wall burn (group A, n = 4). No significant differences were demonstrated in attenuation increase (P = 0.73), dimensions (P = 0.28, 0.86, 0.06, respectively, comparing D1-D3) and volume (P = 0.17). At histopathology, ablation zones were similar, with septal necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete thrombosis of more than 90% of vessels up to 2 mm in diameter was depicted at the periphery of the ablation zone in group A specimens. In group B specimens, complete thrombosis was depicted in 20% of vessels. Feasibility and safety of MW and RF ablation are similar in a lung rabbit model. MW ablation produces a greater damage to peripheral small vessels inducing thrombosis.

  12. Comparison of Suction Versus Nonsuction Drainage After Lung Resections: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Gocyk, Wojciech; Kużdżał, Jarosław; Włodarczyk, Janusz; Grochowski, Zbigniew; Gil, Tomasz; Warmus, Janusz; Kocoń, Piotr; Talar, Piotr; Obarski, Piotr; Trybalski, Łukasz

    2016-10-01

    Sufficiently large, prospective randomized trials comparing suction drainage and nonsuction drainage are lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of suction drainage and nonsuction drainage on the postoperative course in patients who have undergone lung resection. This prospective, randomized trial included patients undergoing different types of lung resections. On the day of surgery, suction drainage at -20 cm H2O was used. On the morning of the first postoperative day, patients, in whom the pulmonary parenchyma was fully reexpanded, were randomized in the ratio of 1:1. Patients assigned to group A continued with suction drainage, while those assigned to group B underwent nonsuction drainage. The study included 254 patients, with 127 patients in each group. The drainage volumes were 1098.8 mL and 814.4 mL in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.0014). The times to chest tube removal were 5.61 days and 4.49 days in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.0014). Prolonged air leakage occurred in 5.55% of patients in group A and in 0.7% of patients in group B (p = 0.032), and asymptomatic residual air spaces were noted in 0.8% of patients in group A and 9.4% of patients in group B (p = 0.0018). Nonsuction drainage is more effective than suction drainage with regard to drainage volume, drainage duration, and incidence of persistent air leakage. However, it is associated with a higher incidence of asymptomatic residual air spaces. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of measured and estimated maximum skin doses during CT fluoroscopy lung biopsies

    SciTech Connect

    Zanca, F.; Jacobs, A.; Crijns, W.; De Wever, W.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To measure patient-specific maximum skin dose (MSD) associated with CT fluoroscopy (CTF) lung biopsies and to compare measured MSD with the MSD estimated from phantom measurements, as well as with the CTDIvol of patient examinations. Methods: Data from 50 patients with lung lesions who underwent a CT fluoroscopy-guided biopsy were collected. The CT protocol consisted of a low-kilovoltage (80 kV) protocol used in combination with an algorithm for dose reduction to the radiology staff during the interventional procedure, HandCare (HC). MSD was assessed during each intervention using EBT2 gafchromic films positioned on patient skin. Lesion size, position, total fluoroscopy time, and patient-effective diameter were registered for each patient. Dose rates were also estimated at the surface of a normal-size anthropomorphic thorax phantom using a 10 cm pencil ionization chamber placed at every 30°, for a full rotation, with and without HC. Measured MSD was compared with MSD values estimated from the phantom measurements and with the cumulative CTDIvol of the procedure. Results: The median measured MSD was 141 mGy (range 38–410 mGy) while the median cumulative CTDIvol was 72 mGy (range 24–262 mGy). The ratio between the MSD estimated from phantom measurements and the measured MSD was 0.87 (range 0.12–4.1) on average. In 72% of cases the estimated MSD underestimated the measured MSD, while in 28% of the cases it overestimated it. The same trend was observed for the ratio of cumulative CTDIvol and measured MSD. No trend was observed as a function of patient size. Conclusions: On average, estimated MSD from dose rate measurements on phantom as well as from CTDIvol of patient examinations underestimates the measured value of MSD. This can be attributed to deviations of the patient's body habitus from the standard phantom size and to patient positioning in the gantry during the procedure.

  14. Comparison of human lung cancer cell radiosensitivity after irradiations with therapeutic protons and carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Keta, Otilija D; Todorović, Danijela V; Bulat, Tanja M; Cirrone, Pablo Ga; Romano, Francesco; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan M; Ristić Fira, Aleksandra M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of irradiations with the therapeutic proton and carbon ion beams in two non-small cell lung cancers, CRL5876 adenocarcinoma and HTB177 large cell lung carcinoma. The DNA damage response dynamics, cell cycle regulation, and cell death pathway activation were followed. Viability of both cell lines was lower after carbon ions compared to the therapeutic proton irradiations. HTB177 cells showed higher recovery than CRL5876 cells seven days following the treatments, but the survival rates of both cell lines were lower after exposure to carbon ions with respect to therapeutic protons. When analyzing cell cycle distribution of both CRL5876 and HTB177 cells, it was noticed that therapeutic protons predominantly induced G1 arrest, while the cells after carbon ions were arrested in G2/M phase. The results illustrated that differences in the levels of phosphorylated H2AX, a double-strand break marker, exist after therapeutic proton and carbon ion irradiations. We also observed dose- and time-dependent increase in the p53 and p21 levels after applied irradiations. Carbon ions caused larger increase in the quantity of p53 and p21 compared to therapeutic protons. These results suggested that various repair mechanisms were induced in the treated cells. Considering the fact that we have not observed any distinct change in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio following irradiations, it seemed that different types of cell death were involved in the response to the two types of irradiations that were applied.

  15. Comparison of FDG-PET findings of brain metastasis from non-small-cell lung cancer and small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Young; Chung, June-Key; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Dong Gyu; Jung, Hee Won; Lee, Myung Chul

    2008-05-01

    We compared the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings of brain metastasis between patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A whole-body FDG and a brain PET were performed in 48 patients (31 men, 17 women; 57 +/- 9 years, 42 NSCLC, 6 SCLC), who had brain metastasis on magnetic resonance (MR). All primary lung lesions were detected by FDG-PET and confirmed pathologically. We analyzed the PET findings, lesion sizes, and the pathological result of primary lung cancer. Of the 48 patients, 31 (64.6%) showed hypermetabolic lesions on FDG-PET of the brain image, and 14 (29.2%) showed hypometabolic lesions. Three patients (6.3%) had both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic lesions. On the lesion-based analysis, 74 lesions (67.3%) showed hypermetabolism on FDG-PET, and 36 lesions (32.7%) showed hypometabolism. All primary lung lesions were hypermetabolic on FDG-PET. When the FDG findings of metastatic brain lesions were analyzed with the pathological types of primary lung cancer, NSCLC was more frequently associated with hypermetabolic metastatic brain lesions than SCLC (80% and 26.7%, respectively, P < 0.01). On comparing the sizes of metastatic lesions between SCLC (1.3 +/- 1.2 cm) and NSCLC (1.8 +/- 1.2 cm), lesions of <1 cm were more frequent in SCLC than in NSCLC (P = 0.012). But no significant relationship was found between the size and PET finding of metastatic lesion (P = 0.412). Even when the primary lesion of lung cancer showed hypermetabolism in FDG-PET, FDG accumulation in metastatic brain lesions was variable. One-third of brain metastases from lung cancer showed hypometabolism. NSCLC was more frequently associated with hypermetabolic metastatic brain lesions than SCLC. The PET findings of brain lesions were affected not only by the size of lesion but also by its biological characteristics.

  16. Fetal lung interstitial tumor: the first Japanese case report and a comparison with fetal lung tissue and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mariko; Tanaka, Mio; Gomi, Kiyoshi; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Dehner, Louis P; Tanaka, Yukichi

    2013-10-01

    Fetal lung interstitial tumor, a newly recognized lung lesion in infants, was first reported in 2010. Here, we report the first Japanese case of fetal lung interstitial tumor which was originally diagnosed as atypical congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. A 7-day-old girl was referred to our hospital with respiratory distress and a left lung mass and she subsequently underwent left lower lobectomy. The specimen showed a 5 cm solid mass with a fibrous capsule. Histological examination revealed immature airspaces and interstitium, containing bronchioles and cartilage. The epithelial and interstitial cells contained abundant glycogen granules. Immunohistochemistry showed nuclear/cytoplasmic expression of β-catenin in the epithelial and interstitial cells. β-catenin gene mutations and trisomy 8 were not detected, so a neoplastic origin could not be confirmed. The histological findings were partly consistent with normal fetal lung at the canalicular stage, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation/congenital pulmonary airway malformation type 3. In this report, we compare the above conditions and discuss the pathogenesis of fetal lung interstitial tumor. © 2013 The Authors. Pathology International © 2013 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Comparison of radiation-induced normal lung tissue density changes for patients from multiple institutions receiving conventional or hypofractionated treatments.

    PubMed

    Diot, Quentin; Marks, Lawrence B; Bentzen, Soren M; Senan, Suresh; Kavanagh, Brian D; Lawrence, Michael V; Miften, Moyed; Palma, David A

    2014-07-01

    To quantitatively assess changes in computed tomography (CT)-defined normal lung tissue density after conventional and hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). The pre-RT and post-RT CT scans from 118 and 111 patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT, respectively, at 3 institutions were registered to each other and to the 3-dimensional dose distribution to quantify dose-dependent changes in normal lung tissue density. Dose-response curves (DRC) for groups of patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT were generated for each institution, and the frequency of density changes >80 Hounsfield Units (HU) was modeled depending on the fractionation type using a Probit model for different follow-up times. For the pooled data from all institutions, there were significant differences in the DRC between the conventional and hypofractionated groups; the respective doses resulting in 50% complication risk (TD50) were 62 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI] 57-67) versus 36 Gy (CI 33-39) at <6 months, 48 Gy (CI 46-51) versus 31 Gy (CI 28-33) at 6-12 months, and 47 Gy (CI 45-49) versus 35 Gy (32-37) at >12 months. The corresponding m values (slope of the DRC) were 0.52 (CI 0.46-0.59) versus 0.31 (CI 0.28-0.34) at <6 months, 0.46 (CI 0.42-0.51) versus 0.30 (CI 0.26-0.34) at 6-12 months, and 0.45 (CI 0.42-0.50) versus 0.31 (CI 0.27-0.35) at >12 months (P<.05 for all comparisons). Compared with conventional fractionation, hypofractionation has a lower TD50 and m value, both suggesting an increased degree of normal tissue density sensitivity with hypofractionation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): A comparison of different size metrics for pulmonary nodule measurements

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Anthony P.; Biancardi, Alberto M.; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V.; Meyer, Charles R.; MacMahon, Heber; van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Yankelevitz, David; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Armato, Samuel G.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Aberle, Denise R.; Croft, Barbara Y.; Clarke, Laurence P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives To investigate the effects of choosing between different metrics in estimating the size of pulmonary nodules as a factor both of nodule characterization and of performance of computer aided detection systems, since the latters are always qualified with respect to a given size range of nodules. Materials and Methods This study used 265 whole-lung CT scans documented by the Lung Image Database Consortium using their protocol for nodule evaluation. Each inspected lesion was reviewed independently by four experienced radiologists who provided boundary markings for nodules larger than 3 mm. Four size metrics, based on the boundary markings, were considered: a uni-dimensional and two bi-dimensional measures on a single image slice and a volumetric measurement based on all the image slices. The radiologist boundaries were processed and those with four markings were analyzed to characterize the inter-radiologist variation, while those with at least one marking were used to examine the difference between the metrics. Results The processing of the annotations found 127 nodules marked by all of the four radiologists and an extended set of 518 nodules each having at least one observation with three-dimensional sizes ranging from 2.03 to 29.4 mm (average 7.05 mm, median 5.71 mm). A very high inter-observer variation was observed for all these metrics: 95% of estimated standard deviations were in the following ranges [0.49, 1.25], [0.67, 2.55], [0.78, 2.11], and [0.96, 2.69] for the three-dimensional, the uni-dimensional, and the two bi-dimensional size metrics respectively (in mm). Also a very large difference among the metrics was observed: 0.95 probability-coverage region widths for the volume estimation conditional on uni-dimensional, and the two bi-dimensional size measurements of 10mm were 7.32, 7.72, and 6.29 mm respectively. Conclusions The selection of data subsets for performance evaluation is highly impacted by the size metric choice. The LIDC

  19. Accuracy of Point-of-Care B-Line Lung Ultrasound in Comparison to NT-ProBNP for Screening Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Glöckner, E.; Christ, M.; Geier, F.; Otte, P.; Thiem, U.; Neubauer, S.; Kohfeldt, V.; Singler, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this pilot study was to determine the accuracy of point-of-care B-line lung ultrasound in comparison to NT Pro-BNP for screening acute heart failure. Materials and Methods: An 8-zone lung ultrasound was performed by experienced sonographers in patients presenting with acute dyspnea in the ED. AHF was determined as the final diagnosis by 2 independent reviewers. Results: Contrary to prior studies, B-line ultrasound in our study was highly specific, but moderately sensitive for identifying patients with AHF. There was a strong association between elevated NT-proBNP levels and an increased number of B-lines. Conclusion: In conclusion, point-of-care lung ultrasound is a helpful tool for ruling in or ruling out important differential diagnoses in ED patients with acute dyspnea. PMID:27689182

  20. Comparison of Chromosome 4 gene expression profile between lung telocytes and other local cell types.

    PubMed

    Song, Dongli; Cretoiu, Dragos; Zheng, Minghuan; Qian, Mengjia; Zhang, Miaomiao; Cretoiu, Sanda M; Chen, Luonan; Fang, Hao; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Wang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are new cellular entities of mesenchymal origin described almost ubiquitously in human and mammalian organs (www.telocytes.com). Different subtypes of TCs were described, all forming networks in the interstitial space by homo- and heterocellular junctions. Previous studies analysed the gene expression profiles of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 17 and 18 of murine pulmonary TCs. In this study, we analysed by bioinformatics tools the gene expression profiles of chromosome 4 for murine pulmonary TCs and compared it with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblasts (Fbs), alveolar type II cells (ATII), airway basal cells, proximal airway cells, CD8(+) T cells from bronchial lymph nodes (T-BL) and CD8(+) T cells from lungs (T-L). Key functional genes were identified with the aid of the reference library of the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus database. Seventeen genes were up-regulated and 56 genes were down-regulated in chromosome 4 of TCs compared with other cells. Four genes (Akap2, Gpr153, Sdc3 and Tbc1d2) were up-regulated between one and fourfold and one gene, Svep1, was overexpressed over fourfold. The main functional networks were identified and analysed, pointing out to a TCs involvement in cellular signalling, regulation of tissue inflammation and cell expansion and movement.

  1. Comparison of Joint Loading in Badminton Lunging between Professional and Amateur Badminton Players

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (p < 0.05, r = 0.89) and inversion joint moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.54) in the frontal plane as well as greater internal joint rotation moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.28) in the horizontal plane. In contrast, professional badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (p < 0.05, r = 0.59) and frontal (p < 0.05, r = 0.37) planes, which may be associated with increased knee ligamentous injury risk. To avoid injury, the players need to forcefully extend the knee with internal rotation, strengthen the muscles around the ankle ligament, and maximise joint coordination during training. The injuries recorded and the forces responsible for the injuries seem to have developed during training activity. Training programmes and injury prevention strategies for badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee. PMID:28694684

  2. Comparison of Joint Loading in Badminton Lunging between Professional and Amateur Badminton Players.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lin; Ren, Feng; Baker, Julien S

    2017-01-01

    The knee and ankle are the two most injured joints associated with the sport of badminton. This study evaluates biomechanical factors between professional and amateur badminton players using an injury mechanism model. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematic motion and kinetic loading differences of the right knee and ankle while performing a maximal right lunge. Amateur players exhibited greater ankle range of motion (p < 0.05, r = 0.89) and inversion joint moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.54) in the frontal plane as well as greater internal joint rotation moment (p < 0.05, r = 0.28) in the horizontal plane. In contrast, professional badminton players presented a greater knee joint moment in the sagittal (p < 0.05, r = 0.59) and frontal (p < 0.05, r = 0.37) planes, which may be associated with increased knee ligamentous injury risk. To avoid injury, the players need to forcefully extend the knee with internal rotation, strengthen the muscles around the ankle ligament, and maximise joint coordination during training. The injuries recorded and the forces responsible for the injuries seem to have developed during training activity. Training programmes and injury prevention strategies for badminton players should account for these findings to reduce potential injury to the ankle and knee.

  3. Comparison of image features calculated in different dimensions for computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Lee, Michael C.; Boroczky, Lilla; Cann, Aaron D.; Borczuk, Alain C.; Kawut, Steven M.; Powell, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Features calculated from different dimensions of images capture quantitative information of the lung nodules through one or multiple image slices. Previously published computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) systems have used either twodimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) features, though there has been little systematic analysis of the relevance of the different dimensions and of the impact of combining different dimensions. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of combining features calculated in different dimensions. We have performed CADx experiments on 125 pulmonary nodules imaged using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). The CADx system computed 192 2D, 2.5D, and 3D image features of the lesions. Leave-one-out experiments were performed using five different combinations of features from different dimensions: 2D, 3D, 2.5D, 2D+3D, and 2D+3D+2.5D. The experiments were performed ten times for each group. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used to evaluate the performance. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to compare the classification results from these five different combinations of features. Our results showed that 3D image features generate the best result compared with other combinations of features. This suggests one approach to potentially reducing the dimensionality of the CADx data space and the computational complexity of the system while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Comparison of methods for evaluation of aerosol deposition in the model of human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belka, Miloslav; Lippay, Josef; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2014-03-01

    It seems to be very convenient to receive a medicine by inhalation instead of injection. Unfortunately transport of particles and targeted delivery of a drug in human respiratory airways is very complicated task. Therefore we carried out experiments and tested different methods for evaluation of particle deposition in a model of human lungs. The model included respiratory airways from oral cavity to 7th generation of branching. Particles were dispersed by TSI Small-scale Powder Disperser 3433 and delivered to the model. The model was disassembled into segments after the deposition of the particles and local deposition was measured. Two methods were used to analyse the samples, fluorescence spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The first method was based on measuring the intensity of luminescence, which represented the particle deposition. The second method used the optical microscope with phase-contrast objective. A dispersion of isopropanol and particles was filtrated using a vacuum filtration unit, a filter was placed on glass slide and made transparent. The particles on the filter were counted manually and the deposition was calculated afterwards. The results of the methods were compared and both methods proved to be useful.

  5. Comparison of 133 xenon ventilation equilibrium scan (XV) and 99m technetium transmission (TT) scan for use in regional lung analysis by 2D gamma scintigraphy in healthy and cystic fibrosis lungs.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Kirby L; Wu, Jihong; Donaldson, Scott H; Bennett, William D

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of particle deposition in the lung by gamma scintigraphy requires a reference image for location of regions of interest (ROIs) and normalization to lung thickness. In various laboratories, the reference image is made by a transmission scan ((57)Co or (99m)Tc) or gas ventilation scan ((133)Xe or (81)Kr). There has not been a direct comparison of measures from the two methods. We compared (99m)Tc transmission scans to (133)Xe equilibrium ventilation scans as reference images for 38 healthy subjects and 14 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients for their effects on measures of regional particle deposition: the central-to-peripheral ratio of lung counts (C/P); and ROI area versus forced vital capacity. Whole right lung ROI was based on either an isocontour threshold of three times the soft tissue transmission (TT) or a threshold of 20% of peak xenon ventilation counts (XV). We used a central ROI drawn to 50% of height and of width of the whole right lung ROI and placed along the left lung margin and centered vertically. In general, the correlation of normalized C/P (nC/P) between the two methods was strong. However, the value of nC/P was significantly smaller for the XV method than the TT method. Regression equations for the relationship of nC/P between the two methods were, for healthy subjects, y=0.75x+0.61, R(2)=0.64 using rectangular ROIs and y=0.76x+0.45, R(2)=0.66 using isocontour ROIs; and for CF patients, y=0.94x+0.46, R(2)=0.43 and y=0.85x+0.42, R(2)=0.41, respectively. (1) A transmission scan with an isocontour outline in combination with a rectangular central region to define the lung borders may be more useful than a ventilation scan. (2) Close correlation of nC/Ps measured by transmission or gas ventilation should allow confident comparison of values determined by the two methods.

  6. Comparison between concentrations of amphotericin B in infected lung lesion and in uninfected lung tissue in a patient treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akira; Matsumoto, Kana; Igari, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Masaya; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nakamura, Yasutaka; Morita, Kunihiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Yoshino, Ichiro; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2010-09-01

    Generally, the primary lesion of a mold infection is in the airway, an extravascular site. Therefore, the antifungal drug concentration at the actual tissue lesion of a mold infection is as important as in the blood compartment. Although our antifungal armamentarium has expanded recently, polyenes are still often needed in clinical practice because of their potent fungicidal activity and the rarity of resistance. Nevertheless, the distribution of amphotericin B (AmB) in infected lung tissue has not yet been evaluated. Using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we determined the concentrations of AmB in plasma and infected and uninfected tissues of resected lung simultaneously, in a patient with pulmonary aspergillosis treated with liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB). The AmB concentration in the infected lesion of the lung was approximately 5.2 times higher than that in plasma and 3.7 times higher than in uninfected lung tissue. L-AmB accumulated in the infected lesion of the lung at a higher concentration. Although our data are from only one patient, they may be useful in helping to develop better strategies for the use of L-AmB against pulmonary fungal infections.

  7. A comparison of long-term retention of plutonium oxide in lung based on excretion data with observed lung burdens at autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, K.R.; Jech, J.J.; Kathren, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Experience in the nuclear industry has shown that the most frequent route for significant plutonium deposition in man is by inhalation. After an accidental inhalation exposure to plutonium oxide has occurred, an attempt is usually made to determine the lung burden using in-vivo measurement techniques. However, this will not be possible if the amount deposited is less than the detection capability of the counter. Likewise, it may not be possible for even larger intakes if they are first discovered as a results of a routine examination after much of the plutonium has transferred out of the lungs. Under these conditions, the initial lung burden and dose assessment may, of necessity, be based entirely on excretion date. This paper discusses three plutonium inhalation cases for which autopsy data are available to demonstrate the difficulties and uncertainties of such assessments and to emphasize the need for enhanced routine surveillance of the worker and work place to assure that intakes are detected at the time they occur. An in-depth review of the findings for these three cases suggests that the use of urine excretion data applied to ICRP lung model assumption will result in large uncertainties in estimates of the pulmonary burden and lung dose. These estimates will be improved if the material inhaled can be better characterized and by using clearance half times developed for the individual rather than the default values for Class Y material recommended by the ICRP.

  8. Comparison of temporal transcriptomic profiles from immature lungs of two rat strains reveals a viral response signature associated with chronic lung dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hines, Elizabeth A; Szakaly, Renee J; Leng, Ning; Webster, Anais T; Verheyden, Jamie M; Lashua, Amber J; Kendziorski, Christina; Rosenthal, Louis A; Gern, James E; Sorkness, Ronald L; Sun, Xin; Lemanske, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Early life respiratory viral infections and atopic characteristics are significant risk factors for the development of childhood asthma. It is hypothesized that repeated respiratory viral infections might induce structural remodeling by interfering with the normal process of lung maturation; however, the specific molecular processes that underlie these pathological changes are not understood. To investigate the molecular basis for these changes, we used an established Sendai virus infection model in weanling rats to compare the post-infection transcriptomes of an atopic asthma susceptible strain, Brown Norway, and a non-atopic asthma resistant strain, Fischer 344. Specific to this weanling infection model and not described in adult infection models, Sendai virus in the susceptible, but not the resistant strain, results in morphological abnormalities in distal airways that persist into adulthood. Gene expression data from infected and control lungs across five time points indicated that specific features of the immune response following viral infection were heightened and prolonged in lungs from Brown Norway rats compared with Fischer 344 rats. These features included an increase in macrophage cell number and related gene expression, which then transitioned to an increase in mast cell number and related gene expression. In contrast, infected Fischer F344 lungs exhibited more efficient restoration of the airway epithelial morphology, with transient appearance of basal cell pods near distal airways. Together, these findings indicate that the pronounced macrophage and mast cell responses and abnormal re-epithelialization precede the structural defects that developed and persisted in Brown Norway, but not Fischer 344 lungs.

  9. A comparison of maximum inspiratory and expiratory flow in health and in lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Jordanoglou, J.; Pride, N. B.

    1968-01-01

    Maximum flow-volume (M.F.-V.) curves for both inspiration and expiration have been obtained in healthy subjects and in patients with bullous emphysema, exacerbation of asthma, and with severe fibrosis of the lungs. The tracheobronchial collapse pattern on the conventional spirogram or the M.F.-V. curve appeared to be related to the severity of airways obstruction more than to the type of airways obstruction. The pattern was observed in exacerbation of asthma as well as in emphysema and occurred when forced expirations were started from low in the vital capacity in normal subjects. The expiratory M.F.-V. slope was normal or steeper than normal in fibrosis and was much lower than normal in asthma and emphysema. In patients with fibrosis maximum expiratory flow (M.E.F.) and maximum inspiratory flow (M.I.F.) at 50% of vital capacity were both reduced and the ratio between them was similar to that in healthy subjects. In both asthma and emphysema there was a low M.E.F.50%/M.I.F.50% ratio; the only patient with airways obstruction who had a normal M.E.F./M.I.F. ratio was a woman with tracheal stenosis. A theoretical analysis suggests that most forms of airways obstruction would be expected to lead to a greater impairment of M.E.F. than of M.I.F. The M.F.-V. curve did not help in distinguishing a patient with asthma from one with emphysema, but the changes in tracheal obstruction were distinctive. PMID:5637497

  10. Early prediction of neonatal chronic lung disease: a comparison of three scoring methods.

    PubMed

    Yoder, B A; Anwar, M U; Clark, R H

    1999-06-01

    A variety of postnatal therapies have been and will be evaluated for prevention or treatment of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). A simple method for early selection of the highest risk infants would optimize intervention trials. Our study compared a clinical scoring system for predicting neonatal CLD (defined at 36 weeks postconceptional age) with previous regression models developed by Sinkin et al. (Sinkin model) [Pediatrics 1990;86:728-736] and Ryan et al. (Ryan model) [Eur J Pediatr 1996;668-671] in two distinct populations. A respiratory failure score (RFS) was prospectively developed for infants at <32 weeks of gestation admitted to the Wilford Hall Medical Center from January 1990-December 1992. Logistic regression modeling identified three independent predictors of CLD: gestation, birth weight, and RFS. Applying a modified RFS score (to include gestation and birth weight), the RFS, Sinkin, and Ryan models were compared among high-risk infants admitted to Wilford Hall from January 1993-December 1995, and to Crawford Long Hospital (Atlanta, GA) from January 1993-December 1994. Predictive values, sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were determined for the primary outcome variable: CLD at 36 weeks of corrected gestation. Of 248 infants at <32 weeks admitted to Wilford Hall, 220 survived >7 days. Thirty of 31 (97%) infants diagnosed with CLD were <29 weeks or < or =1,000 g at birth. Despite important demographic and treatment differences between the study populations, similar ROC curves were found for each scoring method when individually evaluated among the three study groups. The RFS method at 72 h demonstrated the greatest area under the ROC curve for prediction of neonatal CLD in the groups as a whole. Application of the RFS method for early prediction of neonatal CLD at age 72 h should improve patient selection for early prevention trials.

  11. Volumetric analysis of lung nodules in computed tomography (CT): comparison of two different segmentation algorithm softwares and two different reconstruction filters on automated volume calculation.

    PubMed

    Christe, Andreas; Brönnimann, Alain; Vock, Peter

    2014-02-01

    A precise detection of volume change allows for better estimating the biological behavior of the lung nodules. Postprocessing tools with automated detection, segmentation, and volumetric analysis of lung nodules may expedite radiological processes and give additional confidence to the radiologists. To compare two different postprocessing software algorithms (LMS Lung, Median Technologies; LungCARE®, Siemens) in CT volumetric measurement and to analyze the effect of soft (B30) and hard reconstruction filter (B70) on automated volume measurement. Between January 2010 and April 2010, 45 patients with a total of 113 pulmonary nodules were included. The CT exam was performed on a 64-row multidetector CT scanner (Somatom Sensation, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with the following parameters: collimation, 24x1.2 mm; pitch, 1.15; voltage, 120 kVp; reference tube current-time, 100 mAs. Automated volumetric measurement of each lung nodule was performed with the two different postprocessing algorithms based on two reconstruction filters (B30 and B70). The average relative volume measurement difference (VME%) and the limits of agreement between two methods were used for comparison. At soft reconstruction filters the LMS system produced mean nodule volumes that were 34.1% (P < 0.0001) larger than those by LungCARE® system. The VME% was 42.2% with a limit of agreement between -53.9% and 138.4%.The volume measurement with soft filters (B30) was significantly larger than with hard filters (B70); 11.2% for LMS and 1.6% for LungCARE®, respectively (both with P < 0.05). LMS measured greater volumes with both filters, 13.6% for soft and 3.8% for hard filters, respectively (P < 0.01 and P > 0.05). There is a substantial inter-software (LMS/LungCARE®) as well as intra-software variability (B30/B70) in lung nodule volume measurement; therefore, it is mandatory to use the same equipment with the same reconstruction filter for the follow-up of lung nodule volume.

  12. Assessment of Regional Lung Function with Multivolume 1H MR Imaging in Health and Obstructive Lung Disease: Comparison with 3He MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, James D.; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Castro, Mario; Aliverti, Andrea; Woods, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To introduce a method based on multivolume proton (hydrogen [1H]) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the regional assessment of lung ventilatory function, investigating its use in healthy volunteers and patients with obstructive lung disease and comparing the outcome with the outcome of the research standard helium 3 (3He) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved the HIPAA-compliant protocol, and informed written consent was obtained from each subject. Twenty-six subjects, including healthy volunteers (n = 6) and patients with severe asthma (n = 11) and mild (n = 6) and severe (n = 3) emphysema, were imaged with a 1.5-T whole-body MR unit at four lung volumes (residual volume [RVresidual volume], functional residual capacity [FRCfunctional residual capacity], 1 L above FRCfunctional residual capacity [FRC+1 L1 L above FRC], total lung capacity [TLCtotal lung capacity]) with breath holds of 10–11 seconds, by using volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination. Each pair of volumes were registered, resulting in maps of 1H signal change between the two lung volumes. 3He MR imaging was performed at FRC+1 L1 L above FRC by using a two-dimensional gradient-echo sequence. 1H signal change and 3He signal were measured and compared in corresponding regions of interest selected in ventral, intermediate, and dorsal areas. Results In all volunteers and patients combined, proton signal difference between TLCtotal lung capacity and RVresidual volume correlated positively with 3He signal (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.64, P < .001). Lower (P < .001) but positive correlation results from 1H signal difference between FRCfunctional residual capacity and FRC+1 L1 L above FRC (R2 = 0.44, P < .001). In healthy volunteers, 1H signal changes show a higher median and interquartile range compared with patients with obstructive disease and significant differences between nondependent and dependent regions. Conclusion Findings in this study

  13. Comparison of almitrine bismesylate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oxygenation during wakefulness and sleep in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Daskalopoulou, E; Patakas, D; Tsara, V; Zoglopitis, F; Maniki, E

    1990-01-01

    The effects of almitrine bismesylate and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oxygenation during wakefulness and sleep were compared in six patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and carbon dioxide retention. Patients received 1.5 mg/kg almitrine (a peripheral chemoreceptor stimulant), 100 mg of medroxyprogesterone (a central respiratory stimulant), or matched placebo daily for 15 days in random order in a crossover trial. When subjects were awake almitrine increased the ventilatory response to hypoxia and increased arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) to a greater extent than medroxyprogesterone, whereas medroxyprogesterone augmented the ventilatory response to hypercapnia and decreased arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) to a greater extent than almitrine. Neither drug influenced sleep architecture significantly, except that medroxyprogesterone increased the number of arousals. Almitrine had a more favourable effect than placebo on oxygenation as estimated from arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) during the different stages of sleep, the number of episodes of hypoxaemia, and the amount of time that SaO2 was below 80%. The only change with medroxyprogesterone by comparison with placebo was a decrease in the number of hypoxaemic episodes. It is concluded that both active drugs improved blood gases during wakefulness, but that 1.5 mg/kg of almitrine is superior to 100 mg of medroxyprogesterone in improving SaO2 during sleep. PMID:2145654

  14. Validation and comparison of different end point and real time RT-PCR assays for detection and genotyping of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Michele; Franzo, Giovanni; Belfanti, Ilaria; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Ceglie, Letizia

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy and rapid diagnosis of PRRSV infection is a major prerequisite for every control and/or eradication strategy. In this study two real time RT-PCR based on different chemistry analysis (TaqMan Probes and SYBR Green) have been developed and validated before comparison to an end point two-step RT-PCR validated previously. All assays were aimed at discrimination between PRRSV genotypes. Furthermore, an exogenous internal control (IC) system had also been implemented in qRT-PCR. A rigorous analytical validation, executed on infected cell cultures and serum, demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and repeatability. In particular RT-PCR was exceptionally sensitive and could detect a viral titre in the order of a magnitude of 1 copies/μL, 10-fold lower than other qRT-PCR described in this study. Optimal diagnostic performances have been demonstrated analyzing samples retrieved from an experimental infection, with RT-PCR again outperforming real time RT-PCR assays. All tests, showing substantial agreement between them, were able to detect early stages of viraemia (1 DPI) and some animals were classified as positive until the end of the study (76 DPI). Therefore, this supports the assays usefulness in animals with different clinical conditions and in a broad range of epidemiological scenarios. The benefits and disadvantages of different assays were also considered and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of a sealed, polymer foam biodegradable temporizing matrix against Integra® dermal regeneration template in a porcine wound model.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John Edward; Dearman, Bronwyn Louise

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and optimize the first stage of a proposed two-stage skin graft replacement strategy. This entails creation of a material that can be applied immediately after burn excision to "temporize" the wound bed, become integrated as a "neodermis," resist contraction and infection, and provide the grounding for the second stage (an autologous, cultured composite skin). Four 8 × 8 cm wounds were generated in six pigs to assess and compare wound contraction using Integra® dermal regeneration template, a biodegradable temporizing polymer matrix (sealed and unsealed), and a secondary intention wound. All dressings were contiguous. Infection resulted in early spontaneous delamination of the Integra® marring the long-term comparison. The wounds treated with the sealed polymer thus contracted significantly less than the wounds treated with Integra® over the 28 days. Histologically, a thick layer of scar developed superficial to the Integra®, unsealed polymer, and in the secondary intention wounds when compared with the sealed polymer, where such a scar layer was characteristically minimal. No clinical signs of infection were observed for any polymer-treated wound. Once the Integra® silicone layer delaminated, wound contraction was aggressive. Optimization of the biodegradable sealing membrane is imminent, and the second stage of composite skin development is under way.

  16. Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Kong, Rong; Bhargava, Rohit

    2011-06-07

    Porcine skin is often considered a substitute for human skin based on morphological and functional data, for example, for transdermal drug diffusion studies. A chemical, structural and temporal characterization of porcine skin in comparison to human skin is not available but will likely improve our understanding of this porcine skin model. Here, we employ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to holistically measure chemical species as well as spatial structure as a function of time to characterize porcine skin as a model for human skin. Porcine skin was found to resemble human skin spectroscopically and differences are elucidated. Cryo-prepared fresh porcine skin samples for spectroscopic imaging were found to be stable over time and small variations are observed. Hence, we extended characterization to the use of this model for dynamic processes. In particular, the capacity and stability of this model in transdermal diffusion is examined. The results indicate that porcine skin is likely to be an attractive tool for studying diffusion dynamics of materials in human skin.

  17. Human insulin versus porcine insulin in rhesus monkeys with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Zeng, Li; Zhang, Shuang; He, Sirong; Ren, Yan; Chen, Younan; Wei, Lingling; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Cheng, Jingqiu; Lu, Yanrong

    2013-02-01

    Monkeys with insulin-dependent diabetes are important preclinical animal models for islet transplantation. Exogenous insulin should be administered to achieve good glycemic control and minimize the long-term vascular complications associated with diabetes until the graft function recovered completely. However, the effect of multiple daily injections of porcine or human insulin and the long-term effects of porcine insulin have not been studied in diabetic rhesus monkeys. Diabetic rhesus monkeys, using a 6-month self-control insulin comparison experiment, were used to detect the incidence of adverse events and long-term diabetes complication events after long-term administration of porcine insulin. In this study, we found that a 20% higher dose of porcine insulin results in similar glycemic control as the human insulin regimen, and adverse events were seldom reported when porcine insulin was administered. Moreover, long-term injection with porcine insulin could delay the rate and severity of diabetes-related complications. Porcine insulin as a competent candidate for regular insulin therapy to maintain blood glucose levels in insulin-dependent diabetic monkeys during preclinical studies of islet transplantation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Dosimetric comparison of flattened and unflattened beams for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy of stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Graydon, Shaun N.; Klöck, Stephan; Riesterer, Oliver

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare contribution and accuracy of delivery for two flattening filter free (FFF) beams of the nominal energy 6 and 10 MV and a 6 MV flattened beam for early stage lung cancer. Methods: For each of 11 patients with stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer three volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were prepared utilizing a 6 MV flattened photon beam (X6FF) and two nonflattened beams of nominal energy 6 and 10 MV (X6FFF, X10FFF). Optimization constraints were set to produce dose distributions that meet the criteria of the RTOG-0915 protocol. The radiation schedule used for plan comparison in all patients was 50 Gy in five fractions. Dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk and delivery times were assessed and compared. All plans were subject to verification using Delta{sup 4} unit (Scandidos, Sweden) and absolutely calibrated gafchromic films in a thorax phantom. Results: All plans had a qualitatively comparable outcome. Obtained dose distributions were conformal (CI < 1.17) and exhibited a steep dose fall-off outside the PTV. The ratio of monitor units for FFF versus FF plans in the authors' study ranged from 0.95 to 1.21 and from 0.93 to 1.25 for X6FFF/X6FF and X10FFF/X6FF comparisons, respectively. The ratio systematically increased with increasing size of the PTV (up to +25% for 150 cm{sup 3} PTV). Yet the integral dose to healthy tissue did not follow this trend. Comparison of cumulative dose volume histograms for a patient's body showed that X6FFF plans exhibit improved conformity and reduced the volume of tissue that received more than 50% of the prescription dose. Parameters related to dose gradient showed statistically significant improvement. CI{sub 50%}, CI{sub 60%}, CI{sub 80%}, and CI{sub 100%} were on average reduced by 4.6% (p < 0.001), 4.6% (p = 0.002), 3.1% (p = 0.002), and 1.2% (p = 0.039), respectively. Gradient measure was on average reduced by 4.2% (p < 0.001). Due to dose reduction in the surrounding lung

  19. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp), the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB) and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG) attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were tentatively assigned at Thr

  20. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Normal Lung Tissue Density Changes for Patients From Multiple Institutions Receiving Conventional or Hypofractionated Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Diot, Quentin; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bentzen, Soren M.; Senan, Suresh; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Lawrence, Michael V.; Miften, Moyed; Palma, David A.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess changes in computed tomography (CT)–defined normal lung tissue density after conventional and hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: The pre-RT and post-RT CT scans from 118 and 111 patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT, respectively, at 3 institutions were registered to each other and to the 3-dimensional dose distribution to quantify dose-dependent changes in normal lung tissue density. Dose-response curves (DRC) for groups of patients receiving conventional and hypofractionated RT were generated for each institution, and the frequency of density changes >80 Hounsfield Units (HU) was modeled depending on the fractionation type using a Probit model for different follow-up times. Results: For the pooled data from all institutions, there were significant differences in the DRC between the conventional and hypofractionated groups; the respective doses resulting in 50% complication risk (TD{sub 50}) were 62 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI] 57-67) versus 36 Gy (CI 33-39) at <6 months, 48 Gy (CI 46-51) versus 31 Gy (CI 28-33) at 6-12 months, and 47 Gy (CI 45-49) versus 35 Gy (32-37) at >12 months. The corresponding m values (slope of the DRC) were 0.52 (CI 0.46-0.59) versus 0.31 (CI 0.28-0.34) at <6 months, 0.46 (CI 0.42-0.51) versus 0.30 (CI 0.26-0.34) at 6-12 months, and 0.45 (CI 0.42-0.50) versus 0.31 (CI 0.27-0.35) at >12 months (P<.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Compared with conventional fractionation, hypofractionation has a lower TD{sub 50} and m value, both suggesting an increased degree of normal tissue density sensitivity with hypofractionation.

  1. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Saini, Narinder Singh; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sangwan, Vandana; Sood, Naresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG) in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle) suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness. Results: Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1%) and USG (62.2%) had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool. Conclusion: The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis. PMID:27847421

  2. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography in the detection of lung and liver cysts in cattle and buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Saini, Narinder Singh; Mohindroo, Jitender; Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sangwan, Vandana; Sood, Naresh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Echinococcosis is the major cause of lung and liver cysts in ruminants. This study compared usefulness of radiography and ultrasonography (USG) in the detection of lung and/or liver cysts in sick bovine animals. The study also worked out cooccurrence of lung and liver cysts, and whether these cysts were primary cause of sickness or not. This study was conducted on 45 sick bovine (37 buffaloes and 8 cattle) suffering from lung and liver cysts. A complete history of illness and clinical examination was carried out. Lateral radiographs of chest and reticular region were taken. In radiographically positive or suspected cases of cysts, USG of the lung and liver region was done. Depending on the location of cyst and clinical manifestations of the animal, the cysts were categorized as primary or secondary causes of sickness. Using either imaging technique, it was observed that 46.7% of the animals had both lung and liver cysts, whereas 33.3% had only lung and 20% had only liver cyst. Cysts were identified as primary cause of sickness in 31.1% animals only. For diagnosing lung cysts, radiography (71.1%) and USG (62.2%) had similar diagnostic utility. However, for detecting liver cysts, USG was the only imaging tool. The lung and liver cysts, depending on their number and size may be a primary cause of sickness in bovine. Radiography and USG are recommended, in combination, as screening tools to rule out echinococcosis.

  3. Intraindividual comparison of gadolinium- and iodine-enhanced 64-slice multidetector CT pulmonary angiography for the detection of pulmonary embolism in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Henes, Frank Oliver Gerhard; Groth, Michael; Begemann, Philipp G C; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2011-06-01

    This study is an evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for the detection of pulmonary embolism (PE) in comparison with iodine-enhanced CTPA. PE was induced in five anesthetized pigs by administration of blood clots through an 11-F catheter inside the jugular vein. Animals underwent CTPA in breathhold with i.v. bolus injection of 50 ml gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.4 mmol/kg, 4 ml/s). Subsequently, CTPA was performed using the same imaging parameters but under administration of 70 ml nonionic iodinated contrast material (400 mg/ml, 4 ml/s). All images were reconstructed with 1 mm slice thickness. A consensus readout of the iodium-enhanced CTPAs by both radiologists served as reference standard. Gadolinium-enhanced CTPAs were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists, and differences in detection rate between both contrast agents were assessed on a per embolus basis using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Interobserver agreement was determined by calculation of қ values. PE was diagnosed independently by both readers in all five pigs by the use of gadolinium-enhanced CTPA. Out of 60 pulmonary emboli detected in the iodine-enhanced scans, 47 (78.3%; reader 1) and 44 (62.8%; reader 2) emboli were detected by the use of gadolinium. All 13 (100%) emboli in lobar arteries (by both readers) and 26 (reader 1) and 25 (reader 2) out of 27 emboli (96.3% and 92.6%) in segmental arteries were detected by the use of the gadolinium-enhanced CTPA. In subsegmental arteries, only 8 (40%; reader 1) and 6 (30%; reader 2) out of 20 emboli were detected by the gadolinium-enhanced CTPA. By comparing both scans on a per vessel basis (Wilcoxon test), Gd-enhanced CTPA was significantly inferior in emboli detection on subsegmental level (P < 0.0001). The interobserver agreement was excellent on lobar and segmental level (қ = 1.0 and 0.93, respectively), whereas readers only reached moderate

  4. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  7. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  9. Porcine Dentin Sialophosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Lu, Yuhe; Hu, Jan C.-C.; Kim, Jung-Wook; Iwata, Takanori; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Hu, Yuanyuan; Fukae, Makoto; Simmer, James P.

    2008-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is critical for proper mineralization of tooth dentin, and mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects. Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is the C-terminal cleavage product of DSPP that binds collagen and induces intrafibrillar mineralization. We isolated DPP from individual pigs and determined that its N-terminal and C-terminal domains are glycosylated and that DPP averages 155 phosphates per molecule. Porcine DPP is unstable at low pH and high temperatures, and complexing with collagen improves its stability. Surprisingly, we observed DPP size variations on SDS-PAGE for DPP isolated from individual pigs. These variations are not caused by differences in proteolytic processing or degrees of phosphorylation or glycosylation, but rather to allelic variations in Dspp. Characterization of the DPP coding region identified 4 allelic variants. Among the 4 alleles, 27 sequence variations were identified, including 16 length polymorphisms ranging from 3 to 63 nucleotides. None of the length variations shifted the reading frame, and all localized to the highly redundant region of the DPP code. The 4 alleles encode DPP domains having 551, 575, 589, or 594 amino acids and completely explain the DPP size variations. DPP length variations are polymorphic and are not associated with dentin defects. PMID:18359767

  10. Effects of ceftiofur treatment on the susceptibility of commensal porcine E.coli--comparison between treated and untreated animals housed in the same stable.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Anne; Baumann, Sven; Scherz, Gesine; Stahl, Jessica; von Bergen, Martin; Friese, Anika; Roesler, Uwe; Kietzmann, Manfred; Honscha, Walther

    2015-10-15

    ceftiofur (3 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg i.m.) as well as with 3 mg/kg per os) and the renal and biliary excretion of ceftiofur as its active metabolite were measured in comparison to the plasma levels. In addition to that, probes of the sedimentation dust and the air of the stable were analysed for drug residues. The present study shows that treatment of several animals in a stable with ceftiofur influences the resistance pattern of intestinal Escherichia coli of the treated as well as untreated animals housed in the same stable. During therapy with the drug which was administered by injection according to the licence we detected nameable amounts of ceftiofur and its active metabolites in the dust and air of the stable.

  11. Comparison of Molecular and Biological Characteristics of a Modified Live Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Vaccine (Ingelvac PRRS MLV), the Parent Strain of the Vaccine (ATCC VR2332), ATCC VR2385, and Two Recent Field Isolates of PRRSV

    PubMed Central

    Opriessnig, T.; Halbur, P. G.; Yoon, K.-J.; Pogranichniy, R. M.; Harmon, K. M.; Evans, R.; Key, K. F.; Pallares, F. J.; Thomas, P.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the molecular and biological characteristics of recent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) field isolates to those of a modified live virus (MLV) PRRS vaccine and its parent strain. One hundred seventeen, 4-week-old pigs were randomly assigned to six groups. Group 1 (n = 20) served as sham-inoculated negative controls, group 2 (n = 19) was inoculated with Ingelvac PRRS MLV vaccine, group 3 (n = 20) was inoculated with the parent strain of the vaccine (ATCC VR2332), group 4 (n = 19) was inoculated with vaccine-like PRRSV field isolate 98-38803, group 5 (n = 19) was inoculated with PRRSV field isolate 98-37120, and group 6 (n = 20) was inoculated with known high-virulence PRRSV isolate ATCC VR2385. The levels of severity of gross lung lesions (0 to 100%) among the groups were significantly different at both 10 (P < 0.0001) and 28 days postinoculation (p.i.) (P = 0.002). At 10 days p.i., VR2332 (26.5% ± 4.64%) and VR2385 (36.4% ± 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than 98-38803 (0.0% ± 0.0%), 98-37120 (0.8% ± 0.42%), Ingelvac PRRS MLV (0.9% ± 0.46%), and negative controls (2.3% ± 1.26%). At 28 days p.i., 98-37120 (17.2% ± 6.51%) induced gross lesions of significantly greater severity than any of the other viruses. Analyses of the microscopic-interstitial-pneumonia-lesion scores (0 to 6) revealed that VR2332 (2.9 ± 0.23) and VR2385 (3.1 ± 0.35) induced significantly more severe lesions at 10 days p.i. At 28 days p.i., VR2385 (2.5 ± 0.27), VR2332 (2.3 ± 0.21), 98-38803 (2.6 ± 0.29), and 98-37120 (3.0 ± 0.41) induced significantly more severe lesions than Ingelvac PRRS MLV (0.7 ± 0.17) and controls (0.7 ± 0.15). The molecular analyses and biological characterizations suggest that the vaccine-like isolate 98-38803 (99.5% amino acid homology based on the ORF5 gene) induces microscopic pneumonia lesions similar in type to, but different in severity and time of

  12. Species pattern of phosphatidylinositol from lung surfactant and a comparison of the species pattern of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol synthesized de novo in lung microsomal fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Rüstow, B; Nakagawa, Y; Rabe, H; Waku, K; Kunze, D

    1988-01-01

    1. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is a minor component of lung surfactant which may be able to replace the functionally important phosphatidylglycerol (PG) [Beppu, Clements & Goerke (1983) J. Appl. Physiol. 55, 496-502] without disturbing lung function. The dipalmitoyl species is one of the main species for both PI (14.4%) and PG (16.9%). Besides the C16:0--C16:0 species, the C16:0--C18:0, C16:0--C18:1, C16:0--C18:2 and C18:0--C18:1 species showed comparable proportions in the PG and PI fractions. These similarities of the species patterns and the acidic character of both phospholipids could explain why surfactant PG may be replaced by PI. 2. PI and PG were radiolabelled by incubation of microsomal fractions with [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate (Gro3P). For 11 out of 14 molecular species of PI and PG we measured comparable proportions of radioactivity. The radioactivity of these 11 species accounted together for more than 80% of the total. The addition of inositol to the incubation system decreased the incorporation in vitro of Gro3P into PG and CDP-DG (diacylglycerol) of lung microsomes (microsomal fractions), but did not change the distribution of radioactivity among the molecular species of PG. These results supported the idea that both acidic surfactant phospholipids may be synthesized de novo from a common CDP-DG pool in lung microsomes. PMID:3178759

  13. Comparison of two methods used to prepare smears of mouse lung tissue for detection of Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, R B; Smith, T F; Wilson, W R

    1982-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in humans includes the identification of cysts in stained lung tissue impression smears. By using a mouse model, we compared the number of cysts in lung tissue impression smears with those contained in a concentrate of homogenized lung tissue. Eleven C3H/HEN mice developed P. carinii infection after corticosteroid injections, a low protein (8%) diet, and tetracycline administered in drinking water. Impression smears were prepared with freshly bisected lung tissue. Smears of concentrates were prepared with sediment from centrifuged lung tissue homogenates. All smears were made in duplicate, stained with toluidine blue O or methenamine silver, coded, randomized, and examined. The concentrate preparations contained more cysts per microscopic field than the impression preparations (P less than 0.01). Concentrates prepared by grinding with a mortar and pestle contained more cysts than concentrates prepared by blending with a Stomacher (P less than 0.05). Cysts were detected equally well with either the toluidine blue O or silver stain (not significant). Lung tissue concentrates were superior to lung tissue impressions for detecting P. carinii cysts in mice. Use of lung tissue concentrates should be considered for the diagnosis of human P. carinii infection. PMID:6181088

  14. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takuji; Nishii, Kenji; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Takuo; Gemba, Kenichi; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period) with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period). Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months) and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8%) of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054). Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002). These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  15. Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations.

    PubMed

    Seow, Wei Jie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shiraishi, Kouya; Song, Minsun; Kim, Hee Nam; Wong, Maria Pik; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H Dean; Wang, Zhaoming; Chang, I-Shou; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Hu; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Wei; Kim, Jin Hee; Zhou, Baosen; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Shin, Min-Ho; Chung, Lap Ping; An, She-Juan; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hong; Yatabe, Yasushi; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Kim, Young Tae; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kim, Young-Chul; Bassig, Bryan A; Chang, Jiang; Ho, James Chung Man; Ji, Bu-Tian; Kubo, Michiaki; Daigo, Yataro; Ito, Hidemi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Honda, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Shingo; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Yin, Zhihua; Shi, Jianxin; Takahashi, Atsushi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Kazumi; Wu, Tangchun; Wei, Fusheng; Wong, Jason Y Y; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Su, Jian; Kim, Yeul Hong; Oh, In-Jae; Song, Fengju; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Seow, Adeline; Park, Jae Yong; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Haixin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Chen; Qian, Biyun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chung, Charles C; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B; Hutchinson, Amy; Berndt, Sonja I; He, Xingzhou; Wu, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Liu, Jie; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Hicks, Belynda; Wyatt, Kathleen; Li, Shengchao A; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Cui, Ping; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Wu, Guoping; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Yu, Jinming; Stevens, Victoria L; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Marconett, Crystal N; Lin, Dongxin; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Yi-Long; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kohno, Takashi; Chanock, Stephen J; Lan, Qing

    2016-12-26

    To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking controls from Asia confirmed associations with eight known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two new signals were observed at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)), namely, rs7216064 (17q24.3, BPTF), for overall lung adenocarcinoma risk, and rs3817963 (6p21.3, BTNL2) which is specific to cases with EGFR mutations. In further sub-analyses by EGFR status, rs9387478 (ROS1/DCBLD1) and rs2179920 (HLA-DPB1) showed stronger estimated associations in EGFR-positive compared to EGFR-negative cases. Comparison of the overall associations with published results in Western populations revealed that the majority of these findings were distinct, underscoring the importance of distinct contributing factors for smoking and non-smoking lung cancer. Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking Asian women and highlight the importance of how the germline could inform risk for specific tumour mutation patterns, which could have important translational implications.

  16. Comparison of gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib in non-small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zuyao; Hackshaw, Allan; Feng, Qi; Fu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yuelun; Mao, Chen; Tang, Jinling

    2017-03-14

    Gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib are three widely used epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) for treating advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with proven efficacy. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize existing studies with direct comparisons of EGFR TKIs in NSCLC in terms of both efficacy and safety. Eight randomized trials and 82 cohort studies with a total of 17621 patients were included for analysis. Gefitinib and erlotinib demonstrated comparable effects on progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04), overall survival (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.06), overall response rate (risk ratio [RR], 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.11), and disease control rate (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.01), which did not vary considerably with EGFR mutation status, ethnicity, line of treatment, and baseline brain metastasis status. Gefitinib was associated with more grade 3/4 liver dysfunction, but tended to have lower rates of dose reduction, treatment discontinuation, total grade 3/4 adverse events (RR, 0.78; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.94), and a number of specific adverse events such as rash and diarrhea. No solid evidence was found that afatinib had greater efficacy than gefitinib or erlotinib in first-line treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLC. However, afatinib was more effective than erlotinib as second-line treatment of patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma. The grade 3/4 adverse events rate of afatinib was comparable to that of erlotinib but higher than that of gefitinib. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment Outcomes in Stage I Lung Cancer: A Comparison of Surgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Varun; Crabtree, Traves D.; Bell, Jennifer M.; Broderick, Stephen R; Morgensztern, Daniel; Colditz, Graham A.; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, A. Sasha; Patterson, G. Alexander; Meyers, Bryan F.; Patel, Aalok; Robinson, Clifford G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The relative roles of surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy in stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are evolving particularly for marginally operable patients. Since there is limited prospective comparative data for these treatment modalities, we evaluated their relative use and outcomes at the population level using a national database. Methods Patient variables and treatment-related outcomes were abstracted for patients with clinical stage I NSCLC from the National Cancer Database. Patients receiving surgery were compared to those undergoing SBRT in exploratory unmatched and subsequent propensity matched analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2010, 117618 patients underwent surgery or SBRT for clinical stage I NSCLC. Of these, 111731 (95%) received surgery while 5887 (5%) underwent SBRT. Patients in the surgery group were younger, more likely to be males, and had higher Charlson comorbidity scores. SBRT patients were more likely to have T1 (vs.T2) tumors and receive treatment at academic centers. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 2596/109485 (2.4%). Median overall survival favored the surgery group in both unmatched (68.4 months vs. 33.3 months, p<.001) and matched analysis based on patient characteristics (62.3 months vs. 33.1months, p<.001). Disease specific survival was unavailable from the dataset. Conclusion In a propensity matched comparison, patients selected for surgery have improved survival compared with SBRT. In the absence of information on cause of death and with limited variables to characterize comorbidity, it is not possible to assess the relative contribution of patient selection or better cancer control towards the improved survival. Rigorous prospective studies are needed to optimize patient selection for SBRT in the high-risk surgical population. PMID:26334753

  18. Percutaneous Transthoracic Lung Biopsy: Comparison Between C-Arm Cone-Beam CT and Conventional CT Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Sheng-Heng; Cheng, Yuchi; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a comparatively novel modality for guiding percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies (PTLBs), and despite its potential advantages over conventional computed tomography (CCT), a head-to-head comparison of the two techniques has yet to be reported in the literature. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value and safety of CBCT-guided PTLB compared to CCT-guided biopsy, with cases performed in a single hospital. METHODS: A total of 104 PTLB patients were retrospectively analyzed in this study. 35 PTLBs were performed under CBCT guidance, and 69 PTLBs were performed under CCT guidance. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy as well as procedure time, radiation dose of patients, and complication rate in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Total procedure time was significantly lower in the CBCT group (32 ± 11 minutes) compared to the CCT group (38 ± 9.7 minutes; P = .009), especially among patients ≥ 70 years of age (CBCT: 33 ± 12 minutes, CCT: 42 ± 13, P = .022). For lesions in the lower lobes, the CBCT-guided group received significantly reduced effective radiation dose (2.9 ± 1.6 mSv) than CCT-guided patients (3.7 ± 0.80; P = .042). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy were comparable between the two groups, as were post-biopsy complication rates. CONCLUSION: CBCT guidance significantly reduces the procedure time and radiation exposure for PTLBs compared with CCT, and should be considered in clinical settings that may be difficult or time-consuming to perform under CCT. PMID:26310371

  19. Estimation of lung vital capacity before and after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a comparison of incentive spirometer and ventilometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measurement of vital capacity (VC) by spirometry is the most widely used technique for lung function evaluation, however, this form of assessment is costly and further investigation of other reliable methods at lower cost is necessary. Objective: To analyze the correlation between direct vital capacity measured with ventilometer and with incentive inspirometer in patients in pre and post cardiac surgery. Methodology Cross-sectional comparative study with patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Respiratory parameters were evaluated through the measurement of VC performed by ventilometer and inspirometer. To analyze data normality the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied, for correlation the Pearson correlation coefficient was used and for comparison of variables in pre and post operative period Student's t test was adopted. We established a level of ignificance of 5%. Data was presented as an average, standard deviation and relative frequency when needed. The significance level was set at 5%. Results We studied 52 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, 20 patients in preoperative with VC-ventilometer: 32.95 ± 11.4 ml/kg and VC-inspirometer: 28.9 ± 11 ml/Kg, r = 0.7 p < 0.001. In the post operatory, 32 patients were evaluated with VC-ventilometer: 28.27 ± 12.48 ml/kg and VC-inspirometer: 26.98 ± 11 ml/Kg, r = 0.95 p < 0.001. Presenting a very high correlation between the evaluation forms studied. Conclusion There was a high correlation between DVC measures with ventilometer and incentive spirometer in pre and post CABG surgery. Despite this, arises the necessity of further studies to evaluate the repercussion of this method in lowering costs at hospitals. PMID:21569437

  20. Genetic and antigenic changes in porcine rubulavirus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Betancourt, José I; Trujillo, María E; Mendoza, Susana E; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Alonso, Rogelio A

    2012-01-01

    Blue eye disease, caused by a porcine rubulavirus (PoRV), is an emergent viral swine disease that has been endemic in Mexico since 1980. Atypical outbreaks were detected in 1990 and 2003. Growing and adult pigs presented neurological signs, mild neurological signs were observed in piglets, and severe reproductive problems were observed in adults. Amino acid sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein revealed genetically different lineages. We used cross-neutralization assays, with homologous and heterologous antisera, to determine the antigenic relatedness values for the PoRV isolates. We found antigenic changes among several strains and identified a highly divergent one, making up a new serogroup. It seems that genetically and antigenically different PoRV strains are circulating simultaneously in the swine population in the geographical region studied. The cross neutralization studies suggest that the HN is not the only antigenic determinant participating in the antigenic changes among the different PoRV strains.

  1. Porcine mast cells infected with H1N1 influenza virus release histamine and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Hong; Kim, Hyun Soo; Seo, Sang Heui

    2017-04-01

    Mast cells reside in many tissues, including the lungs, and might play a role in enhancing influenza virus infections in animals. In this study, we cultured porcine mast cells from porcine bone marrow cells with IL-3 and stem cell factor to study the infectivity and activation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin. Porcine mast cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus, without the subsequent production of infectious viruses but were activated, as indicated by the release of histamines. Inflammatory cytokine- and chemokine-encoding genes, including IL-1α, IL-6, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, were upregulated in the infected porcine mast cells. Our results suggest that mast cells could be involved in enhancing influenza-virus-mediated disease in infected animals.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in porcine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid and effects of test conditions on in vitro activity against reference strains and field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Menge, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Wilhelm, C; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 40 mg/mL solution for injection for pigs), a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide for the treatment for swine respiratory disease (SRD), was investigated in studies collecting blood plasma and postmortem samples of lung tissue and bronchial fluid (BF) from swine. In view of factors influencing the in vitro activity of macrolides, and for the interpretation of tildipirosin pharmacokinetics in relation to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), additional experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, buffers, and serum on tildipirosin MICs for various reference strains and Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae field isolates. After single intramuscular (i.m.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 0.9 μg/mL observed within 23 min (Tmax ). Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRTlast) and terminal half-life (T1/2) both were about 4 days. A dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect is observed for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUClast) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. However, linear dose proportionality could not be proven with statistical methods. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded that in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 3.1 μg/g at 2 h, peaked at 4.3 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 0.8 μg/g at day 17. In BF, tildipirosin levels were 14.3, 7.0, and 6.5 μg/g at days 5, 10, and 14. T1/2 in lung was ∼7 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination. Culture media pH and carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere (CO2 -EA) had a marked impact on in vitro activity of tildipirosin in reference strains of various rapidly growing aerobic and

  3. SU-E-T-671: Range-Modulation Effects of Carbon Ion Beams in Lung Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, M; Weber, U; Simeonov, Y; Zink, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: When particles traversing inhomogeneous materials like lung they show a characteristic range modulation which cannot be observed in homogeneous materials. It is possible to describe the range modulation by a convolution of an unperturbed Bragg-Curve and a normal distribution. The sigma of the normal distribution is a parameter for the strength of the modulation effect. A new material parameter (modulation power, P-mod) is introduced which is independent of the material thickness. It is defined as the square of sigma divided by the mean water equivalent thickness of the target (µ). Methods: The modulation power of lung tissue was determined by actual Bragg-peak measurements after traversing an ex-vivo porcine lung and by Monte-Carlo simulations with micro-CT data of human lung tissue. The determined modulation powers were used to show the effect of range modulation effects in a simplified treatment situation. A four centimeter spread-out Bragg-peak after traversing eight centimeter of lung tissue was simulated in FLUKA. The SOBP with and without consideration of range modulation effects were compared. Results: As well in the measurements as in the MC simulations range modulation effects of lung tissue were observed. The determined modulation powers showed a great range from 0.05 mm, in the micro-CT data, to 0.7 mm in the lung measurements. The SOBP comparison showed that range modulation effects Result in over- and underdosages at the distal and proximal edge of the SOBP. In the investigated case, the last 0.5 cm of the SOBP showed an underdosage of up to 50% at the distal edge, while 0.5 cm distal to the SOBP an overdosage of up to 50% was observed. Conclusion: Range modulation effects occur in inhomogeneous materials like lung. These modulation effects may Result in clinically relevant over- and underdosages but are currently not considered in commercially available treatment planning systems.

  4. Comparison of clinical and laboratory findings between those with pulmonary tuberculosis and those with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Thanachartwet, Vipa; Desakorn, Varunee; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Chunpongthong, Pongsak; Phojanamongkolkij, Kamol; Jitruckthai, Pasakorn; Kasetjaroen, Yuttichai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

    2014-01-01

    In tuberculosis endemic areas, patients with sputum positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are usually diagnosed and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is often ascertained only after lung disease progression occurs, increasing the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. We conducted a matched case-control study among a prospective cohort of 300 patients with newly diagnosed AFB-positive sputum in Thailand during 2010-2012. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes among patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, NTM lung disease and NTM colonization. A mycobacterial culture was performed in all patients. Ten patients with NTM lung disease were compared to 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 10 patients with NTM colonization. The presence of diabetes mellitus or human immunodeficiency virus infection, were associated with NTM lung disease (p = 0.030). Patients with NTM lung disease had a significantly lower body weight prior to treatment (p = 0.021), a higher body weight change from baseline (p = 0.038), and were more likely to have cavitations on chest radiograph (p = 0.033) than those with NTM colonization. In tuberculosis endemic areas, mycobacterial identification should be performed among patients with impaired immune function. NTM lung disease treatment should be considered in patients with NTM sputum isolates who have a history of significant weight loss or cavitations on chest radiography.

  5. High-frequency oscillation combined with arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist reduces lung injury.

    PubMed

    Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kredel, Markus; Wilhelm, Jochen; Küstermann, Julian; Fink, Ludger; Siebenlist, Gregor; Siebenliest, Gregor; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Foerster, Carola Y; Kranke, Peter; Wunder, Christian; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2010-04-01

    In order to optimize the lung-protective potential of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), it is currently recommended to maximize oscillatory frequencies. However, very high frequencies may lead to insufficient CO(2) elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA) allows near total CO(2) removal, thereby allowing for maximization of the lung-protective potential of HFOV. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HFOV and av-ECLA on lung inflammation and function compared to conventional lung-protective ventilation. In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, the authors randomly assigned 16 female pigs to conventional lung-protective ventilation and HFOV/ECLA. Both strategies were combined with an "open-lung" approach. Gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were measured at intervals during the 24-hour study period. Postmortem, lung tissue was analyzed to determine histological damage and lung inflammation. The authors found that the combination of HFOV and av-ECLA (1) allows significant reductions in mean and peak airway pressures; and (2) reduces histological signs of lung inflammation in the basal regions of the lung. HFOV/av-ECLA reduces histological signs of lung inflammation compared to conventional lung-protective ventilation strategies. Thus, combination of HFOV and av-ECLA might be a further lung-protective tool if conventional ventilation strategies are failing.

  6. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profiles of 3 novel porcine genes: ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xianghua; Liu, Yonggang; Yang, Liangyu; Song, Chunlian; Hou, Jiafa

    2008-01-01

    The complete coding sequences of 3 porcine genes - ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA - were amplified by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of the mouse or other mammals and referenced pig ESTs. These 3 novel porcine genes were then deposited in the NCBI database and assigned GeneIDs: 100142661, 100142664 and 100142667. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the porcine ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA all have closer genetic relationships with the ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA of cattle. Tissue expression profile analysis was also carried out and results revealed that swine ASPA, NAGA, and HEXA genes were differentially expressed in various organs, including skeletal muscle, the heart, liver, fat, kidney, lung, and small and large intestines. Our experiment is the first one to establish the foundation for further research on these 3 swine genes.

  7. Structural and functional annotation of the porcine immunome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is known as an excellent model for human immunology and the two species share many pathogens. Susceptibility to infectious disease is one of the major constraints on swine performance, yet the structure and function of genes comprising the pig immunome are not well-characterized. The completion of the pig genome provides the opportunity to annotate the pig immunome, and compare and contrast pig and human immune systems. Results The Immune Response Annotation Group (IRAG) used computational curation and manual annotation of the swine genome assembly 10.2 (Sscrofa10.2) to refine the currently available automated annotation of 1,369 immunity-related genes through sequence-based comparison to genes in other species. Within these genes, we annotated 3,472 transcripts. Annotation provided evidence for gene expansions in several immune response families, and identified artiodactyl-specific expansions in the cathelicidin and type 1 Interferon families. We found gene duplications for 18 genes, including 13 immune response genes and five non-immune response genes discovered in the annotation process. Manual annotation provided evidence for many new alternative splice variants and 8 gene duplications. Over 1,100 transcripts without porcine sequence evidence were detected using cross-species annotation. We used a functional approach to discover and accurately annotate porcine immune response genes. A co-expression clustering analysis of transcriptomic data from selected experimental infections or immune stimulations of blood, macrophages or lymph nodes identified a large cluster of genes that exhibited a correlated positive response upon infection across multiple pathogens or immune stimuli. Interestingly, this gene cluster (cluster 4) is enriched for known general human immune response genes, yet contains many un-annotated porcine genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the encoded proteins of cluster 4 genes showed that 15% exhibited an accelerated

  8. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  9. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease affecting US swine. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and is recognized as reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of piglets and growing pigs. This book chapter is part of the Office of International E...

  10. The Influence of the Reference Values on the Interpretation of Lung Function in Children: Comparison of Global Lung Initiative 2012 and Polish 1998 Reference Values.

    PubMed

    Peradzyńska, Joanna; Krenke, Katarzyna; Szylling, Anna; Krenke, Rafał; Kulus, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of spirometry strongly depends on the applied predicted values. New Global Lung Initiative (GLI) reference values have recently been published but their influence on spirometry interpretation in children has not been widely evaluated. The aim of the study was to compare the interpretation of spirometry using GLI-2012 vs. Polish-1998 reference values. Spirometry results of 315 Caucasian children aged 4-18 were analyzed. Airway obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVCLLN. The findings were that FEV1 and FVC expressed as GLI-2012 or Polish-1998 z-scores differed significantly (p<0.05). The mean FEV1 z-score was -0.68±1.25 vs. -0.13±1.70 and the mean FVC was -0.34±1.08 vs. 0.30±1.15 for GLI-2012 and Polish-1998, respectively. There was no difference for FEV1/FVC z-scores. Obstructive and restrictive ventilatory patterns were diagnosed in 20.3% and 7.6% children using GLI-2012 values compared with 17.5% and 3.8% when using Polish-1998 reference values, respectively. In conclusion, the use of GLI-2012 reference values in the population of Polish children increases the number of detected lung function abnormalities compared with Polish-1998 reference values.

  11. Molecular characterization of transcriptome-wide interactions between highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine alveolar macrophages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Zhai, Shanli; Zhou, Xiang; Lin, Ping; Jiang, Tengfei; Hu, Xueying; Jiang, Yunbo; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qingde; Xu, Xuewen; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Bang

    2011-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mainly the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and causes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Previous studies have analyzed the global gene expression profiles of lung tissue in vivo and PAMs in vitro following infection with PRRSV, however, transcriptome-wide understanding of the interaction between highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PAMs in vivo has not yet been established. In this study, we employed Affymetrix microarrays to investigate the gene expression patterns of PAMs isolated from Tongcheng piglets (a Chinese indigenous breed) after infection with HP-PRRSV. During the infection, Tongcheng piglets exhibited typical clinical signs, e.g. fever, asthma, coughing, anorexia, lethargy and convulsion, but displayed mild regional lung damage at 5 and 7 dpi. Microarray analysis revealed that HP-PRRSV infection has affected PAMs in expression of the important genes involved in cytoskeleton and exocytosis organization, protein degradation and folding, intracellular calcium and zinc homeostasis. Several potential antiviral strategies might be employed in PAMs, including upregulating IFN-induced genes and increasing intracellular zinc ion concentration. And inhibition of the complement system likely attenuated the lung damage during HP-PRRSV infection. Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS.

  12. A Comparison of Web-Based with Traditional Classroom-Based Training of Lung Ultrasound for the Exclusion of Pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Edrich, Thomas; Stopfkuchen-Evans, Matthias; Scheiermann, Patrick; Heim, Markus; Chan, Wilma; Stone, Michael B; Dankl, Daniel; Aichner, Jonathan; Hinzmann, Dominik; Song, Pingping; Szabo, Ashley L; Frendl, Gyorgy; Vlassakov, Kamen; Varelmann, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a well-established method that can exclude pneumothorax by demonstration of pleural sliding and the associated ultrasound artifacts. The positive diagnosis of pneumothorax is more difficult to obtain and relies on detection of the edge of a pneumothorax, called the "lung point." Yet, anesthesiologists are not widely taught these techniques, even though their patients are susceptible to pneumothorax either through trauma or as a result of central line placement or regional anesthesia techniques performed near the thorax. In anticipation of an increased training demand for LUS, efficient and scalable teaching methods should be developed. In this study, we compared the improvement in LUS skills after either Web-based or classroom-based training. We hypothesized that Web-based training would not be inferior to "traditional" classroom-based training beyond a noninferiority limit of 10% and that both would be superior to no training. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this short training session would lead to LUS skills that are similar to those of ultrasound-trained emergency medicine (EM) physicians. After a pretest, anesthesiologists from 4 academic teaching hospitals were randomized to Web-based (group Web), classroom-based (group class), or no training (group control) and then completed a posttest. Groups Web and class returned for a retention test 4 weeks later. All 3 tests were similar, testing both practical and theoretical knowledge. EM physicians (group EM) performed the pretest only. Teaching for group class consisted of a standardized PowerPoint lecture conforming to the Consensus Conference on LUS followed by hands-on training. Group Web received a narrated video of the same PowerPoint presentation, followed by an online demonstration of LUS that also instructs the viewer to perform an LUS on himself using a clinically available ultrasound machine and submit smartphone snapshots of the resulting images as part of a portfolio system

  13. Lipoprotein macroaggregates in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease: comparison with idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, P L; Hughes, D A; Dewar, A; Pantin, C F

    1988-01-01

    Lipoprotein macroaggregates were present in cytocentrifuge preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from four patients with diffuse lung diseases other than idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. In three patients the primary diagnosis was cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in one sarcoidosis. We confirmed the presence of large multilamellar aggregates of lipoprotein by ultrastructural examination in patients with both interstitial lung disease and idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. The small lamellar bodies and amorphous debris found in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis were rare in the patients with interstitial lung disease. The lavage fluid from patient with interstitial lung disease did not show the substantial alterations in phospholipid composition that were seen in lavage fluid in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. These ultrastructural and biochemical features may help to distinguish idiopathic from other causes of alveolar lipoproteinosis, particularly at an early stage, when differential diagnosis may be difficult. Images PMID:3353885

  14. 3D dosimetric validation of motion compensation concepts in radiotherapy using an anthropomorphic dynamic lung phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Witte, M.; Moser, T.; Lang, C.; Runz, A.; Johnen, W.; Berger, M.; Biederer, J.; Karger, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new setup for the validation of clinical workflows in adaptive radiation therapy, which combines a dynamic ex vivo porcine lung phantom and three-dimensional (3D) polymer gel dosimetry. The phantom consists of an artificial PMMA-thorax and contains a post mortem explanted porcine lung to which arbitrary breathing patterns can be applied. A lung tumor was simulated using the PAGAT (polyacrylamide gelatin gel fabricated at atmospheric conditions) dosimetry gel, which was evaluated in three dimensions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To avoid bias by reaction with oxygen and other materials, the gel was collocated inside a BAREX™ container. For calibration purposes, the same containers with eight gel samples were irradiated with doses from 0 to 7 Gy. To test the technical feasibility of the system, a small spherical dose distribution located completely within the gel volume was planned. Dose delivery was performed under static and dynamic conditions of the phantom with and without motion compensation by beam gating. To verify clinical target definition and motion compensation concepts, the entire gel volume was homogeneously irradiated applying adequate margins in case of the static phantom and an additional internal target volume in case of dynamically operated phantom without and with gated beam delivery. MR-evaluation of the gel samples and comparison of the resulting 3D dose distribution with the planned dose distribution revealed a good agreement for the static phantom. In case of the dynamically operated phantom without motion compensation, agreement was very poor while additional application of motion compensation techniques restored the good agreement between measured and planned dose. From these experiments it was concluded that the set up with the dynamic and anthropomorphic lung phantom together with 3D-gel dosimetry provides a valuable and versatile tool for geometrical and dosimetrical validation of motion compensated

  15. 3D dosimetric validation of motion compensation concepts in radiotherapy using an anthropomorphic dynamic lung phantom.

    PubMed

    Mann, P; Witte, M; Moser, T; Lang, C; Runz, A; Johnen, W; Berger, M; Biederer, J; Karger, C P

    2017-01-21

    In this study, we developed a new setup for the validation of clinical workflows in adaptive radiation therapy, which combines a dynamic ex vivo porcine lung phantom and three-dimensional (3D) polymer gel dosimetry. The phantom consists of an artificial PMMA-thorax and contains a post mortem explanted porcine lung to which arbitrary breathing patterns can be applied. A lung tumor was simulated using the PAGAT (polyacrylamide gelatin gel fabricated at atmospheric conditions) dosimetry gel, which was evaluated in three dimensions by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To avoid bias by reaction with oxygen and other materials, the gel was collocated inside a BAREX(™) container. For calibration purposes, the same containers with eight gel samples were irradiated with doses from 0 to 7 Gy. To test the technical feasibility of the system, a small spherical dose distribution located completely within the gel volume was planned. Dose delivery was performed under static and dynamic conditions of the phantom with and without motion compensation by beam gating. To verify clinical target definition and motion compensation concepts, the entire gel volume was homogeneously irradiated applying adequate margins in case of the static phantom and an additional internal target volume in case of dynamically operated phantom without and with gated beam delivery. MR-evaluation of the gel samples and comparison of the resulting 3D dose distribution with the planned dose distribution revealed a good agreement for the static phantom. In case of the dynamically operated phantom without motion compensation, agreement was very poor while additional application of motion compensation techniques restored the good agreement between measured and planned dose. From these experiments it was concluded that the set up with the dynamic and anthropomorphic lung phantom together with 3D-gel dosimetry provides a valuable and versatile tool for geometrical and dosimetrical validation of motion compensated

  16. Radiation risks in lung cancer screening programs: a comparison with nuclear industry workers and atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Li, Jessica

    2014-03-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) scan reduced lung cancer and overall mortality by 20% and 7%, respectively. The LDCT scanning involves an approximate 2-mSv dose, whereas full-chest CT scanning, the major diagnostic study used to follow up nodules, may involve a dose of 8 mSv. Radiation associated with CT scanning and other diagnostic studies to follow up nodules may present an independent risk of lung cancer. On the basis of the NLST, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of nodules detected in screening programs. We followed the Fleischner guidelines for follow-up of nodules to assess cumulative radiation exposure over 20- and 30-year periods. We then evaluated nuclear worker cohort studies and atomic bomb survivor studies to assess the risk of lung cancer from radiation associated with long-term lung cancer screening programs. The findings indicate that a 55-year-old lung screening participant may experience a cumulative radiation exposure of up to 280 mSv over a 20-year period and 420 mSv over 30 years. These exposures exceed those of nuclear workers and atomic bomb survivors. This assessment suggests that long-term (20-30 years) LDCT screening programs are associated with nontrivial cumulative radiation doses. Current lung cancer screening protocols, if conducted over 20- to 30-year periods, can independently increase the risk of lung cancer beyond cigarette smoking as a result of cumulative radiation exposure. Radiation exposures from LDCT screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures exceed lifetime radiation exposures among nuclear power workers and atomic bomb survivors.

  17. Comparison of the effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine on apoptosis regulation in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Demiralay, Rezan; Gürsan, Nesrin; Ozbilim, Gülay; Erdogan, Gülgün; Demirci, Elif

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate comparatively the frequency of apoptosis in lung epithelial cells after intratracheal instillation of endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] in rats and the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on apoptosis, and the effects of erdosteine and N-acetylcysteine on the regulation of apoptosis. Female Wistar rats were given oral erdosteine (10-500 mg kg(-1)) or N-acetylcysteine (10-500 mg kg(-1)) once a day for 3 consecutive days. Then the rats were intratracheally instilled with LPS (5 mg kg(-1)) to induce acute lung injury. The rats were killed at 24 h after LPS administration. Lung tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathological assessments. The apoptosis level in the lung bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium was determined using the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabelling) method. Cytoplasmic TNF-alpha was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Pretreatment with erdosteine and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) had no protective effect on LPS-induced lung injury. When the doses of drugs increased, the severity of the lung damage caused by LPS decreased. It was found that as the pretreatment dose of erdosteine was increased, the rate of apoptosis induced by LPS in lung epithelial cells decreased and this decrease was statistically significant in doses of 300 mg kg(-1) and 500 mg kg(-1). Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine up to a dose of 500 mg kg(-1) did not show any significant effect on apoptosis regulation. It was noticed that both antioxidants had no significant effect on the local production level of TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that erdosteine could be a possible therapeutic agent for acute lethal lung injury and its mortality.

  18. Lung proliferative and clearance responses to inhaled para-aramid RFP in exposed hamsters and rats: comparisons with chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Warheit, D B; Snajdr, S I; Hartsky, M A; Frame, S R

    1997-01-01

    This study compared pulmonary effects of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particles (RFP) (p-aramid fibrils) and chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures in rats. Additional p-aramid inhalation studies were conducted in hamsters to compare species responses. The hamster results are preliminary. The parameters studied were clearance/biopersistence of inhaled p-aramid RFP or size-separated asbestos fibers as well as pulmonary cell proliferation and inflammation indices after 2-week inhalation exposures. Rats were exposed nose only to chrysotile asbestos fibers at concentrations of 459 and 782 fibers/ml or to p-aramid RFP at 419 or 772 fibrils/ml. Hamsters were exposed whole body to p-aramid RFP at concentrations of 358 and 659 fibrils/ml. Subsequently, animals were assessed immediately (time 0) as well as 5 days (10 days for hamsters), 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postexposure. Lung burdens for the p-aramid-exposed rats were 4.8 x 10(7) and 7.6 x 10(7) fibrils/lung, with similar numbers of chrysotile fibers > 5 microns recovered from the lungs of asbestos-exposed rats. In comparison, 1.4 x 10(6) fibrils/lung were recovered in the high-dose hamster group. Biopersistence studies in p-aramid-exposed rats and hamsters demonstrated an initial increase (relative to time 0) in retained p-aramid fibrils during the first month postexposure, which indicated breakage or shortening of inhaled fibrils. This result was associated with a progressive reduction, and increased residence time in the lung, in the mean lengths of the fibrils, which signified biodegradability of inhaled p-aramid fibrils in both species. In contrast, clearance of short chrysotile asbestos fibers was rapid, but clearance of the long chrysotile fibers was slow or insignificant, as evidenced by a progressive increase over time in the mean lengths of fibers recovered from the lungs of exposed rats. Two-week, high-dose exposures to p-aramid in both rats and hamsters produced transient increases in pulmonary

  19. Cryopreservation studies with porcine corneas.

    PubMed

    Wusteman, M C; Armitage, J W; Wang, L H; Busza, A L; Pegg, D E

    1999-09-01

    A new technique for the cryopreservation of rabbit corneas in 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, which has been shown to preserve significant structural and functional integrity of the endothelium, was tested in porcine corneas. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide into porcine corneas were measured using proton ( 1 H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effect on structural integrity of exposure to 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide without freezing was first assessed using vital staining (acridine orange and propidium iodide), and optimum temperature conditions for addition and removal of the cryoprotectant were derived. The effects on structural integrity of cryopreservation in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide, and of reducing the degree of cell swelling during cryoprotectant removal following cryopreservation, were then evaluated. The characteristics of uptake of dimethylsulfoxide from a 10% w/w solution fitted a single exponential, resulting in a maximum tissue concentration of 14.6% when the addition occurred on ice, and 18.5% when the addition took place at room temperature. The toxic effects of dimethylsulfoxide in porcine corneas were highly temperature dependent and only evident after removal of the cryoprotectant. Unlike rabbit corneas, cryopreservation of porcine corneas in 15% and 20% w/w dimethylsulfoxide induced substantial endothelial injury which was not improved by reducing the degree of cell swelling that occurred during removal of the cryoprotectant. Porcine corneas were substantially more susceptible to the toxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide, and to cryopreservation injury, than rabbit corneas. These results underline the importance of species variation in animal studies aimed at the cryopreservation of human tissue for transplantation.

  20. A comparison of the antigen-presenting capabilities of class II MHC-expressing human lung epithelial and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, A C; Zhang, J G; Moy, J V; Ali, S; Kirby, J A

    1997-01-01

    Human lung alveolar epithelial cells constitutively express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Human lung microvascular endothelial and small airway epithelial cells can be induced to express class II MHC by stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma. The levels of class II MHC on lung epithelial and endothelial cells were comparable to those seen on an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-cell line. However, the costimulatory molecules B7-1 and B7-2 were not expressed. The ability of the class II MHC expressing human lung parenchymal cells to present alloantigen to CD4+ T lymphocytes was investigated. Freshly isolated human alveolar epithelial cells (type II pneumocytes) and monolayers of interferon-gamma-stimulated small airway epithelial and lung microvascular endothelial cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocytes and proliferation determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. A clear difference was observed between effects of the epithelial and endothelial cells on CD4+ T-lymphocyte activation. Alveolar and small airway epithelial cells failed to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T lymphocytes whereas lung microvascular endothelial cells did stimulate proliferation. This difference could not be explained by the levels of class II MHC or the lack of B7-1 and B7-2 solely. Microvascular endothelial cells, and not alveolar or small airway epithelial cells, possess B7-independent costimulatory pathways. PMID:9301537

  1. Computerized lung nodule detection: comparison of performance for low-dose and standard-dose helical CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armato, Samuel G., III; Giger, Maryellen L.; Doi, Kunio; Bick, Ulrich; MacMahon, Heber

    2001-07-01

    The vast amount of image data acquired during a computed tomography (CT) scan makes lung nodule detection a burdensome task. Moreover, the growing acceptance of low-dose CT for lung cancer screening promises to further impact radiologists' workloads. Therefore, we have developed a computerized method to automatically analyze structures within a CT scan and identify those structures that represent lung nodules. Gray-level thresholding is performed to segment the lungs in each section to produce a segmented lung volume, which is then iteratively thresholded. At each iteration, remaining voxels are grouped into contiguous three-dimensional structures. Structures that satisfy a volume criterion then become nodule candidates. The set of nodule candidates is subjected to feature analysis. To distinguish candidates representing nodule and non-nodule structures, a rule-based approach is combined with an automated classifier. This method was applied to 43 standard-dose (diagnostic) CT scans and 13 low-dose CT scans. The method achieved an overall detection sensitivity of 71% with 1.5 false-positive detections per section on the standard-dose database and 71% sensitivity with 1.2 false-positive detections per section on the low-dose database. This automated method demonstrates promising performance in its ability to accurately detect lung nodules in standard-dose and low-dose CT images.

  2. Lung Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Lung transplant Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or ... lung, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is reserved for people who have tried other ...

  3. Lung surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung tissue that is diseased or damaged from emphysema or bronchiectasis Remove blood or blood clots ( hemothorax ) ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Collapsed Lung Emphysema Lung Cancer Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders Browse the ...

  4. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  5. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  6. A propensity-matched comparison of survival after lung resection in patients with a high versus low body mass index.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Saina; McShane, James; Whittle, Ian; Poullis, Michael; Shackcloth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    An inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of lung cancer has been reported in several studies. In this study, we aimed to assess whether BMI can affect survival after lung resection for cancer. We reviewed patient data for a 10-year period; 337 patients with BMI ≥ 30 who underwent lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer were identified. This group of patients was matched at a ratio of 1:1 to a group with BMI <30 and with similar characteristics such as sex, age, lung function test, history of smoking, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), procedure type, histology and stage of tumour. We also used the Kaplan-Meier survival curves before and after matching for the above mentioned patient characteristics. Before adjusting for the preoperative and operative characteristics, despite more history of diabetes, hypertension and renal impairment in patients with BMI ≥ 30 compared to those with BMI <30 (BMI = 18.5-30 and < 8.5), the survival rate was found to be significantly higher when analysed univariately (P = 0.02). This difference remained significant after adjusting for all the characteristics, suggesting a significantly higher survival rate in the group with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.04). Unlike in breast cancer, a high BMI in lung cancer patients after resection has protective effects. This may be due to the better nutritional status of the patient, a less aggressive cancer type that has not resulted in weight loss at the time of presentation or it may be due to certain hormones released from the adipose tissue. BMI can be a predictor of outcome after lung resection in cancer patients.

  7. Comparison of the effect of two fluid input regimens on perinatal lung function in ventilated infants of very low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Kavvadia, V; Greenough, A; Dimitriou, G; Hooper, R

    1999-11-01

    Fluid overload worsens respiratory failure; conversely, fluid restriction has been associated with a higher survival rate without chronic lung disease. We therefore hypothesised that fluid restriction in the perinatal period might improve lung function in ventilated, prematurely born infants of very low birthweight. As a consequence, we compared in a randomised trial the effect of two fluid regimes on perinatal lung function. On one regime infants were to receive 60 ml/kg on day 1, increasing to 150 ml/kg by day 7, and on the other regime approximately 25% less fluid was to be prescribed. Lung function was assessed by measurement of functional residual capacity (FRC) and compliance. Measurements were made daily on days 1 to 5 and then on day 7. Ninety infants, median gestational age 28 weeks (range 23-33), were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding their gestational age or birthweight, or in the proportions who received antenatal steroids or postnatal surfactant. The infants on the restricted regime received significantly less fluid (P < 0.01). The only significant differences in lung function between the two groups, however, were that the infants on the restricted regime had a higher mean compliance on day 3, but thereafter the difference was reversed. Colloid intake, however, unfavourably affected lung function, total colloid intake being negatively correlated with both the area under the curve of birth-adjusted FRC (P=0.003) and compliance (P=0.001). We conclude that early fluid restriction appears to have very little impact on perinatal lung function.

  8. Expected number of asbestos-related lung cancers in the Netherlands in the next two decades: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Van der Bij, Sjoukje; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Portengen, Lützen; Moons, Karel G M; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to asbestos fibres increases the risk of mesothelioma and lung cancer. Although the vast majority of mesothelioma cases are caused by asbestos exposure, the number of asbestos-related lung cancers is less clear. This number cannot be determined directly as lung cancer causes are not clinically distinguishable but may be estimated using varying modelling methods. We applied three different modelling methods to the Dutch population supplemented with uncertainty ranges (UR) due to uncertainty in model input values. The first method estimated asbestos-related lung cancer cases directly from observed and predicted mesothelioma cases in an age-period-cohort analysis. The second method used evidence on the fraction of lung cancer cases attributable (population attributable risk (PAR)) to asbestos exposure. The third method incorporated risk estimates and population exposure estimates to perform a life table analysis. The three methods varied substantially in incorporated evidence. Moreover, the estimated number of asbestos-related lung cancer cases in the Netherlands between 2011 and 2030 depended crucially on the actual method applied, as the mesothelioma method predicts 17 500 expected cases (UR 7000-57 000), the PAR method predicts 12 150 cases (UR 6700-19 000), and the life table analysis predicts 6800 cases (UR 6800-33 850). The three different methods described resulted in absolute estimates varying by a factor of ∼2.5. These results show that accurate estimation of the impact of asbestos exposure on the lung cancer burden remains a challenge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Poster — Thur Eve — 76: Dosimetric Comparison of Pinnacle and iPlan Algorithms with an Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.; Tambasco, M.; LaFontaine, R.; Burns, L.

    2014-08-15

    Our goal is to compare the dosimetric accuracy of the Pinnacle-3 9.2 Collapsed Cone Convolution Superposition (CCCS) and the iPlan 4.1 Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) algorithms in an anthropomorphic lung phantom using measurement as the gold standard. Ion chamber measurements were taken for 6, 10, and 18 MV beams in a CIRS E2E SBRT Anthropomorphic Lung Phantom, which mimics lung, spine, ribs, and tissue. The plan implemented six beams with a 5×5 cm{sup 2} field size, delivering a total dose of 48 Gy. Data from the planning systems were computed at the treatment isocenter in the left lung, and two off-axis points, the spinal cord and the right lung. The measurements were taken using a pinpoint chamber. The best results between data from the algorithms and our measurements occur at the treatment isocenter. For the 6, 10, and 18 MV beams, iPlan 4.1 MC software performs the best with 0.3%, 0.2%, and 4.2% absolute percent difference from measurement, respectively. Differences between our measurements and algorithm data are much greater for the off-axis points. The best agreement seen for the right lung and spinal cord is 11.4% absolute percent difference with 6 MV iPlan 4.1 PB and 18 MV iPlan 4.1 MC, respectively. As energy increases absolute percent difference from measured data increases up to 54.8% for the 18 MV CCCS algorithm. This study suggests that iPlan 4.1 MC computes peripheral dose and target dose in the lung more accurately than the iPlan 4.1 PB and Pinnicale CCCS algorithms.

  10. The activity of sodium cromoglycate analogues in human lung in vitro: a comparison with rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed Central

    Church, M. K.; Gradidge, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    1 Eleven analogues of sodium cromoglycate have been tested for their ability to suppress histamine release induced by anti-IgE from passively sensitized human lung fragments in vitro. 2 With the exception of WY 16922, which released histamine at high concentrations, all inhibited histamine release in a linear dose-related manner. 3 The analogues were 30 to 1500 times more potent than sodium cromoglycate. However, their regression slopes of activity upon log-concentration were only one-third as steep as that for sodium cromoglycate, indicating a possible difference in their mechanism of action. 4 In comparison with sodium cromoglycate, the analogues were more potent in human lung than in rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA); there was no quantitative correlation between potencies in the two tests. 5 The human lung model is not predictive of anti-asthmatic activity in man as the six analogues tested clinically are less effective than sodium cromoglycate. 6 These results throw doubt on the use of models of mast cell degranulation in the search for anti-allergic drugs and, possibly, on the relative importance of mast cell degranulation in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:6159030

  11. Quantum-dot-based suspension microarray for multiplex detection of lung cancer markers: preclinical validation and comparison with the Luminex xMAP® system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilan, Regina; Ametzazurra, Amagoia; Brazhnik, Kristina; Escorza, Sergio; Fernández, David; Uríbarri, María; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2017-03-01

    A novel suspension multiplex immunoassay for the simultaneous specific detection of lung cancer markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) clinical samples based on fluorescent microspheres having different size and spectrally encoded with quantum dots (QDEM) was developed. The designed suspension immunoassay was validated for the quantitative detection of three lung cancer markers in BALF samples from 42 lung cancer patients and 10 control subjects. Tumor markers were detected through simultaneous formation of specific immune complexes consisting of a capture molecule, the target antigen, and biotinylated recognition molecule on the surface of the different QDEM in a mixture. The immune complexes were visualized by fluorescently labeled streptavidin and simultaneously analyzed using a flow cytometer. Preclinical validation of the immunoassay was performed and results were compared with those obtained using an alternative 3-plex immunoassay based on Luminex xMAP® technology, developed on classical organic fluorophores. The comparison showed that the QDEM and xMAP® assays yielded almost identical results, with clear discrimination between control and clinical samples. Thus, developed QDEM technology can become a good alternative to xMAP® assays permitting analysis of multiple protein biomarkers using conventional flow cytometers.

  12. Quantum-dot-based suspension microarray for multiplex detection of lung cancer markers: preclinical validation and comparison with the Luminex xMAP® system

    PubMed Central

    Bilan, Regina; Ametzazurra, Amagoia; Brazhnik, Kristina; Escorza, Sergio; Fernández, David; Uríbarri, María; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2017-01-01

    A novel suspension multiplex immunoassay for the simultaneous specific detection of lung cancer markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) clinical samples based on fluorescent microspheres having different size and spectrally encoded with quantum dots (QDEM) was developed. The designed suspension immunoassay was validated for the quantitative detection of three lung cancer markers in BALF samples from 42 lung cancer patients and 10 control subjects. Tumor markers were detected through simultaneous formation of specific immune complexes consisting of a capture molecule, the target antigen, and biotinylated recognition molecule on the surface of the different QDEM in a mixture. The immune complexes were visualized by fluorescently labeled streptavidin and simultaneously analyzed using a flow cytometer. Preclinical validation of the immunoassay was performed and results were compared with those obtained using an alternative 3-plex immunoassay based on Luminex xMAP® technology, developed on classical organic fluorophores. The comparison showed that the QDEM and xMAP® assays yielded almost identical results, with clear discrimination between control and clinical samples. Thus, developed QDEM technology can become a good alternative to xMAP® assays permitting analysis of multiple protein biomarkers using conventional flow cytometers. PMID:28300171

  13. A Comparison of the Inflammatory and Proteolytic Effects of Dung Biomass and Cigarette Smoke Exposure in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Divya; Geraghty, Patrick M.; Hardigan, Andrew A.; Foronjy, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Biomass is the energy source for cooking and heating for billions of people worldwide. Despite their prevalent use and their potential impact on global health, the effects of these fuels on lung biology and function remain poorly understood. Methods We exposed human small airway epithelial cells and C57BL/6 mice to dung biomass smoke or cigarette smoke to compare how these exposures impacted lung signaling and inflammatory and proteolytic responses that have been linked with disease pathogenesis. Results The in vitro exposure and siRNA studies demonstrated that biomass and cigarette smoke activated ERK to up regulate IL-8 and MMP-1 expression in human airway epithelial cells. In contrast to cigarette smoke, biomass also activated p38 and JNK within these lung cells and lowered the expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). Similarly, in the lungs of mice, both biomass and cigarette smoke exposure increased macrophages, activated ERK and p38 and up regulated MMP-9 and MMP-12 expression. The main differences seen in the exposure studies was that mice exposed to biomass exhibited more perivascular inflammation and had higher G-CSF and GM-CSF lavage fluid levels than mice exposed identically to cigarette smoke. Conclusion Biomass activates similar pathogenic processes seen in cigarette smoke exposure that are known to result in the disruption of lung structure. These findings provide biological evidence that public health interventions are needed to address the harm associated with the use of this fuel source. PMID:23285217

  14. Comparison of two radiolabeled quinuclidinyl benzilate ligands for the characterization of the human peripheral lung muscarinic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Joad, J.P.; Casale, T.B.

    1987-09-28

    Quinuclidinyl benzilate, a muscarinic antagonist, has previously been used in its tritiated form ((/sup 3/H)-QNB) to study the lung muscarinic receptor. The authors investigated whether a newer iodinated form of QNB ((/sup 125/I)-QNB) of higher specific activity would be an appropriate ligand to study the human peripheral lung muscarinic receptor. Both the tritiated and iodinated ligands bound specifically to human lung at 23/sup 0/C. At 37/sup 0/C the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-QNB increased slightly, but no specific binding of (/sup 125/I)-QNB was found. The data from multiple equilibrium binding experiments covering a wide range of radiolabeled QNB concentrations were combined and analyzed using the computer modeling program, LIGAND. The tritiated QNB identified a single affinity human lung binding site with a Kd of 46 +/- 9 pM. The iodinated QNB identified a single higher affinity human lung binding site of much smaller quantity. Competition studies comparing the binding of unlabeled QNB relative to labeled QNB indicated that unlabeled QNB had the same Kd as that measured for (/sup 3/H)-QNB, but a 5 log greater Kd than that measured for (/sup 125/I)-QNB. Other muscarinic receptor agonists and antagonists competed with (/sup 3/H)QNB, but not (/sup 125/I)-QNB for binding to muscarinic receptors with the expected magnitude and rank order of potency. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Isolation of mast cells from rabbit lung and liver: comparison of histamine release induced by the hypnotics Althesin and propanidid.

    PubMed

    Ennis, M; Lorenz, W; Gerland, W; Heise, J

    1987-04-01

    The enzyme collagenase was used to disperse rabbit lung and liver into their component cells. The resulting cell suspensions contained ca. 6.9% (lung) or 6.5% (liver) mast cells and were used in studies of histamine release without further purification. Both cell suspensions exhibited a low spontaneous release of histamine (ca. 6.6% lung, ca. 7.2% liver). Both cell types responded to challenge with anti-rabbit serum with a maximum release of the amine of ca. 22% (lung) and ca. 45% (liver). Concanavalin A challenge generally resulted in bell-shaped dose response curves, however some lung preparations did not respond. The rabbit cells were refractory to stimulation by Compound 48/80 and dextran. However a dose-dependent release of histamine was elicited after challenge with the detergents cremophor El, TN (12-hydroxystearic acid polymerized with ethylene oxide, degree of polymerization 15) and the hypnotics Althesin and propanidid. The maximum release observed depended on which cell preparation had been used. These results further emphasize the functional heterogeneity of mast cells from both different species and from different organs within the same species.

  16. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  17. In Vivo Testing of Extracorporeal Membrane Ventilators: iLA-Activve Versus Prototype I-Lung.

    PubMed

    Kischkel, Sabine; Bergt, Stefan; Brock, Beate; von Grönheim, Johan; Herbst, Anne; Epping, Marc-Jonas; Matheis, Georg; Novosel, Esther; Schneider, Joerg; Warnke, Philipp; Podbielski, Andreas; Roesner, Jan P; Lelkes, Peter I; Vollmar, Brigitte

    A side-by-side comparison of the decarboxylation efficacy of two pump-driven venovenous extracorporeal lung assist devices, i.e., a first prototype of the new miniaturized ambulatory extracorporeal membrane ventilator, I-lung versus the commercial system iLA-activve for more than a period of 72 hours in a large animal model. Fifteen German Landrace pigs were anesthetized and underwent mechanical hypoventilation to induce severe hypercapnia. Decarboxylation was accomplished by either the I-lung or the iLA-activve via a double lumen catheter in the jugular vein. Sham-operated pigs were not connected to extracorporeal devices. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic parameters were continuously monitored, combined with periodic arterial blood sampling for subsequent clinical blood diagnostics, such as gas exchange, hemolysis, coagulation parameters, and cytokine profiles. At the termination of the studies, lung tissue was harvested and examined histologically for pulmonary morphology and leukocyte tissue infiltration. Both extracorporeal devices showed high and comparable efficacy with respect to carbon dioxide elimination for more than 72 hours and were not associated with either bleeding events or clotting disorders. Pigs of both groups showed cardiovascular and hemodynamic stability without marked differences to sham-operated animals. Groups also did not differ in terms of inflammatory and metabolic parameters. We established a preclinical in vivo porcine model for comparative long-term testing of I-lung and iLA-activve. The I-lung prototype proved to be safe and feasible, providing adequate decarboxylation without any adverse events. Once translated into the clinical treatment, the new miniaturized and transportable I-lung device might represent a promising tool for treating awake and mobilized patients with decompensated pulmonary disorders.

  18. SU-F-BRD-05: Dosimetric Comparison of Protocol-Based SBRT Lung Treatment Modalities: Statistically Significant VMAT Advantages Over Fixed- Beam IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R; Harrell, A; Geesey, C; Libby, B; Wijesooriya, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to inter-compare and find statistically significant differences between flattened field fixed-beam (FB) IMRT with flattening-filter free (FFF) volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for stereotactic body radiation therapy SBRT. Methods: SBRT plans using FB IMRT and FFF VMAT were generated for fifteen SBRT lung patients using 6 MV beams. For each patient, both IMRT and VMAT plans were created for comparison. Plans were generated utilizing RTOG 0915 (peripheral, 10 patients) and RTOG 0813 (medial, 5 patients) lung protocols. Target dose, critical structure dose, and treatment time were compared and tested for statistical significance. Parameters of interest included prescription isodose surface coverage, target dose heterogeneity, high dose spillage (location and volume), low dose spillage (location and volume), lung dose spillage, and critical structure maximum- and volumetric-dose limits. Results: For all criteria, we found equivalent or higher conformality with VMAT plans as well as reduced critical structure doses. Several differences passed a Student's t-test of significance: VMAT reduced the high dose spillage, evaluated with conformality index (CI), by an average of 9.4%±15.1% (p=0.030) compared to IMRT. VMAT plans reduced the lung volume receiving 20 Gy by 16.2%±15.0% (p=0.016) compared with IMRT. For the RTOG 0915 peripheral lesions, the volumes of lung receiving 12.4 Gy and 11.6 Gy were reduced by 27.0%±13.8% and 27.5%±12.6% (for both, p<0.001) in VMAT plans. Of the 26 protocol pass/fail criteria, VMAT plans were able to achieve an average of 0.2±0.7 (p=0.026) more constraints than the IMRT plans. Conclusions: FFF VMAT has dosimetric advantages over fixed beam IMRT for lung SBRT. Significant advantages included increased dose conformity, and reduced organs-at-risk doses. The overall improvements in terms of protocol pass/fail criteria were more modest and will require more patient data to establish difference

  19. Prognostic Significance of Modified Advanced Lung Cancer Inflammation Index (ALI) in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer_ Comparison with Original ALI

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Saing; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Inkeun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced lung cancer inflammation index (ALI, body mass index [BMI] x serum albumin/neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR]) has been shown to predict overall survival (OS) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). CT enables skeletal muscle to be quantified, whereas BMI cannot accurately reflect body composition. The purpose was to evaluate prognostic value of modified ALI (mALI) using CT-determined L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) beyond original ALI. Methods L3MIs were calculated using the CT images of 186 consecutive patients with SCLC taken at diagnosis, and mALI was defined as L3MI x serum albumin/NLR. Using chi-squared test determined maximum cut-offs for low ALI and low mALI, the prognostic values of low ALI and low mALI were tested using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Finally, deviance statistics was used to test whether the goodness of fit of the prognostic model is improved by adding mALI as an extra variable. Results Patients with low ALI (cut-off, 31.1, n = 94) had shorter OS than patients with high ALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 15.8 months; p < 0.001), and patients with low mALI (cut-off 67.7, n = 94) had shorter OS than patients with high mALI (median, 6.8 months vs. 16.5 months; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in estimates of median survival time between low ALI and low mALI (z = 0.000, p = 1.000) and between high ALI and high mALI (z = 0.330, p = 0.740). Multivariable analysis showed that low ALI was an independent prognostic factor for shorter OS (HR, 1.67, p = 0.004), along with advanced age (HR, 1.49, p = 0.045), extensive disease (HR, 2.27, p < 0.001), supportive care only (HR, 7.86, p < 0.001), and elevated LDH (HR, 1.45, p = 0.037). Furthermore, goodness of fit of this prognostic model was not significantly increased by adding mALI as an extra variable (LR difference = 2.220, p = 0.136). Conclusion The present study confirms mALI using CT-determined L3MI has no additional prognostic

  20. Lung involvement in Sjögren's syndrome: a comparison between patients with primary and with secondary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vitali, C; Tavoni, A; Viegi, G; Begliomini, E; Agnesi, A; Bombardieri, S

    1985-01-01

    Lung function was assessed in 20 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and in a group of patients with SS associated with a variety of connective tissue diseases. Signs of small airway disease and of altered diffusion capacity, together with chest x-ray features of mild interstitial involvement, were the most common findings in primary SS. On the whole, lung involvement was more frequent and severe in patients with the secondary form of the syndrome. In both primary and secondary SS lung function changes did not correlate with the other clinical and serological parameters, except for a more severe impairment of diffusion capacity in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. PMID:4026406

  1. Comparison of fully automated and semi-automated biopsy needles for lung biopsy under CT fluoroscopic guidance

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, R; Yamagami, T; Tanaka, O; Miura, H; Tanaka, T; Suzuki, T; Nishimura, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare two different automated biopsy needles, a fully automated biopsy needle (Monopty; Bard, Covington, GA) and a semi-automated biopsy needle (Temno; Bauer Medical, Clearwater, FL), for lung biopsy. Methods 50 consecutive percutaneous lung biopsies using the Monopty needle between June 2006 and January 2007 and 66 consecutive lung biopsies for 1 nodule in each session using the Temno needle between February 2007 and August 2008 were performed under CT fluoroscopic guidance followed by histopathological evaluation. Results In 42/50 lung biopsies performed with the Monopty needle and 54/66 lung biopsies performed with the Temno needle, the final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathological findings or clinical follow-up. Sufficient samples for histopathological evaluation were obtained in all 50 (100%) biopsies using the Monopty needle and in 55 (83.3%) of the 66 biopsies using the Temno needle (p<0.01). Accurate diagnosis was achieved in 41 (97.6%) of 42 biopsies using the Monopty needle and in 45 (83.3%) of 54 biopsies using the Temno needle (p=0.04). Biopsy-induced complications were pneumothorax, haemoptysis and haemothorax in 44.0%, 10.0% and 6.0% of biopsies, respectively, using the Monopty needle and in 48.3%, 8.3% and 3.3%, respectively, using the Temno needle. Conclusion There is a possibility that a fully automated biopsy needle such as the Monopty is more useful for CT scan-guided lung biopsy than semi-automated biopsy needles. PMID:21828150

  2. Early identification of small airways disease on lung cancer screening CT: comparison of current air trapping measures.

    PubMed

    Mets, Onno M; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Isgum, Ivana; Gietema, Hester A; van Ginneken, Bram; Prokop, Mathias; de Jong, Pim A

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancer screening CT scans might provide valuable information about air trapping as an early indicator of smoking-related lung disease. We studied which of the currently suggested measures is most suitable for detecting functionally relevant air trapping on low-dose computed tomography (CT) in a population of subjects with early-stage disease. This study was ethically approved and informed consent was obtained. Three quantitative CT air trapping measures were compared against a functional reference standard in 427 male lung cancer screening participants. This reference standard for air trapping was derived from the residual volume over total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) beyond the 95th percentile of predicted. The following CT air trapping measures were compared: expiratory to inspiratory relative volume change of voxels with attenuation values between -860 and -950 Hounsfield Units (RVC(-860 to -950)), expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio(MLD)) and percentage of voxels below -856 HU in expiration (EXP(-856)). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed and area under the ROC curve compared. Functionally relevant air trapping was present in 38 (8.9 %) participants. E/I-ratio(MLD) showed the largest area under the curve (0.85, 95 % CI 0.813-0.883), which was significantly larger than RVC(-860 to -950) (0.703, 0.657-0.746; p < 0.001) and EXP(-856) (0.798, 0.757-0.835; p = 0.002). At the optimum for sensitivity and specificity, E/I-ratio(MLD) yielded an accuracy of 81.5 %. The expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio(MLD)) is most suitable for detecting air trapping on low-dose screening CT and performs significantly better than other suggested quantitative measures.

  3. The impact of the regimen of screening on lung cancer cure: a comparison of I-ELCAP and NLST.

    PubMed

    Yip, Rowena; Henschke, Claudia I; Yankelevitz, David F; Boffetta, Paolo; Smith, James P

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the regimen of screening on the frequency of early diagnosis and resection in two computed tomography screening programs. The stage and size distribution of all screen-diagnosed lung cancers was compared. A total of 775 patients in the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (I-ELCAP) and 664 patients in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) were screen-diagnosed; that is, resulting from a positive result requiring further diagnostic workup. The frequency of stage I diagnoses, resections, tumor size, and lung cancer-specific survival were determined. Cox regression was used to identify the key determinants of lung cancer cure. The frequency of clinical stage I lung cancer in I-ELCAP was 82%, and in the NLST it was 67% (P<0.0001). The frequency of stage I (pathologic and clinical if not resected) was 78% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Surgical resection was performed in 86% (664/755) in I-ELCAP and 76% (492/644, P<0.0001) in the NLST. The average tumor size was 17 mm in I-ELCAP and 23 mm in the NLST (P<0.0001). The 5-year survival rate was 83% in I-ELCAP and 62% in the NLST (P<0.0001). Cox regression showed that I-ELCAP provided a 50% better survival benefit than the NLST and that stage I and resection were key determinants of survival, independent of age, smoking history, and tumor size. The higher frequency of stage I disease and resection and smaller tumor size resulted in a significantly higher survival rate in I-ELCAP than in the NLST. These differences strongly support the importance of a specified regimen of screening, as alternative explanations have been addressed.

  4. Comparison of four lung scoring systems for the assessment of the pathological outcomes derived from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae experimental infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, four lung lesion scoring methods (Slaughterhouse Pleurisy Evaluation System [SPES], Consolidation Lung Lesion Score [LLS], Image analyses [IA] and Ratio of lung weight/body weight [LW/BW]) were compared for the assessment of the different pathological outcomes derived from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) experimental infection model. Moreover, pathological data was coupled with clinical (fever, inappetence and clinical score), production (average daily weigh gain [ADWG]) and diagnostic (PCR, ELISA and bacterial isolation) parameters within the four infection outcomes (peracute, acute, subclinically infected and non-infected). Results From the 61 inoculated animals, 9 were classified as peracute (presence of severe App-like clinical signs and lesions and sudden death or euthanasia shortly after inoculation), 31 as acutely affected (presence of App-like clinical signs and lesions and survival until the end of the experiment), 12 as subclinically infected (very mild or no clinical signs but App infection confirmed) and 9 as non-infected animals (lack of App-like clinical signs and lack of evidence of App infection). A significant correlation between all lung lesion scoring systems was found with the exception of SPES score versus LW/BW. SPES showed a statistically significant association with all clinical, production and diagnostic (with the exception of PCR detection of App in the tonsil) variables assessed. LLS and IA showed similar statistically significant associations as SPES, with the exception of seroconversion against App at necropsy. In contrast, LW/BW was statistically associated only with App isolation in lungs, presence of App-like lesions and ELISA OD values at necropsy. Conclusions In conclusion, SPES, LLS and IA are economic, fast and easy-to-perform lung scoring methods that, in combination with different clinical and diagnostic parameters, allow the characterization of different outcomes after App infection. PMID

  5. Comparison of lung cancer cell lines representing four histopathological subtypes with gene expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD), squamous cell carcinoma (SQ), large cell carcinoma (LC), and small cell carcinoma (SC). Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Results We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA) and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9). From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L). Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA) of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2). The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression. Conclusions These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results confirm that q

  6. Transcriptomic and Epigenetic Profiling of the Lung of Influenza-Infected Pigs: A Comparison of Different Birth Weight and Susceptibility Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Jamie M.; Gunvaldsen, Rayna E.; Detmer, Susan E.; Dyck, Michael K.; Dixon, Walter T.; Foxcroft, George R.; Plastow, Graham S.; Harding, John C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a common cause of respiratory disease in swine. Infections range in severity from asymptomatic to causing significant morbidity. The main objective of this study was to compare lung transcriptomic and epigenetic responses to influenza infection in pigs from high or low birth weight litters. The latter is a potential indicator of intrauterine growth restriction, a significant risk factor for prenatal programming effects. Individual pigs from high (HBW) or low birth weight (LBW) litters (n = 17) were inoculated with influenza A virus and euthanized 48 hours later. Lesion severity and viral loads were assessed as previously described. The transcriptional response to infection in LBW and HBW groups (n = 16) was assessed by microarray. A separate analysis of pigs classified as ‘Resilient’ (RES) or ‘Susceptible’ (SUS) (n = 6) on the basis of severity of lung pathology was also conducted. Eight genes were confirmed as differentially expressed for the birth weight comparison, including three antiviral genes with lower expression in LBW: ISG15, OAS1, and OAS2 (P<0.05). The promoter region methylation status of these three genes was assessed for each birth weight group, and no differences were found. These expression data are consistent with our previous finding that LBW pigs had less severe lesion scores and a trend towards lower viral titres in lung than the HBW cohort. The SUS v RES comparison identified 91 differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05) that were enriched with functional annotation terms and pathways associated with inflammation. The cytokine genes IL6, IL8, and CCL2 were all upregulated in SUS pigs, and may have driven disease severity in these animals. In conclusion, this study found no evidence that the transcriptional immune response to influenza was adversely affected by low litter birth weight, but did identify several candidate genes for driving disease pathology. PMID:26393920

  7. Radiation-associated lung cancer: A comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.; Shimosato, Y.; Saccomanno, G.; Tokuoka, S.; Auerbach, O.; Tateishi, R.; Greenberg, S.D.; Nambu, S.; Carter, D.; Akiba, S. )

    1993-05-01

    A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous-cell cancer, small-cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous-cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small-cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was accounted for adequately by differences in radiation dose or, more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published data. Radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas, in both populations. The data appeared to require no additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs external radiation source, or other population difference.

  8. Radiation-associated lung cancer: a comparison of the histology of lung cancers in uranium miners and survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    PubMed

    Land, C E; Shimosato, Y; Saccomanno, G; Tokuoka, S; Auerbach, O; Tateishi, R; Greenberg, S D; Nambu, S; Carter, D; Akiba, S

    1993-05-01

    A binational panel of Japanese and American pulmonary pathologists reviewed tissue slides of lung cancer cases diagnosed among Japanese A-bomb survivors and American uranium miners and classified the cases according to histological subtype. Blind reviews were completed on slides from 92 uranium miners and 108 A-bomb survivors, without knowledge of population, sex, age, smoking history, or level of radiation exposure. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous-cell cancer, small-cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous-cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small-cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was accounted for adequately by differences in radiation dose or, more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published data. Radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas, in both populations. The data appeared to require no additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs external radiation source, or other population difference.

  9. Performance comparison of classifiers for differentiation among obstructive lung diseases based on features of texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Seo, Joon Beom; Kang, Bokyoung; Kim, Dongil; Lee, June Goo; Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Namkug; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    The performance of classification algorithms for differentiating among obstructive lung diseases based on features from texture analysis using HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images was compared. HRCT can provide accurate information for the detection of various obstructive lung diseases, including centrilobular emphysema, panlobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans. Features on HRCT images can be subtle, however, particularly in the early stages of disease, and image-based diagnosis is subject to inter-observer variation. To automate the diagnosis and improve the accuracy, we compared three types of automated classification systems, naÃve Bayesian classifier, ANN (Artificial Neural Net) and SVM (Support Vector Machine), based on their ability to differentiate among normal lung and three types of obstructive lung diseases. To assess the performance and cross-validation of these three classifiers, 5 folding methods with 5 randomly chosen groups were used. For a more robust result, each validation was repeated 100 times. SVM showed the best performance, with 86.5% overall sensitivity, significantly different from the other classifiers (one way ANOVA, p<0.01). We address the characteristics of each classifier affecting performance and the issue of which classifier is the most suitable for clinical applications, and propose an appropriate method to choose the best classifier and determine its optimal parameters for optimal disease discrimination. These results can be applied to classifiers for differentiation of other diseases.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Algorithms in Lung IMRT: A comparison of Monte Carlo, Pencil Beam, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Convolution Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Verma, T; Painuly, N K; Mishra, S P; Shajahan, M; Singh, N; Bhatt, M L B; Jamal, N; Pant, M C

    2016-09-01

    Inclusion of inhomogeneity corrections in intensity modulated small fields always makes conformal irradiation of lung tumor very complicated in accurate dose delivery. In the present study, the performance of five algorithms via Monte Carlo, Pencil Beam, Convolution, Fast Superposition and Superposition were evaluated in lung cancer Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy planning. Treatment plans for ten lung cancer patients previously planned on Monte Carlo algorithm were re-planned using same treatment planning indices (gantry angel, rank, power etc.) in other four algorithms. The values of radiotherapy planning parameters such as Mean dose, volume of 95% isodose line, Conformity Index, Homogeneity Index for target, Maximum dose, Mean dose; %Volume receiving 20Gy or more by contralateral lung; % volume receiving 30 Gy or more; % volume receiving 25 Gy or more, Mean dose received by heart; %volume receiving 35Gy or more; %volume receiving 50Gy or more, Mean dose to Easophagous; % Volume receiving 45Gy or more, Maximum dose received by Spinal cord and Total monitor unit, Volume of 50 % isodose lines were recorded for all ten patients. Performance of different algorithms was also evaluated statistically. MC and PB algorithms found better as for tumor coverage, dose distribution homogeneity in Planning Target Volume and minimal dose to organ at risks are concerned. Superposition algorithms found to be better than convolution and fast superposition. In the case of tumors located centrally, it is recommended to use Monte Carlo algorithms for the optimal use of radiotherapy.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Algorithms in Lung IMRT: A comparison of Monte Carlo, Pencil Beam, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Convolution Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Verma, T.; Painuly, N.K.; Mishra, S.P.; Shajahan, M.; Singh, N.; Bhatt, M.L.B.; Jamal, N.; Pant, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inclusion of inhomogeneity corrections in intensity modulated small fields always makes conformal irradiation of lung tumor very complicated in accurate dose delivery. Objective: In the present study, the performance of five algorithms via Monte Carlo, Pencil Beam, Convolution, Fast Superposition and Superposition were evaluated in lung cancer Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy planning. Materials and Methods: Treatment plans for ten lung cancer patients previously planned on Monte Carlo algorithm were re-planned using same treatment planning indices (gantry angel, rank, power etc.) in other four algorithms. Results: The values of radiotherapy planning parameters such as Mean dose, volume of 95% isodose line, Conformity Index, Homogeneity Index for target, Maximum dose, Mean dose; %Volume receiving 20Gy or more by contralateral lung; % volume receiving 30 Gy or more; % volume receiving 25 Gy or more, Mean dose received by heart; %volume receiving 35Gy or more; %volume receiving 50Gy or more, Mean dose to Easophagous; % Volume receiving 45Gy or more, Maximum dose received by Spinal cord and Total monitor unit, Volume of 50 % isodose lines were recorded for all ten patients. Performance of different algorithms was also evaluated statistically. Conclusion: MC and PB algorithms found better as for tumor coverage, dose distribution homogeneity in Planning Target Volume and minimal dose to organ at risks are concerned. Superposition algorithms found to be better than convolution and fast superposition. In the case of tumors located centrally, it is recommended to use Monte Carlo algorithms for the optimal use of radiotherapy. PMID:27853720

  12. Overexpression of Porcine Beta-Defensin 2 Enhances Resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu; Zhou, Rui

    2015-07-01

    To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Overexpression of Porcine Beta-Defensin 2 Enhances Resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:25916992

  14. Comparison of a basic lung scanning protocol against formally reported chest x‐ray in the diagnosis of pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Geoffrey; Thompson, Angus G; Stieler, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Brief lung scan protocols have been recommended as a useful adjunct to identify pulmonary oedema in the breathless elderly patient. Some papers quote diagnostic accuracies above that of chest x‐ray. Method: We recruited a prospective convenience sample of patients over sixty years of age reporting any breathlessness on presentation to the emergency department. Those who received both bedside lung scan and chest x‐ray later had their case notes audited by an expert cardiologist for the cause of their breathlessness at presentation. Admission diagnosis was also extracted. Results: 204 comparative data sets were collected. Compared with cardiologist chart review, delayed expert radiology report had a diagnostic accuracy of 92.2% (95%CI 87.6 to 95.1). Bedside interpretation of lung scan protocol had a diagnostic accuracy of 85.3% (95%CI 79.8 to 89.5). The difference of 6.9% between the two accuracy measures was significant (95%CI 0.69 to 13.1). Admission diagnosis accuracy, which encompasses inexpert x‐ray interpretation was 70.2%(95%CI 62.9 to 76.6), significantly less than either lung scan or expert chest x‐ray report. Conclusion: For identifying heart failure in breathless patients, urgent chest x‐ray with delayed formal report has not been shown to be redundant. Basic lung scan protocols should not yet replace chest x‐ray, but may be more reliable in the interim than inexpert clinician interpretation of chest x‐rays. PMID:28191195

  15. Comparison of early lung clearance of yellowcake aerosols in rats with in vitro dissolution and IR analysis.

    PubMed

    Damon, E G; Eidson, A F; Hahn, F F; Griffith, W C; Guilmette, R A

    1984-04-01

    The lung retention of uranium was determined in rats that inhaled aerosols of commercial yellowcake powders obtained from two mills (Mill A and Mill D) and whose chemical composition and solubilities in vitro were significantly different. Analysis by IR absorption indicated Mill A yellowcake contained 82% ammonium diuranate (ADU) and 18% U3O8. The Mill D powder contained 25% ADU and 75% U3O8. In vitro dissolution studies indicated for the Mill A sample, approximately 85% of the uranium had a dissolution half-time (T 1/2) of less than one day, with the remainder dissolving with a half-time of 500 days. For the Mill D sample, 25% had T 1/2 less than one day and 75% had T 1/2 of 300 days. Groups of 50 rats were exposed by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of either the Mill A or the Mill D yellowcake. Rats were sacrificed in groups of five at intervals through six months after exposure. Selected tissues and excreta samples were assayed by fluorometry to determine their uranium contents. For the Mill A yellowcake, 78% initial lung (broncho-alveolar) burden cleared with T 1/2 of 0.5 days, and 22% with T 1/2 of 240 days. For the Mill D yellowcake, 25% initial lung burden cleared with T 1/2 of 3.5 days and 75% with T 1/2 of 110 days. Thus, the lung clearance of uranium in the rat mimicked the in vitro dissolution data and supported the contention that ADU should be considered as a Class D compound (T 1/2 = 0.5 days) and U3O8 behaves in the lung as a Class Y (T 1/2 greater than 100 days) material.

  16. Small molecule distribution in rat lung: a comparison of various cryoprotectants as inflation media and their applicability to MSI.

    PubMed

    Baijnath, Sooraj; Shobo, Adeola; Bester, Linda A; Singh, Sanil D; Kruger, Gert; Naicker, Tricia; Govender, Thavendran

    2016-04-01

    Given the recent explosion of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI), it has become easier to assess drug tissue localisation without the use of radiolabeling and other more complex methods (such as PET and MRI). For MSI tissue preparation is of utmost importance, however, the lung in particular does pose some difficulties with imaging since it is made up of a number of air-filled alveoli. These organs are known to collapse when the thoracic cavity is pierced, losing its structural integrity and giving poor histological representation for drug distribution analysis. The use of cryoprotectants as a tissue inflation media will aid in the preservation of the lung's structural integrity during MSI experiments involving small molecule distribution. Various established cryoprotectants (DMSO, PvP, ethylene glycol, sucrose, DMEM, control serum, OCT) were selected as lung inflation media for MSI analysis of gatifloxacin (GAT). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with GAT (10 mg/kg b.w) via i.p. injection. After 15 min the animals were terminated by halothane overdose, and each set of tissue inflated with a specific agent. Cryosections were made and MSI conducted to determine drug tissue distribution. During the early stages of the experimental procedure some crypreservatives were eliminated due to difficulties with sample preparation. While others displayed excellent preservation of the tissue structure and integrity. Following MSI analysis, some agents showed homogenous drug distribution while some displayed heterogeneous distribution favoring the basal periphery. Taking into account the physiology of the lung and previous MRI investigations of its perfusion, it is expected that a systemically administered drug would localize in the basal areas. DMSO and DMEM proved to display this distribution pattern while keeping structural integrity intact. However, the later was ruled out since it showed complete suppression of GAT in solution. From the cryoprotectants selected for this

  17. SU-E-T-26: A Dosimetric Comparison of Two Treatment Setups for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D; Wang, X; Gao, S; Nitsch, P; Pollard, J; Sadagopan, R; Balter, P

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of treating lung SBRT patients with the ipsilateral arm adducted beside the body instead of elevated above the head. Methods: Patients receiving lung SBRT at our institution are typically treated with both arms raised above their head. However, several patients had difficulty maintaining their arms in an elevated position. In this study, lung SBRT patients who underwent PET-CT imaging with an adducted ipsilateral arm were selected to investigate the dosimetric effects of this treatment setup. PET-CT datasets were fused with treatment planning CT images to simulate the adducted arm position. One VMAT treatment plan was created per patient using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Plans were optimized to achieve minimal dose to the ipsilateral arm while keeping the target coverage and critical structure doses within clinical limits. The target dose coverage, conformity index (CI) for the target, and DVHs of critical structures for the adducted arm plan were calculated. These parameters were compared with the clinical plan and reported along with the mean and maximum doses of the ipsilateral arm. Results: The target coverage, CI and DVHs for the adducted arm plans of two patients (one with peripheral lesion and one with central lesion) were comparable with the clinical plans. Dose constraints for the chest wall limited further reduction of ipsilateral arm doses for the peripheral lesion plan. The mean ipsilateral arm doses for the central and peripheral lesions were 0.33 Gy and 2.4 Gy, respectively. The maximum ipsilateral arm doses for the central and peripheral lesions were 1.0 Gy and 6.2 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggested patients with central lung SBRT tumors were more suitable for treatment with the adducted arm position. More patients with various lung tumor locations will be studied to find optimal tumor locations for treatment with this arm position.

  18. Immunodiagnosis of porcine cysticercosis: identification of candidate antigens through immunoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Masmela, Yuliet; Fragoso, Gladis; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Rosas, Gabriela; Estrada, Karel; Carrero, Julio César; Sciutto, Edda; Laclette, Juan P; Bobes, Raúl J

    2013-12-01

    Cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, is a zoonotic disease affecting pigs and humans that is endemic to developing countries in Latin America, Africa and South East Asia. The prevalence of infection in pigs, the intermediate host for T. solium, has been used as an indicator for monitoring disease transmission in endemic areas. However, accurate and specific diagnostic tools for porcine cysticercosis remain to be established. Using proteomic approaches and the T. solium genome sequence, seven antigens were identified as specific for porcine cysticercosis, namely, tropomyosin 2, alpha-1 tubulin, beta-tubulin 2, annexin B1, small heat-shock protein, 14-3-3 protein, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. None of these proteins were cross-reactive when tested with sera from pigs infected with Ascaris spp., Cysticercus tenuicollis and hydatid cysts of Echinococcus spp. or with serum from a Taenia saginata-infected cow. Comparison with orthologues, indicated that the amino acid sequences of annexin B1 and cAMP-dependent protein kinase possessed highly specific regions, which might make them suitable candidates for development of a specific diagnostic assay for porcine cysticercosis.

  19. Comparison and evaluation of conventional RT-PCR, SYBR green I and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinrong; Zhang, Tiansheng; Song, Deping; Huang, Tao; Peng, Qi; Chen, Yanjun; Li, Anqi; Zhang, Fanfan; Wu, Qiong; Ye, Yu; Tang, Yuxin

    2017-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious intestinal disease, resulting in substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, three assays, namely a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved M gene of PEDV, were developed and evaluated. Then, the analytical specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility of these assays were determined and compared. The TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 100-fold and 10,000-fold more sensitive than that of the SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and the conventional RT-PCR, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was 10 copies/μl of target gene and no cross amplification with other viruses tested was observed. With the features of high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR established in this study could be a useful tool for clinical diagnosis, epidemiological surveys and outbreak investigations of PED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison and combination of blood DNA methylation at smoking-associated genes and at lung cancer-related genes in prediction of lung cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Breitling, Lutz P; Balavarca, Yesilda; Holleczek, Bernd; Schöttker, Ben; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-12-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies have established methylation patterns related to smoking, the major risk factor of lung cancer (LC), which are distinct from methylation profiles disclosed in LC patients. This study simultaneously investigated associations of smoking-associated and LC-related methylation markers with LC mortality. DNA methylation was determined by HM450K assay in baseline blood samples of 1,565 older adults in a population-based case-cohort study. The associations of 151 smoking-associated CpGs (smoCpGs) and 3,806 LC-related CpGs (caCpGs) with LC mortality were assessed by weighted Cox regression models, controlling for potential confounders. Multi-loci methylation scores were separately constructed based on smoCpGs and caCpGs. During a median follow-up of 13.8 years, 60 participants who had a first diagnosis of LC died from LC. The average time between sample collection and LC diagnosis was 5.8 years. Hypomethylation at 77 smoCpGs and 121 caCpGs, and hypermethylation at 4 smoCpGs and 66 caCpGs were associated with LC mortality. The associations were much stronger for smoCpGs than for caCpGs. Hazard ratios (95% CI) were 7.82 (2.91-21.00) and 2.27 (0.75-6.85), respectively, for participants in highest quartile of Score I (based on 81 smoCpGs) and Score II (based on 187 caCpGs), compared with participants in the corresponding lower three quartiles. Score I outperformed Score II, with an optimism-corrected C-index of 0.87 vs. 0.77. In conclusion, although methylation changes of both smoking-associated and LC-related genes are associated with LC mortality, only smoking-associated methylation markers predict LC mortality with high accuracy, and may thus serve as promising candidates to identify high risk populations for LC screening. © 2016 UICC.