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Sample records for pore expansion mediated

  1. Virial series expansion and Monte Carlo studies of equation of state for hard spheres in narrow cylindrical pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the virial series expansion and constant pressure Monte Carlo method are used to study the longitudinal pressure equation of state for hard spheres in narrow cylindrical pores. We invoke dimensional reduction and map the model into an effective one-dimensional fluid model with interacting internal degrees of freedom. The one-dimensional model is extensive. The Euler relation holds, and longitudinal pressure can be probed with the standard virial series expansion method. Virial coefficients B2 and B3 were obtained analytically, and numerical quadrature was used for B4. A range of narrow pore widths (2 Rp) , Rp<(√{3 }+2 ) /4 =0.9330 ... (in units of the hard sphere diameter) was used, corresponding to fluids in the important single-file formations. We have also computed the virial pressure series coefficients B2', B3', and B4' to compare a truncated virial pressure series equation of state with accurate constant pressure Monte Carlo data. We find very good agreement for a wide range of pressures for narrow pores. These results contribute toward increasing the rather limited understanding of virial coefficients and the equation of state of hard sphere fluids in narrow cylindrical pores.

  2. Axonal Degeneration Is Mediated by the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Sebastian A.; Martinez, Nicolas W.; Yoo, Soonmoon; Jara, Juan S.; Zamorano, Sebastian; Hetz, Claudio; Twiss, Jeffery L.; Alvarez, Jaime; Court, Felipe A.

    2011-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is an active process that has been associated with neurodegenerative conditions triggered by mechanical, metabolic, infectious, toxic, hereditary and inflammatory stimuli. This degenerative process can cause permanent loss of function, so it represents a focus for neuroprotective strategies. Several signaling pathways are implicated in axonal degeneration, but identification of an integrative mechanism for this self-destructive process has remained elusive. Here, we show that rapid axonal degeneration triggered by distinct mechanical and toxic insults is dependent on the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Both pharmacological and genetic targeting of cyclophilin D, a functional component of the mPTP, protects severed axons and vincristine-treated neurons from axonal degeneration in ex vivo and in vitro mouse and rat model systems. These effects were observed in axons from both the peripheral and central nervous system. Our results suggest that the mPTP is a key effector of axonal degeneration, upon which several independent signaling pathways converge. Since axonal and synapse degeneration are increasingly considered early pathological events in neurodegeneration, our work identifies a potential target for therapeutic intervention in a wide variety of conditions that lead to loss of axons and subsequent functional impairment. PMID:21248121

  3. Claudin-2-mediated cation and water transport share a common pore

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Rita; Günzel, Dorothee; Krug, Susanne M.; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter; Fromm, Michael; Yu, Alan S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Claudin-2 is a tight junction protein typically located in “leaky” epithelia exhibiting large paracellular permeabilities like small intestine and proximal kidney tubule. Former studies revealed that claudin-2 forms paracellular channels for small cations like sodium and potassium and also paracellular channels for water. This study analyzes whether the diffusive transport of sodium and water occurs through a common pore of the claudin-2 channel. Methods Wild-type claudin-2 and different claudin-2 mutants were expressed in MDCK I kidney tubule cells using an inducible system. Ion and water permeability and the effect of blocking reagents on both were investigated on different clones of the mutants. Results Neutralization of a negatively charged cation interaction site in the pore with the mutation, D65N, decreased both, sodium permeability and water permeability. Claudin-2 mutants (I66C and S68C) with substitution of the pore-lining amino acids with cysteine were used to test the effect of steric blocking of the claudin-2 pore by thiol-reactive reagents. Addition of thiol-reactive reagents to these mutants simultaneously decreased conductance and water permeability. Remarkably, all experimental perturbations caused parallel changes in ion conductance and water permeability, disproving different or independent passage pathways. Conclusion Our results indicate that claudin-2-mediated cation and water transport are frictionally coupled and share a common pore. This pore is lined and determined in permeability by amino acid residues of the first extracellular loop of claudin-2. PMID:27359349

  4. Slow fusion pore expansion creates a unique reaction chamber for co-packaged cargo

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Mary A.; Lawrence, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    A lumenal secretory granule protein, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), greatly slows fusion pore dilation and thereby slows its own discharge. We investigated another outcome of the long-lived narrow fusion pore: the creation of a nanoscale chemical reaction chamber for granule contents in which the pH is suddenly neutralized upon fusion. Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells endogenously express both tPA and its primary protein inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI). We found by immunocytochemistry that tPA and PAI are co-packaged in the same secretory granule. It is known that PAI irreversibly and covalently inactivates tPA at neutral pH. We demonstrate with zymography that the acidic granule lumen protects tPA from inactivation by PAI. Immunocytochemistry, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, and polarized TIRF microscopy demonstrated that co-packaged PAI and tPA remain together in granules for many seconds in the nanoscale reaction chamber, more than enough time to inhibit tPA and create a new secreted protein species. PMID:28882880

  5. Involvement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in chronic ethanol-mediated liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    King, Adrienne L.; Swain, Telisha M.; Mao, Zhengkuan; Udoh, Uduak S.; Oliva, Claudia R.; Betancourt, Angela M.; Griguer, Corrine E.; Crowe, David R.; Lesort, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption increases sensitivity of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore induction in liver. Ca2+ promotes MPT pore opening, and genetic ablation of cyclophilin D (CypD) increases the Ca2+ threshold for the MPT. We used wild-type (WT) and CypD-null (CypD−/−) mice fed a control or an ethanol-containing diet to investigate the role of the MPT in ethanol-mediated liver injury. Ca2+-mediated induction of the MPT and mitochondrial respiration were measured in isolated liver mitochondria. Steatosis was present in WT and CypD−/− mice fed ethanol and accompanied by increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end label-positive nuclei. Autophagy was increased in ethanol-fed WT mice compared with ethanol-fed CypD−/− mice, as reflected by an increase in the ratio of microtubule protein 1 light chain 3B II to microtubule protein 1 light chain 3B I. Higher levels of p62 were measured in CypD−/− than WT mice. Ethanol decreased mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and select complex activities in WT and CypD−/− mice. Ethanol also increased CypD protein in liver of WT mice. Mitochondria from control- and ethanol-fed WT mice were more sensitive to Ca2+-mediated MPT pore induction than mitochondria from their CypD−/− counterparts. Mitochondria from ethanol-fed CypD−/− mice were also more sensitive to Ca2+-induced swelling than mitochondria from control-fed CypD−/− mice but were less sensitive than mitochondria from ethanol-fed WT mice. In summary, CypD deficiency was associated with impaired autophagy and did not prevent ethanol-mediated steatosis. Furthermore, increased MPT sensitivity was observed in mitochondria from ethanol-fed WT and CypD−/− mice. We conclude that chronic ethanol consumption likely lowers the threshold for CypD-regulated and -independent characteristics of the ethanol-mediated MPT pore in liver mitochondria. PMID:24356880

  6. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton

    2010-08-15

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and latrunculin A treatment also resulted in fusion stimulation. Treatment with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A partially rescued a fusion pore opening defect caused by deletion of the PIV5 F protein cytoplasmicmore » tail, but these drugs had no effect on fusion inhibited at earlier stages by either temperature arrest or by a PIV5 heptad repeat peptide. These data suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is an important regulator of fusion pore enlargement, an energetically costly stage of viral fusion protein-mediated membrane merger.« less

  7. The actin cytoskeleton inhibits pore expansion during PIV5 fusion protein-promoted cell-cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Wurth, Mark A.; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Moncman, Carole L.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis; McCann, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Paramyxovirus fusion (F) proteins promote both virus-cell fusion, required for viral entry, and cell-cell fusion, resulting in syncytia formation. We used the F-actin stabilizing drug, jasplakinolide, and the G-actin sequestrant, latrunculin A, to examine the role of actin dynamics in cell-cell fusion mediated by the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) F protein. Jasplakinolide treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in cell-cell fusion as measured by both syncytia and reporter gene assays, and latrunculin A treatment also resulted in fusion stimulation. Treatment with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A partially rescued a fusion pore opening defect caused by deletion of the PIV5 F protein cytoplasmic tail, but these drugs had no effect on fusion inhibited at earlier stages by either temperature arrest or by a PIV5 heptad repeat peptide. These data suggest that the cortical actin cytoskeleton is an important regulator of fusion pore enlargement, an energetically costly stage of viral fusion protein-mediated membrane merger. PMID:20537366

  8. Temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry and pore hysteresis transformation of borohydride derived in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nadiya B.; Nayak, Bibhuti B.

    2016-01-01

    Development of in-born porous nature of zirconium hydroxide nanopowders through a facile hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and novel information on the temperature-mediated phase transformation, pore geometry as well as pore hysteresis transformation of in-born porous zirconium hydroxide nanopowders with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) isotherm and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images are the main theme of this research work. Without any surfactants or pore forming agents, the borohydride derived amorphous nature of porous powders was stable up to 500 °C and then the seed crystals start to develop within the loose amorphous matrix and trapping the inter-particulate voids, which led to develop the porous nature of tetragonal zirconium oxide at 600 °C and further sustain this porous nature as well as tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide up to 800 °C. The novel hydrogen (H2) gas-bubbles assisted borohydride synthesis route led to develop thermally stable porous zirconium hydroxide/oxide nanopowders with an adequate pore size, pore volume, and surface area and thus these porous materials are further suggested for promising use in different areas of applications. PMID:27198738

  9. The Nuclear Pore-Associated TREX-2 Complex Employs Mediator to Regulate Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maren; Hellerschmied, Doris; Schubert, Tobias; Amlacher, Stefan; Vinayachandran, Vinesh; Reja, Rohit; Pugh, B. Franklin; Clausen, Tim; Köhler, Alwin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) influence gene expression besides their established function in nuclear transport. The TREX-2 complex localizes to the NPC basket and affects gene-NPC interactions, transcription, and mRNA export. How TREX-2 regulates the gene expression machinery is unknown. Here, we show that TREX-2 interacts with the Mediator complex, an essential regulator of RNA Polymerase (Pol) II. Structural and biochemical studies identify a conserved region on TREX-2, which directly binds the Mediator Med31/Med7N submodule. TREX-2 regulates assembly of Mediator with the Cdk8 kinase and is required for recruitment and site-specific phosphorylation of Pol II. Transcriptome and phenotypic profiling confirm that TREX-2 and Med31 are functionally interdependent at specific genes. TREX-2 additionally uses its Mediator-interacting surface to regulate mRNA export suggesting a mechanism for coupling transcription initiation and early steps of mRNA processing. Our data provide mechanistic insight into how an NPC-associated adaptor complex accesses the core transcription machinery. PMID:26317468

  10. Direct Visualization of Wide Fusion-Fission Pores and Their Highly Varied Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Eyring, Katherine W; Tsien, Richard W

    2018-05-03

    In this issue of Cell, Shin et al. report the first live-cell imaging of a fusion pore. Directly visualized pores in neuroendocrine cells can be much larger than expected yet not require vesicular full-collapse. These fusion-fission pores have diverse fates arising from opposing dynamin-driven pore constriction and F-actin-mediated pore expansion. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hydrophobic interactions between the voltage sensor and pore mediate inactivation in Kv11.1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Matthew D.; Wong, Sophia; Ng, Chai Ann

    2013-01-01

    Kv11.1 channels are critical for the maintenance of a normal heart rhythm. The flow of potassium ions through these channels is controlled by two voltage-regulated gates, termed “activation” and “inactivation,” located at opposite ends of the pore. Crucially in Kv11.1 channels, inactivation gating occurs much more rapidly, and over a distinct range of voltages, compared with activation gating. Although it is clear that the fourth transmembrane segments (S4), within each subunit of the tetrameric channel, are important for controlling the opening and closing of the activation gate, their role during inactivation gating is much less clear. Here, we use rate equilibrium free energy relationship (REFER) analysis to probe the contribution of the S4 “voltage-sensor” helix during inactivation of Kv11.1 channels. Contrary to the important role that charged residues play during activation gating, it is the hydrophobic residues (Leu529, Leu530, Leu532, and Val535) that are the key molecular determinants of inactivation gating. Within the context of an interconnected multi-domain model of Kv11.1 inactivation gating, our REFER analysis indicates that the S4 helix and the S4–S5 linker undergo a conformational rearrangement shortly after that of the S5 helix and S5P linker, but before the S6 helix. Combining REFER analysis with double mutant cycle analysis, we provide evidence for a hydrophobic interaction between residues on the S4 and S5 helices. Based on a Kv11.1 channel homology model, we propose that this hydrophobic interaction forms the basis of an intersubunit coupling between the voltage sensor and pore domain that is an important mediator of inactivation gating. PMID:23980196

  12. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV-vis Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, Irina; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2018-03-02

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV-vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV-vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c -axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV-vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  13. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV–vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV–vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c-axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV–vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  14. Pore size and concentration effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles on the coefficient of thermal expansion and optical transparency of poly(ether sulfone) films.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nhat Tri; Patra, Astam K; Kim, Dukjoon

    2017-01-18

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with uniform size (<50 nm) yet with different pore diameters were synthesized, and used as fillers in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) films in order to decrease their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) without sacrificing optical transparency. Here, both CTE and optical transparency of the MSN/PES nanocomposite films gradually decreased with increasing MSN concentration. The PES films containing MSNs with larger pores showed the best performance in CTE and optical transparency. While the CTE decreased by 32.3% with increasing MSN content up to 0.5 wt%, the optical transparency decreased by only less than 6.9% because of the small and uniform particle size of less than 50 nm, which minimizes light scattering. This pore size effect is more clearly observed via an annealing process, which enables the polymer chains to slowly move and fill in the free volume in the pores of the MSN, and thus restricts the thermal motion. The effect of the silica nanoparticles was investigated not only on the thermal stability but also on the mechanical stability. We expect the MSNs synthesized in this study to be used as a promising filler to enhance the thermal and mechanical stability of the PES substrate without sacrificing its optical transparency.

  15. Substantial Expansion of Detectable Size Range in Ionic Current Sensing through Pores by Using a Microfluidic Bridge Circuit.

    PubMed

    Yasaki, Hirotoshi; Yasui, Takao; Yanagida, Takeshi; Kaji, Noritada; Kanai, Masaki; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kawai, Tomoji; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2017-10-11

    Measuring ionic currents passing through nano- or micropores has shown great promise for the electrical discrimination of various biomolecules, cells, bacteria, and viruses. However, conventional measurements have shown there is an inherent limitation to the detectable particle volume (1% of the pore volume), which critically hinders applications to real mixtures of biomolecule samples with a wide size range of suspended particles. Here we propose a rational methodology that can detect samples with the detectable particle volume of 0.01% of the pore volume by measuring a transient current generated from the potential differences in a microfluidic bridge circuit. Our method substantially suppresses the background ionic current from the μA level to the pA level, which essentially lowers the detectable particle volume limit even for relatively large pore structures. Indeed, utilizing a microscale long pore structure (volume of 5.6 × 10 4 aL; height and width of 2.0 × 2.0 μm; length of 14 μm), we successfully detected various samples including polystyrene nanoparticles (volume: 4 aL), bacteria, cancer cells, and DNA molecules. Our method will expand the applicability of ionic current sensing systems for various mixed biomolecule samples with a wide size range, which have been difficult to measure by previously existing pore technologies.

  16. Pore Interconnectivity Influences Growth Factor-Mediated Vascularization in Sphere-Templated Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Somo, Sami I.; Akar, Banu; Bayrak, Elif S.; Larson, Jeffery C.; Appel, Alyssa A.; Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Cinar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and controlled vascularization within biomaterials is essential for many applications in regenerative medicine. The extent of vascularization is influenced by a number of factors, including scaffold architecture. While properties such as pore size and total porosity have been studied extensively, the importance of controlling the interconnectivity of pores has received less attention. A sintering method was used to generate hydrogel scaffolds with controlled pore interconnectivity. Poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres were used as a sacrificial agent to generate porous poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogels with interconnectivity varying based on microsphere sintering conditions. Interconnectivity levels increased with sintering time and temperature with resultant hydrogel structure showing agreement with template structure. Porous hydrogels with a narrow pore size distribution (130–150 μm) and varying interconnectivity were investigated for their ability to influence vascularization in response to gradients of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). A rodent subcutaneous model was used to evaluate vascularized tissue formation in the hydrogels in vivo. Vascularized tissue invasion varied with interconnectivity. At week 3, higher interconnectivity hydrogels had completely vascularized with twice as much invasion. Interconnectivity also influenced PDGF-BB transport within the scaffolds. An agent-based model was used to explore the relative roles of steric and transport effects on the observed results. In conclusion, a technique for the preparation of hydrogels with controlled pore interconnectivity has been developed and evaluated. This method has been used to show that pore interconnectivity can independently influence vascularization of biomaterials. PMID:25603533

  17. Nitrogen-mediated effects of elevated CO2 on intra-aggregate soil pore structure.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Joshua S; Giménez, Daniel; Subroy, Vandana; Heck, Richard J; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen

    2017-04-01

    Soil pore structure has a strong influence on water retention, and is itself influenced by plant and microbial dynamics such as root proliferation and microbial exudation. Although increased nitrogen (N) availability and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (eCO 2 ) often have interacting effects on root and microbial dynamics, it is unclear whether these biotic effects can translate into altered soil pore structure and water retention. This study was based on a long-term experiment (7 yr at the time of sampling) in which a C 4 pasture grass (Paspalum notatum) was grown on a sandy loam soil while provided factorial additions of N and CO 2 . Through an analysis of soil aggregate fractal properties supported by 3D microtomographic imagery, we found that N fertilization induced an increase in intra-aggregate porosity and a simultaneous shift toward greater accumulation of pore space in larger aggregates. These effects were enhanced by eCO 2 and yielded an increase in water retention at pressure potentials near the wilting point of plants. However, eCO 2 alone induced changes in the opposite direction, with larger aggregates containing less pore space than under control conditions, and water retention decreasing accordingly. Results on biotic factors further suggested that organic matter gains or losses induced the observed structural changes. Based on our results, we postulate that the pore structure of many mineral soils could undergo N-dependent changes as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations rise, having global-scale implications for water balance, carbon storage, and related rhizosphere functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Inhibition of cell expansion by rapid ABP1-mediated auxin effect on microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Grandont, Laurie; Li, Hongjiang; Hauschild, Robert; Paque, Sébastien; Abuzeineh, Anas; Rakusová, Hana; Benkova, Eva; Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine; Friml, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    The prominent and evolutionary ancient effect of the plant hormone auxin is the regulation of cell expansion1. Cell expansion requires ordered cytoskeleton arrangement2 but molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation by signaling molecules including auxin are unknown. Here we show in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana that in elongating cells exogenous application of auxin or redistribution of endogenous auxin induces very rapid microtubule reorientation from transversal to longitudinal, coherent with the inhibition of cell expansion. This fast auxin effect requires Auxin Binding Protein1 (ABP1) and involves a contribution of downstream signaling components such as ROP6 GTPase, ROP-interactive protein RIC1 and microtubule severing protein Katanin. These components are required for rapid auxin and ABP1-mediated reorientation of microtubules to regulate cell elongation in roots and dark grown hypocotyls as well as asymmetric growth during gravitropic responses. PMID:25409144

  19. Immune mediated disorders in women with a fragile X expansion and FXTAS.

    PubMed

    Jalnapurkar, Isha; Rafika, Nuva; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Premutation alleles in fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) can cause the late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and/or the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency in approximately 20% of heterozygotes. Heterozygotes of the FMR1 premutation have a higher incidence of immune mediated disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disorder, especially when accompanied by FXTAS motor signs. We describe the time course of symptoms of immune mediated disorders and the subsequent development of FXTAS in four women with an FMR1 CGG expansion, including three with the premutation and one with a gray zone expansion. These patients developed an immune mediated disorder followed by neurological symptoms that become consistent with FXTAS. In all patients we observed a pattern involving an initial appearance of disease symptoms-often after a period of heightened stress (depression, anxiety, divorce, general surgery) followed by the onset of tremor and/or ataxia. Immune mediated diseases are associated with the manifestations of FXTAS temporally, although further studies are needed to clarify this association. If a cause and effect relationship can be established, treatment of pre-existing immune mediated disorders may benefit patients with pathogenic FMR1 mutations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Visualization of Membrane Pore in Live Cells Reveals a Dynamic-Pore Theory Governing Fusion and Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonchul; Ge, Lihao; Arpino, Gianvito; Villarreal, Seth A; Hamid, Edaeni; Liu, Huisheng; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wen, Peter J; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2018-05-03

    Fusion is thought to open a pore to release vesicular cargoes vital for many biological processes, including exocytosis, intracellular trafficking, fertilization, and viral entry. However, fusion pores have not been observed and thus proved in live cells. Its regulatory mechanisms and functions remain poorly understood. With super-resolution STED microscopy, we observed dynamic fusion pore behaviors in live (neuroendocrine) cells, including opening, expansion, constriction, and closure, where pore size may vary between 0 and 490 nm within 26 milliseconds to seconds (vesicle size: 180-720 nm). These pore dynamics crucially determine the efficiency of vesicular cargo release and vesicle retrieval. They are generated by competition between pore expansion and constriction. Pharmacology and mutation experiments suggest that expansion and constriction are mediated by F-actin-dependent membrane tension and calcium/dynamin, respectively. These findings provide the missing live-cell evidence, proving the fusion-pore hypothesis, and establish a live-cell dynamic-pore theory accounting for fusion, fission, and their regulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex in GSK-3beta-mediated myocardial protection.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Miura, Tetsuji; Miki, Takayuki; Tanno, Masaya; Yano, Toshiyuki; Naitoh, Kazuyuki; Ohori, Katsuhiko; Hotta, Hiroyuki; Terashima, Yoshiaki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2007-11-01

    Recently we found that the level of anti-infarct tolerance afforded by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and erythropoietin (EPO) infusion was closely correlated with the level of Ser9-phospho-GSK-3beta upon reperfusion in the heart. To get an insight into the mechanism by which phospho-GSK-3beta protects the myocardium from ischemia/reperfusion injury, we examined the effects of IPC and EPO on interactions between GSK-3beta and subunits of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in this study. Rat hearts were subjected to 25-min global ischemia and 5-min reperfusion in vitro with or without IPC plus EPO infusion (5 units/ml) before ischemia. Ventricular tissues were sampled before or after ischemia/reperfusion to separate subcellular fractions for immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Reperfusion increased mitochondrial GSK-3beta by 2-fold and increased phospho-GSK-3beta level in all fractions examined. Major subunits of mPTP, adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), were co-immunoprecipitated with GSK-3beta after reperfusion. Phospho-GSK-3beta was co-immunoprecipitated with ANT but not with VDAC. IPC+EPO significantly increased the levels of GSK-3beta and phospho-GSK-3beta that were co-immunoprecipitated with ANT to 145+/-8% and 143+/-16%, respectively, of baseline but did not induce phospho-GSK-3beta-VDAC binding. A PKC inhibitor and a PI3 kinase inhibitor suppressed the IPC+EPO-induced increase in the level of phospho-GSK-3beta-ANT complex. The level of cyclophilin D co-immunoprecipitated with ANT after reperfusion was significantly reduced to 39+/-10% of the control by IPC+EPO. These results suggest that reduction in affinity of ANT to cyclophilin D by increased phospho-GSK-3beta binding to ANT may be responsible for suppression of mPTP opening and myocardial protection afforded by IPC+EPO.

  2. Silencing SlMED18, tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene, restricts internode elongation and leaf expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunshu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Jianling; Yu, XiaoHui; Guo, Jun-E; Liang, Honglian; Liao, Changguang; Chen, Guoping

    2018-02-19

    Mediator complex, a conserved multi-protein, is necessary for controlling RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription in eukaryotes. Given little is known about them in tomato, a tomato Mediator subunit 18 gene was isolated and named SlMED18. To further explore the function of SlMED18, the transgenic tomato plants targeting SlMED18 by RNAi-mediated gene silencing were generated. The SlMED18-RNAi lines exhibited multiple developmental defects, including smaller size and slower growth rate of plant and significantly smaller compound leaves. The contents of endogenous bioactive GA 3 in SlMED18 silenced lines were slightly less than that in wild type. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes such as SlGACPS and SlGA20x2, auxin transport genes (PIN1, PIN4, LAX1 and LAX2) and several key regulators, KNOX1, KNOX2, PHAN and LANCEOLATE(LA), which involved in the leaf morphogenesis were significantly down-regulated in SlMED18-RNAi lines. These results illustrated that SlMED18 plays an essential role in regulating plant internode elongation and leaf expansion in tomato plants and it acts as a key positive regulator of gibberellins biosynthesis and signal transduction as well as auxin proper transport signalling. These findings are the basis for understanding the function of the individual Mediator subunits in tomato.

  3. LMP1-mediated glycolysis induces myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ting-Ting; Ye, Shu-Biao; Liu, Yi-Na; He, Jia; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Zhang, Chuan-Xia; Cui, Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Shi; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are expanded in tumor microenvironments, including that of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The link between MDSC expansion and EBV infection in NPC is unclear. Here, we show that EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) promotes MDSC expansion in the tumor microenvironment by promoting extra-mitochondrial glycolysis in malignant cells, which is a scenario for immune escape initially suggested by the frequent, concomitant detection of abundant LMP1, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and CD33+ MDSCs in tumor sections. The full process has been reconstituted in vitro. LMP1 promotes the expression of multiple glycolytic genes, including GLUT1. This metabolic reprogramming results in increased expression of the Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 and, consequently, increased production of IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF. Finally, these changes in the environment of malignant cells result in enhanced NPC-derived MDSC induction. One key step is the physical interaction of LMP1 with GLUT1 to stabilize the GLUT1 protein by blocking its K48-ubiquitination and p62-dependent autolysosomal degradation. This work indicates that LMP1-mediated glycolysis regulates IL-1β, IL-6 and GM-CSF production through the NLRP3 inflammasome, COX-2 and P-p65 signaling pathways to enhance tumor-associated MDSC expansion, which leads to tumor immunosuppression in NPC. PMID:28732079

  4. Microenvironmental cues enhance mesenchymal stem cell-mediated immunomodulation and regulatory T-cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Kadle, Rohini L; Abdou, Salma A; Villarreal-Ponce, Alvaro P; Soares, Marc A; Sultan, Darren L; David, Joshua A; Massie, Jonathan; Rifkin, William J; Rabbani, Piul; Ceradini, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to both have powerful immunosuppressive properties and promote allograft tolerance. Determining the environmental oxygen tension and inflammatory conditions under which MSCs are optimally primed for this immunosuppressive function is essential to their utilization in promoting graft tolerance. Of particular interest is the mechanisms governing the interaction between MSCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is relatively unknown. We performed our experiments utilizing rat bone marrow derived MSCs. We observed that priming MSCs in hypoxia promotes maintenance of stem-like characteristics, with greater expression of typical MSC cell-surface markers, increased proliferation, and maintenance of differentiation potential. Addition of autologous MSCs to CD4+/allogeneic endothelial cell (EC) co-culture increases regulatory T cell (Treg) proliferation, which is further enhanced when MSCs are primed in hypoxia. Furthermore, MSC-mediated Treg expansion does not require direct cell-cell contact. The expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a mediator of MSC immunomodulation, increases when MSCs are primed in hypoxia, and inhibition of IDO significantly decreases the expansion of Tregs. Priming with inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα increases also expression of markers associated with MSC immunomodulatory function, but decreases MSC proliferation. The expression of IDO also increases when MSCs are primed with inflammatory cytokines. However, there is no increase in Treg expansion when MSCs are primed with IFNγ, suggesting an alternate mechanism for inflammatory-stimulated MSC immunomodulation. Overall, these results suggest that MSCs primed in hypoxia or inflammatory conditions are optimally primed for immunosuppressive function. These results provide a clearer picture of how to enhance MSC immunomodulation for clinical use.

  5. Microenvironmental cues enhance mesenchymal stem cell-mediated immunomodulation and regulatory T-cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Salma A.; Villarreal-Ponce, Alvaro P.; Soares, Marc A.; Sultan, Darren L.; David, Joshua A.; Massie, Jonathan; Rabbani, Piul

    2018-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to both have powerful immunosuppressive properties and promote allograft tolerance. Determining the environmental oxygen tension and inflammatory conditions under which MSCs are optimally primed for this immunosuppressive function is essential to their utilization in promoting graft tolerance. Of particular interest is the mechanisms governing the interaction between MSCs and regulatory T cells (Tregs), which is relatively unknown. We performed our experiments utilizing rat bone marrow derived MSCs. We observed that priming MSCs in hypoxia promotes maintenance of stem-like characteristics, with greater expression of typical MSC cell-surface markers, increased proliferation, and maintenance of differentiation potential. Addition of autologous MSCs to CD4+/allogeneic endothelial cell (EC) co-culture increases regulatory T cell (Treg) proliferation, which is further enhanced when MSCs are primed in hypoxia. Furthermore, MSC-mediated Treg expansion does not require direct cell-cell contact. The expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a mediator of MSC immunomodulation, increases when MSCs are primed in hypoxia, and inhibition of IDO significantly decreases the expansion of Tregs. Priming with inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα increases also expression of markers associated with MSC immunomodulatory function, but decreases MSC proliferation. The expression of IDO also increases when MSCs are primed with inflammatory cytokines. However, there is no increase in Treg expansion when MSCs are primed with IFNγ, suggesting an alternate mechanism for inflammatory-stimulated MSC immunomodulation. Overall, these results suggest that MSCs primed in hypoxia or inflammatory conditions are optimally primed for immunosuppressive function. These results provide a clearer picture of how to enhance MSC immunomodulation for clinical use. PMID:29513756

  6. Mansouramycin C kills cancer cells through reactive oxygen species production mediated by opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shan; Liu, Ge; Cao, Ruobing; Zhang, Linlin; Yu, Qiang; Sun, Chaomin

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world and the search for novel anticancer agents is urgently required. Marine-derived isoquinolinequinones have exhibited promising anticancer activities. However, the exact mechanisms of cytotoxic activities of these isoquinolinequinones are poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms of mansouramycin C (Mm C), a cytotoxic isoquinolinequinone isolated from a marine streptomycete. We demonstrated that Mm C preferentially killed cancer cells and the cytotoxic effects were mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of Mm C-treated A549 cells revealed that many ROS-related proteins were differentially expressed. Proteomic-profiling after Mm C treatment identified oxidative phosphorylation as the most significant changes in pathways. Analysis also revealed extensive defects in mitochondrial structure and function. Furthermore, we disclosed that Mm C-induced ROS generation was caused by opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Notably, Mm C synergized with sorafenib to induce cell death in A549 cells. Hence, we propose that the marine-derived natural compound Mm C is a potent inducer of the mitochondrial permeability transition and a promising anticancer drug candidate. Moreover, molecular mechanisms of Mm C shed new light on the understanding of the cytotoxic mechanisms of marine-derived isoquinolinequiones. PMID:29262621

  7. Reduction of molecular gas diffusion through gaskets in leaf gas exchange cuvettes by leaf-mediated pores.

    PubMed

    Boesgaard, Kristine S; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ibrom, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    There is an ongoing debate on how to correct leaf gas exchange measurements for the unavoidable diffusion leakage that occurs when measurements are done in non-ambient CO2 concentrations. In this study, we present a theory on how the CO2 diffusion gradient over the gasket is affected by leaf-mediated pores (LMP) and how LMP reduce diffusive exchange across the gaskets. Recent discussions have so far neglected the processes in the quasi-laminar boundary layer around the gasket. Counter intuitively, LMP reduce the leakage through gaskets, which can be explained by assuming that the boundary layer at the exterior of the cuvette is enriched with air from the inside of the cuvette. The effect can thus be reduced by reducing the boundary layer thickness. The theory clarifies conflicting results from earlier studies. We developed leaf adaptor frames that eliminate LMP during measurements on delicate plant material such as grass leaves with circular cross section, and the effectiveness is shown with respiration measurements on a harp of Deschampsia flexuosa leaves. We conclude that the best solution for measurements with portable photosynthesis systems is to avoid LMP rather than trying to correct for the effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. C/EBPβ promotes BCR–ABL-mediated myeloid expansion and leukemic stem cell exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Y; Hirai, H; Kamio, N; Yao, H; Yoshioka, S; Miura, Y; Ashihara, E; Fujiyama, Y; Tenen, DG; Maekawa, T

    2015-01-01

    The BCR–ABL fusion oncoprotein accelerates differentiation and proliferation of myeloid cells during the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML). Here, the role of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a regulator for ‘emergency granulopoiesis,’ in the pathogenesis of CP-CML was examined. C/EBPβ expression was upregulated in Lineage− CD34+ CD38− hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors isolated from bone marrow of patients with CP-CML. In EML cells, a mouse HSC line, BCR–ABL upregulated C/EBPβ, at least in part, through the activation of STAT5. Myeloid differentiation and proliferation induced by BCR–ABL was significantly impaired in C/EBPβ-deficient bone marrow cells in vitro. Mice that were transplanted with BCR–ABL-transduced C/EBPβ knockout bone marrow cells survived longer than mice that received BCR–ABL-transduced wild-type (WT) bone marrow cells. Significantly higher levels of leukemic stem cells were maintained in BCR–ABL-transduced C/EBPβ-deficient cells than in BCR–ABL-transduced WT cells. These results suggest that C/EBPβ is involved in BCR–ABL-mediated myeloid expansion. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the C/EBPβ-mediated stem cell loss might reveal a novel therapeutic strategy for eradication of CML stem cells. PMID:22948537

  9. Biotic interactions mediate the expansion of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) into salt marshes under climate change.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyu; Zhang, Yihui; Lan, Zhenjiang; Pennings, Steven C

    2013-09-01

    Many species are expanding their distributions to higher latitudes due to global warming. Understanding the mechanisms underlying these distribution shifts is critical for better understanding the impacts of climate changes. The climate envelope approach is widely used to model and predict species distribution shifts with changing climates. Biotic interactions between species, however, may also influence species distributions, and a better understanding of biotic interactions could improve predictions based solely on climate envelope models. Along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA, subtropical black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) at the northern limit of its distribution grows sympatrically with temperate salt marsh plants in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. In recent decades, freeze-free winters have led to an expansion of black mangrove into salt marshes. We examined how biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation along the Texas coast varied across (i) a latitudinal gradient (associated with a winter-temperature gradient); (ii) the elevational gradient within each marsh (which creates different marsh habitats); and (iii) different life history stages of black mangroves (seedlings vs. juvenile trees). Each of these variables affected the strength or nature of biotic interactions between black mangrove and salt marsh vegetation: (i) Salt marsh vegetation facilitated black mangrove seedlings at their high-latitude distribution limit, but inhibited black mangrove seedlings at lower latitudes; (ii) mangroves performed well at intermediate elevations, but grew and survived poorly in high- and low-marsh habitats; and (iii) the effect of salt marsh vegetation on black mangroves switched from negative to neutral as black mangroves grew from seedlings into juvenile trees. These results indicate that the expansion of black mangroves is mediated by complex biotic interactions. A better understanding of the impacts of climate change on ecological

  10. TET proteins regulate the lineage specification and TCR-mediated expansion of iNKT cells.

    PubMed

    Tsagaratou, Ageliki; González-Avalos, Edahí; Rautio, Sini; Scott-Browne, James P; Togher, Susan; Pastor, William A; Rothenberg, Ellen V; Chavez, Lukas; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Rao, Anjana

    2017-01-01

    TET proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and other oxidation products. We found that simultaneous deletion of Tet2 and Tet3 in mouse CD4 + CD8 + double-positive thymocytes resulted in dysregulated development and proliferation of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). Tet2-Tet3 double-knockout (DKO) iNKT cells displayed pronounced skewing toward the NKT17 lineage, with increased DNA methylation and impaired expression of genes encoding the key lineage-specifying factors T-bet and ThPOK. Transfer of purified Tet2-Tet3 DKO iNKT cells into immunocompetent recipient mice resulted in an uncontrolled expansion that was dependent on the nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein CD1d, which presents lipid antigens to iNKT cells. Our data indicate that TET proteins regulate iNKT cell fate by ensuring their proper development and maturation and by suppressing aberrant proliferation mediated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR).

  11. Origin and expansion of the Yunnan Shoot Borer, Tomicus yunnanensis (coleoptera: scolytinae): a mixture of historical natural expansion and contemporary human-mediated relocation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Hu, Shao-ji; Ma, Xue-yu; Chen, Jin-min; Li, Qing-qing; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The Yunnan shoot borer, Tomicus yunnanensis, is a recently-discovered, aggressive pest of the Yunnan pine stands in southwestern China. Despite many bionomics studies and massive controlling efforts, research on its population genetics is extremely limited. The present study, aimed at investigating the origin and dispersal of this important forestry pest, analyzed the population genetic structure and demographic history using a mitochondrial cox1 gene fragment. Our results showed that T. yunnanensis most likely originated from the Central-Yunnan Altiplano, and the divergence time analysis placed the origin approximately 0.72 million-years ago. Host separation and specialization might have caused the speciation of T. yunnanensis. Genetic structure analyses identified two population groups, with six populations near the origin area forming one group and the remaining six populations from western and eastern Yunnan and southwestern Sichuan comprising the other. Divergence time analysis placed the split of the two groups at approximately 0.60 million-years ago, and haplotype phylogenetic tree, network, as well as migration rate suggested that populations of the latter group were established via a small number of individuals from the former one. Migration analysis also showed a certain degree of recent expansion from southwestern Sichuan to eastern Yunnan. Our findings implied that T. yunnanensis underwent both historical expansion and recent dispersal. The historical expansion may relate to the oscillation of regional climate due to glacial and interglacial periods in the Pleistocene, while human-mediated transportation of pine-wood material might have assisted the relocation and establishment of this pest in novel habitats.

  12. Antigen presenting cell-mediated expansion of human umbilical cord blood yields log-scale expansion of natural killer cells with anti-myeloma activity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nina; Martin-Antonio, Beatriz; Yang, Hong; Ku, Stephanie; Lee, Dean A; Cooper, Laurence J N; Decker, William K; Li, Sufang; Robinson, Simon N; Sekine, Takuya; Parmar, Simrit; Gribben, John; Wang, Michael; Rezvani, Katy; Yvon, Eric; Najjar, Amer; Burks, Jared; Kaur, Indreshpal; Champlin, Richard E; Bollard, Catherine M; Shpall, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important mediators of anti-tumor immunity and are active against several hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Umbilical cord blood (CB) is a promising source of allogeneic NK cells but large scale ex vivo expansion is required for generation of clinically relevant CB-derived NK (CB-NK) cell doses. Here we describe a novel strategy for expanding NK cells from cryopreserved CB units using artificial antigen presenting feeder cells (aAPC) in a gas permeable culture system. After 14 days, mean fold expansion of CB-NK cells was 1848-fold from fresh and 2389-fold from cryopreserved CB with >95% purity for NK cells (CD56(+)/CD3(-)) and less than 1% CD3(+) cells. Though surface expression of some cytotoxicity receptors was decreased, aAPC-expanded CB-NK cells exhibited a phenotype similar to CB-NK cells expanded with IL-2 alone with respect to various inhibitory receptors, NKG2C and CD94 and maintained strong expression of transcription factors Eomesodermin and T-bet. Furthermore, CB-NK cells formed functional immune synapses with and demonstrated cytotoxicity against various MM targets. Finally, aAPC-expanded CB-NK cells showed significant in vivo activity against MM in a xenogenic mouse model. Our findings introduce a clinically applicable strategy for the generation of highly functional CB-NK cells which can be used to eradicate MM.

  13. Pyroptosis is driven by non-selective gasdermin-D pore and its morphology is different from MLKL channel-mediated necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; He, Wan-ting; Hu, Lichen; Li, Jingxian; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaozheng; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Kai; Han, Jiahuai

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis and pyroptosis are two forms of programmed cell death with a common feature of plasma membrane rupture. Here we studied the morphology and mechanism of pyroptosis in comparison with necroptosis. Different from necroptosis, pyroptosis undergoes membrane blebbing and produces apoptotic body-like cell protrusions (termed pyroptotic bodies) prior to plasma membrane rupture. The rupture in necroptosis is explosion-like, whereas in pyroptosis it leads to flattening of cells. It is known that the execution of necroptosis is mediated by mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) oligomers in the plasma membrane, whereas gasdermin-D (GSDMD) mediates pyroptosis after its cleavage by caspase-1 or caspase-11. We show that N-terminal fragment of GSDMD (GSDMD-N) generated by caspase cleavage also forms oligomer and migrates to the plasma membrane to kill cells. Both MLKL and GSDMD-N are lipophilic and the N-terminal sequences of both proteins are important for their oligomerization and plasma membrane translocation. Unlike MLKL which forms channels on the plasma membrane that induces influx of selected ions which osmotically swell the cells to burst, GSDMD-N forms non-selective pores and does not rely on increased osmolarity to disrupt cells. Our study reveals the pore-forming activity of GSDMD and channel-forming activity of MLKL determine different ways of plasma membrane rupture in pyroptosis and necroptosis. PMID:27573174

  14. Pyroptosis is driven by non-selective gasdermin-D pore and its morphology is different from MLKL channel-mediated necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; He, Wan-Ting; Hu, Lichen; Li, Jingxian; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaozheng; Wang, Zhuo; Huang, Kai; Han, Jiahuai

    2016-09-01

    Necroptosis and pyroptosis are two forms of programmed cell death with a common feature of plasma membrane rupture. Here we studied the morphology and mechanism of pyroptosis in comparison with necroptosis. Different from necroptosis, pyroptosis undergoes membrane blebbing and produces apoptotic body-like cell protrusions (termed pyroptotic bodies) prior to plasma membrane rupture. The rupture in necroptosis is explosion-like, whereas in pyroptosis it leads to flattening of cells. It is known that the execution of necroptosis is mediated by mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) oligomers in the plasma membrane, whereas gasdermin-D (GSDMD) mediates pyroptosis after its cleavage by caspase-1 or caspase-11. We show that N-terminal fragment of GSDMD (GSDMD-N) generated by caspase cleavage also forms oligomer and migrates to the plasma membrane to kill cells. Both MLKL and GSDMD-N are lipophilic and the N-terminal sequences of both proteins are important for their oligomerization and plasma membrane translocation. Unlike MLKL which forms channels on the plasma membrane that induces influx of selected ions which osmotically swell the cells to burst, GSDMD-N forms non-selective pores and does not rely on increased osmolarity to disrupt cells. Our study reveals the pore-forming activity of GSDMD and channel-forming activity of MLKL determine different ways of plasma membrane rupture in pyroptosis and necroptosis.

  15. HLH-30/TFEB-mediated autophagy functions in a cell-autonomous manner for epithelium intrinsic cellular defense against bacterial pore-forming toxin in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Da; Kao, Cheng-Yuan; Liu, Bang-Yu; Huang, Shin-Whei; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Ruan, Jhen-Wei; Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Cheng-Rung; Chen, Yu-Hung; Wang, Horng-Dar; Aroian, Raffi V; Chen, Chang-Shi

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular system that maintains cellular homeostasis by degrading and recycling damaged cellular components. The transcription factor HLH-30/TFEB-mediated autophagy has been reported to regulate tolerance to bacterial infection, but less is known about the bona fide bacterial effector that activates HLH-30 and autophagy. Here, we reveal that bacterial membrane pore-forming toxin (PFT) induces autophagy in an HLH-30-dependent manner in Caenorhabditis elegans. Moreover, autophagy controls the susceptibility of animals to PFT toxicity through xenophagic degradation of PFT and repair of membrane-pore cell-autonomously in the PFT-targeted intestinal cells in C. elegans. These results demonstrate that autophagic pathways and autophagy are induced partly at the transcriptional level through HLH-30 activation and are required to protect metazoan upon PFT intoxication. Together, our data show a new and powerful connection between HLH-30-mediated autophagy and epithelium intrinsic cellular defense against the single most common mode of bacterial attack in vivo.

  16. Novel Adjuvant Based on the Pore-Forming Protein Sticholysin II Encapsulated into Liposomes Effectively Enhances the Antigen-Specific CTL-Mediated Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Rady J.; Sanchez-Ferras, Oraly; Luzardo, María C.; Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Fernández, Audry; Mesa, Circe; Oliver, Liliana; Canet, Liem; Abreu-Butin, Liane; Nogueira, Catarina V.; Tejuca, Mayra; Pazos, Fabiola; Álvarez, Carlos; Alonso, María E.; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M.; Starnbach, Michael N.; Higgins, Darren E.; Fernández, Luis E.; Lanio, María E.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine strategies to enhance CD8+ CTL responses remain a current challenge because they should overcome the plasmatic and endosomal membranes for favoring exogenous Ag access to the cytosol of APCs. As a way to avoid this hurdle, sticholysin (St) II, a pore-forming protein from the Caribbean Sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, was encapsulated with OVA into liposomes (Lp/OVA/StII) to assess their efficacy to induce a CTL response. OVA-specific CD8+ T cells transferred to mice immunized with Lp/OVA/StII experienced a greater expansion than when the recipients were injected with the vesicles without St, mostly exhibiting a memory phenotype. Consequently, Lp/OVA/StII induced a more potent effector function, as shown by CTLs, in vivo assays. Furthermore, treatment of E.G7-OVA tumor-bearing mice with Lp/OVA/StII significantly reduced tumor growth being more noticeable in the preventive assay. The contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to CTL and antitumor activity, respectively, was elucidated. Interestingly, the irreversibly inactive variant of the StI mutant StI W111C, encapsulated with OVA into Lp, elicited a similar OVA-specific CTL response to that observed with Lp/OVA/StII or vesicles encapsulating recombinant StI or the reversibly inactive StI W111C dimer. These findings suggest the relative independence between StII pore-forming activity and its immuno-modulatory properties. In addition, StII-induced in vitro maturation of dendritic cells might be supporting these properties. These results are the first evidence, to our knowledge, that StII, a pore-forming protein from a marine eukaryotic organism, encapsulated into Lp functions as an adjuvant to induce a robust specific CTL response. PMID:28258198

  17. VEGF-induced neoangiogenesis is mediated by NAADP and two-pore channel-2–dependent Ca2+ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Favia, Annarita; Desideri, Marianna; Gambara, Guido; D’Alessio, Alessio; Ruas, Margarida; Esposito, Bianca; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Parrington, John; Ziparo, Elio; Palombi, Fioretta; Galione, Antony; Filippini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR1/VEGFR2 play major roles in controlling angiogenesis, including vascularization of solid tumors. Here we describe a specific Ca2+ signaling pathway linked to the VEGFR2 receptor subtype, controlling the critical angiogenic responses of endothelial cells (ECs) to VEGF. Key steps of this pathway are the involvement of the potent Ca2+ mobilizing messenger, nicotinic acid adenine-dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), and the specific engagement of the two-pore channel TPC2 subtype on acidic intracellular Ca2+ stores, resulting in Ca2+ release and angiogenic responses. Targeting this intracellular pathway pharmacologically using the NAADP antagonist Ned-19 or genetically using Tpcn2−/− mice was found to inhibit angiogenic responses to VEGF in vitro and in vivo. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) Ned-19 abolished VEGF-induced Ca2+ release, impairing phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, eNOS, JNK, cell proliferation, cell migration, and capillary-like tube formation. Interestingly, Tpcn2 shRNA treatment abolished VEGF-induced Ca2+ release and capillary-like tube formation. Importantly, in vivo VEGF-induced vessel formation in matrigel plugs in mice was abolished by Ned-19 and, most notably, failed to occur in Tpcn2−/− mice, but was unaffected in Tpcn1−/− animals. These results demonstrate that a VEGFR2/NAADP/TPC2/Ca2+ signaling pathway is critical for VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Given that VEGF can elicit both pro- and antiangiogenic responses depending upon the balance of signal transduction pathways activated, targeting specific VEGFR2 downstream signaling pathways could modify this balance, potentially leading to more finely tailored therapeutic strategies. PMID:25331892

  18. Instrumental Genesis in Technology-Mediated Learning: From Double Stimulation to Expansive Knowledge Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritella, Giuseppe; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to examine the socio-cultural foundations of technology-mediated collaborative learning. Toward that end, we discuss the role of artifacts in knowledge-creating inquiry, relying on the theoretical ideas of Carl Bereiter, Merlin Donald, Pierre Rabardel, Keith Sawyer and L. S. Vygotsky. We argue that epistemic…

  19. NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion is required for nuclear envelope formation and completion of nuclear pore complex assembly in Xenopus laevis egg extracts.

    PubMed

    Baur, Tina; Ramadan, Kristijan; Schlundt, Andreas; Kartenbeck, Jürgen; Meyer, Hemmo H

    2007-08-15

    Despite the progress in understanding nuclear envelope (NE) reformation after mitosis, it has remained unclear what drives the required membrane fusion and how exactly this is coordinated with nuclear pore complex (NPC) assembly. Here, we show that, like other intracellular fusion reactions, NE fusion in Xenopus laevis egg extracts is mediated by SNARE proteins that require activation by NSF. Antibodies against Xenopus NSF, depletion of NSF or the dominant-negative NSF(E329Q) variant specifically inhibited NE formation. Staging experiments further revealed that NSF was required until sealing of the envelope was completed. Moreover, excess exogenous alpha-SNAP that blocks SNARE function prevented membrane fusion and caused accumulation of non-flattened vesicles on the chromatin surface. Under these conditions, the nucleoporins Nup107 and gp210 were fully recruited, whereas assembly of FxFG-repeat-containing nucleoporins was blocked. Together, we define NSF- and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion events as essential steps during NE formation downstream of Nup107 recruitment, and upstream of membrane flattening and completion of NPC assembly.

  20. Extracellular-matrix-mediated osmotic pressure drives Vibrio cholerae biofilm expansion and cheater exclusion.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Nadell, Carey D; Stone, Howard A; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-08-23

    Biofilms, surface-attached communities of bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix, are a major mode of bacterial life. How the material properties of the matrix contribute to biofilm growth and robustness is largely unexplored, in particular in response to environmental perturbations such as changes in osmotic pressure. Here, using Vibrio cholerae as our model organism, we show that during active cell growth, matrix production enables biofilm-dwelling bacterial cells to establish an osmotic pressure difference between the biofilm and the external environment. This pressure difference promotes biofilm expansion on nutritious surfaces by physically swelling the colony, which enhances nutrient uptake, and enables matrix-producing cells to outcompete non-matrix-producing cheaters via physical exclusion. Osmotic pressure together with crosslinking of the matrix also controls the growth of submerged biofilms and their susceptibility to invasion by planktonic cells. As the basic physicochemical principles of matrix crosslinking and osmotic swelling are universal, our findings may have implications for other biofilm-forming bacterial species.Most bacteria live in biofilms, surface-attached communities encased in an extracellular matrix. Here, Yan et al. show that matrix production in Vibrio cholerae increases the osmotic pressure within the biofilm, promoting biofilm expansion and physical exclusion of non-matrix producing cheaters.

  1. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology: integrating theories of the mediated mind.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-03-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré's hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology is meant to assist in integrating theoretical perspectives and research interests that are often thought of as incompatible, among them neuroscience, phenomenology of the body, social practice theory and technology studies. A main point of the article is that these perspectives each are necessary for an integrative approach to the human mind.

  2. Alkaline pH block of CLC-K kidney chloride channels mediated by a pore lysine residue.

    PubMed

    Gradogna, Antonella; Pusch, Michael

    2013-07-02

    CLC-K chloride channels are expressed in the kidney and the inner ear, where they are involved in NaCl reabsorption and endolymph production, respectively. These channels require the beta subunit barttin for proper function. Mutations in ClC-Kb and barttin, lead to Bartter's syndrome. Block of CLC-K channels by acid pH was described in a previous work, and we had identified His-497 as being responsible for the acidic block of CLC-K channels. Here, we show that ClC-K currents are blocked also by alkaline pH with an apparent pK value of ∼8.7 for ClC-K1. Using noise analysis, we demonstrate that alkaline block is mediated by an allosteric reduction of the open probability. By an extensive mutagenic screen we identified K165, a highly conserved residue in the extracellular vestibule of the channel, as the major element responsible for the alkaline pH modulation. Deprotonation of K165 underlies the alkaline block. However, MTS modification of the K165C mutant demonstrated that not only the charge but also the chemical and sterical properties of lysine 165 are determinants of CLC-K gating. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear pore complex-mediated modulation of TCR signaling is required for naïve CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Borlido, Joana; Sakuma, Stephen; Raices, Marcela; Carrette, Florent; Tinoco, Roberto; Bradley, Linda M; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm. We report that loss of the tissue-specific NPC component Nup210 causes a severe deficit of naïve CD4 + T cells. Nup210-deficient CD4 + T lymphocytes develop normally but fail to survive in the periphery. The decreased survival results from both an impaired ability to transmit tonic T cell receptor (TCR) signals and increased levels of Fas, which sensitize Nup210 -/- naïve CD4 + T cells to Fas-mediated cell death. Mechanistically, Nup210 regulates these processes by modulating the expression of Cav2 (encoding Caveolin-2) and Jun at the nuclear periphery. Whereas the TCR-dependent and CD4 + T cell-specific upregulation of Cav2 is critical for proximal TCR signaling, cJun expression is required for STAT3-dependent repression of Fas. Our results uncover an unexpected role for Nup210 as a cell-intrinsic regulator of TCR signaling and T cell homeostasis and expose NPCs as key players in the adaptive immune system.

  4. Spring-Mediated Cranioplasty in Sagittal Synostosis: Does Age at Placement Affect Expansion?

    PubMed

    Sun, James; Ter Maaten, Netanja S; Mazzaferro, Daniel M; Wes, Ari M; Naran, Sanjay; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing of surgery and spring characteristics on correction of scaphocephalic deformity in patients undergoing spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) for sagittal craniosynostosis. The authors conducted a review of patients with sagittal craniosynostosis who underwent SMC at a tertiary referral center between July 2011 and March 2017, with a primary outcome measure of head shape, both preoperatively and postoperatively, determined by cephalic index (CI). Patient demographics and operative details including timing of surgery and spring characteristics were collected. Differences in CI preoperation and postoperation were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Ordinary least-squares linear regression was used to assess the impact of timing, number of springs, maximum single spring force, and total spring force on postoperative change in CI. Thirty-six subjects (12 males and 24 females) were included in the study. Mean age at spring placement was 3.9 months (range: 1.9-9.2) with a mean follow-up of 1.4 years (range: 0.3-5.2). The mean number of springs used was 3 (range: 2-4). The mean maximum single spring force was 9.9 Newtons (N) (range: 6.9-13.0) and the mean total spring force was 24.6 N (range: 12.7-37.0). Mean CI increased from 70 ± 0.9 preoperatively to 77 ± 1.0 postoperatively (P < 0.001). Age at spring placement was significantly associated with change in CI: for every month increase in age, the change in CI decreased by 1.3 (P = 0.03). The number of springs used, greatest single spring force, and total spring force did not correlate with changes in CI (P = 0.85, P = 0.42, and P = 0.84, respectively). In SMC, earlier age at time of surgery appears to correlate with greater improvement in CI, at least in the short-term. While spring characteristics did not appear to affect head shape, it is possible that the authors were underpowered to detect a difference, and spring

  5. Localization of Nucleoporin Tpr to the Nuclear Pore Complex Is Essential for Tpr Mediated Regulation of the Export of Unspliced RNA

    PubMed Central

    Rajanala, Kalpana; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Nucleoporin Tpr is a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) that localizes exclusively to intranuclear filaments. Tpr functions as a scaffolding element in the nuclear phase of the NPC and plays a role in mitotic spindle checkpoint signalling. Export of intron-containing mRNA in Mason Pfizer Monkey Virus is regulated by direct interaction of cellular proteins with the cis-acting Constitutive Transport Element (CTE). In mammalian cells, the transport of Gag/Pol-CTE reporter construct is not very efficient, suggesting a regulatory mechanism to retain this unspliced RNA. Here we report that the knockdown of Tpr in mammalian cells leads to a drastic enhancement in the levels of Gag proteins (p24) in the cytoplasm, which is rescued by siRNA resistant Tpr. Tpr's role in the retention of unspliced RNA is independent of the functions of Sam68 and Tap/Nxf1 proteins, which are reported to promote CTE dependent export. Further, we investigated the possible role for nucleoporins that are known to function in nucleocytoplasmic transport in modulating unspliced RNA export. Results show that depletion of Nup153, a nucleoporin required for NPC anchoring of Tpr, plays a role in regulating the export, while depletion of other FG repeat-containing nucleoporins did not alter the unspliced RNA export. Results suggest that Tpr and Nup153 both regulate the export of unspliced RNA and they are most likely functioning through the same pathway. Importantly, we find that localization of Tpr to the NPC is necessary for Tpr mediated regulation of unspliced RNA export. Collectively, the data indicates that perinuclear localization of Tpr at the nucleopore complex is crucial for regulating intron containing mRNA export by directly or indirectly participating in the processing and degradation of aberrant mRNA transcripts. PMID:22253824

  6. Palmitate induces cisternal ER expansion via the activation of XBP-1/CCTα-mediated phospholipid accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Keun; Oh, Eunhye; Yun, Mihee; Lee, Seong-Beom; Chae, Gue Tae

    2015-07-16

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces ER expansion. The expansion of the intracisternal space of the ER was found in macrophages associated with human atherosclerotic lesions. We also previously reported that palmitate induces cisternal ER expansion and necrosis in RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we report on an investigation of the likely mechanism responsible for this palmitate-induced cisternal ER expansion in a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. RAW 264.7 cells were pre-treated with the designated inhibitor or siRNA, followed by treatment with palmitate. Changes in the ER structure were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The induction of ER stress was confirmed by an increase in the extent of phosphorylation of PERK, the expression of BiP and CHOP, and the splicing of XBP-1 mRNA. Phospholipid staining was performed with the LipidTOX Red phospholipidosis detection reagent. Related gene expressions were detected by quantitative real time-RT-PCR or RT-PCR. Palmitate was found to induce ER stress and cisternal ER expansion. In addition, palmitate-induced cisternal ER expansion was attenuated by ER stress inhibitors, such as 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). The findings also show that palmitate induced-mRNA expression of CCTα, which increases phospholipid synthesis, was attenuated by the down-regulation of XBP-1, a part of ER stress. Furthermore, palmitate-induced phospholipid accumulation and cisternal ER expansion were attenuated by the down-regulation of XBP-1 or CCTα. The findings reported herein indicate that palmitate-induced cisternal ER expansion is dependent on the activation of XBP-1/CCTα-mediated phospholipid accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells.

  7. Preventing Mesh Pore Collapse by Designing Mesh Pores With Auxetic Geometries: A Comprehensive Evaluation Via Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Knight, Katrina M; Moalli, Pamela A; Abramowitch, Steven D

    2018-05-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) meshes are exposed to predominately tensile loading conditions in vivo that can lead to pore collapse by 70-90%, decreasing overall porosity and providing a plausible mechanism for the contraction/shrinkage of mesh observed following implantation. To prevent pore collapse, we proposed to design synthetic meshes with a macrostructure that results in auxetic behavior, the pores expand laterally, instead of contracting when loaded. Such behavior can be achieved with a range of auxetic structures/geometries. This study utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to assess the behavior of mesh models with eight auxetic pore geometries subjected to uniaxial loading to evaluate their potential to allow for pore expansion while simultaneously providing resistance to tensile loading. Overall, substituting auxetic geometries for standard pore geometries yielded more pore expansion, but often at the expense of increased model elongation, with two of the eight auxetics not able to maintain pore expansion at higher levels of tension. Meshes with stable pore geometries that remain open with loading will afford the ingrowth of host tissue into the pores and improved integration of the mesh. Given the demonstrated ability of auxetic geometries to allow for pore size maintenance (and pore expansion), auxetically designed meshes have the potential to significantly impact surgical outcomes and decrease the likelihood of major mesh-related complications.

  8. Dynamin-related protein-1 controls fusion pore dynamics during platelet granule exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, Secil; Dilks, James R; Peters, Christian G; Fitch-Tewfik, Jennifer L; Fadel, Nathalie A; Jasuja, Reema; Italiano, Joseph E; Haynes, Christy L; Flaumenhaft, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Platelet granule exocytosis serves a central role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Recently, single-cell amperometry has shown that platelet membrane fusion during granule exocytosis results in the formation of a fusion pore that subsequently expands to enable the extrusion of granule contents. However, the molecular mechanisms that control platelet fusion pore expansion and collapse are not known. We identified dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) in platelets and found that an inhibitor of Drp1, mdivi-1, blocked exocytosis of both platelet dense and α-granules. We used single-cell amperometry to monitor serotonin release from individual dense granules and, thereby, measured the effect of Drp1 inhibition on fusion pore dynamics. Inhibition of Drp1 increased spike width and decreased prespike foot events, indicating that Drp1 influences fusion pore formation and expansion. Platelet-mediated thrombus formation in vivo after laser-induced injury of mouse cremaster arterioles was impaired after infusion of mdivi-1. These results demonstrate that inhibition of Drp1 disrupts platelet fusion pore dynamics and indicate that Drp1 can be targeted to control thrombus formation in vivo.

  9. Poring over two-pore channel pore mutants

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Christopher J.; Patel, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Two-pore channels are members of the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily. They localise to the endolysosomal system and are likely targets for the Ca2+ mobilising messenger NAADP. In this brief review, we relate mutagenesis of the TPC pore to a recently published homology model and discuss how pore mutants are informing us of TPC function. Molecular physiology of these ubiquitous proteins is thus emerging. PMID:27226934

  10. NOTCH-Mediated Maintenance and Expansion of Human Bone Marrow Stromal/Stem Cells: A Technology Designed for Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yufeng; Long, Teng; Wang, Cuicui; Mirando, Anthony J.; Chen, Jianquan; O’Keefe, Regis J.

    2014-01-01

    Human bone marrow-derived stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) have great therapeutic potential for treating skeletal disease and facilitating skeletal repair, although maintaining their multipotency and expanding these cells ex vivo have proven difficult. Because most stem cell-based applications to skeletal regeneration and repair in the clinic would require large numbers of functional BMSCs, recent research has focused on methods for the appropriate selection, expansion, and maintenance of BMSC populations during long-term culture. We describe here a novel biological method that entails selection of human BMSCs based on NOTCH2 expression and activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway in cultured BMSCs via a tissue culture plate coated with recombinant human JAGGED1 (JAG1) ligand. We demonstrate that transient JAG1-mediated NOTCH signaling promotes human BMSC maintenance and expansion while increasing their skeletogenic differentiation capacity, both ex vivo and in vivo. This study is the first of its kind to describe a NOTCH-mediated methodology for the maintenance and expansion of human BMSCs and will serve as a platform for future clinical or translational studies aimed at skeletal regeneration and repair. PMID:25368376

  11. A BTLA-mediated bait-and-switch strategy permits Listeria expansion in CD8α+ DCs to promote long term T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuanming; Zhang, Xunmin; Sun, Yonglian; Tu, Tony; Fu, May Lynne; Miller, Mendy; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Listeria monocytogenes infected CD8α+ DCs in the spleen are essential for CD8+ T cell generation. CD8α+ DCs are also necessary for Listeria expansion and dissemination within the host. The mechanisms that regulate CD8α+ DCs to allow Listeria expansion are unclear. We find that activating the B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), a co-inhibitory receptor on CD8α+ DCs, suppresses, while blocking BTLA enhances both the primary and memory CD8 T cell responses against Listeria. Btla−/− mice have lower effector and memory CD8+ T cells while paradoxically also being more resistant to Listeria. Although bacterial entry into Btla−/− CD8α+ DCs is unaffected, Listeria fails to expand within these cells. BTLA signaling limits Fas/FasL-mediated suppression of Listeria expansion within CD8α+ DCs to more effectively alert adaptive immune cells. This study uncovers a BTLA-mediated strategy used by the host that permits Listeria proliferation to enable increasing T cell responses for long-term protection. PMID:25011109

  12. Donor B cells in Transplants Augment Clonal Expansion and Survival of Pathogenic CD4+ T cells That Mediate Autoimmune-like Chronic GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Young, James S; Wu, Tao; Chen, Yuhong; Zhao, Dongchang; Liu, Hongjun; Yi, Tangsheng; Johnston, Heather; Racine, Jeremy; Li, Xiaofan; Wang, Audrey; Todorov, Ivan; Zeng, Defu

    2013-01-01

    We reported that both donor CD4+ T and B cells in transplants were required for induction of an autoimmune-like chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) in a murine model of DBA/2 donor to BALB/c recipient, but mechanisms whereby donor B cells augment cGVHD pathogenesis remain unknown. Here, we report that, although donor B cells have little impact on acute GVHD (aGVHD) severity, they play an important role in augmenting the persistence of tissue damage in the acute and chronic GVHD overlapping target organs (i.e. skin and lung); they also markedly augment damage in a prototypical cGVHD target organ- the salivary gland. During cGVHD pathogenesis, donor B cells are activated by donor CD4+ T cells to upregulate MHC II and co-stimulatory molecules. Acting as efficient APCs, donor B cells augment donor CD4+ T clonal expansion, autoreactivity, IL-7Rα expression, and survival. These qualitative changes markedly augment donor CD4+ T cells' capacity in mediating autoimmune-like cGVHD, so that they mediate disease in the absence of donor B cells in secondary recipients. Therefore, a major mechanism whereby donor B cells augment cGVHD is through augmenting the clonal expansion, differentiation and survival of pathogenic CD4+ T cells. PMID:22649197

  13. Non-FG mediated transport of the large pre-ribosomal subunit through the nuclear pore complex by the mRNA export factor Gle2

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Laura; Chang, Yiming; Altvater, Martin; Menet, Anna M.; Kemmler, Stefan; Panse, Vikram G.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple export receptors passage bound pre-ribosomes through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) by transiently interacting with the Phe-Gly (FG) meshwork of their transport channels. Here, we reveal how the non-FG interacting yeast mRNA export factor Gly-Leu-FG lethal 2 (Gle2) functions in the export of the large pre-ribosomal subunit (pre-60S). Structure-guided studies uncovered conserved platforms used by Gle2 to export pre-60S: an uncharacterized basic patch required to bind pre-60S, and a second surface that makes non-FG contacts with the nucleoporin Nup116. A basic patch mutant of Gle2 is able to function in mRNA export, but not pre-60S export. Thus, Gle2 provides a distinct interaction platform to transport pre-60S to the cytoplasm. Notably, Gle2’s interaction platforms become crucial for pre-60S export when FG-interacting receptors are either not recruited to pre-60S or are impaired. We propose that large complex cargos rely on non-FG as well as FG-interactions for their efficient translocation through the nuclear pore complex channel. PMID:23907389

  14. Forecasting range expansion into ecological traps: climate-mediated shifts in sea turtle nesting beaches and human development.

    PubMed

    Pike, David A

    2013-10-01

    Some species are adapting to changing environments by expanding their geographic ranges. Understanding whether range shifts will be accompanied by increased exposure to other threats is crucial to predicting when and where new populations could successfully establish. If species overlap to a greater extent with human development under climate change, this could form ecological traps which are attractive to dispersing individuals, but the use of which substantially reduces fitness. Until recently, the core nesting range for the Critically Endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) was ca. 1000 km of sparsely populated coastline in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Over the past twenty-five years, this species has expanded its range into populated areas of coastal Florida (>1500 km outside the historical range), where nesting now occurs annually. Suitable Kemp's ridley nesting habitat has persisted for at least 140 000 years in the western Gulf of Mexico, and climate change models predict further nesting range expansion into the eastern Gulf of Mexico and northern Atlantic Ocean. Range expansion is 6-12% more likely to occur along uninhabited stretches of coastline than are current nesting beaches, suggesting that novel nesting areas will not be associated with high levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Although the high breeding-site fidelity of some migratory species could limit adaptation to climate change, rapid population recovery following effective conservation measures may enhance opportunities for range expansion. Anticipating the interactive effects of past or contemporary conservation measures, climate change, and future human activities will help focus long-term conservation strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Novel colicin Fy of Yersinia frederiksenii inhibits pathogenic Yersinia strains via YiuR-mediated reception, TonB import, and cell membrane pore formation.

    PubMed

    Bosák, Juraj; Laiblová, Petra; Smarda, Jan; Dedicová, Daniela; Smajs, David

    2012-04-01

    A novel colicin type, designated colicin Fy, was found to be encoded and produced by the strain Yersinia frederiksenii Y27601. Colicin Fy was active against both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the genus Yersinia. Plasmid YF27601 (5,574 bp) of Y. frederiksenii Y27601 was completely sequenced. The colicin Fy activity gene (cfyA) and the colicin Fy immunity gene (cfyI) were identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of colicin Fy was very similar in its C-terminal pore-forming domain to colicin Ib (69% identity in the last 178 amino acid residues), indicating pore forming as its lethal mode of action. Transposon mutagenesis of the colicin Fy-susceptible strain Yersinia kristensenii Y276 revealed the yiuR gene (ykris001_4440), which encodes the YiuR outer membrane protein with unknown function, as the colicin Fy receptor molecule. Introduction of the yiuR gene into the colicin Fy-resistant strain Y. kristensenii Y104 restored its susceptibility to colicin Fy. In contrast, the colicin Fy-resistant strain Escherichia coli TOP10F' acquired susceptibility to colicin Fy only when both the yiuR and tonB genes from Y. kristensenii Y276 were introduced. Similarities between colicins Fy and Ib, similarities between the Cir and YiuR receptors, and the detected partial cross-immunity of colicin Fy and colicin Ib producers suggest a common evolutionary origin of the colicin Fy-YiuR and colicin Ib-Cir systems.

  16. Novel Colicin FY of Yersinia frederiksenii Inhibits Pathogenic Yersinia Strains via YiuR-Mediated Reception, TonB Import, and Cell Membrane Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Bosák, Juraj; Laiblová, Petra; Šmarda, Jan; Dědičová, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    A novel colicin type, designated colicin FY, was found to be encoded and produced by the strain Yersinia frederiksenii Y27601. Colicin FY was active against both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the genus Yersinia. Plasmid YF27601 (5,574 bp) of Y. frederiksenii Y27601 was completely sequenced. The colicin FY activity gene (cfyA) and the colicin FY immunity gene (cfyI) were identified. The deduced amino acid sequence of colicin FY was very similar in its C-terminal pore-forming domain to colicin Ib (69% identity in the last 178 amino acid residues), indicating pore forming as its lethal mode of action. Transposon mutagenesis of the colicin FY-susceptible strain Yersinia kristensenii Y276 revealed the yiuR gene (ykris001_4440), which encodes the YiuR outer membrane protein with unknown function, as the colicin FY receptor molecule. Introduction of the yiuR gene into the colicin FY-resistant strain Y. kristensenii Y104 restored its susceptibility to colicin FY. In contrast, the colicin FY-resistant strain Escherichia coli TOP10F′ acquired susceptibility to colicin FY only when both the yiuR and tonB genes from Y. kristensenii Y276 were introduced. Similarities between colicins FY and Ib, similarities between the Cir and YiuR receptors, and the detected partial cross-immunity of colicin FY and colicin Ib producers suggest a common evolutionary origin of the colicin FY-YiuR and colicin Ib-Cir systems. PMID:22343298

  17. Genistein-mediated inhibition of mammary stromal adipocyte differentiation limits expansion of mammary stem/progenitor cells by paracrine signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammary adiposity may contribute to breast cancer development and progression by releasing cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that promote mammary epithelial proliferation. We evaluated the effects of soy isoflavone genistein (GEN) on the adipogenic differentiation of a SV40-immortalized mou...

  18. Spatio-temporal trends in crop damage inform recent climate-mediated expansion of a large boreal herbivore into an agro-ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Laforge, Michel P; Michel, Nicole L; Brook, Ryan K

    2017-11-09

    Large-scale climatic fluctuations have caused species range shifts. Moose (Alces alces) have expanded their range southward into agricultural areas previously not considered moose habitat. We found that moose expansion into agro-ecosystems is mediated by broad-scale climatic factors and access to high-quality forage (i.e., crops). We used crop damage records to quantify moose presence across the Canadian Prairies. We regressed latitude of crop damage against North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and crop area to test the hypotheses that NAO-mediated wetland recharge and occurrence of more nutritious crop types would result in more frequent occurrences of crop damage by moose at southerly latitudes. We examined local-scale land use by generating a habitat selection model to test our hypothesis that moose selected for areas of high crop cover in agro-ecosystems. We found that crop damage by moose occurred farther south during dry winters and in years with greater coverage of oilseeds. The results of our analyses support our hypothesis that moose movement into cropland is mediated by high-protein crops, but not by thermoregulatory habitat at the scale examined. We conclude that broad-scale climate combined with changing land-use regimes are causal factors in species' range shifts and are important considerations when studying changing animal distributions.

  19. Discovery of dual orexin receptor antagonists with rat sleep efficacy enabled by expansion of the acetonitrile-assisted/diphosgene-mediated 2,4-dichloropyrimidine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Anthony J; Mercer, Swati P; Harrell, C Meacham; Garson, Susan L; Fox, Steven V; Gotter, Anthony L; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Cabalu, Tamara D; Cui, Donghui; Lemaire, Wei; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J; Coleman, Paul J

    2014-05-01

    Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that dual orexin receptor antagonists (OX1R and OX2R antagonists or DORAs) represent a novel treatment option for insomnia patients. Previously we have disclosed several compounds in the diazepane amide DORA series with excellent potency and both preclinical and clinical sleep efficacy. Additional SAR studies in this series were enabled by the expansion of the acetonitrile-assisted, diphosgene-mediated 2,4-dichloropyrimidine synthesis to novel substrates providing an array of Western heterocycles. These heterocycles were utilized to synthesize analogs in short order with high levels of potency on orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors as well as in vivo sleep efficacy in the rat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pore-forming toxin-mediated ion dysregulation leads to death receptor-independent necroptosis of lung epithelial cells during bacterial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    González-Juarbe, Norberto; Bradley, Kelley Margaret; Shenoy, Anukul Taranath; Gilley, Ryan Paul; Reyes, Luis Felipe; Hinojosa, Cecilia Anahí; Restrepo, Marcos Ignacio; Dube, Peter Herman; Bergman, Molly Ann; Orihuela, Carlos Javier

    2017-01-01

    We report that pore-forming toxins (PFTs) induce respiratory epithelial cell necroptosis independently of death receptor signaling during bacterial pneumonia. Instead, necroptosis was activated as a result of ion dysregulation arising from membrane permeabilization. PFT-induced necroptosis required RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL, and could be induced in the absence or inhibition of TNFR1, TNFR2 and TLR4 signaling. We detected activated MLKL in the lungs from mice and nonhuman primates experiencing Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, respectively. We subsequently identified calcium influx and potassium efflux as the key initiating signals responsible for necroptosis; also that mitochondrial damage was not required for necroptosis activation but was exacerbated by MLKL activation. PFT-induced necroptosis in respiratory epithelial cells did not involve CamKII or reactive oxygen species. KO mice deficient in MLKL or RIP3 had increased survival and reduced pulmonary injury during S. marcescens pneumonia. Our results establish necroptosis as a major cell death pathway active during bacterial pneumonia and that necroptosis can occur without death receptor signaling. PMID:28387756

  1. Pore-forming toxin-mediated ion dysregulation leads to death receptor-independent necroptosis of lung epithelial cells during bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    González-Juarbe, Norberto; Bradley, Kelley Margaret; Shenoy, Anukul Taranath; Gilley, Ryan Paul; Reyes, Luis Felipe; Hinojosa, Cecilia Anahí; Restrepo, Marcos Ignacio; Dube, Peter Herman; Bergman, Molly Ann; Orihuela, Carlos Javier

    2017-05-01

    We report that pore-forming toxins (PFTs) induce respiratory epithelial cell necroptosis independently of death receptor signaling during bacterial pneumonia. Instead, necroptosis was activated as a result of ion dysregulation arising from membrane permeabilization. PFT-induced necroptosis required RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL, and could be induced in the absence or inhibition of TNFR1, TNFR2 and TLR4 signaling. We detected activated MLKL in the lungs from mice and nonhuman primates experiencing Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, respectively. We subsequently identified calcium influx and potassium efflux as the key initiating signals responsible for necroptosis; also that mitochondrial damage was not required for necroptosis activation but was exacerbated by MLKL activation. PFT-induced necroptosis in respiratory epithelial cells did not involve CamKII or reactive oxygen species. KO mice deficient in MLKL or RIP3 had increased survival and reduced pulmonary injury during S. marcescens pneumonia. Our results establish necroptosis as a major cell death pathway active during bacterial pneumonia and that necroptosis can occur without death receptor signaling.

  2. Tumor-Targeting Anti-CD20 Antibodies Mediate In Vitro Expansion of Memory Natural Killer Cells: Impact of CD16 Affinity Ligation Conditions and In Vivo Priming.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Cristina; Battella, Simone; Pighi, Chiara; Franchitti, Lavinia; Turriziani, Ombretta; Morrone, Stefania; Santoni, Angela; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Palmieri, Gabriella

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a pivotal player of innate anti-tumor immune responses. The impact of environmental factors in shaping the representativity of different NK cell subsets is increasingly appreciated. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection profoundly affects NK cell compartment, as documented by the presence of a CD94/NKG2C + FcεRIγ - long-lived "memory" NK cell subset, endowed with enhanced CD16-dependent functional capabilities, in a fraction of HCMV-seropositive subjects. However, the requirements for memory NK cell pool establishment/maintenance and activation have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we describe the capability of anti-CD20 tumor-targeting therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to drive the selective in vitro expansion of memory NK cells and we show the impact of donor' HCMV serostatus and CD16 affinity ligation conditions on this event. In vitro expanded memory NK cells maintain the phenotypic and functional signature of their freshly isolated counterpart; furthermore, our data demonstrate that CD16 affinity ligation conditions differently affect memory NK cell proliferation and functional activation, as rituximab-mediated low-affinity ligation represents a superior proliferative stimulus, while high-affinity aggregation mediated by glycoengineered obinutuzumab results in improved multifunctional responses. Our work also expands the molecular and functional characterization of memory NK cells, and investigates the possible impact of CD16 functional allelic variants on their in vivo and in vitro expansions. These results reveal new insights in Ab-driven memory NK cell responses in a therapeutic setting and may ultimately inspire new NK cell-based intervention strategies against cancer, in which the enhanced responsiveness to mAb-bound target could significantly impact therapeutic efficacy.

  3. Activation of Akt rescues endoplasmic reticulum stress-impaired murine cardiac contractile function via glycogen synthase kinase-3β-mediated suppression of mitochondrial permeation pore opening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Xia, Zhi; La Cour, Karissa H; Ren, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the impact of chronic Akt activation on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cardiac mechanical anomalies, if any, and the underlying mechanism involved. Wild-type and transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of the active mutant of Akt (Myr-Akt) were subjected to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (1 or 3 mg/kg). ER stress led to compromised echocardiographic (elevated left ventricular end-systolic diameter and reduced fractional shortening) and cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling, and cell survival in wild-type mice associated with mitochondrial damage. In vitro ER stress induction in murine cardiomyocytes upregulated the ER stress proteins Gadd153, GRP78, and phospho-eIF2α, and promoted reactive oxygen species production, carbonyl formation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and mitochondrial permeation pore (mPTP) opening associated with overtly impaired cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties. Interestingly, these anomalies were mitigated by chronic Akt activation or the ER chaperon tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). Treatment with tunicamycin also dephosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) (leading to activation of GSK3β), the effect of which was abrogated by Akt activation and TUDCA. The ER stress-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and mitochondrial anomalies were obliterated by the mPTP inhibitor cyclosporin A, GSK3β inhibitor SB216763, and ER stress inhibitor TUDCA. This research reported the direct relationship between ER stress and cardiomyocyte contractile and mitochondrial anomalies for the first time. Taken together, these data suggest that ER stress may compromise cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, possibly through the Akt/GSK3β-dependent impairment of mitochondrial integrity.

  4. GPER mediates the inhibitory actions of estrogen on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells through perturbation of mitotic clonal expansion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pei; Yuen, Jacky M L; Sham, Kathy W Y; Cheng, Christopher H K

    2013-11-01

    G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) mediates non-genomic signaling of estrogenic events. Here we showed for the first time that Gper/GPER is expressed in Swiss 3T3 mouse embryo preadipocytes 3T3-L1, and that Gper/GPER is up-regulated during differentiation of the cells induced by monocyte differentiation-inducing (MDI) cocktail. Activation of GPER by the natural ligand 17β-estradiol (E2), and the specific agonist G1, was shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, while such inhibition was reversed upon knockdown of GPER using specific siRNA. GPER was also found to mediate perturbation of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) in these cells by inhibiting cell cycle arrest during MDI cocktail-induced differentiation. Persistent activation of cell cycle regulating factors cyclin-dependant kinase (CDK) 4, CDK6 and cyclin D1, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein at serine 795 was observed in the G1-treated cells. Taken together, our results indicate that E2-GPER signaling leads to an inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells via perturbation of MCE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Yeast Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Michael P.; Aitchison, John D.; Suprapto, Adisetyantari; Hjertaas, Kelly; Zhao, Yingming; Chait, Brian T.

    2000-01-01

    An understanding of how the nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic exchange requires a comprehensive inventory of the molecular components of the NPC and a knowledge of how each component contributes to the overall structure of this large molecular translocation machine. Therefore, we have taken a comprehensive approach to classify all components of the yeast NPC (nucleoporins). This involved identifying all the proteins present in a highly enriched NPC fraction, determining which of these proteins were nucleoporins, and localizing each nucleoporin within the NPC. Using these data, we present a map of the molecular architecture of the yeast NPC and provide evidence for a Brownian affinity gating mechanism for nucleocytoplasmic transport. PMID:10684247

  6. Mitochondrial PKC-ε deficiency promotes I/R-mediated myocardial injury via GSK3β-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Zhang, Feng; Zhao, Gang; Cheng, Yong; Wu, Ting; Wu, Bing; Zhang, You-En

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondrial fission is critically involved in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which has been considered as one of the leading causes of ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. In our previous works, we demonstrate that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) deficiency aggravates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether ALDH2 deficiency promotes mitochondrial injury and cardiomyocyte death in response to I/R stress and the underlying mechanism. I/R injury was induced by aortic cross-clamping for 45 min. followed by unclamping for 24 hrs in ALDH2 knockout (ALDH2 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice. Then myocardial infarct size, cell apoptosis and cardiac function were examined. The protein kinase C (PKC) isoform expressions and their mitochondrial translocation, the activity of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), caspase9 and caspase3 were determined by Western blot. The effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or PKC-δ shRNA treatment on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were also detected. The results showed that ALDH2 -/- mice exhibited increased myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enhanced levels of cleaved caspase9, caspase3 and phosphorylated Drp1. Mitochondrial PKC-ε translocation was lower in ALDH2 -/- mice than in WT mice, and PKC-δ was the opposite. Further data showed that mitochondrial PKC isoform ratio was regulated by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, which could be reversed by NAC pre-treatment under I/R injury. In addition, PKC-ε inhibition caused activation of caspase9, caspase3 and Drp1Ser 616 in response to I/R stress. Importantly, expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was lower in ALDH2 -/- mice than in WT mice, and both were increased by NAC pre-treatment. I/R-induced mitochondrial translocation of GSK-3β was inhibited by PKC-δ shRNA or NAC pre-treatment. In addition

  7. The exocytotic fusion pore modeled as a lipidic pore.

    PubMed Central

    Nanavati, C; Markin, V S; Oberhauser, A F; Fernandez, J M

    1992-01-01

    Freeze-fracture electron micrographs from degranulating cells show that the lumen of the secretory granule is connected to the extracellular compartment via large (20 to 150 nm diameter) aqueous pores. These exocytotic fusion pores appear to be made up of a highly curved bilayer that spans the plasma and granule membranes. Conductance measurements, using the patch-clamp technique, have been used to study the fusion pore from the instant it conducts ions. These measurements reveal the presence of early fusion pores that are much smaller than those observed in electron micrographs. Early fusion pores open abruptly, fluctuate, and then either expand irreversibly or close. The molecular structure of these early fusion pores is unknown. In the simplest extremes, these early fusion pores could be either ion channel like protein pores or lipidic pores. Here, we explored the latter possibility, namely that of the early exocytotic fusion pore modeled as a lipid-lined pore whose free energy was composed of curvature elastic energy and work done by tension. Like early exocytotic fusion pores, we found that these lipidic pores could open abruptly, fluctuate, and expand irreversibly. Closure of these lipidic pores could be caused by slight changes in lipid composition. Conductance distributions for stable lipidic pores matched those of exocytotic fusion pores. These findings demonstrate that lipidic pores can exhibit the properties of exocytotic fusion pores, thus providing an alternate framework with which to understand and interpret exocytotic fusion pore data. PMID:1420930

  8. Pore dilation reconsidered

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that many P2X family channels undergo a time-dependent process of pore dilation when activated by ATP. Li et al. now propose a different interpretation of the key experiments. PMID:26505561

  9. Mechanism and the origins of stereospecificity in copper-catalyzed ring expansion of vinyl oxiranes: a traceless dual transition-metal-mediated process.

    PubMed

    Mustard, Thomas J L; Mack, Daniel J; Njardarson, Jon T; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon

    2013-01-30

    Density functional theory computations of the Cu-catalyzed ring expansion of vinyloxiranes is mediated by a traceless dual Cu(I)-catalyst mechanism. Overall, the reaction involves a monomeric Cu(I)-catalyst, but a single key step, the Cu migration, requires two Cu(I)-catalysts for the transformation. This dual-Cu step is found to be a true double Cu(I) transition state rather than a single Cu(I) transition state in the presence of an adventitious, spectator Cu(I). Both Cu(I) catalysts are involved in the bond forming and breaking process. The single Cu(I) transition state is not a stationary point on the potential energy surface. Interestingly, the reductive elimination is rate-determining for the major diastereomeric product, while the Cu(I) migration step is rate-determining for the minor. Thus, while the reaction requires dual Cu(I) activation to proceed, kinetically, the presence of the dual-Cu(I) step is untraceable. The diastereospecificity of this reaction is controlled by the Cu migration step. Suprafacial migration is favored over antarafacial migration due to the distorted Cu π-allyl in the latter.

  10. Nuclear pore complex tethers to the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Martin W

    2017-08-01

    The nuclear envelope is tethered to the cytoskeleton. The best known attachments of all elements of the cytoskeleton are via the so-called LINC complex. However, the nuclear pore complexes, which mediate the transport of soluble and membrane bound molecules, are also linked to the microtubule network, primarily via motor proteins (dynein and kinesins) which are linked, most importantly, to the cytoplasmic filament protein of the nuclear pore complex, Nup358, by the adaptor BicD2. The evidence for such linkages and possible roles in nuclear migration, cell cycle control, nuclear transport and cell architecture are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Development of maternal seed tissue in barley is mediated by regulated cell expansion and cell disintegration and coordinated with endosperm growth.

    PubMed

    Radchuk, Volodymyr; Weier, Diana; Radchuk, Ruslana; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2011-01-01

    After fertilization, filial grain organs are surrounded by the maternal nucellus embedded within the integuments and pericarp. Rapid early endosperm growth must be coordinated with maternal tissue development. Parameters of maternal tissue growth and development were analysed during early endosperm formation. In the pericarp, cell proliferation is accomplished around the time of fertilization, followed by cell elongation predominantly in longitudinal directions. The rapid cell expansion coincides with endosperm cellularization. Distribution of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling)-positive nuclei reveals distinct patterns starting in the nucellus at anthesis and followed later by the inner cell rows of the pericarp, then spreading to the whole pericarp. The pattern suggests timely and spatially regulated programmed cell death (PCD) processes in maternal seed tissues. When the endosperm is coenocytic, PCD events are only observed within the nucellus. Thereby, remobilization of nucellar storage compounds by PCD could nourish the early developing endosperm when functional interconnections are absent between maternal and filial seed organs. Specific proteases promote PCD events. Characterization of the barley vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) gene family identified seven gene members specifically expressed in the developing grain. HvVPE2a (known as nucellain) together with closely similar HvVPE2b and HvVPE2d might be involved in nucellar PCD. HvVPE4 is strongly cell specific for pericarp parenchyma. Correlative evidence suggests that HvVPE4 plays a role in PCD events in the pericarp. Possible functions of PCD in the maternal tissues imply a potential nutritive role or the relief of a physical restraint for endosperm growth. PCD could also activate post-phloem transport functions.

  12. Drug release through liposome pores.

    PubMed

    Dan, Nily

    2015-02-01

    Electrical, ultrasound and other types of external fields are known to induce the formation of pores in cellular and model membranes. This paper examines drug release through field induced liposome pores using Monte Carlo simulations. We find that drug release rates vary as a function of pore size and spacing, as well as the overall fraction of surface area covered by pores: The rate of release from liposomes is found to increase rapidly with pore surface coverage, approaching that of the fully ruptured liposome at fractional pore areas. For a given pore surface coverage, the pore size affects the release rate in the limit of low coverage, but not when the pores cover a relatively high fraction of the liposome surface area. On the other hand, for a given pore size and surface coverage, the distribution of pores significantly affects the release in the limit of high surface coverage: The rate of release from a liposome covered with a regularly spaced array of pores is, in this limit, higher than the release rate from (most) systems where the pores are distributed randomly on the liposome surface. In contrast, there is little effect of the pore distribution on release when the pore surface coverage is low. The simulation results are in good agreement with the predictions of detailed diffusion models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  14. The pore space scramble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  15. Characterisation of Weibel-Palade body fusion by amperometry in endothelial cells reveals fusion pore dynamics and the effect of cholesterol on exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Emma A; Conte, Ianina L; Dempster, John; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Regulated secretion from endothelial cells is mediated by Weibel-Palade body (WPB) exocytosis. Plasma membrane cholesterol is implicated in regulating secretory granule exocytosis and fusion pore dynamics; however, its role in modulating WPB exocytosis is not clear. To address this we combined high-resolution electrochemical analysis of WPB fusion pore dynamics, by amperometry, with high-speed optical imaging of WPB exocytosis following cholesterol depletion or supplementation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We identified serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in WPBs, and VMAT1 expression allowing detection of secreted 5-HT as discrete current spikes during exocytosis. A high proportion of spikes (∼75%) had pre-spike foot signals, indicating that WPB fusion proceeds via an initial narrow pore. Cholesterol depletion significantly reduced pre-spike foot signal duration and increased the rate of fusion pore expansion, whereas cholesterol supplementation had broadly the reverse effect. Cholesterol depletion slowed the onset of hormone-evoked WPB exocytosis, whereas its supplementation increased the rate of WPB exocytosis and hormone-evoked proregion secretion. Our results provide the first analysis of WPB fusion pore dynamics and highlight an important role for cholesterol in the regulation of WPB exocytosis.

  16. Pore-expanded SBA-15 sulfonic acid silicas for biodiesel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dacquin, J P; Lee, A F; Pirez, C; Wilson, K

    2012-01-07

    Here we present the first application of pore-expanded SBA-15 in heterogeneous catalysis. Pore expansion over the range 6-14 nm confers a striking activity enhancement towards fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from triglycerides (TAG), and free fatty acid (FFA), attributed to improved mass transport and acid site accessibility. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  17. Pore dynamics in lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozen, I.; Dommersnes, P.

    2014-09-01

    Transient circular pores can open in plasma membrane of cells due to mechanical stress, and failure to repair such pores lead to cell death. Similar pores in the form of defects also exist among smectic membranes, such as in myelin sheaths or mitochondrial membranes. The formation and growth of membrane defects are associated with diseases, for example multiple sclerosis. A deeper understanding of membrane pore dynamics can provide a more refined picture of membrane integrity-related disease development, and possibly also treatment options and strategies. Pore dynamics is also of great importance regarding healthcare applications such as drug delivery, gene or as recently been implied, cancer therapy. The dynamics of pores significantly differ in stacks which are confined in 2D compared to those in cells or vesicles. In this short review, we will summarize the dynamics of different types of pores that can be observed in biological membranes, which include circular transient, fusion and hemi-fusion pores. We will dedicate a section to floral and fractal pores which were discovered a few years ago and have highly peculiar characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the repair mechanisms of large area pores in conjunction with the current cell membrane repair hypotheses.

  18. Predicting silicon pore optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barriére, Nicolas; Bavdaz, Marcos; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; Collon, Maximilien; Dekker, Danielle; Girou, David; Günther, Ramses; van der Hoeven, Roy; Landgraf, Boris; Sforzini, Jessica; Vervest, Mark; Wille, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Continuing improvement of Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) calls for regular extension and validation of the tools used to model and predict their X-ray performance. In this paper we present an updated geometrical model for the SPO optics and describe how we make use of the surface metrology collected during each of the SPO manufacturing runs. The new geometrical model affords the user a finer degree of control on the mechanical details of the SPO stacks, while a standard interface has been developed to make use of any type of metrology that can return changes in the local surface normal of the reflecting surfaces. Comparisons between the predicted and actual performance of samples optics will be shown and discussed.

  19. Measuring silicon pore optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanti, Giuseppe; Barrière, Nicolas; Bavdaz, Marcos; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; Collon, Maximilien; Dekker, Daniëlle; Girou, David; Günther, Ramses; van der Hoeven, Roy; Krumrey, Michael; Landgraf, Boris; Müller, Peter; Schreiber, Swenja; Vervest, Mark; Wille, Eric

    2017-09-01

    While predictions based on the metrology (local slope errors and detailed geometrical details) play an essential role in controlling the development of the manufacturing processes, X-ray characterization remains the ultimate indication of the actual performance of Silicon Pore Optics (SPO). For this reason SPO stacks and mirror modules are routinely characterized at PTB's X-ray Pencil Beam Facility at BESSY II. Obtaining standard X-ray results quickly, right after the production of X-ray optics is essential to making sure that X-ray results can inform decisions taken in the lab. We describe the data analysis pipeline in operations at cosine, and how it allows us to go from stack production to full X-ray characterization in 24 hours.

  20. A statistical image analysis framework for pore-free islands derived from heterogeneity distribution of nuclear pore complexes.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Satoko; Tachibana, Taro; Ogawa, Yutaka; Nishimura, Masaomi; Yokota, Hideo; Imamoto, Naoko

    2017-11-24

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) maintain cellular homeostasis by mediating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Although cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) regulate NPC assembly in interphase, the location of NPC assembly on the nuclear envelope is not clear. CDKs also regulate the disappearance of pore-free islands, which are nuclear envelope subdomains; this subdomain gradually disappears with increase in homogeneity of the NPC in response to CDK activity. However, a causal relationship between pore-free islands and NPC assembly remains unclear. Here, we elucidated mechanisms underlying NPC assembly from a new perspective by focusing on pore-free islands. We proposed a novel framework for image-based analysis to automatically determine the detailed 'landscape' of pore-free islands from a large quantity of images, leading to the identification of NPC intermediates that appear in pore-free islands with increased frequency in response to CDK activity. Comparison of the spatial distribution between simulated and the observed NPC intermediates within pore-free islands showed that their distribution was spatially biased. These results suggested that the disappearance of pore-free islands is highly related to de novo NPC assembly and indicated the existence of specific regulatory mechanisms for the spatial arrangement of NPC assembly on nuclear envelopes.

  1. Nano-Pore Size Analysis by SAXS Method of Cementitious Mortars Undergoing Delayed Ettringite Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekar, Yamini

    This research investigates the nano-scale pore structure of cementitious mortars undergoing delayed ettringite formation (DEF) using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). DEF has been known to cause expansion and cracking during later ages (around 4000 days) in concrete that has been heat cured at temperatures of 70°C or above. Though DEF normally occurs in heat cured concrete, mass cured concrete can also experience DEF. Large crystalline pressures result in smaller pore sizes. The objectives of this research are: (1) to investigate why some samples expand early than later expansion, (2) to evaluate the effects of curing conditions and pore size distributions at high temperatures, and (3) to assess the evolution of the pore size distributions over time. The most important outcome of the research is the pore sizes obtained from SAXS were used in the development of a 3-stage model. From the data obtained, the pore sizes increase in stage 1 due to initial ettringite formation and in turn filling up the smallest pores. Once the critical pore size threshold is reached (around 20nm) stage 2 is formed due to cracking which tends to decrease in the pore sizes. Finally, in stage 3, the cracking continues, therefore increasing in the pore size.

  2. Expansive Cements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-10-01

    plastic or semi- plastic concrete and place no stress on the restraint provided. If, on the other hand, the ettringite continues to form rapidly for too...yield, I and wp.ter-cement ratio. Such a change in cement content may cause a greater change in expansion caracteristics than the change in...the tendency toward plastic shrinkage is increased. During the w’nter znths most structural concrete installations hare had adequate heating and no

  3. Surge dynamics coupled to pore-pressure evolution in debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, S.B.; Iverson, R.M.; ,

    2003-01-01

    Temporally and spatially varying pore-fluid pressures exert strong controls on debris-flow motion by mediating internal and basal friction at grain contacts. We analyze these effects by deriving a one-dimensional model of pore-pressure diffusion explicitly coupled to changes in debris-flow thickness. The new pore-pressure equation is combined with Iverson's (1997) extension of the depth-averaged Savage-Hutter (1989, 1991) granular avalanche equations to predict motion of unsteady debris-flow surges with evolving pore-pressure distributions. Computational results illustrate the profound effects of pore-pressure diffusivities on debris-flow surge depths and velocities. ?? 2003 Millpress,.

  4. Dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required for tube closure, cell intercalation, and biased apical expansion during epithelial tubulogenesis in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Nathaniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Most metazoans are able to grow beyond a few hundred cells and to support differentiated tissues because they elaborate multicellular, epithelial tubes that are indispensable for nutrient and gas exchange. To identify and characterize the cellular behaviors and molecular mechanisms required for the morphogenesis of epithelial tubes (i.e., tubulogenesis), we have turned to the D. melanogaster ovary. Here, epithelia surrounding the developing egg chambers first pattern, then form and extend a set of simple, paired, epithelial tubes, the dorsal appendage (DA) tubes, and they create these structures in the absence of cell division or cell death. This genetically tractable system lets us assess the relative contributions that coordinated changes in cell shape, adhesion, orientation, and migration make to basic epithelial tubulogenesis. We find that Dynamin, a conserved regulator of endocytosis and the cytoskeleton, serves a key role in DA tubulogenesis. We demonstrate that Dynamin is required for distinct aspects of DA tubulogenesis: DA-tube closure, DA-tube-cell intercalation, and biased apical-luminal cell expansion. We provide evidence that Dynamin promotes these processes by facilitating endocytosis of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion complexes, and we find that precise levels and sub-cellular distribution of E-Cadherin and specific Integrin subunits impact DA tubulogenesis. Thus, our studies identify novel morphogenetic roles (i.e., tube closure and biased apical expansion), and expand upon established roles (i.e., cell intercalation and adhesion remodeling), for Dynamin in tubulogenesis. PMID:26542010

  5. Laboratory characterization of shale pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Listiyowati, Lina

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the potential of shale gas reservoir, one needs to understand the characteristics of pore structures. Characterization of shale gas reservoir microstructure is still a challenge due to ultra-fine grained micro-fabric and micro level heterogeneity of these sedimentary rocks. The sample used in the analysis is a small portion of any reservoir. Thus, each measurement technique has a different result. It raises the question which methods are suitable for characterizing pore shale. The goal of this paper is to summarize some of the microstructure analysis tools of shale rock to get near-real results. The two analyzing pore structure methods are indirect measurement (MIP, He, NMR, LTNA) and direct observation (SEM, TEM, Xray CT). Shale rocks have a high heterogeneity; thus, it needs multiscale quantification techniques to understand their pore structures. To describe the complex pore system of shale, several measurement techniques are needed to characterize the surface area and pore size distribution (LTNA, MIP), shapes, size and distribution of pore (FIB-SEM, TEM, Xray CT), and total porosity (He pycnometer, NMR). The choice of techniques and methods should take into account the purpose of the analysis and also the time and budget.

  6. Combined climate- and prey-mediated range expansion of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), a large marine predator in the California Current System.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Julia S; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Foley, David G; Gilly, William F; Robison, Bruce H; Field, John C

    2014-06-01

    Climate-driven range shifts are ongoing in pelagic marine environments, and ecosystems must respond to combined effects of altered species distributions and environmental drivers. Hypoxic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in midwater environments are shoaling globally; this can affect distributions of species both geographically and vertically along with predator-prey dynamics. Humboldt (jumbo) squid (Dosidicus gigas) are highly migratory predators adapted to hypoxic conditions that may be deleterious to their competitors and predators. Consequently, OMZ shoaling may preferentially facilitate foraging opportunities for Humboldt squid. With two separate modeling approaches using unique, long-term data based on in situ observations of predator, prey, and environmental variables, our analyses suggest that Humboldt squid are indirectly affected by OMZ shoaling through effects on a primary food source, myctophid fishes. Our results suggest that this indirect linkage between hypoxia and foraging is an important driver of the ongoing range expansion of Humboldt squid in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Egr-1 is a critical regulator of EGF-receptor-mediated expansion of subventricular zone neural stem cells and progenitors during recovery from hypoxia–hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Balan, Murugabaskar; Jiang, Yuhui; Cohen, Rachel B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Levison, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    We recently established that the EGF-R (epidermal growth factor receptor) (EGF-R) is an essential regulator of the reactive expansion of SVZ (subventricular zone) NPs (neural precursors) that occurs during recovery from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The purpose of the current studies was to identify the conditions and the transcription factor (s) responsible for inducing the EGF-R. Here, we show that the increase in EGF-R expression and the more rapid division of the NPs can be recapitulated in in vitro by exposing SVZ NPs to hypoxia and hypoglycemia simultaneously, but not separately. The EGF-R promoter has binding sites for multiple transcription factors that includes the zinc finger transcription factor, Egr-1. We show that Egr-1 expression increases in NPs, but not astrocytes, following hypoxia and hypoglycemia where it accumulates in the nucleus. To determine whether Egr-1 is necessary for EGF-R expression, we used SiRNAs (small interfering RNA) specific for Egr-1 to decrease Egr-1 expression. Knocking-down Egr-1 decreased basal levels of EGF-R and it abolished the stress-induced increase in EGF-R expression. By contrast, HIF-1 accumulation did not contribute to EGF-R expression and FGF-2 only modestly induced EGF-R. These studies establish a new role for Egr-1 in regulating the expression of the mitogenic EGF-R. They also provide new information into mechanisms that promote NP expansion and provide insights into strategies for amplifying the numbers of stem cells for CNS (central nervous system) regeneration. PMID:23763269

  8. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan; Walker, Barbara J.; Chang, Chung-yu; Niblack, Brett; Panchal, Rekha

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  9. Pore-forming activity of clostridial binary toxins.

    PubMed

    Knapp, O; Benz, R; Popoff, M R

    2016-03-01

    Clostridial binary toxins (Clostridium perfringens Iota toxin, Clostridium difficile transferase, Clostridium spiroforme toxin, Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin) as Bacillus binary toxins, including Bacillus anthracis toxins consist of two independent proteins, one being the binding component which mediates the internalization into cell of the intracellularly active component. Clostridial binary toxins induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through mono-ADP-ribosylation of globular actin and are responsible for enteric diseases. Clostridial and Bacillus binary toxins share structurally and functionally related binding components which recognize specific cell receptors, oligomerize, form pores in endocytic vesicle membrane, and mediate the transport of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Binding components retain the global structure of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) from the cholesterol-dependent cytotoxin family such as perfringolysin. However, their pore-forming activity notably that of clostridial binding components is more related to that of heptameric PFT family including aerolysin and C. perfringens epsilon toxin. This review focuses upon pore-forming activity of clostridial binary toxins compared to other related PFTs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetic models of controllable pore growth of anodic aluminum oxide membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Zeng, Hong-yan; Zhao, Ce; Qu, Ye-qing; Zhang, Pin

    2012-06-01

    An anodized Al2O3 (AAO) membrane with apertures about 72 nm in diameter was prepared by two-step anodic oxidation. The appearance and pore arrangement of the AAO membrane were characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. It was confirmed that the pores with high pore aspect ratio were parallel, well-ordered, and uniform. The kinetics of pores growth in the AAO membrane was derived, and the kinetic models showed that pores stopped developing when the pressure ( σ) trended to equal the surface tension at the end of anodic oxidation. During pore expansion, the effects of the oxalic acid concentration and expansion time on the pore size were investigated, and the kinetic behaviors were explained with two kinetic models derived in this study. They showed that the pore size increased with extended time ( r= G· t+ G'), but decreased with increased concentration ( r = - K·ln c- K') through the derived mathematic formula. Also, the values of G, G', K, and K' were derived from our experimental data.

  11. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine.

  12. Can ash clog soil pores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  13. Proton Diffusion through Bilayer Pores

    DOE PAGES

    McDaniel, Jesse G.; Yethiraj, Arun

    2017-09-26

    The transport of protons through channels in complex environments is important in biology and materials science. In this work, we use multistate empirical valence bond simulations to study proton transport within a well-defined bilayer pore in a lamellar L β phase lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC). The LLC is formed from the self-assembly of dicarboxylate gemini surfactants in water, and a bilayer-spanning pore of radius of approximately 3–5 Å results from the uneven partitioning of surfactants between the two leaflets of the lamella. Local proton diffusion within the pore is significantly faster than diffusion at the bilayer surface, which is duemore » to the greater hydrophobicity of the surfactant/water interface within the pore. Proton diffusion proceeds by surface transport along exposed hydrophobic pockets at the surfactant/water interface and depends on the continuity of hydronium–water hydrogen bond networks. At the bilayer surface, there is a reduced fraction of the “Zundel” intermediates that are central to the Grotthuss transport mechanism, whereas the fraction of these species within the bilayer pore is similar to that in bulk water. Our results demonstrate that the chemical nature of the confining interface, in addition to confinement length scale, is an important determiner of local proton transport in nanoconfined aqueous environments.« less

  14. Toxic PRn poly-dipeptides encoded by the C9orf72 repeat expansion block nuclear import and export.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kevin Y; Mori, Eiichiro; Nizami, Zehra F; Lin, Yi; Kato, Masato; Xiang, Siheng; Wu, Leeju C; Ding, Ming; Yu, Yonghao; Gall, Joseph G; McKnight, Steven L

    2017-02-14

    The toxic proline:arginine (PR n ) poly-dipeptide encoded by the (GGGGCC) n repeat expansion in the C9orf72 form of heritable amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) binds to the central channel of the nuclear pore and inhibits the movement of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. The PR n poly-dipeptide binds to polymeric forms of the phenylalanine:glycine (FG) repeat domain, which is shared by several proteins of the nuclear pore complex, including those in the central channel. A method of chemical footprinting was used to characterize labile, cross-β polymers formed from the FG domain of the Nup54 protein. Mutations within the footprinted region of Nup54 polymers blocked both polymerization and binding by the PR n poly-dipeptide. The aliphatic alcohol 1,6-hexanediol melted FG domain polymers in vitro and reversed PR n -mediated enhancement of the nuclear pore permeability barrier. These data suggest that toxicity of the PR n poly-dipeptide results in part from its ability to lock the FG repeats of nuclear pore proteins in the polymerized state. Our study offers a mechanistic interpretation of PR n poly-dipeptide toxicity in the context of a prominent form of ALS.

  15. Profiling of gene duplication patterns of sequenced teleost genomes: evidence for rapid lineage-specific genome expansion mediated by recent tandem duplications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lewis, Joshua; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-06-15

    Gene duplication has had a major impact on genome evolution. Localized (or tandem) duplication resulting from unequal crossing over and whole genome duplication are believed to be the two dominant mechanisms contributing to vertebrate genome evolution. While much scrutiny has been directed toward discerning patterns indicative of whole-genome duplication events in teleost species, less attention has been paid to the continuous nature of gene duplications and their impact on the size, gene content, functional diversity, and overall architecture of teleost genomes. Here, using a Markov clustering algorithm directed approach we catalogue and analyze patterns of gene duplication in the four model teleost species with chromosomal coordinates: zebrafish, medaka, stickleback, and Tetraodon. Our analyses based on set size, duplication type, synonymous substitution rate (Ks), and gene ontology emphasize shared and lineage-specific patterns of genome evolution via gene duplication. Most strikingly, our analyses highlight the extraordinary duplication and retention rate of recent duplicates in zebrafish and their likely role in the structural and functional expansion of the zebrafish genome. We find that the zebrafish genome is remarkable in its large number of duplicated genes, small duplicate set size, biased Ks distribution toward minimal mutational divergence, and proportion of tandem and intra-chromosomal duplicates when compared with the other teleost model genomes. The observed gene duplication patterns have played significant roles in shaping the architecture of teleost genomes and appear to have contributed to the recent functional diversification and divergence of important physiological processes in zebrafish. We have analyzed gene duplication patterns and duplication types among the available teleost genomes and found that a large number of genes were tandemly and intrachromosomally duplicated, suggesting their origin of independent and continuous duplication

  16. Micromechanics investigation of expansive reactions in chemoelastic concrete.

    PubMed

    Lemarchand, Eric; Dormieux, Luc; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2005-11-15

    Expansive reactions damage porous materials through the formation of reaction products of a volume in excess of the available space left by the reactants and the natural porosity of the material. This leads to pressurizing the pore space accessible to the reaction products, which differs when the chemical reaction is through-solution or topochemical or both in nature. This paper investigates expansive reactions from a micromechanical point of view, which allows bridging the scale from the local chemo-mechanical mechanisms to the macroscopically observable stress-free expansion. In particular, the study of the effect of morphology of the pore space, in which the chemical expansion occurs locally, on the macroscopically observable expansion is the main focus of this paper. The first part revisits the through-solution and the topochemical reaction mechanism within the framework of micro-macro-homogenization theories, and the effect of the microscopic geometry of pores and microcracks in the solid matrix on the macroscopic chemical expansion is examined. The second part deals with the transition from a topochemical to a through-solution-like mechanism that occurs in a solid matrix with inclusions (cracks, pores) of different morphology.

  17. EZH2-mediated repression of GSK-3β and TP53 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent cell expansion in cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Zheng, Peng-Sheng; Yang, Wen-Ting

    2016-06-14

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic core component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), stimulates the silencing of target genes through histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Recent findings have indicated EZH2 is involved in the development and progression of various human cancers. However, the exact mechanism of EZH2 in the promotion of cervical cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that EZH2 expression gradually increases during the progression of cervical cancer. We identified a significant positive correlation between EZH2 expression and cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo by the up-regulation or down-regulation of EZH2 using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing technology and shRNA in HeLa and SiHa cells. Further investigation indicated that EZH2 protein significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from the G0/G1 to S phase. TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assay revealed that EZH2 significantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the target genes of Wnt/β-catenin pathway were up-regulated, including β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that EZH2 inhibited the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and TP53 through physically interacting with motifs in the promoters of the GSK-3β and TP53 genes. Additionally, blockage of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant enhancement of cell proliferation, as induced by EZH2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EZH2 promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation in cervical cancer through activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by epigenetic silencing via GSK-3β and TP53.

  18. EZH2-mediated repression of GSK-3β and TP53 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent cell expansion in cervical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Zheng, Peng-Sheng; Yang, Wen-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic core component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), stimulates the silencing of target genes through histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Recent findings have indicated EZH2 is involved in the development and progression of various human cancers. However, the exact mechanism of EZH2 in the promotion of cervical cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that EZH2 expression gradually increases during the progression of cervical cancer. We identified a significant positive correlation between EZH2 expression and cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo by the up-regulation or down-regulation of EZH2 using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing technology and shRNA in HeLa and SiHa cells. Further investigation indicated that EZH2 protein significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from the G0/G1 to S phase. TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assay revealed that EZH2 significantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the target genes of Wnt/β-catenin pathway were up-regulated, including β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that EZH2 inhibited the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and TP53 through physically interacting with motifs in the promoters of the GSK-3β and TP53 genes. Additionally, blockage of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant enhancement of cell proliferation, as induced by EZH2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EZH2 promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation in cervical cancer through activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by epigenetic silencing via GSK-3β and TP53. PMID:27092879

  19. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    PubMed Central

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  20. Low-Thermal-Expansion Filled Polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Sanford S.

    1989-01-01

    PTFE made thermally compatible with aluminum without changing dielectric constant. Manufactured with fillers and pores to reduce coefficient of thermal expansion by factor of 6 to match aluminum. Material retains 2.1 dielectric constant of pure PTFE. Combines filler and micropore concepts. Particles and voids embedded in PTFE matrix function cooperatively. Particles take up compressive stress imposed by contracting PTFE, and voids take up expanding material. Increases dielectric constant, while voids reduce it.

  1. Asynchronous Movements Prior to Pore Opening in NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Rashek; Gan, Quan; Talukder, Iehab; Markowitz, Michael; Salussolia, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate-gated ion channels embedded within the neuronal membrane are the primary mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS. The ion channel of these glutamate receptors contains a pore-lining transmembrane M3 helix surrounded by peripheral M1 and M4 helices. In the NMDA receptor subtype, opening of the ion channel pore, mediated by displacement of the M3 helices away from the central pore axis, occurs in a highly concerted fashion, but the associated temporal movements of the peripheral helices are unknown. To address the gating dynamics of the peripheral helices, we constrained the relative movements of the linkers that connect these helices to the ligand-binding domain using engineered cross-links, either within (intra-GluN1 or GluN2A) or between subunits. Constraining the peripheral linkers in any manner dramatically curtailed channel opening, highlighting the requirement for rearrangements of these peripheral structural elements for efficient gating to occur. However, the magnitude of this gating effect depended on the specific subunit being constrained, with the most dramatic effects occurring when the constraint was between subunits. Based on kinetic and thermodynamic analysis, our results suggest an asynchrony in the displacement of the peripheral linkers during the conformational and energetic changes leading to pore opening. Initially there are large-scale rearrangements occurring between the four subunits. Subsequently, rearrangements occur within individual subunits, mainly GluN2A, leading up to or in concert with pore opening. Thus, the conformational changes induced by agonist binding in NMDA receptors converge asynchronously to permit pore opening. PMID:23864691

  2. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, H.; Walker, B.J.; Chang, C.Y.; Niblack, B.; Panchal, R.

    1998-07-07

    An inactive pore-forming agent is revealed which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell. 30 figs.

  3. Antera 3D capabilities for pore measurements.

    PubMed

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Flynn, J; Doyle, L; Robertson, N; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A

    2018-04-29

    The cause of enlarged pores remains obscure but still remains of concern for women. To complement subjective methods, bioengineered methods are needed for quantification of pores visibility following treatments. The study objective was to demonstrate the suitability of pore measurements from the Antera 3D. Pore measurements were collected on 22 female volunteers aged 18-65 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on photographs. Additionally, 4 raters graded pore size on photographs on a scale 0-5. Repeatability of Antera 3D parameters was ascertained and the benefit of a pore minimizer product on the cheek was assessed on a sub panel of seven female volunteers. Pore parameters using the Antera were shown to depict pore severity similar to raters on photographs, except for Max Depth. Mean pore volume, mean pore area and count were moderately correlated with DermaTOP parameters (up to r = .50). No relationship was seen between the Antera 3D and pore visibility analysis on photographs. The most repeatable parameters were found to be mean pore volume, mean pore area and max depth, especially for the small and medium filters. The benefits of a pore minimizer product were the most striking for mean pore volume and mean pore area when using the small filter for analysis, rather than the medium/large ones. Pore measurements with the Antera 3D represent a reliable tool for efficacy and field studies, with an emphasis of the small filter for analysis for the mean pore volume/mean pore area parameters. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Protein crystal nucleation in pores.

    PubMed

    Nanev, Christo N; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Chayen, Naomi E

    2017-01-16

    The most powerful method for protein structure determination is X-ray crystallography which relies on the availability of high quality crystals. Obtaining protein crystals is a major bottleneck, and inducing their nucleation is of crucial importance in this field. An effective method to form crystals is to introduce nucleation-inducing heterologous materials into the crystallization solution. Porous materials are exceptionally effective at inducing nucleation. It is shown here that a combined diffusion-adsorption effect can increase protein concentration inside pores, which enables crystal nucleation even under conditions where heterogeneous nucleation on flat surfaces is absent. Provided the pore is sufficiently narrow, protein molecules approach its walls and adsorb more frequently than they can escape. The decrease in the nucleation energy barrier is calculated, exhibiting its quantitative dependence on the confinement space and the energy of interaction with the pore walls. These results provide a detailed explanation of the effectiveness of porous materials for nucleation of protein crystals, and will be useful for optimal design of such materials.

  5. DESIGN INFORMATION ON FINE PORE AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were conducted over several years at municipal wastewater treatment plants employing line pore diffused aeration systems. These studies were designed to produce reliable information on the performance and operational requirements of fine pore devices under process ...

  6. Synthesis and characterization of pore size-tunable magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jixi; Li, Xu; Rosenholm, Jessica M; Gu, Hong-chen

    2011-09-01

    Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (M-MSNs) are emerging as one of the most appealing candidates for theranostic carriers. Herein, a simple synthesis method of M-MSNs with a single Fe(3)O(4) nanocrystal core and a mesoporous shell with radially aligned pores was elaborated using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silica source, cationic surfactant CTAB as template, and 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TMB)/decane as pore swelling agents. Due to the special localization of TMB during the synthesis process, the pore size was increased with added TMB amount within a limited range, while further employment of TMB lead to severe particle coalescence and not well-developed pore structure. On the other hand, when a proper amount of decane was jointly incorporated with limited amounts of TMB, effective pore expansion of M-MSNs similar to that of analogous mesoporous silica nanoparticles was realized. The resultant M-MSN materials possessed smaller particle size (about 40-70 nm in diameter), tunable pore sizes (3.8-6.1 nm), high surface areas (700-1100 m(2)/g), and large pore volumes (0.44-1.54 cm(3)/g). We also demonstrate their high potential in conventional DNA loading. Maximum loading capacity of salmon sperm DNA (375 mg/g) was obtained by the use of the M-MSN sample with the largest pore size of 6.1 nm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lattice density functional theory investigation of pore shape effects. I. Adsorption in single nonperiodic pores.

    PubMed

    Malanoski, A P; van Swol, Frank

    2002-10-01

    A fully explicit in three dimensions lattice density functional theory is used to investigate adsorption in single nonperiodic pores. The effect of varying pore shape from the slits and cylinders that are normally simulated was our primary interest. A secondary concern was the results for pores with very large diameters. The shapes investigated were square pores with or without surface roughness, cylinders, right triangle pores, and trapezoidal pores. It was found that pores with very similar shape factors gave similar results but that the introduction of acute angled corners or very large side ratio lengths in rectangular pores gave results that were significantly different. Further, a rectangular pore going towards the limit of infinite side ratio does not approach the results of a slit pore. In all of these cases, the importance of features that are present for only a small portion of the pore is demonstrated.

  8. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-01

    High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  9. Microfluidic Experiments Studying Pore Scale Interactions of Microbes and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how physical phenomena, chemical reactions, and microbial behavior interact at the pore-scale is crucial to understanding larger scale trends in groundwater chemistry. Recent studies illustrate the utility of microfluidic devices for illuminating pore-scale physical-biogeochemical processes and their control(s) on the cycling of iron, uranium, and other important elements 1-3. These experimental systems are ideal for examining geochemical reactions mediated by microbes, which include processes governed by complex biological phenomenon (e.g. biofilm formation, etc.)4. We present results of microfluidic experiments using a model metal reducing bacteria and varying pore geometries, exploring the limitations of the microorganisms' ability to access tight pore spaces, and examining coupled biogeochemical-physical controls on the cycling of redox sensitive metals. Experimental results will provide an enhanced understanding of coupled physical-biogeochemical processes transpiring at the pore-scale, and will constrain and compliment continuum models used to predict and describe the subsurface cycling of redox-sensitive elements5. 1. Vrionis, H. A. et al. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71, 6308-6318 (2005). 2. Pearce, C. I. et al. Pore-scale characterization of biogeochemical controls on iron and uranium speciation under flow conditions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46, 7992-8000 (2012). 3. Zhang, C., Liu, C. & Shi, Z. Micromodel investigation of transport effect on the kinetics of reductive dissolution of hematite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 4131-4139 (2013). 4. Ginn, T. R. et al. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface. Adv. Water Resour. 25, 1017-1042 (2002). 5. Scheibe, T. D. et al. Coupling a genome-scale metabolic model with a reactive transport model to describe in situ uranium bioremediation. Microb. Biotechnol. 2, 274-286 (2009).

  10. Qualification of silicon pore optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Ackermann, Marcelo; Guenther, Ramses; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Vervest, Mark; van Baren, Coen; Haneveld, Jeroen; Riekerink, Mark Olde; Koelewijn, Arenda; Kampf, Dirk; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Reutlinger, Arnd

    2014-07-01

    Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) are the enabling technology for ESA's second large class mission in the Cosmic Vision programme. As for every space hardware, a critical qualification process is required to verify the suitability of the SPO mirror modules surviving the launch loads and maintaining their performance in the space environment. We present recent design modifications to further strengthen the mounting system (brackets and dowel pins) against mechanical loads. The progress of a formal qualification test campaign with the new mirror module design is shown. We discuss mechanical and thermal limitations of the SPO technology and provide recommendations for the mission design of the next X-ray Space Observatory.

  11. Measuring kinetic drivers of pneumolysin pore structure.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert J C; Sonnen, Andreas F-P

    2016-05-01

    Most membrane attack complex-perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins are thought to form pores in target membranes by assembling into pre-pore oligomers before undergoing a pre-pore to pore transition. Assembly during pore formation is into both full rings of subunits and incomplete rings (arcs). The balance between arcs and full rings is determined by a mechanism dependent on protein concentration in which arc pores arise due to kinetic trapping of the pre-pore forms by the depletion of free protein subunits during oligomerization. Here we describe the use of a kinetic assay to study pore formation in red blood cells by the MACPF/CDC pneumolysin from Streptococcus pneumoniae. We show that cell lysis displays two kinds of dependence on protein concentration. At lower concentrations, it is dependent on the pre-pore to pore transition of arc oligomers, which we show to be a cooperative process. At higher concentrations, it is dependent on the amount of pneumolysin bound to the membrane and reflects the affinity of the protein for its receptor, cholesterol. A lag occurs before cell lysis begins; this is dependent on oligomerization of pneumolysin. Kinetic dissection of cell lysis by pneumolysin demonstrates the capacity of MACPF/CDCs to generate pore-forming oligomeric structures of variable size with, most likely, different functional roles in biology.

  12. Stepwise visualization of membrane pore formation by suilysin, a bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysin.

    PubMed

    Leung, Carl; Dudkina, Natalya V; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Hodel, Adrian W; Farabella, Irene; Pandurangan, Arun P; Jahan, Nasrin; Pires Damaso, Mafalda; Osmanović, Dino; Reboul, Cyril F; Dunstone, Michelle A; Andrew, Peter W; Lonnen, Rana; Topf, Maya; Saibil, Helen R; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2014-12-02

    Membrane attack complex/perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins constitute a major superfamily of pore-forming proteins that act as bacterial virulence factors and effectors in immune defence. Upon binding to the membrane, they convert from the soluble monomeric form to oligomeric, membrane-inserted pores. Using real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM), and atomic structure fitting, we have mapped the structure and assembly pathways of a bacterial CDC in unprecedented detail and accuracy, focussing on suilysin from Streptococcus suis. We show that suilysin assembly is a noncooperative process that is terminated before the protein inserts into the membrane. The resulting ring-shaped pores and kinetically trapped arc-shaped assemblies are all seen to perforate the membrane, as also visible by the ejection of its lipids. Membrane insertion requires a concerted conformational change of the monomeric subunits, with a marked expansion in pore diameter due to large changes in subunit structure and packing.

  13. A thermodynamic approach to alamethicin pore formation.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Asif; Lazaridis, Themis

    2014-01-01

    The structure and energetics of alamethicin Rf30 monomer to nonamer in cylindrical pores of 5 to 11Å radius are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations in an implicit membrane model that includes the free energy cost of acyl chain hydrophobic area exposure. Stable, low energy pores are obtained for certain combinations of radius and oligomeric number. The trimer and the tetramer formed 6Å pores that appear closed while the larger oligomers formed open pores at their optimal radius. The hexamer in an 8Å pore and the octamer in an 11Å pore give the lowest effective energy per monomer. However, all oligomers beyond the pentamer have comparable energies, consistent with the observation of multiple conductance levels. The results are consistent with the widely accepted "barrel-stave" model. The N terminal portion of the molecule exhibits smaller tilt with respect to the membrane normal than the C terminal portion, resulting in a pore shape that is a hybrid between a funnel and an hourglass. Transmembrane voltage has little effect on the structure of the oligomers but enhances or decreases their stability depending on its orientation. Antiparallel bundles are lower in energy than the commonly accepted parallel ones and could be present under certain experimental conditions. Dry aggregates (without an aqueous pore) have lower average effective energy than the corresponding aggregates in a pore, suggesting that alamethicin pores may be excited states that are stabilized in part by voltage and in part by the ion flow itself. © 2013.

  14. High-pressure alchemy on a small-pore zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While an ever-expanding variety of zeolites with a wide range of framework topology is available, it is desirable to have a way to tailor the chemistry of the zeolitic nanopores for a given framework topology via controlling both the coordination-inclusion chemistry and framework distortion/relaxation. This is, however, subjected to the ability of a zeolitic nanopore to allow the redistribution of cations-water assembly and/or insertion of foreign molecules into the pores and channels. Small-pore zeolites such as natrolite (Na16Al16Si24O80x16H2O), however, have been known to show very limited capacity for any changes in the confinement chemistry. We have recently shown that various cation-exchanged natrolites can be prepared under modest conditions from natural sodium natrolite and exhibit cation-dependent volume expansions by up to 18.5% via converting the elliptical channels into progressively circular ones. Here, we show that pressure can be used as a unique and clean tool to further manipulate the chemistry of the natrolite nanopores. Our recent crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of pressure-insertion of foreign molecules, trivalent-cation exchange under pressure, and pressure-induced inversion of cation-water coordination and pore geometry in various cation-exchanged natrolites will be presented.

  15. Pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability of CFTR, ANO1 and glycine receptor anion channels

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ikhyun; Cheng, Mary Hongying; Sim, Eunji; Jung, Jinsei; Suh, Bong Lim; Kim, Yonjung; Son, Hankil; Park, Kyungsoo; Kim, Chul Hoon; Yoon, Joo‐Heon; Whitcomb, David C.; Bahar, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    Key points Cellular stimuli can modulate the ion selectivity of some anion channels, such as CFTR, ANO1 and the glycine receptor (GlyR), by changing pore size.Ion selectivity of CFTR, ANO1 and GlyR is critically affected by the electric permittivity and diameter of the channel pore.Pore size change affects the energy barriers of ion dehydration as well as that of size‐exclusion of anion permeation.Pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability (P HC O3/ Cl ) of CFTR, ANO1 and GlyR.Dynamic change in P HC O3/ Cl may mediate many physiological and pathological processes. Abstract Chloride (Cl−) and bicarbonate (HCO3 −) are two major anions and their permeation through anion channels plays essential roles in our body. However, the mechanism of ion selection by the anion channels is largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that pore dilatation increases the bicarbonate permeability (P HC O3/ Cl ) of anion channels by reducing energy barriers of size‐exclusion and ion dehydration of HCO3 − permeation. Molecular, physiological and computational analyses of major anion channels, such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), anoctamin‐1(ANO1/TMEM16A) and the glycine receptor (GlyR), revealed that the ion selectivity of anion channels is basically determined by the electric permittivity and diameter of the pore. Importantly, cellular stimuli dynamically modulate the anion selectivity of CFTR and ANO1 by changing the pore size. In addition, pore dilatation by a mutation in the pore‐lining region alters the anion selectivity of GlyR. Changes in pore size affected not only the energy barriers of size exclusion but that of ion dehydration by altering the electric permittivity of water‐filled cavity in the pore. The dynamic increase in P HC O3/ Cl by pore dilatation may have many physiological and pathophysiological implications ranging from epithelial HCO3 − secretion to neuronal excitation. PMID:26663196

  16. On skin expansion.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Open-pore polyurethane product

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, R.T.; Salyer, I.O.

    1974-02-17

    The method is described of producing an open-pore polyurethane foam having a porosity of at least 50% and a density of 0.1 to 0.5 g per cu cm, and which consists of coherent spherical particles of less than 10 mu diam separated by interconnected interstices. It is useful as a filter and oil absorbent. The product is admirably adapted to scavenging of crude oil from the surface of seawater by preferential wicking. The oil-soaked product may then be compressed to recover the oil or burned for disposal. The crosslinked polyurethane structures are remarkably solvent and heat-resistance as compared with known thermoplastic structures. Because of their relative inertness, they are useful filters for gasoline and other hydrocarbon compounds. (7 claims)

  18. Pore surface engineering in covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Atsushi; Guo, Zhaoqi; Feng, Xiao; Jin, Shangbin; Chen, Xiong; Ding, Xuesong; Jiang, Donglin

    2011-11-15

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of important porous materials that allow atomically precise integration of building blocks to achieve pre-designable pore size and geometry; however, pore surface engineering in COFs remains challenging. Here we introduce pore surface engineering to COF chemistry, which allows the controlled functionalization of COF pore walls with organic groups. This functionalization is made possible by the use of azide-appended building blocks for the synthesis of COFs with walls to which a designable content of azide units is anchored. The azide units can then undergo a quantitative click reaction with alkynes to produce pore surfaces with desired groups and preferred densities. The diversity of click reactions performed shows that the protocol is compatible with the development of various specific surfaces in COFs. Therefore, this methodology constitutes a step in the pore surface engineering of COFs to realize pre-designed compositions, components and functions.

  19. Modeling the interaction of ultrasound with pores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Parthasarathi, Sanjai

    1991-01-01

    Factors that affect ultrasonic velocity sensing of density during consolidation of metal powders are examined. A comparison is made between experimental results obtained during the final stage of densification and the predictions of models that assume either a spherical or a spheroidal pore shape. It is found that for measurements made at low frequencies during the final stage of densification, relative density (pore fraction) and pore shape are the two most important factors determining the ultrasonic velocity, the effect of pore size is negligible.

  20. The Effect of the Pore Entrance on Particle Motion in Slit Pores: Implications for Ultrathin Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Delavari, Armin; Baltus, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Membrane rejection models generally neglect the effect of the pore entrance on intrapore particle transport. However, entrance effects are expected to be particularly important with ultrathin membranes, where membrane thickness is typically comparable to pore size. In this work, a 2D model was developed to simulate particle motion for spherical particles moving at small Re and infinite Pe from the reservoir outside the pore into a slit pore. Using a finite element method, particles were tracked as they accelerated across the pore entrance until they reached a steady velocity in the pore. The axial position in the pore where particle motion becomes steady is defined as the particle entrance length (PEL). PELs were found to be comparable to the fluid entrance length, larger than the pore size and larger than the thickness typical of many ultrathin membranes. Results also show that, in the absence of particle diffusion, hydrodynamic particle–membrane interactions at the pore mouth result in particle “funneling” in the pore, yielding cross-pore particle concentration profiles focused at the pore centerline. The implications of these phenomena on rejection from ultrathin membranes are examined. PMID:28796197

  1. Cavitation and pore blocking in nanoporous glasses.

    PubMed

    Reichenbach, C; Kalies, G; Enke, D; Klank, D

    2011-09-06

    In gas adsorption studies, porous glasses are frequently referred to as model materials for highly disordered mesopore systems. Numerous works suggest that an accurate interpretation of physisorption isotherms requires a complete understanding of network effects upon adsorption and desorption, respectively. The present article deals with nitrogen and argon adsorption at different temperatures (77 and 87 K) performed on a series of novel nanoporous glasses (NPG) with different mean pore widths. NPG samples contain smaller mesopores and significantly higher microporosity than porous Vycor glass or controlled pore glass. Since the mean pore width of NPG can be tuned sensitively, the evolution of adsorption characteristics with respect to a broadening pore network can be investigated starting from the narrowest nanopore width. With an increasing mean pore width, a H2-type hysteresis develops gradually which finally transforms into a H1-type. In this connection, a transition from a cavitation-induced desorption toward desorption controlled by pore blocking can be observed. Furthermore, we find concrete hints for a pore size dependence of the relative pressure of cavitation in highly disordered pore systems. By comparing nitrogen and argon adsorption, a comprehensive insight into adsorption mechanisms in novel disordered materials is provided. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Ca²⁺-dependent repair of pneumolysin pores: A new paradigm for host cellular defense against bacterial pore-forming toxins.

    PubMed

    Wolfmeier, Heidi; Schoenauer, Roman; Atanassoff, Alexander P; Neill, Daniel R; Kadioglu, Aras; Draeger, Annette; Babiychuk, Eduard B

    2015-09-01

    Pneumolysin (PLY), a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, permeabilizes eukaryotic cells by forming large trans-membrane pores. PLY imposes a puzzling multitude of diverse, often mutually excluding actions on eukaryotic cells. Whereas cytotoxicity of PLY can be directly attributed to the pore-mediated effects, mechanisms that are responsible for the PLY-induced activation of host cells are poorly understood. We show that PLY pores can be repaired and thereby PLY-induced cell death can be prevented. Pore-induced Ca²⁺ entry from the extracellular milieu is of paramount importance for the initiation of plasmalemmal repair. Nevertheless, active Ca²⁺ sequestration that prevents excessive Ca²⁺ elevation during the execution phase of plasmalemmal repair is of no less importance. The efficacy of plasmalemmal repair does not only define the fate of targeted cells but also intensity, duration and repetitiveness of PLY-induced Ca²⁺ signals in cells that were able to survive after PLY attack. Intracellular Ca²⁺ dynamics evoked by the combined action of pore formation and their elimination mimic the pattern of receptor-mediated Ca²⁺ signaling, which is responsible for the activation of host immune responses. Therefore, we postulate that plasmalemmal repair of PLY pores might provoke cellular responses that are similar to those currently ascribed to the receptor-mediated PLY effects. Our data provide new insights into the understanding of the complexity of cellular non-immune defense responses to a major pneumococcal toxin that plays a critical role in the establishment and the progression of life-threatening diseases. Therapies boosting plasmalemmal repair of host cells and their metabolic fitness might prove beneficial for the treatment of pneumococcal infections. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Rab3A-22A Chimera Prevents Sperm Exocytosis by Stabilizing Open Fusion Pores*

    PubMed Central

    Quevedo, María F.; Lucchesi, Ornella; Bustos, Matías A.; Pocognoni, Cristian A.; De la Iglesia, Paola X.

    2016-01-01

    At the final stage of exocytotis, a fusion pore opens between the plasma and a secretory vesicle membranes; typically, when the pore dilates the vesicle releases its cargo. Sperm contain a large dense-core secretory granule (the acrosome) whose contents are secreted by regulated exocytosis at fertilization. Minutes after the arrival of the triggering signal, the acrosomal and plasma membranes dock at multiple sites and fusion pores open at the contact points. It is believed that immediately afterward, fusion pores dilate spontaneously. Rab3A is an essential component of human sperm exocytotic machinery. Yet, recombinant, persistently active Rab3A halts calcium-triggered secretion when introduced after docking into streptolysin O-permeabilized cells; so does a Rab3A-22A chimera. Here, we applied functional assays, electron and confocal microscopy to show that the secretion blockage is due to the stabilization of open fusion pores. Other novel findings are that sperm SNAREs engage in α-SNAP/NSF-sensitive complexes at a post-fusion stage. Complexes are disentangled by these chaperons to achieve vesiculation and acrosomal contents release. Thus, post-fusion regulation of the pores determines their expansion and the success of the acrosome reaction. PMID:27613869

  4. The Rab3A-22A Chimera Prevents Sperm Exocytosis by Stabilizing Open Fusion Pores.

    PubMed

    Quevedo, María F; Lucchesi, Ornella; Bustos, Matías A; Pocognoni, Cristian A; De la Iglesia, Paola X; Tomes, Claudia N

    2016-10-28

    At the final stage of exocytotis, a fusion pore opens between the plasma and a secretory vesicle membranes; typically, when the pore dilates the vesicle releases its cargo. Sperm contain a large dense-core secretory granule (the acrosome) whose contents are secreted by regulated exocytosis at fertilization. Minutes after the arrival of the triggering signal, the acrosomal and plasma membranes dock at multiple sites and fusion pores open at the contact points. It is believed that immediately afterward, fusion pores dilate spontaneously. Rab3A is an essential component of human sperm exocytotic machinery. Yet, recombinant, persistently active Rab3A halts calcium-triggered secretion when introduced after docking into streptolysin O-permeabilized cells; so does a Rab3A-22A chimera. Here, we applied functional assays, electron and confocal microscopy to show that the secretion blockage is due to the stabilization of open fusion pores. Other novel findings are that sperm SNAREs engage in α-SNAP/NSF-sensitive complexes at a post-fusion stage. Complexes are disentangled by these chaperons to achieve vesiculation and acrosomal contents release. Thus, post-fusion regulation of the pores determines their expansion and the success of the acrosome reaction. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers as pore-blocking binary toxin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Förstner, Philip; Bayer, Fabienne; Kalu, Nnanya; Felsen, Susanne; Förtsch, Christina; Aloufi, Abrar; Ng, David Y W; Weil, Tanja; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M; Barth, Holger

    2014-07-14

    Dendrimers are unique highly branched macromolecules with numerous groundbreaking biomedical applications under development. Here we identified poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as novel blockers for the pore-forming B components of the binary anthrax toxin (PA63) and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin (C2IIa). These pores are essential for delivery of the enzymatic A components of the internalized toxins from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. We demonstrate that at low μM concentrations cationic PAMAM dendrimers block PA63 and C2IIa to inhibit channel-mediated transport of the A components, thereby protecting HeLa and Vero cells from intoxication. By channel reconstitution and high-resolution current recording, we show that the PAMAM dendrimers obstruct transmembrane PA63 and C2IIa pores in planar lipid bilayers at nM concentrations. These findings suggest a new potential role for the PAMAM dendrimers as effective polyvalent channel-blocking inhibitors, which can protect human target cells from intoxication with binary toxins from pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Cationic PAMAM Dendrimers as Pore-Blocking Binary Toxin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are unique highly branched macromolecules with numerous groundbreaking biomedical applications under development. Here we identified poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as novel blockers for the pore-forming B components of the binary anthrax toxin (PA63) and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin (C2IIa). These pores are essential for delivery of the enzymatic A components of the internalized toxins from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. We demonstrate that at low μM concentrations cationic PAMAM dendrimers block PA63 and C2IIa to inhibit channel-mediated transport of the A components, thereby protecting HeLa and Vero cells from intoxication. By channel reconstitution and high-resolution current recording, we show that the PAMAM dendrimers obstruct transmembrane PA63 and C2IIa pores in planar lipid bilayers at nM concentrations. These findings suggest a new potential role for the PAMAM dendrimers as effective polyvalent channel-blocking inhibitors, which can protect human target cells from intoxication with binary toxins from pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24954629

  7. Cryo-EM structure of the gasdermin A3 membrane pore.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jianbin; Xia, Shiyu; Liu, Xing; Lieberman, Judy; Wu, Hao

    2018-05-01

    Gasdermins mediate inflammatory cell death after cleavage by caspases or other, unknown enzymes. The cleaved N-terminal fragments bind to acidic membrane lipids to form pores, but the mechanism of pore formation remains unresolved. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structures of the 27-fold and 28-fold single-ring pores formed by the N-terminal fragment of mouse GSDMA3 (GSDMA3-NT) at 3.8 and 4.2 Å resolutions, and of a double-ring pore at 4.6 Å resolution. In the 27-fold pore, a 108-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel is formed by two β-hairpins from each subunit capped by a globular domain. We identify a positively charged helix that interacts with the acidic lipid cardiolipin. GSDMA3-NT undergoes radical conformational changes upon membrane insertion to form long, membrane-spanning β-strands. We also observe an unexpected additional symmetric ring of GSDMA3-NT subunits that does not insert into the membrane in the double-ring pore, which may represent a pre-pore state of GSDMA3-NT. These structures provide a basis that explains the activities of several mutant gasdermins, including defective mutants that are associated with cancer.

  8. A pore-forming protein implements VLR-activated complement cytotoxicity in lamprey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenfang; Feng, Bo; Ren, Yong; Wu, Di; Chen, Yue; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2017-01-01

    Lamprey is a basal vertebrate with a unique adaptive immune system, which uses variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) for antigen recognition. Our previous study has shown that lamprey possessed a distinctive complement pathway activated by VLR. In this study, we identified a natterin family member-lamprey pore-forming protein (LPFP) with a jacalin-like lectin domain and an aerolysin-like pore-forming domain. LPFP had a high affinity with mannan and could form oligomer in the presence of mannan. LPFP could deposit on the surface of target cells, form pore-like complex resembling a wheel with hub and spokes, and mediate powerful cytotoxicity on target cells. These pore-forming proteins along with VLRs and complement molecules were essential for the specific cytotoxicity against exogenous pathogens and tumor cells. This unique cytotoxicity implemented by LPFP might emerge before or in parallel with the IgG-based classical complement lytic pathway completed by polyC9.

  9. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Escobar, Iliana E.; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  10. Micromechanics of cataclastic pore collapse in limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Baud, Patrick; Wong, Teng-Fong

    2010-04-01

    The analysis of compactant failure in carbonate formations hinges upon a fundamental understanding of the mechanics of inelastic compaction. Microstructural observations indicate that pore collapse in a limestone initiates at the larger pores, and microcracking dominates the deformation in the periphery of a collapsed pore. To capture these micromechanical processes, we developed a model treating the limestone as a dual porosity medium, with the total porosity partitioned between macroporosity and microporosity. The representative volume element is made up of a large pore which is surrounded by an effective medium containing the microporosity. Cataclastic yielding of this effective medium obeys the Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager criterion, with failure parameters dependent on porosity and pore size. An analytic approximation was derived for the unconfined compressive strength associated with failure due to the propagation and coalescence of pore-emanated cracks. For hydrostatic loading, identical theoretical results for the pore collapse pressure were obtained using the Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager criterion. For nonhydrostatic loading, the stress state at the onset of shear-enhanced compaction was predicted to fall on a linear cap according to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. In contrast, nonlinear caps in qualitative agreement with laboratory data were predicted using the Drucker-Prager criterion. Our micromechanical model implies that the effective medium is significantly stronger and relatively pressure-insensitive in comparison to the bulk sample.

  11. Modelling the influence of pore size on the response of materials to infrared lasers An application to human enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila Verde, A.; Ramos, Marta M. D.

    2005-07-01

    We present an analytical model for a ceramic material (hydroxyapatite, HA) containing nanometre-scale water pores, and use it to estimate the pressure at the pore as a function of temperature at the end of a single 0.35 μs laser pulse by Er:YAG (2.94 μm) and CO 2 (10.6 μm) lasers. Our results suggest that the pressure at the pore is directly related to pore temperature, and that very high pressures can be generated simply by the thermal expansion of liquid water. Since the temperature reached in the pores at the end of the laser pulse is a strong function of pore size for Er:YAG lasers, but is independent of pore size for CO 2 lasers, our present results provide a possible explanation for the fact that human dental enamel threshold ablation fluences vary more for Er:YAG lasers than for CO 2 lasers. This suggests that experimentalists should analyse their results accounting for factors, like age or type of tooth, that may change the pore size distribution in their samples.

  12. High temperature ion channels and pores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheley, Stephen (Inventor); Gu, Li Qun (Inventor); Bayley, Hagan (Inventor); Kang, Xiaofeng (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention includes an apparatus, system and method for stochastic sensing of an analyte to a protein pore. The protein pore may be an engineer protein pore, such as an ion channel at temperatures above 55.degree. C. and even as high as near 100.degree. C. The analyte may be any reactive analyte, including chemical weapons, environmental toxins and pharmaceuticals. The analyte covalently bonds to the sensor element to produce a detectable electrical current signal. Possible signals include change in electrical current. Detection of the signal allows identification of the analyte and determination of its concentration in a sample solution. Multiple analytes present in the same solution may also be detected.

  13. Role of Pore-Forming Toxins in Bacterial Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Los, Ferdinand C. O.; Randis, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are the most common bacterial cytotoxic proteins and are required for virulence in a large number of important pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A and B streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PFTs generally disrupt host cell membranes, but they can have additional effects independent of pore formation. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of certain model PFTs. Likewise, specific host pathways mediating survival and immune responses in the face of toxin-mediated cellular damage have been delineated. However, less is known about the overall functions of PFTs during infection in vivo. This review focuses on common themes in the area of PFT biology, with an emphasis on studies addressing the roles of PFTs in in vivo and ex vivo models of colonization or infection. Common functions of PFTs include disruption of epithelial barrier function and evasion of host immune responses, which contribute to bacterial growth and spreading. The widespread nature of PFTs make this group of toxins an attractive target for the development of new virulence-targeted therapies that may have broad activity against human pathogens. PMID:23699254

  14. Recovery from Cyclophosphamide-Induced Lymphopenia Results in Expansion of Immature Dendritic Cells Which Can Mediate Enhanced Prime-Boost Vaccination Antitumor Responses In Vivo When Stimulated with the TLR3 Agonist Poly(I:C)1

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed L.; Díaz-Montero, C. Marcela; Al-Khami, Amir A.; El-Naggar, Sabry A.; Naga, Osama; Montero, Alberto J.; Khafagy, Ahmed; Cole, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent preclinical studies suggest that vaccination following adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells into a lymphopenic host can augment the therapeutic antitumor responses of the transferred cells. However, the mechanism by which the lymphopenic microenvironment benefits Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses remains elusive. We show herein that induction of lymphodepletion by a single 4 mg cyclophosphamide (CTX) treatment induces a marked expansion of immature dendritic cells (DCs) in the peripheral blood on days 8–16 post-CTX (termed restoration phase). In vitro, these DCs were functional, because they showed normal phagocytosis and effective Ag presentation capability upon activation. In vivo, administration of the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) at the peak of DC expansion (day 12 postlymphopenia) induced inflammatory cytokine production and increases in the number of activated DCs in lymph nodes. Importantly, boosting with gp10025–33 melanoma peptide combined with poly(I:C) 12 days after an initial priming with the same regimen significantly increased the expansion and the antitumor efficacy of adoptively transferred pmel-1 CD8+ T cells. These responses were abrogated after depletion of activated DCs during Ag boosting. In conclusion, our data show that CTX treatment induces, during the restoration phase, expansion of immature DCs, which are functional and can be exploited in vivo to foster more effective antitumor adoptive immunotherapy strategies. PMID:19201856

  15. Translocation of RNA-coated gold particles through the nuclear pores of oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, various sized gold particles coated with tRNA, 5S RNA, or poly(A) were used to localize and characterize the pathways for RNA translocation to the cytoplasm. RNA-coated gold particles were microinjected into the nucleus of Xenopus oocytes. The cells were fixed after 15, 60 min, or 6 h, and the particle distribution was later observed by electron microscopy. Similar results were obtained with all classes of RNA used. After nuclear injection, particles ranging from 20- 230 A in diameter were observed within central channels of the nuclear pores and in the cytoplasm immediately adjacent to the pores. Particles of this size would not be expected to diffuse through the pores, suggesting that some form of mediated transport occurred. In addition, it was found that the translocation process is saturable. At least 97% of the pores analyzed appeared to be involved in the translocation process. Gold coated with nonphysiological polynucleotides (poly[I] or poly[dA]) were also translocated. When nuclei were injected with either BSA-, ovalbumin-, polyglutamic acid-, or PVP-coated gold, the particles were essentially excluded from the pores. These results indicate that the accumulation of RNA-gold within the pores and adjacent cytoplasm was not due to non-specific effects. We conclude that the translocation sites for gold particles coated with different classes of RNA are located in the centers of the nuclear pores and that particles at least 230 A in diameter can cross the envelope. Tracer particles injected into the cytoplasm were observed within the nuclear pores in areas near the site of injection. However, only a small percentage of the particles actually entered the nucleus. It was also determined, by performing double injection experiments, that individual pores are bifunctional, that is, capable of transporting both proteins and RNA. PMID:2450095

  16. Pore-Confined Carriers and Biomolecules in Mesoporous Silica for Biomimetic Separation and Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shanshan

    Selectively permeable biological membranes composed of lipophilic barriers inspire the design of biomimetic carrier-mediated membranes for aqueous solute separation. This work imparts selective permeability to lipid-filled pores of silica thin film composite membranes using carrier molecules that reside in the lipophilic self-assemblies. The lipids confined inside the pores of silica are proven to be a more effective barrier than bilayers formed on the porous surface through vesicle fusion, which is critical for quantifying the function of an immobilized carrier. The ability of a lipophilic carrier embedded in the lipid bilayer to reversibly bind the target solute and transport it through the membrane is demonstrated. Through the functionalization of the silica surface with enzymes, enzymatic catalysis and biomimetic separations can be combined on this nanostructured composite platform. The successful development of biomimetic nanocomposite membrane can provide for efficient dilute aqueous solute upgrading or separations using engineered carrier/catalyst/support systems. While the carrier-mediated biomimetic membranes hold great potential, fully understanding of the transport processes in composite synthetic membranes is essential for improve the membrane performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique is demonstrated to be a useful tool for characterizing the thin film pore accessibility. Furthermore, the effect of lipid bilayer preparation methods on the silica thin film (in the form of pore enveloping, pore filling) on ion transport is explored, as a lipid bilayer with high electrically insulation is essential for detecting activity of proteins or biomimetic carriers in the bilayer. This study provides insights for making better barriers on mesoporous support for carrier-mediated membrane separation process. Porous silica nanoparticles (pSNPs) with pore sizes appropriate for biomolecule loading are potential for encapsulating dsRNA within the

  17. Pore network extraction from pore space images of various porous media systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Zhixing; Lin, Mian; Jiang, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhaobin; Li, Haishan; Gao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Pore network extraction, which is defined as the transformation from irregular pore space to a simplified network in the form of pores connected by throats, is significant to microstructure analysis and network modeling. A physically realistic pore network is not only a representation of the pore space in the sense of topology and morphology, but also a good tool for predicting transport properties accurately. We present a method to extract pore network by employing the centrally located medial axis to guide the construction of maximal-balls-like skeleton where the pores and throats are defined and parameterized. To validate our method, various rock samples including sand pack, sandstones, and carbonates were used to extract pore networks. The pore structures were compared quantitatively with the structures extracted by medial axis method or maximal ball method. The predicted absolute permeability and formation factor were verified against the theoretical solutions obtained by lattice Boltzmann method and finite volume method, respectively. The two-phase flow was simulated through the networks extracted from homogeneous sandstones, and the generated relative permeability curves were compared with the data obtained from experimental method and other numerical models. The results show that the accuracy of our network is higher than that of other networks for predicting transport properties, so the presented method is more reliable for extracting physically realistic pore network.

  18. Valve seat pores sealed with thermosetting monomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmore, A. B.

    1966-01-01

    Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.

  19. Iterative expansion microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae-Byum; Chen, Fei; Yoon, Young-Gyu; Jung, Erica E; Babcock, Hazen; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Asano, Shoh; Suk, Ho-Jun; Pak, Nikita; Tillberg, Paul W; Wassie, Asmamaw T; Cai, Dawen; Boyden, Edward S

    2017-06-01

    We recently developed a method called expansion microscopy, in which preserved biological specimens are physically magnified by embedding them in a densely crosslinked polyelectrolyte gel, anchoring key labels or biomolecules to the gel, mechanically homogenizing the specimen, and then swelling the gel-specimen composite by ∼4.5× in linear dimension. Here we describe iterative expansion microscopy (iExM), in which a sample is expanded ∼20×. After preliminary expansion a second swellable polymer mesh is formed in the space newly opened up by the first expansion, and the sample is expanded again. iExM expands biological specimens ∼4.5 × 4.5, or ∼20×, and enables ∼25-nm-resolution imaging of cells and tissues on conventional microscopes. We used iExM to visualize synaptic proteins, as well as the detailed architecture of dendritic spines, in mouse brain circuitry.

  20. Thermal Expansion "Paradox."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhruddin, Hasan

    1993-01-01

    Describes a paradox in the equation for thermal expansion. If the calculations for heating a rod and subsequently cooling a rod are determined, the new length of the cool rod is shorter than expected. (PR)

  1. NMR-based diffusion pore imaging.

    PubMed

    Laun, Frederik Bernd; Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Wetscherek, Andreas; Stieltjes, Bram; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments offer a unique opportunity to study boundaries restricting the diffusion process. In a recent Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 048102 (2011)], we introduced the idea and concept that such diffusion experiments can be interpreted as NMR imaging experiments. Consequently, images of closed pores, in which the spins diffuse, can be acquired. In the work presented here, an in-depth description of the diffusion pore imaging technique is provided. Image artifacts due to gradient profiles of finite duration, field inhomogeneities, and surface relaxation are considered. Gradients of finite duration lead to image blurring and edge enhancement artifacts. Field inhomogeneities have benign effects on diffusion pore images, and surface relaxation can lead to a shrinkage and shift of the pore image. The relation between boundary structure and the imaginary part of the diffusion weighted signal is analyzed, and it is shown that information on pore coherence can be obtained without the need to measure the phase of the diffusion weighted signal. Moreover, it is shown that quite arbitrary gradient profiles can be used for diffusion pore imaging. The matrices required for numerical calculations are stated and provided as supplemental material.

  2. Inter-subunit interactions across the upper voltage sensing-pore domain interface contribute to the concerted pore opening transition of Kv channels.

    PubMed

    Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Irit, Orr; Yifrach, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    The tight electro-mechanical coupling between the voltage-sensing and pore domains of Kv channels lies at the heart of their fundamental roles in electrical signaling. Structural data have identified two voltage sensor pore inter-domain interaction surfaces, thus providing a framework to explain the molecular basis for the tight coupling of these domains. While the contribution of the intra-subunit lower domain interface to the electro-mechanical coupling that underlies channel opening is relatively well understood, the contribution of the inter-subunit upper interface to channel gating is not yet clear. Relying on energy perturbation and thermodynamic coupling analyses of tandem-dimeric Shaker Kv channels, we show that mutation of upper interface residues from both sides of the voltage sensor-pore domain interface stabilizes the closed channel state. These mutations, however, do not affect slow inactivation gating. We, moreover, find that upper interface residues form a network of state-dependent interactions that stabilize the open channel state. Finally, we note that the observed residue interaction network does not change during slow inactivation gating. The upper voltage sensing-pore interaction surface thus only undergoes conformational rearrangements during channel activation gating. We suggest that inter-subunit interactions across the upper domain interface mediate allosteric communication between channel subunits that contributes to the concerted nature of the late pore opening transition of Kv channels.

  3. Active pore space utilization in nanoporous carbon-based supercapacitors: Effects of conductivity and pore accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredych, Mykola; Koscinski, Mikolaj; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, Malgorzata; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2012-12-01

    Composites of commercial graphene and nanoporous sodium-salt-polymer-derived carbons were prepared with 5 or 20 weight% graphene. The materials were characterized using the adsorption of nitrogen, SEM/EDX, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and potentiometric titration. The samples' conductivity was also measured. The performance of the carbon composites in energy storage was linked to their porosity and electronic conductivity. The small pores (<0.7) were found as very active for double layer capacitance. It was demonstrated that when double layer capacitance is a predominant mechanism of charge storage, the degree of the pore space utilization for that storage can be increased by increasing the conductivity of the carbons. That active pore space utilization is defined as gravimetric capacitance per unit pore volume in pores smaller than 0.7 nm. Its magnitude is affected by conductivity of the carbon materials. The functional groups, besides pseudocapacitive contribution, increased the wettability and thus the degree of the pore space utilization. Graphene phase, owing to its conductivity, also took part in an insitu increase of the small pore accessibility and thus the capacitance of the composites via enhancing an electron transfer to small pores and thus imposing the reduction of groups blocking the pores for electrolyte ions.

  4. Isolated pores dissected from human two-pore channel 2 are functional

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Christopher J.; Rahman, Taufiq; Sula, Altin; Miles, Andrew J.; Wallace, B. A.; Patel, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Multi-domain voltage-gated ion channels appear to have evolved through sequential rounds of intragenic duplication from a primordial one-domain precursor. Whereas modularity within one-domain symmetrical channels is established, little is known about the roles of individual regions within more complex asymmetrical channels where the domains have undergone substantial divergence. Here we isolated and characterised both of the divergent pore regions from human TPC2, a two-domain channel that holds a key intermediate position in the evolution of voltage-gated ion channels. In HeLa cells, each pore localised to the ER and caused Ca2+ depletion, whereas an ER-targeted pore mutated at a residue that inactivates full-length TPC2 did not. Additionally, one of the pores expressed at high levels in E. coli. When purified, it formed a stable, folded tetramer. Liposomes reconstituted with the pore supported Ca2+ and Na+ uptake that was inhibited by known blockers of full-length channels. Computational modelling of the pore corroborated cationic permeability and drug interaction. Therefore, despite divergence, both pores are constitutively active in the absence of their partners and retain several properties of the wild-type pore. Such symmetrical ‘pore-only’ proteins derived from divergent channel domains may therefore provide tractable tools for probing the functional architecture of complex ion channels. PMID:27941820

  5. Isolated pores dissected from human two-pore channel 2 are functional.

    PubMed

    Penny, Christopher J; Rahman, Taufiq; Sula, Altin; Miles, Andrew J; Wallace, B A; Patel, Sandip

    2016-12-12

    Multi-domain voltage-gated ion channels appear to have evolved through sequential rounds of intragenic duplication from a primordial one-domain precursor. Whereas modularity within one-domain symmetrical channels is established, little is known about the roles of individual regions within more complex asymmetrical channels where the domains have undergone substantial divergence. Here we isolated and characterised both of the divergent pore regions from human TPC2, a two-domain channel that holds a key intermediate position in the evolution of voltage-gated ion channels. In HeLa cells, each pore localised to the ER and caused Ca 2+ depletion, whereas an ER-targeted pore mutated at a residue that inactivates full-length TPC2 did not. Additionally, one of the pores expressed at high levels in E. coli. When purified, it formed a stable, folded tetramer. Liposomes reconstituted with the pore supported Ca 2+ and Na + uptake that was inhibited by known blockers of full-length channels. Computational modelling of the pore corroborated cationic permeability and drug interaction. Therefore, despite divergence, both pores are constitutively active in the absence of their partners and retain several properties of the wild-type pore. Such symmetrical 'pore-only' proteins derived from divergent channel domains may therefore provide tractable tools for probing the functional architecture of complex ion channels.

  6. Two-pore channels: Regulation by NAADP and customized roles in triggering calcium signals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandip; Marchant, Jonathan; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    NAADP is a potent regulator of cytosolic calcium levels. Much evidence suggests that NAADP activates a novel channel located on an acidic (lysosomal-like) calcium store, the mobilisation of which results in further calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we discuss the recent identification of a family of poorly characterized ion channels (the two-pore channels) as endo-lysosomal NAADP receptors. The generation of calcium signals by these channels is likened to those evoked by depolarisation during excitation-contraction coupling in muscle. We discuss the idea that two pore-channels can mediate a trigger release of calcium which is then amplified by calcium-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. This is similar to the activation of voltage-sensitive calcium channels and subsequent mobilisation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in cardiac tissue. We suggest that two-pore channels may physically interact with ryanodine receptors to account for more direct release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in analogy with the conformational coupling of voltage-sensitive calcium channels and ryanodine receptors in skeletal muscle. Interaction of two-pore channels with other calcium release channels likely occurs between stores “trans-chatter” and possibly within the same store “cis-chatter”. We also speculate that trafficking of two-pore channels through the endolysosomal system facilitates interactions with calcium entry channels. Strategic placing of two-pore channels thus provides a versatile means of generating spatiotemporally complex cellular calcium signals. PMID:20621760

  7. Deposition Nucleation or Pore Condensation and Freezing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Robert O.; Mahrt, Fabian; Marcolli, Claudia; Fahrni, Jonas; Brühwiler, Dominik; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2017-04-01

    Ice nucleation plays an important role in moderating Earth's climate and precipitation formation. Over the last century of research, several mechanisms for the nucleation of ice have been identified. Of the known mechanisms for ice nucleation, only deposition nucleation occurs below water saturation. Deposition nucleation is defined as the formation of ice from supersaturated water vapor on an insoluble particle without the prior formation of liquid. However, recent work has found that the efficiency of so-called deposition nucleation shows a dependence on the homogeneous freezing temperature of water even though no liquid phase is presumed to be present. Additionally, the ability of certain particles to nucleate ice more efficiently after being pre-cooled (pre-activation) raises questions on the true mechanism when ice nucleation occurs below water saturation. In an attempt to explain the dependence of the efficiency of so-called deposition nucleation on the onset of homogeneous freezing of liquid water, pore condensation and freezing has been proposed. Pore condensation and freezing suggests that the liquid phase can exist under sub-saturated conditions with respect to liquid in narrow confinements or pores due to the inverse Kelvin effect. Once the liquid-phase condenses, it is capable of nucleating ice either homogeneously or heterogeneously. The role of pore condensation and freezing is assessed in the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber, a continuous flow diffusion chamber, using spherical nonporous and mesoporous silica particles. The mesoporous silica particles have a well-defined particle size range of 400 to 600nm with discreet pore sizes of 2.5, 2.8, 3.5 and 3.8nm. Experiments conducted between 218K and 238K show that so-called deposition nucleation only occurs below the homogenous freezing temperature of water and is highly dependent on the presence of pores and their size. The results strongly support pore condensation and freezing, questioning the role of

  8. Pore fluid pressure and the seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, M. E.; Zhu, W.; Hirth, G.; Belzer, B.

    2017-12-01

    In the brittle crust, the critical shear stress required for fault slip decreases with increasing pore fluid pressures according to the effective stress criterion. As a result, higher pore fluid pressures are thought to promote fault slip and seismogenesis, consistent with observations that increasing fluid pressure as a result of wastewater injection is correlated with increased seismicity. On the other hand, elevated pore fluid pressure is also proposed to promote slow stable failure rather than seismicity along some fault zones, including during slow slip in subduction zones. Here we review recent experimental evidence for the roles that pore fluid pressure and the effective stress play in controlling fault slip behavior. Using two sets of experiments on serpentine fault gouge, we show that increasing fluid pressure does decrease the shear stress for reactivation under brittle conditions. However, under semi-brittle conditions as expected near the base of the seismogenic zone, high pore fluid pressures are much less effective at reducing the shear stress of reactivation even though deformation is localized and frictional. We use an additional study on serpentinite to show that cohesive fault rocks, potentially the product of healing and cementation, experience an increase in fracture energy during faulting as fluid pressures approach lithostatic, which can lead to more stable failure. Structural observations show that the increased fracture energy is associated with a greater intensity of transgranular fracturing and delocalization of deformation. Experiments on several lithologies indicate that the stabilizing effect of fluid pressure occurs independent of rock composition and hydraulic properties. Thus, high pore fluid pressures have the potential to either enhance seismicity or promote stable faulting depending on pressure, temperature, and fluid pressure conditions. Together, the results of these studies indicate that pore fluid pressure promotes

  9. Virial Expansion Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  10. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients.more » As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.« less

  11. Pore formation and pore closure in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) films.

    PubMed

    Fredenberg, Susanne; Wahlgren, Marie; Reslow, Mats; Axelsson, Anders

    2011-03-10

    Pore formation and pore closure in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-based drug delivery systems are two important processes as they control the release of the encapsulated drug. The phenomenon pore closure was investigated by studying the effects of the pH and the temperature of the release medium, and the properties of the polymer. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) films were subjected to a pore forming pre-treatment, and then pore closure was observed simultaneously with changes in glass transition temperature, wettability (contact angle), water absorption and mass remaining. To further understand the effect of pH, combined pore formation and pore closure were studied at different pH values. Pore closure was increased in a release medium with low pH, with a low-molecular-weight PLG of relatively low degree of hydrophobicity, or at high temperature. Pore closure occurred by two different mechanisms, one based on polymer-polymer interactions and one on polymer-water interactions. The mobility of the PLG chains also played an important role. The surface of the PLG films were more porous at pH 5-6 than at lower or higher pH, as pore formation was relatively fast and pore closure were less pronounced in this pH range. The pH had a significant impact on the porous structure, which should be kept in mind when evaluating experimental results, as the pH may be significantly decreased in vitro, in vivo and in situ. The results also show that the initial porosity is very important when using a high-molecular-weight PLG. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-06-21

    Hydrochromic materials, which undergo changes in their light absorption and/or emission properties in response to water, have been extensively investigated as humidity sensors. Recent advances in the design of these materials have led to novel applications, including monitoring the water content of organic solvents, water-jet-based rewritable printing on paper, and hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. Our interest in this area has focused on the design of hydrochromic materials for human sweat pore mapping. We recognized that materials appropriate for this purpose must have balanced sensitivities to water. Specifically, while they should not undergo light absorption and/or emission transitions under ambient moisture conditions, the materials must have sufficiently high hydrochromic sensitivities that they display responses to water secreted from human sweat pores. In this Account, we describe investigations that we have carried out to develop hydrochromic substances that are suitable for human sweat pore mapping. Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) have been extensively investigated as sensor matrices because of their stimulus-responsive color change property. We found that incorporation of headgroups composed of hygroscopic ions such as cesium or rubidium and carboxylate counterions enables PDAs to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition as well as a fluorescence turn-on response to water. Very intriguingly, the small quantities of water secreted from human sweat pores were found to be sufficient to trigger fluorescence turn-on responses of the hydrochromic PDAs, allowing precise mapping of human sweat pores. Since the hygroscopic ion-containing PDAs developed in the initial stage display a colorimetric transition under ambient conditions that exist during humid summer periods, a new system was designed. A PDA containing an imidazolium ion was found to be stable under all ambient conditions and showed temperature-dependent hydrochromism corresponding to a

  13. NUA Activities at the Plant Nuclear Pore

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianfeng Morgan; Rose, Annkatrin

    2007-01-01

    NUA (Nuclear Pore Anchor), the Arabidopsis homolog of Tpr (Translocated Promoter Region), is one of the few nuclear pore proteins conserved between animals, yeast and plants. In the May issue of Plant Cell, we report that null mutants of NUA show a pleiotropic, early flowering phenotype accompanied by changes in SUMo and RNA homeostasis. We have shown that the early flowering phenotype is caused by changed abundances of flowering time regulators involved in several pathways. Arabidopsis nua mutants phenocopy mutants lacking the ESD4 (EARlY IN ShoRT DAYS 4) SUMo protease, similar to mutants of their respective yeast homologs. however, in contrast to the comparable yeast mutants, ESD4 does not appear to be delocalized from the nuclear pore in nua mutants. Taken together, our experimental data suggests a role for NUA in controlling mRNA export from the nucleus as well as SUMo protease activity at the nuclear pore, comparable but not identical to its homologs in other eukaryotes. Furthermore, characterization of NUA illustrates a potential link at the nuclear pore between SUMo modification, RNA homeostasis and plant developmental control. PMID:19704557

  14. Performance of Small Pore Microchannel Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Gummin, M. A.; Ravinett, T.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Edgar, M.

    1995-01-01

    Small pore size microchannel plates (MCP's) are needed to satisfy the requirements for future high resolution small and large format detectors for astronomy. MCP's with pore sizes in the range 5 micron to 8 micron are now being manufactured, but they are of limited availability and are of small size. We have obtained sets of Galileo 8 micron and 6.5 micron MCP's, and Philips 6 micron and 7 micron pore MCP's, and compared them to our larger pore MCP Z stacks. We have tested back to back MCP stacks of four of these MCP's and achieved gains greater than 2 x 1O(exp 7) with pulse height distributions of less than 40% FWHM, and background rates of less than 0.3 events sec(exp -1) cm(exp -2). Local counting rates up to approx. 100 events/pore/sec have been attained with little drop of the MCP gain. The bare MCP quantum efficiencies are somewhat lower than those expected, however. Flat field images are characterized by an absence of MCP fixed pattern noise.

  15. Iterative expansion microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae-Byum; Chen, Fei; Yoon, Young-Gyu; Jung, Erica E.; Babcock, Hazen; Kang, Jeong Seuk; Asano, Shoh; Suk, Ho-Jun; Pak, Nikita; Tillberg, Paul W.; Wassie, Asmamaw; Cai, Dawen; Boyden, Edward S.

    2017-01-01

    We recently discovered it was possible to physically magnify preserved biological specimens by embedding them in a densely crosslinked polyelectrolyte gel, anchoring key labels or biomolecules to the gel, mechanically homogenizing the specimen, and then swelling the gel-specimen composite by ~4.5x in linear dimension, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Here we describe iterative expansion microscopy (iExM), in which a sample is expanded, then a second swellable polymer mesh is formed in the space newly opened up by the first expansion, and finally the sample is expanded again. iExM expands biological specimens ~4.5 × 4.5 or ~20x, and enables ~25 nm resolution imaging of cells and tissues on conventional microscopes. We used iExM to visualize synaptic proteins, as well as the detailed architecture of dendritic spines, in mouse brain circuitry. PMID:28417997

  16. 1.9 μm superficially porous packing material with radially oriented pores and tailored pore size for ultra-fast separation of small molecules and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Min, Yi; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ci; Xia, Simin; Zhang, Xiaodan; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-08-22

    In this work, 1.9 μm reversed-phase packing materials with superficially porous structure were prepared to achieve the rapid and high efficient separation of peptides and proteins. The silica particles were synthesized via three steps, nonporous silica particle preparation by a modified seeded growth method, mesoporous shell formation by a one pot templated dissolution and redeposition strategy, and pore size expansion via acid-refluxing. By such a method, 1.9 μm superficially porous materials with 0.18 μm shell thickness and tailored pore diameter (10 nm, 15 nm) were obtained. After pore enlargement, the formerly dense arrays of mesoporous structure changed, the radially oriented pores dominated the superficially porous structure. The chromatographic performance of such particles was investigated after C18 derivatization. For packing materials with 1.9 μm diameter and 10 nm pore size, the column efficiency could reach 211,300 plates per m for naphthalene. To achieve the high resolution separation of peptides and proteins, particles with pore diameter of 15 nm were tailored, by which the baseline separation of 5 peptides and 5 intact proteins could be respectively achieved within 1 min, demonstrating the superiority in the high efficiency and high throughput analysis of biomolecules. Furthermore, BSA digests were well separated with peak capacity of 120 in 30 min on a 15 cm-long column. Finally, we compared our columns with a 1.7 μm Kinetex C18 column under the same conditions, our particles with 10nm pore size demonstrated similar performance for separation of the large intact proteins. Moreover, the particles with 15 nm pore size showed more symmetrical peaks for the separation of large proteins (BSA, OVA and IgG) and provided rapid separation of protein extracts from Escherichia coli in 5 min. All these results indicated that the synthesized 1.9 μm superficially porous silica packing materials would be promising in the ultra-fast and high

  17. Unplugging the callose plug from sieve pores.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Hong, Zonglie

    2011-04-01

    The presence of callose in sieve plates has been known for a long time, but how this polysaccharide plug is synthesized has remained unsolved. Two independent laboratories have recently reported the identification of callose synthase 7 (CalS7), also known as glucan synthase-like 7 (GSL7), as the enzyme responsible for callose deposition in sieve plates. Mutant plants defective in this enzyme failed to synthesize callose in developing sieve plates during phloem formation and were unable to accumulate callose in sieve pores in response to stress treatments. The mutant plants developed less open pores per sieve plate and the pores were smaller in diameter. As a result, phloem conductivity was reduced significantly and the mutant plants were shorter and set fewer seeds.

  18. Pore-forming toxins in Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Marjetka; Anderluh, Gregor

    2017-12-01

    The ancient phylum of Cnidaria contains many aquatic species with peculiar lifestyle. In order to survive, these organisms have evolved attack and defense mechanisms that are enabled by specialized cells and highly developed venoms. Pore-forming toxins are an important part of their venomous arsenal. Along some other types, the most representative are examples of four protein families that are commonly found in other kingdoms of life: actinoporins, Cry-like proteins, aerolysin-like toxins and MACPF/CDC toxins. Some of the homologues of pore-forming toxins may serve other functions, such as in food digestion, development and response against pathogenic organisms. Due to their interesting physico-chemical properties, the cnidarian pore-forming toxins may also serve as tools in medical research and nanobiotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unplugging the callose plug from sieve pores

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The presence of callose in sieve plates has been known for a long time, but how this polysaccharide plug is synthesized has remained unsolved. Two independent laboratories have recently reported the identification of callose synthase 7 (CalS7), also known as glucan synthase-like 7 (GSL7), as the enzyme responsible for callose deposition in sieve plates. Mutant plants defective in this enzyme failed to synthesize callose in developing sieve plates during phloem formation and were unable to accumulate callose in sieve pores in response to stress treatments. The mutant plants developed less open pores per sieve plate and the pores were smaller in diameter. As a result, phloem conductivity was reduced significantly and the mutant plants were shorter and set fewer seeds. PMID:21386663

  20. Dissolution at porous interfaces VI: Multiple pore systems.

    PubMed

    Grijseels, H; Crommelin, D J; De Blaey, C J

    1984-12-01

    With the aid of rapidly dissolving sodium chloride particles, cubic pores were made in the surface of a theophylline tablet. The influence of the pores on the dissolution rate of the surface was investigated in a rotating disk apparatus. Like the drilled pores used in earlier studies, downstream on the surface they caused a turbulent flow regimen with the development of a trough due to enhanced erosion. The phenomenon of a critical pore diameter, discovered with single, drilled pores, seems to be applicable to the cubic pores investigated in this study, although a higher degree of surface coverage with pores caused complications, probably due to particles bordering one another and forming larger pores. The behavior of the porous surfaces at different rotation speeds was studied. Due to the presence of pores the laminar character of the boundary layer flow changes to turbulent, which induces locally an increased dissolution flux in the wake of a pore.

  1. Urban Expansion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Under an Egyptian government contract, PADCO studies urban growth in the Nile Area. They were assisted by LANDSAT survey maps and measurements provided by TAC. TAC had classified the raw LANDSAT data and processed it into various categories to detail urban expansion. PADCO crews spot checked the results, and correlations were established.

  2. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  3. A Special Trinomial Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author takes up the special trinomial (1 + x + x[squared])[superscript n] and shows that the coefficients of its expansion are entries of a Pascal-like triangle. He also shows how to calculate these entries recursively and explicitly. This article could be used in the classroom for enrichment. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Expansion of Pannes

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the Long Island, New Jersey, and southern New England region, one facet of marsh drowning as a result of accelerated sea level rise is the expansion of salt marsh ponds and pannes. Over the past century, marsh ponds and pannes have formed and expanded in areas of poor drainag...

  5. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOEpatents

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  6. Geothermal expansion spool piston

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, L. T.

    1985-08-06

    A packing supporting piston assembly removably securable to an end section of a production casing of a geothermal well, which end section is disposed above a well head. The piston assembly when so mounted has packing in abutting sealing contact with the end section of the production casing and also has packing that is in slidable sealing contact with the interior surface of the expansion spool. The piston assembly is of such structure that the pressures exerted by the packing on the end section of the casing and on the interior surface of the expansion spool are independently adjustable tomore » desired magnitudes. The degree of pressure exerted by the packing on the interior surface of the expansion spool is adjustable after the packing has been disposed within the confines of the spool. The piston assembly in a preferred form includes a circumferentially extending high temperature resisting grease seal situated within the confines of the piston assembly. In addition to the preferred form of the piston assembly, alternate forms of the piston assembly are provided, each of which permits the pressure exerted by the packing on the interior surface of the expansion spool to be adjusted to a desired magnitude and periodically varied as the same becomes necessary to maintain an effective seal.« less

  7. In situ architecture of the algal nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Mosalaganti, Shyamal; Kosinski, Jan; Albert, Sahradha; Schaffer, Miroslava; Strenkert, Daniela; Salomé, Patrice A; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Engel, Benjamin D; Beck, Martin

    2018-06-18

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) span the nuclear envelope and mediate nucleocytoplasmic exchange. They are a hallmark of eukaryotes and deeply rooted in the evolutionary origin of cellular compartmentalization. NPCs have an elaborate architecture that has been well studied in vertebrates. Whether this architecture is unique or varies significantly in other eukaryotic kingdoms remains unknown, predominantly due to missing in situ structural data. Here, we report the architecture of the algal NPC from the early branching eukaryote Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and compare it to the human NPC. We find that the inner ring of the Chlamydomonas NPC has an unexpectedly large diameter, and the outer rings exhibit an asymmetric oligomeric state that has not been observed or predicted previously. Our study provides evidence that the NPC is subject to substantial structural variation between species. The divergent and conserved features of NPC architecture provide insights into the evolution of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery.

  8. Tailoring particle translocation via dielectrophoresis in pore channels

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shoji; Tsutsui, Makusu; Theodore, Hu; Yuhui, He; Arima, Akihide; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling electrophoretic motions of nanoscopic objects in fluidic channels are a central challenge in developing nanopore technology for molecular analyses. Although progress has been made in slowing the translocation velocity to meet the requirement for electrical detections of analytes via picoampere current measurements, there exists no method useful for regulating particle flows in the transverse directions. Here, we report the use of dielectrophoresis to manipulate the single-particle passage through a solid-state pore. We created a trap field by applying AC voltage between electrodes embedded in a low-aspect-ratio micropore. We demonstrated a traffic control of particles to go through center or near side surface via the voltage frequency. We also found enhanced capture efficiency along with faster escaping speed of particles by virtue of the AC-mediated electroosmosis. This method is compatible with nanopore sensing and would be widely applied for reducing off-axis effects to achieve single-molecule identification. PMID:27527126

  9. Differences in soluble organic carbon chemistry in pore waters sampled from different pore size domains

    DOE PAGES

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Smith, A. P.; Tfaily, Malak; ...

    2017-01-11

    Spatial isolation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different sized pores may be a mechanism by which otherwise labile carbon (C) could be protected in soils. When soil water content increases, the hydrologic connectivity of soil pores also increases, allowing greater transport of SOC and other resources from protected locations, to microbially colonized locations more favorable to decomposition. The heterogeneous distribution of specialized decomposers, C, and other resources throughout the soil indicates that the metabolism or persistence of soil C compounds is highly dependent on short-distance transport processes. The objective of this research was to characterize the complexity of Cmore » in pore waters held at weak and strong water tensions (effectively soil solution held behind coarse- and fine-pore throats, respectively) and evaluate the microbial decomposability of these pore waters. We saturated intact soil cores and extracted pore waters with increasing suction pressures to sequentially sample pore waters from increasingly fine pore domains. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry of the SOC was used to profile the major biochemical classes (i.e., lipids, proteins, lignin, carbohydrates, and condensed aromatics) of compounds present in the pore waters; some of these samples were then used as substrates for growth of Cellvibrio japonicus (DSMZ 16018), Streptomyces cellulosae (ATCC ® 25439™), and Trichoderma reseei (QM6a) in 7 day incubations. The soluble C in finer pores was more complex than the soluble C in coarser pores, and the incubations revealed that the more complex C in these fine pores is not recalcitrant. The decomposition of this complex C led to greater losses of C through respiration than the simpler C from coarser pore waters. Our research suggests that soils that experience repeated cycles of drying and wetting may be accompanied by repeated cycles of increased CO 2 fluxes that are driven by i) the transport of C from protected pools

  10. Differences in soluble organic carbon chemistry in pore waters sampled from different pore size domains

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Smith, A. P.; Tfaily, Malak

    Spatial isolation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in different sized pores may be a mechanism by which otherwise labile carbon (C) could be protected in soils. When soil water content increases, the hydrologic connectivity of soil pores also increases, allowing greater transport of SOC and other resources from protected locations, to microbially colonized locations more favorable to decomposition. The heterogeneous distribution of specialized decomposers, C, and other resources throughout the soil indicates that the metabolism or persistence of soil C compounds is highly dependent on short-distance transport processes. The objective of this research was to characterize the complexity of Cmore » in pore waters held at weak and strong water tensions (effectively soil solution held behind coarse- and fine-pore throats, respectively) and evaluate the microbial decomposability of these pore waters. We saturated intact soil cores and extracted pore waters with increasing suction pressures to sequentially sample pore waters from increasingly fine pore domains. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry of the SOC was used to profile the major biochemical classes (i.e., lipids, proteins, lignin, carbohydrates, and condensed aromatics) of compounds present in the pore waters; some of these samples were then used as substrates for growth of Cellvibrio japonicus (DSMZ 16018), Streptomyces cellulosae (ATCC ® 25439™), and Trichoderma reseei (QM6a) in 7 day incubations. The soluble C in finer pores was more complex than the soluble C in coarser pores, and the incubations revealed that the more complex C in these fine pores is not recalcitrant. The decomposition of this complex C led to greater losses of C through respiration than the simpler C from coarser pore waters. Our research suggests that soils that experience repeated cycles of drying and wetting may be accompanied by repeated cycles of increased CO 2 fluxes that are driven by i) the transport of C from protected pools

  11. Pore-Scale Modeling of Pore Structure Effects on P-Wave Scattering Attenuation in Dry Rocks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianyang; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Underground rocks usually have complex pore system with a variety of pore types and a wide range of pore size. The effects of pore structure on elastic wave attenuation cannot be neglected. We investigated the pore structure effects on P-wave scattering attenuation in dry rocks by pore-scale modeling based on the wave theory and the similarity principle. Our modeling results indicate that pore size, pore shape (such as aspect ratio), and pore density are important factors influencing P-wave scattering attenuation in porous rocks, and can explain the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity. From the perspective of scattering attenuation, porous rocks can safely suit to the long wavelength assumption when the ratio of wavelength to pore size is larger than 15. Under the long wavelength condition, the scattering attenuation coefficient increases as a power function as the pore density increases, and it increases exponentially with the increase in aspect ratio. For a certain porosity, rocks with smaller aspect ratio and/or larger pore size have stronger scattering attenuation. When the pore aspect ratio is larger than 0.5, the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity is dominantly caused by pore size and almost independent of the pore aspect ratio. These results lay a foundation for pore structure inversion from elastic wave responses in porous rocks. PMID:25961729

  12. Force Triggers YAP Nuclear Entry by Regulating Transport across Nuclear Pores.

    PubMed

    Elosegui-Artola, Alberto; Andreu, Ion; Beedle, Amy E M; Lezamiz, Ainhoa; Uroz, Marina; Kosmalska, Anita J; Oria, Roger; Kechagia, Jenny Z; Rico-Lastres, Palma; Le Roux, Anabel-Lise; Shanahan, Catherine M; Trepat, Xavier; Navajas, Daniel; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Roca-Cusachs, Pere

    2017-11-30

    YAP is a mechanosensitive transcriptional activator with a critical role in cancer, regeneration, and organ size control. Here, we show that force applied to the nucleus directly drives YAP nuclear translocation by decreasing the mechanical restriction of nuclear pores to molecular transport. Exposure to a stiff environment leads cells to establish a mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, allowing forces exerted through focal adhesions to reach the nucleus. Force transmission then leads to nuclear flattening, which stretches nuclear pores, reduces their mechanical resistance to molecular transport, and increases YAP nuclear import. The restriction to transport is further regulated by the mechanical stability of the transported protein, which determines both active nuclear transport of YAP and passive transport of small proteins. Our results unveil a mechanosensing mechanism mediated directly by nuclear pores, demonstrated for YAP but with potential general applicability in transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conformational Heterogeneity of Bax Helix 9 Dimer for Apoptotic Pore Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chenyi; Zhang, Zhi; Kale, Justin; Andrews, David W.; Lin, Jialing; Li, Jianing

    2016-07-01

    Helix α9 of Bax protein can dimerize in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and lead to apoptotic pores. However, it remains unclear how different conformations of the dimer contribute to the pore formation on the molecular level. Thus we have investigated various conformational states of the α9 dimer in a MOM model — using computer simulations supplemented with site-specific mutagenesis and crosslinking of the α9 helices. Our data not only confirmed the critical membrane environment for the α9 stability and dimerization, but also revealed the distinct lipid-binding preference of the dimer in different conformational states. In our proposed pathway, a crucial iso-parallel dimer that mediates the conformational transition was discovered computationally and validated experimentally. The corroborating evidence from simulations and experiments suggests that, helix α9 assists Bax activation via the dimer heterogeneity and interactions with specific MOM lipids, which eventually facilitate proteolipidic pore formation in apoptosis regulation.

  14. Differences in Purinergic Amplification of Osmotic Cell Lysis by the Pore-Forming RTX Toxins Bordetella pertussis CyaA and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIA: the Role of Pore Size

    PubMed Central

    Fiser, Radovan; Linhartova, Irena; Osicka, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Hewlett, Erik L.; Benz, Roland; Sebo, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A large subgroup of the repeat in toxin (RTX) family of leukotoxins of Gram-negative pathogens consists of pore-forming hemolysins. These can permeabilize mammalian erythrocytes (RBCs) and provoke their colloid osmotic lysis (hemolytic activity). Recently, ATP leakage through pannexin channels and P2X receptor-mediated opening of cellular calcium and potassium channels were implicated in cell permeabilization by pore-forming toxins. In the study described here, we examined the role played by purinergic signaling in the cytolytic action of two RTX toxins that form pores of different sizes. The cytolytic potency of ApxIA hemolysin of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which forms pores about 2.4 nm wide, was clearly reduced in the presence of P2X7 receptor antagonists or an ATP scavenger, such as pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid (PPADS), Brilliant Blue G, ATP oxidized sodium salt, or hexokinase. In contrast, antagonists of purinergic signaling had no impact on the hemolytic potency of the adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis, which forms pores of 0.6 to 0.8 nm in diameter. Moreover, the conductance of pores formed by ApxIA increased with the toxin concentration, while the conductance of the CyaA single pore units was constant at various toxin concentrations. However, the P2X7 receptor antagonist PPADS inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the exacerbated hemolytic activity of a CyaA-ΔN489 construct (lacking 489 N-terminal residues of CyaA), which exhibited a strongly enhanced pore-forming propensity (>20-fold) and also formed severalfold larger conductance units in planar lipid bilayers than intact CyaA. These results point to a pore size threshold of purinergic amplification involvement in cell permeabilization by pore-forming RTX toxins. PMID:24082076

  15. Sequential protein unfolding through a carbon nanotube pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhonghe; Zhang, Shuang; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Luan, Binquan; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-06-01

    An assortment of biological processes, like protein degradation and the transport of proteins across membranes, depend on protein unfolding events mediated by nanopore interfaces. In this work, we exploit fully atomistic simulations of an artificial, CNT-based nanopore to investigate the nature of ubiquitin unfolding. With one end of the protein subjected to an external force, we observe non-canonical unfolding behaviour as ubiquitin is pulled through the pore opening. Secondary structural elements are sequentially detached from the protein and threaded into the nanotube, interestingly, the remaining part maintains native-like characteristics. The constraints of the nanopore interface thus facilitate the formation of stable ``unfoldon'' motifs above the nanotube aperture that can exist in the absence of specific native contacts with the other secondary structure. Destruction of these unfoldons gives rise to distinct force peaks in our simulations, providing us with a sensitive probe for studying the kinetics of serial unfolding events. Our detailed analysis of nanopore-mediated protein unfolding events not only provides insight into how related processes might proceed in the cell, but also serves to deepen our understanding of structural arrangements which form the basis for protein conformational stability.An assortment of biological processes, like protein degradation and the transport of proteins across membranes, depend on protein unfolding events mediated by nanopore interfaces. In this work, we exploit fully atomistic simulations of an artificial, CNT-based nanopore to investigate the nature of ubiquitin unfolding. With one end of the protein subjected to an external force, we observe non-canonical unfolding behaviour as ubiquitin is pulled through the pore opening. Secondary structural elements are sequentially detached from the protein and threaded into the nanotube, interestingly, the remaining part maintains native-like characteristics. The constraints of

  16. X-ray pore optic developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Maximilien; Beijersbergen, Marco; Kraft, Stefan; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Blanquer, Pascal; Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    In support of future x-ray telescopes ESA is developing new optics for the x-ray regime. To date, mass and volume have made x-ray imaging technology prohibitive to planetary remote sensing imaging missions. And although highly successful, the mirror technology used on ESA's XMM-Newton is not sufficient for future, large, x-ray observatories, since physical limits on the mirror packing density mean that aperture size becomes prohibitive. To reduce telescope mass and volume the packing density of mirror shells must be reduced, whilst maintaining alignment and rigidity. Structures can also benefit from a modular optic arrangement. Pore optics are shown to meet these requirements. This paper will discuss two pore optic technologies under development, with examples of results from measurement campaigns on samples. One activity has centred on the use of coated, silicon wafers, patterned with ribs, that are integrated onto a mandrel whose form has been polished to the required shape. The wafers follow the shape precisely, forming pore sizes in the sub-mm region. Individual stacks of mirrors can be manufactured without risk to, or dependency on, each other and aligned in a structure from which they can also be removed without hazard. A breadboard is currently being built to demonstrate this technology. A second activity centres on glass pore optics. However an adaptation of micro channel plate technology to form square pores has resulted in a monolithic material that can be slumped into an optic form. Alignment and coating of two such plates produces an x-ray focusing optic. A breadboard 20cm aperture optic is currently being built.

  17. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    PubMed Central

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2) and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore’s morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed. PMID:25733918

  18. Neutron scattering measurements of carbon dioxide adsorption in pores within the Marcellus Shale: Implications for sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stefanopoulos, Konstantinos L.; Youngs, Tristan G. A.; Sakurovs, Richard; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Bahadur, Jitendra; Melnichenko, Yuri B.

    2017-01-01

    Shale is an increasingly viable source of natural gas and a potential candidate for geologic CO2sequestration. Understanding the gas adsorption behavior on shale is necessary for the design of optimal gas recovery and sequestration projects. In the present study neutron diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering measurements of adsorbed CO2 in Marcellus Shale samples were conducted on the Near and InterMediate Range Order Diffractometer (NIMROD) at the ISIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory along an adsorption isotherm of 22 °C and pressures of 25 and 40 bar. Additional measurements were conducted at approximately 22 and 60 °C at the same pressures on the General-Purpose Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (GP-SANS) instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The structures investigated (pores) for CO2 adsorption range in size from Å level to ∼50 nm. The results indicate that, using the conditions investigated densification or condensation effects occurred in all accessible pores. The data suggest that at 22 °C the CO2 has liquid-like properties when confined in pores of around 1 nm radius at pressures as low as 25 bar. Many of the 2.5 nm pores, 70% of 2 nm pores, most of the <1 nm pores, and all pores <0.25 nm, are inaccessible or closed to CO2, suggesting that despite the vast numbers of micropores in shale, the micropores will be unavailable for storage for geologic CO2 sequestration.

  19. Neutron Scattering Measurements of Carbon Dioxide Adsorption in Pores within the Marcellus Shale: Implications for Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulos, Konstantinos L; Youngs, Tristan G A; Sakurovs, Richard; Ruppert, Leslie F; Bahadur, Jitendra; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2017-06-06

    Shale is an increasingly viable source of natural gas and a potential candidate for geologic CO 2 sequestration. Understanding the gas adsorption behavior on shale is necessary for the design of optimal gas recovery and sequestration projects. In the present study neutron diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering measurements of adsorbed CO 2 in Marcellus Shale samples were conducted on the Near and InterMediate Range Order Diffractometer (NIMROD) at the ISIS Pulsed Neutron and Muon Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory along an adsorption isotherm of 22 °C and pressures of 25 and 40 bar. Additional measurements were conducted at approximately 22 and 60 °C at the same pressures on the General-Purpose Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (GP-SANS) instrument at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The structures investigated (pores) for CO 2 adsorption range in size from Å level to ∼50 nm. The results indicate that, using the conditions investigated densification or condensation effects occurred in all accessible pores. The data suggest that at 22 °C the CO 2 has liquid-like properties when confined in pores of around 1 nm radius at pressures as low as 25 bar. Many of the 2.5 nm pores, 70% of 2 nm pores, most of the <1 nm pores, and all pores <0.25 nm, are inaccessible or closed to CO 2 , suggesting that despite the vast numbers of micropores in shale, the micropores will be unavailable for storage for geologic CO 2 sequestration.

  20. Expansion tube test time predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourlay, Christopher M.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of an interface between two gases and strong expansion is investigated and the effect on flow in an expansion tube is examined. Two mechanisms for the unsteady Pitot-pressure fluctuations found in the test section of an expansion tube are proposed. The first mechanism depends on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the driver-test gas interface in the presence of a strong expansion. The second mechanism depends on the reflection of the strong expansion from the interface. Predictions compare favorably with experimental results. The theory is expected to be independent of the absolute values of the initial expansion tube filling pressures.

  1. Pom121 links two essential subcomplexes of the nuclear pore complex core to the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jana M.; Mansfeld, Jörg; Capitanio, Juliana; Kutay, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) control the movement of molecules across the nuclear envelope (NE). We investigated the molecular interactions that exist at the interface between the NPC scaffold and the pore membrane. We show that key players mediating these interactions in mammalian cells are the nucleoporins Nup155 and Nup160. Nup155 depletion massively alters NE structure, causing a dramatic decrease in NPC numbers and the improper targeting of membrane proteins to the inner nuclear membrane. The role of Nup155 in assembly is likely closely linked to events at the membrane as we show that Nup155 interacts with pore membrane proteins Pom121 and NDC1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the N terminus of Pom121 directly binds the β-propeller regions of Nup155 and Nup160. We propose a model in which the interactions of Pom121 with Nup155 and Nup160 are predicted to assist in the formation of the nuclear pore and the anchoring of the NPC to the pore membrane. PMID:20974814

  2. GSDMD membrane pore formation constitutes the mechanism of pyroptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Sborgi, Lorenzo; Rühl, Sebastian; Mulvihill, Estefania; Pipercevic, Joka; Heilig, Rosalie; Stahlberg, Henning; Farady, Christopher J; Müller, Daniel J; Broz, Petr; Hiller, Sebastian

    2016-08-15

    Pyroptosis is a lytic type of cell death that is initiated by inflammatory caspases. These caspases are activated within multi-protein inflammasome complexes that assemble in response to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Pyroptotic cell death has been proposed to proceed via the formation of a plasma membrane pore, but the underlying molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Recently, gasdermin D (GSDMD), a member of the ill-characterized gasdermin protein family, was identified as a caspase substrate and an essential mediator of pyroptosis. GSDMD is thus a candidate for pyroptotic pore formation. Here, we characterize GSDMD function in live cells and in vitro We show that the N-terminal fragment of caspase-1-cleaved GSDMD rapidly targets the membrane fraction of macrophages and that it induces the formation of a plasma membrane pore. In vitro, the N-terminal fragment of caspase-1-cleaved recombinant GSDMD tightly binds liposomes and forms large permeability pores. Visualization of liposome-inserted GSDMD at nanometer resolution by cryo-electron and atomic force microscopy shows circular pores with variable ring diameters around 20 nm. Overall, these data demonstrate that GSDMD is the direct and final executor of pyroptotic cell death. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  3. Ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements of seven low expansion materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, J. W., III; Jacobs, S. F.

    1976-01-01

    We summarize a large number of ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements made on seven different low expansivity materials. Expansion coefficients in the -150-300 C temperature range are shown for Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101, Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate) and fused silica 7940, Heraeus-Schott Zerodur low-expansion material and Homosil fused silica, Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35, and Simonds Saw and Steel Super Invar.

  4. Ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements of seven low expansion materials.

    PubMed

    Berthold Iii, J W; Jacobs, S F

    1976-10-01

    We summarize a large number of ultraprecise thermal expansion measurements made on seven different low expansivity materials. Expansion coefficients in the -150-300 degrees C temperature range are shown for Owens-Illinois Cer-Vit C-101, Corning ULE 7971 (titanium silicate) and fused silica 7940, Heraeus-Schott Zerodur low-expansion material and Homosil fused silica, Universal Cyclops Invar LR-35, and Simonds Saw and Steel Super Invar.

  5. Temperature and Pressure from Collapsing Pores in HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. Barrett

    2017-06-01

    The thermal and mechanical response of collapsing voids in HMX is analyzed. In this work, the focus is simulating the temperature and pressure fields arising from isolated, idealized pores as they collapse in the presence of a shock. HMX slabs are numerically generated which contain a single pore, isolated from the boundaries to remove all wave reflections. In order to understand the primary pore characteristics leading to temperature rise, a series of 2D, plane strain simulations are conducted on HMX slabs containing both cylindrical and elliptical pores of constant size equal to the area of a circular pore with a 1 micron diameter. Each of these pore types is then subjected to shock pressures ranging from a weak shock that is unable to fully collapse the pore to a strong shock which overwhelms the tendency for localization. Results indicate that as shock strength increases, pore collapse phenomenology for a cylindrical pore transitions from a mode dominated by localized melt cracking to an idealized hydrodynamic pore collapse. For the case of elliptical pores, the orientation causing maximum temperature and pressure rise is found. The relative heating in elliptical pores is then quantified as a function of pore orientation and aspect ratio for a pore of a given area. Distribution A: Distribution unlimited. (96TW 2017-0036).

  6. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurovs, Richard; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the restmore » from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of

  7. Stepwise visualization of membrane pore formation by suilysin, a bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysin

    PubMed Central

    Lukoyanova, Natalya; Hodel, Adrian W; Farabella, Irene; Pandurangan, Arun P; Jahan, Nasrin; Pires Damaso, Mafalda; Osmanović, Dino; Reboul, Cyril F; Dunstone, Michelle A; Andrew, Peter W; Lonnen, Rana; Topf, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Membrane attack complex/perforin/cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (MACPF/CDC) proteins constitute a major superfamily of pore-forming proteins that act as bacterial virulence factors and effectors in immune defence. Upon binding to the membrane, they convert from the soluble monomeric form to oligomeric, membrane-inserted pores. Using real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM), and atomic structure fitting, we have mapped the structure and assembly pathways of a bacterial CDC in unprecedented detail and accuracy, focussing on suilysin from Streptococcus suis. We show that suilysin assembly is a noncooperative process that is terminated before the protein inserts into the membrane. The resulting ring-shaped pores and kinetically trapped arc-shaped assemblies are all seen to perforate the membrane, as also visible by the ejection of its lipids. Membrane insertion requires a concerted conformational change of the monomeric subunits, with a marked expansion in pore diameter due to large changes in subunit structure and packing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04247.001 PMID:25457051

  8. Pore-scale spectral induced polarization (SIP) signaturesassociated with FeS biomineral transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Personna, Yves R.

    2007-10-01

    The authors measured Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) signatures in sand columns during (1) FeS biomineralization produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (D. vulgaris) under anaerboci conditions, and (2) subsequent biomineral dissolution upon return to an aerobic state. The low-frequency (0.1-10 Hz peak) relaxations produced during biomineralization can be modeled with a Cole-Cole formulation, from which the evolution of the polarization magnitude and relaxation length scale can be estimated. They find that the modeled time constant is consistent with the polarizable elements being biomineral encrused pores. Evolution of the model parameters is consistent with FeS surface area increases and pore-size reduction duringmore » biomineral growth, and subsequent biomineral dissolution (FeS surface area decreases and pore expansion) upon return to the aerobic state. They conclude that SIP signatures are diagnostic of pore-scale geometrical changes associated with FeS biomineralization by sulfate reducing bacteria.« less

  9. Freezing and melting of water in a single cylindrical pore: The pore-size dependence of freezing and melting behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Kawano, Keiji

    1999-03-01

    In order to clarify the origin of the hysteresis between freezing and melting of pore water, we performed x-ray diffraction measurements of water confined inside the cylindrical pores of seven kinds of siliceous MCM-41 (a member of ordered mesoporous materials denoted by Mobil Oil researchers) with different pore radii (1.2-2.9 nm) and the interconnected pores of Vycor glass as a function of temperature. The hysteresis effect depends markedly on the size of the cylindrical pores: the hysteresis is negligibly small in smaller pores and becomes remarkable in larger pores. This strongly suggests that the hysteresis is arisen from size-dependent supercooling of water confined to the mesopores. For the water confined to the mesopores with pore radius of 1.2 nm, a continuous transition between a liquid and a solid precedes the first-order freezing transition of the pore water which would occur by the same mechanism as in bulk water.

  10. Expansion: A Plan for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, A.P.

    This report provides selling brokers' guidelines for the successful expansion of their operations outlining a basic method of preparing an expansion plan. Topic headings are: The Pitfalls of Expansion (The Language of Business, Timely Financial Reporting, Regulatory Agencies of Government, Preoccupation with the Facade of Business, A Business Is a…

  11. Enhancement of plasma generation in catalyst pores with different shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-01

    Plasma generation inside catalyst pores is of utmost importance for plasma catalysis, as the existence of plasma species inside the pores affects the active surface area of the catalyst available to the plasma species for catalytic reactions. In this paper, the electric field enhancement, and thus the plasma production inside catalyst pores with different pore shapes is studied with a two-dimensional fluid model. The results indicate that the electric field will be significantly enhanced near tip-like structures. In a conical pore with small opening, the strongest electric field appears at the opening and bottom corners of the pore, giving rise to a prominent ionization rate throughout the pore. For a cylindrical pore, the electric field is only enhanced at the bottom corners of the pore, with lower absolute value, and thus the ionization rate inside the pore is only slightly enhanced. Finally, in a conical pore with large opening, the electric field is characterized by a maximum at the bottom of the pore, yielding a similar behavior for the ionization rate. These results demonstrate that the shape of the pore has a significantly influence on the electric field enhancement, and thus modifies the plasma properties.

  12. Pores and Void in Asclepiades’ Physical Theory

    PubMed Central

    Leith, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a fundamental, though relatively understudied, aspect of the physical theory of the physician Asclepiades of Bithynia, namely his doctrine of pores. My principal thesis is that this doctrine is dependent on a conception of void taken directly from Epicurean physics. The paper falls into two parts: the first half addresses the evidence for the presence of void in Asclepiades’ theory, and concludes that his conception of void was basically that of Epicurus; the second half focuses on the precise nature of Asclepiadean pores, and seeks to show that they represent void interstices between the primary particles of matter which are the constituents of the human body, and are thus exactly analogous to the void interstices between atoms within solid objects in Epicurus’ theory. PMID:22984299

  13. Pore configuration landscape of granular crystallization.

    PubMed

    Saadatfar, M; Takeuchi, H; Robins, V; Francois, N; Hiraoka, Y

    2017-05-12

    Uncovering grain-scale mechanisms that underlie the disorder-order transition in assemblies of dissipative, athermal particles is a fundamental problem with technological relevance. To date, the study of granular crystallization has mainly focussed on the symmetry of crystalline patterns while their emergence and growth from irregular clusters of grains remains largely unexplored. Here crystallization of three-dimensional packings of frictional spheres is studied at the grain-scale using X-ray tomography and persistent homology. The latter produces a map of the topological configurations of grains within static partially crystallized packings. Using numerical simulations, we show that similar maps are measured dynamically during the melting of a perfect crystal. This map encodes new information on the formation process of tetrahedral and octahedral pores, the building blocks of perfect crystals. Four key formation mechanisms of these pores reproduce the main changes of the map during crystallization and provide continuous deformation pathways representative of the crystallization dynamics.

  14. Pore configuration landscape of granular crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Saadatfar, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Robins, V.; Francois, N.; Hiraoka, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Uncovering grain-scale mechanisms that underlie the disorder–order transition in assemblies of dissipative, athermal particles is a fundamental problem with technological relevance. To date, the study of granular crystallization has mainly focussed on the symmetry of crystalline patterns while their emergence and growth from irregular clusters of grains remains largely unexplored. Here crystallization of three-dimensional packings of frictional spheres is studied at the grain-scale using X-ray tomography and persistent homology. The latter produces a map of the topological configurations of grains within static partially crystallized packings. Using numerical simulations, we show that similar maps are measured dynamically during the melting of a perfect crystal. This map encodes new information on the formation process of tetrahedral and octahedral pores, the building blocks of perfect crystals. Four key formation mechanisms of these pores reproduce the main changes of the map during crystallization and provide continuous deformation pathways representative of the crystallization dynamics. PMID:28497794

  15. Pore configuration landscape of granular crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatfar, M.; Takeuchi, H.; Robins, V.; Francois, N.; Hiraoka, Y.

    2017-05-01

    Uncovering grain-scale mechanisms that underlie the disorder-order transition in assemblies of dissipative, athermal particles is a fundamental problem with technological relevance. To date, the study of granular crystallization has mainly focussed on the symmetry of crystalline patterns while their emergence and growth from irregular clusters of grains remains largely unexplored. Here crystallization of three-dimensional packings of frictional spheres is studied at the grain-scale using X-ray tomography and persistent homology. The latter produces a map of the topological configurations of grains within static partially crystallized packings. Using numerical simulations, we show that similar maps are measured dynamically during the melting of a perfect crystal. This map encodes new information on the formation process of tetrahedral and octahedral pores, the building blocks of perfect crystals. Four key formation mechanisms of these pores reproduce the main changes of the map during crystallization and provide continuous deformation pathways representative of the crystallization dynamics.

  16. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  17. Acme Landfill Expansion. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    refuse collectors. These areas were determined by using existing franchise boundaries and projected *spheres of influence" for future expansion of...The cost mitigations used in Table 15 include: an incre-se in average net revenue per ton to $30, franchise fees, Interest free loans, a grant for...Tons per day 32 16 Tons per year-/ 7,700 3,800 REVENUES ($30.00 per ton) $231,000 $114,000 FRANCHISE FEES 70,000 70,00u EXPENSES Annualized Capital

  18. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  19. Expansion of Titan atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, S.; Moslem, W. M.; Radi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Self-similar plasma expansion approach is used to solve a plasma model based on the losing phenomenon of Titan atmospheric composition. To this purpose, a set of hydrodynamic fluid equations describing a plasma consisting of two positive ions with different masses and isothermal electrons is used. With the aid of self-similar transformation, numerical solution of the fluid equations has been performed to examine the density, velocity, and potential profiles. The effects of different plasma parameters, i.e., density and temperature ratios, are studied on the expanding plasma profiles. The present investigation could be useful to recognize the ionized particles escaping from Titan atmosphere.

  20. INVESTIGATIONS INTO BIOFOULING PHENOMENA IN FINE PORE AERATION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbiologically-based procedures were used to describe biofouling phenomena on fine pore aeration devices and to determine whether biofilm characteristics could be related to diffuser process performance parameters. Fine pore diffusers were obtained from five municipal wastewa...

  1. A molecular theory for optimal blue energy extraction by electrical double layer expansion

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Xian; Gallegos, Alejandro; Lu, Diannan; ...

    2015-08-19

    We proposed the electrical double layer expansion (CDLE) as a promising alternative to reverse electrodialysis (RED) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes for extracting osmotic power generated by the salinity difference between freshwater and seawater. The performance of the CDLE process is sensitive to the configuration of porous electrodes and operation parameters for ion extraction and release cycles. In our work, we use a classical density functional theory (CDFT) to examine how the electrode pore size and charging/discharging potentials influence the thermodynamic efficiency of the CDLE cycle. The existence of an optimal charging potential that maximizes the energy output formore » a given pore configuration is predicted, which varies substantially with the pore size, especially when it is smaller than 2 nm. Finally, the thermodynamic efficiency is maximized when the electrode has a pore size about twice the ion diameter.« less

  2. The Role of Ion Selectivity of the Fusion Pore on Transmission and the Exocytosis of Neurotransmitters and Hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn Bongar

    influx and efflux through the fusion pore. The experiments reveal negatively charged transmitter release can occur through a fusion pore at larger conductance values, past a threshold range. Narrow fusion pores with lower conductance values favor cation selectivity, which would accelerate the release of positively charged transmitters such as acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. However, release of negatively charged neurotransmitters such as glutamate can occur if an expanded fusion pore mediates release of this fast major excitatory transmitter. The intention of this research is to expand our understanding of the nervous system, which can contribute to healthy shifts in our clinical and educational interventions that are commonly delivered.

  3. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro; Department of Physics, Kyoto University,606-8502, Kyoto

    2016-05-04

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takesmore » the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.« less

  4. Molecular basis of usher pore gating in Escherichia coli pilus biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Volkan, Ender; Kalas, Vasilios; Pinkner, Jerome S; Dodson, Karen W; Henderson, Nadine S; Pham, Thieng; Waksman, Gabriel; Delcour, Anne H; Thanassi, David G; Hultgren, Scott J

    2013-12-17

    Extracellular fibers called chaperone-usher pathway pili are critical virulence factors in a wide range of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria that facilitate binding and invasion into host tissues and mediate biofilm formation. Chaperone-usher pathway ushers, which catalyze pilus assembly, contain five functional domains: a 24-stranded transmembrane β-barrel translocation domain (TD), a β-sandwich plug domain (PLUG), an N-terminal periplasmic domain, and two C-terminal periplasmic domains (CTD1 and 2). Pore gating occurs by a mechanism whereby the PLUG resides stably within the TD pore when the usher is inactive and then upon activation is translocated into the periplasmic space, where it functions in pilus assembly. Using antibiotic sensitivity and electrophysiology experiments, a single salt bridge was shown to function in maintaining the PLUG in the TD channel of the P pilus usher PapC, and a loop between the 12th and 13th beta strands of the TD (β12-13 loop) was found to facilitate pore opening. Mutation of the β12-13 loop resulted in a closed PapC pore, which was unable to efficiently mediate pilus assembly. Deletion of the PapH terminator/anchor resulted in increased OM permeability, suggesting a role for the proper anchoring of pili in retaining OM integrity. Further, we introduced cysteine residues in the PLUG and N-terminal periplasmic domains that resulted in a FimD usher with a greater propensity to exist in an open conformation, resulting in increased OM permeability but no loss in type 1 pilus assembly. These studies provide insights into the molecular basis of usher pore gating and its roles in pilus biogenesis and OM permeability.

  5. Impact of matric potential and pore size distribution on growth dynamics of filamentous and non-filamentous soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Alexandra B; Vos, Michiel; de Boer, Wietse; Kowalchuk, George A

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous growth form is an important strategy for soil microbes to bridge air-filled pores in unsaturated soils. In particular, fungi perform better than bacteria in soils during drought, a property that has been ascribed to the hyphal growth form of fungi. However, it is unknown if, and to what extent, filamentous bacteria may also display similar advantages over non-filamentous bacteria in soils with low hydraulic connectivity. In addition to allowing for microbial interactions and competition across connected micro-sites, water films also facilitate the motility of non-filamentous bacteria. To examine these issues, we constructed and characterized a series of quartz sand microcosms differing in matric potential and pore size distribution and, consequently, in connection of micro-habitats via water films. Our sand microcosms were used to examine the individual and competitive responses of a filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces atratus) and a motile rod-shaped bacterium (Bacillus weihenstephanensis) to differences in pore sizes and matric potential. The Bacillus strain had an initial advantage in all sand microcosms, which could be attributed to its faster growth rate. At later stages of the incubation, Streptomyces became dominant in microcosms with low connectivity (coarse pores and dry conditions). These data, combined with information on bacterial motility (expansion potential) across a range of pore-size and moisture conditions, suggest that, like their much larger fungal counterparts, filamentous bacteria also use this growth form to facilitate growth and expansion under conditions of low hydraulic conductivity. The sand microcosm system developed and used in this study allowed for precise manipulation of hydraulic properties and pore size distribution, thereby providing a useful approach for future examinations of how these properties influence the composition, diversity and function of soil-borne microbial communities.

  6. In situ TEM observation of electrochemical lithiation of sulfur confined within inner cylindrical pores of carbon nanotubes

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Hyea; Lee, Jung Tae; Magasinski, Alexandre; ...

    2015-10-26

    Lithium insertion into sulfur confined within 200 nm cylindrical inner pores of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was monitored in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This electrochemical reaction was initiated at one end of the S-filled CNTs. The material expansion during lithiation was accommodated by the expansion into the remaining empty pore volume and no fracture of the CNT walls was detected. A sharp interface between the initial and lithiated S was observed. The reaction front was flat, oriented perpendicular to the confined S cylinder and propagated along the cylinder length. Lithiation of S in the proximity of conductive carbonmore » proceeded at the same rate as the one in the center of the pore, suggesting the presence of electron pathways at the Li 2S/S interface. Density of states (DOS) calculations further confirmed this hypothesis. In-situ electron diffraction showed a direct phase transformation of S into nanocrystalline Li 2S without detectable formation of any intermediates, such as polysulfides and LiS. These important insights may elucidate some of the reaction mechanisms and guide the improvements in the design of C-S nanocomposites for high specific energy Li-S batteries. As a result, the proposed use of conductive CNTs with tunable pore diameter as cylindrical reaction vessels for in-situ TEM studies of electrochemical reactions proved to be highly advantageous and may help to resolve the on-going problems in battery technology.« less

  7. Electroosmotic Flow Rectification in Membranes with Asymmetrically Shaped Pores: Effects of Current and Pore Density

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Lopez, Marcos M.; Ramiah Rajasekaran, Pradeep

    2015-07-09

    We have recently demonstrated a new electrokinetic phenomenon—electroosmotic flow rectification in membranes with asymmetrically shaped pores. Flow rectification means that at constant driving force the flow rate in one direction through the membrane is faster than the flow rate in the opposite direction. EOF rectification could be of practical use in microfluidic devices incorporating porous membranes, but additional research is required. We explore here the effects of two key experimental variables—current density used to drive flow through the membrane and membrane pore density—on EOF rectification. We have found that the extent of EOF rectification, as quantified by the rectification ratio,more » increases with increasing current density. In contrast, the rectification ratio decreases with increasing membrane pore density. We propose explanations for these results based on simple EOF and membrane-transport theories.« less

  8. Cryogenic expansion machine

    DOEpatents

    Pallaver, Carl B.; Morgan, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic expansion engine includes intake and exhaust poppet valves each controlled by a cam having adjustable dwell, the valve seats for the valves being threaded inserts in the valve block. Each cam includes a cam base and a ring-shaped cam insert disposed at an exterior corner of the cam base, the cam base and cam insert being generally circular but including an enlarged cam dwell, the circumferential configuration of the cam base and cam dwell being identical, the cam insert being rotatable with respect to the cam base. GI CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the UNITED STATES ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION.

  9. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    DOEpatents

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  10. Displacement of soil pore water by trichloroethylene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wershaw, R. L.; Aiken, G.R.; Imbrigiotta, T.E.; Goldberg, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) are important pollutants because of their widespread use as chemical and industrial solvents. An example of the pollution caused by the discharge of DNAPLs is found at the Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where trichloroethylene (TCE) has been discharged directly into the unsaturated zone. This discharge has resulted in the formation of a plume of TCE-contaminated water in the aquifer downgradient of the discharge. A zone of dark-colored groundwater containing a high dissolved organic C content has been found near the point of discharge of the TCE. The colored-water plume extends from the point of discharge at least 30 m (100 feet) downgradient. Fulvic acids isolated from the colored-waters plume, from water from a background well that has not been affected by the discharge of chlorinated solvents, and from soil pore water collected in a lysimeter installed at an uncontaminated site upgradient of the study area have been compared. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the fulvic acids from the colored waters and from the lysimeter are very similar, but are markedly different from the nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the fulvic acid from the background well. The three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum and the DOC fractionation profile of the colored groundwater and the soil pore water are very similar to each other, but quite different from those of the background water. It is proposed from these observations that this colored water is soil pore water that has been displaced by a separate DNAPL liquid phase downward to the saturated zone.

  11. Precipitation in pores: A geochemical frontier

    DOE PAGES

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-07-29

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below.more » The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid

  12. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation video images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Video images sent to the ground allow scientists to watch the behavior of the bubbles as they control the melting and freezing of the material during the Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox aboard the International Space Station. While the investigation studies the way that metals behave at the microscopic scale on Earth -- and how voids form -- the experiment uses a transparent material called succinonitrile that behaves like a metal to study this problem. The bubbles do not float to the top of the material in microgravity, so they can study their interactions.

  13. Local electrostatic interactions determine the diameter of fusion pores

    PubMed Central

    Guček, Alenka; Jorgačevski, Jernej; Górska, Urszula; Rituper, Boštjan; Kreft, Marko; Zorec, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In regulated exocytosis vesicular and plasma membranes merge to form a fusion pore in response to stimulation. The nonselective cation HCN channels are involved in the regulation of unitary exocytotic events by at least 2 mechanisms. They can affect SNARE-dependent exocytotic activity indirectly, via the modulation of free intracellular calcium; and/or directly, by altering local cation concentration, which affects fusion pore geometry likely via electrostatic interactions. By monitoring membrane capacitance, we investigated how extracellular cation concentration affects fusion pore diameter in pituitary cells and astrocytes. At low extracellular divalent cation levels predominantly transient fusion events with widely open fusion pores were detected. However, fusion events with predominately narrow fusion pores were present at elevated levels of extracellular trivalent cations. These results show that electrostatic interactions likely help determine the stability of discrete fusion pore states by affecting fusion pore membrane composition. PMID:25835258

  14. Quantifying similarity of pore-geometry in nanoporous materials

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Yongjin; Barthel, Senja D.; Dłotko, Paweł; ...

    2017-05-23

    In most applications of nanoporous materials the pore structure is as important as the chemical composition as a determinant of performance. For example, one can alter performance in applications like carbon capture or methane storage by orders of magnitude by only modifying the pore structure. For these applications it is therefore important to identify the optimal pore geometry and use this information to find similar materials. But, the mathematical language and tools to identify materials with similar pore structures, but different composition, has been lacking. We develop a pore recognition approach to quantify similarity of pore structures and classify themmore » using topological data analysis. This then allows us to identify materials with similar pore geometries, and to screen for materials that are similar to given top-performing structures. Using methane storage as a case study, we also show that materials can be divided into topologically distinct classes requiring different optimization strategies.« less

  15. Simulations of Membrane-Disrupting Peptides I: Alamethicin Pore Stability and Spontaneous Insertion.

    PubMed

    Perrin, B Scott; Pastor, Richard W

    2016-09-20

    An all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the archetype barrel-stave alamethicin (alm) pore in a 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayer at 313 K indicates that ∼7 μs is required for equilibration of a preformed 6-peptide pore; the pore remains stable for the duration of the remaining 7 μs of the trajectory, and the structure factors agree well with experiment. A 5 μs simulation of 10 surface-bound alm peptides shows significant peptide unfolding and some unbinding, but no insertion. Simulations at 363 and 413 K with a -0.2 V electric field yield peptide insertion in 1 μs. Insertion is initiated by the folding of residues 3-11 into an α-helix, and mediated by membrane water or by previously inserted peptides. The stability of five alm pore peptides at 413 K with a -0.2 V electric field demonstrates a significant preference for a transmembrane orientation. Hence, and in contrast to the cationic antimicrobial peptide described in the following article, alm shows a strong preference for the inserted over the surface-bound state. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Soil Pore Characteristics, an Underappreciated Regulatory Factor in GHGs Emission and C Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, E. R.; Yu, J.; Doane, T. A.; Guber, A.; Rivers, M. L.; Marsh, T. L.; Ali, K.; Kravchenko, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Enduring challenges in understanding soil organic matter (SOM) stability and emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from soil stem from complexities of soil processes, many of which occur at micro-scales. The goal of this study is to evaluate the interactive effects soil pore characteristics, soil moisture levels, inherent SOM levels and properties, and substrate quality, on GHGs emission, and accelerated decomposition of native SOM following addition of fresh substrate i.e. priming. Our core hypothesis is that soil pore characteristics play a major role as a mediator in (i) the decomposition of organic matter regardless of its source (i.e. litter vs. native SOM) or substrate quality, as well as in (ii) GHGs emissions. Samples with prevalence of small (<10 μm) vs. large (>30 μm) pores were prepared from soils with similar properties but under long-term contrasting management. The samples were incubated (110 d) at low and optimum soil moisture conditions after addition of high quality (13C-soybean) and low quality (13C-corn) substrate. Headspace gas was analyzed for 13C-CO2 and GHGs on a regularly basis (day 1, 3, 7, 14, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 90, and 110). Selected samples were scanned at the early stage of decomposition (7, 14, 24 d) at 2-6 μm resolutions using X-ray computed μ tomography in order to: (1) quantify soil pore characteristics; (2) visualize and quantify distribution of soil moisture within samples of different pore characteristics; and (3) to visualize and measure losses of decomposing plant residue. Initial findings indicate that, consistent with our hypotheses, pore characteristics influenced GHGs emission, and intensity and pattern of plant residue decomposition. The importance of pores was highly pronounced in presence of added plant residue where greater N2O emission occurred in samples with dominant large pores, in contrast to CO2. Further findings will be discussed upon completion of the study and analysis of the results.

  17. An emerging pore-making strategy: confined swelling-induced pore generation in block copolymer materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Li, Fengbin

    2011-05-17

    Block copolymers (BCPs) composed of two or more thermodynamically incompatible homopolymers self-assemble into periodic microdomains. Exposing self-assembled BCPs with solvents selective to one block causes a swelling of the domains composed of this block. Strong swelling in the confinement imposed by the matrix of the other glassy block leads to well-defined porous structures via morphology reconstruction. This confined swelling-induced pore-making process has emerged recently as a new strategy to produce porous materials due to synergic advantages that include extreme simplicity, high pore regularity, involvement of no chemical reactions, no weight loss, reversibility of the pore forming process, etc. The mechanism, kinetics, morphology, and governing parameters of the confined swelling-induced pore-making process in BCP thin films are discussed, and the main applications of nanoporous thin films in the fields of template synthesis, surface patterning, and guidance for the areal arrangements of nanomaterials and biomolecules are summarized. Recent, promising results of extending this mechanism to produce BCP nanofibers or nanotubes and bulk materials with well-defined porosity, which makes this strategy also attractive to researchers outside the nanocommunity, are also presented. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Nanoscale Pore Imaging and Pore Scale Fluid Flow Modeling in Chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Tomutsa, Liviu; Silin, Dmitriy

    2004-08-19

    For many rocks of high economic interest such as chalk, diatomite, tight gas sands or coal, nanometer scale resolution is needed to resolve the 3D-pore structure, which controls the flow and trapping of fluids in the rocks. Such resolutions cannot be achieved with existing tomographic technologies. A new 3D imaging method, based on serial sectioning and using the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has been developed. FIB allows for the milling of layers as thin as 10 nanometers by using accelerated Ga+ ions to sputter atoms from the sample surface. After each milling step, as a new surface is exposed,more » a 2D image of this surface is generated. Next, the 2D images are stacked to reconstruct the 3D pore or grain structure. Resolutions as high as 10 nm are achievable using such a technique. A new robust method of pore-scale fluid flow modeling has been developed and applied to sandstone and chalk samples. The method uses direct morphological analysis of the pore space to characterize the petrophysical properties of diverse formations. Not only petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, relative permeability and capillary pressures) can be computed but also flow processes, such as those encountered in various IOR approaches, can be simulated. Petrophysical properties computed with the new method using the new FIB data will be presented. Present study is a part of the development of an Electronic Core Laboratory at LBNL/UCB.« less

  19. Expansive Northern Volcanic Plains

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    Mercury northern region is dominated by expansive smooth plains, created by huge amounts of volcanic material flooding across Mercury surface in the past, as seen by NASA MESSENGER spacecraft. The volcanic lava flows buried craters, leaving only traces of their rims visible. Such craters are called ghost craters, and there are many visible in this image, including a large one near the center. Wrinkle ridges cross this scene and small troughs are visible regionally within ghost craters, formed as a result of the lava cooling. The northern plains are often described as smooth since their surface has fewer impact craters and thus has been less battered by such events. This indicates that these volcanic plains are younger than Mercury's rougher surfaces. Instrument: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Center Latitude: 60.31° N Center Longitude: 36.87° E Scale: The large ghost crater at the center of the image is approximately 103 kilometers (64 miles) in diameter http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19415

  20. Atomistic Simulations of Pore Formation and Closure in Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, W. F. Drew; Sapay, Nicolas; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cellular membranes separate distinct aqueous compartments, but can be breached by transient hydrophilic pores. A large energetic cost prevents pore formation, which is largely dependent on the composition and structure of the lipid bilayer. The softness of bilayers and the disordered structure of pores make their characterization difficult. We use molecular-dynamics simulations with atomistic detail to study the thermodynamics, kinetics, and mechanism of pore formation and closure in DLPC, DMPC, and DPPC bilayers, with pore formation free energies of 17, 45, and 78 kJ/mol, respectively. By using atomistic computer simulations, we are able to determine not only the free energy for pore formation, but also the enthalpy and entropy, which yields what is believed to be significant new insights in the molecular driving forces behind membrane defects. The free energy cost for pore formation is due to a large unfavorable entropic contribution and a favorable change in enthalpy. Changes in hydrogen bonding patterns occur, with increased lipid-water interactions, and fewer water-water hydrogen bonds, but the total number of overall hydrogen bonds is constant. Equilibrium pore formation is directly observed in the thin DLPC lipid bilayer. Multiple long timescale simulations of pore closure are used to predict pore lifetimes. Our results are important for biological applications, including the activity of antimicrobial peptides and a better understanding of membrane protein folding, and improve our understanding of the fundamental physicochemical nature of membranes. PMID:24411253

  1. Percolation Laws of a Fractal Fracture-Pore Double Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yangsheng; Feng, Zengchao; Lv, Zhaoxing; Zhao, Dong; Liang, Weiguo

    2016-12-01

    The fracture-pore double porosity medium is one of the most common media in nature, for example, rock mass in strata. Fracture has a more significant effect on fluid flow than a pore in a fracture-pore double porosity medium. Hence, the fracture effect on percolation should be considered when studying the percolation phenomenon in porous media. In this paper, based on the fractal distribution law, three-dimensional (3D) fracture surfaces, and two-dimensional (2D) fracture traces in rock mass, the locations of fracture surfaces or traces are determined using a random function of uniform distribution. Pores are superimposed to build a fractal fracture-pore double medium. Numerical experiments were performed to show percolation phenomena in the fracture-pore double medium. The percolation threshold can be determined from three independent variables (porosity n, fracture fractal dimension D, and initial value of fracture number N0). Once any two are determined, the percolation probability exists at a critical point with the remaining parameter changing. When the initial value of the fracture number is greater than zero, the percolation threshold in the fracture-pore medium is much smaller than that in a pore medium. When the fracture number equals zero, the fracture-pore medium degenerates to a pore medium, and both percolation thresholds are the same.

  2. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; ...

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) β-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakagemore » assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM β-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.« less

  3. Dendrimer-assisted patch-clamp sizing of nuclear pores

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, J.O.; Michelette, E.R.F.; Geibel, J.P.; Hanover, J.A.; McDonnell, T.J.; Dean, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Macromolecular translocation (MMT) across the nuclear envelope (NE) occurs exclusively through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Therefore, the diameter of the NPC aqueous/electrolytic channel (NPCC) is important for cellular structure and function. The NPCC diameter was previously determined to be ≅10 nm with electron microscopy (EM) using the translocation of colloidal gold particles. Here we present patch-clamp and fluorescence microscopy data from adult cardiomyocyte nuclei that demonstrate the use of patch-clamp for assessing NPCC diameter. Fluorescence microscopy with B-phycoerythrin (BPE, 240 kDa) conjugated to a nuclear localization signal (NLS) demonstrated that these nuclei were competent for NPC-mediated MMT (NPC-MMT). Furthermore, when exposed to an appropriate cell lysate, the nuclei expressed enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) after 5–10 h of incubation with the plasmid for this protein (pEGFP, 3.1 MDa). Nucleus-attached patch-clamp showed that colloidal gold particles were not useful probes; they modified NPCC gating. As a result of this finding, we searched for an inert class of particles that could be used without irreversibly affecting NPCC gating and found that fluorescently labeled Star-burst dendrimers, a distinct class of polymers, were useful. Our patch-clamp and fluorescence microscopy data with calibrated dendrimers indicate that the cardiomyocyte NPCC diameter varies between 8 and 9 nm. These studies open a new direction in the investigation of live, continuous NPC dynamics under physiological conditions. PMID:10784359

  4. NATO’s Expansion Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    crime.…Meanwhile the US is making a 18 bad situation worse by insisting on the expansion of NATO, a project that has mobilized nationalist emotions in......xx-xx-1997 to xx-xx-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO’s Expansion Decision Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  5. Cytosol-dependent membrane fusion in ER, nuclear envelope and nuclear pore assembly: biological implications.

    PubMed

    Rafikova, Elvira R; Melikov, Kamran; Chernomordik, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope rearrangements after mitosis are often studied in the reconstitution system based on Xenopus egg extract. In our recent work we partially replaced the membrane vesicles in the reconstitution mix with protein-free liposomes to explore the relative contributions of cytosolic and transmembrane proteins. Here we discuss our finding that cytosolic proteins mediate fusion between membranes lacking functional transmembrane proteins and the role of membrane fusion in endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope reorganization. Cytosol-dependent liposome fusion has allowed us to restore, without adding transmembrane nucleoporins, functionality of nuclear pores, their spatial distribution and chromatin decondensation in nuclei formed at insufficient amounts of membrane material and characterized by only partial decondensation of chromatin and lack of nuclear transport. Both the mechanisms and the biological implications of the discovered coupling between spatial distribution of nuclear pores, chromatin decondensation and nuclear transport are discussed.

  6. Silicon pore optics development for ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Günther, Ramses; Yanson, Alex; Barrière, Nicolas; Landgraf, Boris; Vervest, Mark; Chatbi, Abdelhakim; Beijersbergen, Marco W.; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Leenstra, Anne; Wijnperle, Maurice; van Baren, Coen; Müller, Peter; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Conconi, Paolo; Christensen, Finn E.

    2015-09-01

    The ATHENA mission, a European large (L) class X-ray observatory to be launched in 2028, will essentially consist of an X-ray lens and two focal plane instruments. The lens, based on a Wolter-I type double reflection grazing incidence angle design, will be very large (~ 3 m in diameter) to meet the science requirements of large effective area (1-2 m2 at a few keV) at a focal length of 12 m. To meet the high angular resolution (5 arc seconds) requirement the X-ray lens will also need to be very accurate. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) technology has been invented to enable building such a lens and thus enabling the ATHENA mission. We will report in this paper on the latest status of the development, including details of X-ray test campaigns.

  7. Development of a closed pore insulation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, A.; Feldman, C.; Russak, M.; Reichman, J.

    1973-01-01

    A closed pore ceramic foam insulation material (CPI) has been developed that offers possibilities for use as a reusable external heat shield for the NASA manned space shuttle. The outstanding characteristics of CPI are: (1) negligible water absorption due to a noninterconnecting network of cells; (2) high emittance at room and elevated temperature; (3) ability to survive at least 10 simulated reentry cycles to 1500 K using radiant heat lamps to simulate the reentry heat fluxes; (4) ability to survive, with no change in properties or appearance, at least 10 simulated plasma arc jet cycles to 1500 K (with the exception of some stress cracks induced either by the unduly severe nature of the initial arc splash heating pulse or by improper mechanical holding of the specimen in the test fixture); (5) strength (flexure); and (6) a low thermal conductivity throughout the temperature range of interest for the space shuttle.

  8. Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The substrate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge. wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  9. Distributed Pore Chemistry in Porous Organic Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A method for making a biocompatible polymer article using a uniform atomic oxygen treatment is disclosed. The sub-strate may be subsequently optionally grated with a compatibilizing compound. Compatibilizing compounds may include proteins, phosphorylcholine groups, platelet adhesion preventing polymers, albumin adhesion promoters, and the like. The compatibilized substrate may also have a living cell layer adhered thereto. The atomic oxygen is preferably produced by a flowing afterglow microwave discharge, wherein the substrate resides in a sidearm out of the plasma. Also, methods for culturing cells for various purposes using the various membranes are disclosed as well. Also disclosed are porous organic polymers having a distributed pore chemistry (DPC) comprising hydrophilic and hydrophobic region, and a method for making the DPC by exposing the polymer to atomic oxygen wherein the rate of hydrophilization is greater than the rate of mass loss.

  10. Kern River steam expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1970-09-15

    The newest addition to Getty Oil Co.'s imposing array of steam equipment at Kern River is a 240-million-btu-per-hr boiler. This boiler is almost 5 times more powerful than the previous largest piece of steam-generating hardware in use in the field. The huge boiler went into operation in Aug. on the Canfield Fee property on Sec. 29, 28S-28E. It is being used to furnish steam for 60 wells in a displacement project. The components that have made Getty Oil Co. the leading steamer at Kern River and the field, in turn, the world capital for oil-field steam operations include shallow wells,more » steam generators, and--since last year--a computer. There are more than 4,500 oil wells in the Kern River field, including more than 2,600 on Getty Oil properties. Getty Oil's steam operations involve 2,469 producing wells and 151 injection wells, including 2,167 producing wells in stimulation projects and 302 producing wells in displacement projects. The Kern River drilling program for 1970 consists of 313 wells of which 179 are steam-injection wells for the expansion of displacement projects. Wells are shallow, drilled mainly to the Kern River Series sands at an average depth of 900 ft, with a few drilled to the China Grade zone at an average depth of 1,300 ft. To furnish steam for the massive Kern River program, Getty Oil has assembled a force of 96 steam generators.« less

  11. Multiple pathways of commodity crop expansion in tropical forest landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fagan, Matthew E.; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor H.; Macedo, Marcia N.; Curran, Lisa M.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Dyer, George A.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Lambin, Eric F.; Morton, Douglas C.; Robiglio, Valentina

    2014-07-01

    Commodity crop expansion, for both global and domestic urban markets, follows multiple land change pathways entailing direct and indirect deforestation, and results in various social and environmental impacts. Here we compare six published case studies of rapid commodity crop expansion within forested tropical regions. Across cases, between 1.7% and 89.5% of new commodity cropland was sourced from forestlands. Four main factors controlled pathways of commodity crop expansion: (i) the availability of suitable forestland, which is determined by forest area, agroecological or accessibility constraints, and land use policies, (ii) economic and technical characteristics of agricultural systems, (iii) differences in constraints and strategies between small-scale and large-scale actors, and (iv) variable costs and benefits of forest clearing. When remaining forests were unsuitable for agriculture and/or policies restricted forest encroachment, a larger share of commodity crop expansion occurred by conversion of existing agricultural lands, and land use displacement was smaller. Expansion strategies of large-scale actors emerge from context-specific balances between the search for suitable lands; transaction costs or conflicts associated with expanding into forests or other state-owned lands versus smallholder lands; net benefits of forest clearing; and greater access to infrastructure in already-cleared lands. We propose five hypotheses to be tested in further studies: (i) land availability mediates expansion pathways and the likelihood that land use is displaced to distant, rather than to local places; (ii) use of already-cleared lands is favored when commodity crops require access to infrastructure; (iii) in proportion to total agricultural expansion, large-scale actors generate more clearing of mature forests than smallholders; (iv) property rights and land tenure security influence the actors participating in commodity crop expansion, the form of land use displacement

  12. Preferential flow from pore to landscape scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.; Larsbo, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, we give a brief personal overview of some recent progress in quantifying preferential flow in the vadose zone, based on our own work and those of other researchers. One key challenge is to bridge the gap between the scales at which preferential flow occurs (i.e. pore to Darcy scales) and the scales of interest for management (i.e. fields, catchments, regions). We present results of recent studies that exemplify the potential of 3-D non-invasive imaging techniques to visualize and quantify flow processes at the pore scale. These studies should lead to a better understanding of how the topology of macropore networks control key state variables like matric potential and thus the strength of preferential flow under variable initial and boundary conditions. Extrapolation of this process knowledge to larger scales will remain difficult, since measurement technologies to quantify macropore networks at these larger scales are lacking. Recent work suggests that the application of key concepts from percolation theory could be useful in this context. Investigation of the larger Darcy-scale heterogeneities that generate preferential flow patterns at the soil profile, hillslope and field scales has been facilitated by hydro-geophysical measurement techniques that produce highly spatially and temporally resolved data. At larger regional and global scales, improved methods of data-mining and analyses of large datasets (machine learning) may help to parameterize models as well as lead to new insights into the relationships between soil susceptibility to preferential flow and site attributes (climate, land uses, soil types).

  13. Global functional analyses of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins.

    PubMed

    Kao, Cheng-Yuan; Los, Ferdinand C O; Huffman, Danielle L; Wachi, Shinichiro; Kloft, Nicole; Husmann, Matthias; Karabrahimi, Valbona; Schwartz, Jean-Louis; Bellier, Audrey; Ha, Christine; Sagong, Youn; Fan, Hui; Ghosh, Partho; Hsieh, Mindy; Hsu, Chih-Shen; Chen, Li; Aroian, Raffi V

    2011-03-01

    Here we present the first global functional analysis of cellular responses to pore-forming toxins (PFTs). PFTs are uniquely important bacterial virulence factors, comprising the single largest class of bacterial protein toxins and being important for the pathogenesis in humans of many Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Their mode of action is deceptively simple, poking holes in the plasma membrane of cells. The scattered studies to date of PFT-host cell interactions indicate a handful of genes are involved in cellular defenses to PFTs. How many genes are involved in cellular defenses against PFTs and how cellular defenses are coordinated are unknown. To address these questions, we performed the first genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen for genes that, when knocked down, result in hypersensitivity to a PFT. This screen identifies 106 genes (∼0.5% of genome) in seven functional groups that protect Caenorhabditis elegans from PFT attack. Interactome analyses of these 106 genes suggest that two previously identified mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, one (p38) studied in detail and the other (JNK) not, form a core PFT defense network. Additional microarray, real-time PCR, and functional studies reveal that the JNK MAPK pathway, but not the p38 MAPK pathway, is a key central regulator of PFT-induced transcriptional and functional responses. We find C. elegans activator protein 1 (AP-1; c-jun, c-fos) is a downstream target of the JNK-mediated PFT protection pathway, protects C. elegans against both small-pore and large-pore PFTs and protects human cells against a large-pore PFT. This in vivo RNAi genomic study of PFT responses proves that cellular commitment to PFT defenses is enormous, demonstrates the JNK MAPK pathway as a key regulator of transcriptionally-induced PFT defenses, and identifies AP-1 as the first cellular component broadly important for defense against large- and small-pore PFTs.

  14. Accurate Characterization of the Pore Volume in Microporous Crystalline Materials

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Pore volume is one of the main properties for the characterization of microporous crystals. It is experimentally measurable, and it can also be obtained from the refined unit cell by a number of computational techniques. In this work, we assess the accuracy and the discrepancies between the different computational methods which are commonly used for this purpose, i.e, geometric, helium, and probe center pore volumes, by studying a database of more than 5000 frameworks. We developed a new technique to fully characterize the internal void of a microporous material and to compute the probe-accessible and -occupiable pore volume. We show that, unlike the other definitions of pore volume, the occupiable pore volume can be directly related to the experimentally measured pore volumes from nitrogen isotherms. PMID:28636815

  15. Accurate Characterization of the Pore Volume in Microporous Crystalline Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Ongari, Daniele; Boyd, Peter G.; Barthel, Senja; ...

    2017-06-21

    Pore volume is one of the main properties for the characterization of microporous crystals. It is experimentally measurable, and it can also be obtained from the refined unit cell by a number of computational techniques. In this work, we assess the accuracy and the discrepancies between the different computational methods which are commonly used for this purpose, i.e, geometric, helium, and probe center pore volumes, by studying a database of more than 5000 frameworks. We developed a new technique to fully characterize the internal void of a microporous material and to compute the probe-accessible and -occupiable pore volume. Lasty, wemore » show that, unlike the other definitions of pore volume, the occupiable pore volume can be directly related to the experimentally measured pore volumes from nitrogen isotherms.« less

  16. Application of real rock pore-threat statistics to a regular pore network model

    SciTech Connect

    Rakibul, M.; Sarker, H.; McIntyre, D.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the application of real rock statistical data to a previously developed regular pore network model in an attempt to produce an accurate simulation tool with low computational overhead. A core plug from the St. Peter Sandstone formation in Indiana was scanned with a high resolution micro CT scanner. The pore-throat statistics of the three-dimensional reconstructed rock were extracted and the distribution of the pore-throat sizes was applied to the regular pore network model. In order to keep the equivalent model regular, only the throat area or the throat radius was varied. Ten realizations of randomly distributed throatmore » sizes were generated to simulate the drainage process and relative permeability was calculated and compared with the experimentally determined values of the original rock sample. The numerical and experimental procedures are explained in detail and the performance of the model in relation to the experimental data is discussed and analyzed. Petrophysical properties such as relative permeability are important in many applied fields such as production of petroleum fluids, enhanced oil recovery, carbon dioxide sequestration, ground water flow, etc. Relative permeability data are used for a wide range of conventional reservoir engineering calculations and in numerical reservoir simulation. Two-phase oil water relative permeability data are generated on the same core plug from both pore network model and experimental procedure. The shape and size of the relative permeability curves were compared and analyzed and good match has been observed for wetting phase relative permeability but for non-wetting phase, simulation results were found to be deviated from the experimental ones. Efforts to determine petrophysical properties of rocks using numerical techniques are to eliminate the necessity of regular core analysis, which can be time consuming and expensive. So a numerical technique is expected to be fast and to produce reliable

  17. Application of real rock pore-throat statistics to a regular pore network model

    SciTech Connect

    Sarker, M.R.; McIntyre, D.; Ferer, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the application of real rock statistical data to a previously developed regular pore network model in an attempt to produce an accurate simulation tool with low computational overhead. A core plug from the St. Peter Sandstone formation in Indiana was scanned with a high resolution micro CT scanner. The pore-throat statistics of the three-dimensional reconstructed rock were extracted and the distribution of the pore-throat sizes was applied to the regular pore network model. In order to keep the equivalent model regular, only the throat area or the throat radius was varied. Ten realizations of randomly distributed throatmore » sizes were generated to simulate the drainage process and relative permeability was calculated and compared with the experimentally determined values of the original rock sample. The numerical and experimental procedures are explained in detail and the performance of the model in relation to the experimental data is discussed and analyzed. Petrophysical properties such as relative permeability are important in many applied fields such as production of petroleum fluids, enhanced oil recovery, carbon dioxide sequestration, ground water flow, etc. Relative permeability data are used for a wide range of conventional reservoir engineering calculations and in numerical reservoir simulation. Two-phase oil water relative permeability data are generated on the same core plug from both pore network model and experimental procedure. The shape and size of the relative permeability curves were compared and analyzed and good match has been observed for wetting phase relative permeability but for non-wetting phase, simulation results were found to be deviated from the experimental ones. Efforts to determine petrophysical properties of rocks using numerical techniques are to eliminate the necessity of regular core analysis, which can be time consuming and expensive. So a numerical technique is expected to be fast and to produce reliable

  18. Control of pore size and structure of tissue engineering scaffolds produced by supercritical fluid processing.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hongyun; Mather, Melissa L; Howard, Daniel; Wang, Wenxin; White, Lisa J; Crowe, John A; Morgan, Steve P; Chandra, Amit; Williams, David J; Howdle, Steven M; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2007-12-17

    Tissue engineering scaffolds require a controlled pore size and structure to host tissue formation. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing may be used to form foamed scaffolds in which the escape of CO2 from a plasticized polymer melt generates gas bubbles that shape the developing pores. The process of forming these scaffolds involves a simultaneous change in phase in the CO2 and the polymer, resulting in rapid expansion of a surface area and changes in polymer rheological properties. Hence, the process is difficult to control with respect to the desired final pore size and structure. In this paper, we describe a detailed study of the effect of polymer chemical composition, molecular weight and processing parameters on final scaffold characteristics. The study focuses on poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as polymer classes with potential application as controlled release scaffolds for growth factor delivery. Processing parameters under investigation were temperature (from 5 to 55 degrees C) and pressure (from 60 to 230 bar). A series of amorphous PDLLA and PLGA polymers with various molecular weights (from 13 KD to 96 KD) and/or chemical compositions (the mole percentage of glycolic acid in the polymers was 0, 15, 25, 35 and 50 respectively) were employed. The resulting scaffolds were characterised by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and micro X-ray computed tomography (microCT). This is the first detailed study on using these series polymers for scaffold formation by supercritical technique. This study has demonstrated that the pore size and structure of the supercritical PDLLA and PLGA scaffolds can be tailored by careful control of processing conditions.

  19. An investigation of pore cracking in titanium welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, Z.

    1994-06-01

    Two welded Ti-6A1- 4V pressure vessels leaked prematurely in service. The leaks were caused by cracks emanating from weld porosity. The cracks originated during fabrication, with subsequent growth in serv-ice leading to the formation of the leak paths. Pore cracking is thought to be caused by a mechanism that involves both sustained- load and cyclic contributions, with the former being the more prominent. It is shown that the tendency for cracking is influenced by pore position and that pore size is not a deciding factor in that regard. The factors that govern pore cracking are discussed, and the possible role of inter-stitial embrittlement is assessed.

  20. An investigation of pore cracking in titanium welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, T.

    1994-02-01

    Two welded Ti-6A1-4V pressure vessels leaked prematurely in service. The leaks were caused by cracks emanating from weld porosity. The cracks originated during fabrication, with subsequent growth in service leading to the formation of the leak paths. Pore cracking is thought to be caused by a mechanism that involves both sustained-load and cyclic contributions, with the former being the more prominent. It is shown that the tendency for cracking is influenced by pore position and that pore size is not a deciding factor in that regard. The factors that govern pore cracking are discussed, and the possible role of interstitial embrittlement is assessed.

  1. The effect of scaffold pore size in cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nava, Michele M; Draghi, Lorenza; Giordano, Carmen; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2016-07-26

    The effect of scaffold pore size and interconnectivity is undoubtedly a crucial factor for most tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pore size and porosity on cartilage construct development in different scaffolds seeded with articular chondrocytes. We fabricated poly-L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate scaffolds with different pore sizes, using a solvent-casting/particulate-leaching technique. We seeded primary bovine articular chondrocytes on these scaffolds, cultured the constructs for 2 weeks and examined cell proliferation, viability and cell-specific production of cartilaginous extracellular matrix proteins, including GAG and collagen. Cell density significantly increased up to 50% with scaffold pore size and porosity, likely facilitated by cell spreading on the internal surface of bigger pores, and by increased mass transport of gases and nutrients to cells, and catabolite removal from cells, allowed by lower diffusion barriers in scaffolds with a higher porosity. However, both the cell metabolic activity and the synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins significantly decreased by up to 40% with pore size. We propose that the association of smaller pore diameters, causing 3-dimensional cell aggregation, to a lower oxygenation caused by a lower porosity, could have been the condition that increased the cell-specific synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins in the scaffold with the smallest pores and the lowest porosity among those tested. In the initial steps of in vitro cartilage engineering, the combination of small scaffold pores and low porosity is an effective strategy with regard to the promotion of chondrogenesis.

  2. Experimental study on pore structure and performance of sintered porous wick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Da; Wang, Shufan; Liu, Rutie; Wang, Zhubo; Xiong, Xiang; Zou, Jianpeng

    2018-02-01

    Porous wicks were prepared via powder metallurgy using NH4HCO3 powders as pore-forming agent. The pore-forming agent particle size was varied to control the pore structure and equivalent pore size distribution feature of porous wick. The effect of pore-forming agent particle size on the porosity, pore structures, equivalent pore size distribution and capillary pumping performance were investigated. Results show that with the particle size of pore-forming agent decrease, the green density and the volume shrinkage of the porous wicks gradually increase and the porosity reduces slightly. There are two types of pores inside the porous wick, large-sized prefabricated pores and small-sized gap pores. With the particle size of pore-forming agent decrease, the size of the prefabricated pores becomes smaller and the distribution tends to be uniform. Gap pores and prefabricated pores inside the wick can make up different types of pore channels. The equivalent pore size of wick is closely related to the structure of pore channels. Furthermore, the equivalent pore size distribution of wick shows an obvious double-peak feature when the pore-forming agent particle size is large. With the particle size of pore-forming agent decrease, the two peaks of equivalent pore size distribution approach gradually to each other, resulting in a single-peak feature. Porous wick with single-peak feature equivalent pore size distribution possesses the better capillary pumping performances.

  3. Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2006-01-01

    Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal

  4. Investigating Hydrophilic Pores in Model Lipid Bilayers using Molecular Simulations: Correlating Bilayer Properties with Pore Formation Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides show remarkable ability to translocate across physiological membranes. Along with factors such as electric potential induced-perturbations of membrane structure and surface tension effects, experiments invoke pore-like membrane configurations during the solute transfer process into vesicles and cells. The initiation and formation of pores are associated with a non-trivial free energy cost, thus necessitating consideration of the factors associated with pore formation and attendant free energetics. Due to experimental and modeling challenges related to the long timescales of the translocation process, we use umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations with a lipid-density based order parameter to investigate membrane pore-formation free energy employing Martini coarse-grained models. We investigate structure and thermodynamic features of the pore in 18 lipids spanning a range of head-groups, charge states, acyl chain lengths and saturation. We probe the dependence of pore-formation barriers on area per lipid, lipid bilayer thickness, membrane bending rigidities in three different lipid classes. The pore formation free energy in pure bilayers and peptide translocating scenarios are significantly coupled with bilayer thickness. Thicker bilayers require more reversible work to create pores. Pore formation free energy is higher in peptide-lipid systems relative to the peptide-free lipid systems due to penalties to maintain solvation of charged hydrophilic solutes within the membrane environment. PMID:25614183

  5. Propagation of a plasma streamer in catalyst pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-03-01

    Although plasma catalysis is gaining increasing interest for various environmental applications, the underlying mechanisms are still far from understood. For instance, it is not yet clear whether and how plasma streamers can propagate in catalyst pores, and what is the minimum pore size to make this happen. As this is crucial information to ensure good plasma-catalyst interaction, we study here the mechanism of plasma streamer propagation in a catalyst pore, by means of a two-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision model, for various pore diameters in the nm-range to μm-range. The so-called Debye length is an important criterion for plasma penetration into catalyst pores, i.e. a plasma streamer can penetrate into pores when their diameter is larger than the Debye length. The Debye length is typically in the order of a few 100 nm up to 1 μm at the conditions under study, depending on electron density and temperature in the plasma streamer. For pores in the range of ∼50 nm, plasma can thus only penetrate to some extent and at very short times, i.e. at the beginning of a micro-discharge, before the actual plasma streamer reaches the catalyst surface and a sheath is formed in front of the surface. We can make plasma streamers penetrate into smaller pores (down to ca. 500 nm at the conditions under study) by increasing the applied voltage, which yields a higher plasma density, and thus reduces the Debye length. Our simulations also reveal that the plasma streamers induce surface charging of the catalyst pore sidewalls, causing discharge enhancement inside the pore, depending on pore diameter and depth.

  6. Climate-mediated cooperation promotes niche expansion in burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Syuan-Jyun; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Chen, Bo-Fei; Chan, Shih-Fan; Liu, Jian-Nan; Liu, Mark; Hwang, Wenbe; Yang, Ping-Shih; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2014-05-13

    The ability to form cooperative societies may explain why humans and social insects have come to dominate the earth. Here we examine the ecological consequences of cooperation by quantifying the fitness of cooperative (large groups) and non-cooperative (small groups) phenotypes in burying beetles (Nicrophorus nepalensis) along an elevational and temperature gradient. We experimentally created large and small groups along the gradient and manipulated interspecific competition with flies by heating carcasses. We show that cooperative groups performed as thermal generalists with similarly high breeding success at all temperatures and elevations, whereas non-cooperative groups performed as thermal specialists with higher breeding success only at intermediate temperatures and elevations. Studying the ecological consequences of cooperation may not only help us to understand why so many species of social insects have conquered the earth, but also to determine how climate change will affect the success of these and other social species, including our own.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02440.001. Copyright © 2014, Sun et al.

  7. Climate-mediated cooperation promotes niche expansion in burying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Syuan-Jyun; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Chen, Bo-Fei; Chan, Shih-Fan; Liu, Jian-Nan; Liu, Mark; Hwang, Wenbe; Yang, Ping-Shih; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The ability to form cooperative societies may explain why humans and social insects have come to dominate the earth. Here we examine the ecological consequences of cooperation by quantifying the fitness of cooperative (large groups) and non-cooperative (small groups) phenotypes in burying beetles (Nicrophorus nepalensis) along an elevational and temperature gradient. We experimentally created large and small groups along the gradient and manipulated interspecific competition with flies by heating carcasses. We show that cooperative groups performed as thermal generalists with similarly high breeding success at all temperatures and elevations, whereas non-cooperative groups performed as thermal specialists with higher breeding success only at intermediate temperatures and elevations. Studying the ecological consequences of cooperation may not only help us to understand why so many species of social insects have conquered the earth, but also to determine how climate change will affect the success of these and other social species, including our own. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02440.001 PMID:24842999

  8. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  9. Estimates of expansion time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E. M.

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy.

  10. Physical modelling of the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Fassati, Ariberto; Ford, Ian J.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2013-01-01

    Physically interesting behaviour can arise when soft matter is confined to nanoscale dimensions. A highly relevant biological example of such a phenomenon is the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) found perforating the nuclear envelope of eukaryotic cells. In the central conduit of the NPC, of ∼30–60 nm diameter, a disordered network of proteins regulates all macromolecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In spite of a wealth of experimental data, the selectivity barrier of the NPC has yet to be explained fully. Experimental and theoretical approaches are complicated by the disordered and heterogeneous nature of the NPC conduit. Modelling approaches have focused on the behaviour of the partially unfolded protein domains in the confined geometry of the NPC conduit, and have demonstrated that within the range of parameters thought relevant for the NPC, widely varying behaviour can be observed. In this review, we summarise recent efforts to physically model the NPC barrier and function. We illustrate how attempts to understand NPC barrier function have employed many different modelling techniques, each of which have contributed to our understanding of the NPC.

  11. FINE PORE DIFFUSER FOULING: THE LOS ANGELES STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes five fine pore diffuser evaluations conducted at three different wastewater treatment plants located in the greater Los Angeles area. The overall goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of fine pore diffusers using selected cleaning methods for ex...

  12. Partitioning of habitable pore space in earthworm burrows.

    PubMed

    Gorres, Josef H; Amador, Jose A

    2010-03-01

    Earthworms affect macro-pore structure of soils. However, some studies suggest that earthworm burrow walls and casts themselves differ greatly in structure from surrounding soils, potentially creating habitat for microbivorours nematodes which accelerate the decomposition and C and N mineralization. In this study aggregates were sampled from the burrow walls of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and bulk soil (not altered by earthworms) from mesocosm incubated in the lab for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 16 weeks. Pore volumes and pore sizes were measured in triplicate with Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP). This method is well suited to establish pore size structure in the context of habitat, because it measures the stepwise intrusion of mercury from the outside of the aggregate into ever smaller pores. The progress of mercury into the aggregate interior thus resembles potential paths of a nematode into accessible habitable pore spaces residing in an aggregate. Total specific pore volume, V(s), varied between 0.13 and 0.18 mL/g and increased from 3 to 16 weeks in both burrow and bulk soil. Differences between total V(s) of bulk and burrow samples were not significant on any sampling date. However, differences were significant for pore size fractions at the scale of nematode body diameter.

  13. Healing kinetics of microneedle-formed pores in PLGA films.

    PubMed

    Mazzara, J M; Balagna, M A; Thouless, M D; Schwendeman, S P

    2013-10-28

    The spontaneous healing of aqueous pores in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) drug delivery systems has been identified to play a key role in terminating the burst release of large molecules, and to provide a means for novel aqueous-based microencapsulation. To examine healing of PLGA, pores were created of defined size and depth on the surface of thin PLGA films by stamping with blunt-tip microneedles. Pore dimensions on the micron-scale were relevant to surface pores of common PLGA microspheres and could be easily monitored by light microscopy. Most pores healed reproducibly at temperatures above the glass-transition temperature (T(g)) of the films, with healing times decreasing sharply with increasing temperature according to Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) behavior. It is suggested that healing is driven by high surface tension in the films and occurs through viscoelastic creep. Hydrated films healed at lower temperatures than dry films, consistent with a drop in Tg upon polymer hydration. Larger pores took longer to heal than smaller ones, while pores larger than 20 μm did not heal before significant polymer degradation occurred. Films of a less hydrophobic PLGA showed slower healing kinetics, attributed to a weaker surface tension driving force. Deeper pores showed signs of in-plane stress from spin-coating, and either ruptured or only partially healed when incubated wet and dry, respectively. © 2013.

  14. Tortuous Pore Path Through the Glaucomatous Lamina Cribrosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lucy, Katie A; Schuman, Joel S; Sigal, Ian A; Bilonick, Richard A; Lu, Chen; Liu, Jonathan; Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Nadler, Zachary; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Fujimoto, James G; Wollstein, Gadi

    2018-05-08

    The lamina cribrosa is a primary site of damage in glaucoma. While mechanical distortion is hypothesized to cause reduction of axoplasmic flow, little is known about how the pores, which contains the retinal ganglion cell axons, traverse the lamina cribrosa. We investigated lamina cribrosa pore paths in vivo to quantify differences in tortuosity of pore paths between healthy and glaucomatous eyes. We imaged 16 healthy, 23 glaucoma suspect and 48 glaucomatous eyes from 70 subjects using a swept source optical coherence tomography system. The lamina cribrosa pores were automatically segmented using a previously described segmentation algorithm. Individual pore paths were automatically tracked through the depth of the lamina cribrosa using custom software. Pore path convergence to the optic nerve center and tortuosity was quantified for each eye. We found that lamina cribrosa pore pathways traverse the lamina cribrosa closer to the optic nerve center along the depth of the lamina cribrosa regardless of disease severity or diagnostic category. In addition, pores of glaucoma eyes take a more tortuous path through the lamina cribrosa compared to those of healthy eyes, suggesting a potential mechanism for reduction of axoplasmic flow in glaucoma.

  15. Nuclear Pore Complexes: Global Conservation and Local Variation.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Guillaume; Antonin, Wolfram

    2018-06-04

    Nuclear pore complexes are the transport gates to the nucleus. Most proteins forming these huge complexes are evolutionarily conserved, as is the eightfold symmetry of these complexes. A new study reporting the structure of the yeast nuclear pore complex now shows striking differences from its human counterpart. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reversible Self-Actuated Thermo-Responsive Pore Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Park, Younggeun; Gutierrez, Maria Paz; Lee, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Smart membranes, which can selectively control the transfer of light, air, humidity and temperature, are important to achieve indoor climate regulation. Even though reversible self-actuation of smart membranes is desirable in large-scale, reversible self-regulation remains challenging. Specifically, reversible 100% opening/closing of pore actuation showing accurate responsiveness, reproducibility and structural flexibility, including uniform structure assembly, is currently very difficult. Here, we report a reversible, thermo-responsive self-activated pore membrane that achieves opening and closing of pores. The reversible, self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane was fabricated with hybrid materials of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), (PNIPAM) within polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to form a multi-dimensional pore array. Using Multiphysics simulation of heat transfer and structural mechanics based on finite element analysis, we demonstrated that pore opening and closing dynamics can be self-activated at environmentally relevant temperatures. Temperature cycle characterizations of the pore structure revealed 100% opening ratio at T = 40 °C and 0% opening ratio at T = 20 °C. The flexibility of the membrane showed an accurate temperature-responsive function at a maximum bending angle of 45°. Addressing the importance of self-regulation, this reversible self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane will advance the development of future large-scale smart membranes needed for sustainable indoor climate control. PMID:27991563

  17. Multiscale Pores in TBCs for Lower Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Li, Guang-Rong; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2017-08-01

    The morphology and pattern (including orientation and aspect ratio) of pores in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) significantly affect their thermal insulation performance. In this work, finite element analysis was used to comprehensively understand the thermal insulation effect of pores and correlate the effective thermal conductivity with the structure. The results indicated that intersplat pores, and in particular their aspect ratio, dominantly affect the heat transfer in the top coat. The effective thermal conductivity decreased as a function of aspect ratio, since a larger aspect ratio often corresponds to a greater proportion of effective length of the pores. However, in conventional plasma-sprayed TBCs, intersplat pores often fail to maximize thermal insulation due to their distinct lower aspect ratios. Therefore, considering this effect of aspect ratio, a new structure design with multiscale pores is proposed and a corresponding structural model developed to correlate the thermal properties with this pore-rich structure. The predictions of the model are well consistent with experimental data. This study provides comprehensive understanding of the effect of pores on the thermal insulation performance, shedding light on the possibility of structural tailoring to obtain advanced TBCs with lower thermal conductivity.

  18. Partitioning of habitable pore space in earthworm burrows

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms affect macro-pore structure of soils. However, some studies suggest that earthworm burrow walls and casts themselves differ greatly in structure from surrounding soils, potentially creating habitat for microbivorours nematodes which accelerate the decomposition and C and N mineralization. In this study aggregates were sampled from the burrow walls of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and bulk soil (not altered by earthworms) from mesocosm incubated in the lab for 0, 1, 3, 5 and 16 weeks. Pore volumes and pore sizes were measured in triplicate with Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP). This method is well suited to establish pore size structure in the context of habitat, because it measures the stepwise intrusion of mercury from the outside of the aggregate into ever smaller pores. The progress of mercury into the aggregate interior thus resembles potential paths of a nematode into accessible habitable pore spaces residing in an aggregate. Total specific pore volume, Vs, varied between 0.13 and 0.18 mL/g and increased from 3 to 16 weeks in both burrow and bulk soil. Differences between total Vs of bulk and burrow samples were not significant on any sampling date. However, differences were significant for pore size fractions at the scale of nematode body diameter. PMID:22736839

  19. MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL OF FOULING IN FINE PORE DIFFUSER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was two-fold: First, to define the efficiency of various methods of cleaning fine pore diffusers and, second, to develop a methodology that could be used to evaluate the efficiency of the cleaning techniques. Dirty fine pore domes from the North Texas Mu...

  20. Dilation of fusion pores by crowding of SNARE proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenyong; Bello, Oscar D; Thiyagarajan, Sathish; Auclair, Sarah Marie; Vennekate, Wensi; Krishnakumar, Shyam S; O'Shaughnessy, Ben; Karatekin, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    Hormones and neurotransmitters are released through fluctuating exocytotic fusion pores that can flicker open and shut multiple times. Cargo release and vesicle recycling depend on the fate of the pore, which may reseal or dilate irreversibly. Pore nucleation requires zippering between vesicle-associated v-SNAREs and target membrane t-SNAREs, but the mechanisms governing the subsequent pore dilation are not understood. Here, we probed the dilation of single fusion pores using v-SNARE-reconstituted ~23-nm-diameter discoidal nanolipoprotein particles (vNLPs) as fusion partners with cells ectopically expressing cognate, 'flipped' t-SNAREs. Pore nucleation required a minimum of two v-SNAREs per NLP face, and further increases in v-SNARE copy numbers did not affect nucleation rate. By contrast, the probability of pore dilation increased with increasing v-SNARE copies and was far from saturating at 15 v-SNARE copies per face, the NLP capacity. Our experimental and computational results suggest that SNARE availability may be pivotal in determining whether neurotransmitters or hormones are released through a transient ('kiss and run') or an irreversibly dilating pore (full fusion). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22964.001 PMID:28346138

  1. Reversible Self-Actuated Thermo-Responsive Pore Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Younggeun; Gutierrez, Maria Paz; Lee, Luke P.

    2016-12-01

    Smart membranes, which can selectively control the transfer of light, air, humidity and temperature, are important to achieve indoor climate regulation. Even though reversible self-actuation of smart membranes is desirable in large-scale, reversible self-regulation remains challenging. Specifically, reversible 100% opening/closing of pore actuation showing accurate responsiveness, reproducibility and structural flexibility, including uniform structure assembly, is currently very difficult. Here, we report a reversible, thermo-responsive self-activated pore membrane that achieves opening and closing of pores. The reversible, self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane was fabricated with hybrid materials of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide), (PNIPAM) within polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to form a multi-dimensional pore array. Using Multiphysics simulation of heat transfer and structural mechanics based on finite element analysis, we demonstrated that pore opening and closing dynamics can be self-activated at environmentally relevant temperatures. Temperature cycle characterizations of the pore structure revealed 100% opening ratio at T = 40 °C and 0% opening ratio at T = 20 °C. The flexibility of the membrane showed an accurate temperature-responsive function at a maximum bending angle of 45°. Addressing the importance of self-regulation, this reversible self-actuated thermo-responsive pore membrane will advance the development of future large-scale smart membranes needed for sustainable indoor climate control.

  2. Electrochemically-Driven Insertion of Biological Nanodiscs into Solid State Membrane Pores as a Basis for "Pore-In-Pore" Membranes.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Farid; Seidenstücker, Axel; Altintoprak, Klara; Walther, Paul; Ziemann, Paul; Plettl, Alfred; Marti, Othmar; Wege, Christina; Gliemann, Hartmut

    2018-04-13

    Nanoporous membranes are of increasing interest for many applications, such as molecular filters, biosensors, nanofluidic logic and energy conversion devices. To meet high-quality standards, e.g., in molecular separation processes, membranes with well-defined pores in terms of pore diameter and chemical properties are required. However, the preparation of membranes with narrow pore diameter distributions is still challenging. In the work presented here, we demonstrate a strategy, a "pore-in-pore" approach, where the conical pores of a solid state membrane produced by a multi-step top-down lithography procedure are used as a template to insert precisely-formed biomolecular nanodiscs with exactly defined inner and outer diameters. These nanodiscs, which are the building blocks of tobacco mosaic virus-deduced particles, consist of coat proteins, which self-assemble under defined experimental conditions with a stabilizing short RNA. We demonstrate that the insertion of the nanodiscs can be driven either by diffusion due to a concentration gradient or by applying an electric field along the cross-section of the solid state membrane. It is found that the electrophoresis-driven insertion is significantly more effective than the insertion via the concentration gradient.

  3. Pore size engineering applied to starved electrochemical cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize performance in starved, multiplate cells, the cell design should rely on techniques which widen the volume tolerance characteristics. These involve engineering capillary pressure differences between the components of an electrochemical cell and using these forces to promote redistribution of electrolyte to the desired optimum values. This can be implemented in practice by prescribing pore size distributions for porous back-up plates, reservoirs, and electrodes. In addition, electrolyte volume management can be controlled by incorporating different pore size distributions into the separator. In a nickel/hydrogen cell, the separator must contain pores similar in size to the small pores of both the nickel and hydrogen electrodes in order to maintain an optimum conductive path for the electrolyte. The pore size distributions of all components should overlap in such a way as to prevent drying of the separator and/or flooding of the hydrogen electrode.

  4. Upscaling pore pressure-dependent gas permeability in shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Javadpour, Farzam

    2017-04-01

    Upscaling pore pressure dependence of shale gas permeability is of great importance and interest in the investigation of gas production in unconventional reservoirs. In this study, we apply the Effective Medium Approximation, an upscaling technique from statistical physics, and modify the Doyen model for unconventional rocks. We develop an upscaling model to estimate the pore pressure-dependent gas permeability from pore throat size distribution, pore connectivity, tortuosity, porosity, and gas characteristics. We compare our adapted model with six data sets: three experiments, one pore-network model, and two lattice-Boltzmann simulations. Results showed that the proposed model estimated the gas permeability within a factor of 3 of the measurements/simulations in all data sets except the Eagle Ford experiment for which we discuss plausible sources of discrepancies.

  5. Salt permeation and exclusion in hydroxylated and functionalized silica pores.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kevin; Rempe, Susan B; Lorenz, Christian D

    2006-03-10

    We use combined ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), grand canonical Monte Carlo, and molecular dynamics techniques to study the effect of pore surface chemistry and confinement on the permeation of salt into silica nanopore arrays filled with water. AIMD shows that 11.6 A diameter hydroxylated silica pores are relatively stable in water, whereas amine groups on functionalized pore surfaces abstract silanol protons, turning into NH3+. Free energy calculations using an ab initio parametrized force field show that the hydroxylated pores strongly attract Na+ and repel Cl- ions. Pores lined with NH3+ have the reverse surface charge polarity. Finally, studies of ions in carbon nanotubes suggest that hydration of Cl- is more strongly frustrated by pure confinement effects than Na+.

  6. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D; Hogan, Joanna A; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R; Greenberg, Charles H; Jacobs, Erica Y; Yu, Zhiheng; de la Cruz, M Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L; Aitchison, John D; Jarrold, Martin F; Gerton, Jennifer L; Ludtke, Steven J; Akey, Christopher W; Chait, Brian T; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P

    2018-03-22

    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  7. Pore architecture of nanoporous gold and titania by hydrogen thermoporometry

    DOE PAGES

    Johnston, L. T.; Biener, M. M.; Ye, J. C.; ...

    2015-07-10

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) and materials derived from it by templating have complex pore architecture that determines their technologically relevant physical properties. Here, we apply high-resolution hydrogen thermoporometry to study the pore structure of NPG and NPG-derived titania nanofoam (TNF). Results reveal complex multimodal pore size distributions for NPG and TNF. The freezing–melting hysteresis is pronounced, with freezing and melting scans having entirely different shapes. Experiments involving partial freeze–melt cycles reveal the lack of direct correlation between individual freezing and melting peaks, pointing to phenomena that are beyond the Gibbs-Thomson formalism. The depression of the average freezing temperature scales linearly withmore » the ratio of the internal surface area (measured by gas sorption) and the total pore volume derived from the density of monoliths. In conclusion, thermoporometry yields total pore volumes in good agreement with those derived from monolith densities for both NPG and TNF.« less

  8. Integrative structure and functional anatomy of a nuclear pore complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Joong; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Nudelman, Ilona; Shi, Yi; Zhang, Wenzhu; Raveh, Barak; Herricks, Thurston; Slaughter, Brian D.; Hogan, Joanna A.; Upla, Paula; Chemmama, Ilan E.; Pellarin, Riccardo; Echeverria, Ignacia; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Chaudhury, Azraa S.; Wang, Junjie; Williams, Rosemary; Unruh, Jay R.; Greenberg, Charles H.; Jacobs, Erica Y.; Yu, Zhiheng; de La Cruz, M. Jason; Mironska, Roxana; Stokes, David L.; Aitchison, John D.; Jarrold, Martin F.; Gerton, Jennifer L.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Akey, Christopher W.; Chait, Brian T.; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P.

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear pore complexes play central roles as gatekeepers of RNA and protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. However, their large size and dynamic nature have impeded a full structural and functional elucidation. Here we determined the structure of the entire 552-protein nuclear pore complex of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at sub-nanometre precision by satisfying a wide range of data relating to the molecular arrangement of its constituents. The nuclear pore complex incorporates sturdy diagonal columns and connector cables attached to these columns, imbuing the structure with strength and flexibility. These cables also tie together all other elements of the nuclear pore complex, including membrane-interacting regions, outer rings and RNA-processing platforms. Inwardly directed anchors create a high density of transport factor-docking Phe-Gly repeats in the central channel, organized into distinct functional units. This integrative structure enables us to rationalize the architecture, transport mechanism and evolutionary origins of the nuclear pore complex.

  9. Pore architecture of nanoporous gold and titania by hydrogen thermoporometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, L. T.; Biener, M. M.; Ye, J. C.

    Nanoporous gold (NPG) and materials derived from it by templating have complex pore architecture that determines their technologically relevant physical properties. Here, we apply high-resolution hydrogen thermoporometry to study the pore structure of NPG and NPG-derived titania nanofoam (TNF). Results reveal complex multimodal pore size distributions for NPG and TNF. The freezing–melting hysteresis is pronounced, with freezing and melting scans having entirely different shapes. Experiments involving partial freeze–melt cycles reveal the lack of direct correlation between individual freezing and melting peaks, pointing to phenomena that are beyond the Gibbs-Thomson formalism. The depression of the average freezing temperature scales linearly withmore » the ratio of the internal surface area (measured by gas sorption) and the total pore volume derived from the density of monoliths. In conclusion, thermoporometry yields total pore volumes in good agreement with those derived from monolith densities for both NPG and TNF.« less

  10. Influence of pore structure on compressive strength of cement mortar.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haitao; Xiao, Qi; Huang, Donghui; Zhang, Shiping

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the pore structure of cement mortar using mercury porosimeter. Ordinary Portland cement, manufactured sand, and natural sand were used. The porosity of the manufactured sand mortar is higher than that of natural sand at the same mix proportion; on the contrary, the probable pore size and threshold radius of manufactured sand mortar are finer. Besides, the probable pore size and threshold radius increased with increasing water to cement ratio and sand to cement ratio. In addition, the existing models of pore size distribution of cement-based materials have been reviewed and compared with test results in this paper. Finally, the extended Bhattacharjee model was built to examine the relationship between compressive strength and pore structure.

  11. Influence of Pore Structure on Compressive Strength of Cement Mortar

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haitao; Xiao, Qi; Huang, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the pore structure of cement mortar using mercury porosimeter. Ordinary Portland cement, manufactured sand, and natural sand were used. The porosity of the manufactured sand mortar is higher than that of natural sand at the same mix proportion; on the contrary, the probable pore size and threshold radius of manufactured sand mortar are finer. Besides, the probable pore size and threshold radius increased with increasing water to cement ratio and sand to cement ratio. In addition, the existing models of pore size distribution of cement-based materials have been reviewed and compared with test results in this paper. Finally, the extended Bhattacharjee model was built to examine the relationship between compressive strength and pore structure. PMID:24757414

  12. Photo-switchable tweezers illuminate pore-opening motions of an ATP-gated P2X ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Habermacher, Chloé; Martz, Adeline; Calimet, Nicolas; Lemoine, Damien; Peverini, Laurie; Specht, Alexandre; Cecchini, Marco; Grutter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    P2X receptors function by opening a transmembrane pore in response to extracellular ATP. Recent crystal structures solved in apo and ATP-bound states revealed molecular motions of the extracellular domain following agonist binding. However, the mechanism of pore opening still remains controversial. Here we use photo-switchable cross-linkers as ‘molecular tweezers’ to monitor a series of inter-residue distances in the transmembrane domain of the P2X2 receptor during activation. These experimentally based structural constraints combined with computational studies provide high-resolution models of the channel in the open and closed states. We show that the extent of the outer pore expansion is significantly reduced compared to the ATP-bound structure. Our data further reveal that the inner and outer ends of adjacent pore-lining helices come closer during opening, likely through a hinge-bending motion. These results provide new insight into the gating mechanism of P2X receptors and establish a versatile strategy applicable to other membrane proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11050.001 PMID:26808983

  13. X-ray CT analysis of pore structure in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukunoki, Toshifumi; Miyata, Yoshihisa; Mikami, Kazuaki; Shiota, Erika

    2016-06-01

    The development of microfocused X-ray computed tomography (CT) devices enables digital imaging analysis at the pore scale. The applications of these devices are diverse in soil mechanics, geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering, petroleum engineering, and agricultural engineering. In particular, the imaging of the pore space in porous media has contributed to numerical simulations for single-phase and multiphase flows or contaminant transport through the pore structure as three-dimensional image data. These obtained results are affected by the pore diameter; therefore, it is necessary to verify the image preprocessing for the image analysis and to validate the pore diameters obtained from the CT image data. Moreover, it is meaningful to produce the physical parameters in a representative element volume (REV) and significant to define the dimension of the REV. This paper describes the underlying method of image processing and analysis and discusses the physical properties of Toyoura sand for the verification of the image analysis based on the definition of the REV. On the basis of the obtained verification results, a pore-diameter analysis can be conducted and validated by a comparison with the experimental work and image analysis. The pore diameter is deduced from Young-Laplace's law and a water retention test for the drainage process. The results from previous study and perforated-pore diameter originally proposed in this study, called the voxel-percolation method (VPM), are compared in this paper. In addition, the limitations of the REV, the definition of the pore diameter, and the effectiveness of the VPM for an assessment of the pore diameter are discussed.

  14. Void and pore formation inside the hair cortex by a denaturation and super-contraction process occurring during hair setting with hot irons.

    PubMed

    Gamez-Garcia, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of hair fibers from donors that frequently use hot irons for hair straightening showed the presence of multiple pores and voids (φ approximately 0.1-1.5 μm) that extend from the cuticle sheath to regions inside the hair cortex. Pore formation in the cortex was found to be confined at its periphery and could be reproduced in the laboratory with virgin hair fibers after the application of various hot-iron straightening cycles. The appearance of pores and voids in the cortex was found to be associated to the production of hot water vapor while the fiber is undergoing mechanical elongation or contraction. The number of pores was seen to rapidly increase with temperature in the range from 190 to 220°C and also with the number of straightening cycles. Larger hair voids (φ approximately 2-5 μm) were also detected in the cortex. The small pores found at the cortex periphery appear to occur by the simultaneous occurrence of rearrangement of hair proteins, fiber mechanical contraction/expansion, and the flow of super-heated steam. Hot irons create, thus, the conditions for the onset of pore formation as the high temperatures produce superheated steam and soften the native state of hair proteins by a process involving denaturation and changes in the crystalline regions.

  15. Nup133 Is Required for Proper Nuclear Pore Basket Assembly and Dynamics in Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Souquet, Benoit; Freed, Ellen; Berto, Alessandro; Andric, Vedrana; Audugé, Nicolas; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Lacy, Elizabeth; Doye, Valérie

    2018-05-22

    Nup133 belongs to the Y-complex, a key component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) scaffold. Studies on a null mutation in mice previously revealed that Nup133 is essential for embryonic development but not for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) proliferation. Using single-pore detection and average NE-fluorescence intensity, we find that Nup133 is dispensable for interphase and postmitotic NPC scaffold assembly in pluripotent mESCs. However, loss of Nup133 specifically perturbs the formation of the nuclear basket as manifested by the absence of Tpr in about half of the NPCs combined with altered dynamics of Nup153. We further demonstrate that its central domain mediates Nup133's role in assembling Tpr and Nup153 into a properly configured nuclear basket. Our findings thus revisit the role of the Y-complex in pore biogenesis and provide insights into the interplay between NPC scaffold architecture, nuclear basket assembly, and the generation of heterogeneity among NPCs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-Pore Channels: Lessons from Mutant Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Margarida; Galione, Antony; Parrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Recent interest in two-pore channels (TPCs) has resulted in a variety of studies dealing with the functional role and mechanism of action of these endo-lysosomal proteins in diverse physiological processes. With the availability of mouse lines harbouring mutant alleles for Tpcnl and/or Tpcn2 genes, several studies have made use of them to validate, consolidate and discover new roles for these channels not only at the cellular level but, importantly, also at the level of the whole organism. The different mutant mouse lines that have been used were derived from distinct genetic manipulation strategies, with the aim of knocking out expression of TPC proteins. However, the expression of different residual TPC sequences predicted to occur in these mutant mouse lines, together with the varied degree to which the effects on Tpcn expression have been studied, makes it important to assess the true knockout status of some of the lines. In this review we summarize these Tpcn mutant mouse lines with regard to their predicted effect on Tpcn expression and the extent to which they have been characterized. Additionally, we discuss how results derived from studies using these Tpcn mutant mouse lines have consolidated previously proposed roles for TPCs, such as mediators of NAADP signalling, endo-lysosomal functions, and pancreatic β cell physiology. We will also review how they have been instrumental in the assignment of new physiological roles for these cation channels in processes such as membrane electrical excitability, neoangiogenesis, viral infection and brown adipose tissue and heart function, revealing, in some cases, a specific contribution of a particular TPC isoform. PMID:27330869

  17. Investigating Hydrophilic Pores in Model Lipid Bilayers Using Molecular Simulations: Correlating Bilayer Properties with Pore-Formation Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-06-23

    Cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides show a remarkable ability to translocate across physiological membranes. Along with factors such as electric-potential-induced perturbations of membrane structure and surface tension effects, experiments invoke porelike membrane configurations during the solute transfer process into vesicles and cells. The initiation and formation of pores are associated with a nontrivial free-energy cost, thus necessitating a consideration of the factors associated with pore formation and the attendant free energies. Because of experimental and modeling challenges related to the long time scales of the translocation process, we use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations with a lipid-density-based order parameter to investigate membrane-pore-formation free energy employing Martini coarse-grained models. We investigate structure and thermodynamic features of the pore in 18 lipids spanning a range of headgroups, charge states, acyl chain lengths, and saturation. We probe the dependence of pore-formation barriers on the area per lipid, lipid bilayer thickness, and membrane bending rigidities in three different lipid classes. The pore-formation free energy in pure bilayers and peptide translocating scenarios are significantly coupled with bilayer thickness. Thicker bilayers require more reversible work to create pores. The pore-formation free energy is higher in peptide-lipid systems than in peptide-free lipid systems due to penalties to maintain the solvation of charged hydrophilic solutes within the membrane environment.

  18. Gas permeation in a molecular crystal and space expansion.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Yuichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi

    2014-05-14

    A novel single-crystal membrane [Cu(II)2(4-F-bza)4(2-mpyz)]n (4-F-bza = 4-fluorobenzoate; 2-mpyz = 2-methylpyrazine) was synthesized and its identical permeability in any crystal direction in the correction for tortuosity proved that gas diffuses inside the channels without detour. H2 permeated by 1.18 × 10(-12) mol m m(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1) with a high selectivity (Fα: 23.5 for H2/CO and 48.0 for H2/CH4) through its 2D-channels having a minimum diameter of 2.6 Å, which is narrower than the Lennard-Jones diameter of H2 (2.827 Å), CO (3.690 Å), and CH4 (3.758 Å). The high rate of permeation was well explained by a modified Knudsen diffusion model based on the space expansion effect, which agrees with the observed permselectivity enhanced for smaller gases in considering the expansion of a channel resulting from the collision of gas molecules or atoms onto the channel wall. An analysis of single-crystal X-ray data showed the expansion order to be H2 > Ar > CH4, which was expected from the permeation analysis. The permselectivity of a porous solid depends on the elasticity of the pores as well as on the diameter of the vacant channel and the size of the target gas.

  19. Pore Scale Dynamics of Microemulsion Formation.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Evren; Broens, Marc; Armstrong, Ryan T

    2016-07-19

    consequences on the pore scale mixing behavior and resulting microemulsion properties.

  20. Nuclear Pore-Like Structures in a Compartmentalized Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Sagulenko, Evgeny; Green, Kathryn; Yee, Benjamin; Morgan, Garry; Leis, Andrew; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Butler, Margaret K.; Chia, Nicholas; Pham, Uyen Thi Phuong; Lindgreen, Stinus; Catchpole, Ryan; Poole, Anthony M.; Fuerst, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Planctomycetes are distinguished from other Bacteria by compartmentalization of cells via internal membranes, interpretation of which has been subject to recent debate regarding potential relations to Gram-negative cell structure. In our interpretation of the available data, the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus contains a nuclear body compartment, and thus possesses a type of cell organization with parallels to the eukaryote nucleus. Here we show that pore-like structures occur in internal membranes of G.obscuriglobus and that they have elements structurally similar to eukaryote nuclear pores, including a basket, ring-spoke structure, and eight-fold rotational symmetry. Bioinformatic analysis of proteomic data reveals that some of the G. obscuriglobus proteins associated with pore-containing membranes possess structural domains found in eukaryote nuclear pore complexes. Moreover, immunogold labelling demonstrates localization of one such protein, containing a β-propeller domain, specifically to the G. obscuriglobus pore-like structures. Finding bacterial pores within internal cell membranes and with structural similarities to eukaryote nuclear pore complexes raises the dual possibilities of either hitherto undetected homology or stunning evolutionary convergence. PMID:28146565

  1. Impedance nanopore biosensor: influence of pore dimensions on biosensing performance.

    PubMed

    Kant, Krishna; Yu, Jingxian; Priest, Craig; Shapter, Joe G; Losic, Dusan

    2014-03-07

    Knowledge about electrochemical and electrical properties of nanopore structures and the influence of pore dimensions on these properties is important for the development of nanopore biosensing devices. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nanopore dimensions (diameter and length) on biosensing performance using non-faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs) prepared by self-ordered electrochemical anodization of aluminium were used as model nanopore sensing platforms. NPAMs with different pore diameters (25-65 nm) and lengths (4-18 μm) were prepared and the internal pore surface chemistry was modified by covalently attaching streptavidin and biotin. The performance of this antibody nanopore biosensing platform was evaluated using various concentrations of biotin as a model analyte. EIS measurements of pore resistivity and conductivity were carried out for pores with different diameters and lengths. The results showed that smaller pore dimensions of 25 nm and pore lengths up to 10 μm provide better biosensing performance.

  2. Pore geometry as a control on rock strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubeck, A.; Walker, R. J.; Healy, D.; Dobbs, M.; Holwell, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The strength of rocks in the subsurface is critically important across the geosciences, with implications for fluid flow, mineralisation, seismicity, and the deep biosphere. Most studies of porous rock strength consider the scalar quantity of porosity, in which strength shows a broadly inverse relationship with total porosity, but pore shape is not explicitly defined. Here we use a combination of uniaxial compressive strength measurements of isotropic and anisotropic porous lava samples, and numerical modelling to consider the influence of pore shape on rock strength. Micro computed tomography (CT) shows that pores range from sub-spherical to elongate and flat ellipsoids. Samples that contain flat pores are weaker if compression is applied parallel to the short axis (i.e. across the minimum curvature), compared to compression applied parallel to the long axis (i.e. across the maximum curvature). Numerical models for elliptical pores show that compression applied across the minimum curvature results in relatively broad amplification of stress, compared to compression applied across the maximum curvature. Certain pore shapes may be relatively stable and remain open in the upper crust under a given remote stress field, while others are inherently weak. Quantifying the shape, orientations, and statistical distributions of pores is therefore a critical step in strength testing of rocks.

  3. Physiologic upper limits of pore size of different blood capillary types and another perspective on the dual pore theory of microvascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Hemant

    2010-08-11

    . Non-sinusoidal blood capillaries were further sub-classified as non-fenestrated or fenestrated based on the absence or presence of endothelial cells with fenestrations. The sinusoidal blood capillaries of the liver, myeloid (red) bone marrow, and spleen were sub-classified as reticuloendothelial or non-reticuloendothelial based on the phago-endocytic capacity of the endothelial cells. The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across capillary walls of non-sinusoidal non-fenestrated blood capillaries is less than 1 nm for those with interendothelial cell clefts lined with zona occludens junctions (i.e. brain and spinal cord), and approximately 5 nm for those with clefts lined with macula occludens junctions (i.e. skeletal muscle). The physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated blood capillaries with diaphragmed fenestrae ranges between 6 and 12 nm (i.e. exocrine and endocrine glands); whereas, the physiologic upper limit of pore size for transvascular flow across the capillary walls of non-sinusoidal fenestrated capillaries with open 'non-diaphragmed' fenestrae is approximately 15 nm (kidney glomerulus). In the case of the sinusoidal reticuloendothelial blood capillaries of myeloid bone marrow, the transvascular transport of non-endogenous macromolecules larger than 5 nm into the bone marrow interstitial space takes place via reticuloendothelial cell-mediated phago-endocytosis and transvascular release, which is the case for systemic bone marrow imaging agents as large as 60 nm in diameter. The physiologic upper limit of pore size in the capillary walls of most non-sinusoidal blood capillaries to the transcapillary passage of lipid-insoluble endogenous and non-endogenous macromolecules ranges between 5 and 12 nm. Therefore, macromolecules larger than the physiologic upper limits of pore size in the non-sinusoidal blood capillary types generally do not accumulate within the

  4. Do Surface Porosity and Pore Size Influence Mechanical Properties and Cellular Response to PEEK?

    PubMed

    Torstrick, F Brennan; Evans, Nathan T; Stevens, Hazel Y; Gall, Ken; Guldberg, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    in ductility compared with PEEK-IM and demonstrated fatigue strength > 38 MPa at one million cycles. All PEEK-SP groups also supported greater proliferation and cell-mediated mineralization compared with smooth PEEK and Ti6Al4V. The PEEK-SP formulations evaluated in this study maintained favorable mechanical properties that merit further investigation into their use in load-bearing orthopaedic applications and supported greater in vitro osteogenic differentiation compared with smooth PEEK and Ti6Al4V. These results are independent of pore sizes ranging 200 µm to 508 µm. PEEK-SP may provide enhanced osseointegration compared with current implants while maintaining the structural integrity to be considered for several load-bearing orthopaedic applications such as spinal fusion or soft tissue repair.

  5. Thermal expansion of boron subnitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednichenko, Kirill A.; Gigli, Lara; Solozhenko, Vladimir L.

    2018-07-01

    The lattice parameters of two boron subnitrides, B13N2 and B50N2, have been measured as a function of temperature between 298 and 1273 K, and the corresponding thermal expansion coefficients have been determined. Thermal expansion of both boron subnitrides was found to be quasi-linear, and the volume thermal expansion coefficients of B50N2 (15.7 (2) × 10-6 K-1) and B13N2 (21.3 (2) × 10-6 K-1) are of the same order of magnitude as those of boron-rich compounds with structure related to α-rhombohedral boron. For both boron subnitrides no temperature-induced phase transitions have been observed in the temperature range under study.

  6. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    A new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases is described. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they were used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts - as well as the other parameters - can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline - resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  7. Expansion-based passive ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique of passive ranging which is based on utilizing the image-plane expansion experienced by every object as its distance from the sensor decreases. This technique belongs in the feature/object-based family. The motion and shape of a small window, assumed to be fully contained inside the boundaries of some object, is approximated by an affine transformation. The parameters of the transformation matrix are derived by initially comparing successive images, and progressively increasing the image time separation so as to achieve much larger triangulation baseline than currently possible. Depth is directly derived from the expansion part of the transformation. To a first approximation, image-plane expansion is independent of image-plane location with respect to the focus of expansion (FOE) and of platform maneuvers. Thus, an expansion-based method has the potential of providing a reliable range in the difficult image area around the FOE. In areas far from the FOE the shift parameters of the affine transformation can provide more accurate depth information than the expansion alone, and can thus be used similarly to the way they have been used in conjunction with the Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) and Kalman filtering. However, the performance of a shift-based algorithm, when the shifts are derived from the affine transformation, would be much improved compared to current algorithms because the shifts--as well as the other parameters--can be obtained between widely separated images. Thus, the main advantage of this new approach is that, allowing the tracked window to expand and rotate, in addition to moving laterally, enables one to correlate images over a very long time span which, in turn, translates into a large spatial baseline resulting in a proportionately higher depth accuracy.

  8. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Huang, Y.Y.

    1998-07-28

    Methods are disclosed for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physical sorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics. 17 figs.

  9. Crystalline mesoporous zirconia catalysts having stable tetragonal pore wall structure

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Huang, Yin-Yan

    1998-01-01

    Methods for the preparation of new sulfated mesoporous zirconia materials/catalysts with crystalline pore walls of predominantly tetragonal crystal structure, characterized by nitrogen physisorption measurement, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and catalytic tests using n-butane isomerization to iso-butane and alkylation of 1-naphthol with 4-tert-butylstyrene as probe reactions. Sulfate deposition is preferred for the transformation of a mesoporous precursor with amorphous pore walls into a material with crystalline pore walls maintaining the mesoporous characteristics.

  10. Induction of "pore" formation in plant cell membranes by toluene.

    PubMed

    Lerner, H R; Ben-Bassat, D; Reinhold, L; Poljakoff-Mayber, A

    1978-02-01

    Treatment with aqueous toluene-ethanol has been shown to induce "pore" formation in plant cell membranes. The evidence is as follows: [List: see text]While the principal experimental material was roots of Atriplex nummularia Lindl., the fact that similar results were also observed with leaves of Pisum sativum L. and with the alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chik. suggests that the phenomenon is general.Although the phenomenon of pore induction is qualitatively similar to that in microorganisms, the pores induced appear to be smaller. It is proposed that induced leakage could be the basis for the development of simple and rapid methods for plant biochemical studies.

  11. Rapid Polymer Transport in a Single Nanometer-Scale Pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasianowicz, J. J.

    1998-03-01

    Protein ion channels are nanometer-scale pores that control the transport of ions and polymers across cell membranes. We compared the ability of charged and nonelectrolyte linear polymers to partition into a single channel reconstituted into a planar lipid bilayer membrane. The entry of each polymer (e.g. monodisperse length single-stranded homopolymeric RNA1 or poly(ethylene glycol)2,3) into the pore caused characteristic transient decreases in the channel's ionic conductance. The ionic current blockades yield detailed information about the physical properties of the polymers and the pore. The biological and technological significance of the results will be discussed.

  12. Time evolution of pore system in lime - Pozzolana composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleželová, Magdaléna; Čáchová, Monika; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Keppert, Martin

    2017-11-01

    The lime - pozzolana mortars and plasters are used in restoration works on building cultural heritage but these materials are also following the trend of energy - efficient solutions in civil engineering. Porosity and pore size distribution is one of crucial parameters influencing engineering properties of porous materials. The pore size distribution of lime based system is changing in time due to chemical processes occurring in the material. The present paper describes time evolution of pore system in lime - pozzolana composites; the obtained results are useful in prediction of performance of lime - pozzolana systems in building structures.

  13. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  14. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  15. Expansion of transient operating data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Real time operating data is very important to understand actual system response. Unfortunately, the amount of physical data points typically collected is very small and often interpretation of the data is difficult. Expansion techniques have been developed using traditional experimental modal data to augment this limited set of data. This expansion process allows for a much improved description of the real time operating response. This paper presents the results from several different structures to show the robustness of the technique. Comparisons are made to a more complete set of measured data to validate the approach. Both analytical simulations and actual experimental data are used to illustrate the usefulness of the technique.

  16. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  17. 48 CFR 570.403 - Expansion requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Continued Space Requirements 570.403 Expansion requests. (a) If the expansion space is in the general scope... justification under FAR 6.3. (b) If the expansion space needed is outside the general scope of the lease, the contracting officer must determine whether it is more prudent to provide the expansion space by supplemental...

  18. 48 CFR 570.403 - Expansion requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Continued Space Requirements 570.403 Expansion requests. (a) If the expansion space is in the general scope... FAR 6.3. (b) If the expansion space needed is outside the general scope of the lease, determine whether it is more prudent to provide the expansion space by supplemental agreement to the existing lease...

  19. 48 CFR 570.403 - Expansion requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Continued Space Requirements 570.403 Expansion requests. (a) If the expansion space is in the general scope... justification under FAR 6.3. (b) If the expansion space needed is outside the general scope of the lease, the contracting officer must determine whether it is more prudent to provide the expansion space by supplemental...

  20. 48 CFR 570.403 - Expansion requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Continued Space Requirements 570.403 Expansion requests. (a) If the expansion space is in the general scope... justification under FAR 6.3. (b) If the expansion space needed is outside the general scope of the lease, the contracting officer must determine whether it is more prudent to provide the expansion space by supplemental...

  1. 48 CFR 570.403 - Expansion requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Continued Space Requirements 570.403 Expansion requests. (a) If the expansion space is in the general scope... justification under FAR 6.3. (b) If the expansion space needed is outside the general scope of the lease, the contracting officer must determine whether it is more prudent to provide the expansion space by supplemental...

  2. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in

  3. Removable Type Expansion Bolt Innovative Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Expansion bolt is a kind of the most common things in our daily life. Currently, there are many kinds of expansion bolts in the market. However, they have some shortcomings that mainly contain underuse and unremovement but our innovation of design makes up for these shortcomings very well. Principle of working follows this: expansion tube is fixed outside of bolt, steel balls and expansion covers are fixed inside. Meanwhile, the steel balls have 120° with each other. When using it ,expansion cover is moved in the direction of its internal part. So the front part of expansion bolt cover is increasingly becoming big and steel halls is moved outside. Only in this way can it be fixed that steel balls make expansion tube expand. When removing them, expansion bolt is moved outside. So the front part of expansion bolt cover is gradually becoming small and steel balls moves inside, after expansion tube shrinks, we can detach them.

  4. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators. PMID:25580377

  5. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators.

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, T J; Vansteelandt, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators.

  6. Pore-scale modeling of hydromechanical coupled mechanics in hydrofracturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Moran

    2017-05-01

    Hydrofracturing is an important technique in petroleum industry to stimulate well production. Yet the mechanism of induced fracture growth is still not fully understood, which results in some unsatisfactory wells even with hydrofracturing treatments. In this work we establish a more accurate numerical framework for hydromechanical coupling, where the solid deformation and fracturing are modeled by discrete element method and the fluid flow is simulated directly by lattice Boltzmann method at pore scale. After validations, hydrofracturing is simulated with consideration on the strength heterogeneity effects on fracture geometry and microfailure mechanism. A modified topological index is proposed to quantify the complexity of fracture geometry. The results show that strength heterogeneity has a significant influence on hydrofracturing. In heterogeneous samples, the fracturing behavior is crack nucleation around the tip of fracture and connection of it to the main fracture, which is usually accompanied by shear failure. However, in homogeneous ones the fracture growth is achieved by the continuous expansion of the crack, where the tensile failure often dominates. It is the fracturing behavior that makes the fracture geometry in heterogeneous samples much more complex than that in homogeneous ones. In addition, higher pore pressure leads to more shear failure events for both heterogeneous and homogeneous samples.

  7. Bilayer Deformation, Pores, and Micellation Induced by Oxidized Lipids.

    PubMed

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Jarerattanachat, Viwan; Karttunen, Mikko; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2015-12-17

    The influence of different oxidized lipids on lipid bilayers was investigated with 16 individual 1 μs atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Binary mixtures of lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) and its peroxide and aldehyde products were performed at different concentrations. In addition, an asymmetrical short chain lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PDPC), was used to compare the effects of polar/apolar groups in the lipid tail on lipid bilayer. Although water defects occurred with both aldehyde and peroxide lipids, full pore formation was observed only for aldehyde lipids. At medium concentrations the pores were stable. At higher concentrations, however, the pores became unstable and micellation occurred. Data analysis shows that aldehyde lipids' propensity for pore formation is due to their shorter and highly mobile tail. The highly polar peroxide lipids are stabilized by strong hydrogen bonds with interfacial water.

  8. Mesoporous Akaganeite of Adjustable Pore Size Synthesized using Mixed Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Ge, D. L.; Ren, H. P.; Fan, Y. J.; Wu, L. M.; Sun, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    Mesoporous akaganeite with large and adjustable pore size was synthesized through a co-template method, which was achieved by the combined interaction between PEG2000 and alkyl amines with different lengths of the straight carbon chain. The characterized results indicate that the synthesized samples show comparatively narrow BJH pore size distributions and centered at 14.3 nm when PEG and HEPA was used, and it could be enlarged to 16.8 and 19.4 nm respectively through changing the alkyl amines to DDA and HDA. Meanwhile, all the synthesized akaganeite possess relativity high specific surface area ranging from 183 to 281 m2/g and high total pore volume of 0.98 to 1.5 cm3/g. A possible mechanism leading to the pore size changing was also proposed.

  9. Abnormal formation velocities and applications to pore pressure prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libin; Shen, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhentao; Yang, Hongwei; Han, Hongwei; Cheng, Yuanfeng

    2018-06-01

    The pore pressure is a vital concept to the petroleum industry and cannot be ignored by either reservoir engineers or geoscientists. Based on theoretical analyses of effective stresses and the grain packing model, a new equation is proposed for predicting pore pressures from formation velocity data. The predictions agree well with both measured pressures and estimations using Eaton's empirical equation, but the application of the new equation to seismic data is simple and convenient. One application example shows that the identification of sweet spots is much easier using pore pressure data than with inverted seismic velocity data. In another application example using field seismic data, a distribution of overpressured strata is revealed, which is a crucial clue for petroleum generation and accumulation. Still, the accuracy of pore pressure prediction is hardly always guaranteed, mainly owing to the complexity of the real geology and the suitability of specific assumptions about the underlying rock physics.

  10. Applications of biological pores in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Majd, Sheereen; Yusko, Erik C; Billeh, Yazan N; Macrae, Michael X; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Biological protein pores and pore-forming peptides can generate a pathway for the flux of ions and other charged or polar molecules across cellular membranes. In nature, these nanopores have diverse and essential functions that range from maintaining cell homeostasis and participating in cell signaling to activating or killing cells. The combination of the nanoscale dimensions and sophisticated - often regulated - functionality of these biological pores make them particularly attractive for the growing field of nanobiotechnology. Applications range from single-molecule sensing to drug delivery and targeted killing of malignant cells. Potential future applications may include the use of nanopores for single strand DNA sequencing and for generating bio-inspired, and possibly, biocompatible visual detection systems and batteries. This article reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming peptides and proteins in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Applications of biological pores in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Majd, Sheereen; Yusko, Erik C; Billeh, Yazan N; Macrae, Michael X; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Biological protein pores and pore-forming peptides can generate a pathway for the flux of ions and other charged or polar molecules across cellular membranes. In nature, these nanopores have diverse and essential functions that range from maintaining cell homeostasis and participating in cell signaling to activating or killing cells. The combination of the nanoscale dimensions and sophisticated – often regulated – functionality of these biological pores make them particularly attractive for the growing field of nanobiotechnology. Applications range from single-molecule sensing to drug delivery and targeted killing of malignant cells. Potential future applications may include the use of nanopores for single strand DNA sequencing and for generating bio-inspired, and possibly, biocompatible visual detection systems and batteries. This article reviews the current state of applications of pore-forming peptides and proteins in nanomedicine, sensing, and nanoelectronics. PMID:20561776

  12. Westward Expansion: The Oregon Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, James F.

    This 8-week interdisciplinary unit for fourth- and fifth-grade students helps children address the U.S. westward expansion in the 1840's using the interactive software program, The Oregon Trail. The unit provides connections to literature, geography, computer/mathematics skills, language arts, and research skills. The work is done in cooperative…

  13. Expansive Openness in Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Previous work on the use of open educational resources in K-12 classrooms has generally focused on issues related to cost. The current study takes a more expansive view of openness that also accounts for adaptation and sharing in authentic classroom contexts. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study The study seeks to…

  14. Tiny Pores Observed by New Solar Telescope and Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, KyungSuk; Bong, S.; Chae, J.; Kim, Y.; Park, Y.; Ahn, K.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2011-05-01

    Seoul National University and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute installed Fast Imaging Solar Spectrograph (FISS) in the Cude room of the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory on May 14, 2010. FISS is a unique system that can do imaging of H-alpha and Ca II 8542 band simultaneously, which is quite suitable for studying of dynamics of chromosphere. To investigate the relationship between the photospheric and low-chromospheric motions at the pore region, we took a coordinate observation with NST/FISS and Hinode/SOT for new emerging active region (AR11117) on October 26, 2010. In the observed region, we could find two tiny pores and two small magnetic concentrations (SMCs), which have similar magnetic flux with the pores but do not look dark. Magnetic flux density and Doppler velocities at the photosphere are estimated by applying the center-of-gravity (COG) method to the HINODE/spectropolarimeter (SP) data. The line-of-sight motions above the photosphere are determined by adopting the bisector method to the wing spectra of Ha and CaII 8542 lines. As results, we found the followings. (1)There are upflow motion on the pores and downflow motion on the SMCs. (2)Towards the CaII 8542 line center, upflow motion decrease and turn to downward motion in pores, while the speed of down flow motion increases in the SMCs. (3)There is oscillating motion above pores and the SMCs, and this motion keep its pattern along the height. (4) As height increase, there is a general tendency of the speed shift to downward on pores and the SMCs. In this poster, we will present preliminary understanding of the coupling of pore dynamics between the photosphere and the low-chromosphere.

  15. Direct Numerical Simulation of Low Capillary Number Pore Scale Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, S.; Soulaine, C.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    The arrangement of void spaces and the granular structure of a porous medium determines multiple macroscopic properties of the rock such as porosity, capillary pressure, and relative permeability. Therefore, it is important to study the microscopic structure of the reservoir pores and understand the dynamics of fluid displacements through them. One approach for doing this, is direct numerical simulation of pore-scale flow that requires a robust numerical tool for prediction of fluid dynamics and a detailed understanding of the physical processes occurring at the pore-scale. In pore scale flows with a low capillary number, Eulerian multiphase methods are well-known to produce additional vorticity close to the interface. This is mainly due to discretization errors which lead to an imbalance of capillary pressure and surface tension forces that causes unphysical spurious currents. At the pore scale, these spurious currents can become significantly stronger than the average velocity in the phases, and lead to unphysical displacement of the interface. In this work, we first investigate the capability of the algebraic Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in OpenFOAM for low capillary number pore scale flow simulations. Afterward, we compare VOF results with a Coupled Level-Set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) method and Iso-Advector method. It has been shown that the former one reduces the VOF's unphysical spurious currents in some cases, and both are known to capture interfaces sharper than VOF. As the conclusion, we will investigate that whether the use of CLSVOF or Iso-Advector will lead to less spurious velocities and more accurate results for capillary driven pore-scale multiphase flows or not. Keywords: Pore-scale multiphase flow, Capillary driven flows, Spurious currents, OpenFOAM

  16. Interactions between bedforms, turbulence and pore flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blois, G.; Best, J.; Sambrook Smith, G.; Hardy, R. J.; Lead, J.

    2010-12-01

    A widespread occurrence of flow-form interaction in rivers is represented by subaqueous bedforms such as dunes. Many models have been proposed to explain how bedform generation and evolution are driven by turbulent flow structures that control the incipient motion of cohesionless sediments and later bedform development. However, most of these models have assumed such bedforms to be migrating over an impermeable bed, and that any surface-subsurface flow interaction is negligible. However, for some gravel-bed rivers the porosity can be high, up to 43%, which may result in significant flow both through the permeable bed (hyporheic flow) and across the surface-subsurface interface. The mass and momentum exchange occurring at the interface may have a strong impact on the structure of turbulent flow in the near-bed region. In the case of a dune, its topography induces a local pressure gradient that enhances flow across the interface. This results in a flow structure that may be radically different from that commonly proposed by past work. This paper presents results from a simplified laboratory model akin to a fine-grained bedform generated on top of a coarser sediment bed. Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted in order to characterise flow both over and underneath an idealised 2-dimensional dune (0.41 m long, 0.056 m high and having a leeside angle of 27°) overlaying a packed bed of uniform size spheres (D = 0.04 m diameter). Experiments were conducted in free surface flow conditions (Froude number = 0.1; Reynolds number = 25,000) for one bedform height: flow depth ratio (0.31). The flow above the dune was measured using a standard PIV technique while a novel endoscopic PIV (EPIV) system allowed collection of flow data within the pore spaces beneath the dune. The results show that topographically-induced subsurface flow significantly modifies the structure of flow in the leeside of the dune, resulting in a flow field that is radically different

  17. Membrane pore formation in atomistic and coarse-grained simulations.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Sonja A; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2016-10-01

    Biological cells and their organelles are protected by ultra thin membranes. These membranes accomplish a broad variety of important tasks like separating the cell content from the outer environment, they are the site for cell-cell interactions and many enzymatic reactions, and control the in- and efflux of metabolites. For certain physiological functions e.g. in the fusion of membranes and also in a number of biotechnological applications like gene transfection the membrane integrity needs to be compromised to allow for instance for the exchange of polar molecules across the membrane barrier. Mechanisms enabling the transport of molecules across the membrane involve membrane proteins that form specific pores or act as transporters, but also so-called lipid pores induced by external fields, stress, or peptides. Recent progress in the simulation field enabled to closely mimic pore formation as supposed to occur in vivo or in vitro. Here, we review different simulation-based approaches in the study of membrane pores with a focus on lipid pore properties such as their size and energetics, poration mechanisms based on the application of external fields, charge imbalances, or surface tension, and on pores that are induced by small molecules, peptides, and lipids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of landslide motion by dilatancy and pore pressure feedback

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    A new mathematical model clarifies how diverse styles and rates of landslide motion can result from regulation of Coulomb friction by dilation or contraction of water-saturated basal shear zones. Normalization of the model equations shows that feedback due to coupling between landslide motion, shear zone volume change, and pore pressure change depends on a single dimensionless parameter ??, which, in turn, depends on the dilatancy angle ?? and the intrinsic timescales for pore pressure generation and dissipation. If shear zone soil contracts during slope failure, then ?? 0, and negative feedback permits slow, steady landslide motion to occur while positive pore pressure is supplied by rain infiltration. Steady state slip velocities v0 obey v0 = -(K/??) p*e, where K is the hydraulic conductivity and p*e is the normalized (dimensionless) negative pore pressure generated by dilation. If rain infiltration and attendant pore pressure growth continue unabated, however, their influence ultimately overwhelms the stabilizing influence of negative p*e. Then, unbounded landslide acceleration occurs, accentuated by an instability that develops if ?? diminishes as landslide motion proceeds. Nonetheless, numerical solutions of the model equations show that slow, nearly steady motion of a clay-rich landslide may persist for many months as a result of negative pore pressure feedback that regulates basal Coulomb friction. Similarly stabilized motion is less likely to occur in sand-rich landslides that are characterized by weaker negative feedback.

  19. Pore growth in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Jeong, G. Y.; Sohn, D.-S.; Jamison, L. M.

    2016-09-01

    U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel is currently under development in the DOE's Material Management and Minimization program to convert HEU-fueled research reactors to LEU-fueled reactors. In some demanding conditions in high-power and high-performance reactors, large pores form in the interaction layers between the U-Mo fuel particles and the Al matrix, which pose a potential to cause fuel failure. In this study, comprehension of the formation and growth of these pores was explored. As a product, a model to predict pore growth and porosity increase was developed. The model includes three major topics: fission gas release from the U-Mo and the IL to the pores, stress evolution in the fuel meat, and the effect of amorphous IL growth. Well-characterized in-pile data from reduced-size plates were used to fit the model parameters. A data set from full-sized plates, independent and distinctively different from those used to fit the model parameters, was used to examine the accuracy of the model. The model showed fair agreement with the measured data. The model suggested that the growth of the IL has a critical effect on pore growth, as both its material properties and energetics are favorable to pore formation. Therefore, one area of the current effort, focused on suppressing IL growth, appears to be on the right track to improve the performance of this fuel.

  20. Pore opening dynamics in the exocytosis of serotonin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Cercos, Montserrat G.; Martinez-Valencia, Alejandro; Salinas Hernandez, Israel; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo; de-Miguel, Francisco F.

    2015-03-01

    The current view of the exocytosis of transmitter molecules is that it starts with the formation of a fusion pore that connects the intravesicular and the extracellular spaces, and is completed by the release of the rest of the transmitter contained in the vesicle upon the full fusion and collapse of the vesicle with the plasma membrane. However, under certain circumstances, a rapid closure of the pore before the full vesicle fusion produces only a partial release of the transmitter. Here we show that whole release of the transmitter occurs through fusion pores that remain opened for tens of milliseconds without vesicle collapse. This was demonstrated through amperometric measurements of serotonin release from electrodense vesicles in the axon of leech Retzius neurons and mathematical modelling. By modeling transmitter release with a diffusion equation subjected to boundary conditions that are defined by the experiment, we showed that those pores with a fast half rise time constant remained opened and allowed the full quantum release without vesicle collapse, whereas pores with a slow rise time constant closed rapidly, thus producing partial release. We conclude that a full transmitter release may occur through the fusion pore in the absence of vesicle collapse. This work was founded by a DGAPA-UNAM grants IN200914 and IN118410 CONACYT GRANT 130031, and CONACyT doctoral fellowships.

  1. Smooth DNA transport through a narrowed pore geometry.

    PubMed

    Carson, Spencer; Wilson, James; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Wanunu, Meni

    2014-11-18

    Voltage-driven transport of double-stranded DNA through nanoscale pores holds much potential for applications in quantitative molecular biology and biotechnology, yet the microscopic details of translocation have proven to be challenging to decipher. Earlier experiments showed strong dependence of transport kinetics on pore size: fast regular transport in large pores (> 5 nm diameter), and slower yet heterogeneous transport time distributions in sub-5 nm pores, which imply a large positional uncertainty of the DNA in the pore as a function of the translocation time. In this work, we show that this anomalous transport is a result of DNA self-interaction, a phenomenon that is strictly pore-diameter dependent. We identify a regime in which DNA transport is regular, producing narrow and well-behaved dwell-time distributions that fit a simple drift-diffusion theory. Furthermore, a systematic study of the dependence of dwell time on DNA length reveals a single power-law scaling of 1.37 in the range of 35-20,000 bp. We highlight the resolution of our nanopore device by discriminating via single pulses 100 and 500 bp fragments in a mixture with >98% accuracy. When coupled to an appropriate sequence labeling method, our observation of smooth DNA translocation can pave the way for high-resolution DNA mapping and sizing applications in genomics.

  2. Smooth DNA Transport through a Narrowed Pore Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Spencer; Wilson, James; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Wanunu, Meni

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-driven transport of double-stranded DNA through nanoscale pores holds much potential for applications in quantitative molecular biology and biotechnology, yet the microscopic details of translocation have proven to be challenging to decipher. Earlier experiments showed strong dependence of transport kinetics on pore size: fast regular transport in large pores (> 5 nm diameter), and slower yet heterogeneous transport time distributions in sub-5 nm pores, which imply a large positional uncertainty of the DNA in the pore as a function of the translocation time. In this work, we show that this anomalous transport is a result of DNA self-interaction, a phenomenon that is strictly pore-diameter dependent. We identify a regime in which DNA transport is regular, producing narrow and well-behaved dwell-time distributions that fit a simple drift-diffusion theory. Furthermore, a systematic study of the dependence of dwell time on DNA length reveals a single power-law scaling of 1.37 in the range of 35–20,000 bp. We highlight the resolution of our nanopore device by discriminating via single pulses 100 and 500 bp fragments in a mixture with >98% accuracy. When coupled to an appropriate sequence labeling method, our observation of smooth DNA translocation can pave the way for high-resolution DNA mapping and sizing applications in genomics. PMID:25418307

  3. Mitochondrial Ca2+ and Regulation of the Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Stephen; Hoek, Jan; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore was originally described in the 1970’s as a Ca2+ activated pore and has since been attributed to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Here we evaluate how each of the current models of the pore complex fit to what is known about how Ca2+ regulates the pore, and any insight that provides into the molecular identity of the pore complex. We also discuss the central role of Ca2+ in modulating the pore’s open probability by directly regulating processes, such as ATP/ADP balance through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport chain, and mitochondrial membrane potential. We review how Ca2+ influences second messengers such as reactive oxygen/nitrogen species production and polyphosphate formation. We discuss the evidence for how Ca2+ regulates post-translational modification of cyclophilin D including phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, deacetylation by sirtuins, and oxidation/nitrosylation of key residues. Lastly we introduce a novel view into how Ca2+ activated proteolysis through calpains in the mitochondria may be a driver of sustained pore opening during pathologies such as ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:27497945

  4. Characterisation of pore structures of pharmaceutical tablets: A review.

    PubMed

    Markl, Daniel; Strobel, Alexa; Schlossnikl, Rüdiger; Bøtker, Johan; Bawuah, Prince; Ridgway, Cathy; Rantanen, Jukka; Rades, Thomas; Gane, Patrick; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Zeitler, J Axel

    2018-03-01

    Traditionally, the development of a new solid dosage form is formulation-driven and less focus is put on the design of a specific microstructure for the drug delivery system. However, the compaction process particularly impacts the microstructure, or more precisely, the pore architecture in a pharmaceutical tablet. Besides the formulation, the pore structure is a major contributor to the overall performance of oral solid dosage forms as it directly affects the liquid uptake rate, which is the very first step of the dissolution process. In future, additive manufacturing is a potential game changer to design the inner structures and realise a tailor-made pore structure. In pharmaceutical development the pore structure is most commonly only described by the total porosity of the tablet matrix. Yet it is of great importance to consider other parameters to fully resolve the interplay between microstructure and dosage form performance. Specifically, tortuosity, connectivity, as well as pore shape, size and orientation all impact the flow paths and play an important role in describing the fluid flow in a pharmaceutical tablet. This review presents the key properties of the pore structures in solid dosage forms and it discusses how to measure these properties. In particular, the principles, advantages and limitations of helium pycnometry, mercury porosimetry, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray computed microtomography are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of subsurface pore pressure through IODP drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffer, D. M.; Flemings, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    It is critical to understand the magnitude and distribution of subsurface pore fluid pressure: it controls effective stress and thus mechanical strength, slope stability, and sediment compaction. Elevated pore pressures also drive fluid flows that serve as agents of mass, solute, and heat fluxes. The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have provided important avenues to quantify pore pressure in a range of geologic and tectonic settings. These approaches include 1) analysis of continuous downhole logs and shipboard physical properties data to infer compaction state and in situ pressure and stress, 2) laboratory consolidation testing of core samples collected by drilling, 3) direct downhole measurements using pore pressure probes, 3) pore pressure and stress measurements using downhole tools that can be deployed in wide diameter pipe recently acquired for riser drilling, and 4) long-term monitoring of formation pore pressure in sealed boreholes within hydraulically isolated intervals. Here, we summarize key advances in quantification of subsurface pore pressure rooted in scientific drilling, highlighting with examples from subduction zones, the Gulf of Mexico, and the New Jersey continental shelf. At the Nankai, Costa Rican, and Barbados subduction zones, consolidation testing of cores samples, combined with analysis of physical properties data, indicates that even within a few km landward of the trench, pore pressures in and below plate boundary décollement zones reach a significant fraction of the lithostatic load (λ*=0.25-0.91). These results document a viable and quantifiable mechanism to explain the mechanical weakness of subduction décollements, and are corroborated by a small number of direct measurements in sealed boreholes and by inferences from seismic reflection data. Recent downhole measurements conducted during riser drilling using the modular formation dynamics tester wireline tool (MDT) in a forearc basin ~50

  6. Amyloid pore-channel hypothesis: effect of ethanol on aggregation state using frog oocytes for an Alzheimer's disease study.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge; Ormeño, David; Ochoa-de la Paz, Lenin D

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease severely compromises cognitive function. One of the mechanisms to explain the pathology of Alzheimer's disease has been the hypotheses of amyloid-pore/channel formation by complex Aβ-aggregates. Clinical studies suggested the moderate alcohol consumption can reduces probability developing neurodegenerative pathologies. A recent report explored the ability of ethanol to disrupt the generation of complex Aβ in vitro and reduce the toxicity in two cell lines. Molecular dynamics simulations were applied to understand how ethanol blocks the aggregation of amyloid. On the other hand, the in silico modeling showed ethanol effect over the dynamics assembling for complex Aβ-aggregates mediated by break the hydrosaline bridges between Asp 23 and Lys 28, was are key element for amyloid dimerization. The amyloid pore/channel hypothesis has been explored only in neuronal models, however recently experiments suggested the frog oocytes such an excellent model to explore the mechanism of the amyloid pore/channel hypothesis. So, the used of frog oocytes to explored the mechanism of amyloid aggregates is new, mainly for amyloid/pore hypothesis. Therefore, this experimental model is a powerful tool to explore the mechanism implicates in the Alzheimer's disease pathology and also suggests a model to prevent the Alzheimer's disease pathology.

  7. Promoter- and RNA polymerase II–dependent hsp-16 gene association with nuclear pores in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Sabine; Kalck, Veronique; Wang, Xuefei; Ikegami, Kohta; Lieb, Jason D.; Meister, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Some inducible yeast genes relocate to nuclear pores upon activation, but the general relevance of this phenomenon has remained largely unexplored. Here we show that the bidirectional hsp-16.2/41 promoter interacts with the nuclear pore complex upon activation by heat shock in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Direct pore association was confirmed by both super-resolution microscopy and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The hsp-16.2 promoter was sufficient to mediate perinuclear positioning under basal level conditions of expression, both in integrated transgenes carrying from 1 to 74 copies of the promoter and in a single-copy genomic insertion. Perinuclear localization of the uninduced gene depended on promoter elements essential for induction and required the heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1, RNA polymerase II, and ENY-2, a factor that binds both SAGA and the THO/TREX mRNA export complex. After induction, colocalization with nuclear pores increased significantly at the promoter and along the coding sequence, dependent on the same promoter-associated factors, including active RNA polymerase II, and correlated with nascent transcripts. PMID:23460676

  8. Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size

    SciTech Connect

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Melnichenko, Yuri B

    Researchers have measured the phase behavior of green house gases in pores at the Angstrom-level, using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Yuri Melnichenko, an instrument scientist on the General Purpose Small Angle Neutron Scattering (GP SANS) Diffractometer at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor, his postdoctoral associate Lilin He and collaborators Nidia Gallego and Cristian Contescu from the Material Sciences Division (ORNL) were engaged in the work. They were studying nanoporous carbons to assess their attractiveness as storage media for hydrogen, with a view to potential use for on-board hydrogen storagemore » for transportation applications. Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in a carbon nanoporous material for hydrogen storage is less than one nanometer. In a paper recently published by the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the collaborators used small angle neutron scattering to study how hydrogen condenses in small pores at ambient temperature. They discovered that the surface-molecule interactions create internal pressures in pores that may exceed the external gas pressure by a factor of up to 50. 'This is an exciting result,' Melnichenko said, 'as you achieve extreme densification in pores 'for free', i.e. without spending any energy. These results can be used to guide the development of new carbon adsorbents tailored to maximize hydrogen storage capacities.' Another important factor that defines the adsorption capacity of sub-nanometer pores is their shape. In order to get accurate structural information and maximize sorption capacity, it is important that pores are small and of approximately uniform size. In collaboration with Drexel University's Yury Gogotsi who supplied the samples, Melnichenko and his collaborators used the GP SANS

  9. Pore dimensions and the role of occupancy in unitary conductance of Shaker K channels

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Navarro-Quezada, Nieves; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    K channels mediate the selective passage of K+ across the plasma membrane by means of intimate interactions with ions at the pore selectivity filter located near the external face. Despite high conservation of the selectivity filter, the K+ transport properties of different K channels vary widely, with the unitary conductance spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude. Mutation of Pro475, a residue located at the cytoplasmic entrance of the pore of the small-intermediate conductance K channel Shaker (Pro475Asp (P475D) or Pro475Gln (P475Q)), increases Shaker’s reported ∼20-pS conductance by approximately six- and approximately threefold, respectively, without any detectable effect on its selectivity. These findings suggest that the structural determinants underlying the diversity of K channel conductance are distinct from the selectivity filter, making P475D and P475Q excellent probes to identify key determinants of the K channel unitary conductance. By measuring diffusion-limited unitary outward currents after unilateral addition of 2 M sucrose to the internal solution to increase its viscosity, we estimated a pore internal radius of capture of ∼0.82 Å for all three Shaker variants (wild type, P475D, and P475Q). This estimate is consistent with the internal entrance of the Kv1.2/2.1 structure if the effective radius of hydrated K+ is set to ∼4 Å. Unilateral exposure to sucrose allowed us to estimate the internal and external access resistances together with that of the inner pore. We determined that Shaker resistance resides mainly in the inner cavity, whereas only ∼8% resides in the selectivity filter. To reduce the inner resistance, we introduced additional aspartate residues into the internal vestibule to favor ion occupancy. No aspartate addition raised the maximum unitary conductance, measured at saturating [K+], beyond that of P475D, suggesting an ∼200-pS conductance ceiling for Shaker. This value is approximately one third of the maximum

  10. Impact of Casing Expansion on the Mechanical and Petro-Physical Properties of Wellbore Cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyibo, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the applicability of expandable casing technology as a remediation technique for leaky wells resulting in gas migration problems. Micro annulus is usually created at the cement-formation/cement-casing interface or within the cement matrix either due to poor primary cementing or as a result of activities such as temperature and pressure variation or fracturing operations. Recent reports on gas migration in hydraulically fractured wellbores, has raised concerns on the contamination of fresh water aquifers resulting from fluid migration though this flow path. A unique bench-scale physical model which utilizes expandable tubulars in the remediation of micro annular gas flow has been used to simulate expansion of a previously-cemented casing under field-like conditions. Three different designs of cement slurry: regular 16.4 lb. /gal, 16.4 lb. /gal base slurry foamed to 13 lb. /gal and 16.4 lb. /gal cement slurry with 10% salt concentration. Gas flow path (microannulus) was artificially created at the pipe-cement interface by rotating the inner pipe in a pipe inside pipe assembly with cement in the annulus within the first few hours of hydration to create debonding at the cement-casing interface. Nitrogen gas flow-through experiments were performed before and after the expansion to confirm the sealing of the microannulus. The results obtained confirmed the effectiveness of this technique in the complete closure of gas leakage path, providing seal-tight cement-formation interface free of microannulus. The manipulation of the cement sheath during the casing expansion resulted in improved porosity, permeability and the strength of the cement sheath. SEM micrographs revealed decrease in pore size and fracturing of unhydrated cement grains within the cement matrix. This technology has great potential to become one of the leading cement remediation techniques for leaks behind the casing if implemented. Keywords: Wellbore

  11. Long-pore Electrostatics in Inward-rectifier Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Janice L.; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Roux, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels differ from the canonical K+ channel structure in that they possess a long extended pore (∼85 Å) for ion conduction that reaches deeply into the cytoplasm. This unique structural feature is presumably involved in regulating functional properties specific to Kir channels, such as conductance, rectification block, and ligand-dependent gating. To elucidate the underpinnings of these functional roles, we examine the electrostatics of an ion along this extended pore. Homology models are constructed based on the open-state model of KirBac1.1 for four mammalian Kir channels: Kir1.1/ROMK, Kir2.1/IRK, Kir3.1/GIRK, and Kir6.2/KATP. By solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the electrostatic free energy of a K+ ion is determined along each pore, revealing that mammalian Kir channels provide a favorable environment for cations and suggesting the existence of high-density regions in the cytoplasmic domain and cavity. The contribution from the reaction field (the self-energy arising from the dielectric polarization induced by the ion's charge in the complex geometry of the pore) is unfavorable inside the long pore. However, this is well compensated by the electrostatic interaction with the static field arising from the protein charges and shielded by the dielectric surrounding. Decomposition of the static field provides a list of residues that display remarkable correspondence with existing mutagenesis data identifying amino acids that affect conduction and rectification. Many of these residues demonstrate interactions with the ion over long distances, up to 40 Å, suggesting that mutations potentially affect ion or blocker energetics over the entire pore. These results provide a foundation for understanding ion interactions in Kir channels and extend to the study of ion permeation, block, and gating in long, cation-specific pores. PMID:19001143

  12. PORE-SCALE MODELING OF BIOLOGICAL CLOGGING DUE TO AGGREGATE EXPANSION: A MATERIAL MECHANICS APPROACH. (R828772)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. [Tissue expansion under the cicatrix].

    PubMed

    Cai, Guo-Bin; Liu, Liu; Li, Tai-Ying; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2005-09-01

    To investigate a more simple and effective method to repair cicatrix by tissue expansion. The dilator with the capacity of 80 - 500 ml was implanted into the subcutaneous pocket under the cicatrix. After dilating for one to two months, the dilator was taken out and the wound surface of the cicatrix was removed. The expanded skin flap was advanced or rotated to cover the defects. The procedure was used on 203 cases. The dilatation was achieved successfully in all the cases, followed by cicatrix removing and repair. The incision scar was not noticeable. Tissue expansion under the cicatrix has the advantages of safety, less trauma and less extra incisions. It is a reasonable choice to obtain more flexible surgical designs and more economical skin flap applications. It is suitable for most of the treatment for cicatrix.

  14. Pleiotrophin regulates the expansion and regeneration of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Himburg, Heather A; Muramoto, Garrett G; Daher, Pamela; Meadows, Sarah K; Russell, J Lauren; Doan, Phuong; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Salter, Alice B; Lento, William E; Reya, Tannishtha; Chao, Nelson; Chute, John P

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Although some of the pathways that regulate HSC self-renewal have been uncovered, it remains largely unknown whether these pathways can be triggered by deliverable growth factors to induce HSC growth or regeneration. Here we show that pleiotrophin, a neurite outgrowth factor with no known function in hematopoiesis, efficiently promotes HSC expansion in vitro and HSC regeneration in vivo. Treatment of mouse bone marrow HSCs with pleiotrophin caused a marked increase in long-term repopulating HSC counts in culture, as measured in competitive repopulating assays. Treatment of human cord blood CD34+CDCD38−Lin− cells with pleiotrophin also substantially increased severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-repopulating cell counts in culture, compared to input and cytokine-treated cultures. Systemic administration of pleiotrophin to irradiated mice caused a pronounced expansion of bone marrow stem and progenitor cells in vivo, indicating that pleiotrophin is a regenerative growth factor for HSCs. Mechanistically, pleiotrophin activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in HSCs; antagonism of PI3K or Notch signaling inhibited pleiotrophin-mediated expansion of HSCs in culture. We identify the secreted growth factor pleiotrophin as a new regulator of both HSC expansion and regeneration PMID:20305662

  15. Pleiotrophin regulates the expansion and regeneration of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Himburg, Heather A; Muramoto, Garrett G; Daher, Pamela; Meadows, Sarah K; Russell, J Lauren; Doan, Phuong; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Salter, Alice B; Lento, William E; Reya, Tannishtha; Chao, Nelson J; Chute, John P

    2010-04-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Although some of the pathways that regulate HSC self-renewal have been uncovered, it remains largely unknown whether these pathways can be triggered by deliverable growth factors to induce HSC growth or regeneration. Here we show that pleiotrophin, a neurite outgrowth factor with no known function in hematopoiesis, efficiently promotes HSC expansion in vitro and HSC regeneration in vivo. Treatment of mouse bone marrow HSCs with pleiotrophin caused a marked increase in long-term repopulating HSC numbers in culture, as measured in competitive repopulating assays. Treatment of human cord blood CD34(+)CDCD38(-)Lin(-) cells with pleiotrophin also substantially increased severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-repopulating cell counts in culture, compared to input and cytokine-treated cultures. Systemic administration of pleiotrophin to irradiated mice caused a pronounced expansion of bone marrow stem and progenitor cells in vivo, indicating that pleiotrophin is a regenerative growth factor for HSCs. Mechanistically, pleiotrophin activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in HSCs; antagonism of PI3K or Notch signaling inhibited pleiotrophin-mediated expansion of HSCs in culture. We identify the secreted growth factor pleiotrophin as a new regulator of both HSC expansion and regeneration.

  16. Three-Dimensional Quantification of Pore Space in Flocculated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Tom; Spencer, Kate; Bushby, Andy; Manning, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Flocculated sediment structure plays a vital role in determining sediment dynamics within the water column in fresh and saline water bodies. The porosity of flocs contributes to their specific density and therefore their settling characteristics, and can also affect settling characteristics via through-flow. The process of settling and resuspension of flocculated material causes the formation of larger and more complex individual flocs, about which little is known quantitatively of the internal micro-structure and therefore porosity. Hydrological and sedimentological modelling software currently uses estimations of porosity, because it is difficult to capture and analyse flocs. To combat this, we use a novel microscopy method usually performed on biological material to scan the flocs, the output of which can be used to quantify the dimensions and arrangement of pores. This involves capturing flocculated sediment, staining the sample with heavy metal elements to highlight organic content in the Scanning Electron Microscope later, and finally setting the sample in resin. The overall research aim is to quantitatively characterise the dimensions and distribution of pore space in flocs in three dimensions. In order to gather data, Scanning Electron Microscopy and micro-Computed Tomography have been utilised to produce the necessary images to identify and quantify the pore space. The first objective is to determine the dimensional limits of pores in the structure (i.e. what area do they encapsulate? Are they interconnected or discreet?). This requires a repeatable definition to be established, so that all floc pore spaces can be quantified using the same parameters. The LabSFLOC settling column and dyes will be used as one possible method of determining the outer limits of the discreet pore space. LabSFLOC is a sediment settling column that uses a camera to record the flocs, enabling analysis of settling characteristics. The second objective is to develop a reliable

  17. Comparison of Pore Fractal Characteristics Between Marine and Continental Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Yanbin; Liu, Dameng; Cai, Yidong; Cai, Jianchao

    Fractal characterization offers a quantitative evaluation on the heterogeneity of pore structure which greatly affects gas adsorption and transportation in shales. To compare the fractal characteristics between marine and continental shales, nine samples from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi formation in the Sichuan basin and nine from the Middle Jurassic Dameigou formation in the Qaidam basin were collected. Reservoir properties and fractal dimensions were characterized for all the collected samples. In this study, fractal dimensions were originated from the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model with N2 adsorption data. Compared to continental shale, marine shale has greater values of quartz content, porosity, specific surface area and total pore volume but lower level of clay minerals content, permeability, average pore diameter and methane adsorption capacity. The quartz in marine shale is mostly associated with biogenic origin, while that in continental shale is mainly due to terrigenous debris. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms exhibit that marine shale has fewer inkbottle-shaped pores but more plate-like and slit-shaped pores than continental shale. Two fractal dimensions (D1 and D2) were obtained at P/Po of 0-0.5 and 0.5-1. The dimension D2 is commonly greater than D1, suggesting that larger pores (diameter >˜ 4nm) have more complex structures than small pores (diameter <˜ 4nm). The fractal dimensions (both D1 and D2) positively correlate to clay minerals content, specific surface area and methane adsorption capacity, but have negative relationships with porosity, permeability and average pore diameter. The fractal dimensions increase proportionally with the increasing quartz content in marine shale but have no obvious correlation with that in continental shale. The dimension D1 is correlative to the TOC content and permeability of marine shale at a similar degree with dimension D2, while the dimension D1 is more sensitive to those of continental shale than

  18. Study of pore pressure reaction on hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimonova, Mariia; Baryshnikov, Nikolay; Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeniy; Zenchenko, Petr

    2017-04-01

    We represent the results of the experimental study of the hydraulic fracture propagation influence on the fluid pore pressure. Initial pore pressure was induced by injection and production wells. The experiments were carried out according to scaling analysis based on the radial model of the fracture. All required geomechanical and hydrodynamical properties of a sample were derived from the scaling laws. So, gypsum was chosen as a sample material and vacuum oil as a fracturing fluid. The laboratory setup allows us to investigate the samples of cylindrical shape. It can be considered as an advantage in comparison with standard cubic samples, because we shouldn't consider the stress field inhomogeneity induced by the corners. Moreover, we can set 3D-loading by this setting. Also the sample diameter is big enough (43cm) for placing several wells: the fracturing well in the center and injection and production wells on two opposite sides of the central well. The experiment consisted of several stages: a) applying the horizontal pressure; b) applying the vertical pressure; c) water solution injection in the injection well with a constant pressure; d) the steady state obtaining; e) the oil injection in the central well with a constant rate. The pore pressure was recorded in the 15 points along bottom side of the sample during the whole experiment. We observe the pore pressure change during all the time of the experiment. First, the pore pressure changed due to water injection. Then we began to inject oil in the central well. We compared the obtained experimental data on the pore pressure changes with the solution of the 2D single-phase equation of pore-elasticity, and we found significant difference. The variation of the equation parameters couldn't help to resolve the discrepancy. After the experiment, we found that oil penetrated into the sample before and after the fracture initiation. This fact encouraged us to consider another physical process - the oil

  19. High sulfur loading cathodes fabricated using peapodlike, large pore volume mesoporous carbon for lithium-sulfur battery.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Han, Fei; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Fei; Sun, Qiang; Li, Wen-Cui

    2013-03-01

    Porous carbon materials with large pore volume are crucial in loading insulated sulfur with the purpose of achieving high performance for lithium-sulfur batteries. In our study, peapodlike mesoporous carbon with interconnected pore channels and large pore volume (4.69 cm(3) g(-1)) was synthesized and used as the matrix to fabricate carbon/sulfur (C/S) composite which served as attractive cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries. Systematic investigation of the C/S composite reveals that the carbon matrix can hold a high but suitable sulfur loading of 84 wt %, which is beneficial for improving the bulk density in practical application. Such controllable sulfur-filling also effectively allows the volume expansion of active sulfur during Li(+) insertion. Moreover, the thin carbon walls (3-4 nm) of carbon matrix not only are able to shorten the pathway of Li(+) transfer and conduct electron to overcome the poor kinetics of sulfur cathode, but also are flexible to warrant structure stability. Importantly, the peapodlike carbon shell is beneficial to increase the electrical contact for improving electronic conductivity of active sulfur. Meanwhile, polymer modification with polypyrrole coating layer further restrains polysulfides dissolution and improves the cycle stability of carbon/sulfur composites.

  20. Measurements of pore-scale flow through apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnicki, Kirsten

    Pore-scale aperture effects on flow in pore networks was studied in the laboratory to provide a parameterization for use in transport models. Four cases were considered: regular and irregular pillar/pore alignment with and without an aperture. The velocity field of each case was measured and simulated, providing quantitatively comparable results. Two aperture effect parameterizations were considered: permeability and transmission. Permeability values varied by an order of magnitude between the cases with and without apertures. However, transmission did not correlate with permeability. Despite having much greater permeability the regular aperture case permitted less transmission than the regular case. Moreover, both irregularmore » cases had greater transmission than the regular cases, a difference not supported by the permeabilities. Overall, these findings suggest that pore-scale aperture effects on flow though a pore-network may not be adequately captured by properties such as permeability for applications that are interested in determining particle transport volume and timing.« less

  1. Gradual pore formation in natural origin scaffolds throughout subcutaneous implantation

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana M.; Kretlow, James D.; Costa-Pinto, Ana R.; Malafaya, Patrícia B.; Fernandes, Emanuel M.; Neves, Nuno M.; Alves, Catarina M.; Mikos, Antonios G.; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Reis, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study employed a rat subcutaneous implantation model to investigate gradual in situ pore formation in a self-regulating degradable chitosan-based material, which comprises lysozyme incorporated into biomimetic calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings at the surface in order to control the scaffold degradation and subsequent pore formation. Specifically, the in vivo degradation of the scaffolds, the in situ pore formation and the tissue response were investigated. Chitosan or chitosan/starch scaffolds were studied with and without a CaP coating in the presence or absence of lysozyme for a total of 6 experimental groups. Twenty-four scaffolds per group were implanted, and eight scaffolds were retrieved at each of three time points (3, 6 and 12 weeks). Harvested samples were analyzed for weight loss, micro-computed tomography, and histological analysis. All scaffolds showed pronounced weight loss and pore formation as a function of time. The highest weight loss was 29.8 ± 1.5%, obtained at week 12 for CaP chitosan/starch scaffolds with lysozyme incorporated. Moreover, all experimental groups showed a significant increase in porosity after 12 weeks. At all time points no adverse tissue reaction was observed, and as degradation increased, histological analysis showed cellular ingrowth throughout the implants. Using this innovative methodology, the ability to gradually generate pores in situ was clearly demonstrated in vivo. PMID:22213676

  2. Blocking of Single α-Hemolysin Pore by Rhodamine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Nazarov, Pavel A; Golovin, Andrey V; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2017-06-06

    Measurements of ion conductance through α-hemolysin pore in a bilayer lipid membrane revealed blocking of the ion channel by a series of rhodamine 19 and rhodamine B esters. The longest dwell closed time of the blocking was observed with rhodamine 19 butyl ester (C4R1), whereas the octyl ester (C8R1) was of poor effect. Voltage asymmetry in the binding kinetics indicated that rhodamine derivatives bound to the stem part of the aqueous pore lumen. The binding frequency was proportional to a quadratic function of rhodamine concentrations, thereby showing that the dominant binding species were rhodamine dimers. Two levels of the pore conductance and two dwell closed times of the pore were found. The dwell closed times lengthened as the voltage increased, suggesting impermeability of the channel for the ligands. Molecular docking analysis revealed two distinct binding sites within the lumen of the stem of the α-hemolysin pore for the C4R1 dimer, but only one binding site for the C8R1 dimer. The blocking of the α-hemolysin nanopore by rhodamines could be utilized in DNA sequencing as additional optical sensing owing to bright fluorescence of rhodamines if used for DNA labeling. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantification of Soil Pore Structure Based on Minkowski-Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, H.; Weller, U.; Schlüter, S.

    2009-05-01

    The porous structure in soils and other geologic media is typically a complex 3-dimensional object. Most of the physical material properties including mechanical and hydraulic characteristics are immediately linked to this structure which can be directly observed using non-invasive techniques as e.g. X-ray tomography. It is an old dream and still a formidable challenge to related structural features of porous media to their physical properties. In this contribution we present a scale-invariant concept to quantify pore structure based on a limited set of meaningful morphological functions. They are based on d+1 Minkowski functionals as defined for d-dimensional bodies. These basic quantities are determined as a function of pore size obtained by filter procedures using mathematical morphology. The resulting Minkowski functions provide valuable information on pore size, pore surface area and pore topology having the potential to be linked to physical properties. The theoretical background and the related algorithms are presented and the approach is demonstrated for the structure of an arable topsoil obtained by X-ray micro tomography. We also discuss the fundamental problem of limited resolution which is critical for any attempt to quantify structural features at any scale.

  4. The Bicomponent Pore-Forming Leucocidins of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Francis

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to produce water-soluble proteins with the capacity to oligomerize and form pores within cellular lipid bilayers is a trait conserved among nearly all forms of life, including humans, single-celled eukaryotes, and numerous bacterial species. In bacteria, some of the most notable pore-forming molecules are protein toxins that interact with mammalian cell membranes to promote lysis, deliver effectors, and modulate cellular homeostasis. Of the bacterial species capable of producing pore-forming toxic molecules, the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most notorious. S. aureus can produce seven different pore-forming protein toxins, all of which are believed to play a unique role in promoting the ability of the organism to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The most diverse of these pore-forming toxins, in terms of both functional activity and global representation within S. aureus clinical isolates, are the bicomponent leucocidins. From the first description of their activity on host immune cells over 100 years ago to the detailed investigations of their biochemical function today, the leucocidins remain at the forefront of S. aureus pathogenesis research initiatives. Study of their mode of action is of immediate interest in the realm of therapeutic agent design as well as for studies of bacterial pathogenesis. This review provides an updated perspective on our understanding of the S. aureus leucocidins and their function, specificity, and potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:24847020

  5. The role of pore geometry in single nanoparticle detection

    DOE PAGES

    Davenport, Matthew; Healy, Ken; Pevarnik, Matthew; ...

    2012-08-22

    In this study, we observe single nanoparticle translocation events via resistive pulse sensing using silicon nitride pores described by a range of lengths and diameters. Pores are prepared by focused ion beam milling in 50 nm-, 100 nm-, and 500 nm-thick silicon nitride membranes with diameters fabricated to accommodate spherical silica nanoparticles with sizes chosen to mimic that of virus particles. In this manner, we are able to characterize the role of pore geometry in three key components of the detection scheme, namely, event magnitude, event duration, and event frequency. We find that the electric field created by the appliedmore » voltage and the pore’s geometry is a critical factor. We develop approximations to describe this field, which are verified with computer simulations, and interactions between particles and this field. In so doing, we formulate what we believe to be the first approximation for the magnitude of ionic current blockage that explicitly addresses the invariance of access resistance of solid-state pores during particle translocation. These approximations also provide a suitable foundation for estimating the zeta potential of the particles and/or pore surface when studied in conjunction with event durations. We also verify that translocation achieved by electro-osmostic transport is an effective means of slowing translocation velocities of highly charged particles without compromising particle capture rate as compared to more traditional approaches based on electrophoretic transport.« less

  6. Nonlinear effects on composite laminate thermal expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashin, Z.; Rosen, B. W.; Pipes, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    Analyses of Graphite/Polyimide laminates shown that the thermomechanical strains cannot be separated into mechanical strain and free thermal expansion strain. Elastic properties and thermal expansion coefficients of unidirectional Graphite/Polyimide specimens were measured as a function of temperature to provide inputs for the analysis. The + or - 45 degrees symmetric Graphite/Polyimide laminates were tested to obtain free thermal expansion coefficients and thermal expansion coefficients under various uniaxial loads. The experimental results demonstrated the effects predicted by the analysis, namely dependence of thermal expansion coefficients on load, and anisotropy of thermal expansion under load. The significance of time dependence on thermal expansion was demonstrated by comparison of measured laminate free expansion coefficients with and without 15 day delay at intermediate temperature.

  7. A Power Series Expansion and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Using the power series solution of a differential equation and the computation of a parametric integral, two elementary proofs are given for the power series expansion of (arcsin x)[squared], as well as some applications of this expansion.

  8. Simplifying Bridge Expansion Joint Design and Maintenance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-10-19

    This report presents a study focused on identifying the most durable expansion joints for the South : Carolina Department of Transportation. This is performed by proposing a degradation model for the : expansion joints and updating it based on bridge...

  9. Chemical recombination in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, Robert J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    1994-01-01

    The note describes the theoretical basis of chemical recombination in an expansion tube which simulates energy, Reynolds number, and stream chemistry at near-orbital velocities. Expansion tubes can satisfy ground-based hypersonic propulsion and aerothermal testing requirements.

  10. Analysis of the initiation of nuclear pore assembly by ectopically targeting nucleoporins to chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Michal; Travesa, Anna; Martell, Steven W; Forbes, Douglass J

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) form the gateway to the nucleus, mediating virtually all nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Assembly of a nuclear pore complex requires the organization of many soluble sub-complexes into a final massive structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. By use of a LacI/LacO reporter system, we were able to assess nucleoporin (Nup) interactions, show that they occur with a high level of specificity, and identify nucleoporins sufficient for initiation of the complex process of NPC assembly in vivo. Eleven nucleoporins from different sub-complexes were fused to LacI-CFP and transfected separately into a human cell line containing a stably integrated LacO DNA array. The LacI-Nup fusion proteins, which bound to the array, were examined for their ability to recruit endogenous nucleoporins to the intranuclear LacO site. Many could recruit nucleoporins of the same sub-complex and a number could also recruit other sub-complexes. Strikingly, Nup133 and Nup107 of the Nup107/160 subcomplex and Nup153 and Nup50 of the nuclear pore basket recruited a near full complement of nucleoporins to the LacO array. Furthermore, Nup133 and Nup153 efficiently targeted the LacO array to the nuclear periphery. Our data support a hierarchical, seeded assembly pathway and identify Nup133 and Nup153 as effective “seeds” for NPC assembly. In addition, we show that this system can be applied to functional studies of individual nucleoporin domains as well as to specific nucleoporin disease mutations. We find that the R391H cardiac arrhythmia/sudden death mutation of Nup155 prevents both its subcomplex assembly and nuclear rim targeting of the LacO array. PMID:25602437

  11. Elements of the niche for adult stem cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, Patricia A; Pavlou, Marina; Loizidou, Marilena; Cheema, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Adult stem cells are crucial for tissue homeostasis. These cells reside within exclusive locations in tissues, termed niches, which protect adult stem cell fidelity and regulate their many functions through biophysical-, biochemical- and cellular-mediated mechanisms. There is a growing understanding of how these mechanisms and their components contribute towards maintaining stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, expansion and differentiation patterns. In vitro expansion of adult stem cells is a powerful tool for understanding stem cell biology, and for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. However, it is technically challenging, since adult stem cell removal from their native microenvironment has negative repercussions on their sustainability. In this review, we overview specific elements of the biomimetic niche and how recreating such elements can help in vitro propagation of adult stem cells. PMID:28890779

  12. Elements of the niche for adult stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Patricia A; Pavlou, Marina; Loizidou, Marilena; Cheema, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Adult stem cells are crucial for tissue homeostasis. These cells reside within exclusive locations in tissues, termed niches, which protect adult stem cell fidelity and regulate their many functions through biophysical-, biochemical- and cellular-mediated mechanisms. There is a growing understanding of how these mechanisms and their components contribute towards maintaining stem cell quiescence, self-renewal, expansion and differentiation patterns. In vitro expansion of adult stem cells is a powerful tool for understanding stem cell biology, and for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. However, it is technically challenging, since adult stem cell removal from their native microenvironment has negative repercussions on their sustainability. In this review, we overview specific elements of the biomimetic niche and how recreating such elements can help in vitro propagation of adult stem cells.

  13. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions. 154.309 Section 154.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged...

  14. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incremental expansions. 154.309 Section 154.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged...

  15. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incremental expansions. 154.309 Section 154.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged...

  16. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incremental expansions. 154.309 Section 154.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged...

  17. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incremental expansions. 154.309 Section 154.309 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged...

  18. Industrial trials of low-expansivity sawblades

    Treesearch

    Jeanne D. Danielson; Frank J. Worzala

    1992-01-01

    Low-expansivity alloys have the potential to reduce thermal instability of sawblades during the sawing operation. In preliminary industrial trials of sawblades made of low-expansivity alloy, sawing accuracy was improved 22 to 38 percent during normal sawing. When saws made of a low-expansivity alloy were operated with a large temperature gradient across the blade,...

  19. Pore Water Transport of Enterococci out of Beach Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reniers, Adrianus J. H. M.; Wang, John D.; Kiger, Russell T.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Noha

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to evaluate the safety of beach waters and studies have identified beach sands as a source of these bacteria. In order to study and quantify the release of microbes from beach sediments, flow column systems were built to evaluate flow of pore water out of beach sediments. Results show a peak in enterococci (average of 10% of the total microbes in core) released from the sand core within one pore water volume followed by a marked decline to below detection. These results indicate that few enterococci are easily removed and that factors other than simple pore water flow control the release of the majority of enterococci within beach sediments. A significantly larger quantity and release of enterococci were observed in cores collected after a significant rain event suggesting the influx of fresh water can alter the release pattern as compared to cores with no antecedent rainfall. PMID:21945015

  20. Fines classification based on sensitivity to pore-fluid chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jang, Junbong; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The 75-μm particle size is used to discriminate between fine and coarse grains. Further analysis of fine grains is typically based on the plasticity chart. Whereas pore-fluid-chemistry-dependent soil response is a salient and distinguishing characteristic of fine grains, pore-fluid chemistry is not addressed in current classification systems. Liquid limits obtained with electrically contrasting pore fluids (deionized water, 2-M NaCl brine, and kerosene) are combined to define the soil “electrical sensitivity.” Liquid limit and electrical sensitivity can be effectively used to classify fine grains according to their fluid-soil response into no-, low-, intermediate-, or high-plasticity fine grains of low, intermediate, or high electrical sensitivity. The proposed methodology benefits from the accumulated experience with liquid limit in the field and addresses the needs of a broader range of geotechnical engineering problems.

  1. Pore-scale simulation of calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution under highly supersaturated conditions in a microfludic pore network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.; Valocchi, A. J.; Werth, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved CO2 during geological CO2 storage may react with minerals in fractured rocks or confined aquifers and cause mineral precipitation. The overall rate of reaction can be affected by coupled processes among hydrodynamics, transport, and reactions at pore-scale. Pore-scale models of coupled fluid flow, reactive transport, and CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution are applied to account for transient experimental results of CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution under highly supersaturated conditions in a microfluidic pore network (i.e., micromodel). Pore-scale experiments in the micromodel are used as a basis for understanding coupled physics of systems perturbed by geological CO2 injection. In the micromodel, precipitation is induced by transverse mixing along the centerline in pore bodies. Overall, the pore-scale model qualitatively captured the governing physics of reactions such as precipitate morphology, precipitation rate, and maximum precipitation area in first few pore spaces. In particular, we found that proper estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient and the reactive surface area is necessary to adequately simulate precipitation and dissolution rates. As the model domain increases, the effect of flow patterns affected by precipitation on the overall reaction rate also increases. The model is also applied to account for the effect of different reaction rate laws on mineral precipitation and dissolution at pore-scale. Reaction rate laws tested include the linear rate law, nonlinear power law, and newly-developed rate law based on in-situ measurements at nano scale in the literature. Progress on novel methods for upscaling pore-scale models for reactive transport are discussed, and are being applied to mineral precipitation patterns observed in natural analogues. H.Y. and T. D. were supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of

  2. On the permeation of large organic cations through the pore of ATP-gated P2X receptors

    PubMed Central

    Harkat, Mahboubi; Peverini, Laurie; Dunning, Kate; Beudez, Juline; Martz, Adeline; Calimet, Nicolas; Specht, Alexandre; Cecchini, Marco; Chataigneau, Thierry; Grutter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Pore dilation is thought to be a hallmark of purinergic P2X receptors. The most commonly held view of this unusual process posits that under prolonged ATP exposure the ion pore expands in a striking manner from an initial small-cation conductive state to a dilated state, which allows the passage of larger synthetic cations, such as N-methyl-d-glucamine (NMDG+). However, this mechanism is controversial, and the identity of the natural large permeating cations remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that, contrary to the time-dependent pore dilation model, ATP binding opens an NMDG+-permeable channel within milliseconds, with a conductance that remains stable over time. We show that the time course of NMDG+ permeability superimposes that of Na+ and demonstrate that the molecular motions leading to the permeation of NMDG+ are very similar to those that drive Na+ flow. We found, however, that NMDG+ “percolates” 10 times slower than Na+ in the open state, likely due to a conformational and orientational selection of permeating molecules. We further uncover that several P2X receptors, including those able to desensitize, are permeable not only to NMDG+ but also to spermidine, a large natural cation involved in ion channel modulation, revealing a previously unrecognized P2X-mediated signaling. Altogether, our data do not support a time-dependent dilation of the pore on its own but rather reveal that the open pore of P2X receptors is wide enough to allow the permeation of large organic cations, including natural ones. This permeation mechanism has considerable physiological significance. PMID:28442564

  3. Change in desorption mechanism from pore blocking to cavitation with temperature for nitrogen in ordered silica with cagelike pores.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi; Hirose, Fumi; Aramaki, Kenji

    2006-10-24

    To verify pore blocking controlled desorption in ink-bottle pores, we measured the temperature dependence of the adsorption-desorption isotherms of nitrogen on four kinds of KIT-5 samples with expanded cavities hydrothermally treated for different periods of time at 393 K. In the samples, almost spherical cavities are arranged in a face-centered cubic array and the cavities are connected through small channels. The pore size of the channels increased with an increase in the hydrothermal treatment time. At lower temperatures a steep desorption branch changed to a gradual one as the hydrothermal treatment was prolonged. For the sample hydrothermally treated only for 1 day, the rectangular hysteresis loop shrank gradually with increasing temperature while keeping its shape. The temperature dependence of the evaporation pressure observed was identical with that expected for cavitation-controlled desorption. On the other hand, for the samples hydrothermally treated for long times, the gradual desorption branch became a sharp one with increasing temperature. This strongly suggests that the desorption mechanism is altered from pore blocking to cavitation with temperature. Application of percolation theory to the pore blocking controlled desorption observed here is discussed.

  4. Pore invasion dynamics during fluid front displacement in porous media determine functional pore size distribution and phase entrapment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, F.; Or, D.

    2012-12-01

    Dynamics of fluid fronts in porous media shape transport properties of the unsaturated zone and affect management of petroleum reservoirs and their storage properties. What appears macroscopically as smooth and continuous motion of a displacement fluid front may involve numerous rapid interfacial jumps often resembling avalanches of invasion events. Direct observations using high-speed camera and pressure sensors in sintered glass micro-models provide new insights on the influence of flow rates, pore size, and gravity on invasion events and on burst size distribution. Fundamental differences emerge between geometrically-defined pores and "functional" pores invaded during a single burst (invasion event). The waiting times distribution of individual invasion events and decay times of inertial oscillations (following a rapid interfacial jump) are characteristics of different displacement regimes. An invasion percolation model with gradients and including the role of inertia provide a framework for linking flow regimes with invasion sequences and phase entrapment. Model results were compared with measurements and with early studies on invasion burst sizes and waiting times distribution during slow drainage processes by Måløy et al. [1992]. The study provides new insights into the discrete invasion events and their weak links with geometrically-deduced pore geometry. Results highlight factors controlling pore invasion events that exert strong influence on macroscopic phenomena such as front morphology and residual phase entrapment shaping hydraulic properties after the passage of a fluid front.

  5. Pore-water chemistry explains zinc phytotoxicity in soil.

    PubMed

    Kader, Mohammed; Lamb, Dane T; Correll, Ray; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) is a widespread soil contaminant arising from a numerous anthropogenic sources. However, adequately predicting toxicity of Zn to ecological receptors remains difficult due to the complexity of soil characteristics. In this study, we examined solid-solution partitioning using pore-water data and toxicity of Zn to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in spiked soils. Pore-water effective concentration (ECx, x=10%, 20% and 50% reduction) values were negatively related to pH, indicating lower Zn pore water concentration were needed to cause phytotoxicity at high pH soils. Total dissolved zinc (Znpw) and free zinc (Zn(2+)) in soil-pore water successfully described 78% and 80.3% of the variation in relative growth (%) in the full dataset. When the complete data set was used (10 soils), the estimated EC50pw was 450 and 79.2 µM for Znpw and Zn(2+), respectively. Total added Zn, soil pore water pH (pHpw) and dissolve organic carbon (DOC) were the best predictors of Znpw and Zn(2+) in pore-water. The EC10 (total loading) values ranged from 179 to 5214 mg/kg, depending on soil type. Only pH measurements in soil were related to ECx total Zn data. The strongest relationship to ECx overall was pHca, although pHw and pHpw were in general related to Zn ECx. Similarly, when a solution-only model was used to predict Zn in shoot, DOC was negatively related to Zn in shoot, indicating a reduction in uptake/ translocation of Zn from solution with increasing DOC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of Exocytotic Fusion Pores by SNARE Protein Transmembrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenyong; Thiyagarajan, Sathish; O’Shaughnessy, Ben; Karatekin, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-triggered exocytotic release of neurotransmitters and hormones from neurons and neuroendocrine cells underlies neuronal communication, motor activity and endocrine functions. The core of the neuronal exocytotic machinery is composed of soluble N-ethyl maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). Formation of complexes between vesicle-attached v- and plasma-membrane anchored t-SNAREs in a highly regulated fashion brings the membranes into close apposition. Small, soluble proteins called Complexins (Cpx) and calcium-sensing Synaptotagmins cooperate to block fusion at low resting calcium concentrations, but trigger release upon calcium increase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of SNARE proteins play important roles in regulating the processes of fusion and release, but the mechanisms involved are only starting to be uncovered. Here we review recent evidence that SNARE TMDs exert influence by regulating the dynamics of the fusion pore, the initial aqueous connection between the vesicular lumen and the extracellular space. Even after the fusion pore is established, hormone release by neuroendocrine cells is tightly controlled, and the same may be true of neurotransmitter release by neurons. The dynamics of the fusion pore can regulate the kinetics of cargo release and the net amount released, and can determine the mode of vesicle recycling. Manipulations of SNARE TMDs were found to affect fusion pore properties profoundly, both during exocytosis and in biochemical reconstitutions. To explain these effects, TMD flexibility, and interactions among TMDs or between TMDs and lipids have been invoked. Exocytosis has provided the best setting in which to unravel the underlying mechanisms, being unique among membrane fusion reactions in that single fusion pores can be probed using high-resolution methods. An important role will likely be played by methods that can probe single fusion pores in a biochemically

  7. Identification of a major polypeptide of the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex is a prominent structural component of the nuclear envelope that appears to regulate nucleoplasmic molecular movement. Up to now, none of its polypeptides have been defined. To identify possible pore complex proteins, we fractionated rat liver nuclear envelopes and microsomal membranes with strong protein perturbants into peripheral and intrinsic membrane proteins, and compared these fractions on SDS gels. From this analysis, we identified a prominent 190-kilodalton intrinsic membrane polypeptide that occurs specifically in nuclear envelopes. Lectin binding studies indicate that this polypeptide (gp 190) is the major nuclear envelope glycoprotein. Upon treatment of nuclear envelopes with Triton X-100, gp 190 remains associated with a protein substructure of the nuclear envelope consisting of pore complexes and nuclear lamina. We prepared monospecific antibodies to gp 190 for immunocytochemical localization. Immunofluorescence staining of tissue culture cells suggests that gp 190 occurs exclusively in the nucleus during interphase. This polypeptide becomes dispersed throughout the cell in mitotic prophase when the nuclear envelope is disassembled, and subsequently returns to the nuclear surfaces during telophase when the nuclear envelope is reconstructed. Immunoferritin labeling of Triton-treated rat liver nuclei demonstrates that gp 190 occurs exclusively in the nuclear pore complex, in the regions of the cytoplasmic (and possibly nucleoplasmic) pore complex annuli. A polypeptide that cross-reacts with gp 190 is present in diverse vertebrate species, as shown by antibody labeling of nitrocellulose SDS gel transfers. On the basis of its biochemical characteristics, we suggest that gp 190 may be involved in anchoring the pore complex to nuclear envelope membranes. PMID:7153248

  8. Dispersion upscaling from a pore scale characterization of Lagrangian velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turuban, Régis; de Anna, Pietro; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy

    2013-04-01

    Mixing and reactive transport are primarily controlled by the interplay between diffusion, advection and reaction at pore scale. Yet, how the distribution and spatial correlation of the velocity field at pore scale impact these processes is still an open question. Here we present an experimental investigation of the distribution and correlation of pore scale velocities and its relation with upscaled dispersion. We use a quasi two-dimensional (2D) horizontal set up, consisting of two glass plates filled with cylinders representing the grains of the porous medium : the cell is built by soft lithography technique, wich allows for full control of the system geometry. The local velocity field is quantified from particle tracking velocimetry using microspheres that are advected with the pore scale flow. Their displacement is purely advective, as the particle size is chosen large enough to avoid diffusion. We thus obtain particle trajectories as well as lagrangian velocities in the entire system. The measured velocity field shows the existence of a network of preferential flow paths in channels with high velocities, as well as very low velocity in stagnation zones, with a non Gaussian distribution. Lagrangian velocities are long range correlated in time, which implies a non-fickian scaling of the longitudinal variance of particle positions. To upscale this process we develop an effective transport model, based on correlated continous time random walk, which is entirely parametrized by the pore scale velocity distribution and correlation. The model predictions are compared with conservative tracer test data for different Peclet numbers. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of different pore geometries on the distribution and correlation of Lagrangian velocities and we discuss the link between these properties and the effective dispersion behavior.

  9. Transmembrane Pores Formed by Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Shuo

    Human LL-37 is a multifunctional cathelicidin peptide that has shown a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity by permeabilizing microbial membranes similar to other antimicrobial peptides; however, its molecular mechanism has not been clarified. Two independent experiments revealed LL-37 bound to membranes in the {alpha}-helical form with the axis lying in the plane of membrane. This led to the conclusion that membrane permeabilization by LL-37 is a nonpore carpet-like mechanism of action. Here we report the detection of transmembrane pores induced by LL-37. The pore formation coincided with LL-37 helices aligning approximately normal to the plane of the membrane. We observedmore » an unusual phenomenon of LL-37 embedded in stacked membranes, which are commonly used in peptide orientation studies. The membrane-bound LL-37 was found in the normal orientation only when the membrane spacing in the multilayers exceeded its fully hydrated value. This was achieved by swelling the stacked membranes with excessive water to a swollen state. The transmembrane pores were detected and investigated in swollen states by means of oriented circular dichroism, neutron in-plane scattering, and x-ray lamellar diffraction. The results are consistent with the effect of LL-37 on giant unilamellar vesicles. The detected pores had a water channel of radius 2333 {angstrom}. The molecular mechanism of pore formation by LL-37 is consistent with the two-state model exhibited by magainin and other small pore-forming peptides. The discovery that peptide-membrane interactions in swollen states are different from those in less hydrated states may have implications for other large membrane-active peptides and proteins studied in stacked membranes.« less

  10. Thermodynamic characterization of the multivalent interactions underlying rapid and selective translocation through the nuclear pore complex

    PubMed Central

    Hayama, Ryo; Sparks, Samuel; Hecht, Lee M.; Dutta, Kaushik; Karp, Jerome M.; Cabana, Christina M.; Rout, Michael P.; Cowburn, David

    2018-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play important roles in many biological systems. Given the vast conformational space that IDPs can explore, the thermodynamics of the interactions with their partners is closely linked to their biological functions. Intrinsically disordered regions of Phe–Gly nucleoporins (FG Nups) that contain multiple phenylalanine–glycine repeats are of particular interest, as their interactions with transport factors (TFs) underlie the paradoxically rapid yet also highly selective transport of macromolecules mediated by the nuclear pore complex. Here, we used NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry to thermodynamically characterize these multivalent interactions. These analyses revealed that a combination of low per-FG motif affinity and the enthalpy–entropy balance prevents high-avidity interaction between FG Nups and TFs, whereas the large number of FG motifs promotes frequent FG–TF contacts, resulting in enhanced selectivity. Our thermodynamic model underlines the importance of functional disorder of FG Nups. It helps explain the rapid and selective translocation of TFs through the nuclear pore complex and further expands our understanding of the mechanisms of “fuzzy” interactions involving IDPs. PMID:29374059

  11. How to operate a nuclear pore complex by Kap-centric control

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Roderick Y H; Huang, Binlu; Kapinos, Larisa E

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) mediate molecular transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. Tethered within each NPC lie numerous intrinsically disordered proteins known as FG nucleoporins (FG Nups) that are central to this process. Over two decades of investigation has converged on a view that a barrier mechanism consisting of FG Nups rejects non-specific macromolecules while promoting the speed and selectivity of karyopherin (Kaps) receptors (and their cargoes). Yet, the number of NPCs in the cell is exceedingly small compared to the number of Kaps, so that in fact there is a high likelihood the pores are always populated by Kaps. Here, we contemplate a view where Kaps actively participate in regulating the selectivity and speed of transport through NPCs. This so-called “Kap-centric” control of the NPC accounts for Kaps as essential barrier reinforcements that play a prerequisite role in facilitating fast transport kinetics. Importantly, Kap-centric control reconciles both mechanistic and kinetic requirements of the NPC, and in so doing potentially resolves incoherent aspects of FG-centric models. On this basis, we surmise that Kaps prime the NPC for nucleocytoplasmic transport by fine-tuning the NPC microenvironment according to the functional needs of the cell. PMID:26338152

  12. Selectivity Mechanism of the Nuclear Pore Complex Characterized by Single Cargo Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Alan R.; Siegel, Jake J.; Kalab, Petr; Siu, Merek; Weis, Karsten; Liphardt, Jan T.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) mediates all exchange between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Small molecules can passively diffuse through the NPC, while larger cargos require transport receptors to translocate1. How the NPC facilitates the translocation of transport receptor/cargo complexes remains unclear. Here, we track single protein-functionalized Quantum Dot (QD) cargos as they translocate the NPC. Import proceeds by successive sub-steps comprising cargo capture, filtering and translocation, and release into the nucleus. The majority of QDs are rejected at one of these steps and return to the cytoplasm including very large cargos that abort at a size-selective barrier. Cargo movement in the central channel is subdiffusive and cargos that can bind more transport receptors diffuse more freely. Without Ran, cargos still explore the entire NPC, but have a markedly reduced probability of exit into the nucleus, suggesting that NPC entry and exit steps are not equivalent and that the pore is functionally asymmetric to importing cargos. The overall selectivity of the NPC appears to arise from the cumulative action of multiple reversible sub-steps and a final irreversible exit step. PMID:20811366

  13. CD59 signaling and membrane pores drive Syk-dependent erythrocyte necroptosis

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, T J; Stivison, E A; Mal-Sarkar, T; Hooven, T A; Hod, E A; Spitalnik, S L; Ratner, A J

    2015-01-01

    Mature erythrocytes (red blood cells (RBCs)) undergo the programmed cell death (PCD) pathway of necroptosis in response to bacterial pore-forming toxins (PFTs) that target human CD59 (hCD59) but not hCD59-independent PFTs. Here, we investigate the biochemical mechanism of RBC necroptosis with a focus on the mechanism of induction and the minimal requirements for such RBC death. Binding or crosslinking of the hCD59 receptor led to Syk-dependent induction of vesiculated morphology (echinocytes) that was associated with phosphorylation of Band 3 and was required for Fas ligand (FasL) release. FasL-dependent phosphorylation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) in combination with plasma membrane pore formation was required for execution of RBC necroptosis. RIP1 phosphorylation led to the phosphorylation of RIP3, which was also critical for RBC necroptosis. Notably, RBC necroptosis was mediated by FasL and not by other candidate inducers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Other types of RBC damage, such as eryptotic damage, failed to induce necroptosis when combined with hCD59 crosslinking. This work sheds light on the requirements for this recently discovered PCD in RBCs and provides a clear picture of the biochemical mechanism of induction of RBC necroptosis. PMID:26018734

  14. CD59 signaling and membrane pores drive Syk-dependent erythrocyte necroptosis.

    PubMed

    LaRocca, T J; Stivison, E A; Mal-Sarkar, T; Hooven, T A; Hod, E A; Spitalnik, S L; Ratner, A J

    2015-05-28

    Mature erythrocytes (red blood cells (RBCs)) undergo the programmed cell death (PCD) pathway of necroptosis in response to bacterial pore-forming toxins (PFTs) that target human CD59 (hCD59) but not hCD59-independent PFTs. Here, we investigate the biochemical mechanism of RBC necroptosis with a focus on the mechanism of induction and the minimal requirements for such RBC death. Binding or crosslinking of the hCD59 receptor led to Syk-dependent induction of vesiculated morphology (echinocytes) that was associated with phosphorylation of Band 3 and was required for Fas ligand (FasL) release. FasL-dependent phosphorylation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) in combination with plasma membrane pore formation was required for execution of RBC necroptosis. RIP1 phosphorylation led to the phosphorylation of RIP3, which was also critical for RBC necroptosis. Notably, RBC necroptosis was mediated by FasL and not by other candidate inducers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Other types of RBC damage, such as eryptotic damage, failed to induce necroptosis when combined with hCD59 crosslinking. This work sheds light on the requirements for this recently discovered PCD in RBCs and provides a clear picture of the biochemical mechanism of induction of RBC necroptosis.

  15. Inertial effects during irreversible meniscus reconfiguration in angular pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Lunati, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    In porous media, the dynamics of the invading front between two immiscible fluids is often characterized by abrupt reconfigurations caused by local instabilities of the interface. As a prototype of these phenomena we consider the dynamics of a meniscus in a corner as it can be encountered in angular pores. We investigate this process in detail by means of direct numerical simulations that solve the Navier-Stokes equations in the pore space and employ the Volume of Fluid method (VOF) to track the evolution of the interface. We show that for a quasi-static displacement, the numerically calculated surface energy agrees well with the analytical solutions that we have derived for pores with circular and square cross sections. However, the spontaneous reconfigurations are irreversible and cannot be controlled by the injection rate: they are characterized by the amount of surface energy that is spontaneously released and transformed into kinetic energy. The resulting local velocities can be orders of magnitude larger than the injection velocity and they induce damped oscillations of the interface that possess their own time scales and depend only on fluid properties and pore geometry. In complex media (we consider a network of cubic pores) reconfigurations are so frequent and oscillations last long enough that increasing inertial effects leads to a different fluid distribution by influencing the selection of the next pore to be invaded. This calls into question simple pore-filling rules based only on capillary forces. Also, we demonstrate that inertial effects during irreversible reconfigurations can influence the work done by the external forces that is related to the pressure drop in Darcy's law. This suggests that these phenomena have to be considered when upscaling multiphase flow because local oscillations of the menisci affect macroscopic quantities and modify the constitutive relationships to be used in macro-scale models. These results can be extrapolated to other

  16. Effects of pore volume-transmissivity correlation on transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Lunati, Ivan; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Ivan

    2003-12-01

    The relevant velocity that describes transport phenomena in a porous medium is the pore velocity. For this reason, one needs not only to describe the variability of transmissivity, which fully determines the Darcy velocity field for given source terms and boundary conditions, but also any variability of the pore volume. We demonstrate that hydraulically equivalent media with exactly the same transmissivity field can produce dramatic differences in the displacement of a solute if they have different pore volume distributions. In particular, we demonstrate that correlation between pore volume and transmissivity leads to a much smoother and more homogeneous solute distribution. This was observed in a laboratory experiment performed in artificial fractures made of two plexiglass plates into which a space-dependent aperture distribution was milled. Using visualization by a light transmission technique, we observe that the solute behaviour is much smoother and more regular after the fractures are filled with glass powder, which plays the role of a homogeneous fault gouge material. This is due to a perfect correlation between pore volume and transmissivity that causes pore velocity to be not directly dependent on the transmissivity, but only indirectly through the hydraulic gradient, which is a much smoother function due to the diffusive behaviour of the flow equation acting as a filter. This smoothing property of the pore volume-transmissivity correlation is also supported by numerical simulations of tracer tests in a dipole flow field. Three different conceptual models are used: an empty fracture, a rough-walled fracture filled with a homogeneous material and a parallel-plate fracture with a heterogeneous fault gouge. All three models are hydraulically equivalent, yet they have a different pore volume distribution. Even if piezometric heads and specific flow rates are exactly the same at any point of the domain, the transport process differs dramatically. These

  17. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  18. Dependence of CO2 Reactivity of Carbon Anodes on Pore Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong; Xue, Jilai; Lang, Guanghui; Liu, Rui; Gao, Shoulei; Wang, Zengjie

    2017-09-01

    The correlation between the CO2 reactivity and pore structure of carbon anodes was experimentally investigated. The pore structures of the anodes before and after CO2 oxidation were characterized using image analysis. The porosity, mean pore diameter, and the number of micro-cracks decreased with increasing anode forming pressure, while they increased with over-compaction. With prolonged CO2 oxidation time, the porosity, pore density, mean pore diameter, pore aspect ratio, and the number of micro-cracks increased due to the merging of small pores, increased pore connectivity, and generation of new pores. The activation energy decreased with increasing porosity of the anodes' pitch phase due to easier CO2 penetration and reaction within the anodes. The results confirm that the fine pitch-coke phase of anodes is preferentially consumed, a cause of carbon dusting. Optimization of the pore structures to balance the pitch, coke, and butt phases may potentially further reduce carbon dusting.

  19. Cosmic growth and expansion conjoined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological measurements of both the expansion history and growth history have matured, and the two together provide an important test of general relativity. We consider their joint evolutionary track, showing that this has advantages in distinguishing cosmologies relative to considering them individually or at isolated redshifts. In particular, the joint comparison relaxes the shape degeneracy that makes fσ8(z) curves difficult to separate from the overall growth amplitude. The conjoined method further helps visualization of which combinations of redshift ranges provide the clearest discrimination. We examine standard dark energy cosmologies, modified gravity, and "stuttering" growth, each showing distinct signatures.

  20. Calculation of Turbulent Expansion Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollmien, Walter

    1945-01-01

    On the basis of certain formulas recently established by L. Prandtl for the turbulent interchange of momentum in stationary flows, various cases of "free turbulence" - that is, of flows without boundary walls - are treated in the present report. Prandtl puts the apparent shearing stress introduced by the turbulent momentum interchange. This present report deals first with the mixing of an air stream of uniform velocity with the adjacent still air, than with the expansion or diffusion of an air jet in the surrounding air space.

  1. Space nuclear system expansion joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, W. D.; Shimazki, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    The engineering, design, and fabrication status of the expansion joint unit (EJU) to be employed in the NaK primary coolant piping loop of the 5-kwe Reactor thermoelectric system are described. Four EJU's are needed in the NaK primary coolant piping loop. The four EJU's which will be identical, utilize bellows as the flexing member, are hermetically sealed, and provide double containment. The bellows are of a nested-formed design, and are to be constructed of 1-ply thickness of 0.010-in. Inconel 718. The EJU's provide a minimum piping load margin of safety of +0.22.

  2. Early cements versus pore-water chemical composition in the subsurface of the sabkha of Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Andreas; Yuan, Peng; Court, Wesley M.; Lokier, Stephen W.; Dutton, Kirsten E.; Van der Land, Cees; Lessa Andrade, Luiza; Sherry, Angela; Head, Ian M.

    2017-04-01

    The coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi is a complex depositional system in an extremely arid climate. This depositional system is marked by the formation of primary carbonate and microbial deposits, and by the development of secondary evaporite and cement phases. A number of earlier studies have assessed the formation of these secondary phases, yet no research has established a relationship between lateral and vertical variations in the chemical composition of pore water and the nature of, in particular, the precipitating pore-filling cements, re-crystallisation features and dissolution. This study aims to establish an understanding of the environmental and sedimentary factors that control early post-depositional changes to sediment composition as a result of sediment - pore water interactions. A particular focus is to characterise changes in the chemistry of the pore water throughout a tidal cycle, aiming at understanding how the influx of 'fresh' lagoonal sea water influences the chemistry of the pore water, and which elements are replenished on a daily basis. The initial data presented here is based upon the relationship between the petrographic analysis of sediment samples and lateral and vertical variations in the chemistry of in-situ sampled pore water. The pore water is characterised with respect to pH, salinity, alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, and the concentrations of a variety of common metallic and non-metallic elements, including (but not limited to) Ca, Fe, Mg, P, S and Sr. Initial results show that concentrations of Mg, P, and V, and the ratios Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca are highest at the seaward sampling locations. Contrastingly, individual concentrations for Ca, Sr, Fe, Si, and Cu are highest at the most landward locality. In particular the higher concentrations for Ca and Sr might indicate diagenetic processes and are thus enriched as a result of e.g. aragonite dissolution. A striking pattern in Mg concentrations show the highest values for this element

  3. Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for porous granular materials: Pore morphology method vs. pore unit assembly method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweijen, Thomas; Aslannejad, Hamed; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    2017-09-01

    In studies of two-phase flow in complex porous media it is often desirable to have an estimation of the capillary pressure-saturation curve prior to measurements. Therefore, we compare in this research the capability of three pore-scale approaches in reproducing experimentally measured capillary pressure-saturation curves. To do so, we have generated 12 packings of spheres that are representative of four different glass-bead packings and eight different sand packings, for which we have found experimental data on the capillary pressure-saturation curve in the literature. In generating the packings, we matched the particle size distributions and porosity values of the granular materials. We have used three different pore-scale approaches for generating the capillary pressure-saturation curves of each packing: i) the Pore Unit Assembly (PUA) method in combination with the Mayer and Stowe-Princen (MS-P) approximation for estimating the entry pressures of pore throats, ii) the PUA method in combination with the hemisphere approximation, and iii) the Pore Morphology Method (PMM) in combination with the hemisphere approximation. The three approaches were also used to produce capillary pressure-saturation curves for the coating layer of paper, used in inkjet printing. Curves for such layers are extremely difficult to determine experimentally, due to their very small thickness and the presence of extremely small pores (less than one micrometer in size). Results indicate that the PMM and PUA-hemisphere method give similar capillary pressure-saturation curves, because both methods rely on a hemisphere to represent the air-water interface. The ability of the hemisphere approximation and the MS-P approximation to reproduce correct capillary pressure seems to depend on the type of particle size distribution, with the hemisphere approximation working well for narrowly distributed granular materials.

  4. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOEpatents

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  5. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Kovacic, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  6. Fractal Characteristics of the Pore Network in Diatomites Using Mercury Porosimetry and Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stańczak, Grażyna; Rembiś, Marek; Figarska-Warchoł, Beata; Toboła, Tomasz

    The complex pore space considerably affects the unique properties of diatomite and its significant potential for many industrial applications. The pore network in the diatomite from the Lower Miocene strata of the Skole nappe (the Jawornik deposit, SE Poland) has been investigated using a fractal approach. The fractal dimension of the pore-space volume was calculated using the Menger sponge as a model of a porous body and the mercury porosimetry data in a pore-throat diameter range between 10,000 and 10 nm. Based on the digital analyses of the two-dimensional images from thin sections taken under a scanning electron microscope at the backscattered electron mode at different magnifications, the authors tried to quantify the pore spaces of the diatomites using the box counting method. The results derived from the analyses of the pore-throat diameter distribution using mercury porosimetry have revealed that the pore space of the diatomite has the bifractal structure in two separated ranges of the pore-throat diameters considerably smaller than the pore-throat sizes corresponding to threshold pressures. Assuming that the fractal dimensions identified for the ranges of the smaller pore-throat diameters characterize the overall pore-throat network in the Jawornik diatomite, we can set apart the distribution of the pore-throat volume (necks) and the pore volume from the distribution of the pore-space volume (pores and necks together).

  7. Application of a pore-scale reactive transport model to a natural analog for reaction-induced pore alterations

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Major, Jonathan; Dewers, Thomas; ...

    2017-01-05

    Dissolved CO 2 in the subsurface resulting from geological CO 2 storage may react with minerals in fractured rocks, confined aquifers, or faults, resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The overall rate of reaction can be affected by coupled processes including hydrodynamics, transport, and reactions at the (sub) pore-scale. In this work pore-scale modeling of coupled fluid flow, reactive transport, and heterogeneous reactions at the mineral surface is applied to account for permeability alterations caused by precipitation-induced pore-blocking. This paper is motivated by observations of CO 2 seeps from a natural CO 2 sequestration analog, Crystal Geyser, Utah. Observations alongmore » the surface exposure of the Little Grand Wash fault indicate the lateral migration of CO 2 seep sites (i.e., alteration zones) of 10–50 m width with spacing on the order of ~100 m over time. Sandstone permeability in alteration zones is reduced by 3–4 orders of magnitude by carbonate cementation compared to unaltered zones. One granular porous medium and one fracture network systems are used to conceptually represent permeable porous media and locations of conduits controlled by fault-segment intersections and/or topography, respectively. Simulation cases accounted for a range of reaction regimes characterized by the Damköhler (Da) and Peclet (Pe) numbers. Pore-scale simulation results demonstrate that combinations of transport (Pe), geochemical conditions (Da), solution chemistry, and pore and fracture configurations contributed to match key patterns observed in the field of how calcite precipitation alters flow paths by pore plugging. This comparison of simulation results with field observations reveals mechanistic explanations of the lateral migration and enhances our understanding of subsurface processes associated with the CO 2 injection. In addition, permeability and porosity relations are constructed from pore-scale simulations which account for a range of

  8. Fast algorithms for Quadrature by Expansion I: Globally valid expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachh, Manas; Klöckner, Andreas; O'Neil, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The use of integral equation methods for the efficient numerical solution of PDE boundary value problems requires two main tools: quadrature rules for the evaluation of layer potential integral operators with singular kernels, and fast algorithms for solving the resulting dense linear systems. Classically, these tools were developed separately. In this work, we present a unified numerical scheme based on coupling Quadrature by Expansion, a recent quadrature method, to a customized Fast Multipole Method (FMM) for the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. The method allows the evaluation of layer potentials in linear-time complexity, anywhere in space, with a uniform, user-chosen level of accuracy as a black-box computational method. Providing this capability requires geometric and algorithmic considerations beyond the needs of standard FMMs as well as careful consideration of the accuracy of multipole translations. We illustrate the speed and accuracy of our method with various numerical examples.

  9. Nitrogen-mediated effects of elevated CO2 on intra-aggregate soil pore structure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While previous elevated atmospheric CO2 research has addressed changes in belowground processes, its effects on soil structure remain virtually undescribed. This study examined the long-term effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on soil structural changes in a bahiagrass pasture grown on a san...

  10. Multi-Material Tissue Engineering Scaffold with Hierarchical Pore Architecture.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kathy Ye; Sklaviadis, Demetra; Tochka, Zachary L; Fischer, Kristin M; Hearon, Keith; Morgan, Thomas D; Langer, Robert; Freed, Lisa E

    2016-08-23

    Multi-material polymer scaffolds with multiscale pore architectures were characterized and tested with vascular and heart cells as part of a platform for replacing damaged heart muscle. Vascular and muscle scaffolds were constructed from a new material, poly(limonene thioether) (PLT32i), which met the design criteria of slow biodegradability, elastomeric mechanical properties, and facile processing. The vascular-parenchymal interface was a poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) porous membrane that met different criteria of rapid biodegradability, high oxygen permeance, and high porosity. A hierarchical architecture of primary (macroscale) and secondary (microscale) pores was created by casting the PLT32i prepolymer onto sintered spheres of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) within precisely patterned molds followed by photocuring, de-molding, and leaching out the PMMA. Pre-fabricated polymer templates were cellularized, assembled, and perfused in order to engineer spatially organized, contractile heart tissue. Structural and functional analyses showed that the primary pores guided heart cell alignment and enabled robust perfusion while the secondary pores increased heart cell retention and reduced polymer volume fraction.

  11. Quantifying uncertainty and computational complexity for pore-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, P.; Yang, X.; Zhenyan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Pore-scale simulation is an essential tool to understand the complex physical process in many environmental problems, from multi-phase flow in the subsurface to fuel cells. However, in practice, factors such as sample heterogeneity, data sparsity and in general, our insufficient knowledge of the underlying process, render many simulation parameters and hence the prediction results uncertain. Meanwhile, most pore-scale simulations (in particular, direct numerical simulation) incur high computational cost due to finely-resolved spatio-temporal scales, which further limits our data/samples collection. To address those challenges, we propose a novel framework based on the general polynomial chaos (gPC) and build a surrogate model representing the essential features of the underlying system. To be specific, we apply the novel framework to analyze the uncertainties of the system behavior based on a series of pore-scale numerical experiments, such as flow and reactive transport in 2D heterogeneous porous media and 3D packed beds. Comparing with recent pore-scale uncertainty quantification studies using Monte Carlo techniques, our new framework requires fewer number of realizations and hence considerably reduce the overall computational cost, while maintaining the desired accuracy.

  12. FOULING OF FINE PORE DIFFUSED AERATORS: AN INTER- PLANT COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increasing interest in fine pore aeration systems, along with concerned about diffuser fouling and the subsequent loss of aeration efficiency. The objective of this study was to assess the relative fouling tendency of fine bubble diffusers t nine activated sludge ...

  13. The Dimension of the Pore Space in Sponges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, L. H. F.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm[superscript -3] was 2.948 [plus or minus] 0.008. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores.

    PubMed

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-12-15

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  15. Increase in capacitance by subnanometer pores in carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Jackel, Nicolas; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury G.; ...

    2016-11-21

    Electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs, also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors) store energy by electrosorption of ions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. In addition, to achieve a high-energy storage capacity, electrodes with a high surface area and well-developed pore structure in the range from several Angstroms to several tens of nanometers are required.

  16. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  17. Bi-directionally draining pore fluid extraction vessel

    DOEpatents

    Prizio, Joseph; Ritt, Alexander; Mower, Timothy E.; Rodine, Lonn

    1991-01-01

    The invention is used to extract pore fluid from porous solids through a combination of mechanical compression and inert-gas injection and comprises a piston for axially compressing samples to force water out, and top and bottom drainage plates for capturing the exuded water and using inert gas to force water to exit when the limits of mechanical compression have been reached.

  18. Pore Water Pumping by Upside-Down Jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Patchy aggregations of Cassiopea medusae, commonly called upside-down jellyfish, are found in sheltered marine environments with low-speed ambient flows. These medusae exhibit a sessile, non-swimming lifestyle, and are oriented such that their bells are attached to the substrate and oral arms point towards sunlight. Pulsations of their bells are used to generate currents for suspension feeding. Their pulsations have also been proposed to generate forces that can release sediment locked nutrients into the surrounding water. The goal of this study is to examine pore water pumping by Cassiopea individuals in laboratory aquaria, as a model for understanding pore water pumping in unsteady flows. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were conducted to visualize the release of pore water via bell motion, using fluorescent dye introduced underneath the substrate. 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted on the same individuals to correlate PLIF-based concentration profiles with the jets generated by pulsing of medusae. The effects of varying bell diameter on pore water release and pumping currents will be discussed.

  19. Process reduces pore diameters to produce superior filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, H. H.

    1966-01-01

    Porous metal structure with very small pore diameters is produced by heating the structure in oxygen for an oxidized surface layer, cooling it, and heating it in hydrogen to deoxidize the oxidized portion. Such structures are superior catalyst beds and filters.

  20. How Lipid Membranes Affect Pore Forming Toxin Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojko, Nejc; Anderluh, Gregor

    2015-12-15

    Pore forming toxins (PFTs) evolved to permeate the plasma membrane of target cells. This is achieved in a multistep mechanism that usually involves binding of soluble protein monomer to the lipid membrane, oligomerization at the plane of the membrane, and insertion of part of the polypeptide chain across the lipid membrane to form a conductive channel. Introduced pores allow uncontrolled transport of solutes across the membrane, inflicting damage to the target cell. PFTs are usually studied from the perspective of structure-function relationships, often neglecting the important role of the bulk membrane properties on the PFT mechanism of action. In this Account, we discuss how membrane lateral heterogeneity, thickness, and fluidity influence the pore forming process of PFTs. In general, lipid molecules are more accessible for binding in fluid membranes due to steric reasons. When PFT specifically binds ordered domains, it usually recognizes a specific lipid distribution pattern, like sphingomyelin (SM) clusters or SM/cholesterol complexes, and not individual lipid species. Lipid domains were also suggested to act as an additional concentration platform facilitating PFT oligomerization, but this is yet to be shown. The last stage in PFT action is the insertion of the transmembrane segment across the membranes to build the transmembrane pore walls. Conformational changes are a spontaneous process, and sufficient free energy has to be available for efficient membrane penetration. Therefore, fluid bilayers are permeabilized more readily in comparison to highly ordered and thicker liquid ordered lipid phase (Lo). Energetically more costly insertion into the Lo phase can be driven by the hydrophobic mismatch between the thinner liquid disordered phase (Ld) and large protein complexes, which are unable to tilt like single transmembrane segments. In the case of proteolipid pores, membrane properties can directly modulate pore size, stability, and even selectivity. Finally

  1. Transcription regulation by the Mediator complex.

    PubMed

    Soutourina, Julie

    2018-04-01

    Alterations in the regulation of gene expression are frequently associated with developmental diseases or cancer. Transcription activation is a key phenomenon in the regulation of gene expression. In all eukaryotes, mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription (Mediator), a large complex with modular organization, is generally required for transcription by RNA polymerase II, and it regulates various steps of this process. The main function of Mediator is to transduce signals from the transcription activators bound to enhancer regions to the transcription machinery, which is assembled at promoters as the preinitiation complex (PIC) to control transcription initiation. Recent functional studies of Mediator with the use of structural biology approaches and functional genomics have revealed new insights into Mediator activity and its regulation during transcription initiation, including how Mediator is recruited to transcription regulatory regions and how it interacts and cooperates with PIC components to assist in PIC assembly. Novel roles of Mediator in the control of gene expression have also been revealed by showing its connection to the nuclear pore and linking Mediator to the regulation of gene positioning in the nuclear space. Clear links between Mediator subunits and disease have also encouraged studies to explore targeting of this complex as a potential therapeutic approach in cancer and fungal infections.

  2. Structural Insights into Clostridium perfringens Delta Toxin Pore Formation

    PubMed Central

    Huyet, Jessica; Naylor, Claire E.; Savva, Christos G.; Gibert, Maryse; Popoff, Michel R.; Basak, Ajit K.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens Delta toxin is one of the three hemolysin-like proteins produced by C. perfringens type C and possibly type B strains. One of the others, NetB, has been shown to be the major cause of Avian Nectrotic Enteritis, which following the reduction in use of antibiotics as growth promoters, has become an emerging disease of industrial poultry. Delta toxin itself is cytotoxic to the wide range of human and animal macrophages and platelets that present GM2 ganglioside on their membranes. It has sequence similarity with Staphylococcus aureus β-pore forming toxins and is expected to heptamerize and form pores in the lipid bilayer of host cell membranes. Nevertheless, its exact mode of action remains undetermined. Here we report the 2.4 Å crystal structure of monomeric Delta toxin. The superposition of this structure with the structure of the phospholipid-bound F component of S. aureus leucocidin (LukF) revealed that the glycerol molecules bound to Delta toxin and the phospholipids in LukF are accommodated in the same hydrophobic clefts, corresponding to where the toxin is expected to latch onto the membrane, though the binding sites show significant differences. From structure-based sequence alignment with the known structure of staphylococcal α-hemolysin, a model of the Delta toxin pore form has been built. Using electron microscopy, we have validated our model and characterized the Delta toxin pore on liposomes. These results highlight both similarities and differences in the mechanism of Delta toxin (and by extension NetB) cytotoxicity from that of the staphylococcal pore-forming toxins. PMID:23805259

  3. A characterization of the coupled evolution of grain fabric and pore space using complex networks: Pore connectivity and optimized flows in the presence of shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Scott; Walker, David M.; Tordesillas, Antoinette

    2016-03-01

    A framework for the multiscale characterization of the coupled evolution of the solid grain fabric and its associated pore space in dense granular media is developed. In this framework, a pseudo-dual graph transformation of the grain contact network produces a graph of pores which can be readily interpreted as a pore space network. Survivability, a new metric succinctly summarizing the connectivity of the solid grain and pore space networks, measures material robustness. The size distribution and the connectivity of pores can be characterized quantitatively through various network properties. Assortativity characterizes the pore space with respect to the parity of the number of particles enclosing the pore. Multiscale clusters of odd parity versus even parity contact cycles alternate spatially along the shear band: these represent, respectively, local jamming and unjamming regions that continually switch positions in time throughout the failure regime. Optimal paths, established using network shortest paths in favor of large pores, provide clues on preferential paths for interstitial matter transport. In systems with higher rolling resistance at contacts, less tortuous shortest paths thread through larger pores in shear bands. Notably the structural patterns uncovered in the pore space suggest that more robust models of interstitial pore flow through deforming granular systems require a proper consideration of the evolution of in situ shear band and fracture patterns - not just globally, but also inside these localized failure zones.

  4. Ensuring reliability in expansion schemes.

    PubMed

    Kamal-Uddin, Abu Sayed; Williams, Donald Leigh

    2005-01-01

    Existing electricity power supplies must serve, or be adapted to serve, the expansion of hospital buildings. With the existing power supply assets of many hospitals being up to 20 years old, assessing the security and reliability of the power system must be given appropriate priority to avoid unplanned outages due to overloads and equipment failures. It is imperative that adequate contingency is planned for essential and non-essential electricity circuits. This article describes the methodology undertaken, and the subsequent recommendations that were made, when evaluating the security and reliability of electricity power supplies to a number of major London hospitals. The methodology described aligns with the latest issue of NHS Estates HTM 2011 'Primary Electrical Infrastructure Emergency Electrical Services Design Guidance' (to which ERA Technology has contributed).

  5. Pore water pressure variations in Subpermafrost groundwater : Numerical modeling compared with experimental modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Agnès.; Goncalves, Julio; Jost, Anne; Font, Marianne

    2010-05-01

    Development and degradation of permafrost directly affect numerous hydrogeological processes such as thermal regime, exchange between river and groundwater, groundwater flows patterns and groundwater recharge (Michel, 1994). Groundwater in permafrost area is subdivided into two zones: suprapermafrost and subpermafrost which are separated by permafrost. As a result of the volumetric expansion of water upon freezing and assuming ice lenses and frost heave do not form freezing in a saturated aquifer, the progressive formation of permafrost leads to the pressurization of the subpermafrost groundwater (Wang, 2006). Therefore disappearance or aggradation of permafrost modifies the confined or unconfined state of subpermafrost groundwater. Our study focuses on modifications of pore water pressure of subpermafrost groundwater which could appear during thawing and freezing of soil. Numerical simulation allows elucidation of some of these processes. Our numerical model accounts for phase changes for coupled heat transport and variably saturated flow involving cycles of freezing and thawing. The flow model is a combination of a one-dimensional channel flow model which uses Manning-Strickler equation and a two-dimensional vertically groundwater flow model using Richards equation. Numerical simulation of heat transport consisted in a two dimensional model accounting for the effects of latent heat of phase change of water associated with melting/freezing cycles which incorporated the advection-diffusion equation describing heat-transfer in porous media. The change of hydraulic conductivity and thermal conductivity are considered by our numerical model. The model was evaluated by comparing predictions with data from laboratory freezing experiments. Experimental design was undertaken at the Laboratory M2C (Univesité de Caen-Basse Normandie, CNRS, France). The device consisted of a Plexiglas box insulated on all sides except on the top. Precipitation and ambient temperature are

  6. A Specific Two-pore Domain Potassium Channel Blocker Defines the Structure of the TASK-1 Open Pore*

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Anne K.; Netter, Michael F.; Kempf, Franca; Walecki, Magdalena; Rinné, Susanne; Bollepalli, Murali K.; Preisig-Müller, Regina; Renigunta, Vijay; Daut, Jürgen; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Decher, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels play a key role in setting the membrane potential of excitable cells. Despite their role as putative targets for drugs and general anesthetics, little is known about the structure and the drug binding site of K2P channels. We describe A1899 as a potent and highly selective blocker of the K2P channel TASK-1. As A1899 acts as an open-channel blocker and binds to residues forming the wall of the central cavity, the drug was used to further our understanding of the channel pore. Using alanine mutagenesis screens, we have identified residues in both pore loops, the M2 and M4 segments, and the halothane response element to form the drug binding site of TASK-1. Our experimental data were used to validate a K2P open-pore homology model of TASK-1, providing structural insights for future rational design of drugs targeting K2P channels. PMID:21362619

  7. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex promotes trinucleotide repeat expansions independently of homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yanfang; Kirkham-McCarthy, Lucy; Lahue, Robert S

    2016-07-01

    Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are tandem arrays of three nucleotides that can expand in length to cause at least 17 inherited human diseases. Somatic expansions in patients can occur in differentiated tissues where DNA replication is limited and cannot be a primary source of somatic mutation. Instead, mouse models of TNR diseases have shown that both inherited and somatic expansions can be suppressed by the loss of certain DNA repair factors. It is generally believed that these repair factors cause misprocessing of TNRs, leading to expansions. Here we extend this idea to show that the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a causative factor in expansions of short TNRs. Mutations that eliminate MRX subunits led to significant suppression of expansions whereas mutations that inactivate Rad51 had only a minor effect. Coupled with previous evidence, this suggests that MRX drives expansions of short TNRs through a process distinct from homologous recombination. The nuclease function of Mre11 was dispensable for expansions, suggesting that expansions do not occur by Mre11-dependent nucleolytic processing of the TNR. Epistasis between MRX and post-replication repair (PRR) was tested. PRR protects against expansions, so a rad5 mutant gave a high expansion rate. In contrast, the mre11 rad5 double mutant gave a suppressed expansion rate, indistinguishable from the mre11 single mutant. This suggests that MRX creates a TNR substrate for PRR. Protein acetylation was also tested as a mechanism regulating MRX activity in expansions. Six acetylation sites were identified in Rad50. Mutation of all six lysine residues to arginine gave partial bypass of a sin3 HDAC mutant, suggesting that Rad50 acetylation is functionally important for Sin3-mediated expansions. Overall we conclude that yeast MRX helps drive expansions of short TNRs by a mechanism distinct from its role in homologous recombination and independent of the nuclease function of Mre11. Copyright

  8. Serial Tissue Expansion at the Same Site in Pediatric Patients: Is the Subsequent Expansion Faster?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon Ki; Park, Seong Oh; Choi, Tae Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background Serial tissue expansion is performed to remove giant congenital melanocytic nevi. However, there have been no studies comparing the expansion rate between the subsequent and preceding expansions. In this study, we analyzed the rate of expansion in accordance with the number of surgeries, expander location, expander size, and sex. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed in pediatric patients who underwent tissue expansion for giant congenital melanocytic nevi. We tested four factors that may influence the expansion rate: The number of surgeries, expander location, expander size, and sex. The rate of expansion was calculated by dividing the ‘inflation amount’ by the ‘expander size’. Results The expansion rate, compared with the first-time group, was 1.25 times higher in the second-or-more group (P=0.04) and 1.84 times higher in the third-or-more group (P<0.01). The expansion rate was higher at the trunk than at other sites (P<0.01). There was a tendency of lower expansion rate for larger expanders (P=0.03). Sex did not affect the expansion rate. Conclusions There was a positive correlation between the number of surgeries and the expansion rate, a positive correlation between the expander location and the expansion rate, and a negative correlation between the expander size and the expansion rate. PMID:29076319

  9. [Tissular expansion in giant congenital nevi treatment].

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Nuoi, V; Francois-Fiquet, C; Diner, P; Sergent, B; Zazurca, F; Franchi, G; Buis, J; Vazquez, M-P; Picard, A; Kadlub, N

    2014-08-01

    Surgical management of giant melanotic naevi remains a surgical challenge. Tissue expansion provides tissue of the same quality for the repair of defects. The aim of this study is to review tissular expansion for giant melanotic naevi. We conducted a retrospective study from 2000 to 2012. All children patients who underwent a tissular expansion for giant congenital naevi had been included. Epidemiological data, surgical procedure, complication rate and results had been analysed. Thirty-tree patients had been included; they underwent 61 procedures with 79 tissular-expansion prosthesis. Previous surgery, mostly simple excision had been performed before tissular expansion. Complete naevus excision had been performed in 63.3% of the cases. Complications occurred in 45% of the cases, however in 50% of them were minor. Iterative surgery increased the complication rate. Tissular expansion is a valuable option for giant congenital naevus. However, complication rate remained high, especially when iterative surgery is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Derivative expansion of wave function equivalent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Takuya; Ishii, Noriyoshi; Oka, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    Properties of the wave function equivalent potentials introduced by the HAL QCD collaboration are studied in a nonrelativistic coupled-channel model. The derivative expansion is generalized, and then applied to the energy-independent and nonlocal potentials. The expansion coefficients are determined from analytic solutions to the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave functions. The scattering phase shifts computed from these potentials are compared with the exact values to examine the convergence of the expansion. It is confirmed that the generalized derivative expansion converges in terms of the scattering phase shift rather than the functional structure of the non-local potentials. It is also found that the convergence can be improved by tuning either the choice of interpolating fields or expansion scale in the generalized derivative expansion.

  11. Pressurized electrolysis stack with thermal expansion capability

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott

    The present techniques provide systems and methods for mounting an electrolyzer stack in an outer shell so as to allow for differential thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack and shell. Generally, an electrolyzer stack may be formed from a material with a high coefficient of thermal expansion, while the shell may be formed from a material having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. The differences between the coefficients of thermal expansion may lead to damage to the electrolyzer stack as the shell may restrain the thermal expansion of the electrolyzer stack. To allow for the differences in thermal expansion, themore » electrolyzer stack may be mounted within the shell leaving a space between the electrolyzer stack and shell. The space between the electrolyzer stack and the shell may be filled with a non-conductive fluid to further equalize pressure inside and outside of the electrolyzer stack.« less

  12. PRESENILIN-NULL CELLS HAVE ALTERED TWO-PORE CALCIUM CHANNEL EXPRESSION AND LYSOSOMAL CALCIUM; IMPLICATIONS FOR LYSOSOMAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Kayala, Kara M Neely; Dickinson, George D; Minassian, Anet; Walls, Ken C; Green, Kim N; LaFerla, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    Presenilins are necessary for calcium homeostasis and also for efficient proteolysis through the autophagy/lysosome system. Presenilin regulates both endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores and autophagic proteolysis in a γ-secretase independent fashion. The endo-lysosome system can also act as a calcium store, with calcium efflux channels being recently identified as two-pore channels 1 and 2. Here we investigated lysosomal calcium content and the channels that mediate calcium release from these acidic stores in presenilin knockout cells. We report that presenilin loss leads to a lower total lysosomal calcium store despite the buildup of lysosomes found in these cells. Additionally, we find alterations in two-pore calcium channel protein expression, with loss of presenilin preventing the formation of a high molecular weight species of TPC1 and TPC2. Finally, we find that treatments that disturb lysosomal calcium release lead to a reduction in autophagy function yet lysosomal inhibitors do not alter two-pore calcium channel expression. These data indicate that alterations in lysosomal calcium in the absence of presenilins might be leading to disruptions in autophagy. PMID:23103503

  13. Direct Measurements of Pore Fluid Density by Vibrating Tube Densimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Rother, Gernot; Wesolowski, David J.

    2012-02-27

    The densities of pore-confined fluids were measured for the first time by means of a vibrating tube method. Isotherms of total adsorption capacity were measured directly making the method complementary to the conventional gravimetric or volumetric/piezometric adsorption techniques, which yield the excess adsorption (the Gibbsian surface excess). A custom-made high-pressure, high-temperature vibrating tube densimeter (VTD) was used to measure the densities of subcritical and supercritical propane (between 35 °C and 97 °C) and supercritical carbon dioxide (between 32 C and 50°C) saturating hydrophobic silica aerogel (0.2 g/cm 3, 90% porosity) synthesized inside Hastelloy U-tubes. Additionally, excess adsorption isotherms for supercriticalmore » CO 2 and the same porous solid were measured gravimetrically using a precise magnetically-coupled microbalance. Pore fluid densities and total adsorption isotherms increased monotonically with increasing density of the bulk fluid, in contrast to excess adsorption isotherms, which reached a maximum at a subcritical density of the bulk fluid, and then decreased towards zero or negative values at supercritical densities. Compression of the confined fluid significantly beyond the density of the bulk liquid at the same temperature was observed at subcritical temperatures. The features of the isotherms of confined fluid density are interpreted to elucidate the observed behavior of excess adsorption. The maxima of excess adsorption were found to occur below the critical density of the bulk fluid at the conditions corresponding to the beginning of the plateau of total adsorption, marking the end of the transition of pore fluid to a denser, liquid-like pore phase. The results for propane and carbon dioxide showed similarity in the sense of the principle of corresponding states. No measurable effect of pore confinement on the liquid-vapor critical point was found. Quantitative agreement was obtained between excess adsorption

  14. Unstable Pore-Water Flow in Intertidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Shen, C.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are important intertidal wetlands strongly influenced by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Bordered by coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur over vastly different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil condition, particularly aeration, which influences the marsh plant growth. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the pore-water flow process in the marsh soil driven by tides, focusing on stable flow with the assumption of homogeneity in soil and fluid properties. This assumption, however, is questionable given the actual inhomogeneous conditions in the field. For example, the salinity of surface water in the tidal creek varies temporally and spatially due to the influence of rainfall and evapotranspiration as well as the freshwater input from upland areas to the estuary, creating density gradients across the marsh surface and within the marsh soil. Many marshes possess soil stratigraphy with low-permeability mud typically overlying high-permeability sandy deposits. Macropores such as crab burrows are commonly distributed in salt marsh sediments. All these conditions are prone to the development of non-uniform, unstable preferential pore-water flow in the marsh soil, for example, funnelling and fingering. Here we present results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to explore such unstable flow. In particular, the analysis aims to address how the unstable flow modifies patterns of local pore-water movement and solute transport, as well as the overall exchange between the marsh soil and

  15. Energy Dissipation in Calico Hills Tuff due to Pore Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockner, D. A.; Morrow, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory tests indicate that the weakest portions of the Calico Hills tuff formation are at or near yield stress under in situ conditions and that the energy expended during incremental loading can be more than 90 percent irrecoverable. The Calico Hills tuff underlies the Yucca Mountain waste repository site at a depth of 400 to 500 m within the unsaturated zone. The formation is highly variable in the degree of both vitrification and zeolitization. Since 1980, a number of boreholes penetrated this formation to provide site characterization for the YM repository. In the past, standard strength measurements were conducted on core samples from the drillholes. However, a significant sampling bias occurred in that tests were preferentially conducted on highly vitrified, higher-strength samples. In fact, the most recent holes were drilled with a dry coring technique that would pulverize the weakest layers, leaving none of this material for testing. We have re-examined Calico Hills samples preserved at the YM Core Facility and selected the least vitrified examples (some cores exceeded 50 percent porosity) for mechanical testing. Three basic tests were performed: (i) hydrostatic crushing tests (to 350 MPa), (ii) standard triaxial deformation tests at constant effective confining pressure (to 70 MPa), and (iii) plane strain tests with initial conditions similar to in situ stresses. In all cases, constant pore pressure of 10 MPa was maintained using argon gas as a pore fluid and pore volume loss was monitored during deformation. The strongest samples typically failed along discrete fractures in agreement with standard Mohr-Coulomb failure. The weaker, high porosity samples, however, would fail by pure pore collapse or by a combined shear-induced compaction mechanism similar to failure mechanisms described for porous sandstones and carbonates. In the plane-strain experiments, energy dissipation due to pore collapse was determined for eventual input into dynamic wave

  16. Hydration and Thermal Expansion in Anatase Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, He; Li, Qiang; Ren, Yang

    A tunable thermal expansion is reported in nanosized anatase by taking advantage of surface hydration. The coefficient of thermal expansion of 4 nm TiO2 along a-axis is negative with a hydrated surface and is positive without a hydrated surface. High-energy synchrotron X-ray pair distribution function analysis combined with ab initio calculations on the specific hydrated surface are carried out to reveal the local structure distortion that is responsible for the unusual negative thermal expansion.

  17. Characterization of the Decision Network for Wing Expansion in Drosophila Using Targeted Expression of the TRPM8 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Peabody, Nathan C.; Pohl, Jascha B.; Diao, Fengqiu; Vreede, Andrew P.; Sandstrom, David J.; Wang, Howard; Zelensky, Paul K.; White, Benjamin H.

    2009-01-01

    After emergence, adult flies and other insects select a suitable perch and expand their wings. Wing expansion is governed by the hormone bursicon and can be delayed under adverse environmental conditions. How environmental factors delay bursicon release and alter perch selection and expansion behaviors has not been investigated in detail. Here we provide evidence that in Drosophila the motor programs underlying perch selection and wing expansion have different environmental dependencies. Using physical manipulations, we demonstrate that the decision to perch is based primarily on environmental valuations and is incrementally delayed under conditions of increasing perturbation and confinement. In contrast, the all-or-none motor patterns underlying wing expansion are relatively invariant in length regardless of environmental conditions. Using a novel technique for targeted activation of neurons, we show that the highly stereotyped wing expansion motor patterns can be initiated by stimulation of NCCAP, a small network of central neurons that regulates the release of bursicon. Activation of this network using the cold-sensitive rat TRPM8 channel is sufficient to trigger all essential behavioral and somatic processes required for wing expansion. The delay of wing expansion under adverse circumstances thus couples an environmentally-sensitive decision network to a command-like network that initiates a fixed action pattern. Because NCCAP mediates environmentally-insensitive ecdysis-related behaviors in Drosophila development prior to adult emergence, the study of wing expansion promises insights not only into how networks mediate behavioral choices, but also into how decision networks develop. PMID:19295141

  18. Thermal expansion of L-ascorbic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaï, B.; Barrio, M.; Tamarit, J.-Ll.; Céolin, R.; Rietveld, I. B.

    2017-04-01

    The specific volume of vitamin C has been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction as a function of temperature from 110 K up to complete degradation around 440 K. Its thermal expansion is relatively small in comparison with other organic compounds with an expansivity α v of 1.2(3) × 10-4 K-1. The structure consists of strongly bound molecules in the ac plane through a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The thermal expansion is anisotropic. Along the b axis, the expansion has most leeway and is about 10 times larger than in the other directions.

  19. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Yang, Jinxiu; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Shuangfang

    2015-01-01

    In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions) play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state), amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1) Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2) There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3) Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro) is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon) content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  20. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Yang, Jinxiu; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Shuangfang

    2015-01-01

    In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions) play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state), amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope) observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1) Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2) There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3) Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro) is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon) content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable. PMID:26285123

  1. Fabrication, properties, and applications of porous metals with directional pores

    PubMed Central

    NAKAJIMA, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Lotus-type porous metals with aligned long cylindrical pores are fabricated by unidirectional solidification from the melt with a dissolved gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen. The gas atoms can be dissolved into the melt via a pressurized gas atmosphere or thermal decomposition of gaseous compounds. Three types of solidification techniques have been developed: mold casting, continuous zone melting, and continuous casting techniques. The last method is superior from the viewpoint of mass production of lotus metals. The observed anisotropic behaviors of the mechanical properties, sound absorption, and thermal conductivity are inherent to the anisotropic porous structure. In particular, the remarkable anisotropy in the mechanical strength is attributed to the stress concentration around the pores aligned perpendicular to the loading direction. Heat sinks are a promising application of lotus metals due to the high cooling performance with a large heat transfer. PMID:21084772

  2. Fabrication, properties, and applications of porous metals with directional pores.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Lotus-type porous metals with aligned long cylindrical pores are fabricated by unidirectional solidification from the melt with a dissolved gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen, or oxygen. The gas atoms can be dissolved into the melt via a pressurized gas atmosphere or thermal decomposition of gaseous compounds. Three types of solidification techniques have been developed: mold casting, continuous zone melting, and continuous casting techniques. The last method is superior from the viewpoint of mass production of lotus metals. The observed anisotropic behaviors of the mechanical properties, sound absorption, and thermal conductivity are inherent to the anisotropic porous structure. In particular, the remarkable anisotropy in the mechanical strength is attributed to the stress concentration around the pores aligned perpendicular to the loading direction. Heat sinks are a promising application of lotus metals due to the high cooling performance with a large heat transfer.

  3. Anomalous mobility of highly charged particles in pores

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Yinghua; Yang, Crystal; Hinkle, Preston

    2015-07-16

    Single micropores in resistive-pulse technique were used to understand a complex dependence of particle mobility on its surface charge density. We show that the mobility of highly charged carboxylated particles decreases with the increase of the solution pH due to an interplay of three effects: (i) ion condensation, (ii) formation of an asymmetric electrical double layer around the particle, and (iii) electroosmotic flow induced by the charges on the pore walls and the particle surfaces. The results are important for applying resistive-pulse technique to determine surface charge density and zeta potential of the particles. As a result, the experiments alsomore » indicate the presence of condensed ions, which contribute to the measured current if a sufficiently high electric field is applied across the pore.« less

  4. Membranes with functionalized carbon nanotube pores for selective transport

    DOEpatents

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr; Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K; Kim, Sangil

    2015-01-27

    Provided herein composition and methods for nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material. Average pore size of the carbon nanotube can be 6 nm or less. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  5. Investigation of Biogrout processes by numerical analysis at pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergwerff, Luke; van Paassen, Leon A.; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.

    2013-04-01

    Biogrout is a soil improving process that aims to improve the strength of sandy soils. The process is based on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP). In this study the main process is based on denitrification facilitated by bacteria indigenous to the soil using substrates, which can be derived from pretreated waste streams containing calcium salts of fatty acids and calcium nitrate, making it a cost effective and environmentally friendly process. The goal of this research is to improve the understanding of the process by numerical analysis so that it may be improved and applied properly for varying applications, such as borehole stabilization, liquefaction prevention, levee fortification and mitigation of beach erosion. During the denitrification process there are many phases present in the pore space including a liquid phase containing solutes, crystals, bacteria forming biofilms and gas bubbles. Due to the amount of phases and their dynamic changes (multiphase flow with (non-linear) reactive transport), there are many interactions making the process very complex. To understand this complexity in the system, the interactions between these phases are studied in a reductionist approach, increasing the complexity of the system by one phase at a time. The model will initially include flow, solute transport, crystal nucleation and growth in 2D at pore scale. The flow will be described by Navier-Stokes equations. Initial study and simulations has revealed that describing crystal growth for this application on a fixed grid can introduce significant fundamental errors. Therefore a level set method will be employed to better describe the interface of developing crystals in between sand grains. Afterwards the model will be expanded to 3D to provide more realistic flow, nucleation and clogging behaviour at pore scale. Next biofilms and lastly gas bubbles may be added to the model. From the results of these pore scale models the behaviour of the system may be

  6. Pore Pressure Distribution and Flank Instability in Hydrothermally Altered Stratovolcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, J. L.; Taron, J.; Hurwitz, S.; Reid, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Field and geophysical investigations of stratovolcanoes with long-lived hydrothermal systems commonly reveal that initially permeable regions (such as brecciated layers of pyroclastic material) can become both altered and water-bearing. Hydrothermal alteration in these regions, including clay formation, can turn them into low-permeability barriers to fluid flow, which could increase pore fluid pressures resulting in flank slope instability. We examined elevated pore pressure conditions using numerical models of hydrothermal flow in stratovolcanoes, informed by geophysical data about internal structures and deposits. Idealized radially symmetric meshes were developed based on cross-sectional profiles and alteration/permeability structures of Cascade Range stratovolcanoes. We used the OpenGeoSys model to simulate variably saturated conditions in volcanoes heated only by regional heat fluxes, as well as 650°C intrusions at two km depth below the surface. Meteoric recharge was estimated from precipitation rates in the Cascade Range. Preliminary results indicate zones of elevated pore pressures form: 1) where slopes are underlain by continuous low-permeability altered layers, or 2) when the edifice has an altered core with saturated, less permeable limbs. The first scenario might control shallow collapses on the slopes above the altered layers. The second could promote deeper flank collapses that are initially limited to the summit and upper slopes, but could progress to the core of an edifice. In both scenarios, pore pressures can be further elevated by shallow intrusions, or evolve over longer time scales under forcing from regional heat flux. Geometries without confining low-permeability layers do not show these pressure effects. Our initial scenarios use radially symmetric models, but we are also simulating hydrothermal flow under real 3D geometries with asymmetric subsurface structures (Mount Adams). Simulation results will be used to inform 3D slope

  7. Pore Space Connectivity and the Transport Properties of Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bernabé, Yves; Li, Min; Tang, Yan-Bing

    Pore connectivity is likely one of the most important factors affecting the permeability of reservoir rocks. Furthermore, connectivity effects are not restricted to materials approaching a percolation transition but can continuously and gradually occur in rocks undergoing geological processes such as mechanical and chemical diagenesis. Here, we compiled sets of published measurements of porosity, permeability and formation factor, performed in samples of unconsolidated granular aggregates, in which connectivity does not change, and in two other materials, sintered glass beads and Fontainebleau sandstone, in which connectivity does change. We compared these data to the predictions of a Kozeny-Carman model of permeability,more » which does not account for variations in connectivity, and to those of Bernabé et al. (2010, 2011) model, which does [Bernabé Y., Li M., Maineult A. (2010) Permeability and pore connectivity: a new model based on network simulations, J. Geophys. Res. 115, B10203; Bernabé Y., Zamora M., Li M., Maineult A., Tang Y.B. (2011) Pore connectivity, permeability and electrical formation factor: a new model and comparison to experimental data, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B11204]. Both models agreed equally well with experimental data obtained in unconsolidated granular media. But, in the other materials, especially in the low porosity samples that had undergone the greatest amount of sintering or diagenesis, only Bernabé et al. model matched the experimental data satisfactorily. In comparison, predictions of the Kozeny-Carman model differed by orders of magnitude. The advantage of the Bernabé et al. model was its ability to account for a continuous, gradual reduction in pore connectivity during sintering or diagenesis. Though we can only speculate at this juncture about the mechanisms responsible for the connectivity reduction, we propose two possible mechanisms, likely to be active at different stages of sintering and diagenesis, and thus allowing

  8. Pore Space Connectivity and the Transport Properties of Rocks

    DOE PAGES

    Bernabé, Yves; Li, Min; Tang, Yan-Bing; ...

    2016-06-23

    Pore connectivity is likely one of the most important factors affecting the permeability of reservoir rocks. Furthermore, connectivity effects are not restricted to materials approaching a percolation transition but can continuously and gradually occur in rocks undergoing geological processes such as mechanical and chemical diagenesis. Here, we compiled sets of published measurements of porosity, permeability and formation factor, performed in samples of unconsolidated granular aggregates, in which connectivity does not change, and in two other materials, sintered glass beads and Fontainebleau sandstone, in which connectivity does change. We compared these data to the predictions of a Kozeny-Carman model of permeability,more » which does not account for variations in connectivity, and to those of Bernabé et al. (2010, 2011) model, which does [Bernabé Y., Li M., Maineult A. (2010) Permeability and pore connectivity: a new model based on network simulations, J. Geophys. Res. 115, B10203; Bernabé Y., Zamora M., Li M., Maineult A., Tang Y.B. (2011) Pore connectivity, permeability and electrical formation factor: a new model and comparison to experimental data, J. Geophys. Res. 116, B11204]. Both models agreed equally well with experimental data obtained in unconsolidated granular media. But, in the other materials, especially in the low porosity samples that had undergone the greatest amount of sintering or diagenesis, only Bernabé et al. model matched the experimental data satisfactorily. In comparison, predictions of the Kozeny-Carman model differed by orders of magnitude. The advantage of the Bernabé et al. model was its ability to account for a continuous, gradual reduction in pore connectivity during sintering or diagenesis. Though we can only speculate at this juncture about the mechanisms responsible for the connectivity reduction, we propose two possible mechanisms, likely to be active at different stages of sintering and diagenesis, and thus allowing

  9. Using Advanced Tensiometers to Monitor Temporal Variations in Pore Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, R. L.; Young, M. H.; Dixon, K. L.; Rossabi, J.; Hyde, W. K.; Holmes-Burns, H.

    2002-12-01

    The Savannah River Site has installed a comprehensive vadose zone monitoring system (VZMS) at it's low level radioactive waste disposal facility to collect the necessary information to calculate contaminant flux. The VZMS includes water content reflectometers, suction lysimeters, advanced tensiometers (ATs), water flux meters, access ports for neutron probes, and a tipping bucket rain gauge. Forty one ATs were installed from 1999 to 2001 at depths ranging from 2 to 60 feet and have been operated continuously. The installation depths were based on a hydrostatigraphic model developed from core logs, cone penetrometer logs, moisture content profiles, water retention curves model that were obtained during the phased installation of the VZMS. An AT consists of a porous cup installed at a prescribed depth with casing back to the surface and a pressure transducer that is lowered into the casing and connects with the porous cup. The pressure transducer transmits it's signal to a datalogger where the data is stored for future retrieval using a cellular phone communications package. Results from the 2 year operating period show that the AT calibrations are stable and t ATs are capable of extended monitoring of pore pressures in the 0 to 300 cm H2 O range. The ATs had sufficient resolution to detect the naturally occurring fluctuations in pore pressure (1 to 100 cm H2 O over 1 to 72 hours) that resulted from infiltration events at the site. The stable performance of the ATs combined with their ability to detect naturally occurring fluctuations in pore pressure make the ATs a useful tool in measuring temporal pore pressure variations for use in calibrating numerical models of fluid flow in variably saturated porous media.

  10. Influence of pore pressure change on coseismic volumetric strain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Chi-Yuen; Barbour, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Coseismic strain is fundamentally important for understanding crustal response to changes of stress after earthquakes. The elastic dislocation model has been widely applied to interpreting observed shear deformation caused by earthquakes. The application of the same theory to interpreting volumetric strain, however, has met with difficulty, especially in the far field of earthquakes. Predicted volumetric strain with dislocation model often differs substantially, and sometimes of opposite signs, from observed coseismic volumetric strains. The disagreement suggests that some processes unaccounted for by the dislocation model may occur during earthquakes. Several hypotheses have been suggested, but none have been tested quantitatively. In this paper we first examine published data to highlight the difference between the measured and calculated static coseismic volumetric strains; we then use these data to provide quantitative test of the model that the disagreement may be explained by the change of pore pressure in the shallow crust. The test allows us to conclude that coseismic change of pore pressure may be an important mechanism for coseismic crustal strain and, in the far field, may even be the dominant mechanism. Thus in the interpretation of observed coseismic crustal strain, one needs to account not only for the elastic strain due to fault rupture but also for the strain due to coseismic change of pore pressure.

  11. Membrane Pore Formation by Amyloid beta (25-35) Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Nabin; Tatulian, Suren

    Amyloid (A β) peptide contributes to Alzheimer's disease by a yet unidentified mechanism. One of the possible mechanisms of A β toxicity is formation of pores in cellular membranes. We have characterized the formation of pores in phospholipid membranes by the Aβ25 - 35 peptide (GSNKGAIIGLM) using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. CD and FTIR identified formation of β-sheet structure upon incubation of the peptide in aqueous buffer for 2 hours. Unilamellar vesicles composed of a zwitterionic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and 70 % POPC plus 30 % of an acidic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), are made in 30 mM CaCl2. Quin-2, a fluorophore that displays increased fluorescence upon Ca2+ binding, is added to the vesicles externally. Peptide addition results in increased Quin-2 fluorescence, which is interpreted by binding of the peptide to the vesicles, pore formation, and Ca2+ leakage. The positive and negative control measurements involve addition of a detergent, Triton X-100, which causes vesicle rupture and release of total calcium, and blank buffer, respectively.

  12. Fusion pores and their control of neurotransmitter and hormone release

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Che-Wei; Chiang, Chung-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Ca2+-triggered exocytosis functions broadly in the secretion of chemical signals, enabling neurons to release neurotransmitters and endocrine cells to release hormones. The biological demands on this process can vary enormously. Although synapses often release neurotransmitter in a small fraction of a millisecond, hormone release can be orders of magnitude slower. Vesicles usually contain multiple signaling molecules that can be released selectively and conditionally. Cells are able to control the speed, concentration profile, and content selectivity of release by tuning and tailoring exocytosis to meet different biological demands. Much of this regulation depends on the fusion pore—the aqueous pathway by which molecules leave a vesicle and move out into the surrounding extracellular space. Studies of fusion pores have illuminated how cells regulate secretion. Furthermore, the formation and growth of fusion pores serve as a readout for the progress of exocytosis, thus revealing key kinetic stages that provide clues about the underlying mechanisms. Herein, we review the structure, composition, and dynamics of fusion pores and discuss the implications for molecular mechanisms as well as for the cellular regulation of neurotransmitter and hormone release. PMID:28167663

  13. A user-friendly modified pore-solid fractal model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dian-yuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao; Si, Bing-cheng; Hill, Robert Lee

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a range of calculation points on water retention curves (WRC) instead of the singularity point at air-entry suction in the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model, which additionally considered the hysteresis effect based on the PSF theory. The modified pore-solid fractal (M-PSF) model was tested using 26 soil samples from Yangling on the Loess Plateau in China and 54 soil samples from the Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Database. The derivation results showed that the M-PSF model is user-friendly and flexible for a wide range of calculation point options. This model theoretically describes the primary differences between the soil moisture desorption and the adsorption processes by the fractal dimensions. The M-PSF model demonstrated good performance particularly at the calculation points corresponding to the suctions from 100 cm to 1000 cm. Furthermore, the M-PSF model, used the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution, exhibited an accepted performance of WRC predictions for different textured soils when the suction values were ≥100 cm. To fully understand the function of hysteresis in the PSF theory, the role of allowable and accessible pores must be examined. PMID:27996013

  14. Spider toxin inhibits gating pore currents underlying periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Männikkö, Roope; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Thor, Michael G; Berkut, Antonina A; Myshkin, Mikhail Yu; Paramonov, Alexander S; Kulbatskii, Dmitrii S; Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Sampedro Castañeda, Marisol; King, Louise; Wilson, Emma R; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Schorge, Stephanie; Bosmans, Frank; Hanna, Michael G; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2018-04-24

    Gating pore currents through the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel Na V 1.4 underlie hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP) type 2. Gating modifier toxins target ion channels by modifying the function of the VSDs. We tested the hypothesis that these toxins could function as blockers of the pathogenic gating pore currents. We report that a crab spider toxin Hm-3 from Heriaeus melloteei can inhibit gating pore currents due to mutations affecting the second arginine residue in the S4 helix of VSD-I that we have found in patients with HypoPP and describe here. NMR studies show that Hm-3 partitions into micelles through a hydrophobic cluster formed by aromatic residues and reveal complex formation with VSD-I through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the S3b helix and the S3-S4 extracellular loop. Our data identify VSD-I as a specific binding site for neurotoxins on sodium channels. Gating modifier toxins may constitute useful hits for the treatment of HypoPP. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  15. Pore Topology Effects in Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Mitchell, Sharon; Gerchow, Lars; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-03

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful method to study the size and connectivity of pores in zeolites. The lifetime of positronium within the host material is commonly described by the Tao-Eldrup model. However, one of its largest limitations arises from the simple geometries considered for the shape of the pores, which cannot describe accurately the complex topologies in zeolites. Here, an atomic model that combines the Tao potential with the crystallographic structure is introduced to calculate the distribution and lifetime of Ps intrinsic to a given framework. A parametrization of the model is undertaken for a set of widely applied zeolite framework types (*BEA, FAU, FER, MFI, MOR, UTL), before extending the model to all known structures. The results are compared to structural and topological descriptors, and to the Tao-Eldrup model adapted for zeolites, demonstrating the intricate dependence of the lifetime on the pore architecture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Silicon pore optics for the international x-ray observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, E.; Wallace, K.; Bavdaz, M.; Collon, M. J.; Günther, R.; Ackermann, M.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Riekerink, M. O.; Blom, M.; Lansdorp, B.; de Vreede, L.

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) requires a mirror assembly of 3 m2 effective area (at 1.5 keV) and an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the manufacturing process ranging from single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration. The performance of the mirror modules is tested using X-ray pencil beams or full X-ray illumination. In 2009, an angular resolution of 9 arcsec was achieved, demonstrating the improvement of the technology compared to 17 arcsec in 2007. Further development activities of Silicon Pore Optics concentrate on ruggedizing the mounting system and performing environmental tests, integrating baffles into the mirror modules and assessing the mass production.

  17. Nonlinear transport of soft droplets in pore networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernerey, Franck; Benet Cerda, Eduard; Koo, Kanghyeon

    A large number of biological and technological processes depend on the transport of soft colloidal particles through porous media; this includes the transport and separation of cells, viruses or drugs through tissues, membranes and microfluidic devices. In these systems, the interactions between soft particles, background fluid and the surrounding pore space yield complex, nonlinear behaviors such as non-Darcy flows, localization and jamming. We devise a computational strategy to investigate the transport of non-wetting and deformable water droplets in a microfluidic device made of a random distribution of cylindrical obstacles. We first derive scaling laws for the entry of the droplet in a single pore and discuss the role of surface tension, contact angle and size in this process. This information is then used to study the transport of multiple droplets in an obstacle network. We find that when the droplet size is close to the pore size, fluid flow and droplet trafficking strongly interact, leading to local redistributions in pressure fields, intermittent clogging and jamming. Importantly, it is found that the overall droplet and fluid transport display three different scaling regimes depending on the forcing pressure, and that these regimes can be related to droplet properties.

  18. Radial symmetry in a chimeric glutamate receptor pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilding, Timothy J.; Lopez, Melany N.; Huettner, James E.

    2014-02-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors comprise two conformationally different A/C and B/D subunit pairs. Closed channels exhibit fourfold radial symmetry in the transmembrane domain (TMD) but transition to twofold dimer-of-dimers symmetry for extracellular ligand binding and N-terminal domains. Here, to evaluate symmetry in open pores we analysed interaction between the Q/R editing site near the pore loop apex and the transmembrane M3 helix of kainate receptor subunit GluK2. Chimeric subunits that combined the GluK2 TMD with extracellular segments from NMDA receptors, which are obligate heteromers, yielded channels made up of A/C and B/D subunit pairs with distinct substitutions along M3 and/or Q/R site editing status, in an otherwise identical homotetrameric TMD. Our results indicate that Q/R site interaction with M3 occurs within individual subunits and is essentially the same for both A/C and B/D subunit conformations, suggesting that fourfold pore symmetry persists in the open state.

  19. Toxicity of sediments and pore water from Brunswick Estuary, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.; Geitner, Harvey

    1993-01-01

    A chlor-alkali plant in Brunswick, Georgia, USA, discharged >2 kg mercury/d into a tributary of the Turtle River-Brunswick Estuary from 1966 to 1971. Mercury concentrations in sediments collected in 1989 along the tributary near the chlor-alkali plant ranged from 1 to 27 μg/g (dry weight), with the highest concentrations found in surface (0–8 cm) sediments of subtidal zones in the vicinity of the discharge site. Toxicity screening in 1990 using Microtox® bioassays on pore water extracted on site from sediments collected at six stations distributed along the tributary indicated that pore water was highly toxic near the plant discharge. Ten-day toxicity tests on pore water from subsequent sediment samples collected near the plant discharge confirmed high toxicity to Hyalella azteca, and feeding activity was significantly reduced in whole-sediment tests. In addition to mercury in the sediments, other metals (chromium, lead, and zinc) exceeded 50 μg/g, and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) concentrations ranged from 67 to 95 μg/g. On a molar basis, acid-volatile sulfide concentrations (20–45 μmol/g) in the sediments exceeded the metal concentrations. Because acid-volatile sulfides bind with cationic metals and form metal sulfides, which are generally not bioavailable, toxicities shown by these sediments were attributed to the high concentrations of PCBs and possibly methylmercury.

  20. Pore formation during dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron radiation based X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (6.4 × 109 voxel each) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop. We

  1. Pore formation during dehydration of a polycrystalline gypsum sample observed and quantified in a time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusseis, F.; Schrank, C.; Liu, J.; Karrech, A.; Llana-Fúnez, S.; Xiao, X.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2012-03-01

    We conducted an in-situ X-ray micro-computed tomography heating experiment at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) to dehydrate an unconfined 2.3 mm diameter cylinder of Volterra Gypsum. We used a purpose-built X-ray transparent furnace to heat the sample to 388 K for a total of 310 min to acquire a three-dimensional time-series tomography dataset comprising nine time steps. The voxel size of 2.2 μm3 proved sufficient to pinpoint reaction initiation and the organization of drainage architecture in space and time. We observed that dehydration commences across a narrow front, which propagates from the margins to the centre of the sample in more than four hours. The advance of this front can be fitted with a square-root function, implying that the initiation of the reaction in the sample can be described as a diffusion process. Novel parallelized computer codes allow quantifying the geometry of the porosity and the drainage architecture from the very large tomographic datasets (20483 voxels) in unprecedented detail. We determined position, volume, shape and orientation of each resolvable pore and tracked these properties over the duration of the experiment. We found that the pore-size distribution follows a power law. Pores tend to be anisotropic but rarely crack-shaped and have a preferred orientation, likely controlled by a pre-existing fabric in the sample. With on-going dehydration, pores coalesce into a single interconnected pore cluster that is connected to the surface of the sample cylinder and provides an effective drainage pathway. Our observations can be summarized in a model in which gypsum is stabilized by thermal expansion stresses and locally increased pore fluid pressures until the dehydration front approaches to within about 100 μm. Then, the internal stresses are released and dehydration happens efficiently, resulting in new pore space. Pressure release, the production of pores and the advance of the front are coupled in a feedback loop.

  2. The Mediator complex and transcription regulation

    PubMed Central

    Poss, Zachary C.; Ebmeier, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-subunit assembly that appears to be required for regulating expression of most RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcripts, which include protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes. Mediator and pol II function within the pre-initiation complex (PIC), which consists of Mediator, pol II, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH and is approximately 4.0 MDa in size. Mediator serves as a central scaffold within the PIC and helps regulate pol II activity in ways that remain poorly understood. Mediator is also generally targeted by sequence-specific, DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) that work to control gene expression programs in response to developmental or environmental cues. At a basic level, Mediator functions by relaying signals from TFs directly to the pol II enzyme, thereby facilitating TF-dependent regulation of gene expression. Thus, Mediator is essential for converting biological inputs (communicated by TFs) to physiological responses (via changes in gene expression). In this review, we summarize an expansive body of research on the Mediator complex, with an emphasis on yeast and mammalian complexes. We focus on the basics that underlie Mediator function, such as its structure and subunit composition, and describe its broad regulatory influence on gene expression, ranging from chromatin architecture to transcription initiation and elongation, to mRNA processing. We also describe factors that influence Mediator structure and activity, including TFs, non-coding RNAs and the CDK8 module. PMID:24088064

  3. Influence of medium-chain triglycerides on expansion and rheological properties of extruded corn starch.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Mario; Emin, M Azad; Hochstein, Bernhard; Willenbacher, Norbert; Schuchmann, Heike Petra

    2013-04-02

    Enhancement of product properties of extruded starch based products can be achieved by incorporating health promoting oil into the matrix. In order to achieve a preferably high expansion with a homogeneous pore structure, the expansion mechanisms have to be understood. In our study, we applied a customized twin-screw extruder set up to feed medium-chain triglycerides after complete gelatinization of corn starch, minimizing its effect on the starch gelatinization. Despite the fact, that the addition of up to 3.5% oil showed no influence on the extrusion parameters, we observed a three-fold increase in sectional expansion. Longitudinal expansion was less affected by the oil content. Rheological properties of the gelatinized starch were measured using an inline slit die rheometer. In addition to shear viscosity, we presented a method to determine the Bagley pressure, which reflects the elongational properties of a fluid. We were able to observe an increase in the Bagley pressure from about 25 bar up to 35-37 bar due to the addition of oil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations

    DOE PAGES

    Duan, Huaiyu; Shalgar, Shashank

    2014-10-31

    Here, we demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.

  5. The heavy quark expansion of QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.F.

    1997-06-01

    These lectures contain an elementary introduction to heavy quark symmetry and the heavy quark expansion. Applications such as the expansion of heavy meson decay constants and the treatment of inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays are included. Heavy hadron production via nonperturbative fragmentation processes is also discussed. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Continuum-wise expansiveness for generic diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Manseob

    2018-06-01

    Let M be a closed smooth manifold and let be a diffeomorphism. C 1-generically, a continuum-wise expansive satisfies Axiom A without cycles. Let and let . There are a C 1 neighborhood of and a residual set such that for any , g is not continuum-wise expansive, where is the set of all robustly transitive diffeomorphisms on

  7. Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure

    Treesearch

    Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...

  8. Finnish Higher Education Expansion and Regional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarivirta, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the expansion of Finnish higher education between the 1960s and 1970s, exposes its background in the light of the policy decisions that were made, compares the unique features of this expansion with those of certain other countries, discusses the impact of the controlled "top down" governance of higher…

  9. Expansive Learning as Production of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morck, Line Lerche

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes a framework for analyzing learning as an expansive process in which persons come to partly transcend marginalization. Expansive learning is a kind of learning that partly transcends marginalization through changed participation and recognition by others of participants in their changed communities. This article draws on…

  10. Reservoir transport and poroelastic properties from oscillating pore pressure experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanov, Azar K.

    Hydraulic transport properties of reservoir rocks, permeability and storage capacity are traditionally defined as rock properties, responsible for the passage of fluids through the porous rock sample, as well as their storage. The evaluation of both is an important part of any reservoir characterization workflow. Moreover, permeability and storage capacity are main inputs into any reservoir simulation study, routinely performed by reservoir engineers on almost any major oil and gas field in the world. An accurate reservoir simulation is essential for production forecast and economic analysis, hence the transport properties directly control the profitability of the petroleum reservoir and their estimation is vital for oil and gas industry. This thesis is devoted to an integrated study of reservoir rocks' hydraulic, streaming potential and poroelastic properties as measured with the oscillating pore pressure experiment. The oscillating pore pressure method is traditionally used to measure hydraulic transport properties. We modified the method and built an experimental setup, capable of measuring all aforementioned rock properties simultaneously. The measurements were carried out for four conventional reservoir-rock quality samples at a range of oscillation frequencies and effective stresses. An apparent frequency dependence of permeability and streaming potential coupling coefficient was observed. Measured frequency dispersion of drained poroelastic properties indicates an intrinsically inelastic nature of the porous mineral rock frame. Standard Linear Model demonstrated the best fit to the experimental dispersion data. Pore collapse and grain crushing effects took place during hydrostatic loading of the dolomitic sample and were observed in permeability, coupling coefficient and poroelastic measurements simultaneously. I established that hydraulically-measured storage capacities are overestimated by almost one order of magnitude when compared to elastically

  11. Characteristics of square pore and low noise microchannel plate stacks. [for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Marsh, Daniel; Stock, Joseph; Gaines, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of several square-pore microchannel plates (MCPs) with either 25- or 85-micron diameter pores and 80:1 or 50:1 channel length/diameter ratio. Flat field measurements show that the 25-micron-pored MCPs, unlike those with 85-micron pores, exhibit periodic modulation; this may be due to the MCP stacking configurations. Attention is given to the relative quantum detection efficiency advantages of the two MCPs.

  12. Infiltration of carbon in pores within coke and charcoal by methane cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeno, Y.; Evans, J. W.

    1992-08-01

    In order to modify metallurgical coke to increase its resistance to oxidation by CO2, pores within the coke were infiltrated by methane cracking. Carbon produced by methane cracking can impregnate small pores (about 30 nm < pore radius < about 0.3 μm) in which considerable oxidation takes place. This carbon can prevent CO2 from intruding into these pores, reducing the oxidation rate by one third.

  13. Pore Space Partition in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Quan-Guo; Bu, Xianhui; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Pingyun

    2017-02-21

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have emerged as one of the favorite crystalline porous materials (CPM) because of their compositional and geometric tunability and many possible applications. In efforts to develop better MOFs for gas storage and separation, a number of strategies including creation of open metal sites and implantation of Lewis base sites have been used to tune host-guest interactions. In addition to these chemical factors, the geometric features such as pore size and shape, surface area, and pore volume also play important roles in sorption energetics and uptake capacity. For efficient capture of small gas molecules such as carbon dioxide under ambient conditions, large surface area or high pore volume are often not needed. Instead, maximizing host-guest interactions or the density of binding sites by encaging gas molecules in snug pockets of pore space can be a fruitful approach. To put this concept into practice, the pore space partition (PSP) concept has been proposed and has achieved a great experimental success. In this account, we will highlight many efforts to implement PSP in MOFs and impact of PSP on gas uptake performance. In the synthetic design of PSP, it is helpful to distinguish between factors that contribute to the framework formation and factors that serve the purpose of PSP. Because of the need for complementary structural roles, the synthesis of MOFs with PSP often involves multicomponent systems including mixed ligands, mixed inorganic nodes, or both. It is possible to accomplish both framework formation and PSP with a single type of polyfunctional ligands that use some functional groups (called framework-forming group) for framework formation and the remaining functional groups (called pore-partition group) for PSP. Alternatively, framework formation and PSP can be shouldered by different chemical species. For example, in a mixed-ligand system, one ligand (called framework-forming agent) can play the role of the

  14. A unified perturbation expansion for surface scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Kim, Yunjin

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the extinction theorem, a perturbation expansion which, to first and second orders, converges over a wider domain than the small perturbation expansion and the momentum transfer expansion is presented. It is shown that, in the appropriate limits, both of these theories, as well as the two-scale expansion, are recovered. There is no adjustable parameter, such as a spectral split, in the theory. This theory is applied to random rough surfaces and derive analytic expressions for the coherent field and the bistatic cross section. Finally, a numerical test of the theory against method of moments results for Gaussian random rough surfaces with a power law spectrum is given. These results show that the expansion is ramarkably accurate over a large range of surface heights and slopes for both horizontal and vertical polarization.

  15. Miniature cryogenic expansion turbines - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sixsmith, H.

    Lord Rayleigh (1898) has first suggested the use of a turbine instead of a piston expander for the liquification of air. The development of expansion turbines is discussed, taking into account the first successful commercial application for cryogenic expansion turbines in Germany, Kapitza's turbine, work on much smaller turbines conducted in England, the development of a helium expansion turbine at the National Bureau of Standards, the development of small turboexpanders in Switzerland, the development of gas bearing expansion turbines, and the development of a small turboexpander similar to designs developed at the National Bureau of Standards. The reliability of cryogenic expansion turbines is discussed. It is found that applications for helium refrigerators and the demand for them would greatly increase if the reliability of these devices could be improved. Such a development would be crucial for the adoption of superconducting machinery by industry.

  16. Macro-Scale Strength and Microstructure of ZrW2O8 Cementitious Composites with Tunable Low Thermal Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jianshu; Chen, Bo; Huang, Dahai

    2018-01-01

    Concretes with engineered thermal expansion coefficients, capable of avoiding failure or irreversible destruction of structures or devices, are important for civil engineering applications, such as dams, bridges, and buildings. In natural materials, thermal expansion usually cannot be easily regulated and an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) is still uncommon. Here we propose a novel cementitious composite, doped with ZrW2O8, showing a wide range of tunable thermal expansion coefficients, from 8.65 × 10−6 °C−1 to 2.48 × 10−6 °C−1. Macro-scale experiments are implemented to quantify the evolution of the thermal expansion coefficients, compressive and flexural strength over a wide range of temperature. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging was conducted to quantify the specimens’ microstructural characteristics including pores ratio and size. It is shown that the TEC of the proposed composites depends on the proportion of ZrW2O8 and the ambient curing temperature. Macro-scale experimental results and microstructures have a good agreement. The TEC and strength gradually decrease as ZrW2O8 increases from 0% to 20%, subsequently fluctuates until 60%. The findings reported here provide a new routine to design cementitious composites with tunable thermal expansion for a wide range of engineering applications. PMID:29735957

  17. Pore-scale Analysis of the effects of Contact Angle Hysteresis on Blob Mobilization in a Pore Doublet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Glantz, Roland; Hilpert, Markus

    2011-11-01

    The mobilization of residual oil blobs in porous media is of major interest to the petroleum industry. We studied the Jamin effect, which hampers the blob mobilization, experimentally in a pore doublet model and explain the Jamin effect through contact angle hysteresis. A liquid blob was trapped in one of the tubes of the pore doublet model and then subjected to different pressure gradients. We measured the contact angles (in 2D and 3D) as well as the mean curvatures of the blob. Due to gravity effects and hysteresis, the contact angles of the blob were initially (zero pressure gradient) non-uniform and exhibited a pronounced altitude dependence. As the pressure gradient was increased, the contact angles became more uniform and the altitude dependence of the contact angle decreased. At the same time, the mean curvature of the drainage interface increased, and the mean curvature of the imbibition interface decreased. The pressure drops across the pore model, which we inferred with our theory from the measured contact angles and mean curvatures, were in line with the directly measured pressure data. We not only show that a trapped blob can sustain a finite pressure gradient but also develop methods to measure the contact angles and mean curvatures in 3D.

  18. Invariance of single-file water mobility in gramicidin-like peptidic pores as function of pore length.

    PubMed

    Portella, Guillem; Pohl, Peter; de Groot, Bert L

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the structural and energetic determinants underlying water permeation through peptidic nanopores, motivated by recent experimental findings that indicate that water mobility in single-file water channels displays nonlinear length dependence. To address the molecular mechanism determining the observed length dependence, we studied water permeability in a series of designed gramicidin-like channels of different length using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We found that within the studied range of length the osmotic water permeability is independent of pore length. This result is at variance with textbook models, where the relationship is assumed to be linear. Energetic analysis shows that loss of solvation rather than specific water binding sites in the pore form the main energetic barrier for water permeation, consistent with our dynamics results. For this situation, we propose a modified expression for osmotic permeability that fully takes into account water motion collectivity and does not depend on the pore length. Different schematic barrier profiles are discussed that explain both experimental and computational interpretations, and we propose a set of experiments aimed at validation of the presented results. Implications of the results for the design of peptidic channels with desired permeation characteristics are discussed.

  19. Prediction of Hydraulic Conductivity as Related to Pore Size Distribution in Unsaturated Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil pore volume as well as pore size, shape, type (i.e. biopore versus crack), continuity, and distribution in soil affect soil water and gas exchange. Vertical and lateral drainage of water by gravitational forces occurs through large, non-capillary soil pores, but redistribution and upward moveme...

  20. Sebum, acne, skin elasticity, and gender difference - which is the major influencing factor for facial pores?

    PubMed

    Kim, B Y; Choi, J W; Park, K C; Youn, S W

    2013-02-01

    Enlarged facial pores have been esthetic problems and have become a matter of cosmetic concern. Several factors are supposed to be related to the enlargement of facial pores, although scientific evaluations were not performed yet. To assess the correlation between facial pores and possible relating factors such as age, gender, sebum secretion, skin elasticity, and the presence of acne, using objective bioengineering instruments. Sixty volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, participated in this study. Various parameters of facial pores were assessed using the Robo Skin Analyzer. The facial sebum secretion and skin elasticity were measured using the Sebumeter and the Cutometer, respectively. These data were compared and correlated to examine the possible relationship between facial pores and age, sebum secretion and skin elasticity, according to gender and the presence of acne. Male gender and the existence of acne were correlated with higher number of facial pores. Sebum secretion levels showed positive correlation with facial pores. The R7 parameter of skin elasticity was negatively correlated with facial pores, suggesting increased facial pores with decreased skin elasticity. However, the age and the severity of acne did not show a definite relationship with facial pores. Male, increased sebum and decreased skin elasticity were mostly correlated with facial pore development. Further studies on population with various demographic profiles and more severe acne may be helpful to elucidate the potential effect of aging and acne severity on facial pores. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Position-Dependent Dynamics Explain Pore-Averaged Diffusion in Strongly Attractive Adsorptive Systems.

    PubMed

    Krekelberg, William P; Siderius, Daniel W; Shen, Vincent K; Truskett, Thomas M; Errington, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-12

    Using molecular simulations, we investigate the relationship between the pore-averaged and position-dependent self-diffusivity of a fluid adsorbed in a strongly attractive pore as a function of loading. Previous work (Krekelberg, W. P.; Siderius, D. W.; Shen, V. K.; Truskett, T. M.; Errington, J. R. Connection between thermodynamics and dynamics of simple fluids in highly attractive pores. Langmuir 2013, 29, 14527-14535, doi: 10.1021/la4037327) established that pore-averaged self-diffusivity in the multilayer adsorption regime, where the fluid exhibits a dense film at the pore surface and a lower density interior pore region, is nearly constant as a function of loading. Here we show that this puzzling behavior can be understood in terms of how loading affects the fraction of particles that reside in the film and interior pore regions as well as their distinct dynamics. Specifically, the insensitivity of pore-averaged diffusivity to loading arises from the approximate cancellation of two factors: an increase in the fraction of particles in the higher diffusivity interior pore region with loading and a corresponding decrease in the particle diffusivity in that region. We also find that the position-dependent self-diffusivities scale with the position-dependent density. We present a model for predicting the pore-average self-diffusivity based on the position-dependent self-diffusivity, which captures the unusual characteristics of pore-averaged self-diffusivity in strongly attractive pores over several orders of magnitude.

  2. Epsilon toxin from Clostridium perfringens acts on oligodendrocytes without forming pores, and causes demyelination.

    PubMed

    Wioland, Laetitia; Dupont, Jean-Luc; Doussau, Frédéric; Gaillard, Stéphane; Heid, Flavia; Isope, Philippe; Pauillac, Serge; Popoff, Michel R; Bossu, Jean-Louis; Poulain, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Epsilon toxin (ET) is produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D and causes severe neurological disorders in animals. ET has been observed binding to white matter, suggesting that it may target oligodendrocytes. In primary cultures containing oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, we found that ET (10(-9) M and 10(-7) M) binds to oligodendrocytes, but not to astrocytes. ET induces an increase in extracellular glutamate, and produces oscillations of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in oligodendrocytes. These effects occurred without any change in the transmembrane resistance of oligodendrocytes, underlining that ET acts through a pore-independent mechanism. Pharmacological investigations revealed that the Ca(2+) oscillations are caused by the ET-induced rise in extracellular glutamate concentration. Indeed, the blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptors type 1 (mGluR1) prevented ET-induced Ca(2+) signals. Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is also involved, but to a lesser extent. Oligodendrocytes are responsible for myelinating neuronal axons. Using organotypic cultures of cerebellar slices, we found that ET induced the demyelination of Purkinje cell axons within 24 h. As this effect was suppressed by antagonizing mGluR1 and NMDA-R, demyelination is therefore caused by the initial ET-induced rise in extracellular glutamate concentration. This study reveals the novel possibility that ET can act on oligodendrocytes, thereby causing demyelination. Moreover, it suggests that for certain cell types such as oligodendrocytes, ET can act without forming pores, namely through the activation of an undefined receptor-mediated pathway. © 2014 The Authors. Cellular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. GsdmD p30 elicited by caspase-11 during pyroptosis forms pores in membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aglietti, Robin A.; Estevez, Alberto; Gupta, Aaron; Ramirez, Monica Gonzalez; Liu, Peter S.; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Ciferri, Claudio; Dixit, Vishva M.; Dueber, Erin C.

    2016-01-01

    Gasdermin-D (GsdmD) is a critical mediator of innate immune defense because its cleavage by the inflammatory caspases 1, 4, 5, and 11 yields an N-terminal p30 fragment that induces pyroptosis, a death program important for the elimination of intracellular bacteria. Precisely how GsdmD p30 triggers pyroptosis has not been established. Here we show that human GsdmD p30 forms functional pores within membranes. When liberated from the corresponding C-terminal GsdmD p20 fragment in the presence of liposomes, GsdmD p30 localized to the lipid bilayer, whereas p20 remained in the aqueous environment. Within liposomes, p30 existed as higher-order oligomers and formed ring-like structures that were visualized by negative stain electron microscopy. These structures appeared within minutes of GsdmD cleavage and released Ca2+ from preloaded liposomes. Consistent with GsdmD p30 favoring association with membranes, p30 was only detected in the membrane-containing fraction of immortalized macrophages after caspase-11 activation by lipopolysaccharide. We found that the mouse I105N/human I104N mutation, which has been shown to prevent macrophage pyroptosis, attenuated both cell killing by p30 in a 293T transient overexpression system and membrane permeabilization in vitro, suggesting that the mutants are actually hypomorphs, but must be above certain concentration to exhibit activity. Collectively, our data suggest that GsdmD p30 kills cells by forming pores that compromise the integrity of the cell membrane. PMID:27339137

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pore-Forming Exolysin and Type IV Pili Cooperate To Induce Host Cell Lysis

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Pauline; Ragno, Michel; Elsen, Sylvie; Reboud, Emeline; Golovkine, Guillaume; Bouillot, Stephanie; Huber, Philippe; Lory, Stephen; Faudry, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the type III secretion system genes employ a toxin, exolysin (ExlA), for host cell membrane disruption. Here, we demonstrated that ExlA export requires a predicted outer membrane protein, ExlB, showing that ExlA and ExlB define a new active two-partner secretion (TPS) system of P. aeruginosa. In addition to the TPS signals, ExlA harbors several distinct domains, which include one hemagglutinin domain, five arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, and a C-terminal region lacking any identifiable sequence motifs. However, this C-terminal region is important for the toxic activity, since its deletion abolishes host cell lysis. Using lipid vesicles and eukaryotic cells, including red blood cells, we demonstrated that ExlA has a pore-forming activity which precedes cell membrane disruption of nucleated cells. Finally, we developed a high-throughput cell-based live-dead assay and used it to screen a transposon mutant library of an ExlA-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strain for bacterial factors required for ExlA-mediated toxicity. The screen resulted in the identification of proteins involved in the formation of type IV pili as being required for ExlA to exert its cytotoxic activity by promoting close contact between bacteria and the host cell. These findings represent the first example of cooperation between a pore-forming toxin of the TPS family and surface appendages in host cell intoxication. PMID:28119472

  5. Experimental Studies of Dynamic Fault Weakening Due to Thermal Pressurization of Pore Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsby, David; Tullis, Terry; Platt, John; Okazaki, Keishi

    2016-04-01

    High-velocity friction experiments and geophysical observations suggest that mature faults weaken dramatically during seismic slip. However, while many coseismic weakening mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear which mechanisms are most important or how the efficiency of weakening varies within the seismogenic zone. Thermal pressurization is one possible coseismic weakening mechanism driven by the thermal expansion of native pore fluids, which leads to elevated pore pressures and significant coseismic weakening. While thermal pressurization has been studied theoretically for many decades, and invoked in recent earthquake simulations, its activation in laboratory experiments has remained elusive. Several high-speed friction studies have yielded indirect evidence for thermal pressurization, yet none has directly linked with existing theoretical models or the relevant physical parameters, such as permeability, slip, and slip rate, that control the weakening rate. To fill this gap, we are conducting thermal pressurization experiments on fluid-saturated, low-permeability rocks (Frederick diabase) at slip rates up to ~5 mm/s, at constant confining pressures in the range 21-149 MPa and initial imposed pore pressures in the range 10-25 MPa. The impractically low permeability of the as-is diabase, ~10-23 m2, is increased prior to the test by thermal cracking, yielding measured permeabilities in the range 1.3*10-18 to 6.1*10-19 m2. These values of permeability are high enough to allow sample saturation over one to several days, but low enough to confine the elevated pore pressures generated by frictional heating during rapid sliding. Our experiments reveal a rapid decay of shear stress following a step-change in velocity from 10 μm/s to 4.8 mm/s. In one test, the decrease in shear stress of ~25% over the first 28 mm of slip at 4.8 mm/s agrees closely with the theoretical solution for slip on a plane (Rice [2006]), with an inferred slip-weakening distance of ~500

  6. Observations on dedolomitization of carbonate concrete aggregates, implications for ACR and expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Prinčič, Tina, E-mail: Tina.Princic@uni-lj.si; Štukovnik, Petra; Pejovnik, Stane

    2013-12-15

    Some carbonate aggregates used in concrete are unstable in a high alkaline solution, which is present also in pore solution of cement binder. This paper investigates the process of dedolomitization of carbonate aggregate rocks and mortar bars. Selected aggregates, limestone and dolostone are of high purity without reactive silica involvement confirmed by the XRD and the XRF. For the process of dedolomitization the effect of various temperatures, solutions and time was examined. In this investigation, measurements of expansion, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction were used. Te results indicate that the process ofmore » dedolomitization occurred not only in the NaOH solution but also in the water on the mortar bar with virgin dolostone aggregate. Elevated temperature, 60 °C, increased the rate of reaction. Furthermore, the rate of reaction significantly correlates with time, which has also been confirmed through the Rietveld analysis. -- Highlights: •The dedolomitization caused no expansion. •It occurs in the dolostone aggregate without reactive silica involvement. •It has taken place already with the presence of the cement binder. •A significant alteration occurred: formation of rims, new pores and phases.« less

  7. Effect of a pore-forming protein derived from Flammulina velutipes on the Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Narai, Asako; Watanabe, Hirohito; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Tomita, Toshio; Shimizu, Makoto

    2004-11-01

    We have previously found a transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)-decreasing protein derived from Flammulina velutipes, which was revealed to be identical to flammutoxin (FTX) that is known as a hemolytic pore-forming protein. This protein induced a rapid decrease in TEER and parallel increase in paracellular permeability in the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayer without any cytotoxicity. An immunoblotting analysis revealed that the FTX-induced decrease in TEER was accompanied by the formation of a high-molecular-weight complex on the surface of Caco-2 cells. Intracellular Ca(2+) imaging showed that exposure to FTX caused a rapid Ca(2+) influx. It was observed by electron microscopy that FTX induced swelling of microvilli and expansion of the cellular surface. Staining with fluorescent phalloidin showed a marked change to filamentous actin in the FTX-treated cells. These results suggest that TEER reduction could sensitively detect small membrane pore formation by FTX in the intestinal epithelium which causes a morphological alteration and disruption of the paracellular barrier function.

  8. The water retention curve and relative permeability for gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments: pore-network model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabadi, Nariman; Dai, Sheng; Seol, Yongkoo; Sup Yun, Tae; Jang, Jaewon

    2016-08-01

    The water retention curve and relative permeability are critical to predict gas and water production from hydrate-bearing sediments. However, values for key parameters that characterize gas and water flows during hydrate dissociation have not been identified due to experimental challenges. This study utilizes the combined techniques of micro-focus X-ray computed tomography (CT) and pore-network model simulation to identify proper values for those key parameters, such as gas entry pressure, residual water saturation, and curve fitting values. Hydrates with various saturation and morphology are realized in the pore-network that was extracted from micron-resolution CT images of sediments recovered from the hydrate deposit at the Mallik site, and then the processes of gas invasion, hydrate dissociation, gas expansion, and gas and water permeability are simulated. Results show that greater hydrate saturation in sediments lead to higher gas entry pressure, higher residual water saturation, and steeper water retention curve. An increase in hydrate saturation decreases gas permeability but has marginal effects on water permeability in sediments with uniformly distributed hydrate. Hydrate morphology has more significant impacts than hydrate saturation on relative permeability. Sediments with heterogeneously distributed hydrate tend to result in lower residual water saturation and higher gas and water permeability. In this sense, the Brooks-Corey model that uses two fitting parameters individually for gas and water permeability properly capture the effect of hydrate saturation and morphology on gas and water flows in hydrate-bearing sediments.

  9. Colocalization of outflow segmentation and pores along the inner wall of Schlemm's canal.

    PubMed

    Braakman, Sietse T; Read, A Thomas; Chan, Darren W-H; Ethier, C Ross; Overby, Darryl R

    2015-01-01

    All aqueous humor draining through the conventional outflow pathway must cross the endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC), likely by passing through micron-sized transendothelial pores. SC pores are non-uniformly distributed along the inner wall endothelium, but it is unclear how the distribution of pores relates to the non-uniform or segmental distribution of aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular meshwork. It is hypothesized that regions in the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) with higher local outflow should coincide with regions of greater inner wall pore density compared to JCT regions with lower outflow. Three pairs of non-glaucomatous human donor eyes were perfused at 8 mmHg with fluorescent tracer nanospheres to decorate local patterns of outflow segmentation through the JCT. The inner wall was stained for CD31 and/or vimentin and imaged en face using confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Confocal and SEM images were spatially registered to examine the spatial relationship between inner wall pore density and tracer intensity in the underlying JCT. For each eye, tracer intensity, pore density (n) and pore diameter (D) (for both transcellular "I" and paracellular "B" pores) were measured in 4-7 regions of interest (ROIs; 50 × 150 μm each). Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between tracer intensity and pore density, as well as the relationship between tracer intensity and three pore metrics (nD, nD(2) and nD(3)) that represent the local hydraulic conductivity of the outflow pathway as predicted by various hydrodynamic models. Tracer intensity in the JCT correlated positively with local pore density when considering total pores (p = 0.044) and paracellular B pores on their own (p = 0.016), but not transcellular I-pores on their own (p = 0.54). Local hydraulic conductivity as predicted by the three hydrodynamic models all showed a significant positive correlation with tracer intensity when considering total pores

  10. Colocalization of Outflow Segmentation and Pores Along the Inner Wall of Schlemm’s Canal

    PubMed Central

    Braakman, Sietse T.; Read, A. Thomas; Chan, Darren W.-H.; Ethier, C. Ross; Overby, Darryl R.

    2014-01-01

    All aqueous humor draining through the conventional outflow pathway must cross the endothelium of Schlemm’s canal (SC), likely by passing through micron-sized transendothelial pores. SC pores are non-uniformly distributed along the inner wall endothelium, but it is unclear how the distribution of pores relates to the non-uniform or segmental distribution of aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular meshwork. It is hypothesized that regions in the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) with higher local outflow should coincide with regions of greater inner wall pore density compared to JCT regions with lower outflow. Three pairs of non-glaucomatous human donor eyes were perfused at 8 mmHg with fluorescent tracer nanospheres to decorate local patterns of outflow segmentation through the JCT. The inner wall was stained for CD31 and/or vimentin and imaged en face using confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Confocal and SEM images were spatially registered to examine the spatial relationship between inner wall pore density and tracer intensity in the underlying JCT. For each eye, tracer intensity, pore density (n) and pore diameter (D) (for both transcellular “I” and paracellular “B” pores) were measured in 4-7 regions of interest (ROIs; 50 × 150 μm each). Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between tracer intensity and pore density, as well as the relationship between tracer intensity and three pore metrics (nD, nD2 and nD3) that represent the local hydraulic conductivity of the outflow pathway as predicted by various hydrodynamic models. Tracer intensity in the JCT correlated positively with local pore density when considering total pores (p = 0.044) and paracellular B pores on their own (p = 0.016), but not transcellular I-pores on their own (p = 0.54). Local hydraulic conductivity as predicted by the three hydrodynamic models all showed a significant positive correlation with tracer intensity when considering total pores and

  11. Mediator Deathwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Tony

    2005-01-01

    The most discussed and analyzed form of deathwork is the dyadic "therapist" [double arrow] "client" relationship, but this far from exhausts the various types of professional work involving the dead. Mediator deathwork is where the professional gleans or constructs information about the dead, edits and polishes it, and publicly…

  12. Multi-scale Pore Imaging Techniques to Characterise Heterogeneity Effects on Flow in Carbonate Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Digital rock analysis and pore-scale studies have become an essential tool in the oil and gas industry to understand and predict the petrophysical and multiphase flow properties for the assessment and exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves. Carbonate reservoirs, accounting for majority of the world's hydrocarbon reserves, are well known for their heterogeneity and multiscale pore characteristics. The pore sizes in carbonate rock can vary over orders of magnitudes, the geometry and topology parameters of pores at different scales have a great impact on flow properties. A pore-scale study is often comprised of two key procedures: 3D pore-scale imaging and numerical modelling techniques. The fundamental problem in pore-scale imaging and modelling is how to represent and model the different range of scales encountered in porous media, from the pore-scale to macroscopic petrophysical and multiphase flow properties. However, due to the restrictions of image size vs. resolution, the desired detail is rarely captured at the relevant length scales using any single imaging technique. Similarly, direct simulations of transport properties in heterogeneous rocks with broad pore size distributions are prohibitively expensive computationally. In this study, we present the advances and review the practical limitation of different imaging techniques varying from core-scale (1mm) using Medical Computed Tomography (CT) to pore-scale (10nm - 50µm) using Micro-CT, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and Focussed Ion Beam (FIB) to characterise the complex pore structure in Ketton carbonate rock. The effect of pore structure and connectivity on the flow properties is investigated using the obtained pore scale images of Ketton carbonate using Pore Network and Lattice-Boltzmann simulation methods in comparison with experimental data. We also shed new light on the existence and size of the Representative Element of Volume (REV) capturing the different scales of heterogeneity from the

  13. Moment expansion for ionospheric range error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallinckrodt, A.; Reich, R.; Parker, H.; Berbert, J.

    1972-01-01

    On a plane earth, the ionospheric or tropospheric range error depends only on the total refractivity content or zeroth moment of the refracting layer and the elevation angle. On a spherical earth, however, the dependence is more complex; so for more accurate results it has been necessary to resort to complex ray-tracing calculations. A simple, high-accuracy alternative to the ray-tracing calculation is presented. By appropriate expansion of the angular dependence in the ray-tracing integral in a power series in height, an expression is obtained for the range error in terms of a simple function of elevation angle, E, at the expansion height and of the mth moment of the refractivity, N, distribution about the expansion height. The rapidity of convergence is heavily dependent on the choice of expansion height. For expansion heights in the neighborhood of the centroid of the layer (300-490 km), the expansion to N = 2 (three terms) gives results accurate to about 0.4% at E = 10 deg. As an analytic tool, the expansion affords some insight on the influence of layer shape on range errors in special problems.

  14. Extrusion of transmitter, water and ions generates forces to close fusion pore.

    PubMed

    Tajparast, M; Glavinović, M I

    2009-05-01

    During exocytosis the fusion pore opens rapidly, then dilates gradually, and may subsequently close completely, but what controls its dynamics is not well understood. In this study we focus our attention on forces acting on the pore wall, and which are generated solely by the passage of transmitter, ions and water through the open fusion pore. The transport through the charged cylindrical nano-size pore is simulated using a coupled system of Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations and the forces that act radially on the wall of the fusion pore are then estimated. Four forces are considered: a) inertial force, b) pressure, c) viscotic force, and d) electrostatic force. The inertial and viscotic forces are small, but the electrostatic force and the pressure are typically significant. High vesicular pressure tends to open the fusion pore, but the pressure induced by the transport of charged particles (glutamate, ions), which is predominant when the pore wall charge density is high tends to close the pore. The electrostatic force, which also depends on the charge density on the pore wall, is weakly repulsive before the pore dilates, but becomes attractive and pronounced as the pore dilates. Given that the vesicular concentration of free transmitter can change rapidly due to the release, or owing to the dissociation from the gel matrix, we evaluated how much and how rapidly a change of the vesicular K(+)-glutamate(-) concentration affects the concentration of glutamate(-) and ions in the pore and how such changes alter the radial force on the wall of the fusion pore. A step-like rise of the vesicular K(+)-glutamate(-) concentration leads to a chain of events. Pore concentration (and efflux) of both K(+) and glutamate(-) rise reaching their new steady-state values in less than 100 ns. Interestingly within a similar time interval the pore concentration of Na(+) also rises, whereas that of Cl(-) diminishes, although their extra-cellular concentration does not

  15. In-pore exchange and diffusion of carbonate solvent mixtures in nanoporous carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Alam, Todd M.; Osborn Popp, Thomas M.

    2016-06-04

    High resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) 1H NMR spectroscopy has been used to resolve different surface and in-pore solvent environments of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) mixtures absorbed within nanoporous carbon (NPC). Two dimensional (2D) 1H HRMAS NMR exchange measurements revealed that the inhomogeneous broadened in-pore resonances have pore-to-pore exchange rates on the millisecond timescale. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusometry revealed the in-pore self-diffusion constants for both EC and DMC were reduced by up to a factor of five with respect to the diffusion in the non-absorbed solvent mixtures.

  16. The evolution of pore connectivity in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombier, Mathieu; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Gurioli, Lucia; Scheu, Bettina; Kueppers, Ulrich; Di Muro, Andrea; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2017-03-01

    Pore connectivity is a measure of the fraction of pore space (vesicles, voids or cracks) in a material that is interconnected on the system length scale. Pore connectivity is fundamentally related to permeability, which has been shown to control magma outgassing and the explosive potential of magma during ascent in the shallowest part of the crust. Here, we compile a database of connectivity and porosity from published sources and supplement this with additional measurements, using natural volcanic rocks produced in a broad range of eruptive styles and with a range of bulk composition. The database comprises 2715 pairs of connectivity C and porosity ϕ values for rocks from 35 volcanoes as well as 116 products of experimental work. For 535 volcanic rock samples, the permeability k was also measured. Data from experimental studies constrain the general features of the relationship between C and ϕ associated with both vesiculation and densification processes, which can then be used to interpret natural data. To a first order, we show that a suite of rocks originating from effusive eruptive behaviour can be distinguished from rocks originating from explosive eruptive behaviour using C and ϕ. We observe that on this basis, a particularly clear distinction can be made between scoria formed in fire-fountains and that formed in Strombolian activity. With increasing ϕ, the onset of connectivity occurs at the percolation threshold ϕc which in turn can be hugely variable. We demonstrate that C is an excellent metric for constraining ϕc in suites of porous rocks formed in a common process and discuss the range of ϕc values recorded in volcanic rocks. The percolation threshold is key to understanding the onset of permeability, outgassing and compaction in shallow magmas. We show that this threshold is dramatically different in rocks formed during densification processes than in rocks formed in vesiculating processes and propose that this value is the biggest factor in

  17. Automatic measurement of contact angle in pore-space images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlRatrout, Ahmed; Raeini, Ali Q.; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2017-11-01

    A new approach is presented to measure the in-situ contact angle (θ) between immiscible fluids, applied to segmented pore-scale X-ray images. We first identify and mesh the fluid/fluid and fluid/solid interfaces. A Gaussian smoothing is applied to this mesh to eliminate artifacts associated with the voxelized nature of the image, while preserving large-scale features of the rock surface. Then, for the fluid/fluid interface we apply an additional smoothing and adjustment of the mesh to impose a constant curvature. We then track the three-phase contact line, and the two vectors that have a direction perpendicular to both surfaces: the contact angle is found from the dot product of these vectors where they meet at the contact line. This calculation can be applied at every point on the mesh at the contact line. We automatically generate contact angle values representing each invaded pore-element in the image with high accuracy. To validate the approach, we first study synthetic three-dimensional images of a spherical droplet of oil residing on a tilted flat solid surface surrounded by brine and show that our results are accurate to within 3° if the sphere diameter is 2 or more voxels. We then apply this method to oil/brine systems imaged at ambient temperature and reservoir pressure (10MPa) using X-ray microtomography (Singh et al., 2016). We analyse an image volume of diameter approximately 4.6 mm and 10.7 mm long, obtaining hundreds of thousands of values from a dataset with around 700 million voxels. We show that in a system of altered wettability, contact angles both less than and greater than 90° can be observed. This work provides a rapid method to provide an accurate characterization of pore-scale wettability, which is important for the design and assessment of hydrocarbon recovery and carbon dioxide storage.

  18. Transmembrane helical interactions in the CFTR channel pore.

    PubMed

    Das, Jhuma; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Cui, Liying; He, Lihua; Riordan, John R; Dokholyan, Nikolay V

    2017-06-01

    Mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene affect CFTR protein biogenesis or its function as a chloride channel, resulting in dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the lung, pancreas and other organs in cystic fibrosis (CF). Development of pharmaceutical strategies to treat CF requires understanding of the mechanisms underlying channel function. However, incomplete 3D structural information on the unique ABC ion channel, CFTR, hinders elucidation of its functional mechanism and correction of cystic fibrosis causing mutants. Several CFTR homology models have been developed using bacterial ABC transporters as templates but these have low sequence similarity to CFTR and are not ion channels. Here, we refine an earlier model in an outward (OWF) and develop an inward (IWF) facing model employing an integrated experimental-molecular dynamics simulation (200 ns) approach. Our IWF structure agrees well with a recently solved cryo-EM structure of a CFTR IWF state. We utilize cysteine cross-linking to verify positions and orientations of residues within trans-membrane helices (TMHs) of the OWF conformation and to reconstruct a physiologically relevant pore structure. Comparison of pore profiles of the two conformations reveal a radius sufficient to permit passage of hydrated Cl- ions in the OWF but not the IWF model. To identify structural determinants that distinguish the two conformations and possible rearrangements of TMHs within them responsible for channel gating, we perform cross-linking by bifunctional reagents of multiple predicted pairs of cysteines in TMH 6 and 12 and 6 and 9. To determine whether the effects of cross-linking on gating observed are the result of switching of the channel from open to close state, we also treat the same residue pairs with monofunctional reagents in separate experiments. Both types of reagents prevent ion currents indicating that pore blockage is primarily responsible.

  19. Scaffold pore space modulation through intelligent design of dissolvable microparticles.

    PubMed

    Liebschner, Michael A K; Wettergreen, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this area of research is to manipulate the pore space of scaffolds through the application of an intelligent design concept on dissolvable microparticles. To accomplish this goal, we developed an efficient and repeatable process for fabrication of microparticles from multiple materials using a combination of rapid prototyping (RP) and soft lithography. Phase changed 3D printing was used to create masters for PDMS molds. A photocrosslinkable polymer was then delivered into these molds to make geometrically complex 3D microparticles. This repeatable process has demonstrated to generate the objects with greater than 95% repeatability with complete pattern transfer. This process was illustrated for three different shapes of various complexities. The shapes were based on the extrusion of 2D shapes. This may allow simplification of the fabrication process in the future combined with a direct transfer of the findings. Altering the shapes of particles used for porous scaffold fabrication will allow for tailoring of the pore shapes, and therefore their biological function within a porous tissue engineering scaffold. Through permeation experiments, we have shown that the pore geometry may alter the permeability coefficient of scaffolds while influencing mechanical properties to a lesser extent. By selecting different porogen shapes, the nutrition transport and scaffold degradation can be significantly influenced with minimal effect on the mechanical integrity of the construct. In addition, the different shapes may allow a control of drug release by modifying their surface-to-volume ratio, which could modulate drug delivery over time. While soft lithography is currently used with photolithography, its high precision is offset by high cost of production. The employment of RP to a specific resolution offers a much less expensive alternative with increased throughput due to the speed of current RP systems.

  20. Pore water colloid properties in argillaceous sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, Claude; Cloet, Veerle

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate the colloid nature, concentration and size distribution in the pore water of Opalinus Clay and other sedimentary host rocks identified for a potential radioactive waste repository in Switzerland. Because colloids could not be measured in representative undisturbed porewater of these host rocks, predictive modelling based on data from field and laboratory studies is applied. This approach allowed estimating the nature, concentration and size distributions of the colloids in the pore water of these host rocks. As a result of field campaigns, groundwater colloid concentrations are investigated on the basis of their size distribution quantified experimentally using single particle counting techniques. The colloid properties are estimated considering data gained from analogue hydrogeochemical systems ranging from mylonite features in crystalline fissures to sedimentary formations. The colloid concentrations were analysed as a function of the alkaline and alkaline earth element concentrations. Laboratory batch results on clay colloid generation from compacted pellets in quasi-stagnant water are also reported. Experiments with colloids in batch containers indicate that the size distribution of a colloidal suspension evolves toward a common particle size distribution independently of initial conditions. The final suspension size distribution was found to be a function of the attachment factor of the colloids. Finally, calculations were performed using a novel colloid distribution model based on colloid generation, aggregation and sedimentation rates to predict under in-situ conditions what makes colloid concentrations and size distributions batch- or fracture-size dependent. The data presented so far are compared with the field and laboratory data. The colloid occurrence, stability and mobility have been evaluated for the water of the considered potential host rocks. In the pore water of the considered sedimentary host rocks, the clay

  1. Characterization and Upscaling of Pore Scale Hydrodynamic Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouze, P.; Roubinet, D.; Dentz, M.; Planes, V.; Russian, A.

    2017-12-01

    Imaging reservoir rocks in 3D using X-ray microtomography with spatial resolution ranging from about 1 to 10 mm provides us a unique opportunity not only to characterize pore space geometry but also for simulating hydrodynamical processes. Yet, pores and throats displaying sizes smaller than the resolution cannot be distinguished on the images and must be assigned to a so called microporous phase during the process of image segmentation. Accordingly one simulated mass transfers caused by advection and diffusion in the connected pores (mobile domain) and diffusion in the microporous clusters (immobile domain) using Time Domain Random Walk (TDRW) and developed a set of metrics that can be used to monitor the different mechanisms of transport in the sample, the final objective being of proposing a simple but accurate upscaled 1D model in which the particle travel times in the mobile and immobile domain and the number of mobile-immobile transfer events (called trapping events) are independently distributed random variables characterized by PDFs. For TDRW the solute concentration is represented by the density distribution of non-interacting point-like solute particles which move due to advection and dispersion. The set of metrics derives from different spatial and temporal statistical analyses of the particle motion, and is used for characterizing the particles transport (i) in the mobile domain in relation with the velocity field properties, (ii) in the immobile domain in relation with the structure and the properties of microporous phase and at the mobile-immobile interface. We specifically focused on how to model the trapping frequency and rate into the immobile domain in relation with the structure and the spatial distribution of the mobile-immobile domain interface. This thorough analysis of the particle motion for both simple artificial structures and real rock images allowed us to derive the parametrization of the upscaled 1D model.

  2. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

  3. Fast Laplace solver approach to pore-scale permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, C. H.; Adler, P. M.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a powerful and easily implemented method to calculate the permeability of porous media at the pore scale using an approximation based on the Poiseulle equation to calculate permeability to fluid flow with a Laplace solver. The method consists of calculating the Euclidean distance map of the fluid phase to assign local conductivities and lends itself naturally to the treatment of multiscale problems. We compare with analytical solutions as well as experimental measurements and lattice Boltzmann calculations of permeability for Fontainebleau sandstone. The solver is significantly more stable than the lattice Boltzmann approach, uses less memory, and is significantly faster. Permeabilities are in excellent agreement over a wide range of porosities.

  4. Explicit Pore Pressure Material Model in Carbon-Cloth Phenolic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez-Lemini, Danton; Ehle, Curt

    2003-01-01

    An explicit material model that uses predicted pressure in the pores of a carbon-cloth phenolic (CCP) composite has been developed. This model is intended to be used within a finite-element model to predict phenomena specific to CCP components of solid-fuel-rocket nozzles subjected to high operating temperatures and to mechanical stresses that can be great enough to cause structural failures. Phenomena that can be predicted with the help of this model include failures of specimens in restrained-thermal-growth (RTG) tests, pocketing erosion, and ply lifting

  5. Pore Formation and Mobility Furnace within the MSG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Richard Grugel, a materials scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight in Huntsville, Ala., examines the furnace used to conduct his Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation -- one of the first two materials science experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station. This experiment studies materials processes similar to those used to make components used in jet engines. Grugel's furnace was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox through the circular port on the side. In space, crewmembers are able to change out samples using the gloves on the front of the facility's work area.

  6. Lipid Bilayer Vesicles with Numbers of Membrane-Linking Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken-ichirou Akashi,; Hidetake Miyata,

    2010-06-01

    We report that phospholipid membranes spontaneously formed in aqueous medium giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) possessing many membranous wormhole-like structures (membrane-linking pores, MLPs). By phase contract microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, the structures of the MLPs, consisting of lipid bilayer, were resolvable, and a variety of vesicular shapes having many MLPs (a high genus topology) were found. These vesicles were stable but easily deformed by micromanipulation with a microneedle. We also observed the size reduction of the MLPs with the increase in membrane tension, which was qualitatively consistent with a prediction from a simple dynamical model.

  7. C9orf72 repeat expansions in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Hussein; Postuma, Ronald B; Bourassa, Cynthia V; Rochefort, Daniel; Gauthier, Maude Turcotte; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-Francois; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Charley, Christelle Monaca; Inoue, Yuichi; Sasai, Taeko; Högl, Birgit; Desautels, Alex; Frauscher, Birgit; Cochen De Cock, Valérie; Rouleau, Guy A; Dion, Patrick A

    2014-11-01

    A large hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 has been identified as the most common genetic cause in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder that has been strongly linked to synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the C9orf72 expansions in the pathogenesis of RBD. We amplified the C9orf72 repeat expansion in 344 patients with RBD by a repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction assay. We identified two RBD patients carrying the C9orf72 repeat expansion. Most interestingly, these patients have the same C9orf72 associated-risk haplotype identified in 9p21-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia families. Our study enlarges the phenotypic spectrum associated with the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions and suggests that, although rare, this expansion may play a role in the pathogenesis of RBD.

  8. Estimation and modeling of coal pore accessibility using small angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Shimin; Bahadur, Jitendra

    Gas diffusion in coal is controlled by nano-structure of the pores. The interconnectivity of pores not only determines the dynamics of gas transport in the coal matrix but also influences the mechanical strength. In this study, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was employed to quantify pore accessibility for two coal samples, one of sub-bituminous rank and the other of anthracite rank. Moreover, a theoretical pore accessibility model was proposed based on scattering intensities under both vacuum and zero average contrast (ZAC) conditions. Our results show that scattering intensity decreases with increasing gas pressure using deuterated methane (CD 4) at lowmore » Q values for both coals. Pores smaller than 40 nm in radius are less accessible for anthracite than sub-bituminous coal. On the contrary, when the pore radius is larger than 40 nm, the pore accessibility of anthracite becomes larger than that of sub-bituminous coal. Only 20% of pores are accessible to CD 4 for anthracite and 37% for sub-bituminous coal, where the pore radius is 16 nm. For these two coals, pore accessibility and pore radius follows a power-law relationship.« less

  9. Estimation and modeling of coal pore accessibility using small angle neutron scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Rui; Liu, Shimin; Bahadur, Jitendra; ...

    2015-09-04

    Gas diffusion in coal is controlled by nano-structure of the pores. The interconnectivity of pores not only determines the dynamics of gas transport in the coal matrix but also influences the mechanical strength. In this study, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was employed to quantify pore accessibility for two coal samples, one of sub-bituminous rank and the other of anthracite rank. Moreover, a theoretical pore accessibility model was proposed based on scattering intensities under both vacuum and zero average contrast (ZAC) conditions. Our results show that scattering intensity decreases with increasing gas pressure using deuterated methane (CD 4) at lowmore » Q values for both coals. Pores smaller than 40 nm in radius are less accessible for anthracite than sub-bituminous coal. On the contrary, when the pore radius is larger than 40 nm, the pore accessibility of anthracite becomes larger than that of sub-bituminous coal. Only 20% of pores are accessible to CD 4 for anthracite and 37% for sub-bituminous coal, where the pore radius is 16 nm. For these two coals, pore accessibility and pore radius follows a power-law relationship.« less

  10. Aqueous Viscosity Is the Primary Source of Friction in Lipidic Pore Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ryham, Rolf; Berezovik, Irina; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2011-01-01

    A new theory, to our knowledge, is developed that describes the dynamics of a lipidic pore in a liposome. The equations of the theory capture the experimentally observed three-stage functional form of pore radius over time—stage 1, rapid pore enlargement; stage 2, slow pore shrinkage; and stage 3, rapid