Science.gov

Sample records for pork

  1. Pork Puzzlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Pork Producers Council, Des Moines, IA.

    Pork Puzzlers is a nutrition education activity booklet for elementary-level students. It includes word scrambles; quizzes with pictures that describe the Food Guide Pyramid; a nutrition word search; a mathematics problem that includes questions on pork; a maze that uses food clues; a letter decoding activity that focuses on a pork dinner; a meal…

  2. Prescribing pork in Israel.

    PubMed

    Vered, Ronit

    2010-01-01

    Both Judaism and Islam have prohibited eating pork and its products for thousands of years. Scholars have proposed several reasons for the ban to which both religions almost totally adhere. Pork, and the refusal to eat it, possesses powerful cultural baggage for Jews. Israel has legislated two related laws: the Pork Law in 1962, that bans the rearing and slaughter of pigs across the country, and the Meat Law of 1994, prohibiting all imports of nonkosher meats into Israel. While not abounding, Israeli pork-eaters certainly exist, and a small number of pig-breeding farms operate in the country, mostly in Christian villages. The influx of Russian immigrants in the 1990s helped boost sales of pork, but the force of the taboo remains so powerful that many secular Israelis still eschew pork dishes, while willing to eat less charged nonkosher items such as shellfish. A porchetta feast recently held in the Muslim-Jewish town of Jaffa, defied the religious and cultural taboo. It was a celebration of a book by Dr. Eli Landau, The White Book, which is the first Hebrew-language collection of pork recipes. Fearing repercussions, Israeli publishers unanimously refused to publish it and the book chain stores declined to display it. As a result, Landau published it himself.

  3. 7 CFR 1230.19 - Pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.19 Pork. Pork means the flesh of a porcine animal. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.19 - Pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.19 Pork. Pork means the flesh of a porcine animal. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.19 - Pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.19 Pork. Pork means the flesh of a porcine animal. ...

  6. Storage of pork by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupei, Liu; Renli, Yang; Chixum, Chen; Yongzhi, Wang; Zhen, Sun

    In this paper the study of storage of pork, irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays, is recommended. The changes of the appearance and the main qualitative, indexes of pork, irradiated with 1.5 M rad radiation and after two month's storage, were analysed. The evaluation of storage. Transportation and nutritional acceptability of the two kinds of irradiated pork products was made. Systematic toxicological tests of rats and dogs, fed with irradiated pork, were given. The comparison of the economic facilitation of refrigerated pork and irradiated pork was made

  7. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  8. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    MedlinePlus

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... Tapeworm infection is caused by eating the raw or undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry ...

  9. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals...

  10. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals...

  11. 7 CFR 1230.608 - Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products... AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.608 Imported porcine animals, pork, and pork products. The term Imported porcine animals...

  12. Processed pork is the most frequently consumed type of pork in a survey of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Nolan-Clark, Deborah J; Neale, Elizabeth P; Charlton, Karen E

    2013-11-01

    Pork represents a core food that provides key nutrients to the diet. Dietary guidelines recommend limiting processed meat intake because of adverse health outcomes. The aims of this study were to describe pork consumption, assess the contribution of pork to nutrient intakes, and compare anthropometric characteristics between pork consumers and nonconsumers in a survey of Australian children. We hypothesized that pork consumption will contribute to intakes of key nutrients and that the weight status of children who consume pork will be similar to nonconsumers. This study involved a secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Pork and pork-containing dishes were identified and classified as fresh or processed pork. The contributions of pork to nutrient intakes were calculated. Weight, waist circumference, and body mass index were compared between pork consumers and nonconsumers. Data from 4487 children were available for use. Of this sample, 2245 reported consuming pork, 14% (n = 310) of whom consumed fresh pork, whereas 93% (n = 2084) consumed processed pork. All types of pork contributed to intakes of protein, niacin, and zinc. In addition, fresh pork contributed to intakes of thiamine, long-chain omega-3, phosphorous, and potassium. Total and processed pork contributed 12.2% and 13.0% of sodium, respectively. There were no significant differences between weight, waist circumference, and body mass index in consumers and nonconsumers of total, fresh, or processed pork. In a survey of Australian children, processed pork was the most frequently consumed form of pork, suggesting a deviation from dietary guidelines.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid pork research.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Kramer, John K G

    2004-06-01

    The driving force behind most conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) research in swine has been related to potential improvements in animal production. Early work that used rodent models indicated that feeding CLA could potentially reduce body fat, increase lean content, increase growth rate, and improve feed conversion efficiency. Producer-backed funding organizations were, therefore, receptive to proposals to extend this research to pigs, and many studies have been completed worldwide. In general, improvements in body composition were found, but evidence indicating that CLA improves growth rate or feed conversion was limited. Inclusion of CLA into pig diets was, however, shown to increase muscle marbling fat and fat hardness, and both of these characteristics have the potential to increase carcass value. Currently, Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik AG (BASF) has the international marketing license to include synthetic CLA in animal feeds, but to date this practice is not approved in Canada or the United States. If and when approval is granted, the next step in realizing CLA's economic potential would be to seek approval for claiming CLA enrichment in pork and pork products. Given the ability of swine to accumulate relatively high amounts of CLA in their tissues, pork and pork products could become an important vehicle for delivery of physiologically significant amounts of CLA to consumers.

  14. The United States pork niche market phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, M S; Pirog, R S; Huber, G H; Lammers, P J; Hermann, J R

    2006-08-01

    After the broad industrialization of the US pork industry, there has been a development of niche markets for export and domestic pork; that is, there is a pork niche market phenomenon. The US pork niche market phenomenon is characterized, and 2 of the major markets are explained in detail. With the Midwest's tradition of a diversified family-based agriculture and record low hog prices of the late 1990s, the conditions were conducive for this phenomenon to develop. Pork niche markets utilize various sales methods including Internet sales, local abattoir sales, direct marketing, farmer networks, and targeting to organized groups. In 2003, there were approximately 35 to 40 active pork niche marketing efforts in Iowa. The Berkshire breed is an example of a swine breed that has had a recent resurgence because of niche markets. Berkshire pork is known for tenderness and excellent quality. Berkshire registrations have increased 4-fold in the last 10 yr. One of the larger niche marketers of "natural pork" is Niman Ranch Pork, which has more than 400 farmer-producers and processes about 2,500 pigs weekly. Many US consumers of pork are interested in issues concerning the environment, food safety, pig welfare, and pig farm ownership and structure. These consumers may be willing to pay more for pork from farmers who are also concerned about these issues. Small- and medium-sized swine farmers are active in pork niche markets. Niche markets claim product differentiation by superior or unique product quality and social attributes. Quality attributes include certain swine breeds, and meat quality, freshness, taste or flavor, and tenderness. Social or credence attributes often are claimed and include freedom from antibiotics and growth promotants; local family farm production; natural, organic, outdoor, or bedded rearing; humane rearing; known origin; environmentally friendly production; and the absence of animal by-products in the feed. Niche pork markets and alternative swine

  15. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... butts; cured meat rolls; capocollo (capicola, capacola); coppa; fresh or cured boneless pork shoulder butts, hams, loins, shoulders, shoulder picnics, and similar pork cuts, in casings or other containers..., capacola). Boneless pork butts for capocollo shall be cured in a dry-curing mixture containing not less...

  16. 7 CFR 65.175 - Ground pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  17. 7 CFR 65.175 - Ground pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  18. 7 CFR 65.175 - Ground pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  19. 7 CFR 65.175 - Ground pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS,...

  20. 7 CFR 65.215 - Pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  1. 7 CFR 65.215 - Pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  2. 7 CFR 65.215 - Pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  3. 7 CFR 65.215 - Pork.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS,...

  4. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... pork or both, but not including pork byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  5. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... pork or both, but not including pork byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  6. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... pork or both, but not including pork byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  7. Zinc bioavailability in pork loin

    SciTech Connect

    Hortin, A.E.; Bechtel, P.J. Baker, D.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Pork loins were uniformly trimmed and divided into three groups: raw, roasted and braised. Following cooking, the loins were freeze dried and then ground to a fine granular consistency. Zinc levels of 51, 60 and 63 mg/kg dry matter (DM) were contained in the raw, roasted and braised products, respectively. The chick bioavailability (BV) assay employed a Zn-deficient soy isolate basal diet that was supplemented with 0, 5 or 10 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O to produce a standard straight-line response in tibia Zn as a function of supplemental Zn intake. Experimental Zn sources were also added to the basal diet to provide 10 mg Zn/kg. Standard curve methodology indicated that Zn BV was unaffected by cooking. Roasted pork lion had a Zn BV of 184% relative to ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O. Addition of 0.40% L-cysteine to the diet containing 10 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO{sub 4}{center dot}H{sub 2}O increased Zn BV to 175%. Results with histidine as a Zn-enhancing factor were variable. It is apparent that pork loin is an excellent source of bioavailable Zn, and SH-containing compounds such as cysteine and glutathione that are present in meat may contribute to enhanced gut absorption of meat-source Zn.

  8. Factors Affecting the Textural Properties of Pork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmer, Sean Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Research concerning rate and extent of tenderization has focused on beef or lamb. However, it is critical to understand these processes in pork, especially as retailers move towards minimally processed or non-enhanced product. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the textural properties of pork (firmness and tenderness) by examining…

  9. Factors Affecting the Textural Properties of Pork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmer, Sean Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Research concerning rate and extent of tenderization has focused on beef or lamb. However, it is critical to understand these processes in pork, especially as retailers move towards minimally processed or non-enhanced product. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the textural properties of pork (firmness and tenderness) by examining…

  10. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Uncooked, Smoked Sausage § 319.160 Smoked pork sausage. “Smoked Pork Sausage” is pork sausage that is smoked with hardwood or...

  11. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.141 Fresh pork sausage. “Fresh Pork Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh pork or frozen...

  12. 9 CFR 319.29 - Miscellaneous pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Miscellaneous pork products. 319.29 Section 319.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous pork products. (a) Partially defatted pork fatty tissue. “Partially Defatted Pork Fatty Tissue” is...

  13. 9 CFR 319.29 - Miscellaneous pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Miscellaneous pork products. 319.29 Section 319.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous pork products. (a) Partially defatted pork fatty tissue. “Partially Defatted Pork Fatty Tissue” is...

  14. 9 CFR 319.29 - Miscellaneous pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Miscellaneous pork products. 319.29 Section 319.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Miscellaneous pork products. (a) Partially defatted pork fatty tissue. “Partially Defatted Pork Fatty Tissue” is...

  15. Genome-wide association of myoglobin concentrations in pork loins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pork is a widely consumed protein source. To remain competitive, pork quality must improve. Pork quality is a focus not only for producers and packers but also for consumers. Consumer purchasing decisions are largely based on lean meat color, indicating freshness. Myoglobin content in pork is the ma...

  16. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products...

  17. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products...

  18. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and... NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. (a) Pork and pork products. In...

  19. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  20. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  1. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine...

  2. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free of classical swine fever. 94.25 Section 94.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... § 94.25 Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions...

  3. 9 CFR 94.9 - Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork and pork products from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.9 Section 94.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...; Chile; Fiji; Iceland; the Mexican States of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche,...

  4. Quality Improvement of Pork Loin by Dry Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng; You, Insin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dry aging on the quality of pork loin. Longissimus lumborum muscles were dissected from the right half of five pork carcasses and were used as the control samples. The left halves of the carcasses were aged at 2±1℃ and a relative humidity of 80% for 40 d. The total aerobic bacteria count was similar between the control and dry-aged pork loin (p>0.05). Lactic-acid bacteria was absent in both the control and dry-aged pork loins. Dry-aged pork loin contained low moisture and high protein and ash compared to the controls (p<0.05). The pH was higher and cooking loss was lower in dry-aged pork loin compared to that in the control (p<0.05). Flavor related compounds, such as total free amino acid, hypoxanthine, and inosine of pork loin were higher in dry-aged pork loin; whereas, inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine 5'-monophosphate were low in dry-aged pork loin than control (p<0.05). There was no difference in carnosine and anserine content between dry-aged pork loin and the control (p>0.05). Dry-aged pork loin had lower hardness and shear force and received higher core in sensory evaluation than the control (p<0.05). According to the results, dry aging improved textural and sensorial quality of pork loin. PMID:27433108

  5. Pork preference for consumers in china, Japan and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, S-H; See, M T

    2012-01-01

    Competition in global pork markets has increased as trade barriers have opened as a result of free trade agreements. Japanese prefer both loin and Boston butt, while Chinese prefer pork offal. Frozen pork has increased in terms of imports into China. Japanese consumers consider pork meat origin along with pork price when making purchase decisions. While the Chinese prefer a strong tasting pork product, South Korean consumers show very strong preferences to pork that is higher in fat. Therefore, South Korean consumers have a higher demand for pork belly and Boston butt. Consequently, the supply and demand of pork in Korea is hardly met, which means that importation of high fat parts is inevitable. In Korea there is lower preference toward low fat parts such as loin, picnic shoulder, and ham. During the economic depression in South Korea there have been observable changes in consumer preferences. There remains steep competition among the pork exporting countries in terms of gaining share in the international pork market. If specific consumer preferences would be considered carefully, there is the possibility to increase the amount of pork exported to these countries.

  6. Pork Preference for Consumers in China, Japan and South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, S.-H.; See, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Competition in global pork markets has increased as trade barriers have opened as a result of free trade agreements. Japanese prefer both loin and Boston butt, while Chinese prefer pork offal. Frozen pork has increased in terms of imports into China. Japanese consumers consider pork meat origin along with pork price when making purchase decisions. While the Chinese prefer a strong tasting pork product, South Korean consumers show very strong preferences to pork that is higher in fat. Therefore, South Korean consumers have a higher demand for pork belly and Boston butt. Consequently, the supply and demand of pork in Korea is hardly met, which means that importation of high fat parts is inevitable. In Korea there is lower preference toward low fat parts such as loin, picnic shoulder, and ham. During the economic depression in South Korea there have been observable changes in consumer preferences. There remains steep competition among the pork exporting countries in terms of gaining share in the international pork market. If specific consumer preferences would be considered carefully, there is the possibility to increase the amount of pork exported to these countries. PMID:25049488

  7. Quality Improvement of Pork Loin by Dry Aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Ju Ri; Kim, Min Kyu; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Kyung Haeng; You, Insin; Jung, Samooel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of dry aging on the quality of pork loin. Longissimus lumborum muscles were dissected from the right half of five pork carcasses and were used as the control samples. The left halves of the carcasses were aged at 2±1℃ and a relative humidity of 80% for 40 d. The total aerobic bacteria count was similar between the control and dry-aged pork loin (p>0.05). Lactic-acid bacteria was absent in both the control and dry-aged pork loins. Dry-aged pork loin contained low moisture and high protein and ash compared to the controls (p<0.05). The pH was higher and cooking loss was lower in dry-aged pork loin compared to that in the control (p<0.05). Flavor related compounds, such as total free amino acid, hypoxanthine, and inosine of pork loin were higher in dry-aged pork loin; whereas, inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine 5'-monophosphate were low in dry-aged pork loin than control (p<0.05). There was no difference in carnosine and anserine content between dry-aged pork loin and the control (p>0.05). Dry-aged pork loin had lower hardness and shear force and received higher core in sensory evaluation than the control (p<0.05). According to the results, dry aging improved textural and sensorial quality of pork loin.

  8. Consumer choice of pork chops in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M

    2010-07-01

    Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intensive swine production and pork safety.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter R

    2011-02-01

    Major structural changes in livestock production in developed countries, particularly intensive confinement production and increases in herd and flock sizes, have raised several societal concerns about the future directions and implications of livestock food production, including the safety of meat products. This review of the major parasitic and bacterial foodborne pathogens associated with pork production indicates that pork safety in the United States has improved demonstrably over recent decades. Most notably, changes in swine production methods have been associated with virtual elimination of risk of the foodborne parasites Taenia solium, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii from pigs reared on modern intensive farms. This represents a substantial public health achievement that has gone largely unheralded. Regulatory changes have led to demonstrably lower prevalence of Salmonella on pork carcasses, but control of bacterial foodborne pathogens on farms remains a significant challenge. Available evidence does not support the hypothesis that intensive pork production has increased risk for the major bacterial foodborne pathogens that are common commensals of the pig (Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and Yersinia enterocolitica), or that pigs produced in alternative systems are at reduced risk of colonization with these organisms. However, pigs raised in outdoor systems inherently confront higher risks of exposure to foodborne parasites, particularly T. gondii.

  10. Beef and pork packing industries.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, James M

    2003-07-01

    A remarkable transformation of the meatpacking industry occurred in the last 25 years. That transformation consolidated the industry into one that could deliver large volumes of meat at low costs. Slaughter plants grew much larger and realized economies of scale from their size, and operations within plants were rationalized to emphasize the delivery of a small set of consistent major products (boxed beef, cut-up pork, and by-products) to retailers, wholesalers, and other processors. Similar developments occurred in livestock feeding whereby the industry realized significant cost reductions by consolidating production in very large cattle feedlots and hog farms. Gains from scale have largely been met (absent the development of new technologies that are not yet on the horizon); therefore, we are unlikely to see similar shifts in plant sizes in the next 25 years. The major forces affecting meatpacking and livestock feeding in the near future are more likely to revolve around tighter coordination among livestock production, meatpacking, wholesaling, and retailing. Although much of the recent response to food safety concerns took the form of investments in equipment, testing, and training within meatpacking plants, packers and retailers are likely to focus more on assurance of livestock production quality and methods in the future. Such assurance can be met through vertical integration or through a greater reliance on tightly drawn contracts; producers who attempt to provide the assurance while still selling through cash markets will need to develop paper trails of testing and quality assurance that will move through the marketing chain with livestock. Similarly, because of likely increased future demand for meats of assured consumer qualities, such as organically grown products or branded meat products with very specific traits, producers will likely need to provide similar indicators of assurance throughout the marketing chain. Finally, the funding offered through

  11. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals..., NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE... Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined European CSF region...

  12. The ultra rapid chilling of pork.

    PubMed

    James, S J; Gigiel, A J; Hudson, W R

    1983-01-01

    Pork carcasses and sides were ultra rapidly chilled in air at -30°C and 1 m/s for 4 h and compared with controls chilled in air at 0°C and 0·5 m/s for 24 h. All the required heat was removed during the 4-h process, there was a 1% saving in evaporative weight loss, the pork could be cut and packed immediately and there were no important differences in appearance and bacteriological quality. The loin from sides, but not carcasses, froze during chilling and showed a fourfold increase in drip loss. Loins from both sides and carcasses were tougher than the controls. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Pre-slaughter handling and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2015-02-01

    Environmental variables, as sound levels, were collected during the pre-slaughter process in 18 different Belgian commercial slaughterhouses. Four pre-slaughter phases were determined: firstly after arrival of the truck at the slaughterhouse and just before unloading, secondly during unloading, thirdly at lairage and finally while moving to the stunner. A total of 8508 pigs was examined during the pre-slaughter process, of which the pH(LT) (M. longissimus thoracis), at 30 min post-mortem was measured. For each pre-slaughter phase, variables which might influence pork quality were determined. Moreover, this study made it possible to infer a checklist to represent and predict PSE traits of pork for all kind of pre-slaughter situations. The checklist shows also that the impact on pork quality is more decisive for the variables measured close to the stunning phase. Hence, this information is useful for the industry to optimize handling of pigs, reducing the risk for PSE traits.

  14. Influence of pork and pork by-products on macronutrient and energy digestibility and palatability in large exotic felids.

    PubMed

    Iske, C J; Morris, C L; Kappen, K L

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos. Ten exotic felids were used including cheetahs (; 3), jaguars (; = 3), leopards (; 2), puma (; 1), and Bengal tiger (; 1). Dietary treatments consisted of 4 raw meat diets: 1 horse-based (Horse), 2 beef-based (B1, B2), and 1 pork-based diet (Pork). Fecal scores also were evaluated (1 = hard to 5 = watery/liquid). This randomized crossover design study consisted of 4 periods, each 10 d for treatment adaptation followed by 4 d of sample collection. Dry matter and crude protein apparent digestibility values were greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (88.0 and 95.7%) compared with felids fed Horse (83.6 and 92.7%) and B2 (85.6 and 93.1%). Apparent organic matter digestibility was greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (90.8%) than felids fed Horse (88.5%). Apparent fat digestibility values were high across all treatments but were greater ( < 0.05) in felids fed Pork (98.5%) compared with felids fed B1 (95.5%) or B2 (96.5%). Gross energy digestibility values were greater in felids fed Pork (92.4%) compared with B1 (90.2%). Average fecal scores were 2.30, 2.94, 3.42, and 3.54 for Horse, Pork, B1 and B2, respectively; and were different ( < 0.05) between treatments with exception of B1 and B2 that did not differ. Felids approached the pork

  15. Presence of Helicobacter suis on pork carcasses.

    PubMed

    De Cooman, L; Houf, K; Smet, A; Flahou, B; Ducatelle, R; De Bruyne, E; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F

    2014-09-18

    Helicobacter (H.) suis is a world-wide spread pathogen which not only colonizes the stomach of pigs, but is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. H. suis infections are associated with gastric lesions both in pigs and in humans. Recently, the presence of viable H. suis bacteria has been demonstrated in minced pork, suggesting that manipulation or consumption of contaminated pig meat is a possible route of transmission of this zoonotic agent. The main goal of this study was to determine the extent of pork carcass contamination with H. suis at slaughter. In two consecutive studies, the occurrence of H. suis DNA was assessed in scalding water, head and mouth swabs, mesenteric lymph nodes, palatine tonsils and on the chest, shoulder and ham region of pork carcasses from three slaughterhouses using qPCR with ureA gene based H. suis-specific primers. H. suis DNA was detected on carcasses in all slaughterhouses, in 8.3% of all 1083 samples. It was found in all sampled matrices, except for the palatine tonsils and scalding water samples. Contamination levels of dressed pork samples did not exceed 184 genomic equivalents per 100cm(2) (shoulder, ham) or 300cm(2) (chest). All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis of the ureA gene to confirm the identification of H. suis bacteria. Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) on a selection of the positive samples, 5 unique sequence types (STs) could be assigned. Multiple H. suis strains were present on samples derived from one specific pig herd. Since H. suis DNA was detected in 11% (n: 90) of the mesenteric lymph nodes derived at the slaughterhouse, it was determined whether these organisms can colonize the mesenteric lymph nodes after experimental infection. Despite high-level colonization of the porcine stomachs with the H. suis strain, no H. suis DNA was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes at four weeks after experimental infection. This might indicate that

  16. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  17. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  18. 9 CFR 319.104 - Cured pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Smoked § 319.104 Cured pork products. (a) Cured pork products, including hams, shoulders, picnics, butts... ingredients. 3 Cooked shoulder, butt, picnic 2 20.0 (Common and usual). 18.0 (Common and usual) with natural... and usual) and water product—X% of weight is added ingredients. 3 Uncooked cured shoulder, butt...

  19. 9 CFR 319.104 - Cured pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Smoked § 319.104 Cured pork products. (a) Cured pork products, including hams, shoulders, picnics, butts... ingredients. 3 Cooked shoulder, butt, picnic 2 20.0 (Common and usual). 18.0 (Common and usual) with natural... and usual) and water product—X% of weight is added ingredients. 3 Uncooked cured shoulder, butt...

  20. Characterization of variability in pork carcass composition and primal quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to characterize the factors and production practices that contribute to variation in pork composition and quality. It is possible the variation in pork quality traits, such as color, marbling, and tenderness, contributes to reduced customer confidence in the predictability of finis...

  1. 76 FR 12887 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... committee meeting. SUMMARY: This document announces the second meeting of the Wholesale Pork Reporting... language to amend the Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) regulations to implement mandatory pork price.... Negotiated Rulemaking Committee Meeting This document announces the second meeting of the Committee....

  2. Non-invasive Prediction of Pork Loin Tenderness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present experiment was conducted to develop a non-invasive method to predict tenderness of pork loins. Boneless pork loins (n = 901) were evaluated either on line on the loin boning and trimming line of large-scale commercial plants (n = 465) or at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center abattoir ...

  3. Evaluation of functional variation in candidate genes for pork quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable variation exists in pork quality traits and consumer perception of pork eating satisfaction is largely driven by tenderness and sensory juiciness scores, which are related to shear force, cooking loss and ultimate pH. Water loss from meat during postmortem storage reduces profitability ...

  4. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Processed Products Inspection Division; (iii) Each sample shall weigh no less than 100 grams; (iv...) Each sample shall weigh no less than 100 grams; (iv) The samples shall be combined as one composite... individual carcasses, and maintaining positive identification and clear separation of pork found to...

  5. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Processed Products Inspection Division; (iii) Each sample shall weigh no less than 100 grams; (iv...) Each sample shall weigh no less than 100 grams; (iv) The samples shall be combined as one composite... individual carcasses, and maintaining positive identification and clear separation of pork found to...

  6. 9 CFR 318.10 - Prescribed treatment of pork and products containing pork to destroy trichinae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Processed Products Inspection Division; (iii) Each sample shall weigh no less than 100 grams; (iv...) Each sample shall weigh no less than 100 grams; (iv) The samples shall be combined as one composite... individual carcasses, and maintaining positive identification and clear separation of pork found to...

  7. 9 CFR 94.13 - Restrictions on importation of pork or pork products from specified regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED... declared free of swine vesicular disease as provided in § 94.12(a) but supplement their national pork...

  8. 9 CFR 94.25 - Restrictions on the importation of live swine, pork, or pork products from certain regions free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE... port of arrival. The certification must identify both the exporting region and the region of origin as... the region of origin of the pork or pork products as a region designated in §§ 94.9 and 94.10 as...

  9. The impacts of information about the risks and benefits of pork consumption on Chinese consumers' perceptions towards, and intention to eat, pork.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Liu, Rongduo

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the impacts of information on the benefits and risks of eating pork on Chinese consumers' attitudes and intentions. Data were collected in March 2013 through a consumer survey (n=909) in Beijing and Baoding City. An experiment was conducted using three types of message (positive, negative, and balanced) combined with three information sources (government, research institutes, and the pork industry). Participants ate pork almost every second day. They perceived pork as rather nutritious and relatively expensive and had neutral views about its healthiness and safety. Exposure to negative information (about risks only) resulted in a significant and negative change in consumers' perceptions of pork's nutritional value, price, healthiness and safety, while exposure to positive information (about benefits only) caused a positive change in consumers' perceptions about pork's healthiness and safety. Exposure to balanced information resulted in a significant and negative change in the perceived nutritional value of pork. Participants' intended frequency of pork consumption was significantly lower after exposure to information, irrespective of the type of information received. Exposure to risks-only information decreased consumers' intention to eat pork, while exposure to benefit-only information had a positive effect on consumers' intentions to eat pork. Exposure to balanced risk/benefit information had no effect on intended pork consumption. Of the information used, governmental materials were found to have a positive impact on consumers' perceptions of pork's safety. Implications for communication strategies with Chinese consumers about pork consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumer preferences for pork chops in five Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M

    2017-02-27

    The aim of this study is to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork that determine consumer choice in five Canadian provinces. Within-consumer preference replication and systematic image manipulation in surveying showed differences in strategies for pork choice in lean colour (P<0.001) and marbling (P=0.006). High proportions of Nova Scotians (29%) chose light red pork, Albertans (42%) dark red and Quebecers (29%) non-marbled pork. Overall, the most important choice criteria were fat cover (57% preferred lean, 8% fatty) and lean colour (35% dark red, 18% light red). Marbling and drip were less used, but are important noting that 26% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. The preferences are readily met by the industry, but unfortunately, preferences for minimal or no marbling and fat cover likely result in a compromised gustative experience for many Canadian consumers.

  11. 76 FR 23513 - Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... language to amend the Livestock Mandatory Reporting (LMR) regulations to implement mandatory pork price...-239); the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 (7 U.S.C. 1635-1636i); and 7 CFR part 59....

  12. Health care reform. Gridlock and pork?

    PubMed

    Weil, T P

    1997-01-01

    Can Americans expect the same gridlock and pork between now and the 21st Century? What are the possible directions that the United States can move in regarding health care reform and the long-term financing of health entitlement programs? Here, the author offers a snapshot of current politics and some predictions for the next four years. And explores the question: Are Americans willing to make the necessary sacrifices for future generations to profit by the significant changes needed by entitlement and health reform, or will it be business as usual? America's centrist perspective was recently reinforced by the 1996 election, suggesting that no major innovations in entitlement or in the health system should be anticipated in the next four years.

  13. Hyperspectral imaging technique for determination of pork freshness attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyu; Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Tang, Xiuying; Chao, Kuanglin; Dhakal, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    Freshness of pork is an important quality attribute, which can vary greatly in storage and logistics. The specific objectives of this research were to develop a hyperspectral imaging system to predict pork freshness based on quality attributes such as total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters (L*,a*,b*). Pork samples were packed in seal plastic bags and then stored at 4°C. Every 12 hours. Hyperspectral scattering images were collected from the pork surface at the range of 400 nm to 1100 nm. Two different methods were performed to extract scattering feature spectra from the hyperspectral scattering images. First, the spectral scattering profiles at individual wavelengths were fitted accurately by a three-parameter Lorentzian distribution (LD) function; second, reflectance spectra were extracted from the scattering images. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) method was used to establish prediction models to predict pork freshness. The results showed that the PLSR models based on reflectance spectra was better than combinations of LD "parameter spectra" in prediction of TVB-N with a correlation coefficient (r) = 0.90, a standard error of prediction (SEP) = 7.80 mg/100g. Moreover, a prediction model for pork freshness was established by using a combination of TVB-N, pH and color parameters. It could give a good prediction results with r = 0.91 for pork freshness. The research demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique is a valid tool for real-time and nondestructive detection of pork freshness.

  14. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in pork burger patties.

    PubMed

    Gurman, P M; Ross, T; Holds, G L; Jarrett, R G; Kiermeier, A

    2016-02-16

    Predictive models, to estimate the reduction in Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration in beef burgers, have been developed to inform risk management decisions; no analogous model exists for Salmonella spp. in pork burgers. In this study, "Extra Lean" and "Regular" fat pork minces were inoculated with Salmonella spp. (Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:-, Salmonella Senftenberg and Salmonella Typhimurium) and formed into pork burger patties. Patties were cooked on an electric skillet (to imitate home cooking) to one of seven internal temperatures (46, 49, 52, 55, 58, 61, 64 °C) and Salmonella enumerated. A generalised linear logistic regression model was used to develop a predictive model for the Salmonella concentration based on the internal endpoint temperature. It was estimated that in pork mince with a fat content of 6.1%, Salmonella survival will be decreased by -0.2407log10 CFU/g for a 1 °C increase in internal endpoint temperature, with a 5-log10 reduction in Salmonella concentration estimated to occur when the geometric centre temperature reaches 63 °C. The fat content influenced the rate of Salmonella inactivation (P=0.043), with Salmonella survival increasing as fat content increased, though this effect became negligible as the temperature approached 62 °C. Fat content increased the time required for patties to achieve a specified internal temperature (P=0.0106 and 0.0309 for linear and quadratic terms respectively), indicating that reduced fat pork mince may reduce the risk of salmonellosis from consumption of pork burgers. Salmonella serovar did not significantly affect the model intercepts (P=0.86) or slopes (P=0.10) of the fitted logistic curve. This predictive model can be applied to estimate the reduction in Salmonella in pork burgers after cooking to a specific endpoint temperature and hence to assess food safety risk.

  15. MRSA in Conventional and Alternative Retail Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Ashley M.; Hanson, Blake M.; Farina, Sarah A.; Wu, James Y.; Simmering, Jacob E.; Wardyn, Shylo E.; Forshey, Brett M.; Kulick, Marie E.; Wallinga, David B.; Smith, Tara C.

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus on retail pork, three hundred ninety-five pork samples were collected from a total of 36 stores in Iowa, Minnesota, and New Jersey. S. aureus was isolated from 256 samples (64.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 59.9%–69.5%). S. aureus was isolated from 67.3% (202/300) of conventional pork samples and from 56.8% (54/95) of alternative pork samples (labeled “raised without antibiotics” or “raised without antibiotic growth promotants”). Two hundred and thirty samples (58.2%, 95% CI 53.2%–63.1%) were found to carry methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). MSSA was isolated from 61.0% (183/300) of conventional samples and from 49.5% (47/95) of alternative samples. Twenty-six pork samples (6.6%, 95% CI 4.3%–9.5%) carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). No statistically significant differences were observed for the prevalence of S. aureus in general, or MSSA or MRSA specifically, when comparing pork products from conventionally raised swine and swine raised without antibiotics, a finding that contrasts with a prior study from the Netherlands examining both conventional and “biologic” meat products. In our study spa types associated with “livestock-associated” ST398 (t034, t011) were found in 26.9% of the MRSA isolates, while 46.2% were spa types t002 and t008—common human types of MRSA that also have been found in live swine. The study represents the largest sampling of raw meat products for MRSA contamination to date in the U.S. MRSA prevalence on pork products was higher than in previous U.S.-conducted studies, although similar to that in Canadian studies. PMID:22276147

  16. Consumer satisfaction with pork meat and derived products in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Veflen-Olsen, Nina; Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume, with adequate promotion of its healthfulness, and with a good price/quality relationship appears to be the key factor to satisfy pork consumers.

  17. Pre-slaughter stress and pork quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stajković, S.; Teodorović, V.; Baltić, M.; Karabasil, N.

    2017-09-01

    Stress is an inevitable consequence of handling of animals for slaughter. Stress conditions during transport, lairage and at slaughter induce undesirable effects on the end quality of meat such as pale, soft, exudative meat and dark firm dry meat. Hence, it is very important to define appropriate parameters for objective assessment of level of stress. Attempts to define measures of stress have been difficult and no physiological parameter has been successfully used to evaluate stress situations. One physiological change in swine associated with animal handling stress and with pork quality is an increase in blood lactate concentration. Plasma cortisol was thought to be an appropriate indicator of stress, but the concentration was not consistently changed by different stressors. Therefore, finding alternative parameters reacting to stressors, such as acute phase proteins, would be of great value for the objective evaluation of level of stress and meat quality. As the stress during pre-slaughter handling is unavoidable, the final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, meat quality and animal welfare.

  18. Pork in good company? Exploratory analysis of side dishes, beverages, foodscapes and individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2156) in five European countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland). Males were found to combine pork more with caloric drinking (odds ratio=1.32) and low levels of vegetable intake (odds ratio=1.32) compared to females. Younger consumers were more likely to combine pork with low levels of vegetable intake but less likely to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks (odds ratio=1.30) as side dishes to pork meat. Substantial cross-cultural differences were revealed in line with typical pork consumption and meal composition habits in the respective countries. Finally, this study found that the company of family plays a significant role when choosing side dishes for pork as meal center, thus constituting a relevant venue for the positioning and marketing of pork, as well as for future public health information about meals with pork as main meal component.

  19. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significant reduction of b* values, TBA values and VBN values (p<0.05). Based mainly on the results of overall acceptance during 29 d storage, it could be concluded that Amaranthus pigments showed a potential as nitrite alternative for pork sausage manufacture. PMID:25049507

  20. Prediction of Pork Quality by Fuzzy Support Vector Machine Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianxi; Yu, Huaizhi; Wang, Jiamin

    Existing objective methods to evaluate pork quality in general do not yield satisfactory results and their applications in meat industry are limited. In this study, fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) method was developed to evaluate and predict pork quality rapidly and nondestructively. Firstly, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used to eliminate the noise component in original spectrum and the new spectrum was reconstructed. Then, considering the characteristic variables still exist correlation and contain some redundant information, principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out. Lastly, FSVM was developed to differentiate and classify pork samples into different quality grades using the features from PCA. Jackknife tests on the working datasets indicated that the prediction accuracies were higher than other methods.

  1. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    PubMed

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  3. Using Economics and Genetics To Produce Leaner Pork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The booklet describes the STAGES (Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System) program developed at Purdue University (Indiana), along with the USDA, National Pork Producers Council and swine breed associations. By selecting breeding stock from a coded catalogue developed by STAGES, producers are able to select the best breeding stock for more…

  4. 9 CFR 319.29 - Miscellaneous pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Raw Meat Products § 319.29... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Miscellaneous pork products. 319.29...

  5. 9 CFR 319.29 - Miscellaneous pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Raw Meat Products § 319.29... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous pork products. 319.29 Section 319.29 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. Pork as a source of human parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B; Nikolić, A; Klun, I; Dupouy-Camet, J

    2013-07-01

    Foodborne zoonoses have been estimated to annually affect 10% of the global population, among which zoonotic parasites constitute an important class of aetiological agents. The major meatborne parasites include the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp., and the helminths Trichinella spp. and Taenia spp., all of which may be transmitted by pork. The significance of zoonotic parasites transmitted by pork consumption is emphasized by the prediction by the Food and Agriculture Organization of an 18.5% increase in world pork production over the next 10 years. Of all the porkborne parasites, the three 'T' parasites have been responsible for most porkborne illness throughout history; they are still endemic, and therefore are important public-health concerns, in developing countries. Although the risk of porkborne parasites, particularly helminths, may currently be considered insignificant in developed countries, the modern trend of consuming raw meat favours their re-emergence. This paper overviews the main parasites transmitted to humans by pork, and outlines the main lines of prevention.

  7. 9 CFR 319.104 - Cured pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and loins, shall comply with the minimum meat Protein Fat Free (PFF) percentage requirements set forth... is added ingredients. 3 1 The minimum meat PFF percentage shall be the minimum meat protein which is... Weight is Added Ingredients,” and “Ham with Natural Juices”: pork collagen at up to 3.5% of the...

  8. 9 CFR 319.104 - Cured pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and loins, shall comply with the minimum meat Protein Fat Free (PFF) percentage requirements set forth... is added ingredients. 3 1 The minimum meat PFF percentage shall be the minimum meat protein which is... Weight is Added Ingredients,” and “Ham with Natural Juices”: pork collagen at up to 3.5% of the...

  9. Predicting aged pork quality using a portable raman device

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: A need exists for a better on-line evaluation method for pork quality. Raman spectroscopy evaluates structure and composition of food samples, with advantage of being portable, non-invasive and insensitive to water. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the correlation between Ra...

  10. "Chilled" pork--Part II. Consumer perception of sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare consumer perception of the sensory quality of grilled Canadian pork destined for Japanese and domestic markets, with particular reference to export selection criteria imposed by Japanese importers and transportation conditions. Consumers from Quebec, Canada tasted local and export quality pork subjected to "chilled" (aged 43 days at -1.7 °C) or conventional ageing (5 days at 3.1 °C). Consumers' scores (out of 10) were higher (P<0.05) in the "chilled" than conventionally aged pork for tenderness (6.8 vs 5.7), juiciness (6.6 vs 6.0), taste liking (6.4 vs 5.9) and overall acceptability (6.7 vs 6.1). When informed that the conventionally aged, domestic quality pork was destined for the domestic market, consumer scores increased significantly (P<0.05). No effect of information was observed on the perception of the 'chilled' export quality meat, perhaps a consequence of the high sensory quality observed prior to labelling.

  11. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... / Monday, December 17, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant... Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... certain animal embryos and animal semen by removing one of the conditions for the importation of swine...

  12. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages.

  13. [The pork-cat syndrome: effect of sensitization to cats on sensitization to pork meat. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Drouet, M; Lauret, M G; Sabbah, A

    1994-10-01

    A patient who presented with exercise-induced anaphylaxis, linked with a food allergy to pork meat (VP), about three years ago became allergic to VP though effort was necessary to trigger the anaphylactic reactions. These disappeared after suppression of the VP allergy, but the IgE response to VP persisted until the cat was removed from the environment.

  14. Identification of Pork Adulteration in Processed Meat Products Using the Developed Mitochondrial DNA-Based Primers

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Yukyung; Oh, Hyemin; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-01-01

    The identification of pork in commercially processed meats is one of the most crucial issues in the food industry because of religious food ethics, medical purposes, and intentional adulteration to decrease production cost. This study therefore aimed to develop a method for the detection of pork adulteration in meat products using primers specific for pig mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA sequences for pig, cattle, chicken, and sheep were obtained from GenBank and aligned. The 294-bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop region was selected as the pig target DNA sequence and appropriate primers were designed using the MUSCLE program. To evaluate primer sensitivity, pork-beef-chicken mixtures were prepared as follows: i) 0% pork-50% beef-50% chicken, ii) 1% pork-49.5% beef-49.5% chicken, iii) 2% pork-49% beef-49% chicken, iv) 5% pork-47.5% beef-47.5% chicken, v) 10% pork-45% beef-45% chicken, and vi) 100% pork-0% beef-0% chicken. In addition, a total of 35 commercially packaged products, including patties, nuggets, meatballs, and sausages containing processed chicken, beef, or a mixture of various meats, were purchased from commercial markets. The primers developed in our study were able to detect as little as 1% pork in the heat treated pork-beef-chicken mixtures. Of the 35 processed products, three samples were pork positive despite being labeled as beef or chicken only or as a beef-chicken mix. These results indicate that the developed primers could be used to detect pork adulteration in various processed meat products for application in safeguarding religious food ethics, detecting allergens, and preventing food adulteration. PMID:28747833

  15. Identification of Pork Adulteration in Processed Meat Products Using the Developed Mitochondrial DNA-Based Primers.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jimyeong; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Yukyung; Oh, Hyemin; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-01-01

    The identification of pork in commercially processed meats is one of the most crucial issues in the food industry because of religious food ethics, medical purposes, and intentional adulteration to decrease production cost. This study therefore aimed to develop a method for the detection of pork adulteration in meat products using primers specific for pig mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA sequences for pig, cattle, chicken, and sheep were obtained from GenBank and aligned. The 294-bp mitochondrial DNA D-loop region was selected as the pig target DNA sequence and appropriate primers were designed using the MUSCLE program. To evaluate primer sensitivity, pork-beef-chicken mixtures were prepared as follows: i) 0% pork-50% beef-50% chicken, ii) 1% pork-49.5% beef-49.5% chicken, iii) 2% pork-49% beef-49% chicken, iv) 5% pork-47.5% beef-47.5% chicken, v) 10% pork-45% beef-45% chicken, and vi) 100% pork-0% beef-0% chicken. In addition, a total of 35 commercially packaged products, including patties, nuggets, meatballs, and sausages containing processed chicken, beef, or a mixture of various meats, were purchased from commercial markets. The primers developed in our study were able to detect as little as 1% pork in the heat treated pork-beef-chicken mixtures. Of the 35 processed products, three samples were pork positive despite being labeled as beef or chicken only or as a beef-chicken mix. These results indicate that the developed primers could be used to detect pork adulteration in various processed meat products for application in safeguarding religious food ethics, detecting allergens, and preventing food adulteration.

  16. 9 CFR 94.24 - Restrictions on the importation of pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... pork, pork products, and swine from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 94.24 Section 94.24 Animals and...

  17. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    PubMed

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-02-22

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital.

  18. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Kwon, Yun-Joong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of multilayered fish oil (FO) emulsion without or with trans-cinnamaldehyde on pork patties. Multilayered FO (-primary, -secondary, -tertiary) emulsions were prepared using a layer-by-layer deposition technique with Tween 20, chitosan, and low methoxyl pectin, and were added to pork patties at the same concentration. Pork patties were then stored for 20 d in a refrigerator (5℃) to study changes in quality. The results showed that the pH value of all samples significantly decreased but cooking loss increased during storage (p<0.05). However, water-holding capacity and moisture content showed no remarkable difference between treatments and storage periods (p>0.05). All pork patties containing multilayered FO (treated samples) showed higher values for lightness and significantly lower values for yellowness compared to control pork patties (untreated sample). Lipid oxidation was higher in treated pork patties than in control pork patties during storage. In addition, lipid oxidation and total viable bacterial count in pork patties decreased as the number of coating layers increased. However, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness of all samples showed no significant change during storage (p>0.05) as compared to fresh pork patties. Furthermore, these did not remarkable change with addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde in all pork patties. From our results, we suggest that FO emulsion did not affect the texture characteristics of fresh pork patties, indicating that it could be used to improve the quality of pork patties by contributing high-quality fat such as unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:26761802

  19. Changes in Quality Characteristics of Pork Patties Containing Multilayered Fish Oil Emulsion during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Kwon, Yun-Joong; Min, Sang-Gi; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of multilayered fish oil (FO) emulsion without or with trans-cinnamaldehyde on pork patties. Multilayered FO (-primary, -secondary, -tertiary) emulsions were prepared using a layer-by-layer deposition technique with Tween 20, chitosan, and low methoxyl pectin, and were added to pork patties at the same concentration. Pork patties were then stored for 20 d in a refrigerator (5℃) to study changes in quality. The results showed that the pH value of all samples significantly decreased but cooking loss increased during storage (p<0.05). However, water-holding capacity and moisture content showed no remarkable difference between treatments and storage periods (p>0.05). All pork patties containing multilayered FO (treated samples) showed higher values for lightness and significantly lower values for yellowness compared to control pork patties (untreated sample). Lipid oxidation was higher in treated pork patties than in control pork patties during storage. In addition, lipid oxidation and total viable bacterial count in pork patties decreased as the number of coating layers increased. However, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness of all samples showed no significant change during storage (p>0.05) as compared to fresh pork patties. Furthermore, these did not remarkable change with addition of trans-cinnamaldehyde in all pork patties. From our results, we suggest that FO emulsion did not affect the texture characteristics of fresh pork patties, indicating that it could be used to improve the quality of pork patties by contributing high-quality fat such as unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Effect of irradiated pork on physicochemical properties of meat emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-02-01

    The effect of pork irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy on meat emulsions formulated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was investigated. Raw pork was vacuums packaged at a thickness of 2.0 cm and irradiated by X-ray linear accelerator (15 kW, 5 MeV). The emulsion had higher lightness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, and apparent viscosity with increasing doses, whereas cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, and hardness decreased. There were no significant differences in fat separation, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, springiness, and cohesiveness. Our results indicated that it is treatment by ionizing radiation which causes the effects the physicochemical properties of the final raw meat product.

  1. Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Najes, Luis M; Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the influence of dietary fat sources on meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes in pork. The experiment was conducted with 43 entire male pigs (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed a basal diet without added fat (control diet) or supplemented with different sources of fat: animal fat (1%, AF1; 3%, AF3), soyabean oil (1%, SBO1) and calcium soaps of palm oil (1%, CaSPO1). Dietary fat supplementation did not significantly affect ultimate pH, colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force values, sensory attributes or SFA. Pigs fed SBO1 had the lowest proportion of MUFA and the highest of PUFA. In conclusion, these dietary fat sources could be recommended for inclusion in diets, at these levels, with no detrimental effect on eating quality. Despite finding no significant differences, the PCA afforded a comprehensive view of the predominating attributes of pork from animals fed the different fats.

  2. Functional and safety evaluation of transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maoxue; Qian, Lili; Jiang, Shengwang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Pengkun; Chen, Yaoxing; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2014-08-01

    Genetically modified animals rich in omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid offer a new strategy to improve the human health, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the function and safety of sFat-1 transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids in mice by feeding basic diet and diets that contain wild type pork and sFat-1 transgenic pork. Blood biochemistry, haematology, peripheral T cell distributions, bacterial counts, gross necropsy, histopathology and organ weights were performed in mice fed with different doses of wild type and transgenic pork. Results indicated that both low and high dose of wild type and transgenic pork had no significant effect on blood biochemistry, T cell distribution, immunoglobulins and bacterial counts in intestine and feces. However, it was noted that both low and high dose of transgenic pork improved the liver immune system in mice, which is probably due to the beneficial contribution of high level of the "good" fatty acids in transgenic pork. There is no significant effect of transgenic pork on all other organs in mice. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that feeding transgenic pork rich in omega-3 fatty acids did not cause any harm to mice, and in fact, improved the liver immune system.

  3. Cat-pork syndrome: a case report with a thee years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Savi, E; Rossi, A; Incorvaia, C

    2006-12-01

    A case of cat-pork syndrome with subsequent follow-up in a 17-year-old male patient is reported. At the initial observation, the patient was sensitized to cat epithelium--along with house dust mites and grass pollen--from two years. In 2001 he had an immediate reaction with urticaria, angioedema and dyspnea after eating grilled meat and sausage, and skin tests and CAP/RAST revealed a sensitization to pork meat, with a value of 4.7 KU/L for pork meat, and of 55 KU/L for cat epithelium. The patient was followed up for three years with annual repetition of diagnostic tests. The elimination of pork meat from the diet was incomplete, with slight skin reactions to small amounts of cooked pork meat but tolerance to seasoned pork products such as salami. A challenge test with pork meat in 2004 was positive, with angioedema and asthma symptoms, and CAP/RAST showed a value of 43 KU/L for cat epithelium and 4 KU/L for pork meat. RAST inhibition confirmed the significant cross-reactivity between the two allergen sources. These findings provide some knowledge on the natural history of the cat-pork syndrome, and confirm that very prolonged avoidance of the offending foods are needed to expect a loss of sensitization.

  4. In vitro protein digestibility of pork products is affected by the method of processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zou, Xiaoyu; He, Jing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-02-01

    Processing contributes to different flavors and textures of pork products. However, processing methods have also showed a great impact on meat nutrition. In this study, protein digestibility and digested products were compared among four kinds of processed pork products (cooked pork, emulsion-type sausage, dry-cured pork and stewed pork). Cooked samples were homogenized and digested by pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility of meat proteins was evaluated by particle size measurement, SDS-PAGE, and LC-MS/MS. Emulsion-type sausage had the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size (P<0.05), while stewed pork showed the opposite results (P<0.05). Band profiling on SDS-PAGE gels were significantly different before and after digestion, and between pork products as well. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that stewed pork samples had the greatest number of 750-3500Da Mw peptides in digested products, while emulsion-type sausage had the smallest number of peptides between 750 and 3500Da. Long-time salting and drying, and long-time and high-temperature cooking may induce pork proteins to being less susceptible to pepsin digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  7. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... cooked meat of the species specified on the label. Mechanically Separated (Pork) may be used...

  8. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... cooked meat of the species specified on the label. Mechanically Separated (Pork) may be used...

  9. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... cooked meat of the species specified on the label. Mechanically Separated (Pork) may be used...

  10. Quality Evaluation of Pork with Various Freezing and Thawing Methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the physicochemical and sensory quality characteristics due to the influence of various thawing methods on electro-magnetic and air blast frozen pork were examined. The packaged pork samples, which were frozen by air blast freezing at −45℃ or electro-magnetic freezing at −55℃, were thawed using 4 different methods: refrigeration (4±1℃), room temperature (RT, 25℃), cold water (15℃), and microwave (2450 MHz). Analyses were carried out to determine the drip and cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture content and sensory evaluation. Frozen pork thawed in a microwave indicated relatively less thawing loss (0.63-1.24%) than the other thawing methods (0.68-1.38%). The cooking loss after electro-magnetic freezing indicated 37.4% by microwave thawing, compared with 32.9% by refrigeration, 36.5% by RT, and 37.2% by cold water in ham. The thawing of samples frozen by electro-magnetic freezing showed no significant differences between the methods used, while the moisture content was higher in belly thawed by microwave (62.0%) after electro-magnetic freezing than refrigeration (54.8%), RT (61.3%), and cold water (61.1%). The highest overall acceptability was shown for microwave thawing after electro-magnetic freezing but there were no significant differences compared to that of the other samples. PMID:26761493

  11. Identification of irradiated refrigerated pork with the DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marin-Huachaca, N. S.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2004-09-01

    Food irradiation can contribute to a safer and more plentiful food supply by inactivating pathogens, eradicating pests and by extending shelf-life. Particularly in the case of pork meat, this process could be a useful way to inactivate harmful parasites such as Trichinella and Taenia solium. Ionizing radiation causes damage to the DNA of the cells (e.g. strand breaks), which can be used to detect irradiated food. Microelectrophoresis of single cells (``Comet Assay'') is a simple and rapid test for DNA damage and can be used over a wide dose range and for a variety of products. Refrigerated pork meat was irradiated with a 60Co source, Gammacell 220 (A.E.C.L.) installed in IPEN (Sa~o Paulo, Brazil). The doses given were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5kGy for refrigerated samples. Immediately after irradiation the samples were returned to the refrigerator (6°C). Samples were kept in the refrigerator after irradiation. Pork meat was analyzed 1, 8 and 10 days after irradiation using the DNA ``Comet Assay''. This method showed to be an inexpensive and rapid technique for qualitative detection of irradiation treatment.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pork produced in France.

    PubMed

    Djokic, V; Blaga, R; Aubert, D; Durand, B; Perret, C; Geers, R; Ducry, T; Vallee, I; Djurkovic Djakovic, O; Mzabi, A; Villena, I; Boireau, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite in pork produced in France, and to determine infection risk factors. An innovative survey was designed based on annual numbers of slaughtered pigs from intensive and outdoor farms in France. A total of 1549 samples of cardiac fluids were collected from pig hearts to determine seroprevalence using a Modified Agglutination Test. Of those, 160 hearts were bio-assayed in mice to isolate live parasites. The overall seroprevalence among fattening pigs was 2·9%. The adjusted seroprevalence in pigs from intensive farms was 3·0%; the highest in sows (13·4%); 2·9% in fattening pigs and 2·6% in piglets. Adjusted seroprevalence in fattening animals from outdoor farms was 6·3%. Strains were isolated from 41 animals and all were genotyped by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism as type II. Risk-factor analysis showed that the risk of infection was more than three times higher for outdoor pigs, and that sows' risk was almost five times higher than that of fattening animals. This study provides further evidence of extensive pork infection with T. gondii regardless of breeding systems, indicating that farm conditions are still insufficient to guarantee 'Toxoplasma-free pork'.

  13. Prediction of pork color attributes using computer vision system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Young, Jennifer; Liu, Jeng Hung; Bachmeier, Laura; Somers, Rose Marie; Chen, Kun Jie; Newman, David

    2016-03-01

    Color image processing and regression methods were utilized to evaluate color score of pork center cut loin samples. One hundred loin samples of subjective color scores 1 to 5 (NPB, 2011; n=20 for each color score) were selected to determine correlation values between Minolta colorimeter measurements and image processing features. Eighteen image color features were extracted from three different RGB (red, green, blue) model, HSI (hue, saturation, intensity) and L*a*b* color spaces. When comparing Minolta colorimeter values with those obtained from image processing, correlations were significant (P<0.0001) for L* (0.91), a* (0.80), and b* (0.66). Two comparable regression models (linear and stepwise) were used to evaluate prediction results of pork color attributes. The proposed linear regression model had a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.83 compared to the stepwise regression results (R(2)=0.70). These results indicate that computer vision methods have potential to be used as a tool in predicting pork color attributes.

  14. Study on classification of pork quality using hyperspectral imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shan; Bai, Jun; Wang, Haibin

    2015-12-01

    The relative problems' research of chilled meat, thawed meat and spoiled meat discrimination by hyperspectral image technique were proposed, such the section of feature wavelengths, et al. First, based on 400 ~ 1000nm range hyperspectral image data of testing pork samples, by K-medoids clustering algorithm based on manifold distance, we select 30 important wavelengths from 753 wavelengths, and thus select 8 feature wavelengths (454.4, 477.5, 529.3, 546.8, 568.4, 580.3, 589.9 and 781.2nm) based on the discrimination value. Then 8 texture features of each image under 8 feature wavelengths were respectively extracted by two-dimensional Gabor wavelets transform as pork quality feature. Finally, we build a pork quality classification model using the fuzzy C-mean clustering algorithm. Through the experiment of extracting feature wavelengths, we found that although the hyperspectral images between adjacent bands have a strong linear correlation, they show a significant non-linear manifold relationship from the entire band. K-medoids clustering algorithm based on manifold distance used in this paper for selecting the characteristic wavelengths, which is more reasonable than traditional principal component analysis (PCA). Through the classification result, we conclude that hyperspectral imaging technology can distinguish among chilled meat, thawed meat and spoiled meat accurately.

  15. Quality Evaluation of Pork with Various Freezing and Thawing Methods.

    PubMed

    Ku, Su Kyung; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Jong Dae; Jeon, Ki Hong; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Boong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the physicochemical and sensory quality characteristics due to the influence of various thawing methods on electro-magnetic and air blast frozen pork were examined. The packaged pork samples, which were frozen by air blast freezing at -45℃ or electro-magnetic freezing at -55℃, were thawed using 4 different methods: refrigeration (4±1℃), room temperature (RT, 25℃), cold water (15℃), and microwave (2450 MHz). Analyses were carried out to determine the drip and cooking loss, water holding capacity (WHC), moisture content and sensory evaluation. Frozen pork thawed in a microwave indicated relatively less thawing loss (0.63-1.24%) than the other thawing methods (0.68-1.38%). The cooking loss after electro-magnetic freezing indicated 37.4% by microwave thawing, compared with 32.9% by refrigeration, 36.5% by RT, and 37.2% by cold water in ham. The thawing of samples frozen by electro-magnetic freezing showed no significant differences between the methods used, while the moisture content was higher in belly thawed by microwave (62.0%) after electro-magnetic freezing than refrigeration (54.8%), RT (61.3%), and cold water (61.1%). The highest overall acceptability was shown for microwave thawing after electro-magnetic freezing but there were no significant differences compared to that of the other samples.

  16. Community and occupational health concerns in pork production: a review.

    PubMed

    Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    Public concerns relative to adverse consequences of large-scale livestock production have been increasingly voiced since the late 1960s. Numerous regional, national, and international conferences have been held on the subject since 1994. This paper provides a review of the literature on the community and occupational health concerns of large-scale livestock production with a focus on pork production. The industry has recognized the concerns of the public, and the national and state pork producer groups are including these issues as an important component of their research and policy priorities. One reason large-scale livestock production has raised concern is that a significant component of the industry has separated from traditional family farming and has developed like other industries in management, structure, and concentration. The magnitude of the problem cited by environmental groups has often been criticized by the pork production industry for lack of science-based evidence to document environmental concerns. In addition to general environmental concerns, occupational health of workers has become more relevant because many operations now are employing more than 10 employees, which brings many operations in the United States under the scrutiny of the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration. In this paper, the scientific literature is reviewed relative to the science basis of occupational and environmental impacts on community and worker health. Further, recommendations are made to help promote sustainability of the livestock industry within the context of maintaining good stewardship of our environmental and human capital.

  17. Influence of Salmonella in pigs preharvest and during pork processing on human health costs and risks from pork.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gay Y; Liu, Xuanli; McNamara, Paul E; Barber, David A

    2005-09-01

    Salmonellosis in humans is a costly disease traditionally assumed to be associated with exposure to contaminated food. We have developed a farm-to-fork model that allows estimation of the human health costs and risks associated with Salmonella in pork. This analysis focuses on the stages of the pork production chain up to the point of producing a chilled pork carcass. The model predicts the number of human cases of salmonellosis associated with pork (mean, 99,430; 90% confidence interval, 20,970 to 245,560) and the corresponding social costs (mean, $81.53 million; 90% confidence interval, $18.75 million to $197.44 million). Sensitivity and scenario analyses suggest that changes in Salmonella status during processing are more important for human health risk and have a higher benefit:cost ratio when compared with on-farm strategies for Salmonella control. Specifically, benefit:cost ratios are less than 1 (indicating they are not likely to be profitable from a social economic perspective) for the on-farm strategies of vaccination and meal feeding, whereas rinsing carcasses at various temperatures with and without sanitizer all have benefit:cost ratios greater than 1 (indicating they are profitable from a social economic perspective). This type of modeling is useful for evaluation of the relative cost effectiveness of interventions at different points in the food chain when allocating limited food safety dollars and is best used for examining trends and alternative strategies rather than for providing definitive dollar value estimates of risk. The dollar value estimates must be considered in the context of the wide confidence intervals.

  18. 76 FR 45769 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Pork and Poultry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Collection; Pork and Poultry Products From Mexico Transiting the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... ] information collection associated with regulations for pork and poultry products from Mexico transiting the... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on pork and poultry products from Mexico...

  19. Viability of Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple formulated with and without antimicrobials during extended refrigerated storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the addition of select food grade chemicals as ingredients to control Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple during refrigerated storage. In each of two trials, loaves (ca. 11 cm wide x ca. 6 cm high x ca. 64 cm long; ca. 5 kg each) of pork scrapple were formulated, with or without cit...

  20. Effects of deep bedded finishing system on market swine performance, composition and pork quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to compare effects of finishing environment on growth performance, pork quality, and lipid composition of pork. Environments compared were standard confinement (CON) and deep-bedded, semi-outdoor systems (Hoop). The deep-bedded method employed in the current study was t...

  1. Influence of meat exudates on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gap-Don; Jung, Eun-Young; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Yang, Han-Sul; Joo, Seon-Tea; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2013-10-01

    The influence of the accumulated exudates released from pork loin of itself on the quality characteristics of fresh and freeze-thawed pork during cold storage was investigated. Pork loins were divided into four groups (fresh pork with exudates, fresh pork without exudates, freeze-thawed pork with exudates and freeze-thawed pork without exudates) and stored at 1.0°C for 7 days. Exudate amount increased due to freeze-thawing and with storage, and most quality traits such as drip loss, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness, redness, and moisture content were affected by freeze-thawing (p<0.05). Freeze-thaw increased drip loss but decreased moisture content, cooking loss, tenderness, lightness and redness of meat (p<0.05). Microbial growth was solely affected by exudate removal and the removal of initial exudates decreased microbial growth (p<0.05). Exudates were positively correlated with total protein content and total plate count but negatively correlated with pH and cooking loss. Therefore, removing meat exudates and avoiding freeze can slow down the quality deterioration of pork during cold storage.

  2. Pre-harvest risk factors for Salmonella enterica in pork production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella is an important issue to the pork industry worldwide. Although Salmonella has been identified in all links of the pork production chain, there has been increasing focus on the pre-harvest phase (on-farm). Many investigations have been conducted to identify risk factors for Salmonella infe...

  3. [Preliminary Study on the Detection of Pork Tenderness by Three-Dimensional Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-yong; Zuo, Yue-ming; Chen, Jin-ming; Li, Gang; Chen, Chen; Yang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Tenderness is an important index to evaluate the pork's quality, in this paper a method called three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was proposed to detect pork tenderness. Because pork has a strong scattering impact on light, this method introduced more scattering information of pork samples into spectral analysis of tenderness. Using the special data acquisition system, three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectra of 64 pork samples were constructed by collecting the emergent light signals of different distances away from the light incident point. And n-way partial least squares (NPLS) regression was applied to establish the calibration model between the pork tenderness and three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectra which were denoised by wavelet transform. The determination coefficient of model for the calibration set (R2(Cal)) is 0.883 1, and the root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) is 3.685 0N. The determination coefficient of model for the prediction set (R2(Pred)) is 0.874 7, and the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) is 3.975 6N. The result indicates that the NPLS model of pork tenderness built by three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectra has higher calibration accuracy and prediction stability than the traditional diffuse reflectance spectra. Three-dimensional diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be expected to be a new method to quickly detect the tenderness and the other qualities of pork.

  4. 77 FR 50561 - Livestock Mandatory Reporting Program; Establishment of the Reporting Regulation for Wholesale Pork

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... highlight major components of the rule. Definition of Wholesale Pork The term ``wholesale pork'' represents... sodium phosphate solution, are included in this definition, and, therefore, required to be reported.... The definition of a forward sale is designed to capture transactions that occur outside the...

  5. 77 FR 16951 - Livestock Mandatory Reporting Program; Establishment of the Reporting Regulation for Wholesale Pork

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Farm Bill) (Pub. L. 110-234) directed the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) to conduct a study to... wholesale pork reporting. The report from this study concluded that voluntary negotiated wholesale pork... basis. The 2008 Farm Bill directed the Secretary to conduct a study to determine advantages, drawbacks...

  6. Dynamic model for predicting growth of salmonella spp. in ground sterile pork

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predictive model for Salmonella spp. growth in ground pork was developed and validated using kinetic growth data. Salmonella spp. kinetic growth data in ground pork was collected at several isothermal conditions (between 10 and 45C) and Baranyi model was fitted to describe the growth at each temper...

  7. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  8. 7 CFR 59.205 - Mandatory reporting of wholesale pork sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... wholesale pork sale, as defined herein, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on an F.O.B. Plant and an F.O.B... time of sale; (2) The quantity for each pork sale, quoted by number of pounds sold; and (3) The...

  9. Characteristics of pork belly consumption in South Korea and their health implication.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Yang, Han-Sul; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Go, Gwang-Woong

    2015-01-01

    Fresh pork belly is a highly popular meat in South Korea, accounting for 59 % of the approximately 100 g of meat per capita that is consumed daily. Fresh pork belly offers not only high-quality protein from the lean cuts but also substantial micronutrients including fat-soluble vitamins and minerals. However, fresh pork belly generally consists of about 30 % fat, with saturated fatty acids representing half of this value. Excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids increases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides while decreasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, raising concerns about an increased risk of hyperlipidemia, followed by cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we discuss the consumption and production trends in South Korea, the general characteristics, and health issues related to fresh pork belly to delineate the features of pork production and consumer welfare.

  10. A survey of Mexican retail chain stores for fresh U.S. pork.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Leidenz, N; Howard, S T; Ruíz Flores, A; Ngapo, T M; Belk, K E

    2016-09-01

    An overview of fresh US pork in the Mexican market was achieved by surveying fresh US pork packages (n=342) for sale in five Mexican cities. Data on cut, primal/sub-primal from which the cut was sourced, subcutaneous and seam fat thicknesses, marbling scores, and presence of bone were collated. The most prevalent identifiable retail cuts were milanesa (thin slice of pork, breaded or non-breaded) and trozos (diced pork) derived primarily from the leg and accounting for 68% of the total US pork on sale. Over 90% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat and the average marbling score was 2.26. Differences in distribution and fat measures were observed with chain, location and socio-economic status of clientele indicating potential for a targeted marketing approach in Mexico. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of preferences for pork sandwiches produced from animals with and without somatotropin administration.

    PubMed

    Fox, J A; Buhr, B L; Shogren, J F; Kliebenstein, J B; Hayes, D J

    1995-04-01

    Experimental auction markets were designed and used to investigate consumer preferences for sandwiches produced with meat from pigs treated with porcine somatotropin. A second-price, sealed-bid auction procedure was used to determine willingness to pay to exchange a pork loin sandwich with leaner meat from pigs treated with somatotropin for a similar sandwich with meat from untreated pigs. The research was conducted using a sample of 114 undergraduate students in Iowa, Arkansas, Massachusetts, and California. At the end of the experiment 33 of 58 subjects would not bid to change their leaner pork for typical pork, whereas 15 of 56 subjects would not bid to change their typical pork for leaner pork. The results suggest a preference for leaner meat from the treated pigs, but also the potential for niche markets for meat and meat products from untreated pigs.

  12. Classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon based on physicochemical properties and chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Chunjiang; Hu, Honghai; Chen, Wenbo

    2016-07-01

    Sixty-seven pork bacon samples from Hunan, Sichuan Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Yunnan Provinces in China were analyzed to understand their geographical properties. Classification was performed by determining their physicochemical properties through chemometric techniques, including variance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). Results showed that certain differences existed in terms of nine physicochemical determinations in traditional Chinese pork bacon. PCA revealed the distinction among Hunan, Sichuan, and Guangdong style bacon. Meanwhile, seven key physicochemical determination criteria were identified in line with DA and could be reasonably applied to the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon. Furthermore, the ratio of overall correct classification was 97.76% and that of cross-validation was 91.76%. These findings indicated that chemometric techniques, together with several physicochemical determination, were effective for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon with geographical features. Our study provided a theoretical reference for the classification of traditional Chinese pork bacon.

  13. In vitro digestibility of expanded pork skin and rawhide chews, and digestion and metabolic characteristics of expanded pork skin chews in healthy adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Hooda, S; Ferreira, L G; Latour, M A; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2012-12-01

    Chews are an important part of the pet product industry, with many having potential to decrease plaque or calculus formation. However, their digestion characteristics and gut transit time are virtually unknown. Two experiments were conducted to determine in vitro DM digestibility of expanded pork skin chews and rawhide chews, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), gastrointestinal transit time, and blood metabolite measurements in healthy adult dogs fed a weight-control commercial diet and expanded pork skin chews. In Exp.1, an in vitro method that simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion was used to determine DM digestibility of expanded pork skin chews and rawhide chews. In Exp. 2, after a 22-d baseline phase, 10 purpose-bred, intact female dogs (5 to 5.5 yr of age; 18.9 to 23.1 kg BW) were fed the diet plus an expanded pork skin chew (~45 g) each day for 22 d. In vitro gastric digestibility of expanded pork skin chews increased with time, with chews being 54.7%, 58.6%, 76.4%, and 86.4% digestible after 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of gastric digestion, respectively. By contrast, gastric digestibility of rawhide chews was 7.6% at 6 h, slowly increased over time, and reached a maximum of 41.6% at 18 h. In vitro gastric plus small intestinal digestibility results indicated near complete digestibility of expanded pork skin chews at all times, whereas rawhide chews were 50 to 85% digestible. In vivo ATTD of DM, OM, and N were greater (P < 0.05) when dogs were fed expanded pork skin chews along with the basal diet, compared with the basal diet alone. However, chew intake did not change transit time measured with a wireless motility device. By contrast, motility index and contraction pattern of the colon were altered (P < 0.05) during chew feeding relative to control. Blood urea N concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in dogs fed expanded pork skin chews, compared with baseline; this was not surprising, given the increased N intake and absorption from the chews

  14. Frequency of hepatitis E virus, rotavirus and porcine enteric calicivirus at various stages of pork carcass processing in two pork processing plants.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-10-16

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV), and porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) infections are common in swine and raises concerns about the potential for zoonotic transmission through undercooked meat products. Enteric viruses can potentially contaminate carcasses during meat processing operations. There is a lack of information on the prevalence and control of enteric viruses in the pork processing chain. This study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with HEV, RV and PEC at different stages of the dressing process. A total of 1000 swabs were collected from 2 pork processing plants on 10 separate occasions over the span of a year. The samples were obtained from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 dressing stages (plant A: bleeding, dehairing, pasteurization, and evisceration; plant B: bleeding, skinning, evisceration, and washing) and from meat cuts. Numbers of genome copies (gc) of HEV, RV and PEC were determined by RT-qPCR. RV and PEC were detected in 100%, and 18% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant A and in 98%, and 36% of samples, respectively, after bleeding for plant B. After evisceration, RV and PEC were detected in 21% and 3% of samples, respectively, for plant A and in 1%, and 0% of samples, respectively for plant B. RV and PEC were detected on 1%, and 5% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant A and on 0%, and 0% of pork cuts, respectively, for plant B. HEV was not detected in any pork carcass or retail pork samples from plants A or B. The frequency of PEC and RV on pork is progressively reduced along the pork processing chain but the viruses were not completely eliminated. The findings suggest that consumers could be at risk when consuming undercooked meat contaminated with pathogenic enteric viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of the Hepatitis E Virus in Retail Pork Products Marketed in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mykytczuk, Oksana; Harlow, Jennifer; Bidawid, Sabah; Corneau, Nathalie; Nasheri, Neda

    2017-06-01

    Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is very common worldwide. HEV causes acute viral hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year. While HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause large waterborne and foodborne outbreaks with a significant mortality in developing countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are more prevalent in developed countries with transmission being mostly zoonotic. In North America and Europe, HEV has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered to be the primary source of infection. Therefore we set out to investigate the prevalence of HEV in retail pork products available in Canada, by screening meal-size portions of pork pâtés, raw pork sausages, and raw pork livers. The presence of the HEV genomes was determined by RT-PCR and viral RNA was quantified by digital droplet PCR. Overall, HEV was detected in 47% of the sampled pork pâtés and 10.5% of the sampled raw pork livers, but not in the sampled pork sausages, and sequencing confirmed that all HEV strains belonged to genotype 3. Further phylogenetic analysis revealed that except for one isolate that clusters with subtype 3d, all isolates belong to subtype 3a. Amino acid variations between the isolates were also observed in the sequenced capsid region. In conclusion, the prevalence of HEV in pâtés and raw pork livers observed in this study is in agreement with the current HEV distribution in pork products reported in other developed countries.

  16. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  17. Accelerated chilling of carcasses to improve pork quality.

    PubMed

    Springer, M P; Carr, M A; Ramsey, C B; Miller, M F

    2003-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the optimal accelerated chill time immediately postmortem necessary to improve the quality of pork muscle and to decrease the incidence of pale, soft, and exudative pork. Carcasses from 81 market hogs were cooled either by conventional chill (CC) at 2 degrees C or by accelerated chill (AC) at -32 degrees C for 60, 90, 120, or 150 min, and then placed into a 2 degrees C cooler for the remainder of the 24-h chill period. Loin muscle pH was higher (P < 0.05) for the carcasses that were accelerated chilled longer than 60 min. Although loin visual color, texture, and firmness scores increased (P < 0.05) with AC time, no improvements were noted beyond 60 min. Color, pH, texture, firmness, and CIE L*a*b* values of fresh ham muscles were not (P > 0.05) affected by AC. In addition, AC did not (P > 0.05) affect purge, drip, or thaw loss of fresh products, sensory scores of loins or processed hams (except initial juiciness; P < 0.05), water-holding capacity of processed hams, or processing characteristics of hams. Cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear values for hams and loins were not (P > 0.05) affected by AC. Accelerated chilling caused loins to be darker (lower L* value; P < 0.05) and to have lower (P < 0.05) b* values (less yellow) than CC loins. Accelerated chilling increased water-holding capacity in fresh hams, bound water being the greatest (P < 0.05) in the 120- and 150-min AC groups. These results demonstrate that improvements in pork loin quality can be made using freezer-accelerated chilling for carcasses.

  18. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and {sup 40}K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content.

  19. Stepwise chilling: tender pork without compromising water-holding capacity.

    PubMed

    Rosenvold, K; Borup, U; Therkildsen, M

    2010-05-01

    The current pork slaughter process is primarily optimized to reduce cooler shrink and the incidence of PSE pork. Elimination of the halothane gene and improved preslaughter handling have decreased the incidence of PSE pork and improved the water-holding capacity of the muscle; however, the chilling process has not been optimized to accommodate these changes. The hypothesis that stepwise chilling could improve tenderness without compromising water-holding capacity was tested in this study. The stepwise chilling treatments were composed of a rapid chilling to 10 or 15 degrees C (in a chilling tunnel) and a 6-h holding period at 10 or 15 degrees C, followed by rapid chilling to 4 degrees C. Both treatments were compared directly with a chilling treatment that simulated conventional tunnel chilling; one carcass half from each pig was allocated to a stepwise chilling treatment, whereas the other carcass half was allocated to the control treatment. A total of 42 pigs were slaughtered on 6 slaughter days. Biopsies were collected for analysis of glycogen degradation and glycogen debranching enzyme activity from slaughter until 72 h postmortem, and samples for color, sarcomere length, drip loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory analysis were removed from the carcass 24 h postmortem. Substantial temperature differences were obtained during the holding period between the stepwise and conventionally chilled carcass halves. These had almost, but not completely, disappeared by 22 h postmortem, and although the differences were small, pH was significantly (P < 0.01) less in the stepwise-chilled carcasses compared with the control carcasses. The stepwise chilling treatments led to significantly improved (P < 0.01) tenderness in LM without compromising quality indicators or attributes such as pH, drip loss, or ham processing yield, although color of the stepwise-chilled pork was affected. Neither the tenderness of processed semimembranosus muscle nor the shear force of

  20. A comparison of the quality of fresh and frozen pork from immunologically castrated males versus gilts, physical castrates, and entire males.

    PubMed

    Elsbernd, Amanda J; Patience, John F; Prusa, Ken J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare pork quality and sensory characteristics of pork from gilts, physical castrates, entire males, and immunological castrates. Loins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were collected at harvest, aged for 10 days, and subsequently cut into chops and roasts. Two chops and one roast were frozen for a minimum of 14 days to a maximum of 30 days and chops and roasts from the same loin were evaluated in fresh form. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples and results showed that gilt pork, physical castrate pork, and immunological castrate pork were similar in terms of boar odor and pork flavor. The evaluated pork quality characteristics showed no differences among sexes except for marbling in the frozen samples (P<0.05). Results suggest that pork from immunologically castrated males is similar to pork from physical castrates in terms of sensory and pork quality characteristics and between fresh and frozen products.

  1. Pork detection in binary meat mixtures and some commercial food products using conventional and real-time PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Al-Kahtani, Hassan A; Ismail, Elsayed A; Asif Ahmed, Mohammed

    2017-03-15

    Pork DNA was detected in meat mixtures using both conventional PCR and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Thirty meat mixtures containing beef, chicken, camel, rabbit, goat and sheep with varying percentage of pork (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) and 75 commercial food products, were analyzed using conventional and RT-PCR to determine the presence of pork DNA. Pork DNA standard curves and cycle threshold (Ct) values were used for quantification. The detection limits for pork DNA in the mixtures were 0.22, 0.047, 0.048, 0.0000037, 0.015ng/μl respectively. Unlike conventional PCR, RT-PCR detected pork DNA in nine processed food samples [chicken sausages (2), chicken luncheon (2), turkey meat loaf, milk chocolate with soft nougat, jelly, cake, and candies] at pork DNA concentrations of 0.0001ng/μl or less.

  2. A cholera outbreak associated with eating uncooked pork in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Swaddiwudhipong, W; Akarasewi, P; Chayaniyayodhin, T; Kunasol, P; Foy, H M

    1990-09-01

    In a village near Chiangmai, Thailand, during October 1987, there was an outbreak of cholera following a funeral in which 264 attendants were served food. The present article is a report of an epidemiological study performed to identify the source of infection and the mode of its transmission. All the attendants were screened for infection by bacteriological examination of their rectal swabs and were kept under diarrhoeal surveillance. Of them, 20 patients and 40 matched controls were interviewed about the details of their eating foods served at the funeral. Vibrio cholerae 01, Inaba, El Tor was detected from 24 persons (9.1%), 15 of whom suffered from mild diarrhoea and the rest 9 had inapparent infections. There was no death. Except one butcher whose rectal swab was positive for the same strain of V. cholerae, 3 other butchers and 4 women who had prepared food were free from the infection. Food remnants were not available for culture. The water used for cooking and the water from the cement well used for slaughter were negative for the organism. The only significant association (p less than .01, odds ratio = 15) was found between an attack of cholera and eating laebmoo--an uncooked pork preparation with Thai spices and chili. The transmission of cholera appeared to have occurred through eating the uncooked pork presumably due to its contamination with V. cholerae shed by the infected butcher. He was known to have earlier visits to Chiangmai where cholera epidemic was going on.

  3. Cluster analysis application in research on pork quality determinants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylski, W.; Wasiewicz, P.; Zieliński, P.; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J.; Olczak, E.; Jaworska, D.; Niemyjski, S.; Santé-Lhoutellier, V.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper data mining methods were applied to investigate features determining high quality pork meat. The aim of the study was analysis of conditionality of the pork meat quality defined in coherence with HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration, plasma leptin, triglycerides, plasma glucose and serum. The research was carried out on 54 pigs. originated from crossbreeding of Naima sows with P76-PenArLan boars hybrids line. Meat quality parameters were evaluated in samples derived from the Longissimus (LD) muscle taken behind the last rib on the basis: the pH value, meat colour, drip loss, the RTN, intramuscular fat and glycolytic potential. The results of this study were elaborated by using R environment and show that cluster and regression analysis can be a useful tool for in-depth analysis of the determinants of the quality of pig meat in homogeneous populations of pigs. However, the question of determinants of the level of glycogen and fat in meat requires further research.

  4. Application of electrolyzed water for improving pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Athayde, Dirceu Rodrigues; Flores, Diego Rafael Martins; da Silva, Jéssica Soares; Genro, Ana Luísa Gomes; Silva, Marianna Stafanello; Klein, Bruna; Mello, Renius; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Wagner, Roger; de Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Barin, Juliano Smanioto; Cichoski, Alexandre José

    2017-10-01

    The microbiological and oxidative qualities of pork loin sprayed with different types (slightly acidic, acidic and basic) and combinations of electrolyzed water (EWs) were evaluated. The EWs were applied at two temperatures (18° and 30°C) and pressures (30 and 45psi) and the volume corresponded to approximately 10% water commonly used in carcass washing. EW after spraying exhibited a chlorine concentration between 15 and 25ppm. The application of acidic EW (AEW) alone or in combination with basic EW (BEW) decreased (P<0.05) the microbial counts shortly after spraying. In addition, the combination of BEW+AEW (30psi) reduced the mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria counts throughout the refrigerated storage (P<0.05). The EWs did not increase the lipid oxidation of the samples. On the other hand, a high protein oxidation was observed in the samples sprayed with AEW and slightly acidic EW (SAEW), while BEW was effective to reduce the oxidation reactions. Therefore, the results showed that the combination BEW+AEW may be a viable alternative to reduce the volume of water used at slaughter and to improve the microbiological quality of pork meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of the bacterial spoilage flora in marinated pork products.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, B C; Heir, E; Langsrud, S

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the microbiota in marinated, vacuum-packed pork and to characterize isolated bacteria with regard to their spoilage potential. Laboratory marinated pork meat and commercial products from three Norwegian producers were examined. Lactic acid bacteria dominated in all products at the expiration date. The flora in marinated products was similar only for products from the same plant. Strains of Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc carnosum and Leuconostoc sp. were isolated and tested for their spoilage potential. Samples inoculated with Lact. algidus or Leuc. mesenteroides were rated as most unpleasant by randomly selected people. A sensory panel scored samples with Lact. algidus highest for sour and intense odour. Lactobacillus algidus was found in products from two out of three production plants. Culture-independent DNA isolation confirmed that cultivation on Blood agar at 20 degrees C yielded a representative picture of the total flora in marinated flintsteak. Lactobacillus algidus may be an important, but underestimated, spoilage organism that needs to be focused on more when spoilage of vacuum-packed meat is considered. Routine microbial testing may have to be revised in order to detect spoilage LAB that are unable to grow under currently used conditions.

  6. Immersion chilling of hot cut, vacuum packed pork primals.

    PubMed

    Brown, T; Gigiel, A J; Veronica, M; Swain, L; Higgins, J A

    1988-01-01

    Hot-cutting and immersion chilling of pork was compared with a conventional air chilling process. The right sides of eight pig carcasses were cut into primals whilst hot, vacuum packed and chilled in sodium chloride brine at 0°C, whilst the left sides were chilled conventionally in air at 0°C and 1 m/s, before being similarly cut and vacuum packed. The primals from both treatments were then stored in air at 0°C for either 24h or 15 days post mortem. The immersion process achieved an average saving in weight loss of 1·9% after both storage periods, and took between 2·5 and 3·5 h less than the conventional process to reduce meat temperatures to 7°C. It did, however, produce significantly tougher meat after 24 h, although not after 15 days. Sensory evaluation of odour and appearance suggested a reduced shelf-life and a darker meat coloration for immersion chilled pork. Copyright © 1988. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, Adam P.; Morris, Robert H.; Newton, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. PMID:28239124

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Adam P; Morris, Robert H; Newton, Michael I

    2013-08-28

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment.

  9. Differences in quality characteristics of normal, PSE and DFD pork.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, P G; Bolink, A H; Merkus, G S

    1988-01-01

    Differences in water-holding capacity, colour and tenderness/toughness were studied in 21 pork loins belonging to three quality categories, i.e. dark firm dry (DFD), normal and pale soft exudative (PSE). The division into the three groups was based upon the ultimate pH-values of the loins (< pH 5·5, pH 5·5-6·0, pH > 6·4). The PSE loins were characterized by a poor waterholding capacity, higher cooking loss and paler colour in contrast to the DFD category. The normal loins took an intermediate position. Neither sarcomere length, determined on fresh muscle tissue, nor Armour tenderometer values showed significant differences between the various quality categories. This was in contrast to the Warner-Bratzler (W-B) shear force values, determined on cooked loins, which had the lowest values in the DFD category. A strong relationship between the W-B values and the cooking losses was found. It was concluded that neither sarcomere length nor Armour tenderometer measurements were able to predict the shear force values of cooked pork loins. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Mexican consumers at the point of meat purchase. Pork choice.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Rubio Lozano, M S; Braña Varela, D

    2017-08-18

    Use of within-consumer preference replication and systematic image manipulation in surveying showed that consumers in four cities across Mexico had similar strategies for pork choice. New surveying tools also determined preferred levels of the characteristics used in the decision-making process. The most important choice criteria were colour (31% chose dark and 21% light red), and fat cover (42% chose lean and 8% fatty). Marbling and drip were less used, but are nevertheless important given that 21% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. Split colour and marbling preferences and a range of acceptable limits for both, and a preference for the leanest fat cover available were observed. Preferences within the normal range of pork colour, fat cover achieved through trimming and drip countered by an absorbent pad all favour industry practice. Unfortunately, preferences for minimal or no marbling and fat cover likely result in a compromised gustative experience for many Mexican consumers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of Tomato Powder as Antioxidant in Cooked Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.; Yang, M. R.; Chu, G. M.; Park, J. H.; Rashid, R. H. I.; Kim, J. Y.; Kang, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of tomato powder (TP) on cooked pork patties during storage at 10±1°C in the dark. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of TP extract were 26.22 mg gallic acid/100 g and 3.52 mg quercetin/100 g, respectively. The extract of TP showed a potential antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay (EC50 = 16.76 μg/mL). Pork patties were manufactured with 0.25% (T1), 0.5% (T2), 0.75% (T3) and 1.0% (T4) TP in a basic formula (C). The pH and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of T2, T3 and T4 patties were lower (p<0.05) than the C patties during storage. Increased concentration of TP in meat patties decreased (p<0.05) the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total plate count (TPC) values at d 7 of storage. Tomato treated-patties had lower (p<0.05) values for lightness (L*), but higher (p<0.05) values for redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) at d 3 and 7 of storage compared with the C. In the case of sensory evaluation, the scores of colour, flavour and overall acceptability of T3 and T4 patties were higher (p<0.05) than those of the C patty after 3 or 7 days of storage. PMID:25049917

  12. Effect of Oyster Shell Calcium Powder on the Quality of Restructured Pork Ham

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jin, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Yang-Il

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of oyster shell calcium powder (OSCP) as a substitute for phosphates in curing agent, on the quality of restructured pork ham. Restructured pork ham was processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (no additives), T2 (0.3% sodium tripolyphosphate), T3 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein), T4 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.15% OSCP), T5 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.3% OSCP), and T6 (1.5% NaCl+0.5% whey protein+0.5% OSCP). Addition of OSCP significantly increased the ash content and pH of restructured pork ham (p<0.05), but did not affect the cooking loss and water holding capacity values of restructured pork ham. Addition of OSCP had no effect on Hunter a and b surface color values of restructured pork ham, but did decrease the Hunter L surface color value (p<0.05). The addition of 0.5% OSCP showed significantly higher chewiness and springiness values of restructured pork ham, compared with the addition of phosphates (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of OSCP combined with low NaCl and 0.5% whey protein can be considered a viable substitute for phosphates in the curing agent, when processing restructured pork ham. PMID:26761179

  13. Factors influencing consumption of pork and poultry in the Irish market.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L; de Boer, M

    2004-08-01

    Comparisons of Irish consumers' beliefs about pork and poultry in the framework of Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) showed that poultry is viewed as the tastier, healthier and less expensive of the two meats while pork is viewed as the safer meat. The influence of attitudes and important others on intention to consume these meats was explored and the findings support the basic structure of the TRA model. In this study, both attitudes towards poultry and pork consumption and the influence of important others influenced intention to consume pork and poultry, but attitude was of greater importance. For poultry, health, eating enjoyment, safety and price were most important determinants of attitude with environment and animal welfare less so. In the case of pork, health, eating enjoyment, safety and animal welfare were most important determinants of attitude with environment and price less so. Furthermore, doctor's advice influenced the subject norm for both poultry and pork, which in turn influenced intention to consume, while dietician's advice only influenced the subject norm for pork.

  14. Survival and germination of Clostridium perfringens spores during heating and cooling of ground pork.

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, M; Cabrera-Díaz, E; Hardin, M D; Harris, K B; Lucia, L M; Castillo, A

    2012-04-01

    The effect of heating rate on the heat resistance, germination, and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores during cooking of cured ground pork was investigated. Inoculated cured ground pork portions were heated from 20 to 75°C at a rate of 4, 8, or 12°C/h and then held at 75°C for 48 h. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the heat resistance of C. perfringens spores were observed in cured ground pork heated at 4, 8, or 12°C/h. At heating rates of 8 and 12°C/h, no significant differences in the germination and outgrowth of spores were observed (P > 0.05). However, when pork was heated at 4°C/h, growth of C. perfringens occurred when the temperature of the product was between 44 and 56°C. In another set of experiments, the behavior of C. perfringens spores under temperature abuse conditions was studied in cured and noncured ground pork heated at 4°C/h and then cooled from 54.4 to 7.2°C within 20 h. Temperature abuse during cooling of noncured ground pork resulted in a 2.8-log CFU/g increase in C. perfringens. In cured ground pork, C. perfringens decreased by 1.1 log CFU/g during cooling from 54.4 to 36.3°C and then increased by 0.9 log CFU/g until the product reached 7.2°C. Even when the initial level of C. perfringens spores in cured ground pork was 5 log CFU/g, the final counts after abusive cooling did not exceed 3.4 log CFU/g. These results suggest that there is no risk associated with C. perfringens in cured pork products under the tested conditions.

  15. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  16. Detection of pork adulteration by highly-specific PCR assay of mitochondrial D-loop.

    PubMed

    Karabasanavar, Nagappa S; Singh, S P; Kumar, Deepak; Shebannavar, Sunil N

    2014-02-15

    We describe a highly specific PCR assay for the authentic identification of pork. Accurate detection of tissues derived from pig (Sus scrofa) was accomplished by using newly designed primers targeting porcine mitochondrial displacement (D-loop) region that yielded an unique amplicon of 712 base pairs (bp). Possibility of cross-amplification was precluded by testing as many as 24 animal species (mammals, birds, rodent and fish). Suitability of PCR assay was confirmed in raw (n = 20), cooked (60, 80 and 100 °C), autoclaved (121 °C) and micro-oven processed pork. Sensitivity of detection of pork in other species meat using unique pig-specific PCR was established to be at 0.1%; limit of detection (LOD) of pig DNA was 10 pg (pico grams). The technique can be used for the authentication of raw, processed and adulterated pork and products under the circumstances of food adulteration related disputes or forensic detection of origin of pig species.

  17. 76 FR 4554 - Notice of Establishment of the Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 59 Notice of Establishment of the Wholesale Pork Reporting Negotiated Rulemaking Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... section 564 of the Negotiated Rulemaking Act, the Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural...

  18. Consumer perception and acceptance of pork and chicken sausage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.

  19. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian commercial pork processing plants.

    PubMed

    Narvaez-Bravo, C; Toufeer, M; Weese, S J; Diarra, M S; Deckert, A E; Reid-Smith, R; Aslam, M

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), their spa-types, and antimicrobial resistance profiles at various steps during commercial pork production from three plants designated as A, B and C. Over a period of 1 year 2640 samples from three commercial pork plants were obtained on a rotating basis. Sample sources were: nasal swabs after bleeding (NSAB), nasal swab after scalding (NSASs, plant C) or skinning (NSASk, plants A, B), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant C) or washing (CSAW, plants A, B) and retail pork (RP). Overall MRSA prevalence at each sampling point in the pork plants after adjusting for clustering was: 61·93, 28·38 7·58 and 1·21% for NSAB, NSASc/Sk, CSAP/CSAW and RP respectively. The majority of MRSA isolates from the three pork plants belonged to livestock-associated MRSA spa-types t034 and t011 (3·8%; ST398). The mainly human spa-type t002 (15%) was also recovered. All MRSA isolates were resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics. Overall resistance to tigecycline was found in about 10% of MRSA isolates while <3% isolates were resistant to daptomycin, gentamicin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. A higher prevalence of MRSA in the nasal cavity of incoming pigs was observed at all three plants, but a notable reduction in MRSA along the pork processing steps occurred. The highest prevalence of MRSA was found in the nasal cavity of incoming pigs in three commercial pig slaughter and pork processing plants. A reduction in MRSA prevalence occurred along the processing chain, and pork products from these plants showed significantly lower MRSA than the initial steps of slaughter and processing, suggesting a reduction in MRSA during the slaughter process with minimal cross-contamination. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Gao-jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats. PMID:27812153

  1. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gao-Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-Shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats.

  2. Effect of transglutaminase on quality and gel properties of pork and fish mince mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzheng; Gui, Ping; Huang, Zhan; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-06-05

    Transglutaminase (TGase) is widely applied in the meat industry, and mixing of meat from various sources is an efficient way to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, sensory scores, color, gel properties, water holding capacity and microstructure of mince mixtures, treated with 0.4% TGase, were determined to investigate the effect of TGase and mixing ratios (pork/fish, 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, 0:10) on quality and gel properties of mince mixtures composed of pork and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Results indicated that the mixture improved the sensory quality and gel properties of meat products compared to control group. The addition of TGase significantly (p < .05) increased the gel strength, especially at 7:3 ratio of pork and silver carp, in which gel strength reached its maximum and was 10.26%, 64.15% greater than pork with TGase and without TGase respectively, and water holding capacity were greater, and microstructure became more compact. The results suggest the synergetic interaction between proteins of pork and silver carp. TGase increased the interaction, especially for mixing proportion of 7:3 (pork/fish). Those results could be useful for the development of mixed and new meat products in the food industry. Pork and silver carp are two main meat in diet, and mince mixtures can improve the nutrition of meat product. TGase is usually used to enhance the texture and gel properties of meat in industry. The addition of TGase in pork/fish mince mixtures can not only improve the texture, but catalyze the synergetic interaction between proteins from different meat and further enhance gel properties of mice mixtures in a certain ratio. All of that will provide reference for meat processing and development of new meat product. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Improving prediction of total viable counts in pork based on hyperspectral scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Peng, Yankun; Song, Yulin; Guo, Hui; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    A hyperspectral scattering technique was investigated for predicting the total viable counts (TVC) of pork in the article. Fresh pork was purchased from a local market and stored at 4°C for 1-15 days. Totally 35 samples were used in the experiment and 2-4 samples were taken out randomly each day for collecting hyperspectral images and reference microbiological tests. Gompertz function was applied to fit the scattering profiles of pork and Teflon, and the fitting results were pretty good in the spectral range of 470-1010 nm. Both individual parameters and integrated parameters were explored to develop the multi-linear regression models for predicting pork TVC, and the results indicated that individual Gompertz parameter α was superior to other individual parameters, while the integrated parameters can perform better. The best result for predicting pork TVC was achieved by the form of (α, β, ɛ), with the RCV of 0.963. The study demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with Gompertz function was potential for rapid determination of pork TVC, and would be a valid tool for monitoring the quality and safety attributes of meat in the future.

  4. Studies on fish and pork paste gelation by dynamic rheology and circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhao, S-M; Xiong, S-B; Xie, B-J; Liu, H-M

    2007-09-01

    The muscle paste of fish, pork, and their mixtures were prepared to study the gelling characteristics by dynamic rheological measurement. The gelation mechanisms of muscle paste were also investigated by circular dichroism. Gel formation of fish paste occurred in 2 steps of 5 to 35 and 51 to 90 degrees C respectively, while pork paste mainly in 1 step of 49 to 72 degrees C. Gel formation was relative to the alpha-helix unfolding of myosin, which responded the melting temperatures of 40 and 50 degrees C for fish myosin and 50 and 60 degrees C for pork myosin, respectively. Alpha-helix unfolding of myosin was beneficial for gel formation. During gel formation, G' of muscle paste was linearly related to alpha-helical content of myosin. The interactions of fish and pork proteins at high temperature (>35 degrees C) could change the gel forming characteristics of muscle paste. Mixed paste exhibited a similar gelation pattern to individual fish paste with 2 visible increases in G'. Addition of pork could suppress the breakdown of fish gel structure at approximately 50 degrees C. Mixing pork and silver carp in a certain ratio could improve the gel properties of silver carp products.

  5. A QMRA Model for Salmonella in Pork Products During Preparation and Consumption.

    PubMed

    Swart, A N; van Leusden, F; Nauta, M J

    2016-03-01

    As part of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) food chain model, this article describes a model for the consumer phase for Salmonella-contaminated pork products. Three pork products were chosen as a proxy for the entire pork product spectrum: pork cuts, minced meat patties, and fermented sausages. For pork cuts cross-contamination is considered the most important process and therefore it is modeled in detail. For minced meat, both cross-contamination and undercooking are the relevant processes. For those commodities bacterial growth during transport and storage is also modeled. Fermented sausages are eaten raw and the production may be defective. Variability between consumers' behavior and the impact of variability between production processes at the farm and abattoir are taken into account. Results indicate that Salmonella levels on products may increase significantly during transport and storage. Heating is very efficient at lowering concentrations, yet cross-contamination plays an important role in products that remain contaminated. For fermented sausage it is found that drying is important for Salmonella reduction. Sensitivity analysis revealed that cross- contamination factors "knife cleaning" and "preparation of a salad" are important parameters for pork cuts. For minced meat cleaning of the board, salad consumption, refrigerator temperature, and storage time were significant. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork and Variety Meats Sold in Fresh Markets.

    PubMed

    Intharasongkroh, Duangnapa; Sa-Nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Tuanthap, Supansa; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Duang-In, Ausanee; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Chansaenroj, Jira; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Chirathaworn, Chintana; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Swine is an economically important livestock, yet pork consumption and close contact with pigs are associated with the risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. Limited data on the prevalence of HEV in Southeast Asia have mainly examined farm animals. To investigate the potential zoonotic transmission of HEV from dietary consumption of pork and variety meats (i.e., offal or organ meats), we obtained 1090 liver, 559 pork meat, and 556 intestine samples from fresh markets in the Bangkok metropolitan area between November 2014 and February 2015. The presence of HEV was assessed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Concurrently, 720 bile and 553 fecal samples from a slaughterhouse were also examined. Overall, HEV RNA was found in 0.23 % of the market samples and 3.93 % of the slaughterhouse samples. Fecal and bile samples were more likely to test positive compared to liver, pork, and intestine samples (p < 0.001). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all HEV sequences obtained in this study formed a cluster closely related to genotype 3f. Pork and variety meats derived from pigs are commonly sold in fresh markets throughout Southeast Asia. Here, a relatively low HEV prevalence from pork and variety meats sold in Bangkok was found. Additional studies will be required to further assess potential dietary transmission of HEV elsewhere in the region.

  7. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Bronsvoort, Barend M De C; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M

    2017-02-17

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite's life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002-0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622-64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality.

  8. Textural attributes and oxidative stability of pork longissimus muscle injected with marbling-like emulsified lipids.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lizhen; Xiong, Youling L

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the study was to create marbling-like fat in lean pork with acceptable oxidative stability through the injection of canola/olive oil-substituted emulsions. Pork loins were injected with 5% water as control (CW) or 5% emulsion containing no tocopherols (E) or 0.07% tocopherols (ET) and stored at 2 °C in an oxygen-enriched package for up to 3 weeks. Lipid oxidation was totally inhibited in ET pork but increased 3-fold to 0.20mg malonaldehyde/kg in CW and E pork after 3 weeks. ET treatment also had a positive effect on meat red color. Emulsion-containing pork, showing less protein oxidation (carbonyl and disulfide formation), had reduced drip loss and shear force than CW samples (P<0.05). The results indicated that incorporation of antioxidant-containing emulsions could create marbling-like texture in lean pork without compromising oxidative stability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Nondestructive detection of pork comprehensive quality based on spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Peng, Yankun; Zhang, Leilei; Dhakal, Sagar; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    Pork is one of the highly consumed meat item in the world. With growing improvement of living standard, concerned stakeholders including consumers and regulatory body pay more attention to comprehensive quality of fresh pork. Different analytical-laboratory based technologies exist to determine quality attributes of pork. However, none of the technologies are able to meet industrial desire of rapid and non-destructive technological development. Current study used optical instrument as a rapid and non-destructive tool to classify 24 h-aged pork longissimus dorsi samples into three kinds of meat (PSE, Normal and DFD), on the basis of color L* and pH24. Total of 66 samples were used in the experiment. Optical system based on Vis/NIR spectral acquisition system (300-1100 nm) was self- developed in laboratory to acquire spectral signal of pork samples. Median smoothing filter (M-filter) and multiplication scatter correction (MSC) was used to remove spectral noise and signal drift. Support vector machine (SVM) prediction model was developed to classify the samples based on their comprehensive qualities. The results showed that the classification model is highly correlated with the actual quality parameters with classification accuracy more than 85%. The system developed in this study being simple and easy to use, results being promising, the system can be used in meat processing industry for real time, non-destructive and rapid detection of pork qualities in future.

  10. Risk Profile of Hepatitis E Virus from Pigs or Pork in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, B; Fazil, A; Rajić, A; Houde, A; McEwen, S A

    2016-10-07

    The role and importance of pigs and pork as sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been debated in Canada and abroad for over 20 years. To further investigate this question, we compiled data to populate a risk profile for HEV in pigs or pork in Canada. We organized the risk profile (RP) using the headings prescribed for a foodborne microbial risk assessment and used research synthesis methods and inputs wherever possible in populating the fields of this RP. A scoping review of potential public health risks of HEV, and two Canadian field surveys sampling finisher pigs, and retail pork chops and pork livers, provided inputs to inform this RP. We calculated summary estimates of prevalence using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 3 software, employing the method of moments. Overall, we found the incidence of sporadic locally acquired hepatitis E in Canada, compiled from peer-reviewed literature or from diagnosis at the National Microbiology Laboratory to be low relative to other non-endemic countries. In contrast, we found the prevalence of detection of HEV RNA in pigs and retail pork livers, to be comparable to that reported in the USA and Europe. We drafted risk categories (high/medium/low) for acquiring clinical hepatitis E from exposure to pigs or pork in Canada and hypothesize that the proportion of the Canadian population at high risk from either exposure is relatively small. © 2016 Crown copyright.

  11. "Chilled" pork--Part I: Sensory and physico-chemical quality.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Riendeau, L; Laberge, C; Leblanc, D; Fortin, J

    2012-12-01

    Chilled meat exportation comprises chilling within 48 h post-mortem to temperatures <0 °C without freezing and holding under these conditions for several weeks. The effects of this ageing on sensory quality of pork are unknown and hence the objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality of Canadian pork as found in an export (Japan) market and locally. Regardless that the Japanese market's quality criteria were met, pork sorted on-line differed (P<0.05) from that for the domestic market only for lightness, exudate and cooking loss; no differences in intramuscular fat content were observed. Overall, a trained panel scored weaker pork and meat flavours and odours in the export than the domestic pork as a result of either the quality by selection if roasted or the ageing (-1.7 °C, 43 days exported chilled or 3.1 °C, 5 days domestic) if grilled or shabu shabu. Grilled pork was also more tender, sweeter and had stronger caramel flavour with the chilled ageing.

  12. An updated review of Listeria monocytogenes in the pork meat industry and its products.

    PubMed

    Thévenot, D; Dernburg, A; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    2006-07-01

    Pork meat and processed pork products have been the sources of outbreaks of listeriosis in France and in other European countries during the last decade. The aim of this review is to understand how contamination, survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes can occur in pork meat products. This study discusses the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw pork meat, in the processing environment and in finished products. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes generally increases from the farm to the manufacturing plants and this mainly due to cross-contamination. In many cases, this pathogen is present in raw pork meat at low or moderate levels, but foods involved in listeriosis outbreaks are those in which the organism has multiplied to reach levels significantly higher than 1000 CFU g(-1). In such cases, L. monocytogenes has been able to survive and/or to grow despite the hurdles encountered during the manufacturing and conservation processes. Accordingly, attention must be paid to the design of food-processing equipment and to the effectiveness of the cleaning and disinfecting procedures in factories. Finally, the production of safe pork meat products is based on the implementation of general preventive measures such as Good Hygiene Practices, Good Manufacturing and the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.

  13. Near-infrared spectral image analysis of pork marbling based on Gabor filter and wide line detector techniques.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Liu, Li; Ngadi, Michael O; Gariépy, Claude; Prasher, Shiv O

    2014-01-01

    Marbling is an important quality attribute of pork. Detection of pork marbling usually involves subjective scoring, which raises the efficiency costs to the processor. In this study, the ability to predict pork marbling using near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (900-1700 nm) and the proper image processing techniques were studied. Near-infrared images were collected from pork after marbling evaluation according to current standard chart from the National Pork Producers Council. Image analysis techniques-Gabor filter, wide line detector, and spectral averaging-were applied to extract texture, line, and spectral features, respectively, from NIR images of pork. Samples were grouped into calibration and validation sets. Wavelength selection was performed on calibration set by stepwise regression procedure. Prediction models of pork marbling scores were built using multiple linear regressions based on derivatives of mean spectra and line features at key wavelengths. The results showed that the derivatives of both texture and spectral features produced good results, with correlation coefficients of validation of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively, using wavelengths of 961, 1186, and 1220 nm. The results revealed the great potential of the Gabor filter for analyzing NIR images of pork for the effective and efficient objective evaluation of pork marbling.

  14. Effect of low dose irradiation on the microbial and sensory characteristics of fresh pork loins. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.; Rust, R.E.; Kraft, A.A.; Walker, H.W.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packed pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4/sup 0/C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of pork adulteration in raw ground beef by radial immunodiffusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Martin, D R; Chan, J; Chiu, J Y

    1998-12-01

    Quantitative estimates are important to establish whether pork adulteration in ground beef is accidental or intentional. A standard agar gel radial immunodiffusion (RID) test using forensic-grade antiserum to porcine albumin and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using forensic-grade anti-porcine glycoprotein immunoglobulin were used to determine from 1 to 75% raw pork in raw ground beef. The RID test, which incorporated 1.5% anti-pork serum in 1% immunodiffusion agar, formed precipitin rings with pork albumin in agar wells. A linear standard curve was obtained by plotting the diffusion area against standard pork concentrations ranging from 0 to 80%. For the ELISA the endpoint optical density increased linearly versus log % pork between 0.0625% and 2% pork. In spiked samples, the RID test had a detection limit of 3 to 5%, a coefficient of variation (CV) of 22%, and a recovery of 105%. The ELISA had a detection limit of 1%, a CV of 18%, and a recovery of 114%. The mean recovery from the spiked samples by the ELISA and RID test was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the known sample amounts. Quantitation by RID of 28 ground beef samples (27 of which were DTEK ELISA-positive for pork adulteration) revealed a wide range of pork content, with values as high as 48%.

  16. Systematic review of clinical studies related to pork intake and metabolic syndrome or its components.

    PubMed

    Stettler, Nicolas; Murphy, Mary M; Barraj, Leila M; Smith, Kimberly M; Ahima, Rexford S

    2013-09-25

    Globally, both the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the consumption of meat, in particular pork meat, have increased, concurrently. Processed meats have been associated with an increased risk for diabetes in observational studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the possible mechanisms of this association and the impact of meats from different species. The goal of this systematic review was to assess experimental human studies of the impact of pork intake compared with other protein sources on early markers for the development of diabetes, ie, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and the components of the metabolic syndrome. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and EMBASE and using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. Eight studies were eligible and critically reviewed. Five studies were based on a single meal or single day exposure to pork, as compared with other sources of protein. The glucose-insulin response following the pork meals did not differ compared with beef, shrimp, or mixed sources of proteins. However, compared with eggs, ham (processed meat) led to a larger insulin response in nonobese subjects. Compared with whey, ham led to a smaller insulin response and a larger glucose response. These findings suggest possible mechanisms for the association between processed meat and the development of diabetes. Nonprocessed pork meats were not compared with eggs or whey. The three longer interventions (11 days to 6 months) did not show a significant impact of pork on the components of the metabolic syndrome, with the exception of a possible benefit on waist circumference and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (one study each with significant limitations). Most of the findings are weak and there is a lack of solid evidence. The literature on the topic is limited and important research gaps are identified. Considering recent trends and projections for diabetes and pork intake, this is an important global public health question that

  17. Expected genetic response for oleic acid content in pork.

    PubMed

    Ros-Freixedes, R; Reixach, J; Tor, M; Estany, J

    2012-12-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) and oleic acid (C18:1) content in pork are important issues for the pig industry and consumers. Data from a purebred Duroc line were used to i) estimate the genetic parameters of IMF and C18:1 and their genetic correlations with lean growth components, and ii) evaluate the opportunities for genetically improving C18:1 in IMF. The data set used for estimating genetic parameters consisted of 93,920 pigs, from which 85,194 had at least 1 record for BW or backfat thickness (BT) at 180 d and 943 for IMF and C18:1 at 205 d. Intramuscular fat content and C18:1, expressed as percentage of total fatty acids, were determined in the gluteus medius muscle by gas chromatography. Genetic parameters for C18:1 were estimated under a Bayesian 4-trait multivariate animal mixed model. Heritability of C18:1 was 0.50, with a probability of 95% of being greater than 0.37. Genetic correlations of C18:1 with BW, BT, and IMF were 0.11, 0.22, and 0.47, respectively (with a probability of 95% of being greater than -0.07, 0.04, and 0.27, respectively). Genetic responses were evaluated by deterministic simulation using a half-sib recording scheme for C18:1 and the previously estimated parameters. The C18:1 content is expected to exhibit only minor changes in selection programs directed at growth rate but to decrease in those focusing on lean content. Maximum expected response in C18:1 at no lean growth loss (i.e., at no change in BW and BT) was 0.44%, with a resulting correlated response in IMF of 0.15%. However, because lean growth is emphasized in the breeding goal, the resulting response scenarios are more constrained. We concluded that there is evidence to support the idea that C18:1 in IMF is genetically determined and defined selection strategies can lead to response scenarios in which C18:1, IMF, BT, and BW can be simultaneously improved. However, if adopted, the potential for lean growth would be reduced. The extent to which it is affordable relies on how much

  18. A systematic review/meta-analysis of primary research investigating swine, pork or pork products as a source of zoonotic hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, B J; Rajić, A; Greig, J; Waddell, L; Trottier, G; Houde, A; Harris, J; Borden, L N; Price, C

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of our study were to identify and categorize primary research investigating swine/pork as a source of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) using the relatively new technique of scoping study, and to investigate the potential association between human exposure to swine/pork and HEV infection quantitatively using systematic review/meta-analysis methodology. From 1890 initially identified abstracts, 327 were considered for the review. Five study design types (cross-sectional, prevalence, genotyping, case-report and experimental transmission studies) were identified. A significant association between occupational exposure to swine and human HEV IgG seropositivity was reported in 10/13 cross-sectional studies. The association reported between pork consumption and HEV IgG seropositivity was inconsistent. The quantification of viral load in swine and retail pork, viral load required for infection in primates, cohort and case-control studies in humans, and formal risk assessment are recommended before specific public-health policy actions are taken.

  19. Factors Affecting Detection of Hepatitis E Virus on Canadian Retail Pork Chops and Pork Livers Assayed Using Real-Time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, B J; Leblanc, D; Avery, B; Pearl, D L; Houde, A; Rajić, A; McEwen, S A

    2016-03-01

    We collected 599 Canadian retail pork chops and 283 pork livers routinely (usually weekly) from April 2011 to March 2012 using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) retail sampling platform. Samples were assayed using validated real-time (q) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested classical RT-PCR for the detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV), porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) and rotavirus (RV). The presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was measured on a subset of our samples. Exact logistic regression models were fitted for predictors for HEV detection, for each assay. For both assays, sample type (pork chop versus liver) was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection. For nested classical RT-PCR but not qRT-PCR, region of sample collection was a significant predictor (P = 0.008) of HEV detection. Odds of HEV detection were greatest in spring relative to other seasons. E. coli was a significant predictor for HEV RNA detection using the qRT-PCR (P = 0.03). Overall, the prevalence of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. was significantly greater than HEV, PEC or RV on our retail pork samples. Our sparse data set for the detection of PEC and RV precluded modelling of risk factors for the detection of these viruses. © 2015 Zoonoses and Public Health © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the Public Health Agency of Canada.

  20. Estimation of bacteriological spoilage of pork cutlets by electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Kinga M; Seregély, Zs; Dalmadi, I; Andrássy, Eva; Farkas, J

    2007-06-01

    The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and "real" values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

  1. Radiation Sterilization of Prototype Military Foods. III. Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Anellis, Abe; Berkowitz, D.; Jarboe, C.; El-Bisi, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    Ten lots of pork loin, packed in cans, were inoculated with approximately 106Clostridium botulinum spores per can. Each lot was seeded with a different strain; five type A and five type B strains were used. The pack comprised 5,690 cans, including controls, and contained about 109 spores per dose. The cans were irradiated with Co60 in the range of 0 to 5.0 Mrad (0.5 Mrad increments) at 5 to 25 C, incubated for 6 months at 30 C, and examined for swelling, toxicity, and recoverable C. botulinum. The minimal experimental sterilizing dose (ESD) based on nonswollen, nontoxic, but nonsterile end points was 2.5 < ESD ≤ 3.0 Mrad, and based on non-spoiled sterile cans was 3.5 < ESD ≤ 4.0 Mrad. The theoretical minimal radiation dose (MRD), the 12D equivalent, varied with the method of computation: 4.74, 4.33 ± 0.17, and 4.19 to 4.99 Mrad were obtained by the Weibull, Spearman-K̈arber, and Schmidt-Nank techniques, respectively. Calculation of D and MRD values by the conventional Schmidt-Nank method produced increasing values with rising dosage; this finding was compared with the data derived by the other two methods of calculation. Suggestions for estimating the MRD of a prototype radiation process are offered. PMID:4905038

  2. Radiation sterilization of prototype military foods. 3. Pork loin.

    PubMed

    Anellis, A; Berkowitz, D; Jarboe, C; el-Bisi, H M

    1969-10-01

    Ten lots of pork loin, packed in cans, were inoculated with approximately 10(6)Clostridium botulinum spores per can. Each lot was seeded with a different strain; five type A and five type B strains were used. The pack comprised 5,690 cans, including controls, and contained about 10(9) spores per dose. The cans were irradiated with Co(60) in the range of 0 to 5.0 Mrad (0.5 Mrad increments) at 5 to 25 C, incubated for 6 months at 30 C, and examined for swelling, toxicity, and recoverable C. botulinum. The minimal experimental sterilizing dose (ESD) based on nonswollen, nontoxic, but nonsterile end points was 2.5 < ESD

  3. Genomic DNA characterization of pork spleen by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Embús, D. A.; Orrego Cardozo, M.; Vargas-Hernández, C.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the study of Raman signal enhancement due to interaction between ZnO rods and pork spleen DNA is reported. ZnO microstructures were synthesized by the Sol-Gel method and afterward combined with porcine spleen DNA extracted in the previous stages, following standardized cell lysis, deproteinization, and precipitation processes. Raman spectroscopy was used for the characterization of structures of ZnO and ZnO-DNA complex, and the results show the respective bands of ZnO wurtzite hexagonal phase for modes E2 (M), A1(TO), E2(High), E1(LO), and 2LO. Due to the SERS effect in the spectral range from 200 to 1800 cm,-1 Raman bands caused by vibrations of the deoxyribose C-O-C binding were also observed, producing deformation of the ring as shown in the 559 cm-1 peak. The broad band at 782 cm-1, together with the complex vibration of the string 5'-COPO-C3', is over a wide band of thymine (790 cm-1) or cytosine (780 cm-1). A prominent band near 1098 cm-1 assigned to symmetric stretching vibration phosphodioxy group (PO2-) DNA backbone is most favoured in intensity by the addition of ZnO particles originated by the SERS effect. This effect suggests a possible mechanism for enhancing the Raman signal due to the electromagnetic interaction between a DNA molecule and the flat surface of the ZnO rod.

  4. Improving pork burgers quality using Zingiber officinale Roscoe powder (ginger).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Simone; Paci, Gisella; Fratini, Filippo; Torracca, Beatrice; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Roscini, Valentina; Preziuso, Giovanna

    2017-03-08

    Pork burgers were evaluated for physical-chemical characteristics, fatty acids profile, lipid oxidation, antioxidant capacity, microbiological growth and sensory evaluation during storage time of seven days at 4°C as function of three formulations as only meat (control, B) and meat added with ginger powder at the percentage of 1 and 2% (BG1 and BG2). BG1 and BG2 were less redness than control ones with incremented yellow hue. These modifications in color parameters did not modify sensory characteristics of burgers. PUFA were incremented (both PUFAω3 and PUFAω6) by the addition of ginger. Furthermore, BG1 and BG2 burgers showed to be less sensitive to lipid oxidation and to possess an increase in antioxidant capacity. Microbial growth evaluation of total aerobic count and Pseudomonas spp. showed that ginger powder delayed in time the bacterial contamination. Results highlighted that the presence of ginger led to an enhanced shelf life and health characteristics of burgers (increasing peroxidisability, ratio hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic and ratio ω3/ω6; reducing atherogenicity and thrombogenicity).

  5. The impact of sensory quality of pork on consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit D; Oksama, Marjatta; Olsen, Eli V; Bejerholm, Camilla; Baltzer, Maiken; Andersen, Grethe; Bredie, Wender L P; Byrne, Derek V; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2007-05-01

    Danish consumers from Roskilde, a town near the Danish capital Copenhagen (n=213), and from Holstebro, a provincial town in the north-western part of Jutland (n=162), rated nine different samples of pork on an unstructured hedonic scale from "do not like at all" to "like very much". The samples represented variation in raw meat quality (pH, IMF and carcass weight), muscle (LD and BF), origin (Danish/French Pay Basque), cooking method (pan/oven) and end point temperature (65°C/75°C). The meat was described by sensory profiling and chemical and physical analysis (pH, fat, water, colour, fatty acid composition). All the consumers preferred tender, juicy meat with a fried flavour and no off-flavours. However, within this description there were differences. The consumers from Holstebro put more emphasis on tenderness and the absence of off-flavours, while the consumers in Roskilde preferred the fried flavour. The young consumers put less emphasis on tenderness, compared with consumers aged over 30 years, but preferred instead some crumbliness in the meat. A segmentation of the consumers showed that about 6% of the consumers were only influenced by flavour attributes in their preference. In contrast, 12% of the consumers were mainly influenced by texture irrespective of flavour attributes other than sour-like taste. Most of the consumers were, however, influenced by both flavour and texture as well as appearance.

  6. International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop.

    PubMed

    Galloway, James N; Burke, Marshall; Bradford, G Eric; Naylor, Rosamond; Falcon, Walter; Chapagain, Ashok K; Gaskell, Joanne C; McCullough, Ellen; Mooney, Harold A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Steinfeld, Henning; Wassenaar, Tom; Smil, Vaclav

    2007-12-01

    This paper provides an original account of global land, water, and nitrogen use in support of industrialized livestock production and trade, with emphasis on two of the fastest-growing sectors, pork and poultry. Our analysis focuses on trade in feed and animal products, using a new model that calculates the amount of "virtual" nitrogen, water, and land used in production but not embedded in the product. We show how key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, benefit from "virtual" trade in land, water, and nitrogen, and how key meat-exporting countries, such as Brazil, provide these resources without accounting for their true environmental cost. Results show that Japan's pig and chicken meat imports embody the virtual equivalent of 50% of Japan's total arable land, and half of Japan's virtual nitrogen total is lost in the US. Trade links with China are responsible for 15% of the virtual nitrogen left behind in Brazil due to feed and meat exports, and 20% of Brazil's area is used to grow soybean exports. The complexity of trade in meat, feed, water, and nitrogen is illustrated by the dual roles of the US and The Netherlands as both importers and exporters of meat. Mitigation of environmental damage from industrialized livestock production and trade depends on a combination of direct-pricing strategies, regulatory approaches, and use of best management practices. Our analysis indicates that increased water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and land conservation resulting from these measures could significantly reduce resource costs.

  7. Compositional and dimensional factors influencing pork belly firmness.

    PubMed

    Soladoye, O P; Uttaro, B; Zawadski, S; Dugan, M E R; Gariépy, C; Aalhus, J L; Shand, P; Juárez, M

    2017-07-01

    We explored various dimensional and compositional factors that can influence the perception of pork belly firmness. Bellies from 198 pigs of three different genotypes, two sexes, two slaughter weights and three different diets were recovered and belly firmness was assessed using the belly-flop angle and a 5-point scale subjective measurement. Dimensional and compositional factors were recorded on intact and sheet-ribbed bellies. Subjective belly score was negatively correlated with belly-flop angle (r=-0.89). Regression analysis accounted for 77 and 83% of the variability in subjective belly firmness and belly-flop angle measurement, respectively. Belly length, weight and width influenced both measures of belly firmness, but these effects were more important for the belly-flop angle. After correcting flop angle using belly length, the effect of belly weight disappeared and the effect of other traits was more like those observed for subjective scoring. Hence, undue effect of belly length should be corrected for if this set-up is to be implemented in commercial plants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of controlled atmosphere and vacuum packaging upon chilled pork keeping quality.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, L E; Gibson, L L; Argnosa, G C

    1995-01-01

    A total of 48 pork loin section (1 kg) with normal inherent muscle quality were utilized to evaluate and compare the effects of a vacuum packaging system and a CO(2) controlled atmosphere packaging system on keeping quality of chilled pork stored at -1·5°C. Results indicated based upon appearance CO(2) packaged porl loin had a storage life of greated than 15 weeks and vacuum packaged pork loid had a storage life of slightly over 12 weeks. However, off-flavor development coinciding with lactic acid bacteria reaching maximum numbers presently restricts the actual storage life of pork loin stored at -1·5°C to 9 weeks in both packaging treatments. Therefore, if microbial contamination on the commercial product can be reduced significantly to prevent spoilage organisms, including lactics, from rapidly growing to maximum numbers, storage life of pork loin at -1·5°C can be extended sufficiently to accomodate all domestic and export applications using either vacuum or CO(2) packaging.

  9. Detection of Ractopamine and Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Residues in Pork Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. H.; Yuan, H. C.; Peng, Y. J.; Hong, Q.; Liu, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with chemometric methods, such as adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares (AIR-PLS), wavelet transform, and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), was investigated to realize the rapid detection and identifi cation of ractopamine (RAC) and clenbuterol hydrochloride (CL) residues in pork. First-level wavelet detail signal intensities at 1168 cm-1 were used to establish a standard curve of the RAC residues in pork, and the linear regression equation and the correlation coefficient were y = -4. 3683x - 11.059 and -0.9726. Second-level wavelet detail signal intensities at 1258 cm-1 were used to establish a standard curve of the CL residues in pork, and the linear regression equation and the correlation coeffi cient were y=33.595x + 36.538 and 0.9842. The second-level wavelet detail signals of the SERS spectra were selected as the inputs of the LSSVM classifi cation model for the identifi cation of the RAC and CL residues in pork, with a total accuracy rate reaching 100%. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method based on SERS is a good detection scheme for the rapid detection and identifi cation of RAC and CL residues in pork.

  10. Quantitative analysis and detection of adulteration in pork using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yuxia; Cheng, Fang; Xie, Lijuan

    2010-04-01

    Authenticity is an important food quality criterion. Rapid methods for confirming authenticity or detecting adulteration are increasingly demanded by food processors and consumers. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to detect economic adulteration in pork . Pork samples were adulterated with liver and chicken in 10% increments. Prediction and quantitative analysis were done using raw data and pretreatment spectra. The optimal prediction result was achieved by partial least aquares(PLS) regression with standard normal variate(SNV) pretreatment for pork adulterated with liver samples, and the correlation coefficient(R value), the root mean square error of calibration(RMSEC) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.97706, 0.0673 and 0.0732, respectively. The best model for pork meat adulterated with chicken samples was obtained by PLS with the raw spectra, and the correlation coefficient(R value), RMSEP and RMSEC were 0.98614, 0.0525, and 0.122, respectively. The result shows that NIR technology can be successfully used to detect adulteration in pork meat adulterated with liver and chicken.

  11. The production of pork with garlic flavour notes using garlic essential oil.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jasmine; Morel, Patrick C H; Purchas, Roger W; Wilkinson, Brian H P

    2010-04-01

    Garlic essential oil (GEO) added directly to pork mince or to the diet of pigs was evaluated for its effectiveness in masking undesirable mutton flavour. Pork was from 31 female pigs (Duroc x (Large White x Landrace)) grown on diets containing either animal-plus-plant products (AP diet) or plant products only (P diet) with four levels of GEO: 0, 0.55, 1.44 and 1.84 g/kg feed and 0, 0.55, 1.44 and 2.15 g/kg feed in the AP and P diet, respectively. Garlic flavour increased and mutton flavour decreased in pork from pigs that consumed more than about 150 g and 220 g of GEO in P and AP diets, respectively over the 57-day feeding period. The garlic flavour was stronger and the mutton flavour less intense for pork from pigs on the P diet. When GEO was added to pork mince at 125 ppm, it significantly reduced mutton flavour. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mathematical modelling of growth of Listeria  monocytogenes in raw chilled pork.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Wang, K; Liu, M; Liu, J; Zhu, L; Zhou, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated chilled pork. A cocktail of 26 meat-borne L. monocytogenes was inoculated to raw or sterile chilled pork to observe its growth at 4, 10, 16, 22 and 28°C respectively. The growth data were fitted by the Baranyi model and Ratkowsky square-root model. Results showed that the Baranyi model and Ratkowsky square-root model could describe the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes at different temperatures reasonably well in raw chilled pork (1·0 ≤ Bf ≤ Af ≤ 1·1). Compared with the growth of L. monocytogenes in sterile chilled pork, the background microflora had no impact on the growth parameters of L. monocytogenes, except for the lag phase at low temperature storage. The microbial predictive models developed in this study can be used to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes during natural spoilage, and construct quantitative risk assessments in chilled pork.

  13. Regular consumption of n-3 fatty acid-enriched pork modifies cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Coates, Alison M; Sioutis, Stelios; Buckley, Jonathan D; Howe, Peter R C

    2009-02-01

    The long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA content of pork, particularly DHA, can be increased by including 15% PorcOmega (a fortified tuna fishmeal product) in pig finisher diets. The aim of the present study was to see whether this enriched pork could deliver cardiovascular health benefits to consumers. In a double-blind intervention trial, thirty-three healthy adult volunteers (sixteen female and seventeen male) were randomised to consume either n-3-enriched or regular (control) pork (a selection of five fresh cuts totalling 1000 g/week) for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected every 4 weeks and analysed for serum lipids, maximally stimulated thromboxane production and erythrocyte fatty acid composition. The n-3-enriched pork provided subjects with 1.3 g LC n-3 PUFA per week. Erythrocyte DHA levels rose 15% in the n-3 group and fell 5% in the control group over 12 weeks (P=0.001). Compared with the control group, serum TAG decreased to a greater extent in the n-3 group (P=0.02) and serum thromboxane production increased to a lesser extent (P=0.004). Changes in the latter were inversely associated with changes in incorporation of DHA into erythrocytes (r -0.54; P<0.05). Thus the modest increases in LC n-3 PUFA intake resulting from regular consumption of enriched pork can improve cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. The economic impact of H1N1 on Mexico's tourist and pork sectors.

    PubMed

    Rassy, Dunia; Smith, Richard D

    2013-07-01

    By examining tourist arrivals and pork output and trade statistics, this analysis estimates the economic impact to the Mexican tourism and pork sectors because of the H1N1 influenza pandemic. It also assesses the role of the international response in the context of this economic impact. For tourism, losing almost a million overseas visitors translated into losses of around $US2.8bn, which extended over a five-month period, mostly because of the slow return of European travellers. For the pork industry, temporal decreases in output were observed in most of the country and related to H1N1 incidence (p = 0.048, r = 0.37). By the end of 2009, Mexico had a pork trade deficit of $US27m. The losses derived from this pandemic were clearly influenced by the risk perception created in tourist-supplying and pork trade partners. Results suggest that the wider economic implications of health-related emergencies can be significant and need to be considered in preparedness planning. For instance, more effective surveillance and data gathering would enable policy to target emergency funding to the sectors and regions hardest hit. These results also stress the importance of being familiar with trade networks so as to be able to anticipate the international response and respond accordingly. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Predicting quality and sensory attributes of pork using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Barbin, Douglas F; ElMasry, Gamal; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2012-03-16

    Many subjective assessment methods for fresh meat quality are still widely used in the meat industry, making the development of an objective and non-destructive technique for assessing meat quality traits a vital need. In this study, a hyperspectral imaging technique was investigated for objective determination of pork quality attributes. Hyperspectral images in the near infrared region (900-1700 nm) were acquired for pork samples from the longissimus dorsi muscle, and the representative spectral information was extracted from the loin eye area. Several mathematical pre-treatments including first and second derivatives, standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were applied to examine the influence of spectral variations in predicting pork quality characteristics. Spectral information was used for predicting color features (L, a, b, chroma and hue angle), drip loss, pH and sensory characteristics by partial least-squares regression (PLS-R) models. Independent sets of feature-related wavelengths were selected for predicting each quality attribute. The results showed that color reflectance (L), pH and drip loss of pork meat could be predicted with determination coefficients (R(CV)(2)) of 0.93, 0.87 and 0.83, respectively. The regression coefficients from the PLS-R models at the selected optimal wavelengths were applied in a pixel-wise manner to convert spectral images to prediction maps that display the distribution of attributes within the sample. Results indicated that this technique is a potential tool for rapid assessment of pork quality.

  16. Effect of organic and conventional rearing system on the mineral content of pork.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Donghua; Yang, Shuming

    2016-08-01

    Dietary composition and rearing regime largely determine the trace elemental composition of pigs, and consequently their concentration in animal products. The present study evaluates thirteen macro- and trace element concentrations in pork from organic and conventional farms. Conventional pigs were given a commercial feed with added minerals; organic pigs were given a feed based on organic feedstuffs. The content of macro-elements (Na, K, Mg and Ca) and some trace elements (Ni, Fe, Zn and Sr) in organic and conventional meat samples showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Several trace element concentrations in organic pork were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to conventional pork: Cr (808 and 500μg/kg in organic and conventional pork, respectively), Mn (695 and 473μg/kg) and Cu (1.80 and 1.49mg/kg). The results showed considerable differences in mineral content between samples from pigs reared in organic and conventional systems. Our results also indicate that authentication of organic pork can be realized by applying multivariate chemometric methods such as discriminant analysis to this multi-element data.

  17. Quantitative risk assessment for human salmonellosis through the consumption of pork sausage in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mürmann, Lisandra; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Collor, Alexandre Ávila; Cardoso, Marisa

    2011-04-01

    A quantitative microbiology risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the risk of Salmonella infection to consumers of fresh pork sausages prepared at barbecues in Porto Alegre, Brazil. For the analysis, a prevalence of 24.4% positive pork sausages with a level of contamination between 0.03 and 460 CFU g(-1) was assumed. Data related to frequency and habits of consumption were obtained by a questionnaire survey given to 424 people. A second-order Monte Carlo simulation separating the uncertain parameter of cooking time from the variable parameters was run. Of the people interviewed, 87.5% consumed pork sausage, and 85.4% ate it at barbecues. The average risk of salmonellosis per barbecue at a minimum cooking time of 15.6 min (worst-case scenario) was 6.24 × 10(-4), and the risk assessed per month was 1.61 × 10(-3). Cooking for 19 min would fully inactivate Salmonella in 99.9% of the cases. At this cooking time, the sausage reached a mean internal temperature of 75.7°C. The results of the quantitative microbiology risk assessment revealed that the consumption of fresh pork sausage is safe when cooking time is approximately 19 min, whereas undercooked pork sausage may represent a nonnegligible health risk for consumers.

  18. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii in pork meat in Ocotlán, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Galván-Ramirez, M L; Madriz Elisondo, A L; Rico Torres, C P; Luna-Pastén, H; Rodríguez Pérez, L R; Rincón-Sánchez, A R; Franco, R; Salazar-Montes, A; Correa, D

    2010-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular obligate parasite. Its transmission has usually been attributed to ingestion of undercooked or raw meat. The frequency of T. gondii in pork, the most common meat for human consumption in Jalisco, Mexico, is unknown; in Guadalajara city high prevalence of human toxoplasmosis has been documented. Forty-eight samples of pork meat from butcher shops in Ocotlán city were analyzed. Through bioassay, 50 g of tissue was homogenized in an acidic pepsin solution and inoculated subcutaneously to previously immunosuppressed mice. Blood samples from the mice tail vein were obtained before inoculation and 7, 14, 28, and 45 days postinoculation to analyze anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibody kinetics by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For histopathology, small fragments of the brain, lungs, heart, and skeletal muscle were extracted on day 45 and were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Also, DNA was extracted from the pork meat for PCR amplification of the B1 gene. Even though all pork samples were negative by histopathology and PCR, IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 1 of the 48 inoculated mice, reflecting a frequency of 2.1% positive pork meat, which is lower than expected but similar to that found in other regions.

  19. Effect of Fresh Garlic on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Changes of Pork Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two levels (1.4 vs 2.8%) of fresh garlic on lipid oxidation and microbial growth in pork patties were evaluated. Hunter color (L, a, b), pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidative volatile compounds, total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae in the pork patties with or without fresh garlic were measured during storage at 4℃. Addition of fresh garlic decreased redness (a), while increased pH and yellowness (b) values of the fresh pork patties were observed, regardless of the levels added. The TBARS values of the pork patties were increased with the addition of fresh garlic (p<0.05). Similar results were observed in oxidative volatile compounds. A total of 13 volatile compounds were detected in the patties (5 sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl mercaptan, allyl methyl sulfide, diallyl sulfide, methyl-(E)-propenyl-disulfide, and diallyl disulfide, and the 8 other oxidative compounds, including 1-pentanol, hexanal, 1-hexanol, heptanal, (E)-2-heptenal, 1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-octenal and nonanal). Fresh garlic accelerated development of oxidative products in the pork patties, especially hexanal and the total oxidative volatile compounds. However, the addition of 1.4 and 2.8% of fresh garlic inhibited the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, indicating low total bacterial counts and Enterobacteriaceae than the controls. PMID:26761498

  20. Survival of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in vacuum-packed, moisture-enhanced pork.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xuesong; Dickson, James S

    2012-03-01

    The abilities of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium to survive in vacuum-packaged, moisture-enhanced pork stored at 4 or 10°C were examined. Pork loins were surface inoculated with either C. jejuni or Salmonella Typhimurium and then moisture enhanced to a target of 10 or 20%. The enhanced pork loins were sliced 1 cm thick and vacuum packaged. A pork loin without moisture enhancement was sliced and vacuum packaged as a control. Samples were collected, plated, and the numbers of surviving organisms were determined periodically during storage at 4 and 10°C. The numbers of C. jejuni or Salmonella Typhimurium in samples with different moisture enhancement levels were similar (P > 0.05). No significant differences (P > 0.05) in C. jejuni counts were observed between samples at 10°C and those at 4°C. In contrast, the numbers of Salmonella Typhimurium in samples at 10°C had significantly (P < 0.05) increased (0.41 log CFU/g) from those at the refrigerated temperature of 4°C. Vacuum storage at 4 and 10°C for 28 days did not result in dramatic reductions in the mean numbers of C. jejuni and Salmonella Typhimurium. Our findings indicate that vacuum packaging under chilled conditions will not add substantially to safety for moisture-enhanced pork. Strict hygienic practices or the implementation of decontamination technologies is recommended.

  1. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  2. Effects of cooking variables on formation of heterocyclic amines (HCA) in roasted pork and mackerel.

    PubMed

    Kim, Simhae; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cooking temperature, time, and water content on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCA) in roasted pork and mackerel using a kinetic model. The levels of 2-amino-6-methyldipiryd[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-p-1), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b]-indol (harman), 9H-pyrido[4,3-b]-indol (norharman), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in pork and mackerel rose with increasing cooking temperature and time. The concentration of PhIP ranged from 6 to 54 ng/g in roasted pork and was the HCA most sensitive to cooking temperature and time. In the roasted mackerel, levels of harman and norharman increased markedly at 230°C. The kinetics of HCA generation followed first-order reaction (A = A(0) × e(-kt)). In roasted pork, activation enthalpies (ΔH) ranged from 10.3 to 41.6 kJ/mol, whereas in roasted mackerel, ΔH ranged from 12.3 to 49.3 kJ/mol. The activation entropies (ΔS) were less than zero for all HCA, ranging from -159 to -309 kJ/mol-K. The data of the kinetic parameters may be used to predict the formation and temperature sensitivity of HCA in roasted pork and mackerel.

  3. BARC 2009 Annual Report TO NC-1037: Genetic and functional genomic approaches to improve production and quality of pork

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The NC-1037 project addresses “Genetic and functional genomic approaches to improve production and quality of pork.” It has 2 objectives: 1) Further understand the dynamic genetic mechanisms that influence production efficiency and quality of pork; and 2) Discover genetic mechanisms controlling anim...

  4. Do pig farmers preferences bias consumer choice for pork? Response to critique of the pork preference studies.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Fortin, J; Martin, J-F

    2010-08-01

    Québec consumers and pig farmers selected their preferred chop from 16 images that had been modified to give 16 treatments: two levels each of fat cover, colour, marbling and drip. The selection process was repeated eight times from different groups of chops. Fat cover (47% preferred lean) and colour (44%, light red) were the most frequently chosen characteristics. No significant differences were observed between farmers and consumers preferences (chi(2) test, P<0.05). Two preference-based clusters were found; 41% preferring dark red, lean meat and 59%, light red, lean meat, without marbling or drip. Choice-based clusters showed no significant links with either individual socio-demographic items, including pig farmer as occupation, or the three socio-demographic-based clusters observed (chi(2) test, P<0.05). No evidence was found to suggest that the choices of pig farmers differed from those of consumers and, therefore, inclusion of pig farmers in consumer panels would not bias consumer choice for pork.

  5. Proximate composition, antihypertensive and antioxidative properties of the semimembranosus muscle from pork and beef after cooking and in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Dort, Junio; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare proximate composition, antihypertensive activity and antioxidative capacity of the semimembranosus muscle from pork and beef and to study how these characteristics were affected by household preparation and subsequent digestion. The proximate composition was similar between pork and beef. Both pork and beef contained protein with the essential amino acids. Cooking in a heated pan did not affect the retention of lipid or sum of amino acids, but reduced the amount of the free amino acid taurine. The antihypertensive effect did not differ significantly between pork and beef, whereas the antioxidative capacity did. Cooking affected the antioxidative capacity negatively. The results from this study show that pork and beef are equally good sources of protein and bioactive properties, and whereas the nutritional composition is not affected, bioactive properties may be reduced after household preparations.

  6. Consumers' expected quality and intention to purchase high quality pork meat.

    PubMed

    Papanagiotou, P; Tzimitra-Kalogianni, I; Melfou, K

    2013-03-01

    Expected quality is believed to be one of the most important factors that influence consumers' intention to purchase food. The present study seeks to explore the concept of pork meat expected quality and compare it with self-stated consumer intention to purchase pork meat. The aim is attempted by means of a field research conducted in Greece, following a conjoint analytic procedure. Results show that quality expectations comply with intention to buy pork, in many aspects. However, several differences have been identified. More specifically, country of origin and marbling appear to be more important for respondents' purchase decisions than they are for their quality evaluations, while the opposite appears to be true for price. Finally, socio-demographic factors such as gender, level of education, place of purchase and consumption habits seem to influence perceptions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Surface Water, Sediments, and Pork Products Marketed in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heldt, F H; Staggmeier, R; Gularte, J S; Demoliner, M; Henzel, A; Spilki, F R

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging causative agent of food and waterborne hepatitis in human beings. HEV circulates among human populations and swine herds, and may be found in water contaminated by swine feces, as well as in pork. In the present study, 68 sediment samples and 250 water samples collected from the Sinos River tributaries, as well as 50 samples of pork products (pâté and blood sausage) marketed in the Sinos River watershed region, Brazil, were tested for the presence of HEV genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by nucleotide sequencing was used for detection and characterization of HEV genomes. Overall, 36 % of food samples tested positive for HEV (genotype 3). No sediment or water samples were positive. These results suggest that contaminated pork products may be a source of HEV infection within this region and indicate a need for better monitoring of food safety and swine herds.

  8. Comparative economic analysis of recombinant porcine somatotropin (pST) for the hog-pork industry.

    PubMed

    Halbrendt, C K; Sterling, L G

    1991-05-01

    A multisector model was formulated to simulate the effects of recombinant porcine somatotropin (pST) on the U.S. hog-pork industry. A producer sector submodel was specified for nine hog-producing states, and a retail-wholesale sector was specified on a national level. Four pST adoption scenarios were tested; these differed in the extent of feed cost reduction (15 vs 25%) with or without premium pricing ($3 per animal). Simulation results show that, in general, national producer and retail prices will fall and pork consumption and production will increase due to pST use during the 5 yr of adoption. Responses to pST in terms of percentage of sows farrowing among states differed; states that produce more pork responded less than states that produce less. Downward price adjustments occurred and began stabilizing in the 4th yr; hog farmers will need to use pST to remain competitive.

  9. Detection of Salmonella spp. Isolates from specimens due to pork production Chains in Hue City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Takeshi, Koichi; Itoh, Shigeru; Hosono, Hiromi; Kono, Hiroichi; Tin, Vo Trung; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Bich; Kawamoto, Keiko; Makino, Sou-Ichi

    2009-04-01

    From August 2007 until March 2008, we perfomed a detection and epidemiological analysis for Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from pork production chains to improve the quality of meat hygiene conditions in Hue, Vietnam. A total of 306 specimens were examined for Salmonella spp., aerobic bacterial counts and coliform. Seven serovars of Salmonella spp. were detected in retail pork, slaughterhouse carcasses and environmental specimens with the following detection rates: 32.8% of retail pork, 15.5% of slaughterhouse carcasses, 47.4% of floors, 38.1% of weighing bowls, 28.6% of cooking boards and 16.7% of tank water samples. Based on these results, we recommend that exhaustive sterilization, washing, routine bacteriological examinations and treatments at low temperature are performed in slaughterhouses, transportation facilities and retail stores.

  10. Laceration injuries and infections among workers in the poultry processing and pork meatpacking industries.

    PubMed

    Kyeremateng-Amoah, Emmanuel; Nowell, Jackie; Lutty, Aurora; Lees, Peter S J; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2014-06-01

    Workers in poultry processing and pork meatpacking have high rates of acute injuries and chronic disease among. The presence of zoonotic pathogens in these workplaces may interact with injury. We investigated incidence of worker injuries, lacerations, and infections reported by 10 companies from 2004 to 2009 and calculated annual incidence rates by industry and company along with temporal trends and job-related risk factors. Average annual mean total injury rates were 6.4 per 100 workers (poultry) and 13.2 per 100 workers (pork). Average annual mean rates for lacerations were 1.8 per 100 workers (poultry) and 1.9 per 100 (pork). Sharp tools and animal products were most frequently reported as sources for lacerations. Animal products were most frequently reported as sources of infected lacerations. The results indicate that these industries continue to have high injury rates. The results also suggest that zoonotic pathogens may be preventable health and safety risks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect Streptococcus suis and its application to retail pork meat in Japan.

    PubMed

    Arai, Sakura; Tohya, Mari; Yamada, Ryoko; Osawa, Ro; Nomoto, Ryohei; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-09-02

    We here developed a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect Streptococcus suis in raw pork meat. This method, designated LAMPSS, targeted the recombination/repair protein (recN) gene of S. suis and detected all serotypes of S. suis, except those taxonomically removed from authentic S. suis, i.e., serotypes 20, 22, 26, 32, 33, and 34. The specificity of LAMPSS was confirmed and its detection limit was 5.4cfu/reaction. Among the 966 raw pork meat samples examined, including sliced pork, minced pork, and the liver, tongue, heart, and small intestine, 255 samples tested positive with LAMPSS. The rate of contamination was higher in the organs than in pork. No significant difference was observed in the total bacterial count between LAMPSS-positive and -negative samples. The number of shops that provided LAMPSS-positive pork was slightly higher in those that sold swine organs and pork than in those that sold only pork, suggesting that cross contamination occurred from the organs to pork. Among the 255 which tested positive for LAMPSS, only 47 samples tested positive for the previously described LAMP specific for S. suis serotype 2. Two isolates of S. suis serotype 2, belonging to sequence type 28, which is potentially hazardous to humans, as well as those of some other serotypes were obtained from 19 out of 47 samples by combining LAMP with a replica plating method. These results suggest that LAMPSS will be a useful tool for the surveillance of raw pork meat in the retail market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling the risk of Taenia solium exposure from pork produced in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    de Glanville, William A.; Cook, Elizabeth A. J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. De C.; Handel, Ian; Wamae, Claire N.; Kariuki, Samuel; Fèvre, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The tapeworm Taenia solium is the parasite responsible for neurocysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease of public health importance, thought to cause approximately 1/3 of epilepsy cases across endemic regions. The consumption of undercooked infected pork perpetuates the parasite’s life-cycle through the establishment of adult tapeworm infections in the community. Reducing the risk associated with pork consumption in the developing world is therefore a public health priority. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of any one pork meal in western Kenya containing a potentially infective T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption, an aspect of the parasite transmission that has not been estimated before. To estimate this, we used a quantitative food chain risk assessment model built in the @RISK add-on to Microsoft Excel. This model indicates that any one pork meal consumed in western Kenya has a 0.006 (99% Uncertainty Interval (U.I). 0.0002–0.0164) probability of containing at least one viable T. solium cysticercus at the point of consumption and therefore being potentially infectious to humans. This equates to 22,282 (99% U.I. 622–64,134) potentially infective pork meals consumed in the course of one year within Busia District alone. This model indicates a high risk of T. solium infection associated with pork consumption in western Kenya and the work presented here can be built upon to investigate the efficacy of various mitigation strategies for this locality. PMID:28212398

  13. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J A; Barcellos, Marcia D de; Krystallis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the combined mid-term findings of the consumer research components of two EU Sixth Framework Programme integrated projects concerning meat, ProSafeBeef and Q-PorkChains. The consumer pillar of ProSafeBeef carried out eight focus group discussions in May 2008, in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. Q-PorkChains conducted a large-scale, web-based, consumer survey in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland. The first project provides a set of qualitative data from a small cohort of focus groups and the second a set of quantitative data from a larger consumer sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers support the development of technologies that can improve the health attributes of meat products and guarantee eating quality, but they have a negative view of what they see to be excessive manipulation and lack of naturalness in the production and processing of beef products. In the Q-PorkChains study consumer and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens and their behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers' acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer trust and invigorating the European beef and pork industries.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Abdalrahman, Lubna S.; Wells, Harrington; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts), and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80%) followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50%) then pork 43/99 (43.3%). No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products. PMID:25927961

  15. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus on Belgian Pork.

    PubMed

    Verhegghe, Marijke; Crombé, Florence; Luyckx, Kaat; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Herman, Lieve; Heyndrickx, Marc; Rasschaert, Geertrui

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), a high prevalence was observed in pigs. At present, questions remain about the transmission of LA-MRSA to the general human population through pork. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of LA-MRSA in Belgian pork and to determine the role of the pork production chain and butcheries in transmission of LA-MRSA to the human population. Pig meat samples (chops, bacon, minced pork, ribs, forelimbs, and ears; n = 137) originating from four butcheries (A through D) were spread plated on ChromID MRSA plates both before and after overnight enrichment culture. Suspect colonies were confirmed using a MRSA-specific triplex PCR assay and a CC398-specific PCR assay. The isolates (n = 147) were further characterized by SCCmec typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, a selection of isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing. Direct plating revealed a MRSA prevalence of 8%. After enrichment, MRSA was isolated from 98 (72%) of 137 samples of which the majority were from rib, ear, and forelimb. The majority (97%) of obtained isolates belonged to CC398, the main LA-MRSA type. A high level of genetic diversity was noted among the isolates from one butchery. Thirty antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were found; 13 and 9% of the isolates had Cip-Tet-Tri and Gen-Kan-Tet-Tob-Tri profiles, respectively. These results indicate the importance of enrichment for MRSA detection of pork. The observed genetic diversity of the isolates indicated that the pork production chain can be considered a source of multiple MRSA types that could be transmitted to the human population through cross-contaminated meat.

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of pork fat crystallization during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Corona, Edith; García-Pérez, José V; Santacatalina, Juan V; Ventanas, Sonia; Benedito, José

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the feasibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for characterizing and differentiating the crystallization pattern in 2 pork backfats (Montanera and Cebo Iberian fats) during cold storage (0 °C, 2 °C, 5 °C, 7 °C, and 10 °C) was evaluated. The fatty acid profile, thermal behavior, and textural properties (hardness) of fat were also determined. Both fats became harder during cold storage (average hardness increase for both fats, 11.5 N, 8 N, and 1.8 N at 0, °C 2 °C, and 5 °C , respectively), showing a 2-step pattern related with the separate crystallization of the different existing triacylglycerols, which was well described using a modified Avrami equation (explained variance > 99%). Due to a greater content of saturated triacylglycerols, Cebo fat (45.1%) was harder than Montanera (41.8%). The ultrasonic velocity followed a similar 2-step pattern to hardness during cold storage, being found an average increase for both fats of 184, 161, and 150 m/s at 0 °C 2 °C, and 5 °C, respectively. Thus, ultrasonic measurements were useful both to characterize the textural changes taking place during cold storage and to differentiate between fats with different composition. The cold storage of dry-cured meat products during their distribution and retail sale exert an important effect on their textural properties and consumers' acceptance due to the crystallization of the fat fraction, which is greatly influenced by the type of fat. In this work, a nondestructive ultrasonic technique was used to identify the textural changes provoked by the crystallization during cold storage, and to differentiate between fats, which could be used for quality control purposes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Introduction of African Swine Fever into the European Union through Illegal Importation of Pork and Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union. PMID:23613795

  18. Introduction of African swine fever into the European Union through illegal importation of pork and pork products.

    PubMed

    Costard, Solenne; Jones, Bryony Anne; Martínez-López, Beatriz; Mur, Lina; de la Torre, Ana; Martínez, Marta; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose-Manuel; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary animal diseases can have very severe socio-economic impacts when introduced into new regions. The history of disease incursions into the European Union suggests that initial outbreaks were often initiated by illegal importation of meat and derived products. The European Union would benefit from decision-support tools to evaluate the risk of disease introduction caused by illegal imports in order to inform its surveillance strategy. However, due to the difficulty in quantifying illegal movements of animal products, very few studies of this type have been conducted. Using African swine fever as an example, this work presents a novel risk assessment framework for disease introduction into the European Union through illegal importation of meat and products. It uses a semi-quantitative approach based on factors that likely influence the likelihood of release of contaminated smuggled meat and products, and subsequent exposure of the susceptible population. The results suggest that the European Union is at non-negligible risk of African swine fever introduction through illegal importation of pork and products. On a relative risk scale with six categories from negligible to very high, five European Union countries were estimated at high (France, Germany, Italy and United Kingdom) or moderate (Spain) risk of African swine fever release, five countries were at high risk of exposure if African swine fever were released (France, Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain) and ten countries had a moderate exposure risk (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom). The approach presented here and results obtained for African swine fever provide a basis for the enhancement of risk-based surveillance systems and disease prevention programmes in the European Union.

  19. Survey of Canadian retail pork chops and pork livers for detection of hepatitis E virus, norovirus, and rotavirus using real time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Leblanc, Danielle; Houde, Alain; Brassard, Julie; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Plante, Daniel; Bellon-Gagnon, Pascale; Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria; Janecko, Nicol; Avery, Brent; Rajić, Andrijana; McEwen, Scott A

    2014-08-18

    Over the past 15 years, hepatitis E virus (HEV), norovirus (NoV), and rotavirus (RV) have been hypothesized to be potentially zoonotic; swine and pork have been suggested as possible human infection sources for all 3 viruses. Our objective was to estimate HEV, NoV, and RV prevalence and load on Canadian retail pork chops and livers. Using the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) sampling platform, pork livers (n=283) and chops (n=599) were collected, processed, and assayed for the 3 viruses by four collaborating federal laboratories using validated real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (qRT-PCR). Follow-up qRT-PCR estimating viral load in genomic copies/g was followed by nested classical RT-PCR and isolate sequencing of a partial segment of the ORF2 gene. Local alignments were performed using MUSCLE (Multiple Sequence Comparison by Log-Expectation); a phylogenetic tree was created. Twenty-five livers and 6 chops were classified 'positive' (thresholds for viral RNA detected in both replicates of the assay) or 'suspect' (thresholds detected in one of two replicates) for HEV. Follow-up qRT-PCR detected HEV on 16 livers, 0 chops, and nested classical RT-PCR, on 14 livers and 0 chops. Initial qRT-PCR classified 12 chops 'suspect' for NoV. Follow-up qRT-PCR detected viral RNA on only one sample with thresholds greater than 40 in both replicates. No amplicon was yielded, and therefore no isolate was sequenced from this sample. Partial ORF2 genes from 14 HEV isolates were sequenced, and compared via sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis with selected human case isolates listed in NCBI-GenBank. Overall, HEV prevalence on retail pork was comparable with other published reports. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of dietary linseed on the nutritional value and quality of pork and pork products: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Corino, Carlo; Rossi, Raffaella; Cannata, Susanna; Ratti, Sabrina

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional quality of pork is a significant factor for consumers' health. Feeding n-3 PUFA to pigs, using linseed, improves pork nutritional quality. A meta-analysis involving 1006 pigs reported in 24 publications was carried out to assess the effects of dietary linseed on alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in muscle and adipose tissue. Data showed positive effects of n-3 PUFA on muscle fatty acid composition: ALA+137%, EPA+188%, DPA+51% and DHA+12%. Same results were observed in adipose tissue: ALA+297%, EPA+149%, DPA+88% and DHA+18%. A positive correlation between dietary treatment and ALA and EPA content in muscle (P<0.001) and adipose tissue (P=0.036) was observed. A significant association between DPA (P=0.04) and DHA (P=0.011) and live weight in muscle was observed. Feeding linseed to pig improves the nutritional pork quality, raising the n-3 PUFA content in muscle and adipose tissue.

  1. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes as a potential tool to differentiate pork from organic and conventional systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Shuming; Wang, Donghua

    2016-08-01

    Isotopic discrimination, dietary composition and feeding regime determine the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of animals. Accordingly, measurement of the stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen can be a potential method to identify patterns of pork production. In the current study, we investigated the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratio in pork from organic and conventional systems. The average carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for various organic tissues, including hair, blood and defatted meat, were higher than those of conventionally raised ones. The discriminant analysis results based on the combination of carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in defatted meat reached a 100% correct classification. Furthermore, the variation in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of retail organic and conventional pork has been studied over 1 year. The results suggested that organic pork had a higher δ(13) C value than that of the conventional pork in all but three fortnights. Grouping of the δ(15) N data showed that the δ(15) N value in organic pork was higher than that of the conventional one throughout the whole year. The method established in the present study provides a potential detection that can be highly valuable to prevent fraudulent labelling of organic pork. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Metagenomic assessment of the microbial diversity in ground pork products from markets in the North Central Region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok-Kyung; Baker, Christopher A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community in ground pork using molecular approaches. Forty six ground pork products were purchased from local stores in the north central area of South Korea. Aerobic plate counts varied 4.23 ± 5.14 × 10(5) CFU/g with the range between 5.00 × 10(3) and 1.85 × 10(6) CFU/g for ground pork samples. Four ground meat samples were further processed for metagenomic analysis. Pseudomonas species was the most relative abundant with a wide range occurring (1.72 to 77.7%) as part of the microbial genera in ground pork. Bacteria such as Carnobacterium, Yersinia, Photobacterium were also identified in ground pork. Despite the prominence of certain genera across all samples there was still extensive microbial diversity among ground pork products that originated from different slaughter houses and were processed in different markets. Such diversity indicates that designing interventions to extend shelf life may be hampered by the extensive variability in the microbial consortia associated with pork products. However, this diversity may be useful for developing microbial traceability signatures unique to a slaughter house or a particular market.

  3. Alteration of Porcine Serum Albumin Levels in Pork Meat by Marination in Kiwi or Pineapple Juice and Subsequent Pan Broiling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung-Sil; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Il-Suk; Ham, Jun-Sang; Park, Beom-Young; Jang, Aera

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in porcine serum albumin (PSA), a major allergen, which occur when raw pork ham is marinated with kiwi or pineapple juice, and/or when the ham is pan broiled at 300℃ for 4 min after marination. In this study, raw pork ham was soaked for 4 h or 8 h in marinades containing commercial marinating sauce only, commercial marinating sauce and 7% kiwi juice, or commercial marinating sauce and 7% pineapple juice. When the meat was marinated and then pan-broiled, pork ham meat protein was significantly denatured and hydrolyzed, and the level of PSA in the meat was significantly reduced. The PSA contents of pork broiled without marination, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce alone, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with kiwi juice, and pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with pineapple juice, were 95.4, 43.3, 14.3, and 5.4 ng/mL, respectively (p<0.05). Marinating with pineapple juice was more effective than marinating with kiwi juice; and marination for 8 h was more effective than marinating for 4 h. These results indicate that the level of PSA in pork ham is effectively reduced, when the meat is first marinated in sauces that contain kiwi or pineapple extracts for 8 h, rather than 4 h, and then cooked. Further study is needed to determine whether marinated pork meat reduces allergenicity in vivo, as well.

  4. Enrichment, isolation, and virulence of freeze-stressed plasmid-bearing virulent strains of Yersinia enterocolitica on pork.

    PubMed

    Bhaduri, Saumya

    2006-08-01

    The influence of freeze stress at -20 degrees C on the enrichment, isolation, detection, presence of virulence plasmid, and expression of virulence of plasmid-bearing Yersinia enterocolitica (YEP+) inoculated on pork chop medallions was assessed. Pork chop medallions (10 cm2) artificially contaminated with 10, 1, and 0.5 CFU/cm2 of YEP+ strains (serotype O:3) were placed in sterile petri dishes at -20 degrees C for 24 h. The medallions were swabbed when frozen, after thawing at room temperature for 1.5 h and after thawing at 4 degrees C for 18 h. Swabs were enriched and YEP+ were detected and isolated using the Congo red-binding and low-calcium-response assays. The YEP+ were isolated under all conditions on pork chop medallions inoculated with 10 CFU/cm2 and at a level of 1 CFU/cm2 when thawed at room temperature and at 4 degrees C but not from frozen pork chop medallions. The YEP+ were not isolated from pork chop medallions inoculated with 0.5 CFU/cm2 and then frozen, whereas YEP+ were recovered when inoculated at this level from pork chop medallions not subjected to freezing. Virulence of the strains isolated from frozen pork chop medallions was confirmed by PCR and the expression of plasmid-associated phenotypes. These results indicate that YEP+ subjected to freezing on pork are potentially capable of causing foodborne illness and that freezing is not a substitute for safe handling and proper cooking of pork.

  5. Combined detection and strain typing of Yersinia enterocolitica directly from pork and poultry enrichments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Yersinia enterocolitica is responsible for an estimated 98,000 cases of foodborne illness per year in the U.S. causing both intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Its prevalence in retail pork and poultry, believed to the primary sources of these infections, ranges widely from 0 to 6...

  6. 9 CFR 327.23 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) A Product is that cured pork article which is contained within one Group as defined in paragraph (a... Group III or IV product. (6) A PFF Standardized Arithmetic Average of the Country's Products is the arithmetic average of PFF Standardized Differences from either 36 or 100 consecutively sampled lots of...

  7. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork and poultry products during chilling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of C. perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in ten commercially prepared acidified beef, pork and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted using organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commer...

  8. Enhanced thermal resistance of Salmonella in marinated whole muscle compared with ground pork.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Adriana; Breslin, Tasha J; Marks, Bradley P; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia; Hall, Nicole O; Booren, Alden M; Ryser, Elliot T

    2010-02-01

    The internal muscle environment may enhance thermal resistance of bacterial pathogens. Based on the migration of pathogens into whole muscle products during marination, the validity of current thermal inactivation models for whole muscle versus ground products has been questioned. Consequently, the objective of this work was to compare thermal resistance of Salmonella in whole muscle versus ground pork. Irradiated samples of whole and ground pork loin (5.5 to 7.5 g) were exposed to a Salmonella-inoculated (10(8) CFU/ml) marinade (eight serovar cocktail) for 20 min, placed in sterile brass tubes (12.7 mm diameter), sealed, and heated isothermally at 55, 58, 60, 62, or 63 degrees C, and surviving salmonellae were enumerated on Petrifilm aerobic count plates. The thermal lag times and initial bacterial counts were similar for both whole muscle and ground samples (P > 0.05), with all samples having equivalent compositions, inocula, and thermal histories. Heating temperature and physical state of the meat (whole versus ground muscle) affected Salmonella inactivation, with greater thermal resistance observed in whole than in ground muscle (P < 0.05). Assuming log-linear inactivation kinetics, Salmonella was 0.64 to 2.96 times more heat resistant in whole muscle than in ground pork. Therefore, thermal process validations for pork products should also account for the physical state of the product to ensure microbial safety.

  9. 9 CFR 327.23 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... product entering the United States from a given producing country. (7) A PFF Standardized Weighted Average... cured pork product entering the United States from a given producing country. A Standardized Weighted... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  10. Frequent hepatitis E virus contamination in food containing raw pork liver, France.

    PubMed

    Pavio, Nicole; Merbah, Thiziri; Thébault, Anne

    2014-11-01

    Food products containing raw pork liver are suspected to be vehicles for transmission of hepatitis E virus. Four categories of food products, comprising 394 samples, were analyzed to determine hepatitis E virus prevalence. Virus was detected in 3%-30% of the different categories. Phylogenetic analysis showed high identity with human and swine sequences.

  11. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce...

  12. 9 CFR 318.19 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... products and analyze them for their PFF content. Analyses shall be conducted in accordance with the..., protein fat free content, PFF percentage, PFF content or PFF of a product means the meat protein (indigenous to the raw, unprocessed pork cut) content expressed as a percent of the non-fat portion of the...

  13. Absence of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Fresh Pork

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pigs experimentally infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus developed respiratory disease; however, there was no evidence for systemic disease to suggest that pork from pigs infected with H1N1 influenza would contain infectious virus. These findings support the WHO recommendation that po...

  14. Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Khantapura, Patchariya; Islam, Dilara; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Mason, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    The nationwide seroprevalence of hepatitis E IgG was determined among young men in Thailand. Overall seroprevalence was 14% (95% CI 13%–15%); range by province was 3%–26%. Seroprevalence was lowest in the south, an area predominantly occupied by persons of the Islam religion, whose dietary laws proscribe pork. PMID:25148245

  15. Implementing Meta-analysis for genome-wide association studies of pork quality traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pork quality is a critical concern in the meat industry. Implementation of genome-wide association studies (GWA) allows identification of genomic regions that explain a substantial portion of the variation of relevant traits. It is also important to determine the consistency of results of GWA across...

  16. Meta-analysis of genome wide association studies for pork quality traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Given the importance of pork quality in the meat processing industry, genome-wide association studies were performed for eight meat quality traits and also, a meta-analysis (MA) of GWA was implemented combining independent results from pig populations. Data from three pig datasets (USMARC, Commercia...

  17. Volatile flavor constituents in the pork broth of black-pig.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Meng; Xie, Jianchun; Zhao, Mengyao; Hou, Li; Liang, Jingjing; Wang, Shi; Cheng, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Pork of black-pig in China is well known for its quality and preferred by consumers. However, there is a lack of research on its flavors. By solvent assisted flavor evaporation combined with GC-MS, 104 volatile compounds in the stewed pork broth of black-pig were identified with the dominant amounts of fatty acids, alcohols, and esters. By aroma extract dilution analysis-GC-O method, 27 odor-active compounds were characterized, including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-(methylthio)propanal, 2-furfurylthiol, γ-decalactone, nonanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal that had high FD factors. Compared to the common white-pig, the aroma compounds in both pork broths were almost the same, but the aroma profile of potent odorants for the black-pig pork broth showed less fatty and more roasted notes, which were partially attributed to the higher monounsaturated fatty acids and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids in meat. With aid of authentic chemicals and selected reaction monitoring mode of GC-MS/MS, 19 aroma compounds were quantitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Curing conditions to inactivate Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae in ready-to-eat pork sausage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curing processes for ready to eat (RTE) pork products currently require individual validation of methods to demonstrate inactivation of Trichinella spiralis. This is a major undertaking for each process; currently no model of meat chemistry exists that can be correlated with inactivation of Trichin...

  19. The relationship between quality measurement techniques of pork loins and chops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives: Assessment of boneless pork loin quality under industrial conditions is used in plants for segregation of product into programs and for export as well as for routine quality control and research. This assessment is usually made on the exposed longissimus on the ventral side of the muscle...

  20. Implementing meta-analysis from genome-wide association studies for pork quality traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pork quality plays an important role in the meat processing industry, thus different methodologies have been implemented to elucidate the genetic architecture of traits affecting meat quality. One of the most common and widely used approaches is to perform genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Howe...

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Brown Soybean Ethanolic Extracts and Application to Cooked Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The brown soybean extract (BE, extracted by distilled water, 50%, 75%, and 95% ethanol) were analyzed for their total phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical-scavenging activity to determine antioxidant activities. Brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenol and anthocyanin content compared to the other treatments (p<0.05). Then, brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol was applied to pork patties at different concentration (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) and lipid oxidation was evaluated during 15 d of refrigerated storage. Addition of BE significantly increased redness and pH values, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, TBARS value of pork patties decreased significantly (p<0.05) as BE concentration increased. In sensory evaluation, pork patties with 0.1% BE had significantly higher score than other treatments in flavor and overall acceptability (p<0.05). Consequently, these results indicate that 0.1% BE could be an effective natural antioxidant to inhibit lipid oxidation in pork patties. PMID:27433107

  2. Analysis of pork and poultry meat and bone meal mixture using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Torres, Irina; Garrido Varo, Ana; Pérez Marín, Dolores; Kim, Moon S.

    2017-05-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM) has been banned as animal feed for ruminants since 2001 because it is the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moreover, many countries have banned the use of MBM as animal feed for not only ruminants but other farm animals as well, to prevent potential outbreak of BSE. Recently, the EU has introduced use of some MBM in feeds for different animal species, such as poultry MBM for swine feed and pork MBM for poultry feed, for economic reasons. In order to authenticate the MBM species origin, species-specific MBM identification methods are needed. Various spectroscopic and spectral imaging techniques have allowed rapid and non-destructive quality assessments of foods and animal feeds. The objective of this study was to develop rapid and accurate methods to differentiate pork MBM from poultry MBM using short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging techniques. Results from a preliminary investigation of hyperspectral imaging for assessing pork and poultry MBM characteristics and quantitative analysis of poultry-pork MBM mixtures are presented in this paper.

  3. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-11-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P < 0.05) during storage. The surface redness (a* value) increased (P < 0.05) with the incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp. Furthermore, metmyoglobin formation and lipid oxidation were lower (P < 0.05) in tomato- and guava-treated emulsions than in control. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  4. Chilling rate effects on pork loin tenderness in commercial processing plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present experiment was conducted to provide a large-scale objective comparison of pork LM tenderness and other meat quality traits between packing plants that differ in stunning method and carcass chilling rate. For each of two replicates, hogs were sourced from a single barn of a commercial fi...

  5. 9 CFR 318.19 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compliance procedure for cured pork products. 318.19 Section 318.19 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT..., provided in plant quality control procedures are shown to attain the same or higher degree of compliance...

  6. Double emulsions to improve frankfurter lipid content: impact of perilla oil and pork backfat.

    PubMed

    Freire, María; Bou, Ricard; Cofrades, Susana; Solas, María Teresa; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The technology involving the use of water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions (DEs) offers an interesting approach to improve the fat content of foods. With this aim, the effect on frankfurter properties of replacing pork backfat with two different DEs prepared using perilla oil and pork backfat as lipid phases was assessed. This strategy was compared with straightforward addition of the lipid source and addition by means of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. As compared with all-pork-fat frankfurters, the ones with perilla oil had a higher proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Reduced-fat frankfurters had similar water- and fat-binding properties irrespective of the lipid source or the technological strategy used to incorporate it. Moreover, the oil source but not its mode of incorporation determined the oxidation levels of frankfurters. In reduced-fat samples, except in the case of frankfurters formulated with a perilla oil-in-water emulsion, hardness was unaffected either by the type of fat or by its mode of incorporation. The replacement of pork backfat by perilla oil reduced the overall acceptability of products when perilla oil was added by means of the O/W emulsion and DE approaches. This technology is suitable for labelling meat products with specific nutritional and health claims. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment--methodology with special emphasis on European pork production.

    PubMed

    Reckmann, K; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2012-09-30

    One of the most discussed topics worldwide is climate change, upon which livestock production is known to have a great environmental impact. There are different methods to measure these environmental impacts, some of which are mentioned in this review. It especially focuses on the method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), because it is widely used, of high relevance and good quality. This review highlights a sample of the few published European LCA studies on pork production. These assessments result in an average global warming potential of 3.6 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork, ranging from 2.6 to 6.3 kg CO(2)- eq per kg pork. Additionally, it illustrates the main limitations of the methodology itself (e.g. data intensiveness, different allocation techniques) and its application in pork production (e.g. limited data availability, use of multiple functional units, varying system boundaries). The missing comparability of various studies arising from a vague standard still represents the main problem in LCA. Therefore, a new standardisation and the development of a more exhaustive database would generate a future trend.

  8. 9 CFR 327.23 - Compliance procedure for cured pork products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... group. (5) The Absolute Minimum PFF Requirement is that no laboratory result of an individual sample for... of all cured pork products from the country must be equal to or greater than zero. The count for the... found to be as low as the Absolute Minimum PFF Requirement, the country of origin shall be notified;...

  9. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    PubMed

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of pork adulteration in beef meatball using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rohman, A; Sismindari; Erwanto, Y; Che Man, Yaakob B

    2011-05-01

    Meatball is one of the favorite foods in Indonesia. The adulteration of pork in beef meatball is frequently occurring. This study was aimed to develop a fast and non destructive technique for the detection and quantification of pork in beef meatball using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) calibration. The spectral bands associated with pork fat (PF), beef fat (BF), and their mixtures in meatball formulation were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure PF and BF. For quantitative analysis, PLS regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1200-1000 cm(-1). The equation obtained for the relationship between actual PF value and FTIR predicted values in PLS calibration model was y = 0.999x + 0.004, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.999 and 0.442, respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples using laboratory made meatball samples containing the mixtures of BF and PF. Using 4 principal components, root mean square error of prediction is 0.742. The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the detection and quantification of pork in beef meatball formulation for Halal verification purposes.

  11. Role of intrinsic search cues in the formation of consumer preferences and choice for pork chops.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; De Smet, Stefaan; Vackier, Isabelle; Van Oeckel, Monique J; Warnants, Nathalie; Van Kenhove, Patrick

    2005-02-01

    This study investigates the role of drip, colour, marbling and fat cover as intrinsic search cues in the formation of pork chop preferences and individual determinants. Data are collected from a sample of 443 pork consumers in Belgium through using repeated selection of chops from randomised photobooks and questionnaires including socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural variables. Data analysis includes mixture regression analysis, bivariate descriptive statistics and the estimation of multivariate probit models. Consumers sampled in this study prefer pork chops without fat cover. Preference for fat cover is stronger among male, 35+ aged consumers with lower levels of awareness of the relation between food and health and who like pork for other reasons than taste and nutritional value (all p<0.05). Preference for colour is equally consistent within an individual, though fifty-fifty light-dark, with dark chops being more preferred by 35+ aged consumers (p<0.05). Preferences for marbling and drip are not consistent and not determined by joint socio-demographic, attitudinal and behavioural factors. Preferences for cue levels are not correlated, except a weak relation between preference for dark chops without drip (r=0.116). Preferences are apparently formed by deductions with the use of single cues as key information, mainly based on fat cover or colour, and random choice on marbling and drip.

  12. Determination of purine contents in different parts of pork and beef by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Rong, Shengzhong; Zou, Lina; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Guangteng; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Miaojing; Yang, Fenghua; Li, Chunmei; He, Yingjuan; Guan, Hongjun; Guo, Yupeng; Wang, Dong; Cui, Xinyu; Ye, Hongting; Liu, Fenghai; Pan, Hongzhi; Yang, Yuexin

    2015-03-01

    Determination of adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine and xanthine in different parts of pork and beef using high performance liquid chromatography was described. Chromatographic separation was carried out on Waters Atlantis T3 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm × 5 μm) with column temperature at 30 °C. The mobile phase contained 99% 10.0 mmol/L ammonium formate solution at pH 3.6 and 1.0% methanol. Chromatography was achieved at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection wavelength at 254 nm. The results indicated that total purine amounts in pork rump and beef sirloin were higher than those in other parts (P<0.05). The principal purine bases were hypoxanthine and adenine, and hypoxanthine content was the most highest in all samples (P<0.05). As pork rump and beef sirloin contain considerable amounts of total purine and uricogenic purine base, we suggest that excess consumption of them be avoid, whereas pork loin chop and beef rib eye are more suitable for a low-purine diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the ability to measure pork fat quality for the production of commercial bacon.

    PubMed

    Seman, D L; Barron, W N G; Matzinger, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate three fat quality measures to characterize the suitability of pork bellies for commercial bacon production. Bellies from six sources (A to F) and two weight ranges (4.5/5.5 kg and 5.5/6.4 kg) were sampled by randomly selecting 50 belly sets from commercial combos of pork bellies from each source. The fat on these 50 individual bellies was assessed for quality using three methods: an FTNIR spectrophotometer to predict iodine (IV) value, a Durometer to assess fat firmness, and a subjective fat quality score (FQS) to assess integrated values of fat color, firmness, oiliness, and wetness. Data show that the fat quality measures differed (P<0.05) by pork belly source and weight class with significant interactions between the two. Bellies were subsequently manufactured into bacon and bacon slicing yield index varied significantly (P<0.05) by belly source, weight class, and their interaction. Durometer and FQS results were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with bacon slice yield. The 50 belly subsamples obtained from each source/weight class also allowed the prediction of frequency distribution-based values based on fat quality measures (proportion IV>74, proportion Durometer value <50, and proportion FQS>3. These were also correlated with slice yield. The data lead to a new paradigm model that is useful to describe both the uncertainty in fat quality measures and the relationships observed from pork bellies from different sources.

  14. 78 FR 14909 - Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Program; Section 610 Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1230 Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Program; Section 610 Review AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Confirmation of regulations. SUMMARY: This document summarizes the results of an Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) review of the...

  15. Inactivation of pathogens on pork by steam-ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Morild, Rikke K; Christiansen, Pia; Sørensen, Anders H; Nonboe, Ulf; Aabo, Søren

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate a new pathogen inactivation concept that combines application of pressurized steam simultaneously with high-power ultrasound through a series of nozzles. On skin and meat surfaces of pork jowl samples, counts of total viable bacteria were reduced by 1.1 log CFU/cm(2) after treatment for 1 s and by 3.3 log CFU/cm(2) after treatment for 4 s. The mean reduction of 1.7 to 3.3 log CFU/cm(2) on the skin surface was significantly higher than the reduction of 1.1 to 2.5 log CFU/cm(2) on the meat surface. The inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Infantis, Yersinia enterocolitica, and a nonpathogenic Escherichia coli was studied on inoculated samples that were treated for 0.5 to 2.0 s. With one exception, no significant differences in reduction were observed among the bacterial types. After treatment for 0.5 s, the 0.9-to 1.5-log reductions of E. coli were significantly higher than the 0.4- to 1.1-log reductions for Salmonella and Y. enterocolitica. Overall, reductions increased by increasing treatment time; reductions were 0.4 to 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) after treatment for 0.5 s and 2.0 to 3.6 log CFU/cm(2) after treatment for 2 s. Reductions on the skin (1 to 3.6 log CFU/cm(2)) were significantly higher than reductions on the meat surface (1 to 2.5 log CFU/cm(2)). The reduced effect on the meat surface may be explained by greater protection of bacteria in deep structures at the muscle surface. No significant difference in reduction was observed between samples inoculated with 10(4) CFU/cm(2) and those inoculated with 10(7) CFU/cm(2), and cold storage of samples for 24 h at 5°C after steam-ultrasound treatment did not lead to changes in recovery of bacteria.

  16. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary More pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. Making production systems and practices more sustainable will benefit the animals, the planet and people. A system is presented by which production practices are evaluated using a sustainability matrix. The matrix shows why some practices are more common in some countries and regions and the impediments to more sustainable systems. This method can be used to assess the sustainability of production practices in the future where objective, science-based information is presented alongside ethical and economic information to make the most informed decisions. Finally, this paper points to current pork production practices that are more and less sustainable. Abstract Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less

  17. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validation of medroxyprogesterone acetate in products of pork origin and serum.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Luigi; Barchi, Daniela; Fiorucci, Fulvia; Gennuso, Elisa; Sanna, Patrizia; Pallagrosi, Marco; Neri, Bruno

    2005-08-01

    Different extraction and purification methods are described here to determine medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in pork meat and serum. Spiked samples are investigated over the concentration range of MPA 0.5-20 ng/g. Pork meat tissues are subjected to extraction using organic solvent, and pork serum is simply diluted with acetate buffer. Clean-up is performed using solid-phase extraction on a C18 cartridge, and MPA is eluted with ethanol. Aliquots are injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. MPA content is determined on the basis of m/z 387-327 and 387-123 transitions.

  18. Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from pork farms and visiting veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Frana, Timothy S; Beahm, Aleigh R; Hanson, Blake M; Kinyon, Joann M; Layman, Lori L; Karriker, Locke A; Ramirez, Alejandro; Smith, Tara C

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA) has become a public health concern in many parts of the world. Sequence type 398 (ST398) has been the most commonly reported type of LA-MRSA. While many studies have focused on long-term exposure experienced by swine workers, this study focuses on short-term exposures experienced by veterinary students conducting diagnostic investigations. The objectives were to assess the rate of MRSA acquisition and longevity of carriage in students exposed to pork farms and characterize the recovered MRSA isolates. Student nasal swabs were collected immediately before and after farm visits. Pig nasal swabs and environmental sponge samples were also collected. MRSA isolates were identified biochemically and molecularly including spa typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Thirty (30) veterinary students were enrolled and 40 pork farms were visited. MRSA was detected in 30% of the pork farms and in 22% of the students following an exposure to a MRSA-positive pork farm. All students found to be MRSA-positive initially following farm visit were negative for MRSA within 24 hours post visit. Most common spa types recovered were t002 (79%), t034 (16%) and t548 (4%). Spa types found in pork farms closely matched those recovered from students with few exceptions. Resistance levels to antimicrobials varied, but resistance was most commonly seen for spectinomycin, tetracyclines and neomycin. Non-ST398 MRSA isolates were more likely to be resistant to florfenicol and neomycin as well as more likely to be multidrug resistant compared to ST398 MRSA isolates. These findings indicate that MRSA can be recovered from persons visiting contaminated farms. However, the duration of carriage was very brief and most likely represents contamination of nasal passages rather than biological colonization. The most common spa types found in this study were associated with ST5 and expands the range of livestock

  19. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    PubMed

    McGlone, John J

    2013-05-15

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  20. Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on pork and chicken prices in Central Luzon, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Abao, Lary Nel B; Kono, Hiroichi; Gunarathne, Anoma; Promentilla, Rolando R; Gaerlan, Manolita Z

    2014-03-01

    Central Luzon is the number one pig-producing region in the Philippines and was affected by Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in 1995. In this paper, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon meat market from 1995 to 1999 was examined. Employing the error correction model (ECM) and historical decomposition, the impact of FMD on the Central Luzon pork and chicken meat market was quantified. The following findings were observed: (a) pig farm and pork wholesale prices dropped 11.8% and 15.7%, respectively, after the initial FMD outbreaks in January, 1995; (b) in February, 1995, chicken farm and wholesale prices declined by 21.1% and 14.2%, respectively (while chicken retail prices also went down by 10.5%); (c) the margins of pig and chicken traders were also adversely affected at some point; and (d) FMD caused changes of dynamic interdependence among prices by meat type at different levels of the meat supply chain. This study makes several contributions to the literature on the impact of FMD outbreaks. This study is the first that simultaneously investigates the impact of FMD outbreaks on meat prices, price margins along the supply chain, and price interdependence in the meat system in Central Luzon, Philippines. Also, the Philippine pork industry is dominated by backyard farmers rather than the predominantly large commercial pig farmers existing in developed countries. Secondly, it yielded the novel finding of price decline in both pig and chicken prices as a result of the FMD outbreaks. And lastly, the study showed that the profit margins of the pig traders, pork traders, chicken traders and chicken meat traders were also negatively affected by the FMD outbreaks in January 1995. However, over the long term, the price margins of pork traders were more severely affected in contrast to that of the other traders' profits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus leaf extract in minced pork.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyen Thi Kim; Laosinwattana, Chamroon; Teerarak, Montinee; Pilasombut, Komkhae

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of extraction solvents on antioxidant bio-active compounds as well as potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus) leaf extract in minced pork. The effect of various solvent systems of water, 25%, 50%, 75% (v/v) ethanol in water and absolute ethanol on the extraction crude yield, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of P. acidus leaves was determined. In addition, antioxidant activities of the addition of crude extract from P. aciuds leaves at 2.5 and 5 g/kg in minced pork on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation decolorization, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS) were determined. Moreover, sensory evaluation of the samples was undertaken by using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results showed that the highest crude yield (2.8 g/100 g dry weight) was obtained from water which also had the highest recovery yield for total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the strongest antioxidant activity. The addition of crude water extract from P. acidus leaves was more effective in retarding lipid peroxidation and higher antioxidant activity than control and butylated hydroxytoluene in minced pork. In particular, the samples containing P. acidus extract had no significant effect on the sensory scores of overall appearance, color, odor, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability compared to the control. Water solvent was an optimally appropriate solvent for P. acidus leaf extraction because of its ability to yield the highest amount of bio-active compounds and in vitro antioxidant property. Particularly, P. acidus crude water extract also strongly expressed the capacity to retard lipid oxidation, radical scavenging, radical cation decolorization and reducing power in

  2. Rapid and non-invasive quantification of intramuscular fat content of intact pork cuts.

    PubMed

    Huang, H; Liu, L; Ngadi, M O; Gariépy, C

    2014-02-01

    Having acquired near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral images of intact pork loin samples through an NIR hyperspectral imaging system, the efficiency of a variety of image processing techniques including texture pattern analysis techniques were applied to process hyperspectral images so as to determine the intramuscular fat (IMF) content non-destructively. After the segmentation of region of interest (ROI), the raw spectral, texture-based spectral and textural characteristics of pork images were extracted by spectral averaging and pattern recognition techniques namely Gabor filter and improved gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), respectively. First derivatives of the non-filtered and the Gabor filtered spectra were also investigated. Full waveband partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to determine the optimal parameters of Gabor filter and GLCM, and to select optimal wavelengths for IMF prediction. A stepwise procedure was applied to the optimal wavelengths to further optimize them to key wavelengths. Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were built based on the key wavelengths. Mean spectra and the Gabor filtered spectra outperformed GLCM. The best result, represented by correlation coefficients of calibration (Rc), cross validation (Rcv) and prediction (Rp) of 0.89, 0.89, and 0.86, respectively, was achieved using the first derivative of Gabor filtered spectra at 1193 and 1217 nm. To visualize the IMF content in pork, the distribution maps of IMF content in pork were drawn using a mean spectra-based MLR model. These promising results highlight the great potential of NIR hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive prediction of IMF content of intact pork.

  3. Effects of Drying Temperature on Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Powder and Storage Stability of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oven-dried tomato powder (OTP) as affected by drying temperature and the effect of OTP on the product quality of pork patties. Three OTP products were obtained by drying of fresh tomato at 60, 80 and 100℃ oven until constant weight was obtained. Total phenolic content of three kinds of OTPs ranged from 1.95 to 5.94 g/100 g. The highest amount of total phenolic compound was observed in OTP dried at 100℃. Antioxidant activity of three kinds of OTPs was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, reducing power and measurement of lipid peroxide in linoleic acid emulsion system. In all parameters, OTP at 100℃ showed the higher antioxidant activity than other temperatures (p<0.05). Based on the model study, the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties containing 1% OTP were measured. Redness of pork patties were increased with the addition of OTPs (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw pork patties containing OTPs were lower than those of control (CTL) until 7 d of storage, regardless of drying temperatures (p<0.05). Peroxide values of pork patties made with OTP (1%) were lower than those of CTL until the end of storage time (p<0.05). However, no antimicrobial activities were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, OTPs could be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. PMID:27499664

  4. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    PubMed

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain.

  5. Evaluation of the ability of Eleutherine americana crude extract as natural food additive in cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Ifesan, B O T; Siripongvutikorn, S; Hutadilok-Towatana, N; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2009-09-01

    The scavenging activities of crude ethanolic extract from Eleutherine americana, on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl free radicals were investigated. The results revealed that the extract produced IC(50) values of 8.4 microg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL on DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals, respectively. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the crude extract yielded high phenolic content of 4.56 mumol gallic acid equivalent per milligram dried extract. The extract, at different concentrations, was incorporated into pork, cooked in the microwave, and stored at 4 degrees C for 9 d. The crude extract demonstrated antioxidant activity, which increases with increased extract concentrations and retarded lipid oxidation in the cooked pork. Antibacterial activity of the extract against Staphylococcus aureus in the cooked pork revealed that at a concentration of 10.8 mg/100 g, the extract reduced the bacterial population by 0.57 log compared to control at 9 d of storage. The sensory results revealed that the pork samples treated with the extract and the control sample were not significantly different from day 0 to 6; however, on day 9 the treatments were significantly scored higher than the control. Furthermore, addition of the extract led to an increase in the redness values of the pork and this was acceptable from the sensory point of view. E. americana crude extract could be a promising novel antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation and a potential natural color enhancer of red meat and meat products.

  6. Environmental assessment of the entire pork value chain in Catalonia - A strategy to work towards Circular Economy.

    PubMed

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; González-García, Sara; M Gasol, Carles; Moreira, María Teresa; Amores, Maria José; Marín, Desirée; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    Pork industry in Catalonia plays a foremost and representative role in the Spanish pork sector. Beyond the economic benefits, conventional practices in the pork industry also imply a number of environmental impacts that need to be dealt with. In this context, the environmental performance of traditional linear pork chain in Catalonia was evaluated through a LCA approach. The outcomes of the analysis showed that both fodder production and transport activities were identified as the critical stages of the system. Accordingly, alternative schemes based on circular economy principles were proposed and potential environmental credits were estimated. Within this framework, comparative results highlighted the advantages of moving towards a closing loop production system, where resource efficiency and waste valorisation were prioritised over final disposal options.

  7. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Christensen, Mette; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7days were not affected by an increase in O2 concentration, as revealed by lipid and protein oxidation markers. In contrast, the mince was characterised by an altered protein profile, loss of free thiol groups and increased protein oxidation, early during storage. The oxidative stability of pork mince was improved by using intermediate (50%) O2 MAP. The results show that fresh pork products are affected differently by the MAP O2 concentration and strongly indicate that optimisation of MAP based on the retail product type would be of considerable benefit to their oxidative stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rice- or pork-based diets with similar calorie and content result in different rat gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Xu, Wentao; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-03-20

    Rice is the most important food crop, and pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of the rats fed with rice or pork mixed diets, which have similar caloric contents. The physiological indices (body weights, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology) of two groups were all within the normal range. Two diets did not induce difference in the diversity of gut bacteria. However, Firmicutes were significantly higher in rice diet group, while Bacteroidetes were enriched in pork diet group. Butyrate and the bacteria enzymes β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase and nitroreductase in the feces were all drastically higher in pork diet group. This study indicates that different diets with similar calorie and nutritional composition could change the community structure but not the diversity of rat fecal microbiota.

  9. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pork soup stock by using an aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yukiko; Osanai, Hiroki; Masuzawa, Takuya; Wakabayashi, Hidehiko; Nishimura, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis of an extract prepared from pork stock and subsequent experiments led to the identification of 15 aroma-active compounds in the flavor dilution factor range of 64-2048. Omission experiments to select the most aroma-active compounds from the 15 odor compounds suggested acetol, octanoic acid, δ-decalactone, and decanoic acid as the main active compounds contributing to the aroma of pork stock. Aroma recombination, addition, and omission experiments of these four aroma compounds in taste-reconstituted pork stock showed that each compound had an individual aroma profile. A comparison of the overall aroma between this recombined mixture and pork stock showed strong similarity, suggesting that the key aroma compounds had been successfully identified.

  10. Rapid identification of pork for halal authentication using the electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer.

    PubMed

    Nurjuliana, M; Che Man, Y B; Mat Hashim, D; Mohamed, A K S

    2011-08-01

    The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1.

  11. Identification of Components or Fractions Associated with Adverse Changes in Freeze Dried Chicken and Pork during Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    dried ham. Food Tochnol. 14: 8 (1960). 35Burnett, H. C., C. W. Gehrke, and D. S. Brady. Volatile components of p vacuum packed dehydrated pork. J. Agr...dried chicken meat. J. Food Sci. 31: 791 (1966). Burnett, M. C., C. W. Gehrke, and D. E. Brady. Volatile components of vacuum- packed dehydrated pork...now be served using dehydrated foods only. Many of these products rehydrate quickly and, when cooked using conventional large or small scale equipment

  12. Postmortem protein degradation is a key contributor to fresh pork loin tenderness.

    PubMed

    Carlson, K B; Prusa, K J; Fedler, C A; Steadham, E M; Outhouse, A C; King, D A; Huff-Lonergan, E; Lonergan, S M

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine factors that influence tenderness independent of variation in pH, color, or marbling. To achieve the objective, 2 sample groups were chosen from a population of 159 pork loins aged 11 to 16 d. Predetermined ranges (ultimate pH, 5.54 to 5.86; marbling score, 1.0 to 3.0; percent total lipid, 1.61 to 3.37%) were defined for inclusion of individual loins in the study. The pork loins with the greatest ( = 12) and least ( = 12) Instron star probe values were assigned to 2 classification groups. The high star probe group had an average star probe that was 2.8 kg greater than the low star probe group (7.75 vs. 4.95 kg). Pork quality and sensory characteristics of pH, subjective and instrumental color values, cook loss, sensory tenderness, chewiness, juiciness, pork flavor, and off flavor were determined on fresh, never frozen pork chops. Lipid content, sarcomere length, myosin heavy-chain profile, and calpain autolysis were determined. Degradation of troponin-T, desmin, filamin, and titin were evaluated on the protein extracts from each sample. Pork loin pH, subjective color scores, Minolta L values, sarcomere length, and myosin heavy-chain composition were not different across groups. Chops from the low star probe group had a significantly greater marbling score (2.3 vs. 1.9) and lipid content (2.61 vs. 2.23%). Calpain-1 was completely autolyzed in both high and low star probe samples, demonstrating that calpain-1 potentially had been active in all samples. Low star probe whole-muscle protein extracts had more troponin-T ( < 0.01), desmin ( < 0.01), and filamin degradation ( < 0.01) than high star probe samples. Both classification groups showed degradation of titin. Remarkably, some high star probe samples still had observable intact bands of titin on SDS-PAGE gels. These results demonstrate that significant variation in instrumental tenderness is observed within a moderate pH range. Lipid content and proteolysis both appear

  13. Storage of pork meat under modified atmospheres containing vapors from commercial alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakou, A E; Agathaggelou, E I; Skandamis, P N

    2014-05-16

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of AB vapors on microbial, physicochemical, and sensory profile of pork meat stored in different MAP conditions. Pork pieces (10g) and cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths (2×2cm) were placed into compartmentalized Petri-dishes in two sections. Aliquots (1mL) of water (control), 30% v/v and 40% v/v ethanol, whisky, brandy, tsipouro, raki, and ouzo were added separately to the cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths. Each pork sample was placed in one compartment and cotton/cellulose absorbent cloths supplemented with different ABs were placed in a separate compartment of each Petri-dish. Samples were packaged in 40% CO2: 30% O2: 30% N2 and 80% O2: 20% CO2 and stored at 4 and 10°C. Total viable counts, Pseudomonas sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and Enterobacteriaceae, were enumerated during storage. Changes in pH, color (L*, a*, b*), odor, taste, and overall appearance of pork meat were also evaluated along with changes in organic acid levels via HPLC. At 4°C, lactic acid bacteria and B. thermosphacta were the dominant organisms under 40% CO2: 30% N2: 30% O2 and 80% O2: 20% CO2, respectively, while at 10°C, lactic acid bacteria dominated in both MAP conditions. All applied ABs were effective (p<0.05) against lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and B. thermosphacta. The inhibitory effect of ABs was also reflected through lower levels of glucose consumption or accumulation of lactic, acetic, succinic, and formic acid compared to controls. Moreover, packaged samples in 40% CO2: 30% O2: 30% N2 exhibited a significant increase (p<0.05) of acetic acid during storage at 4°C, but the concentrations of acetic acid in samples exposed to AB vapors were lower than those in controls. Both antimicrobial active MAPs extended the shelf-life of pork meat by ca. 2-fold, while samples exposed to alcoholic beverages (especially ouzo) under 80% O2: 20% CO2 resulted in better (p<0.05) sensory properties

  14. Identification of pork contamination in meatball using genetic marker mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by duplex-PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novianty, E.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Lee, J. H.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Meat based food products have a big opportunity to mix and adulterated with other meats. Muslim communities are prohibited to consume pork-containing product or other pig derivatives in food. Therefore, the high sensitivity, fast, cheap and accurate approach is needed to detect pig contamination in raw meat and meat-processed product such as meatball. The aim of this study was to identify pork contamination in meatball using genetic marker of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene by duplex-PCR. Samples were prepared and designed by following the proportions 0, 1, 5, 10, 25% of pork in meatballs, respectively. The DNA genome was extracted from meatballs and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using species specific primer to isolate mt-DNA cytochrome b gene. The results showed that the DNA genome was successfully isolated from pork, beef, and contaminated meatballs. Furthermore, 2% agarose gels was able to visualize of duplex-PCR to identify pork contamination in meatballs up to very small proportion (1%). It can be concluded that duplex-PCR of mt-DNA cytochrome b gene was very sensitive to identify pork contamination in meatball with the presence of specific 398 bp DNA band.

  15. Feasibility assessment of vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling on water-cooked pork.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoguang; Chen, Hui; Liu, Yi; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum cooling followed by immersion vacuum cooling was designed to cool water-cooked pork (1.5±0.05 kg) compared with air blast cooling (4±0.5°C, 2 m/s), vacuum cooling (10 mbar) and immersion vacuum cooling. This combined cooling method was: vacuum cooling to an intermediate temperature of 25°C and then immersion vacuum cooling with water of 10°C to the final temperature of 10°C. It was found that the cooling loss of this combined cooling method was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those of air blast cooling and vacuum cooling. This combined cooling was faster (P<0.05) than air blast cooling and immersion vacuum cooling in terms of cooling rate. Moreover, the pork cooled by combined cooling method had significant differences (P<0.05) in water content, color and shear force.

  16. Antihypertensive activity of peptides identified in the in vitro gastrointestinal digest of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Elizabeth; Toldrá, Fidel; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Arihara, Keizo

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the in vivo antihypertensive activity of three novel peptides identified in the in vitro digest of pork meat. These peptides were RPR, KAPVA and PTPVP and all of them showed significant antihypertensive activity after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats, RPR being the peptide with the greatest in vivo activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the in vivo antihypertensive action of the three peptides from nebulin (RPR) and titin (KAPVA and PTPVP), thus confirming their reported in vitro angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. These findings suggest that pork meat could constitute a source of bioactive constituents that could be utilized in functional foods or nutraceuticals.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Launch-Arrival Space Study: A Pork Chop Plot Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciolo, Alicia Dwyer; Powell, Richard; Lockwood, Mary Kae

    2006-01-01

    Launch-Arrival, or "pork chop", plot analysis can provide mission designers with valuable information and insight into a specific launch and arrival space selected for a mission. The study begins with the array of entry states for each pair of selected Earth launch and Mars arrival dates, and nominal entry, descent and landing trajectories are simulated for each pair. Parameters of interest, such as maximum heat rate, are plotted in launch-arrival space. The plots help to quickly identify launch and arrival regions that are not feasible under current constraints or technology and also provide information as to what technologies may need to be developed to reach a desired region. This paper provides a discussion of the development, application, and results of a pork chop plot analysis to the Mars Science Laboratory mission. This technique is easily applicable to other missions at Mars and other destinations.

  18. Consumer perceptions: pork and pig production. Insights from France, England, Sweden and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Dransfield, E; Martin, J-F; Magnusson, M; Bredahl, L; Nute, G R

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence.

  19. Comparison of water gel desserts from fish skin and pork gelatins using instrumental measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Regenstein, Joe M

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare water gel desserts from various gelatins using instrumental measurements. The puncture test and texture profile analysis (TPA) with compression were determined at 25% and 75% deformation; the melting properties were determined rheologically by monitoring the change of storage modulus (G') with increasing temperature. The measurements with 25% deformation were always nondestructive, while measurements with 75% deformation were mostly destructive. Desserts made from Alaska pollock gelatin (AG) or gelatin mixtures containing AG were more resistant to the destruction caused by the large deformation than tilapia gelatin and pork gelatins. In addition, the gel dessert made from AG melted at a lower temperature than those from tilapia skin gelatin and pork gelatins, while desserts made from gelatin mixtures reflected the melting properties of the separate gelatins.

  20. Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions.

  1. Determination of pork spoilage by colorimetric gas sensor array based on natural pigments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-wei; Zou, Xiao-bo; Shi, Ji-yong; Guo, Yanin; Zhao, Jie-wen; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Limin

    2014-02-15

    A new colorimetric gas-sensor array based on four natural pigments, that were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L.), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), was developed for pork freshness evaluation. A colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the images of the sensor array before and after exposure to the odour of sample. The total viable count (TVC) per gram of pork was obtained by classical microbiological plating methods, and the biogenic amines were measured by HPLC. Biogenic amine index (BAI) for the determination of meat freshness was developed from the sum of putrescine and cadaverine. The colour change profiles were analysed using principal component analysis and correlated with conventional methods (BAI, TVC). A partial least squares (PLS) prediction model was obtained with r=0.854 and 0.933 for BAI and TVC, respectively.

  2. Microbial pathogens in raw pork, chicken, and beef: benefit estimates for control using irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, T.

    1985-12-01

    Various control procedures have been suggested for reducing foodborne infectious diseases. Receiving considerable attention is irradiation. This report estimates the medical and wage (or productivity) benefits associated with prevention of five human diseases transmitted by beef, pork, and chicken. (These diseases can also be transmitted by other vectors, such as eggs, milk, and pets. But these sources are not included in the analysis.) All of these foodborne infectious diseases - salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, trichinosis, tapeworm, and toxoplasmosis - could be significantly reduced by irradiating meat and poultry. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has just approved irradiation of pork to prevent trichinosis (50FR 29658-59) and is considering approval of irradiation of chicken to kill Salmonella. 22 references.

  3. Yeast, beef and pork extracts counteract Clostridium difficile toxin A enterotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Peter I; Fotopoulos, Grigorios; Pasche, Elisabeth; Porta, Nadine; Masserey Elmelegy, Isabelle; Sanchez-Garcia, Jose-Luis; Bergonzelli, Gabriela E; Corthésy-Theulaz, Irène

    2009-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is responsible for a large proportion of nosocomial cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The present study provides evidence that yeast, beef and pork extracts, ingredients commonly used to grow bacteria, can counteract C. difficile toxin A enterotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In model intestinal epithelial cells the individual extracts could prevent the toxin A-induced decrease in epithelial barrier function and partially prevented actin disaggregation and cell rounding. Mice with ad libitum access to individual extracts for 1 week had almost complete reduction in toxin A-induced fluid secretion in intestinal loops. Concomitantly, the toxin A-induced expression of the essential proinflammatory mediator Cox-2 was normalized. Moreover this protective effect was also seen when mice received only two doses of extract by intragastric gavage within 1 week. These results show that yeast, beef and pork extracts have the potential to counteract the intestinal pathogenesis triggered by C. difficile toxin A.

  4. Effect of Black Rice Powder on the Quality Properties of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pork patties formulated with black rice powder were investigated. Moisture contents of samples containing black rice powder were significantly higher than that of the control (p<0.05). Protein, fat, and ash contents increased with increasing black rice powder content. Uncooked and cooked pH values of samples increased with increasing black rice powder content. Lightness and yellowness of samples decreased with increasing concentration of black rice powder. Redness of cooked samples containing black rice powder was significantly lower than that of the control (p<0.05). Water holding capacity and cooking yield of samples increased with increasing black rice powder concentration. Diameter and thickness reduction ratio of samples decreased with increasing black rice powder content. Sensory evaluation of samples showed no significant difference between samples. Thus, black rice powder improved the quality of pork patties. PMID:28316473

  5. Desorption isotherms and isosteric heat of desorption of previously frozen raw pork meat.

    PubMed

    Clemente, G; Bon, J; Benedito, J; Mulet, A

    2009-08-01

    Some meat products involve drying previously frozen pork meat, which makes the knowledge of sorption characteristics very important for the design and management of meat dehydration processes. The sorption isotherms of raw pork meat from the Biceps femoris and Semimembranosus muscles were determined at four temperatures: 25, 30, 35 and 40°C. The experimental results were modelled using the GAB (Guggenheim, Anderson and De Boer) model. The effect of temperature was also taken into account to model the experimental sorption isotherms using four models (GAB, Oswin, Halsey and Henderson). The best results were provided by the GAB model. From the experimental sorption isotherms the isosteric heats of sorption were determined. For a moisture content higher than 0.15kgwater/kgdm, the isosteric heat of meat was similar to the latent heat of vaporization for pure water. For a lower moisture content, an increase in the isosteric heat was observed when the moisture content decreased.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nham (Thai-style fermented pork sausage).

    PubMed

    Petchsing, U; Woodburn, M J

    1990-05-01

    The fate of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was determined when they were introduced into ground pork made into nham (Thai-style fermented pork sausage) with or without 0.75 or 1.5% added starter culture. Without starter culture, the numbers of E. coli remained little changed but there was slow multiplication of S. aureus. With 0.75% starter culture, S. aureus was no longer detectable after 48 h and E. coli numbers decreased by 1 log after 96 h. No viable S. aureus or E. coli were recovered after 36 h and 96 h, respectively, when 1.5% starter culture was added. The addition of a starter culture is recommended when making nham.

  7. The effect of skatole and androstenone on consumer response towards streaky bacon and pork belly roll.

    PubMed

    Aaslyng, Margit D; De Lichtenberg Broge, Eva Honnens; Brockhoff, Per B; Christensen, Rune Haubo

    2015-12-01

    Consumer liking was assessed for streaky bacon and pork belly roll from entire male pigs with an androstenone (AND) content of up to 9.4 ppm and a skatole (SKA) content of up to 0.92 ppm in the back fat and castrates. No clear effect of either AND or SKA was seen in consumer liking, although an insignificant tendency was seen for SKA. A sensory profile analysis showed that AND increased the boar taint of bacon, while both AND and SKA increased the boar taint of the pork belly roll. Consumer sensitivity towards AND and SKA did not affect liking of the meat products. The lack of effect of AND and SKA on consumer liking could be due to a masking effect of the spices and smoke. Three consecutive weeks' exposure to bacon did not change the liking score, irrespective of the AND and SKA content. This indicates that the consumers did not become more sensitive towards boar taint.

  8. Precision pork production: predicting the impact of nutritional strategies on carcass quality.

    PubMed

    van Milgen, J; Noblet, J; Dourmad, J Y; Labussière, E; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L

    2012-11-01

    Variation is inherent to living systems. Because feeding strategies are applied to groups of pigs, it contributes to the inefficient use of natural resources and may even amplify the variation among pigs at slaughter. Precision pork production and precision feeding, through management of the variation among individuals, may contribute to improving the efficiency of animal production systems. This approach relies on the prediction of the response of the animal to the nutrient supply, the continuous monitoring of the response, and a system to control nutrient supply. Most nutritional models of pig growth are based on the partitioning of nutrients between energy expenditure, and protein and lipid deposition. However, the link between chemical body composition and tissue growth, tissue composition and thus carcass quality remains a challenge in modeling. The potential of precision pork production also depends on the (real-time) information that can be obtained to control growth and carcass quality.

  9. Quantitative detection of pork in commercial meat products by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miju; Yoo, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Young; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2016-11-01

    The TaqMan® real-time PCR assay using the mitochondrial D-loop region was developed for the quantitative detection of pork in processed meat products. The newly designed primers and probe specifically amplified pork without any cross-reactivity with non-target animal species. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 0.1pg of heat-treated pork meat and 0.1% (w/w) pork meat in beef and chicken meat mixtures. The quantitative real-time PCR assay was applied to analyze the pork meat content in 22 commercial processed meat products including jerkies, press hams, sausages, hamburger patties and steaks, grilled short rib patties, and nuggets. The developed real-time PCR method was able to detect pork meat in various types of processed meat products that declared the use of pork meat on their label. All processed meat products that declared no use of pork meat showed a negative result in the assay. The method developed in this study showed sensitivity and specificity in the quantification of pork meat in commercial processed meat products.

  10. Volatile production in irradiated normal, pale soft exudative (PSE) and dark firm dry (DFD) pork under different packaging and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Ahn, D U; Nam, K C; Du, M; Jo, C

    2001-04-01

    Normal, pale soft exudative (PSE) and dark firm dry (DFD) pork Longissimus dorsi muscles were vacuum packaged, irradiated at 0 or 4.5 kGy and stored at 4°C for 10 days. Volatile production from pork loins was determined at Day 0 and Day 10 of storage at 4°C. With both aerobic and vacuum packaging, irradiation increased the production of sulfur-containing volatiles (carbon disulfide, mercaptomethane, dimethyl sulfide, methyl thioacetate and dimethyl disulfide) in all three pork conditions at Day 0 but did not increase hexanal - the major indicator volatile of lipid oxidation. The PSE pork produced the lowest amount of total sulfur-containing volatiles in both aerobically and vacuum-packaged pork at Day 0. The majority of sulfur-containing volatiles produced in meat by irradiation disappeared during the 10-day storage period under aerobic packaging conditions. With vacuum packaging, however, all the volatiles produced by irradiation remained in the packaging bag during storage. Irradiation had no relationship with lipid oxidation-related volatiles (e.g. hexanal) in both aerobic and vacuum-packaged raw pork. The DFD muscle was very stable and resistant to oxidative changes in both irradiated and nonirradiated pork during storage, suggesting that irradiation can significantly increase the utilization of raw DFD pork and greatly benefit the pork industry.

  11. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Hur, I C; Kim, I S; Jin, S K

    2013-02-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  12. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05). Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05). Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (p<0.05); however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05). Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05), but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05). Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05), but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  13. Evaluation of scenarios for reducing human salmonellosis through household consumption of fresh minced pork meat.

    PubMed

    Bollaerts, Kaatje; Messens, Winy; Aerts, Marc; Dewulf, Jeroen; Maes, Dominiek; Grijspeerdt, Koen; Van der Stede, Yves

    2010-05-01

    Nontyphoidal salmonellosis is the second most frequently reported zoonotic disease in the European Union (EU) and is considered to be a major threat to human health worldwide. The most reported Salmonella serovar in the EU is S. Enteritidis, mainly associated with egg contamination, followed by S. Typhimurium, with the latter being the most predominant serovar isolated from pork. These findings suggest that reducing the Salmonella contamination in the pork production might be a good strategy to prevent and control human salmonellosis in the EU. Recently, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has been developed to assess the risks for human salmonellosis due to home consumption of fresh minced pork meat in Belgium. The newly developed risk model is called the METZOON model. In the current study, the METZOON model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of different hypothetical Salmonella mitigation strategies implemented at different stages of the minced pork production and consumption chain by means of a scenario analysis. To efficiently evaluate the mitigation strategies, model results were obtained by running simulations using the randomized complete block design. The effectiveness of a mitigation strategy is expressed using point and interval estimates of the effect size for dependent observations, expressed as the standardized difference in population means. The results indicate that the most effective strategies are taken during the slaughter processes of polishing, evisceration, and chilling, and during postprocessing, whereas interventions in the primary production and at the beginning of the slaughter process seem to have only a limited effect. Improving consumer awareness is found to be effective as well.

  14. Dynamic model for predicting growth of Salmonella spp. in ground sterile pork.

    PubMed

    Velugoti, Padmanabha Reddy; Bohra, Lalit K; Juneja, Vijay K; Huang, Lihan; Wesseling, Audrey L; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2011-06-01

    A predictive model for Salmonella spp. growth in ground pork was developed and validated using kinetic growth data. Salmonella spp. kinetic growth data in ground pork were collected at several isothermal conditions (between 10 and 45°C) and Baranyi model was fitted to describe the growth at each temperature, separately. The maximum growth rates (μ(max)) estimated from the Baranyi model were modeled as a function of temperature using a modified Ratkowsky equation. To estimate bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions, the differential form of the Baranyi model, in combination with the modified Ratkowsky equation for rate constants, was solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic model was validated using five different dynamic temperature profiles (linear cooling, exponential cooling, linear heating, exponential heating, and sinusoidal). Performance measures, root mean squared error, accuracy factor, and bias factor were used to evaluate the model performance, and were observed to be satisfactory. The dynamic model can estimate the growth of Salmonella spp. in pork within a 0.5 log accuracy under both linear and exponential cooling profiles, although the model may overestimate or underestimate at some data points, which were generally<1 log. Under sinusoidal temperature profiles, the estimates from the dynamic model were also within 0.5 log of the observed values. However, underestimation could occur if the bacteria were exposed to temperatures below the minimum growth temperature of Salmonella spp., since low temperature conditions could alter the cell physiology. To obtain an accurate estimate of Salmonella spp. growth using the models reported in this work, it is suggested that the models be used at temperatures above 7°C, the minimum growth temperature for Salmonella spp. in pork.

  15. Characterization of Edible Pork By-products by Means of Yield and Nutritional Composition

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2014-01-01

    Basic information regarding the yield and nutritional composition of edible pork by-products, namely heart, liver, lung, stomach, spleen, uterus, pancreas, and small and large intestines, was studied. Our results revealed that the yields varied widely among the pork by-products examined; in particular, liver had the highest yield (1.35%); whereas, spleen had the lowest yield (0.16%). The approximate composition range (minimum to maximum) of these by-products was found to be: moisture 71.59-82.48%; fat 0.28-19.54%; ash 0.155-1.34%, and protein 8.45-22.05%. The highest protein, vitamin A, B2, B6, and total essential amino acid (EAA) contents were found in liver. Large intestine had the highest fat content and lowest EAA content. Heart had the highest vitamin B1 content, whereas pancreas had the highest niacin and vitamin B3 contents. The concentrations of Fe and Zn were highest in liver and pancreas. Total saturated fatty acids (SFA) levels and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) levels between the by-products ranged from 43.15-50.48%, and 14.92-30.16%, respectively. Furthermore, with the exception of large intestine, all the by-products showed favorable PUFA/SFA ratios. The study indicated that almost all of the pork by-products examined were good sources of important nutrients, and that these data will be of great importance in the promotion of the consumption of edible pork by-products, as well as their utilization in meat processing. PMID:26761170

  16. A review of the relationships of pH with physical aspects of pork quality.

    PubMed

    Bendall, J R; Swatland, H J

    1988-01-01

    The pH(1)-index, defined as the percent of carcasses with pH < 6·0 at 45 min post-mortem (p-m), gives some indication of the likely incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) pork at 24 h or more p-m. However, there is considerable variation between nations in the subjective definition of PSE. Thus, pH data show that subjectively-defined PSE pork from one country might be regarded as normal pork in another country, and vice versa. The paleness of pork is inversely proportional to pH. The data from conventional monochromatic reflectance photometers are almost linearly related to pH whereas the data from the Goefo meter and fibre-optic (FO) probes follow curvilinear relationships which may be logarithmic. In the visible spectrum, correlations of FO reflectance with pH and muscle structure are strongest towards 700 nm. The relationship of pH with exudate (bag-drip) is biphasic with fluid losses increasing from pH 7 to about 6·1, then staying constant at lower pHs. This biphasic pattern is also seen in some, but not all, methods in which exudate is measured by applied pressure or in which myofibrillar water-holding capacity is measured by centrifugation. Electrical impedance and its primary determinants (resistance and capacitance in parallel) are directly proportional to pH but follow curvilinear relationships. There is at least some theoretical understanding of the relationship of pH with exudate, but much remains to be learnt about the causal relationships of pH with paleness or softness. Many of the older published studies in the field are marred by a failure to separate genetic causes of low-pH (porcine stress syndrome) from environmental causes (preslaughter handling, slaughter and refrigeration).

  17. Microbiological Evaluation of Pork and Chicken By-Products in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Jung, Hae-In; Kuk, Min; Lim, Jong-Soo; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the microbiological risk of pork and chicken by-products by enumerating indicator bacteria (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and identifying pathogens such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. The antibiotic resistance of pathogenic isolates was determined, and molecular subtyping was performed using automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Pork and chicken by-products were collected from 10 processing plants. The mean numbers of total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli from 95 pork by-product samples and 64 chicken by-product samples were 5.1, 3.6, and 2.4 log CFU/g and 4.5, 3.0, and 1.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The numbers of indicator bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (small intestine, large intestine, and gizzard) were significantly higher than those in other organs. Salmonella and Campylobacter species were detected in 3 and 5 of 95 pork by-product samples and in 6 and 3 of 64 chicken by-product samples, respectively. Four of 9 Salmonella isolates examined were resistant to eight antibiotics, and each of these resistant strains produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Most Campylobacter isolates were resistant to tetracycline (7 of 8 strains) and quinolones (7 of 8 strains). The similarity in rep-PCR patterns among Salmonella isolates was more closely associated with serotype than with the processing plant and type of meat. Conversely, the rep-PCR patterns of Campylobacter isolates were specific to the processing plant. Our findings could help agencies develop regulations for protection from foodborne bacterial infections arising from animal by-products.

  18. F-coliphages, porcine adenovirus and porcine teschovirus as potential indicator viruses of fecal contamination for pork carcass processing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-01-16

    There are concerns about the zoonotic transmission of viruses through undercooked pork products. There is a lack of information on suitable indicator viruses for fecal contamination with pathogenic enteric viruses in the meat processing chain. The study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with F-coliphages, porcine teschovirus (PTV), and porcine adenovirus (PAdV) at different stages of the dressing process to assess their potential as indicator viruses of fecal contamination. One hundred swab samples (200cm(2)) were collected from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 different stages of the dressing process and from retail pork over the span of a year from 2 pork processing plants (500/plant). Viable F-coliphages, PAdV DNA and PTV RNA were each detected on ≥99% of the incoming carcasses at both plants and were traceable through the pork processing chain. Significant correlations were observed between viable F-coliphages and PAdV DNA and between F-coliphages and PTV RNA but not between PAdV DNA and PTV RNA at the various stages of pork processing. Detection of viable F-coliphages was more sensitive than genomic copies of PAdV and PTV at low levels of contamination, making F-coliphages a preferred indicator in the pork slaughter process as it also provides an indication of infectivity. For plant A, F-RNA coliphages were detected in 25%, 63%, and 21% of carcass swabs after pasteurization, evisceration, and retail pork products, respectively. For plant B, F-coliphages were detected in 33%, 25%, and 13% of carcass swabs after skinning, evisceration, and retail pork samples, respectively. Viable F-RNA coliphages were genotyped. Viable F-RNA GII and GIII were generally not detected at the earlier stages of the slaughter process but they were detected on 13% of carcasses after evisceration and 2% of retail pork samples at plant A, which raises concerns of potential food handler contamination during pork processing. Consumers could be at risk

  19. Factors influencing consumer demand for U.S. pork exported to the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

    PubMed

    Vonada, M L; Bidner, B S; Belk, K E; McKeith, F K; Lloyd, W R; O'Connor, M E; Smith, G C

    2001-04-01

    The potential market for single-ribbed bellies and Boston butts in South Korea was characterized and quantitative selection criteria were identified for use by U.S. packers when selecting pork for export. South Korean retail meat market managers and traders/wholesalers in Seoul and Pusan were interviewed and asked to identify the quality attributes that are considered when making pork-purchasing decisions. In addition, pork labeling characteristics and meat display case measurements and space allocations were recorded in each retail store. Data from box labels were recorded in retail storage coolers to characterize pork products currently being merchandized in South Korea. Sample retail packages of belly and butt slices were collected and sent to a commercial laboratory for analysis of iodine values, ether-extractable fat content, total aerobic plate count (APC), total coliform count (TCC), and generic Escherichia coli count (ECC). No quality attributes of U.S. products exceeded the expectations of retailers. Quality attributes of U.S. pork products that exceeded the expectations of traders included presence of foreign material, marbling, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall eating satisfaction. Traders/wholesalers assigned negative ratings for overall workmanship and adherence to purchase criteria for U.S. pork products. Retail APC for South Korean belly samples were higher (P < 0.05) than APC for U.S. belly samples. Retail TCC and ECC for butts and belly samples and APC for butt samples did not differ by country of origin. Retail prices for South Korean bellies were higher (P < 0.05) than prices for retail U.S. and Danish bellies. Pork butt prices did not differ (P > 0.05) by country of origin. Beef, pork, and poultry products comprised 66.8, 27.8, and 5.4%, respectively, of the total meat display case frontage. U.S. beef products occupied, on average, 18% of the total beef display area, whereas U.S. pork products comprised 2.6% of the total pork display

  20. Effects of Edible Films Containing Procyanidin on the Preservation of Pork Meat during Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Procyanidins, which are natural antioxidants and antimicrobials found in grapes, enhance the quality and extend the shelf life of meat. We explored the effects of edible films incorporating procyanidins on pork loin stored for various times. Procyanidins (0, 0.1, and 0.3%, w/w) were incorporated into the edible films. We assessed meat color, pH, levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and microbial populations for 14 d. The chromaticities and pH values of pork loin wrapped in film containing procyanidins (0.1% and 0.3%) generally increased (p<0.05) with storage time. VBN and TBARS levels, and total bacterial and Escherichia coli (E. coli) counts, significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the procyanidin groups. In particular, procyanidins strongly inhibited TBARS formation. Thus, our findings suggest that edible film impregnated with procyanidins inhibits lipid oxidation and microbial growth, thereby enhancing the quality and shelf life of pork meat. PMID:27194932

  1. Chilling and trimming effects on the microbial populations of pork carcasses.

    PubMed

    Carr, M A; Thompson, L D; Miller, M F; Ramsey, C B; Kaster, C S

    1998-04-01

    The effects of chilling (normal chill or freeze chill) and trimming (hot fat trim or no fat trim) on the microbial populations of pork carcases were evaluated. In a two-part study, composited ham, loin, belly, and shoulder samples from 30 park carcasses had similar aerobic plate counts, averaging 5.5 log10 CFU/cm2. The nofat trim, normal chill procedure typically used in the industry, however, produced higher coliform and Staphylococcus spp. counts (P < 0.05). The hot fat trim, freeze chill treatment had the lowest lactic acid bacteria counts. Only 1 sample in 60 tested positive for Salmonella spp. Vacuum-packaged hams and loins stored at 4 degrees C for 14 days had similar (P > 0.05) aerobic plate counts, lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. counts regardless of trim, chill, or the location of treatment, averaging 5.7, 6.3 and 1.4 log10 CFU/cm2, respectively. Hams had higher counts than loins all three days; however, only the difference on day 2 was significant. The desire to reduce microbial populations on pork carcasses as a food-safety issue and the coming implementation of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) programs warrants the use of trimming and chilling methods as critical control points or good manufacturing practices and standard operating procedures in the pork slaughter, processing, and packaging industry.

  2. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur on the Meat Quality in Pork under Aging.

    PubMed

    Hwa, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Han; Kim, Jung-Ho; Jang, Hyun-Ju; Ju, Min-Gu; Cho, Wonyoung; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with processed sulfur on the quality and stability of vacuum packaged pork during aging time. All groups were designated into two groups; NP, a group fed basal diet and SP, a group fed basal diet and processed sulfur, 3 g/kg feed. Following vacuum packaging, Longissimus dorsi muscles were vacuum-packaged and stored under refrigerated condition (1-2℃) for 21 d. Weight loss of the SP group was lower (p<0.05) than that of the NP group. Interaction effect of shear force and cooking loss was observed (p<0.05). Redness values of the SP group at 14 and 21 d after storage were higher than those of the NP group (p<0.05). Lipid oxidation and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in the SP group were retarded (p<0.05) compared to that of the NP group during storage. Aspartic and glutamic acid in SP were higher than in NP (p<0.1). There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in TPC between the both groups during storage. Therefore, vacuum packaged pork from pigs fed processed sulfur had better aging yield and storage stability than pork from pigs fed basal diet.

  3. The antioxidative properties of Holy basil and Galangal in cooked ground pork.

    PubMed

    Juntachote, T; Berghofer, E; Siebenhandl, S; Bauer, F

    2006-03-01

    The ethanolic extracts from Holy basil and Galangal were examined for their extraction yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity against a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion system, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. Ethanolic extracts of Holy basil exhibited higher extraction yield, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power than ethanolic extracts of Galangal. Antioxidative efficiency to inhibit lipid oxidation of dried Holy basil and dried Galangal powder, ethanolic extracts of Galangal and Holy basil and commercial antioxidant mixture in cooked ground pork was investigated during refrigerated storage at 5°C for 14 days. The quantitative measurements of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated diene, peroxide value (POV) and hexanal content were used as indicators of lipid oxidation. Increased levels of TBARS value, POV and hexanal content were noticed in all meat samples during storage, however most marked in cooked ground pork without antioxidants, whereas conjugated diene tended to decrease with increasing storage time. Ranking of the treatment in order of their antioxidant effectiveness showed that commercial antioxidant mixture (0.3% citric acid+0.5% ascorbic acid+0.02% α-tocopherol)>dried Galangal powder>dried Holy basil powder>ethanolic extracts of Galangal>ethanolic extracts of Holy basil>control. Furthermore, in cooked ground pork samples a high correlation between TBARS value and hexanal contents was obtained.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Pork and Chicken Products by Droplet Digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yicun; Li, Xiang; Lv, Rong; Yang, Jielin; Li, Jian; He, Yuping; Pan, Liangwen

    2014-01-01

    In this project, a highly precise quantitative method based on the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) technique was developed to determine the weight of pork and chicken in meat products. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of species-specific DNAs in meat products. However, it is limited in amplification efficiency and relies on standard curves based Ct values, detecting and quantifying low copy number target DNA, as in some complex mixture meat products. By using the dPCR method, we find the relationships between the raw meat weight and DNA weight and between the DNA weight and DNA copy number were both close to linear. This enabled us to establish formulae to calculate the raw meat weight based on the DNA copy number. The accuracy and applicability of this method were tested and verified using samples of pork and chicken powder mixed in known proportions. Quantitative analysis indicated that dPCR is highly precise in quantifying pork and chicken in meat products and therefore has the potential to be used in routine analysis by government regulators and quality control departments of commercial food and feed enterprises. PMID:25243184

  5. Characterization of peptides released by in vitro digestion of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Elizabeth; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Toldrá, Fidel

    2010-04-28

    The main objective of this work was to identify and characterize the peptides generated by simulated gastrointestinal digestion of pork meat (longissimus dorsi) by the sequential action of pepsin and pancreatin. The obtained hydrolysate was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with a nanoelectrospray ionization source (nano LC-ESI-MS/MS). Using this technique 51 different peptides were identified in the hydrolysate, corresponding to fragments of the main structural muscle proteins and some well-known sarcoplasmic proteins. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in pork meat digests. Peptide fragment size ranged from six to sixteen amino acids, being rich in proline residues and thus making them more resistant to further degradation by digestive enzymes. The present study constitutes a clear evidence of the extensive degradation that pork muscle proteins would undergo after gastrointestinal digestion, giving rise to a wide variety of short peptides. So, the use of in vitro digestion contributes to a better knowledge about the generation of peptides from diets with high protein quality.

  6. A cost-benefit analysis of Salmonella-control strategies in Danish pork production.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Stine Gissel; Alban, Lis

    2006-11-17

    In Denmark, it was agreed to lower the Salmonella prevalence in pork to 1.2% before the end of 2006. The current control did not seem to be sufficient to attain this goal. Therefore, four alternatives to the existing Danish control strategy for Salmonella in pork were compared in a cost-benefit analysis: (1) hot-water decontamination of all pigs at slaughter, (2) sanitary slaughter of pigs from herds with high levels of Salmonella, (3) use of home-mixed feed in herds with slaughter pigs and (4) use of acidified feed for slaughter pigs. The data originated from official statistics, published papers as well as expert opinion. The partial cost-benefit analysis was restricted to slaughterhouses affiliated with the Danish Meat Association and Danish human cases ascribable to pork from these slaughterhouses. Only hot-water decontamination was socio-economically profitable. Hot-water decontamination had a net present value over 15 years of 3.5 million euros. For sanitary slaughter the net present value was - 43.6 million euros, for home-mixed feed it was - 262.3 million euros and for acidified feed it was - 79.9 million euros. For all alternatives the costs were born solely by the pig sector, whereas primarily the consumers and public authorities received the benefits. The conclusions were robust in sensitivity analyses.

  7. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Marques, Roger Vasques; Paz, Matheus Francisco da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal; Corrêa, Luciara Bilhalva; Corrêa, Érico Kunde

    2016-01-01

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46°C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.

  8. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  9. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur on the Meat Quality in Pork under Aging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with processed sulfur on the quality and stability of vacuum packaged pork during aging time. All groups were designated into two groups; NP, a group fed basal diet and SP, a group fed basal diet and processed sulfur, 3 g/kg feed. Following vacuum packaging, Longissimus dorsi muscles were vacuum-packaged and stored under refrigerated condition (1-2℃) for 21 d. Weight loss of the SP group was lower (p<0.05) than that of the NP group. Interaction effect of shear force and cooking loss was observed (p<0.05). Redness values of the SP group at 14 and 21 d after storage were higher than those of the NP group (p<0.05). Lipid oxidation and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in the SP group were retarded (p<0.05) compared to that of the NP group during storage. Aspartic and glutamic acid in SP were higher than in NP (p<0.1). There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in TPC between the both groups during storage. Therefore, vacuum packaged pork from pigs fed processed sulfur had better aging yield and storage stability than pork from pigs fed basal diet. PMID:28115887

  10. Theoretical analysis on pulsed microwave heating of pork meat supported on ceramic plate.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tanmay; Rao, Badri S

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical analysis has been carried out to study the role of ceramic plates (alumina and SiC) and pulsed microwave heating of pork meat (Pork Luncheon Roll (PLR) and White Pudding (WP)) samples. Spatial hot spots occur either at the center of the sample or at the outer face or at the face attached with alumina plate and application of pulsing minimizes formation of hot spots within meat samples. Pulsing of microwave is characterized by set point for temperature difference (ΔTS) and on-off constraints for temperature (T'). It is found that alumina plate with higher ΔTS and lower T' may be recommended for thick meat samples (both WP and PLR) whereas for thin meat samples, lower ΔTS with alumina plate/without plate may be preferred. It is also observed that SiC plate may be selectively used with ΔTS=20K for both the pork meats. The distributed microwave incidence is found to be effective due to lesser degree of thermal runaway in absence of pulsing for both meat samples. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High pressure and freezing temperature effect on quality and microbial inactivation of cured pork carpaccio.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Guàrdia, M D; Garriga, M; Pérez-Juan, M; Arnau, J

    2011-07-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP: 0, 400, and 600 MPa) and freezing temperature (-15° vs. -35°C) were evaluated on the quality and microbial inactivation of cured pork carpaccio. Samples treated with HHP resulted in lighter and yellower color, higher Chroma, shear force, scores for pink color, cooked and gel appearance, incidence of iridescence, lower scores for brightness and raw meat appearance and lower levels of lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophs during shelf life compared with untreated samples (P<0.05). Treating carpaccio at -35°C resulted in a darker color and a more tender carpaccio with a higher rating for crumbliness and lower rating for fibrousness and chewiness compared with -15°C (P<0.05). While HHP is effective in microbial inactivation and shelf life extension of pork carpaccio, product quality may be decreased due to lower tenderness and poorer appearance. However, HHP in combination with low freezing temperature can be used successfully to deliver high quality pork carpaccio with extended shelf life to the ready-to-eat market.

  12. Determination of α-keto acids in pork meat and Iberian ham via tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Navarro, José L; Delgado, Rosa M; Zamora, Rosario

    2013-09-01

    An analytical method which offers accurate determination and identification of eight α-keto acids (α-ketoglutaric acid, pyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 3-methyl-2-oxobutyric acid, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyric acid, 4-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, and phenylpyruvic acid) in pork meat and Iberian ham samples is reported. The method utilises a highly selective and sensitive method of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) by mass spectrometry. The analytical method is simple (although the chemical derivatisation of the α-keto acids with dansylhydrazine is required), precise (<18% RSD), accurate (90-110%), sensitive (0.01-0.34 mg/kg of defatted and freeze-dried meat depending on the α-keto acid) and linear (R>0.99) over several orders of magnitude (until 0.01-146.1 mg/kg of defatted and freeze-dried meat depending on the α-keto acid). Using this methodology, α-keto acids were found to be present in pork meat to a low extent, and their concentration increased when they were determined in Iberian ham. This is the first report of the presence of α-keto acids in both pork meats and Iberian hams.

  13. Mapping of TBARS distribution in frozen-thawed pork using NIR hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Song, Xinglin; Qiu, Zhengjun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, NIR hyperspectral imaging technology was applied to determine the distribution of TBARS in frozen-thawed pork. A total of 240 fresh pork samples were assigned to 4 treatment groups (0, 1, 3, 5 frozen-thawed cycles). For each sample, a hyperspectral image (874-1734nm) was collected, followed by chemical TBARS analysis. Successive projection algorithm (SPA) was applied to choose effective wavelengths (EWs). The selected 13 EWs of the calibration set and relevant TBARS value were used as inputs of partial least squares regression (PLSR) model, yielding correlation coefficient of prediction of 0.81 and root mean square error of prediction of 0.33. The developed PLSR model were applied pixel-wise to produce chemical maps of TBARS for 24 selected samples in the prediction set. The results indicated that NIR hyperspectral imaging combined with image processing has the potential to visualize TBARS distribution in frozen-thawed pork. This technique could be useful in real-time quality monitoring in meat industry.

  14. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages.

  15. Antibiotic residue monitoring results for pork, chicken, and beef samples in Vietnam in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Okihashi, Masahiro; Harada, Kazuo; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Uchida, Kotaro; Do, Mai Hoang Ngoc; Bui, Huong Dang Thien; Nguyen, Thinh Duc; Nguyen, Phuc Do; Chau, Vien Van; Dao, Khanh Thi Van; Nguyen, Hue Thi Ngoc; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Bui, Chien Trong; Vien, Mai Quang; Le, Ninh Hoang; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-06-03

    A monitoring plan of residual antibiotics in food of animal origin was conducted in Vietnam from 2012 to 2013. Meat samples were collected from slaughterhouses and retail stores in Ho Chi Minh City and Nha Trang. A total of 28 antibiotics were analyzed using a LC-MS/MS screening method. Sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and tilmicosin were detected in some of the samples. Sulfaclozine and fluoroquinolones were mainly detected in chicken samples, and sulfamethazine was mainly detected in pork samples. High levels of sulfonamide residues, ranging between 2500 and 2700 μg/kg sulfaclozine and between 1300 and 3600 μg/kg sulfamethazine, were present in two chicken and three pork samples, respectively. Tilmicosin was detected at ranges of 150-450 μg/kg in 10 chicken samples. Positive percentages were 17.3, 8.8, and 7.4% for chicken, pork, and beef, respectively, for an average of 11.9%. The results suggest an appropriate withdrawal period after drug administration had not been observed in some livestock.

  16. Identification of pork in meat products using real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixia; Fu, Shujun; Peng, Xinkai; Li, Le; Song, Taoping; Li, Lin

    2014-09-03

    In this study, a one-step, real-time, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed, for the highly specific detection of pork DNA. For the assay, the mtDNA of cytochrome b (cytb) gene was amplified at 63 °C using SYBR Green I for 45 min with a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) System that measured the fluorescent signal at one-minute intervals. As little as 1 pg of template DNA could be detected, without any cross-reactivity with non-target species. Meat mixtures, heat-treated at 100 °C for 15 min, prepared by mixing pork meat with beef at different ratios (0.01%-10%) were tested, and the RealAmp assays allowed the detection of as little as 0.01% pork in the meat mixtures. Thus, this work showed that RealAmp could be used for specific identification and sensitive quantification of meat species, even for heat-treated meat products.

  17. Identification of pork in meat products using real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Fu, Shujun; Peng, Xinkai; Li, Le; Song, Taoping; Li, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a one-step, real-time, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) assay was developed, for the highly specific detection of pork DNA. For the assay, the mtDNA of cytochrome b (cytb) gene was amplified at 63 °C using SYBR Green I for 45 min with a Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) System that measured the fluorescent signal at one-minute intervals. As little as 1 pg of template DNA could be detected, without any cross-reactivity with non-target species. Meat mixtures, heat-treated at 100 °C for 15 min, prepared by mixing pork meat with beef at different ratios (0.01%–10%) were tested, and the RealAmp assays allowed the detection of as little as 0.01% pork in the meat mixtures. Thus, this work showed that RealAmp could be used for specific identification and sensitive quantification of meat species, even for heat-treated meat products. PMID:26019573

  18. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties. PMID:27621696

  19. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Human Trichinellosis Caused by Consumption of Pork Meat Sausages in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, G J; Zbrun, M V; Soto, L P; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S; Signorini, M L

    2016-03-01

    In Argentina, there are three known species of genus Trichinella; however, Trichinella spiralis is most commonly associated with domestic pigs and it is recognized as the main cause of human trichinellosis by the consumption of products made with raw or insufficiently cooked pork meat. In some areas of Argentina, this disease is endemic and it is thus necessary to develop a more effective programme of prevention and control. Here, we developed a quantitative risk assessment of human trichinellosis following pork meat sausage consumption, which may be used to identify the stages with greater impact on the probability of acquiring the disease. The quantitative model was designed to describe the conditions in which the meat is produced, processed, transported, stored, sold and consumed in Argentina. The model predicted a risk of human trichinellosis of 4.88 × 10(-6) and an estimated annual number of trichinellosis cases of 109. The risk of human trichinellosis was sensitive to the number of Trichinella larvae that effectively survived the storage period (r = 0.89), the average probability of infection (PPinf ) (r = 0.44) and the storage time (Storage) (r = 0.08). This model allowed assessing the impact of different factors influencing the risk of acquiring trichinellosis. The model may thus help to select possible strategies to reduce the risk in the chain of by-products of pork production.

  20. Pork, beef and chicken have similar effects on acute satiety and hormonal markers of appetite.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Karen E; Tapsell, Linda C; Batterham, Marijka J; Thorne, Rebecca; O'Shea, Jane; Zhang, Qingsheng; Beck, Eleanor J

    2011-02-01

    The effects of three different meat-containing breakfast meals (pork, beef or chicken) on acute satiety and appetite regulatory hormones were compared using a within-subjects study design. Thirty fasting non-smoking pre-menopausal women attended a research centre on three test days to consume, a meat-containing meal matched in energy (kJ) and protein content, palatability, and appearance. No difference was found between meat groups for either energy intake or macronutrient profile of food consumed at a subsequent ad libitum buffet lunch, or over the rest of the day. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ratings for hunger and satiety over an 180 min period did not differ between test meals. After consumption of the test meals, a significant difference was found in PYY response between pork and chicken meals (P=0.027) but not for levels of CCK, ghrelin, insulin or glucose. This study positions pork, beef, and chicken as equal in their effect on satiety and release of appetite-related intestinal hormones and of insulin.

  1. Control of Clostridium perfringens spores by green tea leaf extracts during cooling of cooked ground beef, chicken, and pork.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawamoto, S; Friedman, Mendel

    2007-06-01

    We investigated the inhibition of Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth by two green tea extracts with low (green tea leaf powder [GTL]; 141 mg of total catechins per g of green tea extract) and high (green tea leaf extract [GTE]; 697 mg of total catechins per g of extract) catechin levels during abusive chilling of retail cooked ground beef, chicken, and pork. Green tea extracts were mixed into the thawed beef, chicken, and pork at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% (wt/ wt), along with a heat-activated (75 degrees C for 20 min) three-strain spore cocktail to obtain a final concentration of approximately 3 log spores per g. Samples (5 g) of the ground beef, chicken, and pork were then vacuum packaged and cooked to 71 degrees C for 1 h in a temperature-controlled water bath. Thereafter, the products were cooled from 54.4 to 7.2 degrees C in 12, 15, 18, or 21 h, resulting in significant increases (P < 0.05) in the germination and outgrowth of C. perfringens populations in the ground beef, chicken, and pork control samples without GTL or GTE. Supplementation with 0.5 to 2% levels of GTL did not inhibit C. perfringens growth from spores. In contrast, the addition of 0.5 to 2% levels of GTE to beef, chicken, and pork resulted in a concentration-and time-dependent inhibition of C. perfringens growth from spores. At a 2% level of GTE, a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of growth occurred at all chill rates for cooked ground beef, chicken, and pork. These results suggest that widely consumed catechins from green tea can reduce the potential risk of C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth during abusive cooling from 54.4 to 7.2 degrees C in 12, 15, 18, or 21 h of cooling for ground beef, chicken, and pork.

  2. Microbial profiles of commercial, vacuum-packaged, fresh pork of normal or short storage life.

    PubMed

    Holley, Richard A; Peirson, Michael D; Lam, Jocelyn; Tan, Kit Bee

    2004-12-01

    The microbial ecology of fresh vacuum-packed pork cuts during storage at -1.5 degrees C for up to 45 days was examined to characterize rates of microbial growth and pH changes in commercially prepared products of normal storage quality. Pork loins in commercial distribution with odour defects were also studied to determine a possible cause of the defects and avoid future problems. In addition, microbial profiles of pork cuts from two plants were compared, after storage for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, to identify possible reasons for differences in the storage life of product from the plants. The effects of a change in sanitation procedures on the microbial populations of products stored for 25 days were also studied. With normal product, microbial growth in different packages progressed at different rates, reflecting differences in initial levels of bacterial contamination. All samples in the study reached 8 weeks without apparent organoleptic change and samples carried 5.8+/-1.2 log bacteria cm(-2) (mean+/-S.D.). The flora of loins with the odour defect were predominately lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and carnobacteria, but they contained large fractions of Enterobacteriaceae <35 days after packaging. Aeromonas spp. and Shewanella spp. were likely responsible for the sulfide-putrid smell of these spoiled products, but species of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria could have contributed to spoilage. Comparison of microbial groups present in 16 other cuts, half from each of two commercial plants, which were stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, showed that larger fractions of Enterobacteriaceae were present in samples from the plant having difficulty achieving the desired storage life. Additional bacterial samples from 12 cuts supplied by the latter plant obtained after adoption of an acid sanitizer step in the plant cleaning regimen, and also stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, yielded few Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas or Shewanella. Use of an acid sanitizer

  3. Quantification of pork belly and boston butt quality attribute preferences of South Korean customers.

    PubMed

    Vonada, M L; Bidner, B S; Belk, K E; McKeith, F K; Lloyd, W R; O'Connor, M E; Smith, G C

    2000-10-01

    U.S. packers must have quantitative criteria for selection of pork bellies and Boston butts for export to South Korea. Pork bellies (IMPS 409A) and Boston butts (IMPS 409A, 406B, 407) were selected from normal production in a U.S. pork packing plant and transported to Seoul, South Korea, via seafreighter in refrigerated containers (frozen < -5 degrees C) or via air freight (fresh > 0 degrees C; frozen < -5 degrees C). Participants at the Seoul Food Show were surveyed about their preferences for specific quality attributes of these cuts. Bellies were selected to differ in seam fat content (low = < 20%, moderate = 20 to 40%, high = > 40% extractable fat), lean color (pale = L* > 50, medium = L* 48-50, dark = L* < 48), weight (3.36, 4.04, or 5.36 kg), state of refrigeration and packaging (frozen, poly-wrapped; chilled, poly-wrapped; frozen, vacuum-packaged; chilled, vacuum-packaged), shape (round, wavy, square), and belly thickness (3.81, 4.32, or 4.90 cm). Boston butts were selected to differ in USDA marbling score (Slight, Small, Modest, Moderate, and Slightly Abundant), seam fat content (low = < 10%, moderate = 10 to 20% fat, high = > 20% extractable fat), lean color (pale = L* > 44, medium = L* 40-42, dark = L* < 38), weight (2.91, 3.82, or 4.66 kg), state of refrigeration and packaging (frozen, poly-wrapped; chilled, poly-wrapped; frozen, vacuum-packaged; chilled, vacuum-packaged), and shape (square, oblong, round). In Seoul, pork subprimals were tempered (if frozen), sliced, and arrayed by quality attribute and category in a retail display case. Over 4 d of testing, attendees (n = 210) of the food show were asked to rate the displayed samples for each quality attribute on a standardized ballot. Mid-weight (3.82 kg) Boston butts that displayed Moderate or higher USDA marbling scores with moderate amounts of seam fat, Japanese lean color scores of 2 or 4, round geometric shape, and that were vacuum-packaged and transported to Korea in the freshly chilled state

  4. Predictive Model for Growth of Staphylococcus aureus on Raw Pork, Ham, and Sausage.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Park, Joong-Hyun; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Recent Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks linked to meat and poultry products underscore the importance of understanding the growth kinetics of S. aureus in these products at different temperatures. Raw pork, ham, and sausage (each 10 ± 0.3 g) were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of S. aureus, resulting in an initial level of ca. 3 log CFU/g. Samples were stored isothermally at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40°C, and S. aureus was enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was developed using experimental data collected from S. aureus grown on all samples (where data from raw pork, ham, and sausage were combined) so as to describe the growth rate of S. aureus as a function of temperature. The model was then compared with models for S. aureus growth on each individual sample in the experiments (raw pork, ham, or sausage) and the S. aureus ComBase models, as well as models for the growth of different types of pathogens (S. aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella serovars, and Salmonella Typhimurium) on various types of meat and poultry products. The results show that the S. aureus model developed here based on the pooled data from all three pork products seems suitable for the prediction of S. aureus growth on different pork products under isothermal conditions from 10 to 25°C, as well as for S. aureus growth on different meat and poultry products at higher temperatures between 20 and 35°C. Regardless of some high deviations observed at temperatures between 25 and 40°C, the developed model still seems suitable to predict the growth of other pathogens on different types of meat and poultry products over the temperature ranges used here, especially for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. The developed model, therefore, may be useful for estimating the effects of storage temperature on the behavior of pathogens in different meat and poultry products and for microbial risk assessments evaluating meat

  5. Patterns of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in chicken and pork fat following a Belgian food contamination incident.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Ryan, John Jake; Schepens, Paul

    2002-04-01

    A food contamination incident involving polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and PCDD/Fs occurred in 1999 in Belgium. On heavily affected farms, concentrations of PCBs in chicken or pork fat exceeded the Belgium tolerance limit of 200 ng/g lipid weight for the sum of seven marker PCBs. Analysis of contaminated samples showed that the patterns for PCB and PCDD/F congeners differed among feed, chicken fat and pork fat. Lower chlorinated PCBs and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) including those with high TEFs (PCBs 105, 118, 126 and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) were shown to either bioaccumulate more in chicken fat or to be eliminated more readily in pork. This leads to the possibility that consumption of chicken would result in a higher TEQ human body burden than that from the same consumption of pork. In addition, PCDF congeners with non-2,3,7,8-substitution (e.g., 1,2,4,7,8-PeCDF) were present in chicken fat but absent in pork fat. Since the residue pattern in this commercial episode changes less in the avian species, these results reinforce the value of birds rather than mammals as markers of the source of contamination with persistent organochlorine pollutants.

  6. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I.; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  7. Quality Properties of Sausages Made with Replacement of Pork with Corn Starch, Chicken Breast and Surimi during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This effect of replacing pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi on the chemical composition, physical, texture and sensory properties of sausage were investigated during storage. Five treatments of sausage such as; T1 (10:0:0, %), T2 (10:5:0, %), T3 (10:10:5, %), T4 (10:15:10, %) and T5 (10:20:15, %) were prepared with replacement of pork with corn starch, chicken breast and surimi. The sausage made with pork meat served as control (C). The sausage in the control had higher moisture and fat contents, but lower protein content than the treatments (p<0.05). The sausages in the T2 and T5 had decreased pH values after 3 wk storage (p<0.05). The lightness value was lowest in the T3, while the yellowness values were lowest in the T5 during the storage. The TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) values were lowest in the control in all storage times (p<0.05). However, the sausage in the control had higher VBN (volatile basic nitrogen) value than the treatments during the 1 wk storage (p<0.05). All treatments had significantly higher hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness values (p<0.05) than the control. The results indicated that corn starch, chicken breast and surimi can used as a pork replacer, that it also improves the physicochemical and texture properties of pork sausages. PMID:26761892

  8. Combined Effects of Mugwort Herb and Vitamin C on Shelf-Life of Vacuum-Packed Seasoned Pork

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the possibility of the addition of mugwort herb extract (MH) and vitamin C (VC) alone (0.05%) and in combination (0.05% each) on shelf-life of seasoned pork. The combination of VC+MH demonstrated a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and volatile basic nitrogen in seasoned pork. Also, the pH values, total lactic acid concentration, lactic acid bacteria count, and the sensory properties (discoloration, flavor, and overall acceptability) of seasoned pork were not significantly affected by adding MH and/or VC. All seasoned pork were rejected by sensory panel when LAB count reached levels of 5-6 Log CFU/g, TLA concentration has been above a level of 3.6-3.9 mg lactic acid/g, and pH values ranged from 5.31-5.51 (15 d). Therefore, the findings showed that spoilage of seasoned pork does not appear to be the result of lipid oxidation, but is caused by lactic acid producing bacteria which result in sour odor. PMID:26761862

  9. Application of Electronic Nose for Measuring Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen and Total Viable Counts in Packaged Pork During Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Wang, Haibiao; Sun, Lingxia; Zhao, Gaiming; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to predict the total viable counts (TVC) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork using an electronic nose (E-nose), and to assess the freshness of chilled pork during storage using different packaging methods, including pallet packaging (PP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40% O2 /40% CO2 /20% N2 ). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the E-nose signals, and the results showed that the relationships between the freshness of chilled pork and E-nose signals could be distinguished in the loadings plots, and the freshness of chilled pork could be distributed along 2 first principal components. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to correlate TVC and TVB-N to E-nose signals. High F and R2 values were obtained in the MLR output of TVB-N (F = 32.1, 21.6, and 24.2 for PP [R2 = 0.93], VP [R2 = 0.94], and MAP [R2 = 0.95], respectively) and TVC (F = 34.2, 46.4, and 7.8 for PP [R2 = 0.98], VP [R2 = 0.89], and MAP [R2 = 0.85], respectively). The results of this study suggest that it is possible to use the E-nose technology to predict TVB-N and TVC for assessing the freshness of chilled pork during storage.

  10. Impact of RN genotype and ageing time on colour characteristics of the pork muscles longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Gunilla; Enfält, Ann-Charlotte; Andersen, Henrik J; Lundström, Kerstin

    2006-12-01

    The effect of RN genotype on pH decline, ultimate pH, pigment content, blooming and colour stability during 6 days of display at 5°C was studied in two pig muscles, M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and M. semimembranosus (SM), and furthermore the effect of anaerobic storage time (2 days vs. 9 days of ageing) on the same parameters was examined. The postmortem pH decline was faster and the ultimate pH lower in LD and SM of the RN(-) genotype compared with corresponding muscles from the rn(+) genotype. Pork of the RN(-) genotype was initially lighter and more red and yellow than pork of the rn(+) genotype due to a higher degree of blooming, which might be explained by the faster pH decline and/or lower ultimate pH. The level of oxymyoglobin (MbO(2)) was decisive for the redness of both muscles during display in air despite a higher presence of metmyoglobin (MetMb). Pork of the RN(-) genotype was thus redder than that of the rn(+) genotype throughout display in air despite higher oxidation to MetMb. Ageing for 9 days in chill improved the blooming potential in pork of both genotypes compared with 2 days of ageing, resulting in superior meat colour. However, only in pork from the RN(-) genotype, the colour was not negatively affected by ageing time upon display in air.

  11. Effects of ZnO nanoparticle-coated packaging film on pork meat quality during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Suo, Biao; Li, Huarong; Wang, Yuexia; Li, Zhen; Pan, Zhili; Ai, Zhilu

    2017-05-01

    There has been limited research on the use of ZnO nanoparticle-coated film for the quality preservation of pork meat under low temperature. In the present study, ZnO nanoparticles were mixed with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) to form a nanocomposite film, to investigate the effect of ZnO nanoparticle-coated film on pork meat quality and the growth of bacteria during storage under low temperature. When ZnO nanoparticle-coated film was used as the packaging material for pork meat for 14 days of cold storage at 4 °C, the results demonstrated a significant effect on restricting the increases in total volatile basic nitrogen and pH levels, limiting the decreases of lightness (increased L* value) and redness (increased a* value), and maintaining the water-holding capacity compared to the control pork samples (P < 0.05). The present study also discovered that the ZnO nanoparticle-coated film restrained the increase in total plate count (TPC). When Staphylococcus aureus was used as the representative strain, scanning electron microscopy revealed that ZnO nanoparticles increased the occurrence of cell membrane rupture under cold conditions. ZnO nanoparticle-coated film helps retain the quality of pork meat during cold storage by increasing the occurrence of microorganism injury. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in candidate genes and QTL regions with pork quality traits in commercial pigs.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, G A; Nonneman, D J; Miller, R K; Zerby, H; Moeller, S J

    2012-12-01

    Numerous reports have described genetic markers or genomic regions (QTL) associated with pork quality and/or palatability but few validation studies have been reported. Therefore, 156 SNP markers from 45 candidate genes and eight QTL regions were analyzed for association with pork quality and palatability traits from 888 pork loins. Loins were collected at three slaughter facilities and selected to represent a wide range of pork color, pH and marbling. Phenotypic data recorded included objective and subjective measures of color and marbling, purge loss, shear force, and cooking loss. Data were analyzed with SAS PROC MIXED where loin was fit as a random effect. Results indicated some of the markers tested should be useful in industry, while others are not segregating in all populations or linkage disequilibrium between markers and causative genetic variation fluctuates among populations limiting their universal utility. Genes with the largest effects on pork quality were MC4R, IGF2, CAST and PRKAG3. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  14. Quality of Frozen Pork from Pigs Fed Diets Containing Palm Kernel Meal as an Alternative to Corn Meal

    PubMed Central

    An, Jeong Yeon; Yong, Hae In; Kim, So Yeon; Yoo, Han Bit; Kim, Yoo Yong; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of palm kernel meal (PKM), an alternative to corn, on the quality of pork. A total of 72 crossbred pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc) were assigned into four dietary treatments (PKM level of 0, 4, 8, or 12%). After 12 wk, one pig of median weight in each pen was selected and slaughtered to analyze meat quality. The color, free radical scavenging activity, lipid oxidation, texture, composition of fatty acids, and sensory qualities of pork loin were evaluated post slaughter. When the levels of PKM in the diet increased, the L*-value of pork loin decreased, whereas a*-value and total saturated fatty acids increased. 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of pork loin were lower in groups treated with 8 and 12% PKM than in the control group at day 0; this difference, however, was not observed at day 3 and 7. The results of texture analysis showed that increasing the PKM ratio decreased hardness, chewiness, and springiness at day 7. The sensory test, however, indicated no differences between the control and treated groups. These findings show that finisher pigs could tolerate PKM as a replacement for corn; PKM did not negatively affect the quality of pork, indicating that it can be utilized as feed. PMID:28515643

  15. The impact of short-term feeding of magnesium supplements on the quality of pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Provincial, Laura; Gil, Mario; Guillén, Elena; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effect of dietary magnesium (Mg) supplementation on pork quality during 13 days of storage at 4±1°C under modified atmosphere. The experiment was conducted with 40 gilts (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed one of four diets five days prior to slaughter: 1) control diet; 2) Mg oxide; 3) Mg sulphate; or 4) Mg chelate. Dietary Mg supplementation did not affect 24-h pH, colour, and Warner-Bratzler shear force values. Pork from pigs fed the Mg chelate-supplemented diet had the lowest (P≤0.05) drip, exudative, and cooking losses. Furthermore, pork from pig supplemented with Mg oxide had the lowest TBARS values. Visual assessment of pork from pigs supplemented with Mg chelate received higher colour and lower exudative scores, as well as overall acceptability scores, throughout display. Thus, Mg chelated supplementation could be effective in improving pork quality during 13 days of storage under modified atmosphere conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    PubMed Central

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  17. Population Structure and Oxacillin Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from Pigs and Pork Meat in South-West of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Bystroń, Jarosław; Podkowik, Magdalena; Empel, Joanna; Mroczkowska, Aneta; Bania, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 420 S. aureus isolates from pigs (n = 203) and pork (n = 217) were analyzed. Among 18 spa types detected in S. aureus from pig t011, t021, t034, t091, t318, t337, and t1334 were the most frequent. Among 30 spa types found in S. aureus isolates from pork t084, t091, t499, t4309, t12954, and t13074 were dominant. The animal S. aureus isolates were clustered into MLST clonal complexes CC7, CC9, CC15, CC30, and CC398 and meat-derived isolates to CC1, CC7, and CC15. Thirty-six MRSA were isolated exclusively from pigs. All MRSA were classified to spa t011 SCCmecV. BORSA phenotype was found in 14% S. aureus isolates from pigs and 10% isolates from pork meat. spa t034 dominated among BORSA from pigs and t091 among meat-derived BORSA. This is the first report on spa types and oxacillin resistance of S. aureus strains from pigs and pork meat in Poland. Besides S. aureus CC9, CC30, and CC398 known to be distributed in pigs, the occurrence of genotype belonging to CC7 in this species has been reported for the first time. To our knowledge it is also the first report concerning CC398 BORSA isolates from pigs and pork meat. PMID:26064878

  18. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2013-12-24

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

  20. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing interventions by quantitative risk assessment tools to reduce the risk of human salmonellosis from fresh minced pork meat in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Messens, W; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Van der Stede, Y; Daube, G

    2009-11-01

    The risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat in Belgium was assessed via a modular risk model covering pork meat production from lairage to human consumption. The main goal of the model was to give concrete options to reduce effectively the risk of human salmonellosis through the consumption of minced pork meat. These options (scenarios) were elaborated with reference to the international situation and the literature to give concrete and realistic possibilities for improving the microbiological quality of pork meat and to reduce the number of human salmonellosis cases per year in Belgium. The model estimates 15,376 cases of human salmonellosis per year in Belgium due to the consumption of minced pork meat. The results of the scenarios showed that the risk of human salmonellosis could be significantly reduced by efforts all along the pork meat production chain but also by efforts made by consumers. The responsibility of food business operators for the pork meat production chain is high in relation to the microbiological quality of meat delivery, especially at the slaughterhouse. Consumers also need to be aware of good hygiene practices during preparation of the meat at home. Cross-contamination with raw food can be avoided by changing the habits and the behavior of the household cook. The results of these scenarios would be useful for the food business operators involved in the pork meat chain and for public health authorities.

  2. Validation of food grade salts of organic acids as ingredients to control Listeria monocytogenes on pork scrapple during extended refrigerated storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pork scrapple was formulated, with or without citrate-diacetate (0.64%), by a commercial processor to contain various solutions/blends of the following antimicrobials to control L. monocytogenes on pork scrapple during refrigerated storage: i) lactate-diacetate (3.0 or 4.0%), ii) lactate-diacetate-p...

  3. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  4. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used.

  5. Characteristics of low-fat meat emulsion systems with pork fat replaced by vegetable oils and rice bran fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2009-06-01

    The effects of vegetable oils prepared from olive, corn, soybean, canola, or grape seed, and rice bran fiber on the composition and rheological properties of meat batters were studied. Pork fat at 30% in the control was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils at 10% in addition to reducing the pork fat to 10%. The chemical composition, cooking characteristics, texture properties, and viscosity of low-fat meat batters were analyzed. The moisture, protein, ash content, uncooked and cooked pH values, b(∗)-value, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and viscosity of meat batters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control. In addition, batters supplemented with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber had lower cooking loss and better emulsion stability. Low-fat meat batters with reduced pork fat content (10%) and 10% vegetable oil plus rice bran fiber had improved characteristics relative to the regular fat control.

  6. A SYBR Green real-time PCR assay to detect and quantify pork meat in processed poultry meat products.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sónia; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Species identification in meat products has grown in interest in recent years since these foodstuffs are susceptible targets for fraudulent labelling. In this work, a real-time PCR approach based on SYBR Green dye was proposed for the quantitative detection of pork meat in processed meat products. For the development of the method, binary meat mixtures containing known amounts of pork meat in poultry meat were used to obtain a normalised calibration model from 0.1 to 25% with high linear correlation and PCR efficiency. The method revealed high specificity by melting curve analysis, being successfully validated through its application to blind meat mixtures, which confirmed its adequacy for pork meat determination. The fully applicability of the method was further demonstrated in commercial meat products, allowing verification of labelling compliance and identification of meat species in processed foods.

  7. Effects of pork meat cut and packaging type on lipid oxidation and oxidative products during refrigerated storage (8 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, H C; Yoo, S S; Shim, J H; Chin, K B

    2008-04-01

    Lipid oxidation and oxidative products as affected by pork meat cut, packaging method, and storage time were evaluated during refrigerated storage. Pork belly had higher pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values than pork loin, and aerobic-packaged belly had higher TBARS than vacuum-packaged counterparts. Loin had higher free fatty acid (FFA) values than belly, and increased FFA values were observed with increased storage time. Peroxide values increased up to 7 d and decreased thereafter. Volatile compounds such as alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols with high volatility in belly were higher than those in loin. Nonanoic acid, ethyl ester in belly, and hexadecanoic acid in loin might be considered as indices of lipid oxidation. Overall, vacuum packaging was better than aerobic packaging to retard lipid oxidation and production of oxidative products, and loin was more sensitive to lipid oxidation than belly.

  8. Estimating the impact of various pathway parameters on tenderness, flavour and juiciness of pork using Monte Carlo simulation methods.

    PubMed

    Channon, H A; Hamilton, A J; D'Souza, D N; Dunshea, F R

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was investigated as a potential methodology to estimate sensory tenderness, flavour and juiciness scores of pork following the implementation of key pathway interventions known to influence eating quality. Correction factors were established using mean data from published studies investigating key production, processing and cooking parameters. Probability distributions of correction factors were developed for single pathway parameters only, due to lack of interaction data. Except for moisture infusion, ageing period, aitchbone hanging and cooking pork to an internal temperature of >74°C, only small shifts in the mean of the probability distributions of correction factors were observed for the majority of pathway parameters investigated in this study. Output distributions of sensory scores, generated from Monte Carlo simulations of input distributions of correction factors and for individual pigs, indicated that this methodology may be useful in estimating both the shift and variability in pork eating traits when different pathway interventions are applied.

  9. Effect of chitosan film incorporated with tea polyphenol on quality and shelf life of pork meat patties.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu-Yue; Yang, Ji-Yi; Lu, Hong-Bo; Wang, Sha-Sha; Yang, Jing; Yang, Xing-Chao; Chai, Man; Li, Lin; Cao, Jian-Xin

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chitosan (CH) film incorporated with tea polyphenol (TP) on quality and shelf life of pork meat patties stored at 4±1 °C for 12 days. The microbiological, physicochemical (pH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, and metmyoglobin (MetMb)), and sensory qualities were measured on all the samples. A microbiological shelf-life extension of 6 days was achieved for CH and CH-TP treatment groups when compared to the control group. Wrapping with CH-TP composite film tended to retard the increases in TBARS values and MetMb content. CH-TP composite film maintained acceptable sensory quality of pork meat patties throughout the storage. The results indicated that CH-TP composite film could be a promising material as a packaging film for extending the shelf life of pork meat patties.

  10. Rapid determination method for 2-DCB in irradiated pork by ASE-Al2O3-GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, An; Pan, Li-Gang; Zhang, Xiu-Tong; Jin, Xin-Xin; Ma, Hong-Zao

    2017-01-01

    2-Dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) is validated as a marker for irradiated foodstuffs. However, the preparation methods for the marker compound involve time-consuming and tedious procedures prior to analysis. This paper describes a rapid method for the extraction and cleanup of 2-DCB in irradiated pork. The highly automated extraction procedure is based on accelerated solvent extraction combined with a purification step by Al2O3, which is added to the extraction cell. The overall extraction time is less than 20 min, and the volume of the solvent is 1.5 times that of the extraction cell (34 mL). The recovery of 2-DCB from pork samples for this method is higher than 75%. The method allows detecting pork irradiated at low doses (0.5 kGy). The proposed method is considered an alternative to the Soxhlet extraction and Florisil chromatography method currently in use.

  11. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR for the rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella typhimurium from pork.

    PubMed

    Techathuvanan, Chayapa; Draughon, Frances Ann; D'Souza, Doris Helen

    2010-03-01

    Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) detects the presence of mRNA and has a greater potential for detecting viable pathogens than do DNA-based PCR assays, with improved speed and sensitivity compared with traditional methods. Our objective was to rapidly and sensitively detect Salmonella Typhimurium from pork within two 8-h work shifts using a SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR (rt-RT-PCR) assay. Pork chop and sausage samples (25 g) were inoculated with 10(8) to 10(0) CFU of Salmonella Typhimurium and stomached in 225 ml of tetrathionate broth. Serial dilutions were spread plated on xylose lysine Tergitol 4 agar either immediately or after 10 h of selective preenrichment or preenrichment followed by 12 h of selective enrichment (for stressed cells) at 37 degrees C for standard cultural enumeration. RNA was extracted using the TRIzol method. The rt-RT-PCR assay was carried out in a Bio-Rad iCycler using a SYBR Green I one-step RT-PCR kit and Salmonella specific invA gene primers with an internal amplification control (IAC). The PCR was followed by melting temperature (T(m)) analysis to determine specific Salmonella invA (T(m) = 87.5 degrees C) and IAC (T(m) = 82 degrees C) products. Improved Salmonella detection up to 10(1) CFU/25 g of pork and 10(0) CFU/25 g of sausages was obtained after 10 h of enrichment within approximately 24 h. Even without enrichment, Salmonella could be detected from both pork chop and sausage at 10(6) CFU/25 g within 1 day. This robust rt-RT-PCR detects and confirms Salmonella in pork within approximately 24 h and thus is significantly faster than traditional methods that take >/=1 week. This assay shows promise for routine testing and monitoring of Salmonella by the pork industry.

  12. Anaphylaxis to pork kidney is related to IgE antibodies specific for galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose.

    PubMed

    Morisset, M; Richard, C; Astier, C; Jacquenet, S; Croizier, A; Beaudouin, E; Cordebar, V; Morel-Codreanu, F; Petit, N; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G

    2012-05-01

    Carbohydrate-specific IgE antibodies present on nonprimate mammalian proteins were incriminated recently in delayed meat anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to explore whether anaphylaxis to mammalian kidney is also associated with galactose-α-1,3-galactose (αGal)-specific IgE. Fourteen patients with anaphylaxis to pork or beef kidney underwent prick tests to meat and kidney. Some patients also underwent skin tests to Erbitux(®) (cetuximab). IgE antibodies to αGal, swine urine proteins, beef and pork meat, serum albumin proteins, cat, and rFel d 1 were measured by ImmunoCAP(®). The αGal levels were estimated in meats and kidney by ELISA inhibition assay. Cross-reactivity between αGal and pork kidney was studied with the ImmunoCAP(®) inhibition assay. Among the 14 patients, 12 presented with anaphylactic shock. Reactions occurred within 2 h from exposure in 67% of patients. Associated risk factors were observed in 10 cases, and alcohol was the main cofactor. Three patients underwent an oral challenge to pork kidney, and anaphylaxis occurred after ingestion of small quantities (1-2 g). Prick tests to kidney were positive in 54% of patients. All tested patients showed positive skin tests to Erbitux(®). All patients tested positive for IgE to αGal, with levels ranging from 0.4 to 294 kU/l. IgE binding to αGal was inhibited by raw pork kidney extract (mean, 77%; range, 55-87%), which showed a high amount of αGal determinants. Pork or beef kidney anaphylaxis is related to αGal IgE. Its peculiar severity could be due to an elevated content of αGal epitopes in kidney. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Park, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  15. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (p<0.05). The GSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (p<0.05). However, an incompatible effect was observed in terms of yellowness, which increased as compared to the control sausage after 6 days of storage. The 0.5% addition of GSP decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.05), but the ability of GSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages. PMID:26760939

  16. Prioritization of Managed Pork Supply Movements during a FMD Outbreak in the US

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gilbert R.; Mohr, Alicia H.; Snider, Tim P.; Lindsay, Thomas A.; Davies, Peter R.; Goldsmith, Tim J.; Sampedro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business. Therefore, it is critical to identify candidate movements for proactive risk assessments: those that are both most likely to contribute to disease spread and most necessary for business continuity. To do this, experts from production, harvest, retail, and allied pork industries assessed 30 common pork supply movements for risk of disease spread and industry criticality. The highest priority movements for conducting a risk assessment included the movement of weaned pigs originating from multiple sow farm sources to an off-site nursery or wean to finish facility, the movement of employees or commercial crews, the movement of vaccination crews, the movement of dedicated livestock hauling trucks, and the movement of commercial crews such as manure haulers and feed trucks onto, off, or between sites. These critical movements, along with several others identified in this study, will provide an initial guide for prioritization of risk management efforts and resources to be better prepared in the event of a FMD outbreak in the United States. By specifically and proactively targeting movements that experts agree are likely to spread the disease and are critical to the continuity of business operations, potentially catastrophic consequences in the event of an outbreak can be limited. PMID:27843934

  17. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat.

  18. Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammation Activities of Pork Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok-Ki; Ham, Jun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of boiled pork powder (BPP) and hot water extract powder (HWEP) from 4 cuts of meat from Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc (LYD). The highest DPPH radical scavenging activities determined were from BPP of Boston butt (13.65 M TE) and HWEP of loin (19.40 M TE) and ham (21.45 M TE). The 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of BPP from shoulder ham (39.28 M TE) and ham (39.43 M TE) were higher than those of other meat cuts, while HWEP of ham exhibited the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity. A higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity was determined for BPP from ham (198.35 M TE) and in HWEP from loin (204.07 M TE), Boston butt (192.85 M TE), and ham (201.36 M TE). Carnosine content of BPP and HWEP from loin and were determined to be 106.68 and 117.77 mg/g on a dry basis, respectively. The anserine content of BPP (5.26 mg/g, dry basis) and HWEP (6.79 mg/g, dry basis) of shoulder ham exhibited the highest value as compared to the extracts from the other meat cuts. The viability of RAW 264.7 cells was increased with increasing HWEP from loin and ham treatment. In addition, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was significantly reduced by HWEP from loin and ham, in a dose dependent manner. These results suggested that boiled pork and hot water extract of pork have antioxidative and cytokine inhibitory effects. PMID:27194938

  19. Prioritization of Managed Pork Supply Movements during a FMD Outbreak in the US.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Gilbert R; Mohr, Alicia H; Snider, Tim P; Lindsay, Thomas A; Davies, Peter R; Goldsmith, Tim J; Sampedro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the United States, local, state, and federal authorities will implement a foreign animal disease emergency response plan restricting the pork supply chain movements and likely disrupting the continuity of the swine industry business. To minimize disruptions of the food supply while providing an effective response in an outbreak, it is necessary to have proactive measures in place to ensure minimal disease spread and maximum continuation of business. Therefore, it is critical to identify candidate movements for proactive risk assessments: those that are both most likely to contribute to disease spread and most necessary for business continuity. To do this, experts from production, harvest, retail, and allied pork industries assessed 30 common pork supply movements for risk of disease spread and industry criticality. The highest priority movements for conducting a risk assessment included the movement of weaned pigs originating from multiple sow farm sources to an off-site nursery or wean to finish facility, the movement of employees or commercial crews, the movement of vaccination crews, the movement of dedicated livestock hauling trucks, and the movement of commercial crews such as manure haulers and feed trucks onto, off, or between sites. These critical movements, along with several others identified in this study, will provide an initial guide for prioritization of risk management efforts and resources to be better prepared in the event of a FMD outbreak in the United States. By specifically and proactively targeting movements that experts agree are likely to spread the disease and are critical to the continuity of business operations, potentially catastrophic consequences in the event of an outbreak can be limited.

  20. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  1. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact.

  2. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants.

  3. Antibiotic resistance profiles of Salmonella serovars isolated from retail pork and chicken meat in North Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thai, Truong Ha; Hirai, Takuya; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2012-05-15

    The spread of antibiotic resistance via meat poses a serious public health concerns. During 2007-2009, a total of 586 retail meat samples (318 pork and 268 chicken meats) were collected from three provinces (Bac Ninh, Ha Noi and Ha Tay) of North Vietnam to determine the prevalence of Salmonella. Isolates were characterized by serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Approximately 39.6% (n=126) of pork and 42.9% (n=115) of chicken samples were Salmonella-positive, and 14 Salmonella serovars were identified. Anatum (15.8%) was the most common serovar, followed by Infantis (13.3%), Emek (10.4%), Derby and Rissen (9.5%), Typhimurium (9.1%), Reading (7.5%) and London (6.2%). The isolation frequency of serovars Enteritidis, Albany, Hadar, Weltevreden, Newport and Blockey ranged from 1.2%-5.8%. Resistance to at least one antibiotic agent was detected in 78.4% of isolates (n=189) and the most frequent resistance were to tetracycline (58.5%), sulphonamides (58.1%), streptomycin (47.3%), ampicillin (39.8%), chloramphenicol (37.3%), trimethoprim (34.0%) and nalidixic acid (27.8%). No Salmonella isolates were resistant to ceftazidime. Chicken isolates had higher resistance to antibiotic agents than pork isolates (P<0.05). It showed that 159 Salmonella isolates belong to the 14 serovars were multidrug resistant (MDR) and 50 MDR patterns were found. This study indicated that Salmonella serovars isolated from retail meat samples were resistant to multiple antibiotics and this resistance was widespread among different serovars. The widespread resistance may have arisen from misuse or overuse of antibiotics during animal husbandry in North Vietnam. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Kaolinite (Macsumsuk) and Herb Mixtures on the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Pork

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Ki; Hwang, Eun Gyeong; Jung, Dae Jin; Ha, Jae Jung; Oh, Dong Yep

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to identify technology for the production of high quality pork, based on the meat consumption habits of consumers. Macsumsuk, a type of kaolinite (a clay mineral), and/or a mixture of herbs (Mori Folium, Sophorae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, and Pogostemi Herba) were added to the diets of fattening pigs. Sixty barrow pigs (4 kinds of treatment × 5 pigs/treatment × 3 replicates) were randomly assigned to either the Control (no additives), T1 (3% Macsumsuk), T2 (3% Herb mixtures), or T3 (3% Macsumsuk + 3% Herb mixtures) groups, and were fed the diets for 60 d. Dressed weights were in the order of T1 (93.40±4.68kg) > T2 (91.40±6.52kg) > Control (88.80±1.57kg) > T3 (86.80±2.01kg). Back-fat thickness of the Control animals (23.2±1.03) was significantly greater than that of the various treatment groups (p<0.01). Numeric values representing the carcass yield and quality grade were higher for all the treated groups than the Control group, thought the difference was not statistically significant. Crude fat content was significantly higher in the Control group (2.23±0.34%) than in the treated groups (p<0.05). The addition of both Macsumsuk and herb mixtures into the diets of the pigs significantly reduced cooking loss of the pork compared to the Control (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes were observed in the shear force (average 5.87±0.54 kg/cm2), water holding capacity (average 54.59±3.16%), or CIE values of the pork, whereas cholesterol levels significantly decreased (p<0.01) in those fed Macsumsuk and/or the herb mixtures. No significant changes in fatty acid composition, total saturated fatty acid (SFA), total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), or UFA/SFA ratios were observed by any of the treatments. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study suggest that the addition of Macsumsuk and/or herb mixtures into the diets of growing and fattening pigs improves the pork quality by reducing

  5. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion.

  6. Nondestructive detection of pork quality based on dual-band VIS/NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenxiu; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Tang, Xiuying; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2015-05-01

    With the continuous development of living standards and the relative change of dietary structure, consumers' rising and persistent demand for better quality of meat is emphasized. Colour, pH value, and cooking loss are important quality attributes when evaluating meat. To realize nondestructive detection of multi-parameter of meat quality simultaneously is popular in production and processing of meat and meat products. The objectives of this research were to compare the effectiveness of two bands for rapid nondestructive and simultaneous detection of pork quality attributes. Reflectance spectra of 60 chilled pork samples were collected from a dual-band visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system which covered 350-1100 nm and 1000-2600 nm. Then colour, pH value and cooking loss were determined by standard methods as reference values. Standard normal variables transform (SNVT) was employed to eliminate the spectral noise. A spectrum connection method was put forward for effective integration of the dual-band spectrum to make full use of the whole efficient information. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and Principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to establish prediction models using based on single-band spectrum and dual-band spectrum, respectively. The experimental results showed that the PLSR model based on dual-band spectral information was superior to the models based on single band spectral information with lower root means quare error (RMSE) and higher accuracy. The PLSR model based on dual-band (use the overlapping part of first band) yielded the best prediction result with correlation coefficient of validation (Rv) of 0.9469, 0.9495, 0.9180, 0.9054 and 0.8789 for L*, a*, b*, pH value and cooking loss, respectively. This mainly because dual-band spectrum can provide sufficient and comprehensive information which reflected the quality attributes. Data fusion from dual-band spectrum could significantly improve pork quality parameters prediction

  7. [Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in pork samples by real-time PCR with Taqman probe].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Wang, Xiaoying; Guo, Yunchang; Pei, Xiaoyan; Yu, Dongmin; Yang, Dajin

    2014-03-01

    To develop a real-time PCR method for detection Listeria monocytogenes in pork samples. Listeria monocytogenes specific primers and Taqman probe were chosen on the basis of hlyA gene. Real-time PCR method was developed and its specificity was proved. Serial 10-fold diluted pure suspension culture of CMCC 540004 were detected by real-time PCR, and standard curve was constructed. Artificially contaminated experiment was done, six artificially-inoculated samples containing final concentration of Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 540004 (1.3 x 10(0), 1.3 x 10(1), 1.3 x 10(2), 1.3 x 10(3), 1.3 x 10(4), 1.3 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) CFU per 25 g pork samples) were preparated respectively, meanwhile one sample without inoculation was as control of background value. All the samples were incubated in LB1 enrichment for 24 h and then take 0.1 ml culture solutions to 10 ml LB2 enrichment for 18 - 24 h. All the samples were incubated for 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 46 h, and detected Listeria monocytogenes bacteria by PCR, respectively. Twenty-four samples of retail pork were collected from markets in Beijing and detected by the above three methods. Real-time PCR method established was specific for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes. The sensitivity was 1.3 x 10(3) CFU/ml for pure culture without enrichment. Real-time PCR detection limit for artificially contaminated samples after enriching for 24 h was 1.3 CFU/ 25 g, which is the same with the limit of PCR and traditional method after enrichment for 46 h. Standard curve of sample after enrichment for 24 h was established. The positive rate out of total 24 samples was 70.83% (17/24) by real-time PCR, which is the same with the result of PCR and traditional method. The positive ones were quantitative analyzed using standard curve of sample and determined the initial Listeria monocytogenes numbers of CFU/25 g. CONCLUSION; The established real-time PCR technology was simple, rapid, sensitive and specific, which was suitable to

  8. Effects of Kaolinite (Macsumsuk) and Herb Mixtures on the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Ki; Hwang, Eun Gyeong; Jung, Dae Jin; Ha, Jae Jung; Oh, Dong Yep; Choi, Chang Bon

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to identify technology for the production of high quality pork, based on the meat consumption habits of consumers. Macsumsuk, a type of kaolinite (a clay mineral), and/or a mixture of herbs (Mori Folium, Sophorae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, and Pogostemi Herba) were added to the diets of fattening pigs. Sixty barrow pigs (4 kinds of treatment × 5 pigs/treatment × 3 replicates) were randomly assigned to either the Control (no additives), T1 (3% Macsumsuk), T2 (3% Herb mixtures), or T3 (3% Macsumsuk + 3% Herb mixtures) groups, and were fed the diets for 60 d. Dressed weights were in the order of T1 (93.40±4.68kg) > T2 (91.40±6.52kg) > Control (88.80±1.57kg) > T3 (86.80±2.01kg). Back-fat thickness of the Control animals (23.2±1.03) was significantly greater than that of the various treatment groups (p<0.01). Numeric values representing the carcass yield and quality grade were higher for all the treated groups than the Control group, thought the difference was not statistically significant. Crude fat content was significantly higher in the Control group (2.23±0.34%) than in the treated groups (p<0.05). The addition of both Macsumsuk and herb mixtures into the diets of the pigs significantly reduced cooking loss of the pork compared to the Control (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes were observed in the shear force (average 5.87±0.54 kg/cm(2)), water holding capacity (average 54.59±3.16%), or CIE values of the pork, whereas cholesterol levels significantly decreased (p<0.01) in those fed Macsumsuk and/or the herb mixtures. No significant changes in fatty acid composition, total saturated fatty acid (SFA), total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), or UFA/SFA ratios were observed by any of the treatments. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study suggest that the addition of Macsumsuk and/or herb mixtures into the diets of growing and fattening pigs improves the pork quality by reducing

  9. [Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 29428 from inoculated fried pork meat and roasted chicken].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Martínez, M L; Sánchez-Sánchez, S; Rodríguez-Montaño, R; Quiñones-Ramírez, E I; Lugo de la Fuente, G; Vázquez-Salinas, C

    1993-01-01

    The human gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni in some industrialized countries is higher than gastroenteritis produced by Salmonella and Shigella. This has induced the development of techniques to demonstrate the presence of the microorganism in different foods using some culture media combinations. There is not a method to isolate C. jejuni from roasted chicken and fried pork meat, which are popular foods in México. The sensitivity of two culture media combinations was compared: Rama broth (RB)-Rama agar (RA) and Preston broth (PB)-Skirrow agar (SA) to isolate C. jejuni from these foods. The RB-RA combination demonstrated to be the best one to isolate C. jejuni.

  10. An outbreak of febrile gastroenteritis associated with jellied pork contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Juliane; Much, Peter; Kasper, Sabine; Fretz, Rainer; Auer, Bettina; Kathan, Julia; Mann, Michaela; Huhulescu, Steliana; Ruppitsch, Werner; Pietzka, Ariane; Silberbauer, Karl; Neumann, Christian; Gschiel, Ernst; de Martin, Alfred; Schuetz, Angelika; Gindl, Josef; Neugschwandtner, Ernst; Allerberger, Franz

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) learned of an outbreak of diarrheal illness that included a 71-year-old patient hospitalized for gastroenteritis with a blood culture positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Three stool specimens provided by seven of 19 persons attending a day trip to a foreign city, including a final break at an Austrian tavern, yielded L. monocytogenes. All isolates were of serovar 4b and had fingerprints indistinguishable from each other. A cohort study revealed that the outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred among 16 persons who had eaten dinner at the wine tavern on September 6. Of the 15 persons who ate from platters of mixed cold-cuts, 12 (80%) developed symptoms of febrile gastroenteritis within 24-48 h. The median age of those who became ill was 62 years. A 72-year-old patient recovered from gastroenteritis but was hospitalized with bacterial meningitis on day 19 after the dinner. The epidemiological investigation identified the consumption of mixed cold-cuts (including jellied pork) at the wine tavern as the most likely vehicle of the foodborne outbreak (P = 0.0015). This hypothesis was confirmed by microbiological investigation of jellied pork produced by the tavern owner on September 3. L. monocytogenes was isolated from leftover food in numbers of 3 x 10(3)-3 x 10(4) colony forming units/g and was indistinguishable from the clinical outbreak isolates. Symptoms reported by the 12 patients included unspecified fever (12x), diarrhea (9x), headache (5x), vomiting (4x), body aches (2x) and sore throat (1x). Active case finding identified one case of rhombencephalitis (female, age 48) among another group of four guests, among whom only the patient and her asymptomatic husband had eaten jellied pork on September 6. This is the first outbreak of L. monocytogenes-associated gastroenteritis reported in Austria. The occurrence of a secondary case of meningitis (diagnosed on day 19 after consumption of jellied

  11. Levels of seven PCBs used as markers of dioxin in commercial pork meat in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lopez y López-Leitón, T J; Alvarez Piñeiro, M E; Lage Yusty, M A; Cortizo Daviña, J L

    2001-01-01

    The levels of 7 PCBs used as markers of dioxin in 62 pork meat samples (head, loin, and dewlap) were determined by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Analytical limits of detection for the individual congeners ranged from 0.048 to 0.2 ng/g dry wt. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were detected in all samples. Among congeners in general, PCB 52, 101, and 153 were the most abundant. There was a linear relationship with a good correlation between PCB 101 and PCB 52.

  12. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  13. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  14. 9 CFR 319.106 - “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,” “Country Style Pork...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... penetration. (3) When sodium or potassium nitrate, or sodium or potassium nitrite, or a combination thereof... has an internal salt content of at least 4 percent. (4) When no sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate... or a water activity of not more than 0.92. (5) For hams or pork shoulders labeled “country”...

  15. What is for dinner? Viral metagenomics of US store bought beef, pork, and chicken.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric

    2014-11-01

    We describe here the metagenomics-derived viral sequences detected in beef, pork, and chicken purchased from stores in San Francisco. In beef we detected four previously reported viruses (two parvoviruses belonging to different genera, an anellovirus, and one circovirus-like virus) and one novel bovine polyomavirus species (BPyV2-SF) whose closest relatives infect primates. Detection of porcine hokovirus in beef indicated that this parvovirus can infect both ungulate species. In pork we detected four known parvoviruses from three genera, an anellovirus, and pig circovirus 2. Chicken meat contained numerous gyrovirus sequences including those of chicken anemia virus and of a novel gyrovirus species (GyV7-SF). Our results provide an initial characterization of some of the viruses commonly found in US store-bought meats which included a diverse group of parvoviruses and viral families with small circular DNA genomes. Whether any of these viruses can infect humans will require testing human sera for specific antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of hurdle treated pork sausages during refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) storage.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2010-06-01

    Pork sausages developed using hurdle technology was evaluated during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C). Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also tried. Hurdle treatment significantly (p <0.05) reduced the rate of deterioration of quality characteristics of pork sausages during storage, as indicated by TBARS and tyrosine values. Incorporation of hurdles decreased the growth of different spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Combination of pH, water activity, vacuum packaging and reheating inhibited the growth of yeast and molds up to 12 days, while additional dipping of sausages in 1% potassium sorbate solution prior to packaging inhibited their growth even on 30(th) day of storage. Incorporation of hurdles resulted in initial reduction in all the sensory attributes, but they helped to maintain these attributes for significantly longer period compared to control. Hurdle treated sausages exhibited no spoilage signs even on day 30, while the control sausages were found acceptable only up to 18 days.

  17. Preparation of glycosylated zein and retarding effect on lipid oxidation of ground pork.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jie; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Kopparapu, Narasimha-Kumar; Cong, Wan-Suo; Deng, Yong-Ping

    2017-07-15

    The focus of the present work was to investigate the glycosylation of zein, partial properties of the glycosylated zein (GZ) and its retarding effect on lipid oxidation of ground pork. Zein was glycosylated with chitosan (MW 1500Da) by microbial transglutaminase, the reaction was verified by FT-IR. Under the optimized conditions, 97.48mg of glucosamine was covalently conjugated to 1g of zein, determined by HPLC. The solubility and the surface hydrophobicity of GZ were significantly improved. In vitro studies of GZ showed a dose-dependent scavenging activity against free radicals of DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical, and the EC50 value for DPPH radical was 1.99μg TE/mg protein. In addition, reducing power and Fe(2+)-chelating capacity of it were 16.60 and 12.96μg TE/mg protein, respectively. GZ resulted in low levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and peroxide value of ground pork. These results suggest that GZ is a potential natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flaxseed fed pork: n-3 fatty acid enrichment and contribution to dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turner, T D; Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F; Zijlstra, R T; Dugan, M E R

    2014-01-01

    The potential to increase n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake via flaxseed fed pork is underestimated when restricted to pure longissimus muscle, whereas a combination of muscle and adipose tissue is typically consumed. Presently, the FA content of pigs fed 0%, 5% and 10% dietary flaxseed for 11 weeks was measured in loin, picnic and butt primals (lean muscle with epimysium (L), L plus seam fat (LS), and LS plus 5 mm backfat (LSS)). The n-3 FA content necessary for an enrichment claim in Canada (300 mg/100 g serving) was exceeded in L from all primals when feeding 5% flaxseed, being 4 fold that of controls (P<0.001), with further enrichment from inclusion of associated adipose tissues (P<0.001). Increasing flaxseed feeding levels in combination with adipose tissue inclusion amplified total long chain n-3 FA (P<0.05), particularly 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3. Flaxseed-fed n-3 FA enriched pork can contribute substantially to daily long chain n-3 FA intakes, particularly for societies with typically low seafood consumption. © 2013.

  19. Use of e-beam for shelf-life extension and sanitizing of marinated pork loin.

    PubMed

    García-Márquez, I; Ordóñez, J A; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  20. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  1. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Botsaris, George; Orphanides, Antia; Yiannakou, Evgenia; Gekas, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages. PMID:27904382

  2. Noninvasive Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Spoilage Attributes of Chilled Pork Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a rapid noninvasive method for quantitative and qualitative determination of chilled pork spoilage. Microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable count (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value, and color parameter L* were determined to appraise pork quality. The hyperspectral scattering characteristics from 54 meat samples were fitted by four-parameter modified Gompertz function accurately. Support vector machines (SVM) was applied to establish quantitative prediction model between scattering fitting parameters and reference values. In addition, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Bayesian analysis were utilized as supervised and unsupervised techniques for the qualitative identification of meat spoilage. All stored chilled meat samples were classified into three grades: "fresh," "semi-fresh," and "spoiled." Bayesian classification model was superior to PLS-DA with overall classification accuracy of 92.86%. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique combined with SVM and Bayesian possessed a powerful capability for meat spoilage assessment rapidly and noninvasively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Simultaneously propagating voltage and pressure pulses in lipid monolayers of pork brain and synthetic lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbauer, J.; Bössinger, S.; Wixforth, A.; Schneider, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrated interfaces are ubiquitous in biology and appear on all length scales from ions and individual molecules to membranes and cellular networks. In vivo, they comprise a high degree of self-organization and complex entanglement, which limits their experimental accessibility by smearing out the individual phenomenology. The Langmuir technique, however, allows the examination of defined interfaces, the controllable thermodynamic state of which enables one to explore the proper state diagrams. Here we demonstrate that voltage and pressure pulses simultaneously propagate along monolayers comprised of either native pork brain or synthetic lipids. The excitation of pulses is conducted by the application of small droplets of acetic acid and monitored subsequently employing time-resolved Wilhelmy plate and Kelvin probe measurements. The isothermal state diagrams of the monolayers for both lateral pressure and surface potential are experimentally recorded, enabling us to predict dynamic voltage pulse amplitudes of 0.1-3 mV based on the assumption of static mechanoelectrical coupling. We show that the underlying physics for such propagating pulses is the same for synthetic and natural extracted (pork brain) lipids and that the measured propagation velocities and pulse amplitudes depend on the compressibility of the interface. Given the ubiquitous presence of hydrated interfaces in biology, our experimental findings seem to support a fundamentally new mechanism for the propagation of signals and communication pathways in biology (signaling), which is based neither on protein-protein or receptor-ligand interaction nor diffusion.

  4. The Impact of Proteolytic Pork Hydrolysate on Microbial, Flavor and Free Amino Acids Compounds of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinzhong; Hua, Baozhen; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Sha; Ma, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of proteolytic pork hydrolysate (PPH) on yoghurt production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Fresh lean pork was cut into pieces and mixed with deionized water and dealt with protease, then the resulting PPH was added to milk to investigate the effects of PPH on yoghurt production. The fermentation time, the viable cell counts, the flavor, free amino acids compounds, and sensory evaluation of yoghurt were evaluated. These results showed that PPH significantly stimulated the growth and acidification of the both bacterial strains. When the content of PPH reached 5% (w/w), the increased acidifying rate occurred, which the fermentation time was one hour less than that of the control, a time saving of up to 20% compared with the control. The viable cell counts, the total free amino acids, and the scores of taste, flavor and overall acceptability in PPH-supplemented yoghurt were higher than the control. Furthermore, the contents of some characteristic flavor compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters were richer than the control. We concluded that the constituents of PPH such as small peptide, vitamins, and minerals together to play the stimulatory roles and result in beneficial effect for the yoghurt starter cultures growth. PMID:27621698

  5. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  6. On-line prediction of fresh pork quality using visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Tao; Fan, Yu-Xia; Cheng, Fang

    2010-12-01

    Visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was tested to predict the quality attributes of fresh pork (content of intramuscular fat, protein and water, pH and shear force value) on-line. Vis/NIR spectra (350-1100 nm) were obtained from 211 samples using a prototype. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were developed by external validation with wavelet de-noising and several pre-processing methods. The 6th order Daubechies wavelet with 6 decomposition levels (db6-6) showed high de-noising ability with good information preservation. The first derivative of db6-6 de-noised spectra combined with multiplicative scatter correction yielded the prediction models with the highest coefficient of determination (R(2)) for all traits in both calibration and validation periods, which were all above 0.757 except for the prediction of shear force value. The results indicate that Vis/NIR spectroscopy is a promising technique to roughly predict the quality attributes of intact fresh pork on-line.

  7. [Prediction of minced pork quality attributes using visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Xia; Liao, Yi-Tao; Cheng, Fang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate minced pork meat quality using visible and near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy. Two hundred twenty five carcasses samples from longissimus dorsi muscle were scanned over the Vis-NIR spectral range from 350 to 1 015 nm and analysed for intramuscular fat (IMF), protein and moisture according to the official methods. Wavelet transform was employed to eliminate the spectra noise. Partial least square regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to develop Vis-NIR spectroscopy models for chemical composition detection. According to calibration statistics, the best model to predict intramuscular fat content was developed by SVM with the denoised spectra, the correlation coefficient was 0.889 for calibration and 0.888 for validation. For protein and moisture, the best model was achieved with the PLS method with the correlation coefficient of 0.869 and 0.881 for protein calibration and validation sets and 0.877 and 0.848 for moisture calibration and validation sets, respectively. And all the ratios of standard deviation of validation set to root mean square error of prediction (RPD) were not more than 3.0. Results indicated that it was possible to predict chemical composition in minced pork meat. As a fast predictor of meat quality using Vis-NIR spectroscopy, it is necessary to improve the precision and the robustness of the model for practice.

  8. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in Pork Intended for Human Consumption in Tropical Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne Beatriz; Acosta-Viana, Karla Yolanda; Guzmán-Marin, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesus; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2016-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii, which is one of the most widespread parasites that infect animals and humans worldwide. One of the main routes of infection for humans is through the consumption of infected meat containing bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Pork is one of the foremost meat types associated with outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans. Sixty blood samples were collected from finished pigs at slaughter and their sera was evaluated by an indirect-IgG ELISA. Matched muscle samples were obtained from the tongue and loin. Whole blood and tissue samples were evaluated to search for T. gondii DNA using a nested-polymerase chain reaction. Seroprevalence of T. gondii was 96.6% (58/60) of sampled pigs. Meanwhile, T. gondii DNA was present in 23.21% of tongue tissue samples (13/56), 7% of loin tissues (4/57), and 0% in blood samples (0/44), respectively. Two pigs were serologically indeterminate. This is the first report of the presence of T. gondii DNA in tissue samples obtained from finalized pigs. Results from the present study suggest a high exposure to T. gondii in pigs intended for human consumption from the tropical region of Mexico. Thus, the consumption of some undercooked pork meat meals typical from the southern region of Mexico could represent a significant risk for acquiring infection for the human population.

  9. Salmonella in the pork production chain and its impact on human health in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, S

    2017-06-01

    Salmonella spp. comprise the second most common food-borne pathogens in the European Union (EU). The role of pigs as carriers of Salmonella has been intensively studied both on farm and at slaughter. Salmonella infection in pigs may cause fever, diarrhoea, prostration and mortality. However, most infected pigs remain healthy carriers, and those infected at the end of the fattening period could pose a threat to human health. Contamination of pig carcasses can occur on the slaughter line, and it is linked to cross-contamination from other carcasses and the presence of Salmonella in the environment. Therefore, Salmonella serovars present on pig carcasses can be different from those detected in the same bathes on the farm. In recent years, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby and S. serotype 4,[5],12:i:- (a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium) have been the most common serovars to be detected in pigs in EU countries, but S. Rissen, S. Infantis, S. Enteritidis and S. Brandenburg have also been reported. In humans, several cases of salmonellosis have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pork and pork products. Among the main serovars of porcine origin detected in confirmed human cases, S. Typhimurium, the monophasic variant S. 4,[5],12:i:- and S. Derby are certainly the most important.

  10. Salmonella in pork cuttings in supermarkets and butchers' shops in Denmark in 2002 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T B; Christensen, B B; Aabo, S

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella in fresh pork cuttings in Denmark in the years 2002 and 2006 was investigated at retail and compared with the retail supply pattern. A total of 1025 and 3473 samples were taken in 2002 from butcher's shops and supermarkets, respectively. The corresponding numbers in 2006 were 259 from butchers' shops and 628 from supermarkets. In 2002, 1.2% of all samples were positive for Salmonella; butchers' shops and supermarkets had 1.8% and 1.0% positive samples, respectively. The overall prevalence in 2006 was 4.2%, with prevalence of 8.1% and 2.6% for butchers' shops and supermarkets, respectively. Hence, increases around 3- to 5-fold were found. There was neither observed any parallel increase in Salmonella positive carcasses in Danish slaughterhouses during the study period, nor were any changes in supply routes towards slaughterhouses with higher prevalence observed, which could explain the apparent increase. We hypothesize that hygiene levels and ability to avoid cross-contamination and prevent growth of the organism, in the meat processing chain after slaughter were the most likely responsible factors. Results from this study indicate that the hygiene performance, particularly at retail, has a significant impact on the occurrence of Salmonella. This implies that there is no direct link between slaughterhouse Salmonella surveillance data and the level of Salmonella contamination at retail. To improve risk assessment of Salmonella in fresh pork meat, this study underlines the need for comprehensive retail data. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Spectral absorption index in hyperspectral image analysis for predicting moisture contents in pork longissimus dorsi muscles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin

    2016-04-15

    Spectral absorption index was proposed to extract the morphological features of the spectral curves in pork meat samples (longissimus dorsi) under the conditions including fresh, frozen-thawed, heated-dehydrated and brined-dehydrated. Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used for calibrating both the spectral reflectance and absorbance values. The absorption values were better than the reflectance values and the calibrated spectra by MSC were better than the raw and SG smoothing corrected spectra in building moisture content predictive models. The optimized partial least square regression (PLSR) model attained good results with the MSC calibrated spectral absorption values based on the spectral absorption index features (R(2)P=0.952, RMSEP=1.396) and the optimal wavelengths selected by regression coefficients (R(2)P=0.966, RMSEP=0.855), respectively. The models proved spectral absorption index was promising in spectral analysis to predict moisture content in pork samples using HSI techniques for the first time.

  12. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail yield and fabrication time.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, C L; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    Boxed pork was obtained to represent four different purchase specifications (different anatomical separation locations and[or] external fat trim levels) common in the pork industry to conduct a study of retail yields and labor requirements. Bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), and Boston butts (n = 148) were assigned randomly to fabrication styles within subprimals. When comparing cutting styles within subprimals, it was evident that cutting style affected percentage of retail yield and cutting time. When more bone-in cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 92.80 +/- .61 to 95.28 +/- .45%, and processing times ranged from 222.57 +/- 10.13 to 318.99 +/- 7.85 s, from the four suppliers. When more boneless cuts were prepared from bone-in loin subprimals, retail yields ranged from 71.12 +/- 1.10 to 77.92 +/- .77% and processing times ranged from 453.49 +/- 8.95 to 631.09 +/- 15.04 s from the different loins. Comparing boneless to bone-in cuts from bone-in loins resulted in lower yields and required greater processing times. Significant variations in yields and times were found within cutting styles. These differences seemed to have been the result of variation in supplier fat trim level and anatomical separation (primarily scribe length).

  13. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-10-31

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat.

  14. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry can be used for dose estimation in irradiated pork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oca, M. C.; Bartolotta, A.; Cammilleri, M. C.; Giuffrida, S. A.; Parlato, A.; Di Noto, A. M.; Caracappa, S.

    2009-07-01

    Food safety can be improved using ionizing radiation to reduce food spoilage and to extend its shelf life. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been validated by the European Community as a powerful method to identify irradiated food containing fat. The preliminary goals of our research were: (i) to set up this method, based on the detection of radiation induced 2-dodecylcyclobutanones (2-DCB) in pork muscle samples and (ii) to check the microbiological efficacy of the treatment. The main objective was to render the GC/MS a quantitative technique for dose estimation, through the measurement of the 2-DCB concentration in the irradiated sample. Our results show that the reduction of the microbial population is substantially reduced even at 2 kGy, and that a clear identification of irradiated samples can be achieved also one month after irradiation at 2 kGy in frozen-stored samples. The 2-DCB concentration showed a linear dependence on dose in the range 1-10 kGy, no matter the origin of the sample; a unique calibration function was obtained, that allowed dose estimation in irradiated pork samples. A retrospective evaluation on the quality of the treatment could be carried out this way.

  15. Subprimal purchasing and merchandising decisions for pork: relationship to retail value.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, C L; Walter, J P; Dockerty, T R; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1996-01-01

    To assess retail value and profitability, cutting test data were obtained in a simulated retail cutting room for boxed pork subprimals, bone-in loins (n = 180), boneless loins (n = 94), Boston butts (n = 148), fresh hams (n = 28), and boneless hams (n = 23). Processing times (seconds) and retail weights (kilograms) were used to determine relative value. Cutting style affected (P < .05) value differential (US$/subprimal) for bone-in and boneless loins. When cutting styles within subprimals were pooled, value differential was affected (P < .05) by purchasing specification for bone-in loins, boneless loins, Boston butts, and inside fresh hams. Processing bone-in loins to a boneless end point produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin than a bone-in retail end point. Bone-in loins fabricated to a boneless retail end point produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin than boneless loins fabricated to the same end point. The increase in retail value can be attributed to the increased number and weight of retail cuts produced from bone-in loins. The thick, boneless loin cutting style produced a greater (P < .05) value differential and percentage of gross margin as a result of a lower (P < .05) cost of fabrication and increased value of retail cuts than the thin, boneless cutting style. In general, boneless pork cutting methods were more profitable than bone-in cutting methods regardless of subprimal.

  16. Measurement of Young’s Modulus and Internal Damping of Pork Muscle in Dynamic Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Moez; Ghozlen, Med Hédi Ben

    2016-09-01

    Automotive shocks involve various tiers’ speed for different human body tissues. Knowing the behavior of these tissues, including muscles, in different vibration frequency is therefore necessary. The muscle has viscoelatic properties. Dynamically, this material has variable mechanical properties depending on the vibration frequency. A novel technique is being employed to examine the variation of the mechanical impedance of pork muscle as a function of frequency. A force is imposed on the lower surface of the sample and acceleration is measured on its upper surface. These two parameters are measured using sensors. The sample is modeled by Kelvin-Voigt model. These measures allow deducing the change in the mechanical impedance modulus (/Zexp/ = /Force: Acceleration/) of pork muscle as a function of vibration frequency. The measured impedance has a resonance of approximately 60Hz. Best-fit parameters of theoretical impedance can be deduced by superposition with the experiment result. The variation of Young’s modulus and internal damping of pig’s muscle as a function of frequency are determined. The results obtained between 5Hz and 30Hz are the same as determined by Aimedieu and al in 2003, therefore validating our technique. The Young’s modulus of muscle increases with the frequency, on the other hand, we note a rating decrease of internal damping.

  17. Effect of dietary linseed oil and α-tocopherol on pork tenderloin (Psoas major) muscle.

    PubMed

    Hoz, L; Lopez-Bote, C J; Cambero, M I; D'Arrigo, M; Pin, C; Santos, C; Ordóñez, J A

    2003-11-01

    The effect of linseed oil and α-tocopheryl acetate on the fatty acid composition and the susceptibility to oxidation of lipid fraction from pork tenderloin (Psoas major) muscle has been studied. Muscles were obtained from animals fed on diets with the same ingredients excepting the oil source [sunflower (C), linseed (L) and linseed and olive (1/1, w/w) (LO)] and α-tocopherol [20 (C, L and LO) or 200 (LOE and LE) mg/kg diet]. The n-6/n-3 ratio in pork tenderloin was markedly modified by dietary linseed oil administration, which was due to the increase in the C18:3n-3 (and total n-3 fatty acids) and the decrease in the C18:2n-6 (and total n-6 fatty acids) contents (P<0.05). The α-tocopherol content of tenderloin from batches LE and LOE was about 2.8 mg/kg of muscle, significantly greater (P<0.05) than about 0.7 mg/kg muscle found in tenderloin from pigs receiving C, L and LO. Dietary supplementation with α-tocopheryl acetate markedly reduced tenderloin lipid oxidation from animals fed diets enriched in n-3 fatty acids (L or LO vs LE or LOE).

  18. Quality traits of pork semimembranosus and triceps brachii muscles sourced from the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Suárez, E J; Rubio-Lozano, M S; Toledo-López, V M; Torrescano-Urrutia, G R; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Huerta-Leidenz, N

    2016-12-01

    The study included fresh pork semimembranosus (SM, n=289) and triceps brachii (TB, n=283) muscles sourced from meat packers of Mexico and the USA. Samples were analyzed for moisture, protein, and fat content, pH, shear force (WBSF), cook loss, water holding capacity (WHC), instrumental color, emulsion capacity (EC) and stability (ES), and consumer sensory ratings. SM from the USA had lower WBSF (P<0.05) than that from Mexico (26.7 vs. 29.7N), higher WHC (44.7 vs. 38.4%; P<0.05) and a better appearance, as indicated by its lower h* (52.3 vs. 56.6; P<0.05) and higher C* (23.1 vs. 21.3; P<0.05). Consumer acceptance of SM was similar (P>0.05) across countries. TB from Mexico had higher (P<0.05) fat content (2.5 vs. 2.0%), lower (P<0.05) WBSF values (32.0 vs. 36.9N), and received more positive ratings by Mexican consumers (87.1 vs. 81.7%) than its US equivalent. In general, US pork exhibits better technological properties, while country of origin has less effect on consumer acceptability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Proteolytic Pork Hydrolysate on Microbial, Flavor and Free Amino Acids Compounds of Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinzhong; Hua, Baozhen; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Sha; Ma, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of proteolytic pork hydrolysate (PPH) on yoghurt production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Fresh lean pork was cut into pieces and mixed with deionized water and dealt with protease, then the resulting PPH was added to milk to investigate the effects of PPH on yoghurt production. The fermentation time, the viable cell counts, the flavor, free amino acids compounds, and sensory evaluation of yoghurt were evaluated. These results showed that PPH significantly stimulated the growth and acidification of the both bacterial strains. When the content of PPH reached 5% (w/w), the increased acidifying rate occurred, which the fermentation time was one hour less than that of the control, a time saving of up to 20% compared with the control. The viable cell counts, the total free amino acids, and the scores of taste, flavor and overall acceptability in PPH-supplemented yoghurt were higher than the control. Furthermore, the contents of some characteristic flavor compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters were richer than the control. We concluded that the constituents of PPH such as small peptide, vitamins, and minerals together to play the stimulatory roles and result in beneficial effect for the yoghurt starter cultures growth.

  20. Role of slaughtering in Salmonella spreading and control in pork production.

    PubMed

    Arguello, Hector; Alvarez-Ordoñez, Avelinó; Carvajal, Ana; Rubio, Pedro; Prieto, Miguel

    2013-05-01

    Salmonella is one of the major foodborne pathogens worldwide. Pork products are among the main sources of Salmonella infection in humans, and several countries have established Salmonella surveillance and control programs. The role of slaughtering in carcass contamination has been indicated by studies focused on the slaughterhouse environment. In this review, we examine and discuss the information available regarding the influence that farm status, pig transport, and lairage have on the carriage of Salmonella by pigs entering the slaughter line. The evolution of carcass contamination throughout the slaughtering process, the main sources of contamination in the dirty and clean zones of the slaughter line, and previously reported prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses and factors affecting this prevalence also are discussed. The importance of implementing interventions at the slaughter level is discussed briefly. Consistent with the information available, pigs from infected farms and newly acquired or recrudescent infections in pigs at the subsequent stages of transport and lairage are important sources of Salmonella at the slaughtering plant. The continuous introduction of Salmonella into the slaughterhouse and the potential for resident flora constitute a risk for carcass contamination. At the slaughterhouse, some dressing activities can reduce carcass contamination, but others are critical control points that jeopardize carcass hygiene. This information indicates the importance of considering slaughter and previous stages in the pork production chain for controlling Salmonella in swine production.

  1. Absorbance of light by mitochondria in pork muscle fibres differing in myoglobin content.

    PubMed

    Swatland, H J

    2004-07-01

    A scanning microscope photometer was used to map the transmittance (T) of white light along short lengths (⩽1 mm) of muscle fibres in transverse sections of pork psoas minor (n=8, Duroc×Yorkshire, hot carcass weight 86.1±5.2 kg). Red fibres (high myoglobin) were compared with white fibres (low myoglobin; n=16 pairs; 60.1±28.1 h post-mortem). Raster scans across cut ends of fibres were eroded in concentric zones to find radial gradients of T. All red fibres had positive radial gradients (mean T mm(-1)=5.389±3.680) from outer to inner zones, showing T was higher (P<0.01) in the axis relative to the periphery. White fibres had either positive or negative gradients (mean T mm(-1)=0.394±2.546). Gradients in red fibres were higher (P<0.001) than in white fibres. Radial gradients matched the visible distribution of mitochondria. It was concluded mitochondria dominate over myofibrils in giving red fibres lower T than white fibres, adding to other effects from myoglobin and pH. Whether or not mitochondrial effects are visible in pork displayed for retail sale remains to be determined.

  2. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Production Chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Vasickova, Petra; Kralik, Petr; Hernandez, Marta; Angeloni, Giorgia; Ostanello, Fabio; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Pavlik, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in Czech Republic, Italy, and Spain during 2010. A total of 337 fecal, liver, and meat samples from animals at slaughterhouses were tested for HEV by real-time quantitative PCR. Overall, HEV was higher in Italy (53%) and Spain (39%) than in Czech Republic (7.5%). HEV was detected most frequently in feces in Italy (41%) and Spain (39%) and in liver (5%) and meat (2.5%) in Czech Republic. Of 313 sausages sampled at processing and point of sale, HEV was detected only in Spain (6%). HEV sequencing confirmed only g3 HEV strains. Indicator virus (porcine adenovirus) was ubiquitous in fecal samples and absent in liver samples and was detected in 1 slaughterhouse meat sample. At point of sale, we found porcine adenovirus in sausages (1%–2%). The possible dissemination of HEV and other fecal viruses through pork production demands containment measures. PMID:22840221

  3. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yansheng; Dang, Xiangli; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Wenqing

    2010-08-01

    The peptide mixture from housefly pupae has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. In this study, the preservation effects of a housefly pupae peptide mixture, nisin, and sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-S) on the number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH value of chilled pork were compared. All results showed that a good preservation effect was observed among 3 treatments with the peptide mixture of housefly pupae, nisin, and DHA-S and that there was no significant difference among them. These results indicate that housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative. The results of scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy suggest that the primary mechanism of housefly pupae peptide mixture may be bacterial cytoplasmic membrane lysis and pores induced in the membranes. Practical Applications: Peptide mixture extracted from housefly pupae using low-cost and simple method has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. According to the effect on chilled pork preservation, extracted housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative.

  4. Compositional Signatures of Conventional, Free Range, and Organic Pork Meat Using Fingerprint Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Gislene B.; Alewijn, Martin; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; van Ruth, Saskia M.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers’ interest in the way meat is produced is increasing in Europe. The resulting free range and organic meat products retail at a higher price, but are difficult to differentiate from their counterparts. To ascertain authenticity and prevent fraud, relevant markers need to be identified and new analytical methodology developed. The objective of this pilot study was to characterize pork belly meats of different animal welfare classes by their fatty acid (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester—FAME), non-volatile compound (electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry—ESI-MS/MS), and volatile compound (proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry—PTR-MS) fingerprints. Well-defined pork belly meat samples (13 conventional, 15 free range, and 13 organic) originating from the Netherlands were subjected to analysis. Fingerprints appeared to be specific for the three categories, and resulted in 100%, 95.3%, and 95.3% correct identity predictions of training set samples for FAME, ESI-MS/MS, and PTR-MS respectively and slightly lower scores for the validation set. Organic meat was also well discriminated from the other two categories with 100% success rates for the training set for all three analytical approaches. Ten out of 25 FAs showed significant differences in abundance between organic meat and the other categories, free range meat differed significantly for 6 out of the 25 FAs. Overall, FAME fingerprinting presented highest discrimination power. PMID:28231211

  5. Effect of incorporation of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on quality of ground pork patties.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, M; Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Sen, A R; Sureshkumar, K

    2014-11-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of different levels of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (MLE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in raw and cooked pork patties during refrigerated storage. Five treatments evaluated include: Control (without MLE/BHT), MLE 300 (300 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 450 (450 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 600 (600 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics) and BHT 200 (200 ppm BHT). Total phenolic content ranged from 60.78 to 70.27 mg per gram. A concentration dependent increase in reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of both MLE and BHT was noticed. Higher (P < 0.001) a* and lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were observed in MLE 600 and BHT 200 compared to control. Addition of MLE did not affect the sensory attributes or microbial quality. These results showed that M. oleifera leaves can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid oxidation in ground pork patties.

  6. Efficacy of pink guava pulp as an antioxidant in raw pork emulsion.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-08-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of pink guava pulp (PGP) was evaluated at different levels (0%; C, 5.0%; T-1, 7.5%; T-2 and 10.0%; T-3) in the raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage of 9 days under aerobic packaging. Lycopene and β-carotene contents increased (P < 0.05) with PGP levels. The redness (a*) increased (P < 0.05), whereas L*decreased (P < 0.05) with the incorporation of PGP. The visual colour and odour scores were greater (P < 0.05) in PGP-treated products than control. Percent metmyoglobin formation was greater (P < 0.05) in the control than PGP-treated products, and increased (P < 0.05) during storage in all the treatments. Overall, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and free fatty acid values were lower (P < 0.05) in PGP-treated raw emulsion than control throughout storage period. Our results indicated that pink guava pulp can be utilized as antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

  7. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat. PMID:27857541

  8. Meat quality and cooking attributes of thawed pork with different low field NMR T(21).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunbao; Liu, Dengyong; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Qi, Jun; Shi, Peilei; Xia, Tianlan

    2012-10-01

    A relationship of low field NMR T(2) components to meat quality and cooking attributes of pork was investigated. Longissimus muscle was removed from 23 pig carcasses at 24h postmortem for meat quality measurements and cooking test. Frozen samples were classified into three groups by LF-NMR T(21) of thawed samples: A (<40ms), B (40-44ms) and C (>44ms). There were significant differences (P<0.05) in pH, lightness (L* value) and pressing loss among the three groups. Cooking time to attain 70°C was slightly lower in group C than the other groups. Shear force value of cooked samples was not affected by T(21). The component T(21) correlated (P<0.05) with L* value, muscle pH and pressing loss, while L* value correlated (P<0.05) with thawing loss and muscle pH. Therefore, combined LF-NMR and color measurements could be a good way to differentiate water holding capacity of pork.

  9. Level of Adoption of Quality Management Systems Into the Mexican Pork Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Siman, Em; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; Núñez-Domínguez, Rafael; González-Alcorta, Mariano; Hernández-Rodríguez, Bertha Alicia

    This research studies the characteristics of the Mexican pork sector; adoption status of quality management systems, and product destinations. Ninety six percent of fifty enterprises have fully answered a questionnaire. Ninety percent are small and medium-sized, the rest are large-sized firms. Nineteen percent of them have totally adopted HACCP, sixty three percent are implementing or planning to do it, the rest have no plans to adopt it. Thirteen percent of the enterprises had ISO 9000. Thirty four percent of their sales go to supermarkets, 57% to other retail chains and 9% to exportation. Product destinations are mainly Central America, United States of America, Asia and Mexico. To improve efficiency and the quality of process it is necessary to implement HACCP. Besides, customers and legal requirements are the external factors, which result in this adoption. In the process of implementing, there are some problems, such as staff motivation and training. The results suggest that HACCP system operating is important for the Mexican pork industry. It also has relevant implications in domestic trade. It is necessary to encourage adoption of quality management systems in the sector.

  10. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Botsaris, George; Orphanides, Antia; Yiannakou, Evgenia; Gekas, Vassilis; Goulas, Vlasios

    2015-12-01

    Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages.

  11. Flavour formation in pork semimembranosus: Combination of pan-temperature and raw meat quality.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis; Brockhoff, Per B; Bejerholm, Camilla; Aaslyng, Margit D

    2008-10-01

    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pork semimembranosus were investigated with regard to different raw meat qualities (feeding/fasting strategy; control/low glycogen level, gender; castrate/female, slaughter live-weight; 84kg/110kg) combined with frying temperature (150°C/240°C). It was further investigated whether the precursor levels of glycogen, IMP, inosine, and hypoxanthine in the raw meat were correlated to the raw meat quality and fried/grilled attributes. Pork schnitzels were fried on a pan (155°C) or grill-pan (240-250°C) to a core temperature of 70°C. Frying temperature was the one factor with greatest influence on the sensory attributes, and pan-grilled schnitzels had significantly higher scores in fried/grilled attributes regardless of meat quality compared to pan-fried schnitzels. Texture was not appreciably influenced by any treatment. There was no correlation between precursor levels and raw meat qualities or fried sensory attributes. Gender and slaughter live-weight had no pronounced influence on flavour and overall eating quality.

  12. Salmonella in raw meat and by-products from pork and beef.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Cornelia; Thiel, Susanne; Ullrich, Ulrike; Stolle, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    After campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis is the second main cause of human bacterial enteritis in Germany. Salmonella is known to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of animals without producing any clinical signs. Therefore, carcasses can become contaminated with Salmonella at the time of slaughter. During an 11-month period, a total of 4,170 raw meat samples and by-products from beef and pork, obtained from seven different slaughterhouses in Southern Germany, were screened by the VIDAS system for Salmonella in this study. Positive results were confirmed by isolation of the pathogen on selective agars. The overall percentage of Salmonella-positive samples was 1.4% by the VIDAS system and 0.7% by culture confirmation. Salmonella was detected in 1.8% of pork samples by the VIDAS system and in 1.1% of samples by culture. In beef samples the presence of Salmonella was verified in 0.6% of samples by the VIDAS system and in 0.1% by culture on selective agars. The highest contamination rates were found in porcine and bovine tongue samples. Salmonella was detected in porcine samples throughout the year, except in samples collected in July, and a slight increase was observed in the colder months. The VIDAS system was shown to be an efficient screening method for the detection of Salmonella, with the advantage of a reduced analysis time.

  13. Fatty acid modifications and cholesterol oxidation in pork loin during frying at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Echarte, M; Ansorena, D; Astiasaran, I

    2001-07-01

    The effect of frying with sunflower oil for 4 min at different temperatures (160, 170, and 180 degrees C) on fatty acids and cholesterol of pork loin meat was studied. Total fat content increased from 5.6% in fresh loin to 7.3, 7.8, and 12.1% at 160, 170, and 180 degrees C, respectively. Interactions with culinary fat gave rise to a significant increase in unsaturated acids/saturated acids and polyunsaturated acids/saturated acids ratios, which could be considered an advantage from a nutritional point of view. Less than 1 ppm (microg/g of sample) of cholesterol oxidation products was detected in fresh loin, whereas fried loin pork contained between 8.58 and 10.89 ppm. 7-Ketocholesterol (5.99 to 8.47 ppm in fried samples) and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol (1.43 to 2.55 ppm in fried samples) were the main cholesterol oxidation products. Cholestanetriol was not detected in any sample, and small quantities of 25-hydroxycholesterol and 5,6alpha-epoxycholesterol were found in the fried sample.

  14. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    PubMed

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork.

  15. Distribution of manganese and selenium in four different pork cuts commercially available in the Serbian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Nikolić, D.; Janković, S.; Vranić, D.; Milijašević, M.; Babić-Milijašević, J.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to provide information on levels of Mn and Se in four different pork cuts (loin, neck, hind leg and shoulder) commercially available on the Serbian market, with a view to providing information on dietary intakes of metals associated with the consumption of these meat cuts. In total, for 50 pork cuts, the levels of Mn and Se were determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The following ranges of Mn and Se were found (mg kg‑1) in loin 0.055-0.130 and 0.074-0.365, in neck 0.014-0.365 and 0.045-0.196, in hind leg 0.032-0.099 and 0.066-0.123, in shoulder 0.012-0.290 and 0.027-0.515, respectively. The highest mean levels were obtained for Mn (0.124 mg kg‑1) in shoulder and for Se (0.209 mg kg‑1) in loin. The Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) of essential elements through consumption of 114.1 g mammalian meat/person/day was below 1% of Adequate Intake (AI) for Mn and between 18.9% and 43.2% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Se.

  16. An Approach to Cluster EU Member States into Groups According to Pathways of Salmonella in the Farm-to-Consumption Chain for Pork Products.

    PubMed

    Vigre, Håkan; Domingues, Ana Rita Coutinho Calado; Pedersen, Ulrik Bo; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the project as the cluster analysis was to in part to develop a generic structured quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) model of human salmonellosis due to pork consumption in EU member states (MSs), and the objective of the cluster analysis was to group the EU MSs according to the relative contribution of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain of pork products. In the development of the model, by selecting a case study MS from each cluster the model was developed to represent different aspects of pig production, pork production, and consumption of pork products across EU states. The objective of the cluster analysis was to aggregate MSs into groups of countries with similar importance of different pathways of Salmonella in the farm-to-consumption chain using available, and where possible, universal register data related to the pork production and consumption in each country. Based on MS-specific information about distribution of (i) small and large farms, (ii) small and large slaughterhouses, (iii) amount of pork meat consumed, and (iv) amount of sausages consumed we used nonhierarchical and hierarchical cluster analysis to group the MSs. The cluster solutions were validated internally using statistic measures and externally by comparing the clustered MSs with an estimated human incidence of salmonellosis due to pork products in the MSs. Finally, each cluster was characterized qualitatively using the centroids of the clusters.

  17. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed.

  18. Effects of pea chips on pig performance, carcass quality and composition, and palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Newman, D J; Harris, E K; Lepper, A N; Berg, E P; Stein, H H

    2011-10-01

    Pea chips are produced as a by-product when field peas are processed to produce split peas for human consumption. The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that inclusion of pea chips in diets fed to finishing pigs does not negatively influence pig growth performance, carcass composition, and the palatability of pork. A total of 24 barrows (initial BW: 58.0 ± 6.6 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments and fed early finishing diets for 35 d and late finishing diets for 35 d. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) control diet and 3 diets containing pea chips were formulated for each phase. Pea chips replaced 33.3, 66.6, or 100% of the SBM in the control diet. Pigs were housed individually, and all pigs were slaughtered at the conclusion of the experiment. Overall, there were no differences (P > 0.11) in final BW, ADFI, and G:F of pigs among treatments, but there was a quadratic response in ADG (P = 0.04), with the smallest value observed in pigs fed the control diet. Dressing percentage linearly decreased (P = 0.04) as pea chips replaced SBM in diets, but there were no differences (P > 0.20) among treatments in HCW, LM area, 10th-rib backfat, lean meat percentage, and marbling. Likewise, pH in loin and ham, drip loss, and purge loss were not influenced (P > 0.13) by treatment. However, there was a quadratic response (P = 0.08) in 24-h pH in the shoulder, with the smallest value present in pigs fed the diet, in which 66.6% of the SBM was replaced by pea chips. Subjective LM color and Japanese color score standard were reduced (quadratic, P = 0.03 and 0.05, respectively) and LM b* values and hue angle were increased (quadratic, P = 0.09 and 0.10, respectively) when pea chips replaced SBM in the diets. Ham L* (quadratic, P = 0.04), a* (linear, P = 0.02), b* (quadratic, P = 0.07), color saturation (linear, P = 0.02), and hue angle (quadratic, P = 0.05) were increased when pea chips replaced SBM. However, there were no differences (P > 0.16) in shoulder and fat

  19. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Water-holding Capacity, Color, and Lipid Profiles of Pork

    PubMed Central

    Yang, FengQi; Kim, Ji-Han; Yeon, Su Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary processed sulfur supplementation on water-holding capacity, color, and lipid profiles of pork according to the level of dietary processed sulfur (0%, CON; 0.3%, S). The pigs were slaughtered at an average final weight of 120 kg, and the longissimus dorsi muscles were collected from the carcasses. As results, pork processed with sulfur had significantly higher moisture and ash contents compared to those of CON but lower crude fat, pH, expressible drip, lower redness and yellowness, and greater lightness. Pork processed with sulfur showed significantly lower total lipid content, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis index but significantly higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Feeding processed sulfur significantly lowered myristic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and stearic acid contents, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids and oleic acids were significantly higher compared to those in the CON. Higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6 fatty acids were observed in the pork processed with sulfur than that of the CON. Therefore, supplementing pigs with dietary sulfur improved nutrient and meat quality. PMID:26877643

  20. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  1. Strategy for Accurate Detection of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 in Ground Pork Using a Lateral Flow Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Song; Chen, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Gang-Gang; Yu, Zhi-Biao; Liu, Dao-Feng; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Wei, Hua; Lai, Wei-Hua

    2017-04-02

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is known to cause serious diseases including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. A gold nanoparticle lateral flow immunoassay (Au-LFIA) was used to detect Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground pork samples. False-positive results were detected using Au-LFIA; a Citrobacterfreundii strain was isolated from the ground pork samples and identified by using CHROmagar(TM) plates, API 20E, and 16S RNA sequencing. Since C.freundii showed cross-reactivity with E. coli O157:H7 when Au-LFIA test strips were used, a novel method combining modified enrichment with a lateral flow immunoassay for accurate and convenient detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ground pork was developed in this study to minimize these false positives. MacConkey broth was optimized for E. coli O157:H7 enrichment and C.freundii inhibition by the addition of 5 mg/L potassium tellurite and 0.10 mg/L cefixime. Using the proposed modified enrichment procedure, the false-positive rate of ground pork samples spiked with 100 CFU/g C.freundii decreased to 5%.

  2. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish.

    PubMed

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Li, Chunbao

    2015-11-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI-TOF-MS and nano-LC-MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat.

  3. In Vitro Effects of Cooking Methods on Digestibility of Lipids and Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung Sil

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cooking methods on the digestibility of lipids and formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork, during in vitro human digestion. Pork patties were cooked using four different methods (oven cooking, pan frying, boiling, and microwaving), to an internal temperature of approximately 85℃. The digestibility of pork patties were then evaluated, using the in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition (pH, minerals, surfaceactive components, and enzymes) of digestive juices in the human mouth, stomach, and small intestine. The total lipid digestibility was higher after microwave cooking, whereas pan-frying resulted in lower in vitro digestibility, compared to the other cooking methods. The microwaving method followed by in vitro digestion also showed significantly higher content of free fatty acids and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), compared to the other cooking methods; whereas, the pan frying and boiling methods showed the lowest. Cholesterol content was not significantly different among the cooked samples before, and after in vitro human digestion. The formation of COPs was significantly higher in the microwave-treated pork samples, compared to those cooked by the other methods, which was consistent with the trend for lipid peroxidation (TBARS). We propose that from the point of view of COPs formation and lipid oxidation, the pan-frying or boiling methods would be useful. PMID:26761168

  4. Effects of Procyanidin on Meat Quality and Shelf-Life for Preserving Pork Patties during Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds and pericarp are rich in procyanidins, a class of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials that can provide phytonutrients for healthy eating and extend food shelf life. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of procyanidins as preservatives in pork meat patties for 14 d. Pork patties were treated with 0, 0.1, or 0.3% procyanidin, and meat color, pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, and microbial populations were determined during storage at 4℃ for 14 d. The color of pork patties treated with procyanidin showed lower lightness and higher redness values than untreated controls, and procyanidin treatment reduced pH values significantly (p<0.05). VBN values decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the 0.3% procyanidin treatment and increased significantly (p<0.05) during storage. TBARS values were markedly lower in procyanidin-treated meat than in the untreated control. In addition, procyanidin suppressed total bacterial colony and Escherichia coli counts significantly (p<0.05) relative to the control samples. Our findings suggest that procyanidin could be used as a food preservative in pork patties due to its natural antioxidation and antimicrobial activities, and that it may contribute to an improved healthy diet. PMID:26761880

  5. Development of gold nanoparticle-aptamer-based LSPR sensing chips for the rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium in pork meat.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seo Yeong; Heo, Nam Su; Shukla, Shruti; Cho, Hye-Jin; Vilian, A T Ezhil; Kim, Jinwoon; Lee, Sang Yup; Han, Young-Kyu; Yoo, Seung Min; Huh, Yun Suk

    2017-08-31

    A non-labeled, portable plasmonic biosensor-based device was developed to enable the ultra-sensitive and selective detection of Salmonella typhimurium in pork meat samples. Specifically, a plasmonic sensor, using the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve a regulated diameter of 20 nm for the AuNP monolayers, was used to conduct high-density deposition on a transparent substrate, which produced longitudinal wavelength extinction shifts via a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) signal. The developed aptamers conjugated to the LSPR sensing chips revealed an ultra-sensitive upper limit of detection (LOD) of approximately 10(4) cfu/mL for S. typhimurium in pure culture under the optimal assay conditions, with a total analysis time of 30-35 min. When the LSPR sensing chips were applied on artificially contaminated pork meat samples, S. typhimurium in the spiked pork meat samples was also detected at an LOD of 1.0 × 10(4) cfu/mL. The developed method could detect S. typhimurium in spiked pork meat samples without a pre-enrichment step. Additionally, the LSPR sensing chips developed against S. typhimurium were not susceptible to any effect of the food matrix or background contaminant microflora. These findings confirmed that the developed gold nanoparticle-aptamer-based LSPR sensing chips could facilitate sensitive detection of S. typhimurium in food samples.

  6. Effect of natural microbiota on growth of Salmonella spp. in fresh pork--a predictive microbiology approach.

    PubMed

    Møller, C O A; Ilg, Y; Aabo, S; Christensen, B B; Dalgaard, P; Hansen, T B

    2013-06-01

    This study was undertaken to model and predict growth of Salmonella and the dominating natural microbiota, and their interaction in ground pork. Growth of Salmonella in sterile ground pork at constant temperatures between 4 °C and 38 °C was quantified and used for developing predictive models for lag time, max. specific growth rate and max. population density. Data from literature were used to develop growth models for the natural pork microbiota. Challenge tests at temperatures from 9.4 to 24.1 °C and with Salmonella inoculated in ground pork were used for evaluation of interaction models. The existing Jameson-effect and Lotka-Volterra species interaction models and a new expanded Jameson-effect model were evaluated. F-test indicated lack-of-fit for the classical Jameson-effect model at all of the tested temperatures and at 14.1-20.2 °C this was caused by continued growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density. The new expanded Jameson-effect model and the Lotka-Volterra model performed better and appropriately described the continued but reduced growth of Salmonella after the natural microbiota had reached their max. population density. The expanded Jameson-effect model is a new and simple species interaction model, which performed as well as the more complex Lotka-Volterra model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of space allocation within a deep bedded finishing system on swine growth performance, fatty acid composition and pork quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the degree to which space allocation in a deep-bedded system influences swine performance and pork quality. The deep-bedded method employed was hoop structures which are large, tent-like shelters with cornstalks or straw for bedding. One hundred ...

  8. Quantifying the risk of human Toxoplasma gondii infection due to consumption of fresh pork in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the leading foodborne pathogens in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that T. gondii accounts for 24% of deaths due to foodborne illness in the United States. Consumption of undercooked pork products in which T. gondii has enc...

  9. Dynamic kinetic analysis of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a simulated comminuted, non-cured cooked pork product

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to directly construct a tertiary growth model for Listeria monocytogenes in cooked pork and simultaneously determine the kinetic parameters using a combination of dynamic and isothermal growth curves. Growth studies were conducted using a cocktail of 5 strains of L. ...

  10. A portable nondestructive real-time detection system for inspection of pork quality attributes using Vis/NIR spectral technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Peng, Yankun

    2016-05-01

    There are many preferences expressing the quality of pork: color, pH, especially TVB-N content. Different quality pork has different spectral feature (in range of 400 to 1000nm). To detect quality attributes of pork easily, real-time, nondestructively, a portable device based on Vis/NIR spectral technique was developed. The device is mainly made up of four units: light source, spectrometer, controller and display screen. After hardware platform established, reflectance spectra of 44 samples were collected from this system. And their physicochemical characteristics such as color parameters, pH value and the content of total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N) were measured in standard methods. Spectrum data acquired were processed by Savitzky-Golay filter(S-G) for noise removal, and then operated by standard normal variable transformation (SNV) for baseline drifts relieving. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to build prediction models for L*, a*, b* pH* and TVB-N content, which could gain good prediction results with Rp of 0.92, 0.91, 0.92, 0.95 and 0.96 respectively. The results demonstrated that this device could be a promising tool applied to detecting pork quality attributes portably, real-time and nondestructively.

  11. The sensory quality of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages during storage.

    PubMed

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Brodowska, Marta; Godziszewska, Jolanta; Górska-Horczyczak, Elżbieta; Pogorzelska, Ewelina; Wojtasik-Kalinowska, Iwona; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2017-05-09

    New meat products tailored to consumer health should be characterised by reduced sodium, fat and cholesterol contents and other health-promoting benefits. However, the food sector's greatest challenge is allergen-free production. Consumers are not willing to compromise the sensory quality of meat products for health. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of the storage time on the physical properties and consumer acceptance of allergen-controlled, fat-reduced, salt-reduced pork-ostrich sausages. The study focused on pork-ostrich sausages produced in accordance with a new patented technology, which focused on eliminating cross-contamination on-line in the plant, eliminating cross-contamination after preparation, and eliminating spices with high allergy potential. The production was focused on reducing fat (by approximately 50%) and salt (by approximately 30%) levels. No changes in the texture parameters of the sausage were observed during storage time; however, some changes in colour were observed. There were no significant differences in sensory consumer acceptability of pork-ostrich sausage after 14 days of storage; thus, it may be stated that the instrumentally assessed differences in colour did not influence consumer acceptance. The applied fat and NaCl reduction in the pork-ostrich sausages contributed to high consumer ratings and was not correlated with saltiness acceptability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) Pod Powder on the Oxidation and Colour Stability of Pork Meat Batter During Chilled Storage.

    PubMed

    Skowyra, Monika; Janiewicz, Urszula; Salejda, Anna Marietta; Krasnowska, Grażyna; Almajano, María Pilar

    2015-12-01

    The effect of dried pods of Caesalpinia spinosa, known as tara, on pH, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, colour stability and texture of model meat systems stored at 4 °C for 21 days was investigated. Tara pod powder showing a potential antioxidant activity was added at 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (by mass) directly to the pork batter and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and control (no added antioxidants). The addition of tara pod powder at 0.02% was as effective as BHA (0.02%) in retarding lipid oxidation in pork products during storage. Results showed that redness increased after the addition of tara pod powder. Specifically, 0.02% of tara pod powder was effective in keeping the red colour of meat batter stored under illumination at 4 °C for 48 h. Hardness of pork products was the lowest in samples manufactured with tara pod powder compared with control. Results highlight the potential of using tara pod powder as natural functional ingredient in the development of pork products with enhanced quality and shelf life.

  13. Market setting and time of purchase influences on salmonella and listeria prevalence in beef and pork in Vietnam

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This objective of this study was to determine the influence of market type and sampling time on Salmonella and Listeria prevalence of 360 beef (n = 180) and pork (n = 180) samples collected in 6 supermarkets (SM), 6 indoor markets (IM), and 6 open markets (OM) at the opening (T0) and 4 h after the o...

  14. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Methods and Time on the Water Status and Protein Properties of Prepared Pork Chops

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tian; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Yun; Yin, Maowen; Liu, Yang; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    The combined effect of tumbling marination methods (vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT) and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8, and 10 h) on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly decreased the muscle fiber diameter (MD) and significantly increased the total moisture content, product yield, salt soluble proteins (SSP) solubility, immobilized water component (p<0.05) compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increased from 4 h to 10 h, the fat content and the MD were significantly decreased (p<0.05), whereas the SSP solubility of prepared pork chops increased firstly and then decreased. Besides, an interactive effect between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed for the chemical composition and proportion of immobilized water (p<0.05). These results demonstrated that CT method of 8 h was the most beneficial for improving the muscle structure and water distribution status, increasing the water-binding capacity and accelerating the marinade efficiency of pork chops; and thus, it should be chosen as the most optimal treatment method for the processing production of prepared pork chops. PMID:26104408

  15. The prevalence of Salmonella from cheek meat and head trim in a pork processing plant in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a preliminary survey, a large pork processing plant in the United States was sampled bimonthly from January to July of 2015 to determine the prevalence, seasonality, and serotype diversity of Salmonella enterica (SE) isolated from cheek meat and head trim of swine carcasses. Each cheek meat and ...

  16. Synergistic Effects of Electron-beam Irradiation and Leek Extract on the Quality of Pork Jerky during Ambient Storage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Mingu; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Jung, Samooel; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the synergistic effect(s) of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler) extract on the quality of pork jerky during ambient storage, we irradiated prepared pork jerky samples (control and samples with 0.5% and 1.0% leek extract) with EB technology at doses of 0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy, stored them for 2 months at 25°C, and analyzed them. Water activity was 0.73 to 0.77 in non-irradiated samples, and no significant difference in the water activity was observed between the samples treated with leek and the control. The total aerobic bacterial count was significantly decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose and leek extract addition when compared to that of the control (4.54±0.05 log CFU/g). Further, the Hunter color values (L*, a*, and b*) were found to be significantly decreased following leek extract addition and EB irradiation. However, the color values, especially the a* value of the irradiated samples significantly increased during storage. Notably, increasing the EB irradiation dose enhanced the peroxide value. Sensory evaluation revealed that irradiation decreased flavor and overall acceptability. Our findings suggest the use of EB irradiation in combination with leek extract to improve the microbiological safety of pork jerky. However, in order to meet market requirements, novel methods to enhance the sensory quality of pork jerky are warranted. PMID:25049828

  17. Development of a system for classification of pork loins for tenderness using visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Boneless pork loins (n = 901) were evaluated either on the loin boning and trimming line of large-scale commercial plants (n = 465) or at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center abattoir (n = 436). Exposed LM on the ventral side of boneless loins was evaluated with visible and near-infrared spectrosco...

  18. Effect of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) Pod Powder on the Oxidation and Colour Stability of Pork Meat Batter During Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    Skowyra, Monika; Janiewicz, Urszula; Salejda, Anna Marietta; Krasnowska, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    Summary The effect of dried pods of Caesalpinia spinosa, known as tara, on pH, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, colour stability and texture of model meat systems stored at 4 °C for 21 days was investigated. Tara pod powder showing a potential antioxidant activity was added at 0.02, 0.04 and 0.08% (by mass) directly to the pork batter and compared with a synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and control (no added antioxidants). The addition of tara pod powder at 0.02% was as effective as BHA (0.02%) in retarding lipid oxidation in pork products during storage. Results showed that redness increased after the addition of tara pod powder. Specifically, 0.02% of tara pod powder was effective in keeping the red colour of meat batter stored under illumination at 4 °C for 48 h. Hardness of pork products was the lowest in samples manufactured with tara pod powder compared with control. Results highlight the potential of using tara pod powder as natural functional ingredient in the development of pork products with enhanced quality and shelf life. PMID:27904376

  19. Simultaneous determination of mequindox, quinocetone, and their major metabolites in chicken and pork by UPLC-MS/MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research presents a sensitive and confirmatory multi-residue method for mequindox (MEQ), quinocetone (QCT), and their 11 metabolites in chicken and pork samples. After extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate, acidulated, and extracted again with ethyl acetate sequentially, each sample was pu...

  20. Effect of phosphate and meat (pork) types on the germination and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens spores during abusive chilling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of blends of phosphates and the pork meat type (pale, soft and exudative, PSE; normal; and dark, firm and dry, DFD) on the germination and outgrowth of Clostridium perfringens during abusive exponential chilling times was evaluated. Two different phosphates, tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSP...

  1. Discrimination of in vitro and in vivo digestion products of meat proteins from pork, beef, chicken, and fish

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Siying; Zhou, Guanghong; Song, Shangxin; Xu, Xinglian; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li; Zhao, Fan; Li, Mengjie; Li, Li; Yu, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun

    2015-01-01

    In vitro digestion products of proteins were compared among beef, pork, chicken, and fish. Gastric and jejunal contents from the rats fed these meat proteins were also compared. Cooked pork, beef, chicken, and fish were homogenized and incubated with pepsin alone or followed by trypsin. The digestion products with molecular weights of less than 3000 Da were identified with MALDI‐TOF‐MS and nano‐LC‐MS/MS. Gastric and jejunal contents obtained from the rats fed the four meat proteins for 7 days were also analyzed. After pepsin digestion, pork, and beef samples had a greater number of fragments in similarity than chicken and fish samples, but the in vitro digestibility was the greatest (p < 0.05) for pork and the smallest for beef samples. After trypsin digestion, the species differences were less pronounced (p > 0.05). A total of 822 and 659 peptides were identified from the in vitro and in vivo digestion products, respectively. Our results could interpret for the differences in physiological functions after the ingestion of different species of meat. PMID:26227428

  2. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork.

    PubMed

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2017-01-02

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support hygiene interventions. The objective of the present study was to develop an approach which could make it possible to define potential risk-based microbiological limits for an indicator, enterococci, in order to evaluate the risk from potential growth of Salmonella. A positive correlation between the concentration of enterococci and the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella was shown for 6640 pork samples taken at Danish cutting plants and retail butchers. The samples were collected in five different studies in 2001, 2002, 2010, 2011 and 2013. The observations that both Salmonella and enterococci are carried in the intestinal tract, contaminate pork by the same mechanisms and share similar growth characteristics (lag phase and maximum specific growth rate) at temperatures around 5-10°C, suggest a potential of enterococci to be used as an indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in pork. Elevated temperatures during processing will lead to growth of both enterococci and, if present, also Salmonella. By combining the correlation between enterococci and Salmonella with risk modelling, it is possible to predict the risk of salmonellosis based on the level of enterococci. The risk model used for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork products that has enterococci concentrations above 5logCFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological

  3. The influence of dietary field peas (Pisum sativum L.) on pig performance, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork.

    PubMed

    Stein, H H; Everts, A K R; Sweeter, K K; Peters, D N; Maddock, R J; Wulf, D M; Pedersen, C

    2006-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that field peas may replace soybean meal in diets fed to growing and finishing pigs without negatively influencing pig performance, carcass quality, or pork palatability. Forty-eight pigs (initial average BW 22.7 +/- 1.21 kg) were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments with 2 pigs per pen. There were 8 replications per treatment, 4 with barrows and 4 with gilts. The treatments were control, medium field peas, and maximum field peas. Pigs were fed grower diets for 35 d, early finisher diets for 35 d, and late finisher diets for 45 d. Pigs receiving the control treatment were fed corn-soybean meal diets. All diets fed to pigs receiving the medium field peas treatment contained 36% field peas and varying amounts of corn; soybean meal was also included in the grower and the early finisher diets fed to pigs on this treatment. In contrast, no soybean meal was included in diets fed to pigs on the maximum field peas treatment, and field peas were included at concentrations of 66, 48, and 36% in the grower, early finisher, and late finisher diets, respectively. Pig performance was monitored within each phase and for the entire experimental period. At the conclusion of the experiment, carcass composition, carcass quality, and the palatability of pork chops and pork patties were measured. Results showed that there were no effects of dietary treatments on ADFI, ADG, or G:F. Likewise, there were no differences in carcass composition among the treatment groups, but gilts had larger (P = 0.001) and deeper (P = 0.003) LM, less backfat (P = 0.007), and a greater (P = 0.002) lean meat percentage than barrows. The pH and marbling of the LM, and the 10th rib backfat were not influenced by treatment, but there was a trend (P = 0.10) for more marbling in barrows than in gilts. The subjective color scores (P = 0.003) and the objective color score (P = 0.06) indicated that dietary field peas made the LM darker and more desirable. Pork chops from

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Allium hookeri Root Extract and Its Effect on Lipid Stability of Sulfur-fed Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the antioxidant activity of Allium hookeri root extract (AHE) on lipid oxidation of raw sulfur-fed pork patties for 14 d of refrigerated storage. Different concentration of ethanol (0-100%) and time (1-12 h) were applied to determine the extraction condition. Water (0% ethanol) extraction for 1 h was selected as an optimal extraction condition of AHE for the following study showing the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content, as well as the strongest antioxidant activity. The 1% AHE (SP1), 3% AHE (SP2), and 0.05% ascorbic acid (SP3) were added into sulfur-fed pork patties against controls; SP0 (sulfur-fed pork patties with no AHE) and P0 (normal pork patties with no AHE). The pH values of P0 and SP0 significantly increased (p<0.05) than others on 14 d and redness of P0 showed the largest decrement during storage. P0 and SP0 showed higher production of conjugated dienes on d 7 than others (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were decreased in proportion to the increased level of AHE on 14 d (p<0.05) resulting in higher TBARS values on P0 and SP0 (p<0.05) and the negative correlation between AHE level and TBARS were also demonstrated (r=-0.910, p=0.001). Therefore, the results suggest that AHE effectively retarded the lipid oxidation rate of sulfur-fed pork patties indicating the potential usage of AHE as a natural preservative. PMID:26761799

  5. Effects of organic tomato pulp powder and nitrite level on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of pork luncheon roll.

    PubMed

    Hayes, J E; Canonico, I; Allen, P

    2013-11-01

    Nine treatments of pork luncheon roll produced with three sodium nitrite levels (0, 0.05 and 0.1%) and three tomato pulp powder (TPP) levels (0, 1.5 and 3%) were assessed at three storage times (2, 7 and 14d). The effects of enrichment with TPP on composition (protein, fat, moisture and ash), pH, colour (CIE L*, a*, b*), nitrosomyoglobin (NOMb) content, lipid oxidation (TBARS), residual nitrite content, total viable count (TVC) texture profile analysis (TPA) and sensory analysis of cooked pork luncheon roll were investigated. Decreasing the level of nitrite increased (p<0.001) the pH, the NOMb value (p<0.001), lipid oxidation (p<0.001) and the residual nitrite content (p<0.001) and affected the colour of the cooked product. The reduction in nitrites had no effect on the composition and texture of the pork luncheon rolls. Adding TPP reduced (p<0.001) the pH and increased (p<0.001) the colour parameters a* and b* of both the raw luncheon roll formulation and the cooked luncheon roll product. TPP, particularly at 3% had a detrimental effect on the texture of pork luncheon rolls by decreasing hardness (p<0.001), gumminess (p<0.001) and chewiness (p<0.001) and increasing cohesiveness (p<0.001). The TBA value increased (p<0.01) with the three main factors (nitrite, TPP, day) but was in all cases well below the 2mg MDA/kg threshold. TVCs for all treatments and storage days were below the TVC limit for this type of cooked product. The pork luncheon roll formulated with 50mg nitrite and 1.5% TPP had similar or enhanced sensory attributes compared to the luncheon roll containing no TPP and a nitrite level of 100mg/kg of product.

  6. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Clostridium difficile isolates from a pig slaughterhouse, pork, and humans in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Chen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Lee, Jen-Jie; Chen, Pin-Chun; Chang, Yi-Chih; Chen, Ter-Hsin

    2017-02-02

    Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea in both humans and animals. The ribotype 078, predominant in food animals, is associated with community-acquired C. difficile infection, and C. difficile is suggested to be a foodborne pathogen. Recently, the C. difficile ribotype 078 lineage emerged in patients and pigs in Taiwan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of C. difficile isolated from a pig slaughterhouse, retail meat, ready-to-eat meals, and humans in Taiwan. We collected samples from one slaughterhouse (n=422), 29 retail markets (raw pork, n=62; ready-to-eat pork, n=65), and one hospital (non-diarrheal humans, stool, n=317) in 2015. The isolated C. difficile were subjected to ribotyping and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). In the slaughterhouse, the isolation rate from carcasses was high (23%, 21/92) and ribotype 126 dominated. Scalding water was found to have C. difficile contamination (44%, 4/9), and two of the seven isolates were ribotype 126. The isolation rates from raw pork and ready-to-eat pork were between 20% and 29%. Ribotypes 126, 127, and 014 were found in raw pork, whereas ribotype 078 was not identified in this study. Eight isolates-seven non-toxigenic isolates and one ribotype 017-were found in non-diarrheal human samples. Notably, MLVA showed that ribotype 126 isolates from the slaughterhouse, pig stool, colons, carcasses, and scalding water were closely genetically related, indicating serious risk for cross-contamination. However, the genetic evidence of foodborne transmission from carcasses to food and humans is still lacking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The effect of pre-slaughter showering and post-slaughter rapid chilling on meat quality in intact pork sides.

    PubMed

    Long, V P; Tarrant, P V

    1990-01-01

    Thirty pairs of Landrace or Large White pigs were used to determine the effects of pre- and post-slaughter cooling treatments on pork quality and yield. One animal from each pair was showered in cold water and after slaughter one side from each carcass was rapidly chilled and the other side was conventionally chilled. Two experiments were carried out in winter: they examined different times of exposure to cooling treatments; a further experiment was carried out in summer time. Showering caused a reduction in the temperature of the deep loin at 40 min post mortem (P < 0·01). Rapid chilling caused a further reduction in carcass temperature and the rate of pH fall was lower (P < 0·05) in the rapidly chilled sides. There was a strong indication that showering in the winter time lowered drip loss in slices of Longissimus dorsi muscle (P = 0·077) whereas showering in the summer time was not effective. Shower water temperature may have been important in this regard. Showering did not lower drip loss in intact pork legs. Rapid chilling was not effective in lowering drip loss in either slices of Longissimus dorsi or intact pork legs. Rapid chilling at -20°C for 3 h without an air blast lowered evaporative chill losses in sides of pork by 27-29% (P < 0·1) compared to normal chilling. Reduced treatments gave reduced effects. Neither treatment had any significant effect on cooking loss or toughness in broiled slices of pork Longissimus dorsi muscle. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Relationship between pork quality and characteristics of muscle fibers classified by the distribution of myosin heavy chain isoforms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gap-Don; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2013-11-01

    A total of six fiber types, including four pure types (type I, IIA, IIX, and IIB) and two hybrid types (type IIAX and IIXB), were classified according to the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms by immunohistochemistry with MHC specific monoclonal antibodies. The comparison of the muscle fiber characteristics and pork quality between pork quality groups (DFD: dark, firm, and dry; PSE: pale, soft, and exudative; RFN: reddish pink, firm, and nonexudative; and RSE: reddish pink, soft, and exudative) classified by muscle pH, drip loss, and lightness was conducted and the relationship of myofiber characteristics to pork quality was investigated. The DFD group had the highest value of IIAX fiber density (P<0.05). The DFD group also showed the greatest fiber relative area of type I, IIA, and IIAX (P<0.05) whereas there were no significant differences in area composition for types I, IIA, and IIAX among the other groups including PSE, RFN, and RSE (P>0.05). The DFD group had the highest cross-sectional area (CSA) in types I, IIA, and IIX among the groups. The increase in density of type IIAX was related with the higher pH and the lower hue and drip loss. An increase in the fiber number composition of hybrid type IIXB increased the lightness and cooking loss and decreased sarcoplasmic protein solubility (SPS). Regarding fiber relative area, pure type I and IIA and hybrid type IIAX were greater in the DFD group and had lower lightness and drip loss. Hybrid type IIAX influences the desirability of the pork due to its association with low lightness and high pH and water-holding capacity (WHC). In contrast, type IIXB was related to poor quality pork, including pale color, low WHC in cooked meat, and low SPS.

  9. Effect of betaine and arginine in lysine-deficient diets on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Madeira, M S; Alfaia, C M; Costa, P; Lopes, P A; Martins, S V; Lemos, J P C; Moreira, O; Santos-Silva, J; Bessa, R J B; Prates, J A M

    2015-10-01

    Forty entire male pigs from a commercial crossbreed (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were used to investigate the individual or combined effects of betaine and Arg supplementation in Lys-deficient diets on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork quality. Pigs with 59.9 ± 1.65 kg BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments ( = 8). The 5 dietary treatments were normal Lys and CP diet (0.51% Lys and 16% CP; control), reduced Lys and CP diet (0.35% Lys and 13% CP), reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine supplementation (0.33%), reduced Lys and CP diet with Arg supplementation (1.5%), and reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine and Arg supplementation (0.33% betaine and 1.5% Arg). Pigs were slaughtered at 92.7 ± 2.54 kg BW. The Lys-deficient diets (-35% Lys) increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content by 25% ( = 0.041) and meat juiciness by 12% ( = 0.041) but had a negative effect on growth performance ( < 0.05) of pigs. In addition, Lys-deficient diets increased L* ( = 0.005) and b* ( = 0.010) muscle color parameters and perirenal fat deposition ( < 0.001) and decreased both HCW ( = 0.015) and loin weight ( = 0.023). Betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets had no effect on IMF content but increased ( < 0.05) overall pork acceptability. Arginine supplementation also increased ( = 0.003) meat tenderness. Differences in fatty acid composition of pork were not detected among dietary treatment groups. However, oleic acid was positively correlated ( < 0.05) with IMF content, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability of meat. Data confirm that dietary CP reduction enhances pork eating quality but negatively affects pigs' growth performance. Moreover, it is suggested that betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets does not further increase IMF content but improves some pork sensory traits, including overall acceptability.

  10. Fine-mapping of a QTL influencing pork tenderness on porcine chromosome 2

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Stacey N; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Beever, Jonathan E

    2007-01-01

    Background In a previous study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) exhibiting large effects on both Instron shear force and taste panel tenderness was detected within the Illinois Meat Quality Pedigree (IMQP). This QTL mapped to the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 (SSC2q). Comparative analysis of SSC2q indicates that it is orthologous to a segment of human chromosome 5 (HSA5) containing a strong positional candidate gene, calpastatin (CAST). CAST polymorphisms have recently been shown to be associated with meat quality characteristics; however, the possible involvement of other genes and/or molecular variation in this region cannot be excluded, thus requiring fine-mapping of the QTL. Results Recent advances in porcine genome resources, including high-resolution radiation hybrid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) physical maps, were utilized for development of novel informative markers. Marker density in the ~30-Mb region surrounding the most likely QTL position was increased by addition of eighteen new microsatellite markers, including nine publicly-available and nine novel markers. Two newly-developed markers were derived from a porcine BAC clone containing the CAST gene. Refinement of the QTL position was achieved through linkage and haplotype analyses. Within-family linkage analyses revealed at least two families segregating for a highly-significant QTL in strong positional agreement with CAST markers. A combined analysis of these two families yielded QTL intervals of 36 cM and 7 cM for Instron shear force and taste panel tenderness, respectively, while haplotype analyses suggested further refinement to a 1.8 cM interval containing CAST markers. The presence of additional tenderness QTL on SSC2q was also suggested. Conclusion These results reinforce CAST as a strong positional candidate. Further analysis of CAST molecular variation within the IMQP F1 boars should enhance understanding of the molecular basis of pork tenderness, and thus allow for genetic

  11. The effect of irradiation of fresh pork loins on the protein quality and microbiological changes in aerobically—or vacuum-packaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M. L.; Smoragiewicz, W.; Jobin, M.; Latreille, B.; Krzystyniak, K.

    2002-03-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the physico-chemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties of pork was studied, during 43 d of storage at 4°C. Irradiation treatments were carried out under air or vacuum packaging on fresh pork loins at a dose of 6 kGy, at two dose-rates: 2 and 20 kGy/h. Regardless of the type of packaging and dose-rate of irradiation, all irradiated pork samples were prevented from bacterial spoilage during 43 d. Meat redness and texture of irradiated loins were well preserved during storage especially when samples were stored under vacuum. The physico-chemical and organoleptic changes in pork loins appeared to be relatively little affected by the 6 kGy dose.

  12. Effect of partial replacement of pork meat with an olive oil organogel on the physicochemical and sensory quality of dry-ripened venison sausages.

    PubMed

    Utrilla, M C; García Ruiz, A; Soriano, A

    2014-08-01

    A venison salchichon was made using varying proportions of olive oil to replace the traditional pork meat and to obtain a healthier product. Six types of salchichon were produced. The control type contained 75% lean venison and 25% pork meat; in the other types, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45% and 55% of the pork meat were replaced by olive oil introduced in the form of an organogel (olive oil emulsified with soy protein and water). All types were satisfactory in terms of physicochemical characteristics (pH, a(w), moisture loss) and instrumental colour throughout ripening, and displayed acceptable levels of lipolysis (acidity index) and lipid oxidation (TBARS). Higher proportions of olive oil prompted an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content (mainly C18:1). All six types of salchichon were judged acceptable by consumers, the highest scores being given to those in which no more than 25% of the pork meat was replaced by olive oil.

  13. A highly sensitive and specific tetraplex PCR assay for soybean, poultry, horse and pork species identification in sausages: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Safdar, M; Junejo, Y; Arman, Kaifee; Abasıyanık, M F

    2014-10-01

    A tetraplex PCR assay was developed for a rapid and reliable identification of horse, soybean, poultry, and pork species in sausages simultaneously. The method merges the use of horse (Equus caballus), soybean (Glycine max), poultry (Gallus gallus), and pork (Sus scrofa) specific primers that amplify small fragments (horse; 85bp, soybean; 100bp, poultry; 183bp and pork; 212bp) of the mitochondrial cyt b, lectin, 12S rRNA and ATPase subunit 6 genes respectively. Good quality DNA was isolated from reference sausage to optimize the assay. Tetraplex analysis of the reference sausage samples showed that the detection limit of the assay was 0.01% for each species. Taken together, all data indicated that this tetraplex PCR assay was a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific, and cost-effective detection method for horse, soybean, poultry, and pork species in commercial sausages.

  14. Effect of beer marinades on formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal-grilled pork.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-03-26

    The effect of marinating meat with Pilsner beer, nonalcoholic Pilsner beer, and Black beer (coded respectively PB, P0B, and BB) on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in charcoal-grilled pork was evaluated and compared with the formation of these compounds in unmarinated meat. Antiradical activity of marinades (DPPH assay) was assayed. BB exhibited the strongest scavenging activity (68.0%), followed by P0B (36.5%) and PB (29.5%). Control and marinated meat samples contained the eight PAHs named PAH8 by the EFSA and classified as suitable indicators for carcinogenic potency of PAHs in food. BB showed the highest inhibitory effect in the formation of PAH8 (53%), followed by P0B (25%) and PB (13%). The inhibitory effect of beer marinades on PAH8 increased with the increase of their radical-scavenging activity. BB marinade was the most efficient on reduction of PAH formation, providing a proper mitigation strategy.

  15. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from two pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Aslam, Mueen; Service, Cara; Narváez-Bravo, Claudia; Avery, Brent P; Johnson, Roger; Jones, Tineke H

    2017-01-16

    This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP). For plant A, 87% of CSAB and 8% of CSAE were positive for Salmonella while at plant B, Salmonella was recovered from 94% of CSAB and 10% of CSAE. Salmonella was not recovered from the RP samples at either plant, indicating that the plants used effective control measures. Salmonella enterica serovar Derby was the most common serotype (23%, 29/127) recovered in plant A and plant B (61%, 76/124). For plant A, 35% (45/127) of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial. Five isolates (3.9%), 4 serovar Ohio strains and one serovar I:Rough-O:I,v:-, strain were simultaneously resistant to antimicrobials of very high (Category I), high (Category II), and medium (Category III) importance to human medicine. The 4 S. Ohio isolates were recovered from 3 different steps of pork processing on the same sampling day and displayed resistance to 5-7 antimicrobials, with all of them displaying resistance to ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). An I:Rough-O:l,v:- isolate, recovered on a different sampling day, was resistant to 7 antimicrobials that included resistance to ampicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and ceftriaxone (Category I). Salmonella strains isolated from plant A harbored 12 different AMR genes. The most prevalent genes were sul1, sul2, tet(A), tet(B), aadA, strA/strB, aac(3)IV and aphA1. For

  16. On the recovery of horsehair worms, Gordius sp. (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) from pork in Shillong, India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arun K; Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Laha, R; Sen, A

    2017-03-01

    The members of the phylum Nematomorpha, called as horsehair or gordian worms, are the parasites of arthropods and emerge from their host for reproduction and early development in water. There are about 360 species of nematomorphs described till date. Although, horsehair worms are parasites of arthropod species, sporadic cases of their occurrence have also been reported from several other hosts, including man. This paper describes a case history of the occurrence of two nematomorph worms in the meat of a pig in Shillong, India. The worms were reported to have emerged in live condition from pork bought by a consumer from local market in Shillong. One of the recovered specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy for species determination and identified as Gordius sp., mainly on the basis of flat polygonal areoles and fine bristles on the cuticle.

  17. Non-invasive ultrasonic technology for continuous monitoring of pork loin and ham dry salting.

    PubMed

    de Prados, Marta; Garcia-Perez, Jose V; Benedito, Jose

    2017-06-01

    Online ultrasound measurements were taken using pulse-echo mode in loins (Longissimus dorsi) and hams at different salting times (up to 30days). From the time-domain ultrasonic wave, the time of flight (TOF) was computed as well as its variation between two signals (ΔTOF). A progressive decrease in TOF during dry salting was found, which was linked to the salt gain, water loss and the reduction in sample thickness. Predictive models based on the ultrasonic parameters (ΔTOF and initial time of flight, TOF0) correctly classified 85% of the loins and 90% of the hams into 3 groups of salt content (low/medium/high). The results obtained confirm that the use of the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique is of great potential in the non-destructive monitoring of dry salting in pork loins and hams, as well as in the prediction of the salt gain for classification purposes.

  18. Molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in pork meat from different production systems in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Slany, Michal; Reslova, Nikol; Babak, Vladimir; Lorencova, Alena

    2016-12-05

    Toxoplasmosis is a major public health issue, due to the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, mainly in pork. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of T. gondii in pigs and wild boars bred in different production systems in the Czech Republic using ELISA and qPCR methods. Our results show that T. gondii infection is widespread in pigs and wild boars bred and slaughtered in the Czech Republic and that there is a higher exposure to T. gondii in backyard slaughter operations and organic pig farming, indicating a potential risk for meat consumption. Additionally, genotyping of amplified loci for Type II suggests the presence of one clonal genotype circulating in these animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From piety to platitudes to pork: the changing politics of health workforce policy.

    PubMed

    Fox, D M

    1996-01-01

    Policy to subsidize the education of health professionals in the United States has become contentious and uncertain. This article examines the politics of workforce policy in the twentieth century, emphasizing the years since World War II. From early in the century until the 1970s, most decision makers viewed policy to subsidize the education of health professionals as self-evidently correct. As consensus eroded, proponents insisted to increasingly skeptical audiences that these subsidies created benefits for the public. Recently, decision makers outside health care institutions have come to regard workforce policy as serving particular rather than general interests. Thus health workforce policy, like other policies outside of health affairs, may be said, perhaps oversimply but not inaccurately, to have gone through three stages: from piety to platitudes to pork.

  20. Influence of natural extracts on the shelf life of modified atmosphere-packaged pork patties.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Sineiro, Jorge; Amado, Isabel R; Franco, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In this study four natural extracts from tea (TEA), grape (GRA), chestnut (CHE) and seaweed (SEA) with potential antioxidant activity were evaluated in pork patties. During 20 days of storage in modified atmosphere packs at 2°C, pH, colour, lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage parameters of raw minced porcine patties were examined and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (BHT) and control (CON) batch. Due to their higher polyphenol content, GRA and TEA extracts were the most effective antioxidants against lipid oxidation, also limiting colour deterioration. In addition, both natural extracts led to a decrease of total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Pseudomonas and psychotropic aerobic bacteria compared to the control. Among the four natural compounds tested, tea and grape extracts showed the most potential as alternatives to commercial antioxidants, for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of porcine patties.

  1. Effects of tea polyphenol on quality and shelf life of pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Wenjiao, Fan; Yunchuan, Chen; Junxiu, Sun; Yongkui, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tea polyphenol on quality and shelf life of pork sausages stored at 20 °C for 42 days were examined. The control and the treated sausage samples added with 0.03 % tea polyphenol were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable counts and lactic acid bacteria counts), physical (Hunter color of L(*), a(*), b(*)), chemical (pH, TBA value) and sensory characteristics. It was found that samples added with tea polyphenol showed lower changes in total viable count, pH, TBA value and sensory characteristics than control samples, respectively. The results indicated that the sausage samples with tea polyphenol added was to enable the good quality and sensory characteristics than the control sausage samples and prolonged the shelf life of the sausages.

  2. Effect of the fungal extracellular protease EPg222 on texture of whole pieces of pork loin.

    PubMed

    Benito, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Acosta, Raquel; Córdoba, Juan J

    2003-10-01

    Proteolytic activity of the fungal protease EPg222 and its effect on texture has been investigated in a meat model system based on sterile pieces of pork loins incubated for 32 days. SDS-PAGE analysis of treated samples showed intense hydrolysis of the myofibrillar proteins H-meromyosin, T-troponin, tropomyosin and the proteins bands of 98, 89, 48, 39, 37 and 28 kDa after 17 days of incubation. Proteolytic activity of the enzyme led to a higher accumulation of NPN in treated than untreated samples. Microstructural analysis of muscle fibres showed loss of muscle fibre structure only in treated batch. The texture profile analysis reveals lower values in hardness, gumminess and chewiness in treated than control batch. This effect may be of great interest in dry-cured meat products to counterbalance the increase of hardness reported in these products as consequence of protein denaturation.

  3. PCR identification of beef, sheep, goat, and pork in raw and heat-treated meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Miguel A; García, Teresa; González, Isabel; Asensio, Luis; Hernández, Pablo E; Martín, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    A PCR assay has been developed for the specific and qualitative detection of pork (Sus scrofa domesticus), beef (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goat (Capra hircus) in raw and heat-treated meat mixtures. A forward common primer was designed on a conserved DNA sequence in the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA), and reverse primers were designed to hybridize on species-specific DNA sequences of each species considered. The different sizes of the species-specific amplicons, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed clear species identification. Analysis of experimental meat mixtures demonstrated that the detection limit of the assay was 1% (wt/wt) for each species analyzed. This assay can be useful for the accurate identification of these species, avoiding mislabeling or fraudulent species substitution in meat mixtures.

  4. [Resistance of Toxoplasma gondii to sodium chloride and condiments in pork sausage].

    PubMed

    Navarro, I T; Vidotto, O; Giraldi, N; Mitsuka, R

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of Toxoplasma gondii cysts to salt (sodium chloride) and condiments (black pepper and garlic) in fresh sausages prepared with experimentally infected pork. The sausages were treated with 1.25, 2.00, and 2.50% salt with condiments added, and were refrigerated for 2, 24, and 48 hours, after which they were artificially digested. Mice were then inoculated with the digested matter. After 42 days the surviving mice were sacrificed and their serum examined using indirect immunofluorescence to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. This examination showed that the treatments with salt over periods of less than 24 hours did not eliminate the parasite, and that only after 48 hours did the salt, at concentrations of 2.00 and 2.50%, effectively kill the parasite. The results of this experiment also showed that the condiments had no effect on the viability of T. gondii.

  5. Iron(II) Initiation of Lipid and Protein Oxidation in Pork: The Role of Oxymyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feibai; Jongberg, Sisse; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-08

    Iron(II), added as FeSO4·7H2O, was found to increase the rate of oxygen depletion as detected electrochemically in a pork homogenate from Longissimus dorsi through an initial increase in metmyoglobin formation from oxymyoglobin and followed by formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products and protein oxidation as detected as thiol depletion in myofibrillar proteins. Without added iron(II), under the same conditions at 37 °C, oxygen consumption corresponded solely to the slow oxymyoglobin autoxidation. Long-lived myofibrillar protein radicals as detected by ESR spectroscopy in the presence of iron(II) were formed subsequently to oxymyoglobin oxidation, and their level was increased by lipid oxidation when oxygen was completely depleted. Similarly, the time profile for formation of lipid peroxide indicated that oxymyoglobin oxidation initiates both protein oxidation and lipid oxidation.

  6. Synergistic cooperation of high pressure and carrot dietary fibre on texture and colour of pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the synergistic cooperation between high pressure treatment (HP) and carrot dietary fibre, two formulations of pork sausages containing different percentage of carrot dietary fibre were pressurized at 500 and 600 MPa, for 1 second, 3, 6, and 9 min at 40, 50, and 60 °C. HP treatments significantly increase Young's Modulus and affect Hencky strain values. We conclude that HP processing and carrot dietary fibre markedly improved emulsion strength resulting in firm sausages. Colour changes were investigated and significant increase in L* value and decrease in a* value were found, indicating that HP, temperature, and dietary fibre can affect physico-chemical properties of the meat matrix altering the intrinsic ability to absorb or reflect light. The sensory evaluation showed that HP treatment synergistically cooperate with carrot dietary fibre improving sensorial attributes like homogeneity, creaminess, fattiness, and firmness as detected by Napping in combination with Ultra-Flash Profile.

  7. Detection and quantification of beef and pork materials in meat products by duplex droplet digital PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yicun; He, Yuping; Lv, Rong; Chen, Hongchao; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Meat products often consist of meat from multiple animal species, and inaccurate food product adulteration and mislabeling can negatively affect consumers. Therefore, a cost-effective and reliable method for identification and quantification of animal species in meat products is required. In this study, we developed a duplex droplet digital PCR (dddPCR) detection and quantification system to simultaneously identify and quantify the source of meat in samples containing a mixture of beef (Bos taurus) and pork (Sus scrofa) in a single digital PCR reaction tube. Mixed meat samples of known composition were used to test the accuracy and applicability of this method. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of this detection and quantification system were also identified. We conclude that our dddPCR detection and quantification system is suitable for quality control and routine analyses of meat products. PMID:28771608

  8. A rapid method for the nonselective enumeration of Yersinia enterocolitica, a foodborne pathogen associated with pork.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Palmer, Jon; Flint, Steve

    2016-03-01

    An impedance method was developed as a rapid, convenient method to enumerate pure culture of Yersinia enterocolitica. Cultures were incubated in trypticase soy broth (TSB) at 30°C. The BacTrac™ 4000 microorganism growth analyser was used to detect impedance change of TSB representing bacteria cell numbers in the samples. Good correlations with standard plate counts were obtained (r(2)>0.95). This method is also reliable to enumerate Y. enterocolitica growing in biofilms attached to stainless steel. Compared with a standard plate count which involves dislodging biofilms from surfaces, this method is more convenient saving both time and effort. Therefore, it will be useful to study the conditions required for the biofilm growth and control of Y. enterocolitica that could be applied to the pork industry.

  9. Effects of lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 on pig growth and pork quality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus plantarum is a plant-associated bacterial species but it has also been found in human, mouse and porcine gastrointestinal tracts. It can ferment a broad spectrum of plant carbohydrates; it is tolerant of bile salts and low pH, and it has antagonistic potential against intestinal pathogens. However, experiments reporting the use of L. plantarum as a probiotic are limited. In this study, the effects of L. plantarum ZJ316 isolated from infant fecal samples on pig growth and pork quality were investigated. Results One hundred and fifty newly weaned pigs were selected randomly and divided into five groups. Group 1 was fed a diet supplemented with the antibiotic mequindox; Groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed a diet supplemented with L. plantarum and no antibiotic; and Group 5 was fed a mixture of mequindox and L. plantarum. After a 60 days initial treatment, samples were collected for evaluation. The results showed that, the L. plantarum ZJ316 has probiotic effects on pig growth and that these effects are dose dependent. The effects of a dose of 1 × 109 CFU/d were more pronounced than those of a dose of 5 × 109 CFU/d or 1 × 1010 CFU/d. In Group 2 (1 × 109 CFU/d), the diarrhea (p = 0.000) and mortality rates (p = 0.448) were lower than in antibiotic-treated pigs (Group 1), and the daily weight gain (p = 0.001) and food conversion ratios were better (p = 0.005). Improved pork quality was associated with Lactobacillus treatment. pH (45 min, p = 0.020), hardness (p = 0.000), stickiness (p = 0.044), chewiness (p = 0.000), gumminess (p = 0.000) and restoring force (p = 0.004) were all significantly improved in Lactobacillus-treated pigs (Group 2). Although we found that L. plantarum exerted probiotic effects on pig growth and pork quality, the mechanisms underlying its action require further study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results showed that the gut

  10. Quantification of pork, chicken and beef by using a novel reference molecule.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yumiko; Kotoura, Satoshi; Yano, Takeo; Kurihara, Takashi; Uchida, Kouji; Miake, Kiyotaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    A standard plasmid was constructed as a novel reference molecule for use in real-time quantitative PCR assays to verify the identity of beef, pork, chicken, mutton, and horseflesh. The plasmid contained a target domain of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and an artificial DNA sequence. Primers CO-F and CO-R, and probe CO-P were specifically designed to detect the artificial sequence. The calculated R² values of the standard curves (10³-10⁷ copies per reaction) for the five species ranged between 0.998 and 0.999 in the quantification analysis. The constructed plasmid provides a universal method for measuring the copy number of cyt b DNA in minced meat. This method would be a useful procedure for verifying food labels.

  11. Rapid detection of frozen pork quality without thawing by Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Xie, Anguo; Sun, Da-Wen; Xu, Zhongyue; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-07-01

    Quality determination of frozen food is a time-consuming and laborious work as it normally takes a long time to thaw the frozen samples before measurements can be carried out. In this research, a rapid and non-destructive determination technique for frozen pork quality was tested with a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system. In this study, 120 pieces of pork meat were frozen by four kinds of methods with various freezing temperatures from -20 to -120°C. The hyperspectral images of the samples were acquired at the frozen state. Quality indicators including drip loss, pH value, color, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of the samples were measured after thawing. The spectral characteristics of the frozen meat samples were studied and it was revealed that the reflectance at 1100nm had a close relationship with the freezing temperature (R=-0.832, p<0.01). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to establish the spectral models, and the models were then optimized. Results showed that the improved region of interest (ROI) method could be used to extract effective spectral information to withstand the interference of freezing, and choosing appropriate spectral bands and spectral pretreatment techniques were crucial to develop robust mathematical model. The performances of the models established were diverse based on different quality indicators. The coefficients of determination for prediction (Rp(2)) for L*, cooking loss, b*, drip loss and a* were 0.907, 0.845, 0.814, 0.762, and 0.716, respectively. However there were low correlations (Rp(2)) for pH and WBSF measurements. The current study indicated that HSI had the potential for non-destructive determination of frozen meat quality without thawing.

  12. Detection of Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Residuals in Pork Liver Using a Customized Surface Plasmon Resonance Bioanalyzer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiandong; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Shun; Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Li, Jianwei; Hu, Xinran; Liang, Hao; Zhu, Juanhua; Sun, Xiaohui; Ma, Liuzheng; Jiang, Min

    2015-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay with an immobilization of self-assembled molecular identification membrane for the detection of residual Clenbuterol Hydrochloride (CLB) in pork liver was systematically investigated and experimentally validated for its high performance. SPR immunoassay with a regular competitive inhibition assay cannot be directly verified to detect CLB residuals. In this study, the binding of Au film with mercaptopropionic acid was investigated using the known form of the strong S-Au covalent bonds formed by the chemical radical of the mercaptopropionic acid and the Au film. After that, the immunoglobulin IgG of swine (SwIgG-CLB) was bonded with the mercaptopropionic acid by covalent -CO-NH- amide bonding. The modified comprehensive analysis of how the membrane structure works was introduced together with the customized SPR bioanalyzer. In order to evaluate the performance of this biomembrane structure, the concentrations of CLB-contained solutions of 0 ng•mL-1, 10 ng•mL-1, 20 ng•mL-1, 33.3 ng•mL-1, and 40 ng•mL-1 were prepared by adding CLB reagents into the solutions of CLB antibody (Clenbuterol Hydrochloride Antibody, CLB-Ab), successively and then the response unit (RU) was measured individually. Using the data collected from the linear CCD array, the fitting curve was established with the R-Square value of 0.9929. Correspondingly, the recovery rate ranged from 88.48% to 103.21% was experimented and the limit of detection of CLB in 1.26 ng•mL-1 was obtained efficiently. It was concluded that the detection method associated with biomembrane properties is expected to contribute much to the determination of residual CLB in pork liver quantitatively by using the customized SPR bioanalyzer. PMID:25799327

  13. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides generated from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of pork meat.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Elizabeth; Sentandreu, Miguel Angel; Arihara, Keizo; Toldrá, Fidel

    2010-03-10

    The main purpose of this work was to study the generation of Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) peptides after gastrointestinal digestion of pork meat by the action of pepsin and pancreatin at simulated gut conditions. The hydrolysate was further subjected to reverse phase chromatography in order to separate the fractions with ACEI activity. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, 12 peptides were identified in these fractions. It is worth highlighting the novel peptides ER, KLP, and RPR with IC(50) values of 667 microM, 500 microM, and 382 microM, respectively. Results obtained by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry were complemented by a second approach consisting of the analysis of the hydrolysate directly by nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS followed by a study of the obtained sequences and comparison with known ACEI peptide sequences. By using these two approaches, a total of 22 peptides were selected for its synthesis and further in vitro assay of ACEI activity. The strongest ACE inhibition was observed for peptide KAPVA (IC(50) = 46.56 microM) followed by the sequence PTPVP (IC(50) = 256.41 microM). Sequence similarity searches revealed that these two peptides derive from muscle titin, constituting the first identified ACEI peptides coming from this protein. This is also the first time that ACEI sequences MYPGIA and VIPEL have been reported. Other identified and synthesized sequences showed less ACEI activity. The obtained results evidence the potential of pork meat proteins as a source of antihypertensive peptides after gastrointestinal digestion.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pork and chicken carcasses in Taiwan: prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyhshiun; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Liu, Hsueh-Tao; Lin, Jiunn-Horng

    2009-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a cause of many diseases in both humans and animals. This pathogen is also a major target in the screening of slaughterhouse carcasses to monitor hygienic conditions during slaughter. During 2004 to 2006, S. aureus was recovered from 8.8% (38 of 430), 11.3% (77 of 680), and 4.3% (13 of 300) of pork carcass samples, respectively, collected at 53 slaughterhouses in Taiwan. During 2003 to 2005, it was recovered from 0.3% (1 of 305), 0.4% (1 of 260), and 7.8% (31 of 395) of rinse fluids from chicken carcasses, respectively, collected at 17 meat processing plants. The minimum dilution method was used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility (MICs) of these strains (n = 103) as well as those collected from pork and chicken carcasses (n = 104) in a previous study beginning in 2000. All 207 strains were sensitive to nitrofurantoin and vancomycin. Over 50% were resistant to clindamycin (MIC that inhibited 90% of strains [MIC90] = 32 microg/ml) and tetracycline (MIC90 = 64 microg/ml). The percentages resistant to methicillin (oxacillin), chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and tylosin were 19.4% (40 of 207), 18.8% (39 of 207), 23.2% (48 of 207), and 20.8% (43 of 207) with MIC90s of 8, 64, > or = 64, and > or = 128 microg/ml, respectively. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains exhibited resistance to more antibiotics than did the methicillin-susceptible strains, and 87.5% (35 of 40) of the MRSA strains carried the mecA gene sequence. Since MRSA infections have become a public health concern in both communities and hospitals, testing for the presence of MRSA in animal carcasses during slaughtering operations is warranted.

  15. Systems of attitudes towards production in the pork industry. A cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Barcellos, Marcia Dutra de; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2012-12-01

    Existing research on public attitudes towards agricultural production systems is largely descriptive, abstracting from the processes through which members of the general public generate their evaluations of such systems. The present paper adopts a systems perspective on such evaluations, understanding them as embedded into a wider attitude system that consists of attitudes towards objects of different abstraction levels, ranging from personal value orientations over general socio-political attitudes to evaluations of specific characteristics of agricultural production systems. It is assumed that evaluative affect propagates through the system in such a way that the system becomes evaluatively consistent and operates as a schema for the generation of evaluative judgments. In the empirical part of the paper, the causal structure of an attitude system from which people derive their evaluations of pork production systems was modelled. The analysis was based on data from a cross-national survey involving 1931 participants from Belgium, Denmark, Germany and Poland. The survey questionnaire contained measures of personal value orientations and attitudes towards environment and nature, industrial food production, food and the environment, technological progress, animal welfare, local employment and local economy. In addition, the survey included a conjoint task by which participants' evaluations of the importance of production system attributes were measured. The data were analysed by means of causal search algorithms and structural equation models. The results suggest that evaluative judgments of the importance of pork production system attributes are generated in a schematic manner, driven by personal value orientations. The effect of personal value orientations was strong and largely unmediated by attitudes of an intermediate level of generality, suggesting that the dependent variables in the particular attitude system that was modelled here can be understood as value

  16. Airborne mutagens produced by frying beef, pork and a soy-based food.

    PubMed

    Thiébaud, H P; Knize, M G; Kuzmicky, P A; Hsieh, D P; Felton, J S

    1995-10-01

    Airborne cooking by-products from frying beef (hamburgers), pork (bacon strips) and soybean-based food (tempeh burgers) were collected, extracted, tested for mutagenicity and chemically analysed. The fumes generated by frying pork and beef were mutagenic, with 4900 and 1300 revertants/g of food cooked, respectively. No mutagenicity was detected in fumes from frying tempeh burgers. Bacon fried to a well-done but non-charred state was eight times more mutagenic in a microsuspension Ames/Salmonella test (TA98 with S-9) than hamburgers and about 350 times more mutagenic than tempeh burgers. Among food samples cooked to a well-done, non-charred state, bacon strips had almost 15-fold more mass (109.5 ng/g) than that of the beef, whereas no heterocyclic amine (HCA) was detected in the fried tempeh burgers. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was the most abundant HCA, followed by 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx). No 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (A alpha C) was detected in the food samples fried at about 200 degrees C, although it was present in the collected airborne products. The total amounts of HCAs in the smoke condensates were 3 ng/g from fried bacon, 0.37 ng/g from fried beef and 0.177 ng/g from fried soy-based food. This study indicates that cooks are potentially exposed to relatively high levels of airborne mutagens and carcinogens and that long-term sampling inside restaurants and kitchens may be warranted in order to assess the potential risk of prolonged exposure.

  17. Prolonged expression and production of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in processed pork meat.

    PubMed

    Wallin-Carlquist, Nina; Márta, Dóra; Borch, Elisabeth; Rådström, Peter

    2010-07-31

    The bacteriophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is the toxin most frequently reported to be involved in staphylococcal food poisoning. In this study, sea expression and SEA formation were studied in four processed pork products: boiled ham, hot-smoked ham, Serrano ham (dry-cured Spanish ham) and black pepper salami. The products were selected because of their differences in intrinsic factors. As a reference, Staphylococcus aureus was cultivated under favorable planktonic growth conditions. Expression was mainly linked to bacterial growth for both meat products and broth cultures. In liquid broth, however, the relative level of sea mRNA peaked in the late exponential phase and then rapidly declined, while in the meat products allowing immediate growth, i.e. boiled and smoked ham, active sea expression occurred throughout the incubation period of seven days. Lower levels of sea mRNA and SEA were found in smoked ham compared to boiled ham, although viable counts of S. aureus on the two products were similar. Furthermore, the SEA concentration in the boiled ham reached a maximum after three days of incubation and then unpredictably decreased. In the Serrano ham, no increase in cell number was observed until day seven, and sea expression and extracellular SEA could only be detected on days five and seven. Finally, the black pepper salami with low pH and competing microbiota proved to be a difficult environment for the survival of S. aureus. The molecular mechanism behind the behaviour of S. aureus SEA expression is discussed in connection to the life-cycle of the SEA-encoding bacteriophage and the microbial communities in these pork products.

  18. Effect of Modified Wheat Gluten on Boiling Resistance Capacity of Pork Meatballs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Qiang; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zhong, Xi-Yang; Cai, Ke-Zhou; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Shao-Tong; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the modified wheat gluten (MWG) extender, prepared by alcalase-based hydrolysis and transglutaminase cross-linking, on meatballs was analyzed in this study. Here, we studied the effect of MWG addition on the boiling resistance capacity of pork meatballs (MB-MWG) at high temperature (100 °C) and increasing cooking time; meatballs with added soy protein isolates (MB-SPI) and raw wheat gluten (MB-WG) were used as references. The cooking loss, water-holding capacity (WHC), and textural properties of meatballs were investigated. The results revealed that MB-MWG showed lower cooking loss, which decreased by 49.16% compared to meatballs without added extenders when treated for 30 min. The WHC of MB-MWG significantly increased from 80.68% to 95.42%. The hardness, springiness, and chewiness (textural properties) of MB-MWG were also significantly increased by 97.05%, 6.68%, and 121.96%, respectively. The addition of MWG increased the cross-linking in meatballs during the cooking process, as indicated by the higher G'. SDS-PAGE indicated an obvious decrease in myosin heavy chain in MB-MWG cooked for 30 min at 100 °C, which was attributed to the interaction of myofibrillar proteins in pork meat with MWG. The nuclear magnetic resonance T2 relaxation time patterns indicated that MWG addition caused an increase in the bound water content, and decrease in the free water content, of meatballs. An analysis of the microstructures revealed that the MB-MWG formed the most regular and compact network. Therefore, MWG could be used as an ingredient to facilitate the processing of meat products.

  19. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    PubMed Central

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24971025

  20. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork.

    PubMed

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  1. Enhancement of the nutritional status and quality of fresh pork sausages following the addition of linseed oil, fish oil and natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Valencia, I; O'Grady, M N; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I; Kerry, J P

    2008-12-01

    Fresh pork sausages (pork shoulder, pork back fat, water, rusk and seasoning) were manufactured where 15% of the pork back fat was substituted with linseed oil (LO) or fish oil (FO). Green tea catechins (GTC) and green coffee antioxidant (GCA) were added to both LO (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200) and FO (FGTC 200 and FGCA 200) substituted sausages at a level of 200mg/kg. Raw and cooked pork sausages were either over-wrapped with oxygen permeable film (aerobic storage) or stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing 80% O(2):20% CO(2) or 70% N(2):30% CO(2), respectively for 7 days at 4°C. Effects on fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, colour and sensorial properties were investigated. α-Linolenic acid increased from 1.34% (control) to 8.91% (LO) and up to 11.2% (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200). Addition of fish oil increased levels of EPA from 0.05% (control) to 2.83% (FO), 3.02% (FGTC 200) and 2.87% (FGCA 200) and DHA levels increased from 0.04% (control) to a maximum of 1.93% (FGTC 200). Lipid oxidation was low in raw and cooked linseed oil containing sausages. GTC (200mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid oxidation in raw fish oil containing sausages after 7 days of storage. Colour parameters in raw pork sausages were unaffected by the packaging atmosphere. L(∗) lightness values were lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and a(∗) redness values lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and FGTC 200 after 7 days of storage. Sensory scores of cooked pork sausages were unaffected by linseed oil addition. Flavour and overall acceptability scores in cooked fish oil containing sausages were improved by GTC addition. Results obtained demonstrate potential for the production of nutritionally enhanced fresh pork sausages.

  2. Use of carbon monoxide combined with carbon dioxide for modified atmosphere packaging of pre- and postrigor fresh pork sausage to improve shelf life.

    PubMed

    Laury, Angela; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2007-04-01

    Fresh pre- and postrigor pork sausage patties were manufactured in the Iowa State University Meat Laboratory and packaged either in modified atmosphere (MAP) with 0.4% carbon monoxide (CO) and 99.6% carbon dioxide (CO2) or on foam trays overwrapped with oxygen-permeable film (OW). Packages were stored at 2 to 40C under fluorescent lights for up to 31 days. Aerobic, anaerobic, and psychrotrophic plate counts, raw and cooked color, purge, and lipid oxidation were measured during storage. Results indicated that both pork sausage products in MAP had lower aerobic and psychrotrophic counts and less lipid oxidation throughout storage (P < 0.05). Raw color of both products in MAP was redder than the OW patties (P < 0.05), but the prerigor pork sausage in MAP benefited more from the CO atmosphere in terms of raw color than the postrigor pork sausage in MAP. Cooked color of the prerigor pork sausage in MAP was significantly redder than cooked color of the postrigor pork sausage. Both pork sausage products in MAP were also lighter (L* value) than the OW patties for raw and cooked color. Therefore, the combination of CO and CO2 in MAP was beneficial in extending the shelf life of pre-and postrigor fresh pork sausage by reducing aerobic and psychrotrophic microbial growth and improving oxidative stability and color, compared to conventional OW packaging. However, increased purge, increased anaerobic growth, and changes in cooking behavior were also observed for the products in MAP during storage (P < 0.05).

  3. Detection of pork adulteration in processed meat by species-specific PCR-QIAxcel procedure based on D-loop and cytb genes.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Hassan; El-Garhy, Hoda A S; Moustafa, Mahmoud M A

    2014-12-01

    Detection of pork meat adulteration in "halal" meat products is a crucial issue in the fields of modern food inspection according to implementation of very strict procedures for halal food labelling. Present study aims at detecting and quantifying pork adulteration in both raw and cooked manufactured sausages. This is by applying an optimized species-specific PCR procedure followed by QIAxcel capillary electrophoresis system. Manufacturing experiment was designed by incorporating pork with beef meat at 0.01 to 10 % substitution levels beside beef and pork sausages as negative and positive controls, respectively. Subsequently, sausages were divided into raw and cooked sausages then subjected to DNA extraction. Results indicated that PCR amplifications of mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) genes by porcine-specific primers produced 185 and 117 bp pork-specific DNA fragments in sausages, respectively. No DNA fragments were detected when PCR was applied on beef sausage DNA confirming primers specificity. For internal control, a 141-bp DNA fragment of eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified from pork and beef DNA templates. Although PCR followed by either QIAxcel or agarose techniques were efficient for targeted DNA fragments differentiation even as low as 0.01 % (pork/meat: w/w). For proficiency, adequacy, and performance, PCR-QIA procedure is highly sensitive, a time-saver, electronically documented, mutagenic-reagent free, of little manual errors, accurate in measuring PCR fragments length, and quantitative data supplier. In conclusion, it can be suggested that optimized PCR-QAI is considered as a rapid and sensitive method for routine pork detection and quantification in raw or processed meat.

  4. Comparing growth of pork- and venison-reared Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for the application of forensic entomology to wildlife poaching.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Lafon, N W; Kreitlow, K L; Brewster, C C; Fell, R D

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory rearing of Phormia regina Meigen larvae on pork and venison was conducted as part of a study to determine whether forensic entomology approaches can be used in wildlife poaching investigations. Larvae were reared at 30 degrees C, 75% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h on pork or venison diets, and samples were collected every 8 h until >90% of the maggots reached the third-instar wandering or prepupal stage. Significant differences were found in the distribution of lengths of the third instar and combined instars for maggots reared on the two different meat sources. Maggots reared on venison reached the prepupal wandering stage significantly faster (approximately 6 h) compared with maggots on the pork diet. Mean adult weight and wing length of venison-reared flies were significantly greater than for flies reared on pork. The lower crude fat content of venison appears to make this meat source a more suitable medium than pork for larvae of P. regina. The difference in growth rate could introduce error into PMImin estimations from third-instar maggots in deer poaching cases if estimates are based on data from studies in which maggots were reared on pork.

  5. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis.

    PubMed

    Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment.

  6. Comparison of glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, ribose, and mannose as flavour precursors in pork; the effect of monosaccharide addition on flavour generation.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Lene; Schäfer, Annette; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Aaslyng, Margit D; Bredie, Wender L P

    2009-03-01

    The effect of glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, mannose and ribose on the generation of aroma volatiles in pork was investigated. The monosaccharides were added individually to minced pork prior to heat treatment (160°C for 10min) in the following concentrations: glucose (27.5μmol/g), ribose (1.2μmol/g), mannose (8.3μmol/g) and glucose 6-phosphate (0.5μmol/g). The natural concentrations of the monosaccharides in the pork used were found to be 4.0μmol/g for glucose, 0.1μmol/g for ribose, 0.3μmol/g for mannose and 2.6μmol/g for glucose 6-phosphate. The major aroma compounds identified in the headspace of the heated samples were pyrazines, aldehydes (Strecker and lipid-derived), ketones, and sulphides. Glucose generated the highest amounts of volatiles followed by glucose 6-phosphate. However, when related to the added concentration of glucose 6-phosphate, this phosphorylated monosaccharide showed the highest aroma generating potential. The addition of ribose did not increase the concentration of volatiles compared with pork without the added monosaccharide. The fates of ribose 5-phosphate and ribose in pork were studied over time. The concentrations of ribose and ribose 5-phosphate clearly decreased during 2h equilibration, which may be due to enzymatic activities. These precursors may, therefore, be less important pork flavour precursors than glucose and glucose 6-phosphate.

  7. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment. PMID:25178301

  8. Trained sensory perception of pork eating quality as affected by fresh and cooked pork quality attributes and end-point cooked temperature.

    PubMed

    Moeller, S J; Miller, R K; Aldredge, T L; Logan, K E; Edwards, K K; Zerby, H N; Boggess, M; Box-Steffensmeier, J M; Stahl, C A

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluated individual and interactive influences of pork loin (n=679) ultimate ph (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and internal cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on trained sensory perception of palatability. Logistical regression analyses were used, fitting sensory responses as dependent variables and quality and cooked temperature as independent variables, testing quadratic and interactive effects. Incremental increases in cooked temperature reduced sensory juiciness and tenderness scores by 3.8% and 0.9%, respectively, but did not influence sensory flavor or saltiness scores. An increase of 4.9N in WBSF, from a base of 14.7N (lowest) to 58.8N (greatest) was associated with a 3.7% and 1.8% reduction in sensory tenderness and juiciness scores, respectively, with predicted sensory tenderness scores reduced by 3.55 units when comparing ends of the WBSF range. Modeled sensory responses for loins with pH of 5.40 and 5.60 had reduced tenderness, chewiness, and fat flavor ratings when compared with responses for loins with pH of 5.80 to 6.40, the range indicative of optimal sensory response. Loin IMF and L* were significant model effects; however, their influence on sensory attributes was small, with predicted mean sensory responses measurably improved only when comparing 6% and 1% IMF and L* values of 46.9 (dark) when compared with 65.0 (pale). Tenderness and juiciness scores, were related to a greater extent to loin WBSF and pH, and to a lesser extent to cooked temperature, IMF and L*. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of cooked temperature on pork tenderness and relationships among muscle physiology and pork quality traits in loins from Landrace and Berkshire swine.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S M; Moeller, S J; Zerby, H N; Irvin, K M; Kuber, P S; Velleman, S G; Leeds, T D

    2010-04-01

    The effect of, and associations between, loin muscle morphology and pork quality indicator traits were assessed at three cooked temperatures in loin chops from 38 purebred Berkshire and 52 purebred Landrace swine. Three loin chops from each pig were randomly assigned to cooked temperature treatments of 62, 71, or 79 degrees C and loin tenderness was assessed as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Cooked temperature (P<0.001), breed (P<0.001) and breed x cooked temperature (P<0.001) effects influenced loin chop WBSF, whereby WBSF increased as cooked temperature increased. Chops from Landrace pigs had greater WBSF at each cooked temperature compared with chops from Berkshire pigs. Chops from Landrace pigs became less tender with increasing cooked temperature, whereas chops from Berkshire pigs became less tender only when cooked to 79 degrees C. In loins from Landrace pigs, Minolta a* at 62 degrees C (R(2)=0.07), and average muscle fiber diameter at 71 degrees C and 79 degrees C (R(2)=0.07 and 0.24, respectively), contributed to WBSF variation. In contrast, for loins from Berkshire pigs, loin ultimate pH and intramuscular fat percentage accounted for 27% and 30% of the variation in WBSF at 62 degrees C and 71 degrees C, respectively, and loin ultimate pH accounted for 7% of variation in WBSF at 79 degrees C. Results suggest that loins from Berkshire pigs have properties that resist toughening at greater cooked temperatures and that associations between quality measures and loin tenderness differ between Landrace and Berkshire pigs.

  10. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Choe, J H; Kim, B C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits.

  11. Survival, injury, and virulence of freeze-stressed plasmid-bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica in ground pork.

    PubMed

    Bhaduri, Saumya

    2005-01-01

    The effect of freezing at -20 degrees C on survival, injury, stability of the virulence plasmid, and expression of virulence-associated determinants of Yersinia enterocolitica (YEP(+)) in ground pork was assessed. The viable counts on nonselective and selective media after 12 weeks of freezing were similar to counts obtained before freezing, indicating that the YEP(+) strain survived the freezing process. There was no evidence of freeze-stress injury. Results of a PCR assay targeting plasmid-associated virF gene and virulence determinants indicate that YEP(+) subjected to freezing are potentially capable of causing food-borne illness and freezing is not a substitute for safe handling and proper cooking of pork.

  12. Effect of Penicillium chrysogenum and Debaryomyces hansenii on the volatile compounds during controlled ripening of pork loins.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J; Benito, María J; Aranda, Emilio; Asensio, Miguel A

    2003-08-01

    During ripening of meat products such as dry-cured ham, the moulds and yeasts that proliferate on the surface may contribute to flavour development. However, their contribution to volatile components of dry-cured meat products is not known. One strain each of Penicillium chrysogenum and Debaryomyces hansenii, selected from dry-cured ham by their proteolytic activity, were tested to determine their effect on the volatile compounds during ripening. Sterile pork loins were inoculated and ripened for 106 days. Volatile compounds collected with a Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) fibre were analysed by GC/MS. Inoculation of pork loins with P. chrysogenum lead to a decrease in compounds attributed to lipid oxidation and to an increase of compounds derived from free amino acids. Inoculation with D. hansenii seemed to favour the formation of complex alcohols.

  13. Survival of Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Trueperella pyogenes in dry-cured Iberian pork shoulders and loins.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Toset, F; Luque, I; Morales-Partera, A; Galán-Relaño, A; Barrero-Domínguez, B; Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J

    2017-02-01

    Dry-cured hams, shoulders and loins of Iberian pigs are highly appreciated in national and international markets. Salting, additive addition and dehydration are the main strategies to produce these ready-to-eat products. Although the dry curing process is known to reduce the load of well-known food borne pathogens, studies evaluating the viability of other microorganisms in contaminated pork have not been performed. In this work, the efficacy of the dry curing process to eliminate three swine pathogens associated with pork carcass condemnation, Streptococcus suis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Trueperella pyogenes, was evaluated. Results of this study highlight that the dry curing process is a suitable method to obtain safe ready-to-eat products free of these microorganisms. Although salting of dry-cured shoulders had a moderate bactericidal effect, results of this study suggest that drying and ripening were the most important stages to obtain dry-cured products free of these microorganisms.

  14. Comparison of a natural rosemary extract and BHA/BHT for relative antioxidant effectiveness in pork sausage.

    PubMed

    Sebranek, J G; Sewalt, V J H; Robbins, K L; Houser, T A

    2005-02-01

    A commercial rosemary extract was evaluated for antioxidant effectiveness at concentrations of 1500 and 2500 ppm in frozen and precooked-frozen pork sausage, and from 500 to 3000 ppm in refrigerated, fresh pork sausage. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), objective color values and sensory panel scores, were assessed. For refrigerated sausage, the rosemary extract at 2500 ppm was equally effective as butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA)/butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). Similarly, the rosemary extract was equally effective as BHA/BHT in maintaining low TBARS values of precooked-frozen sausage. However, the rosemary extract was more effective than BHA/BHT for preventing increased TBARS values or loss of red color in raw frozen sausage.

  15. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control.

  16. Flavour development in pork. Influence of flavour precursor concentrations in longissimus dorsi from pigs with different raw meat qualities.

    PubMed

    Meinert, Lene; Tikk, Kaja; Tikk, Meelis; Brockhoff, Per B; Bredie, Wender L P; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Aaslyng, Margit D

    2009-01-01

    Flavour development and overall eating quality of pan-fried pork chops of longissimus dorsi from eight different raw meat qualities aged for 4 and 15 days were assessed by a trained sensory panel. The raw meat qualities were obtained through combinations of strategic feeding/fasting (control vs. low glycogen concentration), slaughter live-weight (84kg vs. 110kg), and gender (female vs. castrate). The flavour development was investigated for possible correlation with the concentrations of selected individual flavour precursors present in the raw meat: monosaccharides, IMP and degradation products, fatty acids, lactate and thiamine. Differences in precursor concentrations between the raw meat qualities were observed with feeding/fasting and ageing as the main factors with the largest influence of all experimental factors. However, the concentrations of the precursors could not explain the differences in sensory perception of the pan-fried pork chops. Overall, the differences were small.

  17. Myoglobin as marker in meat adulteration: a UPLC method for determining the presence of pork meat in raw beef burger.

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Nicola; Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Lippert, Martina; Parente, Augusto; Di Maro, Antimo

    2013-12-01

    The identification of meat animal species used in raw burgers is very important with respect to economic and religious considerations. Therefore, international supervisory bodies have implemented procedures to control the employed meat species. In this paper we propose myoglobin as a powerful molecular marker to evaluate the presence of non-declared meat addition in raw beef burgers by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) for the separation and identification of edible animal species (beef, chicken, horse, ostrich, pig and water buffalo). Meat samples were pre-treated with sodium nitrite to transform oxymyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin to the more stable metmyoglobin. The developed method was validated, preparing mixtures with different percentages of pork and beef minced meat. The obtained results show that using myoglobin as marker, 5% (25 mg/500 mg) of pork or beef meat can be detected in premixed minced meat samples.

  18. Nondestructive detection of total viable count changes of chilled pork in high oxygen storage condition based on hyperspectral technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    The plate count method is commonly used to detect the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in pork, which is timeconsuming and destructive. It has also been used to study the changes of the TVC in pork under different storage conditions. In recent years, many scholars have explored the non-destructive methods on detecting TVC by using visible near infrared (VIS/NIR) technology and hyperspectral technology. The TVC in chilled pork was monitored under high oxygen condition in this study by using hyperspectral technology in order to evaluate the changes of total bacterial count during storage, and then evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the storage condition. The VIS/NIR hyperspectral images of samples stored in high oxygen condition was acquired by a hyperspectral system in range of 400 1100nm. The actual reference value of total bacteria was measured by standard plate count method, and the results were obtained in 48 hours. The reflection spectra of the samples are extracted and used for the establishment of prediction model for TVC. The spectral preprocessing methods of standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiple scatter correction (MSC) and derivation was conducted to the original reflectance spectra of samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) of TVC was performed and optimized to be the prediction model. The results show that the near infrared hyperspectral technology based on 400-1100nm combined with PLSR model can describe the growth pattern of the total bacteria count of the chilled pork under the condition of high oxygen very vividly and rapidly. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the nondestructive method of TVC based on NIR hyperspectral has great potential in monitoring of edible safety in processing and storage of meat.

  19. High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces.

    PubMed

    Sinwat, Nuananong; Angkittitrakul, Sunpetch; Coulson, Kari F; Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle R; Meunsene, Dethaloun; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine occurrence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella from pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces. The samples were collected from pigs, carcasses and workers in slaughterhouses, retail pork and butchers in fresh markets and patients in hospitals in Thailand (n=729) and Laos (n=458). A total of 295 of 729 samples (34.6 %) collected in Thailand and 253 of 458 (47.4 %) samples collected in Laos were positive for Salmonella. A total of 548 Salmonella isolates from Thailand (n=295) and Laos (n=253) were further analysed. Serovar Typhimurium was the most common serotype in Thai (34 %) and Laos (20.6 %) samples. Approximately 2.4 % of Thai isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). All the ESBL producers possessed blaCTX-M-14, some of which were horizontally transferred. Class 1 integrons were common in Thai (31.9 %) and Laos (39.1 %) isolates, but none were associated with SGI1. The resistance cassette dfrA12-aadA2 was the most common, while the least common was aadA2-linG (n=1). The dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassette in five isolates and aadA2-linG were located on conjugative plasmid. Three pork isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant and carried an amino acid substitute, Ser-83-Tyr, in GyrA. The qnrS gene was found in 7.1 and 5.5 % of the Thai and Laos isolates, respectively, while qnrB was carried in another Laos isolate (1.9 %). All ESBL producers carried qnrS. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella was common in pigs, pork and human samples in this region. The bacteria carried mobile genetic elements and resistance genes on conjugative plasmids that could be readily transferred to other bacterial species.

  20. Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (−) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed (p<0.05) in the negative control samples, whereas the cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar (p>0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE L* values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE a* values were higher (p<0.05) in samples containing natural calcium powder (treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4) than in the positive control. The combination of oyster shell calcium powder and egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities. PMID:28943770