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Sample records for porphyry cu-au deposit

  1. Porphyry Cu-Au and associated polymetallic Fe-Cu-Au deposits in the Beiya Area, western Yunnan Province, south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, X.-W.; Cai, X.-P.; Xiao, Q.-B.; Peters, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Alkaline porphyries in the Beiya area are located east of the Jinshajiang suture, as part of a Cenozoic alkali-rich porphyry belt in western Yunnan. The main rock types include quartz-albite porphyry, quartz-K-feldspar porphyry and biotite-K-feldspar porphyry. These porphyries are characterised by high alkalinity [(K2O + Na2O)% > 10%], high silica (SiO2% > 65%), high Sr (> 400??ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (> 0.706)] ratio and were intruded at 65.5??Ma, between 25.5 to 32.5??Ma, and about 3.8??Ma, respectively. There are five main types of mineral deposits in the Beiya area: (1) porphyry Cu-Au deposits, (2) magmatic Fe-Au deposits, (3) sedimentary polymetallic deposits, (4) polymetallic skarn deposits, and (5) palaeoplacers associated with karsts. The porphyry Cu-Au and polymetallic skarn deposits are associated with quartz-albite porphyry bodies. The Fe-Au and polymetallic sedimentary deposits are part of an ore-forming system that produced considerable Au in the Beiya area, and are characterised by low concentrations of La, Ti, and Co, and high concentrations of Y, Yb, and Sc. The Cenozoic porphyries in western Yunnan display increased alkalinity away from the Triassic Jinshajiang suture. Distribution of both the porphyries and sedimentary deposits in the Beiya area are interpreted to be related to partial melting in a disjointed region between upper mantle lithosphere of the Yangtze Plate and Gondwana continent, and lie within a shear zone between buried Palaeo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and upper mantle lithosphere, caused by the subduction and collision of India and Asia. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An orientation soil survey at the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Fey, David L.; Kelley, Karen D.; Giles, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil samples were collected in 2007 and 2008 along three traverses across the giant Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit. Within each soil pit, four subsamples were collected following recommended protocols for each of ten commonly-used and proprietary leach/digestion techniques. The significance of geochemical patterns generated by these techniques was classified by visual inspection of plots showing individual element concentration by each analytical method along the 2007 traverse. A simple matrix by element versus method, populated with a value based on the significance classification, provides a method for ranking the utility of methods and elements at this deposit. The interpretation of a complex multi-element dataset derived from multiple analytical techniques is challenging. An example of vanadium results from a single leach technique is used to illustrate the several possible interpretations of the data.

  3. Sulfide mineral paragenesis at the Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Oyu Tolgoi, South Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjaa, M.; Fujimaki, H.

    2008-12-01

    Mineralogical studies of ore minerals have been conducted for the Hugo Dummett porphyry copper deposit. The Hugo Dummett porphyry copper gold deposit is located in the South Gobi region, Mongolia and currently being explored. This deposit divided into the Cu-rich South Hugo Dummett and the Cu-Au-rich North Hugo Dummett deposits. The Hugo Dummett deposits contain 1.08% copper (1.16 billion tonnes in total) and 0.23 g/t gold. Copper-gold mineralizations at this deposit are centered on a high-grade copper (typically > 2.5%) and gold (0.5-2 g/t) zone of intense quartz stockwork veining. The high grade copper and gold zone is mainly within the Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions and augite basalt, also locally occurs in dacitic rocks. Intense quartz veining forms a lens up to 100 m wide hosted by augite basalt and partly by quartz monzodiorite. Although many explorations have been carried out, but only a few scientific works were done in the Oyu Tolgoi mining area. Therefore the nature of copper-gold mineralization and orgin of the deposit is not fully understood. North Hugo Dummett and South Hugo Dummett porphyry copper-gold deposits are characterized by three mineralized stages based on our study: (1) early stage (2) middle stage and (3) late stage. The main copper- gold mineralization occurs in the early and middle stages, which is related to the quartz monzodiorite and dacitic rocks. Pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite were continuously crystallized from early to late stage. The early stage of pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite and sphalerite were replaced by middle stage of minerals. The middle stage minerals are sphalerite, tennantite, tetrahedrite, chalcocite, covellite, eugenite, galena, electrum, and gold, those are dominantly occur in the quartz monzodiorite. Additional pyrite, bornite and chalcopyrite were also deposited during this stage. In the late stage, pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite are dominantly occurs as veins, veinlets and fracture

  4. Geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mohsen; Raith, Johann; Lentz, David; Azimzadeh, Amir-Mortaza; Pourkaseb, Hooshang

    2015-11-01

    The Miocene Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc is the first reported Au-rich porphyry Cu deposit in the Zagros orogenic belt. The Cu-Au mineralization is mainly hosted in diorite and quartz diorite intrusions, presenting as numerous veinlets in the altered wall rocks, with potassic, phyllic, and propylitic alteration developed. Based on the mineral assemblages and crosscutting relations of veinlets, hydrothermal mineralization-alteration occurred in at least three stages, characterized by veinlets of (1) Qtz + Kfs + Mag ± Ccp, (2) Qtz + Py + Ccp ± Bn ± Cv ± Cc and, (3) Qtz + Chl + Bt. The ore-bearing intrusions exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas, including LREE fractionated pattern, strong enrichment in LILE (Cs, Rb, Ba, Pb, and U), and depletion of HFSE, with marked negative Ti and Nb anomalies. The adakite-like ore-hosting porphyry intrusions are characterized by a systematic gradual decreasing and increasing of Y and Eu/Eu∗ with increasing SiO2 content, respectively. Moreover, they exhibit a significant increasing trend of Sr/Y with decreasing of Y, which indicates progressive hornblende fractionation and suppression of plagioclase fractionation during the evolution toward high water content of parental magma. A relatively flat HREE pattern with low Dyn/Ybn and Nb/Ta values may represent that amphibole played a more important role than garnet in the generation of the adakitic melts in the thickened lower crust. Based on the phase assemblages confirmed by detailed laser Raman spectroscopy analyses and proportion of solid, liquid, and gaseous components, five types of fluid inclusions were recognized, which are categorized as; (1) liquid-rich two phase (liquidH2O + vaporH2O) (IIA), (2) vapor-rich two phase (vaporH2O/CO2 + liquidH2O) (IIB), (3) high saline simple fluids (IIIA; liquidH2O + vaporH2O + Hl), (4) high saline opaque mineral-bearing fluids (IIIB; liquidH2O + vaporH2O

  5. USGS exploration geochemistry studies at the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska-pdf of presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Minsley, Burke J.; Smith, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    From 2007 through 2010, scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been conducting exploration-oriented geochemical and geophysical studies in the region surrounding the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The Cretaceous Pebble deposit is concealed under tundra, glacial till, and Tertiary cover rocks, and is undisturbed except for numerous exploration drill holes. These USGS studies are part of a nation-wide research project on evaluating and detecting concealed mineral resources. This report focuses on exploration geochemistry and comprises illustrations and associated notes that were presented as a case study in a workshop on this topic. The workshop, organized by L.G. Closs and R. Glanzman, is called 'Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration and Development,' presented by the Society of Economic Geologists at a technical conference entitled 'The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Integrative Exploration and New Discoveries,' held at Keystone, Colorado, October 2-5, 2010.

  6. Porphyry Cu indicator minerals in till as an exploration tool: Example from the giant pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Lang, J.; Smith, Steven M.; Fey, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Porphyry Cu indicator minerals are mineral species in clastic sediments that indicate the presence of mineralization and hydrothermal alteration associated with porphyry Cu and associated skarn deposits. Porphyry Cu indicator minerals recovered from shallow till samples near the giant Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit in SW Alaska, USA, include apatite, andradite garnet, Mn-epidote, visible gold, jarosite, pyrite, and cinnabar. Sulphide minerals other than pyrite are absent from till, most likely due to the oxidation of the till. The distribution of till samples with abundant apatite and cinnabar suggest sources other than the Pebble deposit. With three exceptions, all till samples up-ice of the Pebble deposit contain 40grains/10kg) are in close proximity to smaller porphyry and skarn occurrences in the region. The distribution of Mn-epidote closely mimics the distribution of garnet in the till samples and further supports the interpretation that these minerals most likely reflect skarns associated with the porphyry deposits. All but two till samples, including those up-ice from the deposit, contain some gold grains. However, tills immediately west and down-ice of Pebble contain more abundant gold grains, and the overall number of grains decreases in the down-ice direction. Furthermore, all samples in the immediate vicinity of Pebble contain more than 65% pristine and modified grains compared to mostly re-shaped grains in distal samples. The pristine gold in till reflects short transport distances and/or liberation of gold during in-situ weathering of transported chalcopyrite grains. Jarosite is also abundant (1-2 500 grains/10kg) in samples adjacent to and up to 7 km down-ice from the deposit. Most jarosite grains are rounded and preliminary Ar/Ar dates suggest the jarosite formed prior to glaciation and it implies that a supergene cap existed over Pebble West. Assuming this interpretation is accurate, it suggests a shallow level of erosion of the Pebble deposit by

  7. The discovery and geophysical response of the Atlántida Cu-Au porphyry deposit, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Matthew; Andersson, Steve

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of the Atlántida Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, which is unconformably overlain by 25-80 m of gravels, is a recent example of exploration success under cover in a traditional mining jurisdiction. Early acquisition of geophysics was a key tool in the discovery, and in later guiding further exploration drilling throughout the life of the project. Detailed review of the geophysical response of the deposit, with respect to the distribution of lithologies and alteration, coupled with their petrophysical properties has allowed full characterisation, despite no exposure at the surface of host rock nor porphyry-style mineralisation. Data acquired over the project include induced polarisation, magnetotellurics, ground and airborne magnetics, ground-based gravimetry, and petrophysical sampling. The distribution of the key geological features of the deposit has been inferred via acquisition of petrophysical properties and interpretation of surface geophysical datasets. Magnetic susceptibility is influenced strongly by both alteration and primary lithology, whilst density variations are dominated by primary lithological control. Several studies have shown that electrical properties may map the footprint of the hydrothermal system and associated mineralisation, via a combination of chargeability and resistivity. These properties are observed in geophysical datasets acquired at surface and allow further targeting and sterilisation at the deposit and project scale. By understanding these geophysical characteristics in a geological context, these data can be used to infer distribution of lithological units, depth to exploration targets and the potential for high grade mineralisation. Future exploration will likely be increasingly reliant on the understanding of the surface manifestations of buried deposits in remotely acquired data. This review summarises the application and results of these principles at the Atlántida project of northern Chile. Geophysical data can be

  8. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the Hugo Dummett Cu-Au porphyry deposit (Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgopolova, A.; Seltmann, R.; Armstrong, R.; Belousova, E.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Kavalieris, I.

    2013-04-01

    Major and trace element geochemistry including Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data are presented for a representative sample suite of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the Hugo Dummett deposit of the giant Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district in South Gobi, Mongolia. Sr and Nd isotopes (whole-rock) show restricted ranges of initial compositions, with positive ɛNdt mainly between + 3.4 and + 7.4 and (87Sr/86Sr)t predominantly between 0.7037 and 0.7045 reflecting magma generation from a relatively uniform juvenile lithophile-element depleted source. Previously dated zircons from the plutonic rocks exhibit a sample-averaged range of ɛHft values of + 11.6 to + 14.5. Depleted-mantle model ages of 420-830 (Nd) and 320-730 Ma (zircon Hf) limit the involvement of pre-Neoproterozoic crust in the petrogenesis of the intermediate to felsic calc-alkaline magmas to, at most, a minor role. Pb isotopes (whole-rock) show a narrow range of unradiogenic initial compositions: 206Pb/204Pb 17.40-17.94, 207Pb/204Pb 15.43-15.49 and 208Pb/204Pb 37.25-37.64, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes indicating the dominance of a mantle component. All four isotopic systems suggest that the magmas from which the large Oyu Tolgoi porphyry system was generated originated predominantly from juvenile material within the subduction-related setting of the Gurvansayhan terrane.

  9. Re-Os isotopic and trace element compositions of pyrite and origin of the Cretaceous Jinchang porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Heilongjiang Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Cui, Bin; Wang, Bo-Chao; Yin, Yi-Fan; Wang, Jing-Rui

    2016-11-01

    The Jinchang Cu-Au deposit in Northeast China contains more than 76 tons of Au and 4683 tons of Cu with average ore grades of 11.34 g/t Au and 1.44% Cu. The deposit is typical of porphyry types and consists of gold orebodies mainly hosted in a ∼113 Ma granitic porphyry and breccia pipes within the porphyry intrusion. Mineralization is closely associated with early potassic alteration and late phyllic alteration. Pyrite is the main Au-bearing mineral and contains 1.48-18.9 ppb Re and 11.4-38 ppt common Os. Extremely low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios are indicative of derivation of ore-forming materials from the crust. Low Re in pyrite from the Jinchang deposit may indicate a mixing source of mantle and crust or a crustal source. Five Re-Os isotopic analyses yield a model 1 isochron age of 114 ± 22 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 0.15), similar to the age of the host porphyry. Pyrite contains detectable Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Au, Sb, Pb and Bi. Pyrite has Co/Ni ratios similar to that of volcanogenic and hydrothermal sulfide deposits, indicating a magmatic-hydrothermal origin, and has Au and As contents similar to that of porphyry-epithermal systems. Pyrite grains from potassic and phyllic alteration stages have different trace element contents, reflecting the evolution of ore-forming fluids from magmatic dominated to magmatic mixed with meteoric water. In combination with regional geology, our new results are suggestive of origin of the Jinchang Cu-Au deposit from contemporary intrusions of granitic porphyries related to the Early Cretaceous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  10. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of

  11. Data integration modeling applied to drill hole planning through semi-supervised learning: A case study from the Dalli Cu-Au porphyry deposit in the central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatehi, Moslem; Asadi, Hooshang H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the application of a transductive support vector machine (TSVM), an innovative semi-supervised learning algorithm, has been proposed for mapping the potential drill targets at a detailed exploration stage. The semi-supervised learning method is a hybrid of supervised and unsupervised learning approach that simultaneously uses both training and non-training data to design a classifier. By using the TSVM algorithm, exploration layers at the Dalli porphyry Cu-Au deposit in the central Iran were integrated to locate the boundary of the Cu-Au mineralization for further drilling. By applying this algorithm on the non-training (unlabeled) and limited training (labeled) Dalli exploration data, the study area was classified in two domains of Cu-Au ore and waste. Then, the results were validated by the earlier block models created, using the available borehole and trench data. In addition to TSVM, the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was also implemented on the study area for comparison. Thirty percent of the labeled exploration data was used to evaluate the performance of these two algorithms. The results revealed 87 percent correct recognition accuracy for the TSVM algorithm and 82 percent for the SVM algorithm. The deepest inclined borehole, recently drilled in the western part of the Dalli deposit, indicated that the boundary of Cu-Au mineralization, as identified by the TSVM algorithm, was only 15 m off from the actual boundary intersected by this borehole. According to the results of the TSVM algorithm, six new boreholes were suggested for further drilling at the Dalli deposit. This study showed that the TSVM algorithm could be a useful tool for enhancing the mineralization zones and consequently, ensuring a more accurate drill hole planning.

  12. Geophysical and geochemical data from the area of the Pebble Cu-Au-Mo porphyry deposit, southwestern Alaska: Contributions to assessment techniques for concealed mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Smith, S.M.; Giles, S.A.; Granitto, Matthew; Eppinger, R.G.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Shah, A.K.; Kelley, K.D.; Fey, D.L.; Minsley, B.J.; Brown, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey began a multidisciplinary study in southwest Alaska to investigate the setting and detectability of mineral deposits in concealed volcanic and glacial terranes. The study area hosts the world-class Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, and through collaboration with the Pebble Limited Partnership, a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations was carried out in proximity to the deposit. The deposit is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-mineralization volcanic rocks. The discovery of mineral resources beneath cover is becoming more important because most of the mineral resources at the surface have already been discovered. Research is needed to identify ways in which to assess for concealed mineral resources. This report presents the uninterpreted geophysical measurements and geochemical and mineralogical analytical data from samples collected during the summer field seasons from 2007 to 2010, and makes the data available in a single Geographic Information System (GIS) database.

  13. Formation of a paleothermal anomaly and disseminated gold deposits associated with the Bingham Canyon porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.; Austin, G.W.; Naeser, C.W.; Rye, R.O.; Ballantyne, G.H.; Stamm, R.G.; Barker, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    The thermal history of the Oquirrh Mountains, Utah, indicates that hydrothermal fluids associated with emplacement of the 37 Ma Bingham Canyon porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit extended at least 10 km north of the Bingham pit. An associated paleothermal anomaly enclosed the Barneys Canyon and Melco disseminated gold deposits and several smaller gold deposits between them. Previous studies have shown the Barneys Canyon deposit is near the outer limit of an irregular distal Au-As geochemical halo, about 3 km beyond an intermediate Pb-Zn halo, and 7 km beyond a proximal pyrite halo centered on the Bingham porphyry copper deposit. The Melco deposit also lies near the outer limit of the Au-As halo. Analysis of several geothermometers from samples collected tip to 22 km north of the Bingham Canyon porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit indicate that most sedimentary rocks of the Oquirrh Mountains, including those at the gold deposits, have not been regionally heated beyond the "oil window" (less than about 150??C). For geologically reasonable heating durations, the maximum sustained temperature at Melco, 6 km north of the Bingham pit, and at Barneys Canyon, 7.5 km north of the pit, was between 100??C and 140??C, as indicated by combinations of conodont color alteration indices of 1.5 to 2, mean random solid bitumen reflectance of about 1.0 percent, lack of annealing of zircon fission tracks, and partial to complete annealing of apatite fission tracks. The pattern of reset apatite fission-track ages indicates that the gold deposits are located approximately on the 120??C isotherm of the 37 Ma paleothermal anomaly assuming a heating duration of about 106 years. The conodont data further constrain the duration of heating to between 5 ?? 104 and 106 years at approximately 120??C. The ??18O of quartzite host rocks generally increases from about 12.6 per mil at the porphyry to about 15.8 per mil approximately 11 km from the Bingham deposit. This change reflects interaction of interstitial clays in

  14. Geological analysis of aeromagnetic data from southwestern Alaska: implications for exploration in the area of the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Shah, Anjana K.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data are used to better understand the geology and mineral resources near the Late Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) transformation of regional-scale aeromagnetic data shows that the Pebble deposit is within a cluster of magnetic anomaly highs. Similar to Pebble, the Iliamna, Kijik, and Neacola porphyry copper occurrences are in magnetic highs that trend northeast along the crustal-scale Lake Clark fault. A high-amplitude, short- to moderate-wavelength anomaly is centered over the Kemuk occurrence, an Alaska-type ultramafic complex. Similar anomalies are found west and north of Kemuk. A moderate-amplitude, moderate-wavelength magnetic low surrounded by a moderate-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic high is associated with the gold-bearing Shotgun intrusive complex. The RTP transformation of the district-scale aeromagnetic data acquired over Pebble permits differentiation of a variety of Jurassic to Tertiary magmatic rock suites. Jurassic-Cretaceous basalt and gabbro units and Late Cretaceous biotite pyroxenite and granodiorite rocks produce magnetic highs. Tertiary basalt units also produce magnetic highs, but appear to be volumetrically minor. Eocene monzonite units have associated magnetic lows. The RTP data do not suggest a magnetite-rich hydrothermal system at the Pebble deposit. The 10-km upward continuation transformation of the regional-scale data shows a linear northeast trend of magnetic anomaly highs. These anomalies are spatially correlated with Late Cretaceous igneous rocks and in the Pebble district are centered over the granodiorite rocks genetically related to porphyry copper systems. The spacing of these anomalies is similar to patterns shown by the numerous porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile. These anomalies are interpreted to reflect a Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that is favorable for additional discoveries of Late Cretaceous porphyry copper systems in southwestern

  15. Mineralogy, textures, and whole-rock geochemistry of advanced argillic alteration: Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Oyu Tolgoi mineral district, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Kavalieris, Imants; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    Advanced argillic (AA) alteration is developed over a vertical interval of 500 m, above (and enclosing) Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions that accompany porphyry-style Cu-Au mineralization at the Hugo Dummett deposit. The AA alteration is mainly in basaltic rocks and locally extends into the overlying dacitic ash-flow tuff for about 100 m. The AA zone overprints porphyry-style quartz veins associated with quartz monzodiorite intrusions, but at least partly precedes high-grade porphyry-style bornite mineralization. Mineralogically, it consists of andalusite, corundum, residual quartz, titanium oxides, diaspore, alunite, aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals, zunyite, pyrophyllite, topaz, kaolinite, and dickite, as well as anhydrite and gypsum, but is dominated by residual quartz and pyrophyllite. Alteration zonation is not apparent, except for an alunite-bearing zone that occurs approximately at the limit of strong quartz veining. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the AA alteration removes most major elements except Si, Al, Ti, and P, and removes the trace elements Sc, Cs, and Rb. V, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, and Th are relatively immobile, whilst light REEs (La to Nd), Sr, Ba, and Ga can be enriched. Middle REEs (Sm to Gd) are moderately depleted; Y and heavy REEs (Tb to Lu) are strongly depleted except in two unusual samples where middle to heavy REEs are enriched.

  16. Partial melting of subducted paleo-Pacific plate during the early Cretaceous: Constraint from adakitic rocks in the Shaxi porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Lower Yangtze River Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jianghong; Yang, Xiaoyong; Li, Shuang; Gu, Huangling; Mastoi, Abdul Shakoor; Sun, Weidong

    2016-10-01

    A large porphyry Cu-Au deposit associated with early Cretaceous intrusive rocks has been discovered and explored in the Shaxi area, Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB), eastern China. We studied two types of intrusive rocks in the Shaxi area: Cu-Au mineralization related diorites and quartz-diorites (adakitic rocks), and newly found high Sr/Y ratio biotite-gabbros. They were formed almost simultaneously with crystallization ages of ca. 130 to 129 Ma, younger than the early stage shoshonitic rocks (Longmenyuan, Zhuanqiao and Shuangmiao Fm.) in the Luzong volcanic basin, 10 km south of the Shaxi area. These intrusive rocks show similar distribution patterns of trace elements (enriched in LILEs and depleted in HFSEs) and REEs (enriched in LREEs and depleted in HREEs, no Eu negative anomaly, flat HREE patterns). The diorites and quartz-diorites are adakitic rocks with calc-alkaline affinity, distinguished from other adakitic rocks in the LYRB which are high-K calc-alkaline series. The biotite-gabbros are not adakitic rocks, although they are characterized by high Sr/Y ratios.

  17. An exploration hydrogeochemical study at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska, USA, using high-resolution ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Smith, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical study using high resolution ICP-MS was undertaken at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit and surrounding mineral occurrences. Surface water and groundwater samples from regional background and the deposit area were collected at 168 sites. Rigorous quality control reveals impressive results at low nanogram per litre (ng/l) levels. Sites with pH values below 5.1 are from ponds in the Pebble West area, where sulphide-bearing rubble crop is thinly covered. Relative to other study area waters, anomalous concentrations of Cu, Cd, K, Ni, Re, the REE, Tl, SO42− and F− are present in water samples from Pebble West. Samples from circum-neutral waters at Pebble East and parts of Pebble West, where cover is much thicker, have anomalous concentrations of Ag, As, In, Mn, Mo, Sb, Th, U, V, and W. Low-level anomalous concentrations for most of these elements were also found in waters surrounding nearby porphyry and skarn mineral occurrences. Many of these elements are present in low ng/l concentration ranges and would not have been detected using traditional quadrupole ICP-MS. Hydrogeochemical exploration paired with high resolution ICP-MS is a powerful new tool in the search for concealed deposits.

  18. SEM-Cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion study of quartz veins in Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit,South Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjaa, M.; Fujimaki, H.; Ken-Ichiro, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Hugo Dummett porphyry copper-gold deposit in Oyu Tolgoi, South Mongolia is a high-sulfidation type deposit which consists of Cu-Au bearing quartz veins. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluid inclusion microthermometer were performed to elucidate the relationship between CL structures, fluid inclusion microthermometer of different quartz generations, and ore forming process of the Hugo Dummett deposit. Hydrothermal quartz from quartz-sulfide veins in the porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Hugo Dummett, revealing the following textures: (1) euhedral growth zones (2) embayed and rounded CL-bright cores, with CL-dark and CL-gray overgrowths, (3) concentric and non concentric growth zones, and (4) CL dark/bright microfractures. These textures indicate that many veins have undergone fracturing, growth of quartz into fluid-filled space and quartz dissolution of quartz. SEM-CL imaging indicates vein quartz in the Hugo Dummett deposit, initially grew as individual CL-bright crystals 356 ± 10°C liquid-reservoir (average Th value for fluid inclusions in the crystal cores is 359°C). In contract, SEM-CL imaging shows the edges of the micron-scale growth zones of varying CL intensity, reflecting quartz precipitation at some later time, when the Hugo Dummett deposit hydrothermal system had cooled, when reservoir conditions were about 211 ± 25°C (average Th value of 212°C). Crystal growth is SEM-CL evidence of the vein quartz having been partly dissolved. Pressure change has a large effect on quartz solubility and may have been responsible for quartz dissolution and precipitation textures in the cooling hydrothermal system. CL-dark microfractures homogenization temperatures lower 169 ± 16°C (average Th value 170°C) than CL bright and CL gray. Temperature and pressure of the mineralized fluid estimates a pressure of formation of 0.3-0.5 kbar (lithostatic), was formed at approximately 2 km depth, as well as a formation temperature

  19. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2008 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit. This report presents the analytical data collected in 2008. The Pebble deposit is world class in size, and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic rocks. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), is a large mineral system, and is fairly well-constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of this study are to 1) determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, 2) better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and 3) test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. The analytical data are presented as an integrated Microsoft Access 2003 database and as separate Excel files.

  20. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of ~ 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a ~ 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc

  1. Pb-Sr-Nd isotopes in surficial materials at the Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwestern Alaska: can the mineralizing fingerprint be detected through cover?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Kelley, Karen D.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Forni, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit is covered by tundra and glacigenic sediments. Pb-Sr-Nd measurements were done on sediments and soils to establish baseline conditions prior to the onset of mining operations and contribute to the development of exploration methods for concealed base metal deposits of this type. Pebble rocks have a moderate range for 206Pb/204Pb = 18.574 to 18.874, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.484 to 15.526, and 208,Pb/204Pb = 38.053 to 38.266. Mineralized granodiorite shows a modest spread in 87Sr/86Sr (0.704354–0.707621) and 143Nd/144Nd (0.512639–0.512750). Age-corrected (89 Ma) values for the granodiorite yield relatively unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 207Pb/204Pb 87Sr/86Sr, and positive values of ɛNd (1.00–4.52) that attest to a major contribution of mantle-derived source rocks. Pond sediments and soils have similar Pb isotope signatures and 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd values that resemble the mineralized granodiorites. Glacial events have obscured the recognition of isotope signatures of mineralized rocks in the sediments and soils. Baseline radiogenic isotope compositions, prior to the onset of mining operations, reflect natural erosion, transport and deposition of heterogeneous till sheets that included debris from barren rocks, mineralized granodiorite and sulfides from the Pebble deposit, and other country rocks that pre- and postdate the mineralization events. Isotopic variations suggest that natural weathering of the deposit is generally reflected in these surficial materials. The isotope data provide geochemical constraints to glimpse through the extensive cover and together with other geochemical observations provide a vector to concealed mineralized rocks genetically linked with the Pebble deposit.

  2. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

    2014-05-01

    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  3. Integrated Studies of the Genetic Linkages Between Jurassic Porphyry Cu-Au (Mo) and Epithermal Au-Ag deposits in the Toodoggone District of North-Central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowins, S. M.; Duuring, P.; McKinley, B. S.; Dickinson, J. M.; Diakow, L. J.; Creaser, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    Possible genetic linkages between proximal porphyry Cu-Au (Mo) and epithermal Au-Ag deposits in the Toodoggone district of north-central British Columbia were investigated during a 3-year NSERC-CRD project (2004-2007) by integrating district-scale geological mapping and geochronological studies with detailed deposit models of the key porphyry and epithermal systems. Episodic plutonism from ca. 218 to 190 Ma coincided with the formation of the largest porphyry Cu-Au (Mo) systems from ca. 202 to 197 Ma, with only minor porphyry mineralization occurring from ca. 197 to 194 Ma. The Fin porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit differs from the other porphyry systems by having host-rocks with distinctly lower REE and immobile element abundances and an age that is 16 m.y. older than any other porphyry occurrence in the district. Porphyry systems are spatially restricted to exposed Asitka and Takla Group basement rocks, and more rarely, the lowest member of the Hazelton Group (i.e., the ca. 201 Ma Duncan Member). These country rocks are most commonly exposed in the southern half of the district, where high rates of erosion and uplift have resulted in their preferential exposure. In comparison, low- and high-sulfidation epithermal systems are more numerous in the northern half of the district, where younger, overlying Hazelton Group rocks are mainly exposed. Any cogenetic porphyry systems in northern areas are likely to be buried beneath Hazelton Group rocks. High-sulfidation epithermal systems formed at ca. 201 to 189 Ma, whereas low-sulfidation systems developed at ca. 196 to 186 Ma, demonstrating a temporal coincidence with porphyry systems elsewhere in the district. Amongst all studied epithermal systems, the Baker low-sulfidation epithermal deposit displays the strongest demonstrable genetic link with magmatic fluids. Fluid inclusion studies indicate that its ore fluids were hot (>468 C), saline, and deposited metals at depths >2 km. Sulfur, C, O, and Pb isotope data confirm the

  4. U-Pb zircon, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic constraints on age and origin of the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Seitmuratova, Eleonora; Jakupova, Sholpan

    2016-02-01

    Nurkazgan, located in northeastern Kazakhstan, is a super-large porphyry Cu-Au deposit with 3.9 Mt metal copper and 229 tonnage gold. We report in situ zircon U-Pb age and Hf-O isotope data, whole rock geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the ore-bearing intrusions from the Nurkazgan deposit. The ore-bearing intrusions include the granodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry, quartz diorite, and diorite. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry emplaced at 440 ± 3 Ma and 437 ± 3 Ma, respectively. All host rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70338-0.70439), high whole-rock εNd(t) values (+5.9 to +6.3) and very high zircon εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +16.5), young whole-rock Nd and zircon Hf model ages, and consistent and slightly high zircon O values (+5.7 to +6.7), indicating that the ore-bearing magmas derived from the mantle without old continental crust involvement and without marked sediment contamination during magma emplacement. The granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE) and depleted in high-field strength elements (HFSE), Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The diorite and quartz diorite have also LILE and LREE enrichment and HFSE, Nb and Ti depletion, but have not negative Eu, Ba, Sr, and P anomalies. These features suggest that the parental magma of the granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry originated from melting of a lithospheric mantle and experienced fractional crystallization, whereas the diorite and quartz diorite has a relatively deeper lithospheric mantle source region and has not experienced strong fractional crystallization. Based on these, together with the coeval ophiolites in the area, we propose that a subduction of the Balkhash-Junggar oceanic plate took place during the Early Silurian and the ore-bearing intrusions and associated Nurkazgan

  5. Shallow-Crustal Magmatic Evolution and Timescales of Mineralization in Porphyry-Skarn Cu-Au Deposits from High-Precision Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Trace Element Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Large, S. J. E.; Von Quadt, A.; Wotzlaw, J. F.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Metal endowed porphyry deposits are the result of the magmatic-hydrothermal interplay in the upper crust. These porphyry stocks are small rapidly cooling apophyses of much larger magma chambers below that are the locus of zircon crystallization. Understanding the magmatic evolution in this larger magma reservoir together with the pace of emplacement of a single porphyry stock are key questions in understanding these deposits. In order to fully quantify these processes we apply a combination of spatially resolved in-situ geochemistry with high precision CA-ID-TIMS geochronology on zircons from the Ok Tedi deposit, Papua New Guinea, one of the youngest ( 1.2 Ma) known giant Cu-Au porphyry deposits. Zircons from intrusive rocks associated with the Ok Tedi porphyry skarn deposit, were imaged for internal textures (CL), followed by spatially resolved geochemical and geochronological data acquisition by LA-ICP-MS. We selected inclusion and inheritance free zircons from the analyzed zircons to obtain high precision U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS dates. This combination of spatially resolved in-situ trace element analysis with high precision dating enables us to reconstruct the magma chamber evolution from zircon saturation to the emplacement of the porphyry intrusions at <10,000 years resolution. Zircon geochronology from pre- and syn-mineralization intrusives at Ok Tedi indicates protracted zircon crystallization within the magma chamber over some 105 years and a rapid succession of emplacement and subsequent mineralization within few 104 years. Similar geochemical trends in zircons from all samples trace progressive fractional crystallization in the underlying magma reservoir and point to a common magmatic source of all investigated intrusives. A portion of the youngest zircons from the syn-mineralization porphyry record distinct chemical characteristics that are not coherent with the fractional crystallization trend and point to a rapid change of the chemical conditions towards the

  6. Incorporation of platinum-group elements and cobalt into subsidiary pyrite in alkalic Cu-Au porphyry deposits: significant implications for precious metal distribution in felsic magmatic-hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, J. J.; MacKenzie, M. K.

    2009-05-01

    Certain alkalic porphyry Cu-Au systems contain significant concentrations of the platinum-group elements (PGE) Pd and Pt, and may serve as important unconventional resources for these metals. Bulk rock analyses of ore styles from these deposits show no correlation between the PGE and Cu-Au abundance, suggesting that the timing/mechanisms of introduction and precipitation for the PGE and Cu-Au were not the same. To elucidate some uncertainties concerning PGE enrichment, we have performed a mineralogical evaluation of two PGE-bearing porphyry systems in British Columbia (the Afton and Mount Milligan deposits) with the aid of a variety of microanalytical techniques (LA-ICPMS, SEM, EMP). Discrete PGE mineralogy in these systems is predominantly represented by Hg-rich Pd-Pt-As-Sb species (naldrettite-stibiopalladinite-sperrylite) and Pd-Te-Hg species (kotulskite-temagamite). However, these mineral phases are unambiguously late- stage (with carbonate-chlorite alteration) and contribute insignificantly (<5-10%) to the total Pd+Pt grade based on mass balance calculations. Similarly, LA-ICPMS analyses of chalcopyrite, bornite, oxides and various common sulfosalts show that these do not contribute any Pd+Pt to the bulk grades. Suprisingly, pyrite is the predominant carrier of PGE. It occurs in trace to minor abundances and predates both the Cu-Au mineralising event and the late stage carbonate-chlorite alteration. LA-ICPMS analyses of pyrite show that at least 90% of the bulk Pd+Pt occurs within this atypical host mineral. The PGE are highly enriched in the cores of the pyrite grains (up to 90 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively) and their abundance correlates well with Co (up to 4 wt%). The rims of the pyrite grains are Co-PGE-poor but Ni-rich. Early Co- PGE enrichment in these deposits may implicate a mafic contributor to the PGE tenor of the deposits, but also a potential crystallographic (substitutional) control on Pd partitioning into pyrite. At Afton, the former is supported

  7. Exploration case study using indicator minerals in till at the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, southwest Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    The Pebble deposit in southwest Alaska (Fig. 1) contains one of the largest resources of copper and gold in the world. It includes a measured and indicated resource of 5,942 million tonnes (Mt) at 0.42% Cu, 0.35 g/t Au, and 250 ppm Mo (0.30% copper equivalent, CuEQ, cut off) and contains significant concentrations of Ag, Pd, and Re (Northern Dynasty Minerals 2011). The deposit remains open at depth. The Pebble West zone was discovered in 1989 by Cominco American. In 2005, Northern Dynasty Minerals Ltd. (NDM) discovered Pebble East, and in July 2007, NDM partnered with Anglo American to form the Pebble Limited Partnership (PLP). The U.S. Geological Survey began collaborative investigations with PLP in 2007 to identify techniques that will improve mineral exploration in covered terranes. The Pebble deposit is an ideal location for such a study because the deposit is undisturbed (except for drilling), is almost entirely concealed by post-mineral volcanic rocks and glacial deposits, and because its distribution is well constrained in the subsurface by PLP’s drill-hole geology and geochemistry. An exploration method developed by Averill (2007) that utilizes porphyry copper indicator minerals (PCIMR) in glacial till samples was applied at Pebble; samples were collected up- and down-ice (of former glaciers) from the deposit. The distribution of several PCIMs identifies the deposit, which suggests that PCIMs may be useful in exploration for other concealed porphyry deposits in the region. In this study, we compare the efficacy of PCIMs relative to that of pond and stream sediments also collected in the deposit area. The Pebble deposit is located 380 km southwest of Anchorage, in the Bristol Bay region of southwest Alaska. There is no road network and access to the study area is by helicopter. The deposit is situated in a broad glacially sculpted topographic low at the head of three drainages, Talarik Creek, North Fork Koktuli River, and the South Fork Koktuli River (Fig

  8. Three-dimensional distribution of igneous rocks near the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska: constraints from regional-scale aeromagnetic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Eric D.; Zhou, Wei; Li, Yaoguo; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Lang, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data helped us to understand the 3D distribution of plutonic rocks near the Pebble porphyry copper deposit in southwestern Alaska, USA. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that rocks in the Pebble district are more magnetic than rocks of comparable compositions in the Pike Creek–Stuyahok Hills volcano-plutonic complex. The reduced-to-pole transformation of the aeromagnetic data demonstrated that the older rocks in the Pebble district produce strong magnetic anomaly highs. The tilt derivative transformation highlighted northeast-trending lineaments attributed to Tertiary volcanic rocks. Multiscale edge detection delineated near-surface magnetic sources that are mostly outward dipping and coalesce at depth in the Pebble district. The total horizontal gradient of the 10-km upward-continued magnetic data showed an oval, deep magnetic contact along which porphyry deposits occur. Forward and inverse magnetic modeling showed that the magnetic rocks in the Pebble district extend to depths greater than 9 km. Magnetic inversion was constrained by a near-surface, 3D geologic model that is attributed with measured magnetic susceptibilities from various rock types in the region. The inversion results indicated that several near-surface magnetic sources with moderate susceptibilities converge with depth into magnetic bodies with higher susceptibilities. This deep magnetic source appeared to rise toward the surface in several areas. An isosurface value of 0.02 SI was used to depict the magnetic contact between outcropping granodiorite and nonmagnetic sedimentary host rocks. The contact was shown to be outward dipping. At depths around 5 km, nearly the entire model exceeded the isosurface value indicating the limits of nonmagnetic host material. The inversion results showed the presence of a relatively deep, northeast-trending magnetic low that parallels lineaments mapped by the tilt derivative. This deep low represents a strand of the Lake Clark fault.

  9. Perspective targeting CuAuMo porphyries of Romanian Carpathians: blind porphyry mineralization and its variable distal expression as vein and skarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Serban Nicolae

    2011-09-01

    Romania has a genuine accumulation of "blind" porphyry CuAuMo systems associated with Cu skarns or AuAg (PbZn) epithermal vein sets. Many such hidden structures were discovered inadvertently during state exploration based on local tradition that Romanian Carpathians are rich in vein and skarn ore types. Notable dichotomy between porphyries associated with peripheral skarns versus epithermal ores is expressed by age (Mesozoic versus Tertiary), precious metal content, alteration types and zoning, shape/size and extension of ore bodies. Preliminary conclusions on metallic/alteration assemblages around porphyries in addition to geophysical information about inferred deep-seated Alpine plutonism promote potential exploration vectors for what will be an increasingly important deposit type in the future.

  10. Reduced porphyry copper-gold deposits: A new variation on an old theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowins, Stephen M.

    2000-06-01

    It is a widely accepted fact that porphyry Cu-Au deposits form from highly oxidized ore fluids. Despite this assertion, several otherwise typical porphyry Cu-Au deposits exhibit clear evidence of having formed from relatively reduced ore fluids. These “reduced” porphyry Cu-Au deposits lack primary hematite, magnetite, and sulfate minerals (i.e., anhydrite), but contain abundant hypogene pyrrhotite, commonly have carbonic-rich ore fluids with substantial CH4, and are associated with ilmenite-bearing, reduced I-type granitoids. Based on a synthesis of theoretical, experimental, and field data, a variation on the classic porphyry Cu model is proposed to explain the formation of reduced porphyry Cu-Au deposits and their relatively Cu-poor but Au-rich nature. The proposed reduced porphyry Cu-Au model does not contradict the current understanding of porphyry Cu-Au formation. Rather, it adds yet another variation on the theme of porphyry Cu-Au genesis.

  11. U-Pb (zircon) and geochemical constraints on the age, origin, and evolution of Paleozoic arc magmas in the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, southern Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Friedman, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium-Pb (zircon) ages are linked with geochemical data for porphyry intrusions associated with giant porphyry Cu-Au systems at Oyu Tolgoi to place those rocks within the petrochemical framework of Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of southern Mongolia. In this part of the Gurvansayhan terrane within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the transition from Devonian tholeiitic marine rocks to unconformably overlying Carboniferous calc-alkaline subaerial to shallow marine volcanic rocks reflects volcanic arc thickening and maturation. Radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions (??Nd(t) range from +3.1 to +7.5 and 206Pb/204Pb values for feldspars range from 17.97 to 18.72), as well as low high-field strength element (HFSE) contents of most rocks (mafic rocks typically have <1.5% TiO2) are consistent with magma derivation from depleted mantle in an intra-oceanic volcanic arc. The Late Devonian and Carboniferous felsic rocks are dominantly medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and characterized by a decrease in Sr/Y ratios through time, with the Carboniferous rocks being more felsic than those of Devonian age. Porphyry Cu-Au related intrusions were emplaced in the Late Devonian during the transition from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline arc magmatism. Uranium-Pb (zircon) geochronology indicates that the Late Devonian pre- to syn-mineral quartz monzodiorite intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au deposits are ~372Ma, whereas granodiorite intrusions that post-date major shortening and are associated with less well-developed porphyry Cu-Au mineralization are ~366Ma. Trace element geochemistry of zircons in the Late Devonian intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au systems contain distinct Th/U and Yb/Gd ratios, as well as Hf and Y concentrations that reflect mixing of magma of distinct compositions. These characteristics are missing in the unmineralized Carboniferous intrusions. High Sr/Y and evidence for magma mixing in syn- to late-mineral intrusions distinguish the Late

  12. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  13. Magma evolution and the formation of porphyry Cu Au ore fluids: evidence from silicate and sulfide melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Werner E.; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Pettke, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Silicate and sulfide melt inclusions from the andesitic Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex in NW Argentina were analyzed by laser ablation ICPMS to track the behavior of Cu and Au during magma evolution, and to identify the processes in the source of fluids responsible for porphyry-Cu-Au mineralization at the 600 Mt Bajo de la Alumbrera deposit. The combination of silicate and sulfide melt inclusion data with previously published geological and geochemical information indicates that the source of ore metals and water was a mantle-derived mafic magma that contained approximately 6 wt.% H2O and 200 ppm Cu. This magma and a rhyodacitic magma mixed in an upper-crustal magma chamber, feeding the volcanic systems and associated subvolcanic intrusions over 2.6 million years. Generation of the ore fluid from this magma occurred towards the end of this protracted evolution and probably involved six important steps: (1) Generation of a sulfide melt upon magma mixing in some parts of the magma chamber. (2) Partitioning of Cu and Au into the sulfide melt (enrichment factor of 10,000 for Cu) leading to Cu and Au concentrations of several wt.% or ppm, respectively. (3) A change in the tectonic regime from local extension to compression at the end of protracted volcanism. (4) Intrusion of a dacitic magma stock from the upper part of the layered magma chamber. (5) Volatile exsolution and resorption of the sulfide melt from the lower and more mafic parts of the magma chamber, generating a fluid with a Cu/Au ratio equal to that of the precursor sulfide. (6) Focused fluid transport and precipitation of the two metals in the porphyry, yielding an ore body containing Au and Cu in the proportions dictated by the magmatic fluid source. The Cu/S ratio in the sulfide melt inclusions requires that approximately 4,000 ppm sulfur is extracted from the andesitic magma upon mixing. This exceeds the solubility of sulfide or sulfate in either of the silicate melts and implies an additional source

  14. Geology and reconnaissance stable isotope study of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au system, South Gobi, Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khashgerel, B.-E.; Rye, R.O.; Hedenquist, J.W.; Kavalieris, I.

    2006-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au system in the South Gobi desert, Mongolia, comprises five deposits that extend over 6 km in a north-northeast-oriented zone. They occur in a middle to late Paleozoic are terrane and are related to Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions. The Hugo Dummett deposits are the northernmost and deepest, with up to 1,000 m of premineral sedimentary and volcanic cover rock remaining. They are the largest deposits discovered to date and characterized by high-grade copper (>2.5% Cu) and gold (0.5-2 g/t) mineralization associated with intense quartz veining and several phases of quartz monzodiorite intruded into basaltic volcanic host rocks. Sulfide minerals in these deposits are zoned outward from a bornite-dominated core to chalcopyrite, upward to pyrite ?? enargite and covellite at shallower depth. The latter high-sulfidation-state sulfides are hosted by advanced argillic alteration mineral associations. This alteration is restricted mainly to dacitic ash-flow tuff that overlies the basaltic volcanic rock and includes ubiquitous quartz and pyrophyllite, kaolinite, plus late dickite veins, as well as K alunite, Al phosphate-sulfate minerals, zunyite, diaspore, topaz, corundum, and andalusite. A reconnaissance oxygen-hydrogen and sulfur isotope study was undertaken to investigate the origin of several characteristic alteration minerals in the Oyu Tolgoi system, with particular emphasis on the Hugo Dummett deposits. Based on the isotopic composition of O, H, and S (??18O(SO4) = 8.8-20.1???, ??D = -73 to -43???, ??34S = 9.8-17.9???), the alunite formed from condensation of magmatic vapor that ascended to the upper parts of the porphyry hydrothermal system, without involvement of significant amounts of meteoric water. The isotopic data indicate that pyrophyllite (??18O = 6.5-10.9???, ??D = -90 to -106???) formed from a magmatic fluid with a component of meteoric water. Muscovite associated with quartz monzodiorite intrusions occurs in the core

  15. Porphyry deposits of the Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMillan, W.J.; Thompson, J.F.H.; Hart, C.J.R.; Johnston, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    Porphyry deposits are intrusion-related, large tonnage low grade mineral deposits with metal assemblages that may include all or some of copper, molybdenum, gold and silver. The genesis of these deposits is related to the emplacement of intermediate to felsic, hypabyssal, generally porphyritic intrusions that are commonly formed at convergent plate margins. Porphyry deposits of the Canadian Cordillera occur in association with two distinctive intrusive suites: calc-alkalic and alkalic. In the Canadian Cordillera, these deposits formed during two separate time periods: Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic (early Mesozoic), and Late Cretaceous to Eocene (Mesozoic-Cenozoic). Deposits of the early Mesozoic period occur in at least three different arc terranes (Wrangellia, Stikinia and Quesnellia) with a single deposit occurring in the oceanic assemblage of the Cache Creek terrane. These terranes were located outboard from continental North America during formation of most of their contained early Mesozoic porphyry deposits. Some of the deposits of this early period may have been emplaced during terrane collisions. Metal assemblages in deposits of the calc-alkalic suite include Mo-Cu (Brenda), Cu-Mo (Highland Valley, Gibraltar), Cu-Mo-Au-Ag (Island Copper, Schaft Creek) and Cu-Au (Kemess, Kerr).The alkalic suite deposits are characterized by a Cu-Au assemblage (Copper Mountain, Afton-Ajax, Mt. Milligan, Mount Polley, Galore Creek). Although silver is recovered from calc-alkalic and alkalic porphyry copper mining operations, silver data are seldom included in the published reserve figures. Those available are in the range of 1-2 grams per tonne (g??t-1). Alkalic suite deposits are restricted to the early Mesozoic and display distinctive petrology, alteration and mineralization that suggest a similar tectonic setting for both Quesnellia and Stikinia in Early Jurassic time. The younger deposits, late Mesozoic to Cenozoic in age, formed in an intracontinental setting, after the

  16. From andesitic volcanism to the formation of a porphyry Cu-Au mineralizing magma chamber: the Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex, northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Werner E.; Bain, Nicolas; Becker, Katja; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Landtwing, Marianne; VonQuadt, Albrecht; Clark, Alan H.; Sasso, Anne M.; Bissig, Thomas; Tosdal, Richard M.

    2004-08-01

    The geological relations and geochemical composition of extrusive and subvolcanic intrusive rocks of the Upper Miocene Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex (NW Argentina) were studied to reconstruct the evolution of a deeply eroded andesitic volcano over most its life history of some 3.5 my. This paper is part of an integrated study of the processes that generate magmatic-hydrothermal fluids responsible for the formation of porphyry-Cu-Au deposits. Here we present new data on bulk rock chemical and Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions of unaltered volcanic and subvolcanic intrusive rocks, for which geological relations and ages are constrained by field-based stratigraphy and extensive Ar-Ar geochronology. The combined results indicate that voluminous volcanism started at ca. 9.7 Ma with the eruption of basaltic andesite to andesite lava flows and pyroclastic deposits. This basic to intermediate volcanism persisted until 7.5 Ma and was followed at 7.35 Ma by the eruption of dacites as the last recorded major extrusive event. The oldest andesitic intrusions, emplaced at 9.0 Ma, were followed by hypabyssal intrusions of basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite composition, which intruded the volcanic sequence between 8.3 and 6.1 Ma. Intrusions at 6.8±0.2 Ma led to the formation of over 800 Mt of porphyry-Cu-Au ore at Bajo de la Alumbrera. It was formed by a large flux of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids channeled through several phases of fractured dacitic porphyry, which together with immediately following barren andesitic intrusions make up a composite stock. After this magmatic-hydrothermal event, only minor rhyodacitic to rhyolitic intrusions were emplaced until magmatic activity ceased at 6.1 Ma. Geochemical data for the magmatic rocks indicate that the evolution of the system was dominated by mixing of a mafic magma with a felsic magma that contained a component of crustal material, as indicated by linear compositional correlations between compatible and incompatible

  17. The late Oligocene Cevizlidere Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Tunceli Province, eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.; Spell, Terry L.

    2015-02-01

    The Cevizlidere deposit, located in the Tunceli Province of eastern Anatolia, is the largest porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system in Turkey. The deposit is spatially related to a composite stock, which was emplaced into Paleozoic limestones and Paleogene andesitic rocks to the southeast of the Munzur mountains, near the southwestern margin of the Ovacık pull-apart basin. The host plutonic rocks at Cevizlidere are porphyritic, medium-K calc-alkaline diorites and granodiorites. 40Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating analysis of two igneous biotite separates obtained from syn-mineral diorite porphyry yielded late Oligocene cooling ages of 25.49 ± 0.10 and 25.10 ± 0.14 Ma, whereas hydrothermal biotite yielded an age of 24.73 ± 0.08 Ma. Re-Os ages obtained from two molybdenite separates (24.90 ± 0.10 and 24.78 ± 0.10 Ma) indicate that porphyry-style alteration and mineralization developed shortly after magma emplacement. The whole-rock geochemical composition of the Cevizlidere porphyry intrusions is consistent with derivation from partial melting of the metasomatized supra-subduction zone mantle. However, based on regional tectonic reconstructions, Oligocene magmatic activity in this area appears to be related to a major kinematic reorganization that took place at around 25 Ma, during the switch from subduction to collisional tectonics in eastern Anatolia. This kinematic switch may be attributed to break-off of the Southern Neo-Tethys oceanic slab prior to the Arabia-Eurasia continent-continent collision (~12-10 Ma) following widespread middle Eocene (50-43 Ma) arc/back-arc magmatism. In this respect, the subduction-related tectonic setting of the late Oligocene Cevizlidere porphyry deposit is similar to that of the middle Eocene Çöpler epithermal Au deposit. The late timing of Cevizlidere with respect to the Southern Neo-Tethys subduction may be comparable to some early to late Miocene porphyry-epithermal systems that lie within the contiguous Urumieh-Dokhtar belt in central

  18. Cretaceous Cu-Au, pyrite, and Fe-oxide-apatite deposits in the Ningwu basin, Lower Yangtze Area, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin-Jie; Lu, Bang-Cheng; Wang, Tie-Zhu; Che, Lin-Rui

    2015-05-01

    The Cretaceous Ningwu volcanic basin of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt of eastern China hosts numerous Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits. The mineralization in the Ningwu basin is associated with subvolcanic rocks, consisting of gabbro-diorite porphyry and/or pyroxene diorite. However, the mineralization is associated with subvolcanic and volcanic rock suite belonging to the Niangniangshan Formation in the Tongjing Cu-Au deposit, including nosean-bearing aegirine-augite syenites, quartz syenites, and quartz monzonites. The zoning displayed by the alteration and mineralization comprises: (1) an upper light-colored zone of argillic, carbonate, and pyrite alteration and silicification that is locally associated with pyrite and gold mineralization, (2) a central dark-colored zone of diopside, fluorapatite-magnetite, phlogopite, and garnet alteration associated with fluorapatite-magnetite mineralization, and (3) a lowermost light-colored zone of extensive albite alteration. The Cu-Au and pyrite orebodies are peripheral to the Fe-oxide-apatite deposits in this area and overlie the iron orebodies, including the Meishan Cu-Au deposit in the northern Ningwu basin and the pyrite deposits in the central Ningwu basin. The δ34S values of sulfides from the Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits in the Ningwu basin show large variation, with a mixed sulfur source, including magmatic sulfur and/or a mixture of sulfur derived from a magmatic component, country rock, and thermochemical reduction of sulfate at 200-300 °C. The ore-forming fluids associated with iron mineralization were derived mainly from magmatic fluids, and the late-stage ore-forming fluids related to Cu-Au and pyrite mineralization may have formed by the introduction of cooler meteoric water to the system. The Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits of the Ningwu basin formed in an extensional environment and are associated with a large-scale magmatic

  19. Descriptive and Grade-Tonnage Models and Database for Iron Oxide Cu-Au Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Dennis P.; Singer, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Iron oxide Cu-Au deposits are veins and breccia-hosted bodies of hematite and/or magnetite with disseminated Cu + Au ? Ag ? Pd ? Pt ? Ni ? U ? LREE minerals formed in sedimentary or volcano-sedimentary basins intruded by igneous rocks. Deposits are associated with broad redox boundaries and feature sodic alteration of source rocks and potassic alteration of host rocks.

  20. Descriptive and geoenvironmental model for Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks: Chapter G in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Johnson, Craig A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Lund, Karen; Schulz, Klaus J.; Gray, John E.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Slack, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Additional geologically and compositionally similar deposits are known, but have average Co grades less than 0.1 percent. Most of these deposits contain cobalt-rich pyrite and lack appreciable amounts of distinct Co sulfide and (or) sulfarsenide minerals. Such deposits are not discussed in detail in the following sections, but these deposits may be revelant to the descriptive and genetic models presented below. Examples include the Scadding Au-Co-Cu deposit in Ontario, Canada; the Vähäjoki Co-Cu-Au deposit in Finland; the Tuolugou Co-Au deposit in Qinghai Province, China; the Lala Co-Cu-UREE deposit in Sichuan Province, China; the Guelb Moghrein Cu-Au-Co deposit in Mauritania; and the Great Australia Co-Cu, Greenmount Cu-Au-Co, and Monakoff Cu-Au-Co-UAg deposits in Queensland, Australia. Detailed information on these deposits is presented in appendix 2.

  1. Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks-A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Causey, J.D.; Eppinger, R.G.; Gray, J.E.; Johnson, C.A.; Lund, K.I.; Schulz, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    A compilation of data on global Co-Cu-Au deposits in metasedimentary rocks refines previous descriptive models for their occurrence and provides important information for mineral resource assessments and exploration programs. This compilation forms the basis for a new classification of such deposits, which is speculative at this early stage of research. As defined herein, the Co-Cu-Au deposits contain 0.1 percent or more by weight of Co in ore or mineralized rock, comprising disseminated to semi-massive Co-bearing sulfide minerals with associated Fe- and Cu-bearing sulfides, and local gold, concentrated predominantly within rift-related, siliciclastic metasedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age. Some deposits have appreciable Ag ? Bi ? W ? Ni ? Y ? rare earth elements ? U. Deposit geometry includes stratabound and stratiform layers, lenses, and veins, and (or) discordant veins and breccias. The geometry of most deposits is controlled by stratigraphic layering, folds, axial-plane cleavage, shear zones, breccias, or faults. Ore minerals are mainly cobaltite, skutterudite, glaucodot, and chalcopyrite, with minor gold, arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, bismuthinite, and bismuth; some deposits have appreciable tetrahedrite, uraninite, monazite, allanite, xenotime, apatite, scheelite, or molybdenite. Magnetite can be abundant in breccias, veins, or stratabound lenses within ore or surrounding country rocks. Common gangue minerals include quartz, biotite, muscovite, K-feldspar, albite, chlorite, and scapolite; many deposits contain minor to major amounts of tourmaline. Altered wall rocks generally have abundant biotite or albite. Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary successions constitute the predominant geologic setting. Felsic and (or) mafic plutons are spatially associated with many deposits and at some localities may be contemporaneous with, and involved in, ore formation. Geoenvironmental data for the Blackbird mining district in central Idaho indicate that weathering of

  2. Silurian U-Pb zircon age (LA-ICP-MS) of granitoids from the Zelenodol Cu-porphyry deposit, Southern Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Shardakova, G. Yu.; Azovskova, O. B.; Gerdes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Zelenodol porphyry Cu-(Au, Mo) deposit located about 65 km SSW of the city of Chelyabinsk is confined to the western part of the West Uralian Volcanogenic Megazone. The concordant U-Pb age of zircons from ore-bearing island-arc diorite porphyryis 418.3 Â ± 2.9 Ma.

  3. The giant Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit and surrounding region, southwest Alaska: introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James R.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble deposit is located about 320 km southwest of and 27 km northwest of the village of Iliamna in Alaska (Fig. 1A). It is one of the largest porphyry deposits in terms of contained Cu (Fig. 2A) and it has the largest Au endowment of any porphyry deposit in the world (Fig. 2B). The deposit comprises the Pebble West and Pebble East zones that represent two coeval hydrothermal centers within a single system (Lang et al., 2013). Together the measured and indicated resources total 5,942 million metric tons (Mt) at 0.42% Cu, 0.35 g/t Au, and 250 ppm Mo with an inferred resource of 4,835 Mt at 0.24% Cu, 0.26 g/t Au, and 215 ppm Mo. In addition, the deposit contains significant concentrations of Ag, Pd, and Re (Northern Dynasty Minerals, 2011).

  4. Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program develops mineral-deposit models for application in USGS mineral-resource assessments and other mineral resource-related activities within the USGS as well as for nongovernmental applications. Periodic updates of models are published in order to incorporate new concepts and findings on the occurrence, nature, and origin of specific mineral deposit types. This update is a preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits that begins an update process of porphyry copper models published in USGS Bulletin 1693 in 1986. This update includes a greater variety of deposit attributes than were included in the 1986 model as well as more information about each attribute. It also includes an expanded discussion of geophysical and remote sensing attributes and tools useful in resource evaluations, a summary of current theoretical concepts of porphyry copper deposit genesis, and a summary of the environmental attributes of unmined and mined deposits.

  5. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

  6. Fluid inclusions from the Jinchang Cu-Au deposit, Heilongjiang Province, NE China: Genetic style and magmatic-hydrothermal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua-Dong; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Santosh, M.; Li, Sheng-Rong

    2014-03-01

    The Jinchang Cu-Au deposit is located in the easternmost part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The mineralization here is associated with Cretaceous porphyritic intrusions of ca. 120-110 Ma and is mainly hosted within intensely altered Mesozoic granites, breccia pipes, ringed and radial faults. The gold ores are disseminated in the wall rock, and also occur as massive auriferous quartz-sulfide veins in fractures and breccias. Fluid inclusion data from breccias, chalcopyrite-quartz vein, and pyrite-quartz vein display homogenization temperatures in the range of 200 to >550 °C and the fluids show variable salinity in the range of 0-58 wt.% (NaCl equiv.). The halite absent fluid inclusions shows a slight increase in salinity with a sharp decrease in temperature. We interpret that the high-salinity brine and low salinity vapor- or aqueous-rich fluids from ores represent fluid unmixing from magma. The fluid inclusion data from Jinchang demonstrate that the main mineralization took place at temperatures from 480 °C to 200 °C, and evolved from high to low salinities. Geology and fluid inclusion data suggest that the Jinchang deposit is an oxidized intrusion-related Cu-Au deposit. The voluminous hydrothermal magnetite formed during high temperature potassic alteration of wall rocks in this ore deposit can be used as a potential prospecting tool.

  7. Oxygen fugacity and porphyry mineralization: A zircon perspective of Dexing porphyry Cu deposit, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chan-chan; Sun, Wei-dong; Wang, Jin-tuan; Zhang, Li-peng; Sun, Sai-jun; Wu, Kai

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) is a key factor that controls the formation of porphyry Cu deposits. Porphyry Cu deposits are typically oxidized, but when and how porphyry magmas gain their high oxygen fugacity signatures, and how oxygen fugacity controls porphyry mineralization, remains obscure. To trace the origin of the high oxygen fugacity in porphyry Cu deposits, we determined trace element compositions and U-Pb ages of magmatic and inherited zircon from Dexing porphyry Cu deposit, calculated Ce4+/Ce3+ of zircons and estimated the oxygen fugacity of their parental magmas. The Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios of Middle Jurassic (∼170 Ma) magmatic zircons are high (550 on average), whereas the Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios of inherited zircons (200-880 Ma) are much lower (263 on average). The relationship suggests that the Dexing porphyry magma was highly oxidized when the Jurassic magmatic zircons crystallized (estimated fO2: ΔFMQ + 0.7 (±1.3) - ΔFMQ + 1.9 (±1.3)), which cannot be attributed to partial melting of the Neoproterozoic arc crust (estimated fO2: ΔFMQ - 2.4 (±1.1) - ΔFMQ + 0.7 (±1.2)) as proposed previously. Instead, the high fO2 (ΔFMQ + 1.5) of these magmas is a primary feature of the latest magmatism. Sulfate rather than sulfide is the dominant species at fO2 > ΔFMQ + 1.5. In general, the behavior of Cu and other chalcophile elements is controlled by sulfide, while the sulfur speciation is controlled by oxygen fugacity. Previous modeling results show that partial melting of mantle peridotite under high oxygen fugacity (even at >ΔFMQ + 1.5) cannot form Cu-rich magmas, which plausibly explains the lack of porphyry Cu deposits in normal arc rocks. This is because mantle peridotite has low Cu and S contents. Our modeling shows that partial melting of subducted oceanic crust, under oxygen fugacities higher than ΔFMQ + 1.5, is favorable for producing primary magmas with Cu contents sufficiently high for porphyry mineralization, which plausibly explains the close relationship

  8. Abundances of platinum group elements in native sulfur condensates from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc: Implications for PGE mineralization in porphyry deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Campbell, Ian H.; Kim, Jonguk

    2016-02-01

    Some porphyry Cu-Au deposits, which are enriched in Pd, are potentially an economic source of Pd. Magmatic volatile phases are thought to transport the platinum group elements (PGEs) from the porphyry source magma to the point of deposition. However, the compatibilities of the PGEs in magmatic volatile phases are poorly constrained. We report PGE and Re contents in native sulfur condensates and associated altered dacites from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc, in order to determine the compatibility of PGEs and Re in magmatic volatile phases, and their mobility during secondary hydrothermal alteration. The native sulfur we analyzed is the condensate of a magmatic volatile phase exsolved from the Niuatahi-Motutahi magma. The PGEs are moderately enriched in the sulfur condensates in comparison to the associated fresh dacite, with enrichment factors of 11-285, whereas Au, Cu and Re are strongly enriched with enrichment factors of ∼20,000, ∼5000 and ∼800 respectively. Although the PGEs are moderately compatible into magmatic volatile phases, their compatibility is significantly lower than that of Au, Cu and Re. Furthermore, the compatibility of PGEs decrease in the order: Ru > Pt > Ir > Pd. This trend is also observed in condensates and sublimates from other localities. PGE mineralization in porphyry Cu-Au deposits is characterized by substantially higher Pd/Pt (∼7-60) and Pd/Ir (∼100-10,500) than typical orthomagmatic sulfide deposits (e.g. Pd/Pt ∼0.6 and Pd/Ir ∼20 for the Bushveld). It has previously been suggested that the high mobility of Pd, relative to the other PGEs, may account for the preferential enrichment of Pd in porphyry Cu-Au deposits. However, the low compatibility of Pd in the volatile phase relative to the other PGEs, shown in this study, invalidates this explanation. We suggest that the PGE geochemistry of Pd-rich Cu-Au deposits is principally derived from the PGE characteristics of the magma from which the ore

  9. The geology and geochemistry of Philippine Porphyry copper deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divis, Allan F.

    Porphyry copper deposits and their relationship to felsic intrusions are of considerable economic as well as academic interest. They generally occur near continental margins and in island arcs. Although some conjecture exists as to the ultimate source of transition metals associated with the deposits, a growing body of evidence suggests the metals are principally derived from a magmatic source: the porphyry intrusions. These intrusions may also give rise to adjacent vein and precious metal deposits. Over 40 potential deposits have been reported in the Philippine island arc and approximately nine are or have been in production. The known and inferred reserves from these deposits exceed three billion metric tons of ore— approximately 10 to 20 million tons of metallic copper. Several deposits may ultimately have more than a billion tons of ore reserves. There appears to be a remarkable correlation between the timing of porphyry intrusions in the Philippines and that in other areas, particularly New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. These intrusions also show a close relationship to the timing of oceanic plate tectonic processes. Periods of increased subduction rate and accompanying dilation and/or shearing within the arc may be conducive to the generation of porphyry magmas on an episodic rather than continuous basis. Ultimately, the development of an economically significant ore body requires the presence of a hydrous magma and may be associated with other primary compositional characteristics. However, anomalous high primary magmatic concentrations of copper do not appear to be required for the formation of the porphyry deposits. The Philippine porphyry intrusions differ somewhat from `continental' porphyries and are chemically similar to mineralized island arc intrusions of the Carribean and the southwest Pacific. The Philippine intrusions generally range from diorites and quartz diorites to low potassium granodiorites. Initial 87-Sr/86-Sr ratios are low, ranging

  10. A Long-Lived Porphyry Ore Deposit and Associated Upper Crustal Silicic Magma Body, Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. C.; Allen, C. M.; Reiners, P. W.; Dunlap, W. J.; Cooke, D. R.; Campbell, I. H.; White, N. C.

    2004-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits form within and adjacent to small porphyritic intrusions that are apophyses to larger silicic magma bodies that reside in the upper parts of the Earth's crusts. Centred on these intrusions are hydrothermal systems of exsolved magmatic fluid with a carapace of convectively circulating meteoric water. We have applied several different dating techniques to assess the longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system and to define the cooling history of porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Argentina. The closure temperatures of these techniques range from 800oC (zircon U-Pb) to ~70oC (apatite (U-Th)/He; Fig. 1). The resulting cooling history indicates that the magmatic-hydrothermal system cooled to ca. 200oC by ~1.5 m.y. after the last porphyry intrusion (i.e., 6.96±0.09 Ma; U-Pb zircon age). Based on (U-Th)/He apatite data (closure temperature ~60-70oC), exposure and cessation of the system occurred before 4 Ma. The longevity of the magmatic-hydrothermal system indicated by these results is inconsistent with accepted mechanisms for porphyry Cu deposit formation. Depending on wallrock permeability, depth and cooling method, a 2 km wide by 3 km high intrusion has been predicted to cool between 0.01 to 0.1 m.y. (marked as the grey interval; Cathles et al., 1997 Economic Geology). We have obtained numerous age determinations younger than the U-Pb zircon age of the last known intrusion at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These imply that simple cooling of the small, mineralized porphyries did not happen. For the magmatic-hydrothermal system to have been sustained for longer than 0.1 m.y., either 1) younger small intrusions have been episodically emplaced below the youngest known intrusions, thus prolonging heat flow, or 2) fluids derived from a deeper and larger parental intrusion have been episodically discharged through the ore deposit long after the porphyry intrusion had lost its available heat. In either case, the longevity of

  11. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  12. Integrated geophysical imaging of a concealed mineral deposit: a case study of the world-class Pebble porphyry deposit in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James

    2013-01-01

    We combined aeromagnetic, induced polarization, magnetotelluric, and gravity surveys as well as drillhole geologic, alteration, magnetic susceptibility, and density data for exploration and characterization of the Cu-Au-Mo Pebble porphyry deposit. This undeveloped deposit is almost completely concealed by postmineralization sedimentary and volcanic rocks, presenting an exploration challenge. Individual geophysical methods primarily assist regional characterization. Positive chargeability and conductivity anomalies are observed over a broad region surrounding the deposit, likely representing sulfide minerals that accumulated during multiple stages of hydrothermal alteration. The mineralized area occupies only a small part of the chargeability anomaly because sulfide precipitation was not unique to the deposit, and mafic rocks also exhibit strong chargeability. Conductivity anomalies similarly reflect widespread sulfides as well as water-saturated glacial sediments. Mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility data indicate magnetite destruction primarily within the Cu-Au-Mo mineralized area. The magnetic field does not show a corresponding anomaly low but the analytic signal does in areas where the deposit is not covered by postmineralization igneous rocks. The analytic signal shows similar lows over sedimentary rocks outside of the mineralized area, however, and cannot uniquely distinguish the deposit. We find that the intersection of positive chargeability anomalies with analytic signal lows, indicating elevated sulfide concentrations but low magnetite at shallow depths, roughly delineates the deposit where it is covered only by glacial sediments. Neither chargeability highs nor analytic signal lows are present where the deposit is covered by several hundred meters of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, but a 3D resistivity model derived from magnetotelluric data shows a corresponding zone of higher conductivity. Gravity data highlight geologic features within the

  13. Recognition of the geologic framework of porphyry deposits on ERTS-1 imagery. [copper/molybdenum porphyrys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three major tectonic provinces have been mapped by geologic photointerpretation of ERTS-1 imagery over the Ok Tedi test site. These areas can be characterized as follows: (1) A broad area of low relief and mature topography suggesting a history of relative tectonic stability. (2) A narrow belt of moderate to high relief, broad open folds and prominent linear features. The Mount Fubilan-type porphyry copper deposits and recent volcanic effusive centers occur in this province. (3) A heterogeneous zone of high relief and high drainage density suggestive of relative structural complexity.

  14. The effect of titanite crystallisation on Eu and Ce anomalies in zircon and its implications for the assessment of porphyry Cu deposit fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loader, Matthew A.; Wilkinson, Jamie J.; Armstrong, Robin N.

    2017-08-01

    The redox sensitivity of Ce and Eu anomalies in zircon has been clearly demonstrated by experimental studies, and these may represent an important tool in the exploration for porphyry Cu deposits which are thought to be derived from oxidised magmas. These deposits are significant because they are the source of much of the world's copper and almost all of the molybdenum and rhenium, key elements in many modern technologies. However, Ce and Eu anomalies in zircon are also affected by the co-crystallisation of REE bearing phases, such as titanite. Here, we report the trace element chemistry of zircons from titanite-bearing intrusions associated with mineralisation at the world class Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au deposit (Mongolia). Based on these data, we suggest that neither zircon Eu/Eu*, nor Ce4+/Ce3+ are robust proxies for melt redox conditions, because they are both too strongly dependent on melt REE concentrations, which are usually poorly constrained and controlled by the crystallisation of titanite and other REE-bearing phases. In spite of this, Eu/Eu* can broadly distinguish between fertile and barren systems, so may still be an indicator of porphyry magma fertility, and a useful tool for exploration.

  15. The formation of Luoboling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit: Constraints from zircon and apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cong-ying; Hao, Xi-luo; Liu, Ji-qiang; Ling, Ming-xing; Ding, Xing; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Wei-dong

    2017-02-01

    The Luobuling porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Late Cretaceous Zijinshan Cu-Au-Mo mineralization field in southeastern China. Due to intensive hydrothermal alteration and weathering, it is very difficult to collect fresh whole rock samples for geochemical and isotopic studies in Luobuling. Zircon and apatite are accessory minerals that are resistant to hydrothermal alterations. In this study, we compared the trace element and isotope compositions of zircon and apatite from ore-bearing and barren samples to understand the formation of the Luoboling Cu-Mo deposit. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating shows that the Luoboling porphyries formed at 100 Ma (100.3 ± 1.2 Ma, 100.6 ± 1.5 Ma and 98.6 ± 1.2 Ma), which belongs to the late stage mineralization of the Zijinshan mineralization field. Zhongliao porphyritic granodiorite has the same age as the deposit (99.5 ± 1.6 Ma). The age of barren Sifang granodiorite is slightly older (109.7 ± 0.8 Ma). All these zircon grains have high Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, indicating high oxygen fugacities. The ore-bearing samples show variable εHf(t) of - 7.3 to 0.2, suggesting either heterogeneous sources or mixing of two different magmas. Interestingly, the Hf isotope composition of barren samples is systematically higher (εHf(t) of - 3.6 to 5.5), implying a lower contribution of crustal materials. The OH mole percent of apatite grains from barren samples (LBL22-03 and SF09-05) is 0.5, which is higher than that of apatite from the ore-bearing samples (LBL20-01 LBL20-02 and LBL22-02), indicating lower F, Cl contents or higher water contents in the magma. In apatite from the ore-bearing samples, Sr is high, indicating the absence of plagioclase crystallization. In contrast, barren samples have varied and lower Sr, indicating that apatite crystallization was accompanied by plagioclase. These patterns were controlled by water contents because the crystallization of plagioclase is suppressed by high water contents in magmas. It also suggests

  16. 3D electrical structure of porphyry copper deposit: A case study of Shaxi copper deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang-Bin; Lü, Qing-Tian; Yan, Jia-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Located in Lu-Zong ore concentration area, middle-lower Yangtze metallogenic belt, ShaXi porphyry copper deposit is a typical hydrothermal deposit. To investigate the distribution of deep ore bodies and spatial characteristics of host structures, an AMT survey was conducted in mining area. Eighteen pseudo-2D resistivity sections were constructed through careful processing and inversion. These sections clearly show resistivity difference between the Silurian sandstones formation and quartz diorite porphyry and this porphyry copper formation was controlled by the highly resistive anticlines. Using 3D block Kriging interpolation method and 3D visualization techniques, we constructed a detailed 3D resistivity model of quartz diorite porphyry which shows the shape and spatial distribution of deep ore bodies. This case study can serve as a good example for future ore prospecting in and around this mining area.

  17. Tectonic setting of the pebble and other copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry deposits within the evolving middle cretaceous continental margin of Northwestern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Anderson, Eric; Hart, Craig J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska, containing the largest gold resource of any known porphyry in the world, developed in a tectonic setting significantly different from that of the present-day. It is one of a series of metalliferous middle Cretaceous porphyritic granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and diorite bodies, evolved from lower crust and metasomatized lithospheric mantle melts, which formed along much of the length of the North American craton suture with the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia arc. The porphyry deposits were emplaced within the northernmost two of a series of ca. 130 to 80 Ma flysch basins that define the suture, as well as into arc rocks immediately seaward of the two basins. Deposits include the ca. 100 to 90 Ma Pebble, Neacola, and other porphyry prospects along the Kahiltna basin-Peninsula terrane boundary, and the ca. 115 to 105 Ma Baultoff, Carl Creek, Horsfeld, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, and Chisna porphyries along the Nutzotin basin-Wrangellia terrane boundary.The porphyry deposits probably formed along the craton margin more than 1,000 km to the south of their present latitude. Palinspastic reconstructions of plate kinematics from this period are particularly difficult because magmatism overlaps the 119 to 83 Ma Cretaceous Normal Superchron, a period when sea-floor magnetic data are lacking. Our favored scenario is that ore formation broadly overlaps the cessation of sedimentation and contraction and the transition to a transpressional continental margin regime, such that the remnant ocean basins were converted to strike-slip basins. The basins and outboard Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia composite superterrane, which are all located seaward of the deep crustal Denali-Farewell fault system, were subjected to northerly dextral transpression for as long as perhaps 50 m.y., beginning at ca. 95 ± 10 Ma. The onset of this transpression was marked by development of the mineralized bodies along fault segments on the seaward side

  18. Tectonic setting of the pebble and other copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry deposits within the evolving middle cretaceous continental margin of Northwestern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Anderson, Eric; Hart, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska, containing the largest gold resource of any known porphyry in the world, developed in a tectonic setting significantly different from that of the present-day. It is one of a series of metalliferous middle Cretaceous porphyritic granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and diorite bodies, evolved from lower crust and metasomatized lithospheric mantle melts, which formed along much of the length of the North American craton suture with the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia arc. The porphyry deposits were emplaced within the northernmost two of a series of ca. 130 to 80 Ma flysch basins that define the suture, as well as into arc rocks immediately seaward of the two basins. Deposits include the ca. 100 to 90 Ma Pebble, Neacola, and other porphyry prospects along the Kahiltna basin-Peninsula terrane boundary, and the ca. 115 to 105 Ma Baultoff, Carl Creek, Horsfeld, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, and Chisna porphyries along the Nutzotin basin-Wrangellia terrane boundary.The porphyry deposits probably formed along the craton margin more than 1,000 km to the south of their present latitude. Palinspastic reconstructions of plate kinematics from this period are particularly difficult because magmatism overlaps the 119 to 83 Ma Cretaceous Normal Superchron, a period when sea-floor magnetic data are lacking. Our favored scenario is that ore formation broadly overlaps the cessation of sedimentation and contraction and the transition to a transpressional continental margin regime, such that the remnant ocean basins were converted to strike-slip basins. The basins and outboard Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia composite superterrane, which are all located seaward of the deep crustal Denali-Farewell fault system, were subjected to northerly dextral transpression for as long as perhaps 50 m.y., beginning at ca. 95 ± 10 Ma. The onset of this transpression was marked by development of the mineralized bodies along fault segments on the seaward side

  19. Porphyry molybdenum deposits in the Tianshan-Xingmeng orogenic belt, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qingdong; Qin, Kezhang; Liu, Jianming; Li, Guangming; Zhai, Mingguo; Chu, Shaoxiong; Guo, Yunpeng

    2015-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) exploration activity in China has increased tremendously over the past decade, and China is now known to have the largest Mo reserves in the world. The Tianshan-Xingmeng orogenic belt, the second largest Mo metallogenic belt, possesses over 8.2 Mt of Mo reserves. Porphyry Mo deposits contain 99 % of the Mo reserves in the Tianshan-Xingmeng orogenic belt; other Mo deposits contain 1 % of the Mo reserves. Five subtypes of the porphyry Mo deposits can be distinguished by deposit associations, such as Mo, Mo-Cu, Mo-W, Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag, and Cu-Mo deposits. These porphyry Mo deposits are formed at different stages: during the Ordovician, Devonian, Carboniferous, Late Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods. The polystage porphyry Mo mineralizations indicate that polystage tectonic-magmatic activity occurred in the orogenic belt. The Ordovician-Carboniferous porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are formed in an island-arc setting; the Late Permian porphyry Mo deposits are formed in a syn-collisional tectonic setting; and the Triassic porphyry Mo deposits are formed in a syn-collisional to post-collisional tectonic setting. The Ordovician-Triassic porphyry deposits are related to the Paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic system. The Jurassic porphyry Mo deposits are formed at the eastern margin of the Asian continent and are associated with a Paleo-Pacific plate-subduction tectonic setting. Cretaceous porphyry Mo deposits are formed in a lithospheric thinning setting and are related to the rollback of the Paleo-Pacific subduction plate.

  20. Magmatic Vapor Phase Transport of Copper in Reduced Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: Evidence From PIXE Microanalysis of Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowins, S. M.; Yeats, C. J.; Ryan, C. G.

    2002-05-01

    Nondestructive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) studies of magmatic fluid inclusions in granite-related Sn-W deposits [1] reveal that copper transport out of reduced felsic magmas is favored by low-salinity vapor and not co-existing high-salinity liquid (halite-saturated brine). Copper transport by magmatic vapor also has been documented in oxidized porphyry Cu-Au deposits, but the magnitude of Cu partitioning into the vapor compared to the brine generally is less pronounced than in the reduced magmatic Sn-W systems [2]. Consideration of these microanalytical data leads to the hypothesis that Cu and, by inference, Au in the recently established "reduced porphyry copper-gold" (RPCG) subclass should partition preferentially into vapor and not high-salinity liquid exsolving directly from fluid-saturated magmas [3-4]. To test this hypothesis, PIXE microanalysis of primary fluid inclusions in quartz-sulfide (pyrite, pyrrhotite & chalcopyrite) veins from two RPCG deposits was undertaken using the CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe. PIXE microanalysis for the ~30 Ma San Anton deposit (Mexico) was done on halite-saturated aqueous brine (<10 vol.% vapor) and co-existing low-salinity aqueous vapor (<20 vol.% liquid) inclusions. Results indicate that vapor inclusions have higher concentrations of Cu (typically 1000's of ppm; max. 7277 ppm) compared to brine inclusions (typically 100's of ppm). Brine inclusions also are much higher in Cl (Na), K, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Fe. Only Pb concentrations approach those in the vapor. Metal ratios such as Cu/Fe and Cu/Zn are 2 to 167 times higher in the vapor compared with the brine inclusions. Cu/Pb ratios are 2 to 15 times higher in the vapor than in the brine. PIXE microanalysis for the ~617 Ma 17 Mile Hill deposit (W. Australia) was done on halite-saturated "aqueous" inclusions, which contain a small (<10 vol.%) bubble of carbonic fluid, and adjacent "carbonic" inclusions, which have a thin rim of aqueous liquid (<10 vol.%) wetting the

  1. Fluid Inclusion characteristics of syn-late orogenic Co-Ni-Cu-Au deposits in the Siegerland District of the Rhenish Massif, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, Christoph; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael

    2013-04-01

    The Siegerland District is located in the fold-and-thrust-belt of the Rhenish Massif and hosts various syn- late orogenic vein-hosted hydrothermal mineralization types. Peak-metamorphism and deformation occurred at 312-316 ± 10 Ma (Ahrendt et al., 1978) at pT-conditions of 280 - 320 °C and 0.7 - 1.4 kbar (Hein, 1993). The district is known for synorogenic siderite-quartz mineralization formed during peak-metamorphic conditions. At least 4 syn-late orogenic mineralization types are distinguished: Co-Ni-Cu-Au, Pb-Zn-Cu, Sb-Au and hematite-digenite-bornite mineralization (Hellmann et al., 2012b). Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization of the Siegerland District belongs to the recently defined class of metasediment hosted synorogenic Co-Cu-Au deposits (i.e. Slack et al, 2010). Ore minerals are Fe-Co-Ni sulpharsenides, bearing invisible gold, chalcopyrite, and minor As-bearing pyrite. The gangue is quartz. The alteration mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The epigenetic quartz veins are closely related to the formation of reverse faults (Hellmann et al., 2011a). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions concerning the relationship between mineralization and microstructures have not been done so far for this deposit-class and this will be addressed here. Fluid inclusions are investigated in hydrothermally formed vein-quartz, selected from Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization bearing veins showing only minor overprints by later mineralization types. Two quartz generations are distinguished: subhedral quartz-I showing growth zonation and fine grained, recrystallized- and newly formed quartz-II grains forming irregular masses and fracture fillings in quartz-I. Co-Ni-Fe sulpharsenides and chalcopyrite are closely intergrown with quartz-II, implying their contemperaneous formation. However, fluid inclusions in quartz-II are often small, therefore fluid inclusions in quartz-I have been mostly investigated. In total, 180 inclusions from 4 different deposits have been

  2. New geologic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies on the controversial Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, Ana M.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Taylor, Bruce E.; Martini, Sérgio L.

    2008-02-01

    The Igarapé Bahia Cu-Au deposit in the Carajás Province, Brazil, is hosted by steeply dipping metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Igarapé Bahia Group. This group consists of a low greenschist grade unit of the Archean (˜2,750 Ma) Itacaiúnas Supergroup, in which other important Cu-Au and iron ore deposits of the Carajás region are also hosted. The orebody at Igarapé Bahia is a fragmental rock unit situated between chloritized basalt, with associated hyaloclastite, banded iron formation (BIF), and chert in the footwall and mainly coarse- to fine-grained turbidites in the hanging wall. The fragmental rock unit is a nearly concordant, 2 km long and 30-250 m thick orebody made up of heterolithic, usually matrix-supported rocks composed mainly of coarse basalt, BIF, and chert clasts derived from the footwall unit. Mineralization is confined to the fine-grained matrix and comprises disseminated to massive chalcopyrite accompanied by magnetite, gold, U- and light rare earth element (LREE)-minerals, and minor other sulfides like bornite, molybdenite, cobaltite, digenite, and pyrite. Gangue minerals include siderite, chlorite, amphibole, tourmaline, quartz, stilpnomelane, epidote, and apatite. A less important mineralization style at Igarapé Bahia is represented by late quartz-chalcopyrite-calcite veins that crosscut all rocks in the deposit area. Fluid inclusions trapped in a quartz cavity in the ore unit indicate that saline aqueous fluids (5 to 45 wt% NaCl + CaCl2 equiv), together with carbonic (CO2 ± CH4) and low-salinity aqueous carbonic (6 wt% NaCl equiv) fluids, were involved in the mineralization process. Carbonates from the fragmental layer have δ13C values from -6.7 to -13.4 per mil that indicate their origin from organic and possibly also from magmatic carbon. The δ34S values for chalcopyrite range from -1.1 to 5.6 per mil with an outlier at -10.8 per mil, implying that most sulfur is magmatic or leached from magmatic rocks, whereas a limited

  3. Composition and source of salinity of ore-bearing fluids in Cu-Au systems of the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xavier, Roberto; Rusk, Brian; Emsbo, Poul; Monteiro, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The composition and Cl/Br – NaCl ratios of highly saline aqueous inclusions from large tonnage (> 100 t) IOCG deposits (Sossego, Alvo 118, and Igarapé Bahia) and a Paleoproterozoic intrusion-related Cu-Au-(Mo-W-Bi-Sn) deposit (Breves; < 50 Mt)) in the Carajás Mineral Province have been analysed by LA-ICP-MS and ion chromatography. In both Cu-Au systems, brine inclusions are Ca-dominated (5 to 10 times more than in porphyry Cu-Au fluids), and contain percent level concentrations of Na and K. IOCG inclusion fluids, however, contain higher Sr, Ba, Pb, and Zn concentrations, but significantly less Bi, than the intrusion-related Breves inclusion fluids. Cu is consistently below detection limits in brine inclusions from the IOCG and intrusion-related systems and Fe was not detected in the latter. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the IOCG inclusion fluids range from entirely evaporative brines (bittern fluids; e.g. Igarapé Bahia and Alvo 118) to values that indicate mixing with magma-derived brines. Cl/Br and Na/Cl ratios of the Breves inclusion fluids strongly suggest the involvement of magmatic brines, but that possibly also incorporated bittern fluids. Collectively, these data demonstrate that residual evaporative and magmatic brines were important components of the fluid regime involved in the formation of Cu-Au systems in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  4. Relationship between porphyry copper occurrences, crustal preservation levels, and amount of exploration in magmatic belts of the Central Tethys region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Tethys region of Turkey, the Caucasus, Iran, western Pakistan, and southern Afghanistan was conducted as part of a U.S.G.S. global mineral resource assessment. The purpose was to delineate areas as permissive tracts for the occurrence of porphyry Cu-Mo and Cu-Au deposits, and to provide estimates of amounts of Cu, Mo, and Au likely to be contained in undiscovered porphyry deposits (Zürcher et al., 2013; Zürcher et al., in review). Tectonic, geologic, geochemical, geochronologic, and ore deposits data compiled and analyzed for this assessment show that magmatism in the region can be rationalized in terms of fundamental plate tectonic principles, including mantle-involved post-subduction processes. However, uplift, erosion, subsidence, and burial of porphyry copper deposits also played an important role in shaping the observed metallogenic patterns.

  5. Rhenium in porphyry copper deposits of the urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.

    2013-02-01

    The overwhelming majority of porphyry Mo-Au-Cu deposits in the Urals are related to the low-K quartz diorite minor intrusions of the island-arc type, which were formed from Silurian Middle-Late Carboniferous. In the South Urals, the Cu/Mo ratio of ore decreases eastward along with enrichment in Re. At the same time, molybdenite is depleted in this metal in compliance with more sialic crust and potassium content in ore-bearing dioritic rocks. Quartz diorites at the highest-Re deposits contain 1-2 wt % K2O. At most Early-Middle Devonian deposits and occurrences of the western Tagil-Magnitogorsk-West Mugodzhary femic megazone, molybdenite is sporadic. The Re content in rocks was mainly determined using the kinetic method and to a lesser extent with ICP-MS. A Cameca SX-100 microprobe was also used for study of molybdenite. The Cu/Mo ratio of ore exceeds 600; the Mo content is commonly 1-15 ppm (occasionally up to 30 ppm and higher); the Re content is up to 0.01-0.04 ppm, sporadically increasing to 0.08-0.17 ppm. At the same time, the Re content in molybdenite often reaches 0.2-0.4 wt %. The highest Re concentration was established in the ore of the largest Mikheevsky deposit formed in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous and localized in the easternmost part of the East Ural sialic-femic megazone. The Re content in the orebodies of this deposit often reaches 0.2-0.5 ppm (up to 1.4-2.7 ppm) and 0.21 wt % in molybdenite. The average Mo grade of ore is 80 ppm and Cu/Mo ratio is 66. These data and Sr isotopic composition of ore-bearing granitoid and metasomatic rocks [(87Sr/86Sr)t = 0.7038-0.7051; (ɛNd)t = 3-7] testify to the mantle source of matter with insignificant admixture of crustal material. The same is apparently valid for Re and Cu in contrast to Mo. This statement is corroborated by the inverse correlation between Cu/Mo and Mo/Re ratios in the ore. Fluid-crystal fractionation of ore-bearing dioritic rocks is accompanied by enrichment of ore in Mo and by

  6. Tempo of magma degassing and the genesis of porphyry copper deposits

    PubMed Central

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Rottier, Bertrand; Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Porphyry deposits are copper-rich orebodies formed by precipitation of metal sulphides from hydrothermal fluids released from magmatic intrusions that cooled at depth within the Earth’s crust. Finding new porphyry deposits is essential because they are our largest source of copper and they also contain other strategic metals including gold and molybdenum. However, the discovery of giant porphyry deposits is hindered by a lack of understanding of the factors governing their size. Here, we use thermal modelling and statistical simulations to quantify the tempo and the chemistry of fluids released from cooling magmatic systems. We confirm that typical arc magmas produce fluids similar in composition to those that form porphyry deposits and conclude that the volume and duration of magmatic activity exert a first order control on the endowment (total mass of deposited copper) of economic porphyry copper deposits. Therefore, initial magma enrichment in copper and sulphur, although adding to the metallogenic potential, is not necessary to form a giant deposit. Our results link the respective durations of magmatic and hydrothermal activity from well-known large to supergiant deposits to their metal endowment. This novel approach can readily be implemented as an additional exploration tool that can help assess the economic potential of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. PMID:28079160

  7. Tempo of magma degassing and the genesis of porphyry copper deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Rottier, Bertrand; Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Porphyry deposits are copper-rich orebodies formed by precipitation of metal sulphides from hydrothermal fluids released from magmatic intrusions that cooled at depth within the Earth’s crust. Finding new porphyry deposits is essential because they are our largest source of copper and they also contain other strategic metals including gold and molybdenum. However, the discovery of giant porphyry deposits is hindered by a lack of understanding of the factors governing their size. Here, we use thermal modelling and statistical simulations to quantify the tempo and the chemistry of fluids released from cooling magmatic systems. We confirm that typical arc magmas produce fluids similar in composition to those that form porphyry deposits and conclude that the volume and duration of magmatic activity exert a first order control on the endowment (total mass of deposited copper) of economic porphyry copper deposits. Therefore, initial magma enrichment in copper and sulphur, although adding to the metallogenic potential, is not necessary to form a giant deposit. Our results link the respective durations of magmatic and hydrothermal activity from well-known large to supergiant deposits to their metal endowment. This novel approach can readily be implemented as an additional exploration tool that can help assess the economic potential of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  8. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    , Masjed Daghi and Niaz deposits and prospects (20-22 Ma). In this regard and considering the available age data, this event can be considered as the third Cu-Mo metallogenic epoch in NW Iran. Meanwhile, mineralization in Sungun is older than all the porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization across the central and SE parts of UDMA (except for Bondar Hanza PCD in Kerman zone with the age of 28.71±0.46 to 28.06±0.47 Ma [2]). Therefore, these ages indicate that collision between the Arabian and Iranian plates was dischronous, being earlier in NW Iran and later in SE Iran, which can be resulted from the oblique convergence of the plates. References [1] Berberian, M. and King, GCP. (1981). Towards a paleogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 18, 210-265. [2] Aghazadeh, M. et al. (2015). Temporal-spatial distribution and tectonic setting of porphyry copper deposits in Iran: constraints from zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology. Ore Geology Reviews, 70, 385-406. [3] Moritz, R. et al. (2012). Diversity of geodynamic settings during Cu, Au and Mo ore formation in the Lesser Caucasus: New age Constraints. Proceedings of 1st Triennial EMC Meeting, Frankfurt, Germany.

  9. Uranium and Sm isotope studies of the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbaur, Maria; Maas, Roland; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Strub, Erik; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit in the Archean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton (South Australia) is a type example of the iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) spectrum of deposits and one of the largest Cu-U-Au resources known. Mineralization is hosted in a lithologically and texturally diverse, hematite-rich breccia complex developed within a granite of the 1.59 Ga Gawler Silicic Province. Emerging evidence indicates that both the breccia complex and its metal content developed over ∼1000 Ma, responding to major tectonic events, e.g., at 1300-1100, 825 and 500 Ma. However, metal sources and exact mechanism/s of ore formation remain poorly known. New high-precision 238U/235U data for a set of 40 whole rock samples representing all major lithological facies of the breccia complex show a narrow range (δ238UCRM112a = -0.56‰ to +0.04‰). At the scale of sampling, there is no correlation of δ238U with lithology, degree of alteration or U mineralogy, although ores with U > 5 wt.% have subtly higher δ238U values (-0.20‰ to 0.00) than the majority of samples (<0.7 wt.% U, -0.56‰ to -0.23‰). The new U isotope data are consistent with published data for uraninites from Olympic Dam, and with published results from high-temperature U deposits. They overlap completely with the range of δ238U values in granitoids (including the host granite, -0.18‰ to -0.32‰) and with estimates of the upper continental crust in general. This similarity suggests that Olympic Dam δ238U values reflects the crustal sources of U, which probably include felsic volcanic rocks and granitoids. The isotopic homogeneity suggests depositional mechanisms that involve minimal isotopic fractionation of U; alternatively, primary fractionation signatures may have been erased during the long history of the U mineralization. High-grade U ores may record isotopic neutron-capture effects related to fissionogenic neutrons. High-precision Sm isotope data for five high-U (>5 wt.% U, U/Sm ≫ 500) Olympic Dam

  10. Identification of hydrothermal alteration minerals for exploring of porphyry copper deposit using ASTER data, SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvnd; Hashim, Mazlan

    2011-11-01

    The NW-SE trending Central Iranian Volcanic Belt hosts many well-known porphyry copper deposits in Iran. It becomes an interesting area for remote sensing investigations to explore the new prospects of porphyry copper and vein type epithermal gold mineralization. Two copper mining districts in southeastern segment of the volcanic belt, including Meiduk and Sarcheshmeh have been selected in the present study. The performance of Principal Component Analysis, band ratio and Minimum Noise Fraction transformation has been evaluated for the visible and near infrared (VNIR) and, shortwave infrared (SWIR) subsystems of ASTER data. The image processing techniques indicated the distribution of iron oxides and vegetation in the VNIR subsystem. Hydrothermal alteration mineral zones associated with porphyry copper mineralization identified and discriminated based on distinctive shortwave infrared (SWIR) properties of the ASTER data in a regional scale. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. The spatial distribution of hydrothermal alteration zones has been verified by in situ inspection, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and spectral reflectance measurements. Results indicated that the integration of the image processing techniques has a great ability to obtain significant and comprehensive information for the reconnaissance stages of porphyry copper exploration in a regional scale. The results of this research can assist exploration geologists to find new prospects of porphyry copper and gold deposits in the other virgin regions before costly detailed ground investigations. Consequently, the introduced image processing techniques can create an optimum idea about possible location of the new prospects.

  11. Qian'echong low-F porphyry Mo deposits in the Dabie Mountains, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Mei; Li, Cong-ying; Sun, Wei-dong

    2015-12-01

    The Qian'echong Mo deposit is a large porphyry Mo deposit located in the northwest Dabie Mountains, central China, with proven Mo reserves of 741 Mt at 0.081%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of most zircon from samples QEC002, 003, 004 and 011 show HREE enrichment with distinctive positive Ce and moderately negative Eu anomalies, which are typical of magmatic zircon in porphyry deposits. Zircon grains from sample QEC001 are all hydrothermal in origin, whereas there are only several hydrothermal zircons in the other samples. The Ti-in-zircon thermometer yields temperatures of 700-740 °C for the magmatic zircon. The Ce4 +/Ce3 + calculated from the Ce anomaly is a sensitive and robust indicator of magmatic oxidation status. Magmatic zircon have Ce4 +/Ce3 + and (Eu/Eu*)N ratios ranging between 10-577 and 0.2-1.3, respectively. Compared to the Shapinggou deposit (Climax type) also in the Dabie Mountains, the Qian'echong zircon has systematically lower Ce4 +/Ce3 +. Apatite from the Qian'echong deposit belongs to the F-apatite variety, with fluorine concentrations varying between 2.13-4.50% and Cl concentrations between 0.01-0.28%. Whole rock samples of the porphyry from the Qian'echong deposit have F contents of 360-1230 ppm. The porphyry intrusion is consistently associated with calc-alkaline granitic to granodioritic porphyries, with lower F, Nb, and Ta concentrations, and systematically lower Mo contents than the Climax-type deposits. All these characteristics are similar to other low-F porphyry Mo deposits along the eastern Pacific margin. Fluorine is mainly hosted in phengite during plate subduction, which may decompose far beneath the surface of the subduction zone. Therefore, high F deposits may be interpreted as locating the farthermost position reached by the subducting slab. Nevertheless, the F contents of the Qian'echong deposit is much higher than in adjacent barren granites, and may have incorporated additional F from the subduction slab. Given that the

  12. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  13. Porphyry copper deposits of the world: database, map, and grade and tonnage models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir Iosifovich; Moring, Barry C.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types are significantly different, and (2) many types occur in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Too few thoroughly explored mineral deposits are available in most local areas for reliable identification of the important geoscience variables or for robust estimation of undiscovered deposits-thus we need mineral-deposit models. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features because the global models demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed and -constructed deposit models allow geologists to know from observed geologic environments the possible mineral deposit types that might exist, and allow economists to determine the possible economic viability of these resources in the region. Thus, mineral deposit models play the central role in transforming geoscience information to a form useful to policy makers. The foundation of mineral deposit models is information about known deposits-the purpose of this publication is to make this kind of information available in digital form for porphyry copper deposits. This report is an update of an earlier publication about porphyry copper deposits. In this report we have added 84 new porphyry copper deposits and removed 12 deposits. In addition, some errors have been corrected and a number of deposits have had some information, such as grades, tonnages, locations, or ages revised. This publication contains a computer file of information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world. It also presents new grade and tonnage models for porphyry copper deposits and for three subtypes of porphyry copper

  14. Time scales of porphyry Cu deposit formation: insights from titanium diffusion in quartz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Reed, Mark H.; Mercer, Cameron M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyry dikes and hydrothermal veins from the porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Butte, Montana, contain multiple generations of quartz that are distinct in scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images and in Ti concentrations. A comparison of microprobe trace element profiles and maps to SEM-CL images shows that the concentration of Ti in quartz correlates positively with CL brightness but Al, K, and Fe do not. After calibrating CL brightness in relation to Ti concentration, we use the brightness gradient between different quartz generations as a proxy for Ti gradients that we model to determine time scales of quartz formation and cooling. Model results indicate that time scales of porphyry magma residence are ~1,000s of years and time scales from porphyry quartz phenocryst rim formation to porphyry dike injection and cooling are ~10s of years. Time scales for the formation and cooling of various generations of hydrothermal vein quartz range from 10s to 10,000s of years. These time scales are considerably shorter than the ~0.6 m.y. overall time frame for each porphyry-style mineralization pulse determined from isotopic studies at Butte, Montana. Simple heat conduction models provide a temporal reference point to compare chemical diffusion time scales, and we find that they support short dike and vein formation time scales. We interpret these relatively short time scales to indicate that the Butte porphyry deposit formed by short-lived episodes of hydrofracturing, dike injection, and vein formation, each with discrete thermal pulses, which repeated over the ~3 m.y. generation of the deposit.

  15. The Jebel Ohier deposit—a newly discovered porphyry copper-gold system in the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield, Red Sea Hills, NE Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierlein, F. P.; McKeag, S.; Reynolds, N.; Bargmann, C. J.; Bullen, W.; Murphy, F. C.; Al-Athbah, H.; Brauhart, C.; Potma, W.; Meffre, S.; McKnight, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing exploration in the Red Sea Hills of NE Sudan has led to the identification of a large alteration-mineralization system within a relatively undeformed Neoproterozoic intrusive-extrusive succession centered on Jebel Ohier. The style of mineralization, presence of an extensive stockwork vein network within a zoned potassic-propylitic-argillic-advanced argillic-altered system, a mineralization assemblage comprising magnetite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite (±gold, silver and tellurides), and the recurrence of fertile mafic to intermediate magmatism in a developing convergent plate setting all point to a porphyry copper-gold association, analogous to major porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in Phanerozoic supra-subduction settings such as the SW Pacific. Preliminary U-Pb age dating yielded a maximum constraint of c. 730 Ma for the emplacement of the stockwork system into a significantly older ( c. 800 Ma) volcanic edifice. The mineralization formed prior to regional deformation and accretion of the host terrane to a stable continental margin at by c. 700 Ma, thus ensuring preservation of the deposit. The Jebel Ohier deposit is interpreted as a relatively well-preserved, rare example of a Neoproterozoic porphyry Cu-Au system and the first porphyry Cu-Au deposit to be identified in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  16. Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Porphyry deposits, our main source of copper and of significant amounts of Mo, Re and Au, form at convergent margins in association with intermediate-felsic magmas. Although it is accepted that copper is transported and precipitated by fluids released by these magmas, the magmatic processes leading to the formation of economic deposits remain elusive. Here we perform Monte Carlo petrological and geochemical modelling to quantitatively link crustal magmatic processes and the geochemical signatures of magmas (i.e., Sr/Y) to the formation of porphyry Cu deposits of different sizes. Our analysis shows that economic deposits (particularly the largest ones) may only form in association with magma accumulated in the lower-middle crust (P > ~0.5 GPa) during ≥2–3 Ma, and subsequently transferred to and degassed in the upper crust over periods of up to ~2.0 Ma. Magma accumulation and evolution at shallower depths (<~0.4 GPa) dramatically reduces the potential of magmatic systems to produce economic deposits. Our modelling also predicts the association of the largest porphyry deposits with a specific Sr/Y interval (~100 ± 50) of the associated magmatic rocks, which is virtually identical to the range measured in giant porphyry copper deposits. PMID:28295045

  17. Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Porphyry deposits, our main source of copper and of significant amounts of Mo, Re and Au, form at convergent margins in association with intermediate-felsic magmas. Although it is accepted that copper is transported and precipitated by fluids released by these magmas, the magmatic processes leading to the formation of economic deposits remain elusive. Here we perform Monte Carlo petrological and geochemical modelling to quantitatively link crustal magmatic processes and the geochemical signatures of magmas (i.e., Sr/Y) to the formation of porphyry Cu deposits of different sizes. Our analysis shows that economic deposits (particularly the largest ones) may only form in association with magma accumulated in the lower-middle crust (P > ~0.5 GPa) during ≥2–3 Ma, and subsequently transferred to and degassed in the upper crust over periods of up to ~2.0 Ma. Magma accumulation and evolution at shallower depths (<~0.4 GPa) dramatically reduces the potential of magmatic systems to produce economic deposits. Our modelling also predicts the association of the largest porphyry deposits with a specific Sr/Y interval (~100 ± 50) of the associated magmatic rocks, which is virtually identical to the range measured in giant porphyry copper deposits.

  18. Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment.

    PubMed

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-03-15

    Porphyry deposits, our main source of copper and of significant amounts of Mo, Re and Au, form at convergent margins in association with intermediate-felsic magmas. Although it is accepted that copper is transported and precipitated by fluids released by these magmas, the magmatic processes leading to the formation of economic deposits remain elusive. Here we perform Monte Carlo petrological and geochemical modelling to quantitatively link crustal magmatic processes and the geochemical signatures of magmas (i.e., Sr/Y) to the formation of porphyry Cu deposits of different sizes. Our analysis shows that economic deposits (particularly the largest ones) may only form in association with magma accumulated in the lower-middle crust (P > ~0.5 GPa) during ≥2-3 Ma, and subsequently transferred to and degassed in the upper crust over periods of up to ~2.0 Ma. Magma accumulation and evolution at shallower depths (<~0.4 GPa) dramatically reduces the potential of magmatic systems to produce economic deposits. Our modelling also predicts the association of the largest porphyry deposits with a specific Sr/Y interval (~100 ± 50) of the associated magmatic rocks, which is virtually identical to the range measured in giant porphyry copper deposits.

  19. Stable isotope systematics and fluid inclusion studies in the Cu-Au Visconde deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: implications for fluid source generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa Silva, Antonia Railine; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Craveiro, Gustavo Souza; Ferreira, Valderez Pinto

    2015-06-01

    The Cu-Au Visconde deposit is located in the Carajás Mineral Province (CMP), northern Brazil, near the contact between the ca. 2.76 Ga metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Itacaiunas Supergroup rocks and the ~3.0 Ga granitic-gneissic basement. It is hosted by mylonitized Archean rocks, mainly metadacites, the Serra Dourada granite, and gabbros/diorites, which have been successively altered by sodic, sodic-calcic-magnesian, potassic, and calcic-magnesian hydrothermal processes, producing diverse mineralogical associations (albite-scapolite; albite-actinolite-scapolite-epidote; K-feldspar-biotite; chlorite-actinolite-epidote-calcite, etc.). Chalcopyrite is the dominant ore mineral and occurs principally in breccias and veins/veinlets. The aqueous fluids responsible for the alteration/mineralization were initially hot (>460 °C) and very saline (up to 58 wt.% equivalent (equiv.) NaCl), but as the system evolved, they experienced successive dilution processes. Mineral oxygen and hydrogen isotope data show that 18O-rich ( to +9.4 ‰) fluids prevailed in the earlier alteration (including magnetitites) and reached temperatures as high as 410-355 °C. Metamorphic/formation waters, most likely derived from the Carajás Basin rocks, appear to have contributed a major component to the fluid composition, although some magmatic input cannot be discounted. In turn, the later alterations and the mineralization involved cooler (<230 °C), 18O-depleted ( to +3.7 ‰) and less saline (7-30 wt.% equiv. NaCl) fluids, indicating the influx of meteoric water. Fluid dilution and cooling might have caused abundant precipitation of sulfides, especially as breccia cement. Ore δ 34 S values (+0.5 to +3.4 ‰) suggest a magmatic source for sulfur (from sulfide dissolution in pre-existing igneous rocks). The chalcopyrite Pb-Pb ages (2.73 ± 0.15 and 2.74 ± 0.10 Ga) indicate that the Visconde mineralization is Neoarchean, rather than Paleoproterozoic as previously considered. If so, the

  20. The giant Dexing porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit in east China: product of melting of juvenile lower crust in an intracontinental setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zengqian; Pan, Xiaofei; Li, Qiuyun; Yang, Zhiming; Song, Yucai

    2013-12-01

    Proterozoic slab-derived fluids, and supplied a part of Cu, Au, and S for the Dexing porphyry system during their injection into the felsic magmas. The 171 ± 1 Ma magmatic-hydrothermal event at Dexing is contemporaneous with the mid-Jurassic extension in the SCC, followed by 160-90 Ma arc-like magmatism in southeastern China. With respect to the tectono-magmatic evolution of the SCC, the emplacement of Cu-bearing porphyries and the associated Cu mineralization occurred in response to the transformation from a tensional regime, related to mid-Jurassic extension, to a transpressional regime, related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific oceanic lithosphere.

  1. Spatial and temporal distribution of Cu-Au-Mo ore deposits along the western Tethyan convergent margin: a link with the 3D subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menant, A.; Bertrand, G.; Loiselet, C.; Guillou-Frottier, L.; Jolivet, L.

    2012-12-01

    Emplacement conditions of mineralized systems in subduction and post-subduction environments and the sources of metals such as Cu, Mo and Au have been considered in the past. However, despite their importance in exploration strategies at the continental scale, interrelationships between distribution of ore systems and subduction dynamics are still partly unclear. Along the western Tethyan convergent margin, where Tertiary subduction history is well constrained, porphyry, epithermal and skarn ore deposits show a variable evolution of their spatial distribution. Using different and complementary database on European and Middle East ore deposits, three metallogenic episodes have been highlighted: (1) a late Cretaceous - Paleocene phase characterized by a copper mineralization within the Balkan chain and in the Kaçkar mountains (eastern Turkey), (2) an Eocene phase with a few copper ore deposits in eastern Turkey and small Caucasia and (3) an Oligocene - Neogene phase with a more southern distribution along the margin and mainly constituted by epithermal Au systems in the west (Carpathians, Rhodope, Aegean and western Turkey) and by porphyry copper deposits in the east (Zagros). These changes are suspected to be controlled by complex and evolving subduction dynamics. Using paleogeographic tools, it turned out that, in the eastern Mediterranean area, the late Cretaceous - Paleocene and Oligocene - Neogene metallogenic episodes are coeval with a significant decrease of the Africa - Eurasia convergence rate, from about 1.5 to 0.4 cm/yr. Indeed, compressional tectonics in the volcanic arc domain, associated with a high convergent rate, promote the storage of large volumes of metal-rich magma and the development of an extensive MASH (melting, assimilation, storage and homogenization) zone. When this convergence rate decreases, a stress relaxation occurs in the overriding crust, inducing the ascent of a sufficient flux of this fertile magma and allowing the formation of

  2. Fluid-Inclusion Petrology - Data from Porphyry Copper Deposits and Applications to Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    1976-01-01

    Fluid-inclusion studies of 37 porphyry copper deposits, mainly in the United States, demonstrate that all but 3 evolved through a hydrothermal stage characterized by very high salinities, generally in excess of about 35 weight percent NaCI equivalent. Temperatures of these fluids ranged from about 250 deg to 700 deg C for various stages and deposits. Most systems boiled. High salinities, shown by halite-bearing inclusions, and boiling, suggested by coexisting gas and liquid-rich inclusions, are considered to be diagnostic of epizonal intrusions which are the most favorable parents for porphyry copper mineralization. Depth of emplacement of many copper-bearing stocks is deduced from fluid inclusions to have been about 6,000 to 10,000 feet (1,800 to 3,000 metres); fluid pressures during mineralization are interpreted generally to be less than 500 bars. Moderate-salinity (less than about 12 percent) and moderate-temperature <350 deg C) fluids are noted in all porphyry copper deposits and were responsible for the deposition of most copper and molybdenum in deposits, such as Bagdad, Esperanza, Mineral Park, Morenci, Ray, Sierrita, in the Southwestern United States and several in southern British Columbia. However, with only three exceptions, highly saline fluids apparently were present at an early stage and also deposited metals. The relative amounts and economic importance of copper and molybdenum deposited from high- and moderate-salinity fluids varies within the porphyry deposit class. There is compelling geologic and geochemical evidence that chloride is important for transport of metals, but the porphyry coppers stand out as a class associated with fluids of especially high salinity during at least one stage of their formation. Halite cubes in fluid inclusions are an effective, although rough, indicator of those salinities and can be conveniently monitored during petrographic study of thin sections. Thus, fluid inclusions can be used to characterize favorable

  3. Recognition of the geologic framework of porphyry deposits on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photointerpretation methods have been most successfully applied in the less vegetated test sites where several previously unknown geologic features have been recognized and known ones extended. Northwest mid-Tertiary faults in the ELY, Nevada area are observed to offset north-trending ranges and abruptly terminate older Mesozoic structures. In the Ray, Arizona area the observed patterns of fault and fracture systems appear to be related to the locations of known porphyry copper deposits. In the Tanacross, Alaska area a number of regional circular features observed may represent near surface intrusions and, therefore, permissive environments for copper porphyries.

  4. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  5. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundy, J.; Mavrogenes, J.; Tattitch, B.; Sparks, S.; Gilmer, A.

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits, that is, copper ore associated with hydrothermal fluids rising from a magma chamber, supply 75% of the world's copper. They are typically associated with intrusions of magma in the crust above subduction zones, indicating a primary role for magmatism in driving mineralization. However, it is not clear that a single, copper-rich magmatic fluid could trigger both copper enrichment and the subsequent precipitation of sulphide ore minerals within a zone of hydrothermally altered rock. Here we draw on observations of modern subduction zone volcanism to propose an alternative process for porphyry copper formation. We suggest that copper enrichment initially involves metalliferous, magmatic hyper-saline liquids, or brines, that exsolve from large, magmatic intrusions assembled in the shallow crust over tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In a subsequent step, sulphide ore precipitation is triggered by the interaction of the accumulated brines with sulphur-rich gases, liberated in short-lived bursts from the underlying mafic magmas. We use high-temperature and high-pressure laboratory experiments to simulate such gas-brine interactions. The experiments yield copper-iron sulphide minerals and hydrogen chloride gas at magmatic temperatures of 700-800 °C, with textural and chemical characteristics that resemble those in porphyry copper deposits. We therefore conclude that porphyry copper ore forms in a two-stage process of brine enrichment followed by gas-induced precipitation.

  6. Molybdenite Re/Os dating, zircon U-Pb age and geochemistry of granitoids in the Yangchuling porphyry W-Mo deposit (Jiangnan tungsten ore belt), China: Implications for petrogenesis, mineralization and geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jingwen; Xiong, Bikang; Liu, Jun; Pirajno, Franco; Cheng, Yanbo; Ye, Huishou; Song, Shiwei; Dai, Pan

    2017-08-01

    The Yangchuling W-Mo deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn (JNB) tungsten ore belt, is the first recognized typical porphyry W-Mo deposit in China in the 1980's. Stockworks and disseminated W-Mo mineralization occur in the roof pendant of a 0.3 km2 monzogranitic porphyry stock that intruded into a granodiorite stock, hosted by Neoproterozoic phyllite and slate. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb analyses suggest that of the monzogranitic porphyry and granodiorite were formed at 143.8 ± 0.5 Ma and 149.8 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively. Six molybdenite samples yielded a Re-Os weighted mean age of 146.4 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemical data show that both granodiorite and monzogranitic porphyry are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE), indicating a peraluminous nature (A/CNK = 1.01-1.08). Two granitoids are characterized by a negative slope with significant light REE/heavy REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 8.38-23.20] and negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.69-0.76). The P2O5 contents of the Yangchuling granitoids range from 0.12% to 0.17% and exhibit a negative correlation with SiO2, reflecting that they are highly fractionated I-type. They have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7104-0.7116), low negative εNd(t) (- 5.05 to - 5.67), and homogeneous εHf(t) between - 1.39 and - 2.17, indicating similar sources. Additionally, two-stage Nd model ages (TDM2) of 1.3-1.4 Ga and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1.2-1.3 Ga are consistent, indicating that Neoproterozoic crustal rocks of the Shuangqiaoshan Group could have contributed to form the Yangchuling magmas. Considering the two groups of parallel Late Mesozoic ore belts, namely the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn tungsten belt (JNB) in the south and the Middle-Lower Yangtze River porphyry-skarn Cu-Au-Mo-Fe ore belt (YRB) in the north, the Nanling granite-related W-Sn ore belt (NLB) in the south, the neighboring Qin-Hang porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo-hydrothermal Pb-Zn-Ag ore belt (QHB

  7. Is the Donggou Porphyry Mo deposit in East Qinling Mo Belt, China Highly Enriched in Fluorine?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ping; Friehauf, Kurt; Wang, Wei; Yang, Guoliang; Yun, Long

    2013-04-01

    The Donggou porphyry Mo deposit is the third largest Mo producer after the Jinduicheng and Nannihu deposits in the East Qinling Molybdenum Belt (EQMB), China. Surrounded by a series of hydrothermal vein type deposits (Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag) (Mao et al., 2008, 2009), the deposit has a current proven reserve of 0.717 million tons of molybdenum metal with an average grading of 0.12%. The previous published data show that the Cretaceous Donggou molybdenum deposit and the genetically related porphyry stock formed around the same time period; the alumina saturation index diagram suggests that these intrusions belong to metaluminous to weak peralumnious granitiods; REE chondrite patter of the Donggou porphyry stock shows that they are more enriched in light incompatible elements than the heavy incompatible elements, indicating obvious fractionation between the light incompatible elements and heavy incompatible elements, and moderate to strong Eu anomaly; the trace elements spider diagram demonstrates that the Donggou porphyry stock are enriched in Large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, K, U, Th etc.) and High field strength elements (Zr, Nb, Ta etc.), but depleted in Sr, Ba and P. Three main stages were determined during the mineralization: Early (Pre-molybdenum) Mineralization, Molybdenum Mineralization, and Post-molybdenum Mineralization. Accompanied by hydrothermal biotite alteration activities, the thin and discontinuous K-feldspar-Quartz veins characterize the early molybdenite-barren stages. The molybdenum mineralization stage has two mineralization processes, separated by molybdenite-barren, apatite-rich veins. Microphotographic study shows that the mineralization stage was enriched in fluorine, which is reflected by abundance of fluorite in the Mo-bearing veins and in molybdenite-barren blue apatite veins. Following the molybdenum-bearing stage and apatite-rich veins, K-feldspar-Chlorite-Quartz-Pyrite veins occur, indicating the end of the entire mineralization. The

  8. Origin of the Lengshuigou porphyry-skarn Cu deposit in the Zha-Shan district, South Qinling, central China, and implications for differences between porphyry Cu and Mo deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Wang, Ruiting; Meng, Deming; Sun, Jia; Dai, Junzhi; Ren, Tao; Li, Jianbi; Zhao, Haijie

    2016-10-01

    Porphyry Cu and Mo deposits are two economically important types of metal deposits worldwide, but factors controlling their difference remain enigmatic. Compared with the well-studied large porphyry Mo province in the south margin of the North China Block (S-NCB), the origin of newly discovered porphyry Cu deposits in the South Qinling (SQB) is poorly constrained. Integrated zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages and geological evidence indicate three stages of magmatism at Lengshuigou: (1) late Neoproterozoic (718 to 704 Ma) quartz diorite + albitite + granite association during the pre-ore stage, (2) 146 to 145 Ma granodiorite porphyry during the syn-ore stage, and (3) 145 Ma granite porphyry during the post-ore stage. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence provide important constraints on their magma source. Pre-ore Neoproterozoic quartz diorite + albitite + granite was derived by re-melting of a mixture of crustal and juvenile mantle materials, and stronger fractional crystallization was involved in these ore-hosting intrusions than in contemporary granitoids hosted in the Douling Group. Syn-ore granodiorite porphyry was derived from mantle-derived magma with contributions from different proportions of crustal components. Post-ore granite porphyry was derived mainly from a crustal source. Nearly contemporaneous porphyry Cu and Mo systems were identified in Qinling Province, including the 147-139 Ma porphyry Mo systems in the S-NCB and 150-146 Ma porphyry Cu systems in the SQB. Granitic stocks related to porphyry Cu systems in the SQB are characterized by moderate SiO2 contents (58.01-69.07 %) and less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -3.8 to -6.3, ɛHf(t) = -4.5 to +1.6), whereas the granitic stocks related to porphyry Mo deposits in the S-NCB have high SiO2 concentrations (64.00-76.00 %) and more radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -18.0 to -11.6, ɛHf(t) = -26.3 to -13.5). In addition, molybdenite from the Chigou and Lengshuigou porphyry Cu

  9. Origin of the Lengshuigou porphyry-skarn Cu deposit in the Zha-Shan district, South Qinling, central China, and implications for differences between porphyry Cu and Mo deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Wang, Ruiting; Meng, Deming; Sun, Jia; Dai, Junzhi; Ren, Tao; Li, Jianbi; Zhao, Haijie

    2017-04-01

    Porphyry Cu and Mo deposits are two economically important types of metal deposits worldwide, but factors controlling their difference remain enigmatic. Compared with the well-studied large porphyry Mo province in the south margin of the North China Block (S-NCB), the origin of newly discovered porphyry Cu deposits in the South Qinling (SQB) is poorly constrained. Integrated zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os ages and geological evidence indicate three stages of magmatism at Lengshuigou: (1) late Neoproterozoic (718 to 704 Ma) quartz diorite + albitite + granite association during the pre-ore stage, (2) 146 to 145 Ma granodiorite porphyry during the syn-ore stage, and (3) 145 Ma granite porphyry during the post-ore stage. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence provide important constraints on their magma source. Pre-ore Neoproterozoic quartz diorite + albitite + granite was derived by re-melting of a mixture of crustal and juvenile mantle materials, and stronger fractional crystallization was involved in these ore-hosting intrusions than in contemporary granitoids hosted in the Douling Group. Syn-ore granodiorite porphyry was derived from mantle-derived magma with contributions from different proportions of crustal components. Post-ore granite porphyry was derived mainly from a crustal source. Nearly contemporaneous porphyry Cu and Mo systems were identified in Qinling Province, including the 147-139 Ma porphyry Mo systems in the S-NCB and 150-146 Ma porphyry Cu systems in the SQB. Granitic stocks related to porphyry Cu systems in the SQB are characterized by moderate SiO2 contents (58.01-69.07 %) and less radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -3.8 to -6.3, ɛHf(t) = -4.5 to +1.6), whereas the granitic stocks related to porphyry Mo deposits in the S-NCB have high SiO2 concentrations (64.00-76.00 %) and more radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes (ɛNd(t) = -18.0 to -11.6, ɛHf(t) = -26.3 to -13.5). In addition, molybdenite from the Chigou and Lengshuigou porphyry Cu

  10. Porphyry copper deposits of the world: database, maps, and preliminary analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Moring, Barry C.

    2002-01-01

    Mineral deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types are significantly different, and (2) many types occur in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Far too few thoroughly explored mineral deposits are available in most local areas for reliable identification of the important geoscience variables or for robust estimation of undiscovered deposits—thus we need mineral-deposit models. Globally based deposit models, such as those presented here, allow recognition of important features because the global models demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed and -constructed deposit models allow geologists to know from observed geologic environments the possible mineral deposit types that might exist, and allow economists to determine the possible economic viability of these resources in the region. Thus, mineral deposit models play the central role in transforming geoscience information to a form useful to policy makers. The foundation of mineral deposit models is information about known deposits—the purpose of this publication is to make this kind of information available in digital form for a group of porphyry copper deposits. This publication contains a computer file of information on porphyry copper deposits around the world. It also presents new grade and tonnage models for three subtypes of porphyry copper deposits, maps showing locations and general ages of these deposits, and a preliminary analysis with a number of figures summarizing many of the properties of these porphyry-style deposits. These summaries can be considered a new, quantified, form of most parts of descriptive models such as those in Cox and

  11. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; LeVeille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu–Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits

  12. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Leveille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-04-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu-Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits

  13. Geology and mineralogy of the Alakha spodumene granite porphyry deposit, Gorny Altai, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annikova, I. Yu.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Gavryushkina, O. A.

    2016-09-01

    The Alakha lithium-tantalum deposit in the southern Altai, Russia, is represented by a stock of spodumene-bearing granite porphyry localized in the Kalba-Narym-Koktogai lithium-tantalum rare-metal granitic belt, unique in extent (more than 1000 km). This belt is a part of the Altai accretionary-collisional system. Judging from forecasting, the Alakha deposit can be regarded as an uneroded proxy of a pegmatite body both in dimensions and mean Li2O and Ta2O5 contents (0.98 wt % and 114 ppm, respectively); however, the oregenerating potential of this deposit remains insufficiently studied and had not yet been claimed. In this paper, we attempt to fill this gap with a detailed mineralogical study, which allows us to provide insights into the crystallization of Li-bearing high-silicic magma and redistribution of components during magmatic and postmagmatic processes. Accessory mineral assemblages in muscovite-spodumene-K-feldspar granite porphyry and muscovite albitite—the main petrographic rock varieties of the Alakha stock—turned out to be almost identical. A significant similarity in the chemistry of major rock-forming minerals is established for spodumene granite porphyry of the Alakha stock and spodumene pegmatites from large deposits, which makes it possible to suggest that they are close in the petrogenetic mechanism of their formation. The mineral assemblages of muscovite albitite in the apical portion of the Alakha stock are connected by gradual transition with those of spodumene granite porphyry. Such a transition is caused by postmagmatic metasomatic alteration of the latter.

  14. Porphyry copper deposit tract definition - A global analysis comparing geologic map scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.; Connors, K.A.; Chorlton, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic maps are a fundamental data source used to define mineral-resource potential tracts for the first step of a mineral resource assessment. Further, it is generally believed that the scale of the geologic map is a critical consideration. Previously published research has demonstrated that the U.S. Geological Survey porphyry tracts identified for the United States, which are based on 1:500,000-scale geology and larger scale data and published at 1:1,000,000 scale, can be approximated using a more generalized 1:2,500,000-scale geologic map. Comparison of the USGS porphyry tracts for the United States with weights-of-evidence models made using a 1:10,000,000-scale geologic map, which was made for petroleum applications, and a 1:35,000,000-scale geologic map, which was created as context for the distribution of porphyry deposits, demonstrates that, again, the USGS US porphyry tracts identified are similar to tracts defined on features from these small scale maps. In fact, the results using the 1:35,000,000-scale map show a slightly higher correlation with the USGS US tract definition, probably because the conceptual context for this small-scale map is more appropriate for porphyry tract definition than either of the other maps. This finding demonstrates that geologic maps are conceptual maps. The map information shown in each map is selected and generalized for the map to display the concepts deemed important for the map maker's purpose. Some geologic maps of small scale prove to be useful for regional mineral-resource tract definition, despite the decrease in spatial accuracy with decreasing scale. The utility of a particular geologic map for a particular application is critically dependent on the alignment of the intention of the map maker with the application. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2007.

  15. Lead-isotopic signatures of porphyry copper deposits in oceanic and continental settings, Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillitoe, R. H.; Hart, S. R.

    1984-10-01

    Three discrete sub-belts of porphyry copper-type mineralization are recognized in the Colombian Andes: a western Eocene sub-belt, an eastern Jurassic to early Cretaceous sub-belt and, between them, a central Miocene sub-belt. The western sub-belt is part of an oceanic domain constituted by oceanic crust and overlying immature island-arc rocks, the eastern sub-belt is within a continental domain underlain by the leading edge of the Guayana shield, and the central sub-belt spans the faulted boundary between them. The thicker continental crust includes important granulitic rocks which crop out locally, as in the vicinity of the Mocoa porphyry copper deposit. Pb-isotopic ratios were determined for pyrite samples collected from 6 porphyry copper centers, 3 in the western sub-belt, 2 in the eastern sub-belt, and one in the central sub-belt. Ratios fall into 3 discrete populations: the most radiogenic values represent the western sub-belt, the least radiogenic represent the eastern sub-belt, and an intermediate value corresponds to the central sub-belt. Ratios therefore become progressively less radiogenic from the western oceanic domain to the eastern cratonic domain. Comparison of the Pb-isotopic ratios with those given in the literature for possible source materials for Colombian porphyry copper leads enables the subcontinental mantle wedge, subducted oceanic crust and subducted metalliferous sediments to be discounted as principal sources. The relatively radiogenic signatures of 5 of the porphyry copper centers appear to be broadly compatible with either a subducted pelagic sediment source or an upper continental crust source, whereas the sixth center, Mocoa, is characterized by a distinctly less radiogenic 206Pb /204Pb ratio. An admixture of a relatively small percentage of non-radiogenic Pb from granulitic material in the upper crust with the more radiogenic Pb typical of the western sub-belt centers could account for the Mocoa data. Because much of the upper

  16. Porphyry Copper Deposits of the World: Database and Grade and Tonnage Models, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Moring, Barry C.

    2008-01-01

    This report is an update of earlier publications about porphyry copper deposits (Singer, Berger, and Moring, 2002; Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C., 2005). The update was necessary because of new information about substantial increases in resources in some deposits and because we revised locations of some deposits so that they are consistent with images in GoogleEarth. In this report we have added new porphyry copper deposits and removed a few incorrectly classed deposits. In addition, some errors have been corrected and a number of deposits have had some information, such as grades, tonnages, locations, or ages revised. Colleagues have helped identify places where improvements were needed. Mineral deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for a number of reasons including: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types are significantly different, and (2) many types occur in different geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral deposit models are the keystone in combining the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Too few thoroughly explored mineral deposits are available in most local areas for reliable identification of the important geoscience variables or for robust estimation of undiscovered deposits?thus we need mineral-deposit models. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features because the global models demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed and -constructed deposit models allow geologists to know from observed geologic environments the possible mineral deposit types that might exist, and allow economists to determine the possible economic viability of these resources in the region. Thus, mineral deposit models play the central role in transforming geoscience information to a form useful to policy makers. The foundation of

  17. Magma Emplacement Rates and Porphyry Copper Deposits: Thermal Modelling of the Yerington Batholith, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpa, Anne; Annen, Catherine; Dilles, John H.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Blundy, Jon D.

    2017-04-01

    Many porphyry copper deposits are associated with granitoid plutons. Their genesis is attributed to the degassing of pluton-forming intermediate to silicic magma chambers. These plutons are commonly envisioned as resulting from the slow cooling and crystallization of large magma chambers. Most of the models combine the formation of ore deposits and the cooling of a magma chamber. However, they do not consider neither how typically hundreds of cubic kilometres of magma were emplaced into the upper crust, nor the prolonged growth of plutons involving simultaneous cooling and crystallization together with the release of exsolved volatiles, which may contribute to ore formation. We use numerical simulations of thermal evolution due to pluton growth to investigate the links between pluton construction, magma accumulation, solidification, volatile exsolution, volatile release and porphyry copper formation. The Jurassic Yerington batholith in western Nevada, USA, is used as a case study because it is associated with economic porphyry copper deposits, it shows an exceptional exposure revealing the geometry of the intrusion, and petrological and geochronological analysis have shed light on its emplacement style and duration. Our conductive heat flow model simulates the growth of the ˜1000 km3 batholith emplaced at 2-8 km crustal depth by step-wise intrusions of vertically stacked sills. Different emplacement rates and repose times of no melt injection between the three main Yerington intrusions were tested. Our numerical simulations show that to comply with the conceptual model linking porphyry copper deposits with the presence of large, highly molten magma chambers, magmas must be emplaced at a high rate of several cm/yr. In plutonic records, such high rates are uncommon. It follows that either the current conceptual model is incorrect or that porphyry copper deposits are only produced by the rare, rapidly emplaced plutons. The fact that many granitoid plutons are barren

  18. A tectonic model for the spatial occurrence of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits - applications to Central Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A structural-tectonic model, which was developed to assess the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits and associated polymetallic vein systems for the Matra Mountains, Hungary, has been expanded here and applied to other parts of central Europe. The model explains how granitoid stocks are emplaced and hydrothermal fluids flow within local strain features (duplexes) within strike-slip fault systems that develop in continental crust above subducting plates. Areas of extension that lack shear at the corners and along the edges of the fault duplexes are structural traps for the granitoid stocks associated with porphyry copper deposits. By contrast, polymetallic vein deposits are emplaced where shear and extension are prevalent in the interior of the duplexes. This model was applied to the Late Cretaceous-age porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Banat-Timok-Srednogorie region of Romania-Serbia-Bulgaria and the middle Miocene-age deposits in Romania and Slovakia. In the first area, porphyry copper deposits are most commonly located at the corners, and occasionally along the edges, of strike-slip fault duplexes, and the few polymetallic vein deposits identified are located at interior sites of the duplexes. In the second area, the model accounts for the preferred sites of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) and central Slovakian volcanic field (Slovakia).

  19. Why large porphyry Cu deposits like high Sr/Y magmas?

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Ulianov, Alexey; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Beate, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Porphyry systems supply most copper and significant gold to our economy. Recent studies indicate that they are frequently associated with high Sr/Y magmatic rocks, but the meaning of this association remains elusive. Understanding the association between high Sr/Y magmatic rocks and porphyry-type deposits is essential to develop genetic models that can be used for exploration purposes. Here we present results on a Pleistocene volcano of Ecuador that highlight the behaviour of copper in magmas with variable (but generally high) Sr/Y values. We provide indirect evidence for Cu partitioning into a fluid phase exsolved at depths of ~15 km from high Sr/Y (>70) andesitic magmas before sulphide saturation. This lends support to the hypothesis that large amounts of Cu- and S-bearing fluids can be accumulated into and released from a long-lived high Sr/Y deep andesitic reservoir to a shallower magmatic-hydrothermal system with the potential of generating large porphyry-type deposits. PMID:23008750

  20. Why large porphyry Cu deposits like high Sr/Y magmas?

    PubMed

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Ulianov, Alexey; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Beate, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Porphyry systems supply most copper and significant gold to our economy. Recent studies indicate that they are frequently associated with high Sr/Y magmatic rocks, but the meaning of this association remains elusive. Understanding the association between high Sr/Y magmatic rocks and porphyry-type deposits is essential to develop genetic models that can be used for exploration purposes. Here we present results on a Pleistocene volcano of Ecuador that highlight the behaviour of copper in magmas with variable (but generally high) Sr/Y values. We provide indirect evidence for Cu partitioning into a fluid phase exsolved at depths of ~15 km from high Sr/Y (>70) andesitic magmas before sulphide saturation. This lends support to the hypothesis that large amounts of Cu- and S-bearing fluids can be accumulated into and released from a long-lived high Sr/Y deep andesitic reservoir to a shallower magmatic-hydrothermal system with the potential of generating large porphyry-type deposits.

  1. Petrologic and mineralogical study of Erdenetiin-Ovoo Cu and Mo porphyry deposit, Northern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, Y.; Lee, I.; Oyungerel, S.; Jargal, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Erdenetiin-Ovoo Cu-Mo porphyry deposit is located 330km away to northwest from Ulaanbaatar. For this study, rock samples were collected in the open pit mine in northwestern part of deposit. The study area consists of granodiorite, diorite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry complexes. Pervasive sericite (phyllic) alteration is developed and sericite, quartz and altered hornblende occur in most of samples. In several samples, altered plagioclases (albite) and K-feldspars are observed and these feldspars are interpreted to be formed previously and altered during this alteration, though most of feldspars were removed. Pyrites are dominant ore minerals and considerable chalcopyrite and molybdenite are also observed. These major ore minerals occur in quartz veins or disseminated within the host rocks. In some samples, pyrite and chalcopyrite are precipitated in the same vein and this vein is cut by other vein where molybdenites are precipitated. This suggests that pyrite- and chalcopyrite-bearing veins were formed first, and molybdenite-bearing veins were developed later cutting the former. Sphalerite, chalcocite, chrysocolla and covellite occur as minor sulfide minerals. Under microscopic observation, it is shown that chalcocite fills the space between pyrite grains or includes other sulfide mineral grains such as pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. This indicates that chalcocite is precipitated in shallower depth after other sulfide minerals already formed.

  2. Hydrothermal alteration mapping using ASTER data in Baogutu porphyry deposit, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Zhang, B.; Lu, L.; Lin, Q.

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration. One of its proven applications is extracting host-rock lithology and alteration zones that are related to porphyry copper deposits. An Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to map the Baogutu porphyry deposit alteration area. A circular alteration mineral zoning pattern was clearly observed in the classification result of potassic, phyllic, argillic, propylitic zones. The potassic is characterized by biotite and anhydrite with an absorption feature centered at 1.94 and 2.1um. The phyllic zone is characterized by illite and sericite that indicates an intense Al-OH absorption feature centered at 2.20um. The narrower argillic zone including kaolinite and alunite displays a secondary Al-OH absorption feature at 2.17 um. The mineral assemblages of the outer propylitic zone are epidote, chlorite and calcite that exhibit absorption features at 2.335um.The performance of Principal Component Analysis(PCA), Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), band ratio(BR) and Constrained Energy Minimization(CEM) has been evaluated. These techniques identified new prospects of porphyry copper mineralization in the study areas. These results indicate that ASTER is a powerful tool in the initial steps of mineral exploration.

  3. Porphyry copper deposit formation by sub-volcanic sulphur dioxide flux and chemisorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, Richard W.; King, Penelope L.; Wykes, Jeremy L.; Renggli, Christian J.; Brink, Frank J.; Clark, David A.; Troitzsch, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits--the primary source of the world’s copper--are a consequence of the degassing of intrusion complexes in magmatic arcs associated with ancient subduction zones. They are characterized by copper and iron sulphides, commonly found with anhydrite (CaSO4), over scales of several kilometres through intensely altered and fractured rocks. The magmatic source of the metals is broadly understood, but the processes that transport and deposit the metals at the megaton scale are unclear. The hydrogen sulphide necessary for metal deposition is commonly assumed to form by a reaction between sulphur dioxide and water, but this reaction is inefficient and cannot explain the formation of economic-grade deposits. Here we use high-temperature laboratory experiments to show that a very rapid chemisorption reaction occurs between sulphur dioxide gas, a principal component of magmatic gas mixtures, and calcic feldspar, an abundant mineral in the arc crust. The chemisorption reaction generates the mineral anhydrite and hydrogen sulphide gas, and triggers deposition of metal sulphides. We use thermodynamic calculations to show that as magmatic gas cools and expands the concentration of hydrogen sulphide gas increases exponentially to drive efficient deposition of metal sulphides and consequent formation of economic-grade porphyry copper deposits.

  4. Timescales of Porphyry Cu Formation: Bajo de la Alumbrera, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buret, Y.; Von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.

    2014-12-01

    Using high-precision U-Pb dating we are potentially able to determine timescales of porphyry emplacement and ore formation. Previous studies have suggested timescales of porphyry Cu formation ranging from <100 yr, based on modelling diffusive equilibrium between fluids and altered rocks [1], to as much as 1 Ma using U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP dating techniques on zircons [2], [3]. In contrast recent numerical simulations suggest Cu precipitation occurs in the range of 50-100 ka [4]. Therefore in order to better constrain timescales of porphyry Cu formation, we apply high precision U-Pb zircon geochronology, using the youngest zircon date to estimate the emplacement age of each porphyry [5].This study focuses on the ~7 Ma Bajo de la Alumbrera Cu-Au deposit, NW Argentina. The deposit consists of a composite stock of dacitic porphyries. The relative timing of each porphyry intrusion is established based on clear cross-cutting relationships between different porphyry intrusions, which include the pre-mineralisation P2 porphyry, pre-syn-minerlisation EP3 porphyry, and the post-mineralisation LP3 and P4 porphyries.Single zircon crystals from individual porphyry intrusions (P2, EP3, LP3, P4) in the Alumbrera deposit have been dated using CA-ID-TIMS, employing the ET2535 tracer solution for maximum precision and accuracy. All porphyries display protracted zircon crystal growth over 100-200 ka timescales. Using the youngest zircons from each of the porphyry intrusions, Cu mineralisation occurred on 10 ka timescales, similar to those proposed by recent numerical predictions [4]. Trace element and Hf isotopic analyses may reveal geochemical distinctions within the porphyry intrusions and record temporal changes in the magmatic evolution. References: [1] Cathles and Shannon (2007) EPSL 262:92-108; [2] Ballard et al. (2001) Geology 29:383-386; [3] Harris et al. (2008) Min Dep 43: 295-314; [4] Weis et al. (2012) Science 338: 1613-1616; [5] von Quadt et al. (2011) Geology 39: 731-734.

  5. Strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt: Multistage hydrothermal mineralization in a magmatic-related iron oxide copper-gold system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-rare-earth element (REE) deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt in east-central Idaho provide evidence of multistage epigenetic mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal processes in an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) system. Deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt comprise three types: (1) strata-bound sulfide lenses in the Blackbird district, which are cobaltite and, less commonly, chalcopyrite rich with locally abundant gold, native bismuth, bismuthinite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, and the Be-rich silicate gadolinite-(Y), with sparse uraninite, stannite, and Bi tellurides, in a gangue of quartz, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline, chloritoid, and/or siderite, with locally abundant fluorapatite or magnetite; (2) discordant tourmalinized breccias in the Blackbird district that in places have concentrations of cobaltite, chalcopyrite, gold, and xenotime; and (3) strata-bound magnetite-rich lenses in the Iron Creek area, which contain cobaltiferous pyrite and locally sparse chalcopyrite or xenotime. Most sulfide-rich deposits in the Blackbird district are enclosed by strata-bound lenses composed mainly of Cl-rich Fe biotite; some deposits have quartz-rich envelopes.Whole-rock analyses of 48 Co- and/or Cu-rich samples show high concentrations of Au (up to 26.8 ppm), Bi (up to 9.16 wt %), Y (up to 0.83 wt %), ∑REEs (up to 2.56 wt %), Ni (up to 6,780 ppm), and Be (up to 1,180 ppm), with locally elevated U (up to 124 ppm) and Sn (up to 133 ppm); Zn and Pb contents are uniformly low (≤821 and ≤61 ppm, respectively). Varimax factor analysis of bulk compositions of these samples reveals geochemically distinct element groupings that reflect statistical associations of monazite, allanite, and xenotime; biotite and gold; detrital minerals; chalcopyrite and sparse stannite; quartz; and cobaltite with sparse selenides and tellurides. Significantly, Cu is statistically separate from Co and As

  6. Magnetic properties related to hydrothermal alteration processes at the Escondida porphyry copper deposit, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveros, K.; Veloso, E.; Campos, E.; Menzies, A.; Véliz, W.

    2014-08-01

    Fluid-rock interaction related to the circulation of hydrothermal fluids can strongly modify the physicochemical properties of wall rocks in porphyry Cu deposits. These processes can also produce compositional and textural changes in ferromagnetic minerals, which can be quantified using magnetic methods. In the Escondida porphyry Cu deposit of northern Chile, each hydrothermally altered lithology is characterized by a discrete assemblage of Fe-Ti oxide minerals. These minerals have distinctive bulk magnetic susceptibility ( K bulk), temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic hysteresis parameters. Selectively altered rocks (i.e., potassic and chloritic alteration types) exhibit the highest K bulk values (>3.93 × 10-3 SI units), and their hysteresis parameters indicate multidomain magnetic mineral behavior. This suggests that these rocks are composed of the coarsest magnetic grain sizes within the deposit. Optical analyses and susceptibility-temperature curves confirm that the magnetic signals in selectively altered rocks are mainly carried by secondary magnetite. In contrast, pervasively altered rocks (i.e., quartz-sericite and argillic alteration types) exhibit low K bulk values (<1.93 × 10-4 SI units) and contain smaller pseudo-single domain magnetic grain assemblages. This is consistent with the destruction and/or reduction in size of magnetite under acidic conditions. The results therefore demonstrate a genetic relationship between the hydrothermal alteration processes, Fe-Ti oxide minerals, and magnetic properties of the wall rock in the Escondida deposit. These magnetic methods can be considered a sensitive and efficient petrophysical tool for the identification and semi-quantification of alteration assemblages, and facilitating the recognition and mapping of discrete hydrothermal zones during exploration and operation of porphyry Cu deposits.

  7. Mineral exploration potential of ERTS-1 data. [porphyry copper deposits in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. A. (Principal Investigator); Erskine, M. C., Jr.; Prindle, R. O.; Haenggi, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery of an area approximately 15,000 square miles in Arizona was interpreted for regional structure and tectonic units. Eight fault systems were identified by trend, of which two, northeast and northwest, are considered to be related to porphyry copper mineralization. Nine tectonic units can be identified on the imagery as distinct geological identities. The boundaries between these units can be correlated with theoretical shear directions related to the San Andreas stress system. Fourier analysis of the N 50 W fault trend indicates a fundamental spacing between Fourier energy maxima that can be related to distances between copper deposits.

  8. Geochronology and Nd isotope geochemistry of the Gameleira Cu-Au deposit, Serra dos Carajás, Brazil: 1.8-1.7 Ga hydrothermal alteration and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Márcio M.; Lindenmayer, Zara G.; Laux, Jorge H.; Armstrong, Richard; de Araújo, Janice Caldas

    2003-01-01

    The Gameleira deposit is one of several important Cu-Au deposits associated with the late Archean (ca. 2.7 Ga) volcanic rocks of the Itacaiúnas supergroup in the Carajás mineral province, southeastern Pará. It comprises mainly biotite- and sulphide-rich veins and quartz-grunerite-biotite-gold hydrothermal veins that cut andesitic rocks. It is interpreted as representative of the Fe oxide Cu-Au class of deposit. Sm-Nd isotopic data indicate an age of 2719±80 Ma (MSWD=3.0) and ɛNd( T) of -1.4 for the host meta-andesites. Metavolcanic rocks and cogenetic gabbros give an age of 2757±81 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -0.8. This is considered the best estimate for the crystallization age of the Gameleira volcanic and subvolcanic rocks. Negative ɛNd( T) and Archean TDM model ages (mostly between 2.8 and 3.1 Ga) suggest some contamination with older crustal material. The andesitic/gabbroic rocks are cut by two generations of granite dykes. The older has striking petrographic and geochemical similarities to the ca. 1.87 Ga alkali-rich Pojuca granite, which is exposed a few kilometers to the northwest of the deposit. The younger is a leucogranite with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 1583+9/-7 Ma. Neodymium isotopic analyses of the two generations of granites indicate a strong crustal affinity and possible derivation from reworking of the Archean crust. The quartz-grunerite-gold hydrothermal vein yields a Sm-Nd isochron (MSWD=.83) age of 1839±15 Ma (1 σ) with ɛNd( T) of -9.2. Pervasive potassic alteration, represented by the widespread formation of biotite in the country rocks, is dated by Ar-Ar at 1734±8 Ma, and a similar age of 1700±31 Ma (1 σ) is indicated by the Sm-Nd isochron for the biotite-sulphide veins. Similar to that for the quartz-grunerite vein, the ɛNd( T) value for the sulphide-rich veins is strongly negative (-8.2), thereby suggesting that the original fluids percolated through, leached, or were derived from igneous rocks with an Archaean Nd isotopic signature

  9. 3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, Tobias C.; Stephens, Michael B.; Weihed, Pär

    2016-06-01

    Altered and mineralized rocks at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit, situated in the Palaeoproterozoic Bergslagen ore district in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, have been metamorphosed at low-pressure, amphibolite-facies conditions and affected by ductile deformation. Using combined surface mapping of lithology and structure, drill core logging and microstructural work, the polyphase (D1 and D2) ductile deformation is demonstrated and a 3D model for the deposit created. Mineral associations include quartz, biotite, cordierite, anthophyllite, and minor almandine, andalusite and chlorite in silicate-rich altered rock, calcite or dolomite in marble and tremolite-actinolite or diopside-hedenbergite in skarn. The silicate minerals show varying growth patterns during the different phases of the tectonothermal evolution, with considerable static grain growth occurring between D1 and D2, and even after D2. F2 sheath folding along axes that plunge steeply to the SSE, parallel to a mineral stretching lineation and the dip direction of the S2 foliation, is suggested as a key deformation mechanism forming steeply plunging, cone- to rod-shaped mineralized bodies. This contrasts with a previous structural model invoking fold interference. A major shear zone with talc-chlorite-(quartz-biotite) mineral association separates the northern and southern structural domains at the deposit and bounds the polymetallic massive sulphides to the north.

  10. Determining the Magma Genesis of Mo Porphyry Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynor, S.; Coleman, D. S.; Rosera, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high flux of magma associated with super eruptions is hypothesized to rebuild the deep crust, altering the source(s) of subsequent magmatism. Climax-type Mo deposits are commonly generated immediately after eruption of large ignimbrites within a volcanic field, and provide an opportunity to understand the evolution of magma sources following high flux events. The Questa caldera of the Latir volcanic field, NM exposes a 10 Ma long record of pre-, syn- and post-ignimbrite intrusive and extrusive rocks, and hosts the Questa Climax-type Mo deposit. New detailed geochronology and geochemistry from Questa (including extensive sampling of subsurface rocks in the mine) permit detailed reconstruction of the temporal evolution of magma sources through the waxing and waning stages of super eruption magmatism. Comparison of chemical and isotopic data waxing, ignimbrite, Mo-mineralizing and waning stage magmas reveals several patterns. Waxing and waning magmas (waxing: 29-25.7 Ma; waning: 24.5-19 Ma) have intermediate trace elements and radiogenic isotopes relative to other magmatism (87Sr/86Sri=0.7050 to 0.7070, ɛNd=-5.2 to -7.2). Ignimbrite magmatism (25.5 Ma) is depleted in incompatible elements, enriched in MREE and HREE's and has more evolved radiogenic isotopes (87Sr/86Sri=0.7095, ɛNd=-8.0). Molybdenum mineralizing magmas (24.9-24.5 Ma), are enriched in incompatible elements, depleted in MREE and HREE's and have distinct radiogenic isotopes (87Sr/86Sri=0.7055 to 0.7075, ɛNd=-4.2 to -5.7). We suggest the lower crustal source of magmas changed during ignimbrite generation, and as a result, subsequent mineralizing magmas incorporated more juvenile, mafic components. This mantle influence is the metallogenesis for Climax-type deposits and indicates that deep crustal hybridization, rather than upper crustal differentiation, is pivotal in their generation. These results indicate that a lower crustal source of magmatism for a volcanic field is altered due to super

  11. Rapid thermal rejuvenation of high-crystallinity magma linked to porphyry copper deposit formation; evidence from the Koloula Porphyry Prospect, Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapster, S.; Condon, D. J.; Naden, J.; Noble, S. R.; Petterson, M. G.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Saunders, A. D.; Smith, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    Magmas containing the components needed to form porphyry copper deposits are relatively common within arcs, yet mineralising events are uncommon within the long-lived magmatic systems that host them. Understanding what causes the transition from barren to productive intrusions is critical to the development of conceptual deposit models. We have constrained the tempo of pre- and syn-mineralisation magmatic events in relationship to the thermal evolution of the plutonic body that underlies one of the world's youngest exposed plutonic-porphyry systems, the Inamumu Zoned Pluton, Koloula Porphyry Prospect, Solomon Islands. High precision ID-TIMS U-Pb dates of texturally and chemically characterised zircons indicate pluton emplacement over <150 kyr was superseded after ca. 50 kyr by two discrete episodes of mineralising porphyritic melt emplacement. Their associated hydrothermal systems initiated within ca. 30 kyrs of each other. Zircon populations within evolved intrusions contain resorbed cores that were recycled from the deeper magmatic system, yet their youngest dates are statistically indistinguishable from those yielded by crystals lacking resorption. Comparisons of Ti-in-zircon proxy temperatures, modelled zircon saturation temperatures and temperature-crystallinity relationships suggest that prior to being heated and emplaced within the shallow level pluton, magmas were stored at depth in a high-crystallinity (>50% crystals) state, past the point of rheological lock-up. We estimate that thermal rejuvenation of the deeper high-crystallinity magma and generation of a mobile melt fraction may have occurred ≤10 kyr before its transport and emplacement within the porphyry environment. The underlying pluton likely cooled and returned to high-crystallinity states prior to subsequent remobilisation-emplacement events. Titanium-in-zircon geothermometry and whole-rock geochemistry suggest pre-mineralisation intrusions were remobilised by mixing of a silicic magma with a

  12. Age, Geochemical, and Fluid Characteristics of the MAX Porphyry Mo Deposit, Southeastern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, C. J.; Richards, J. P.; Anderson, R. G.; Creaser, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    MAX is a porphyry-style Mo deposit located 5 km southwest of Trout Lake village in southeastern British Columbia. Molybdenum mineralization is hosted within several steeply-plunging granodiorite dykes and a well developed quartz-vein stockwork. Major and trace element data indicate that MAX is typical of the low-F porphyry Mo deposit classification. Crosscutting relationships between the four intrusive phases and mineralized quartz veins reveal a temporally complex history of magmatic and hydrothermal activity. Mineralized quartz veins have been subdivided into paragenetic assemblages based on vein style and crosscutting relationships. Sheeted quartz ± feldspar ± molybdenite veins crosscut irregular molybdenite stringers within granodiorite, and are in turn crosscut by variably oriented quartz ± molybdenite ± feldspar veins within the stockwork. These Mo veins are cut by post-magmatic quartz-carbonate veins containing sphalerite, argentiferous galena, and rare molybdenite. Three molybdenite samples were collected from early and late Mo-stage veins for Re-Os dating to constrain the first and last Mo mineralizing events within this paragenetic sequence. All three dates overlap within analytical error, and yield a weighted average age of 80.3 ± 0.4 Ma. Samples from each of the paragenetic vein sets were collected for fluid inclusion study. Saline aqueous and more dilute aqueous-carbonic inclusions are the two most common inclusion types at MAX. Both types are present in all veins; however, a progression towards increasingly carbonic fluids is evident from the Mo- to Ag- Pb-Zn-bearing veins. Fluid inclusions from Mo-bearing veins have homogenization temperatures (Th) ranging from 160°C to 350°C (mode at 310°C), and salinities ranging from 1 to 12 wt.% NaCl equiv. with two modes at 4 and 9 wt.% NaCl equiv. Fluids with these temperatures and salinity ranges are typical of the low-F porphyry Mo deposit type. Peripheral Ag-Pb-Zn veins are dominated by aqueous

  13. Geology and ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinduicheng porphyry molybdenum deposit, East Qinling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongying; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xiuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Jinduicheng deposit is a giant Mesozoic porphyry Mo system deposit in the East Qinling molybdenum belt, Shaanxi Province, China. The mineralization is associated with the I-type Jinduicheng granite porphyry. Both the porphyry stock and country rocks underwent intense hydrothermal alteration. The alteration, with increasing distance from the parent intrusion, changes from silicification, through potassic and phyllic assemblages, carbonation, to propylitic assemblages. Molybdenite, the dominant ore mineral, occurs in veinlets, most of which are hosted by the altered country rocks, with less than 25% of the ore in the porphyry body. The hydrothermal system comprises four stages, including pre-ore quartz and K-feldspar; two ore stages of quartz, K-feldspar, molybdenite, and Pb- And Zn-bearing sulfides; and post-ore quartz and carbonate. Six main types of primary fluid inclusions are present in hydrothermal quartz, including two-phase aqueous, one-phase aqueous, three-phase CO2-bearing, CO2-dominated fluid inclusions, gas inclusions, and melt inclusions. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions range from 210 to 290 °C in the pre-ore stage, 150-310 °C in ore stage I, 150-360 °C in the ore stage II, and 195-325 °C in the post-ore stage quartz. Estimated salinities of the ore-forming fluids range from 6.9 to 13.5, 4.3 to 12.3, 6.2 to 12.4, and 3.4 to 9.9 wt.% NaCl equiv. in stages 1-4, respectively. The δ34S values of pyrite in the two ore stages range from 2.8‰ to 4.3‰, whereas the δ34S values of molybdenite range from 2.9‰ to 6.2‰. The data suggest both magmatic and crustal sources of sulfur. The δD and δ18O values for the hydrothermal fluids are -57.2‰ to -84.4‰ and 8.0‰ to -3.2‰, respectively. The fluid inclusion and stable data indicate that the pre-ore hydrothermal fluids were mostly of magmatic origin, but the fluids responsible for ore deposition were mixed magmatic and meteoric, and eventually meteoric water dominated the system

  14. Coper Isotope Fractionation in Porphyry Copper Deposits: A Controlled Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, J.; Mathur, R.; Uhrie, J. L.; Hiskey, B.

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that copper is fractionated in the environment. However, the mechanisms for isotope fractionation and the role of organic and inorganic processes in the fractionation are not well understood. Here we used the well controlled experiments used by Phelps Dodge Corporation aimed at leaching copper from their ore deposits to constrain the mechanism of copper isotope fractionation in natural systems. The isotope data were collected on a Micromass Isoprobe. High temperature copper sulfides from ore deposits in Chile and Arizona yield delta 65Cu near 0 permil. The reproducibility of the data is better that 0.1 permil. Controlled experiments consisting of large columns of rocks were fed solutions containing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Leptospirrilium ferroxidan. Solutions fom the columns were sampled for sixty days and analyzed for copper concentrations, oxidation potential, ferrous/ferric ratios and pH. The results indicate that the bacterially aided dissolution of copper fractionated copper. Preliminary experiments of copper dissolution not using bacteria show no isotope fractionation The original rock in the experiment has a delta 65Cu of -2.1. The first solutions that were collected from the columns had a delta 65Cu of -5.0 per mil. The liquid changed its isotopic composition from -50 to -10 during the sixty days of sampling. The greatest shift in the isotope ratios occurred the first 30 days when the copper recovered was less than 40% and the ferrous/ferric ratios were somewhat constant. At approximately 35 days after the start of the experiments, the copper recovery increases the ferrousferric ratio decreased and the copper isotope ratio of the fluids remained fairly constant. The data suggest that the bacteria are required to effectively fractionate copper isotopes in natural systems and that the mechanisms of bacterial aided copper dissolution may include a direct dissolution of the sulfides by the bacteria. Experiments

  15. Re-Os dating of mineralization in Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (NW Iran) and investigating on its temporal relationship with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the southern Lesser Caucasus, NW and central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Selby, David

    2017-04-01

    The Neo-Tethyan basin closure in Iran is characterized by the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), formed by north-eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust during the Alpine orogeny. This belt also coincides with the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran, which hosts many porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (PCDs) and prospects, such as Sungun (NW Iran) and Sarcheshmeh (central Iran). The Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (PMD) is the first discovered porphyry molybdenum deposit on this belt, which is located 10 km west of Mianeh (NW Iran), with 39.2 Mt proved reserves @ 539 ppm Mo and 66.4 Mt probable reserves @ 266 ppm Mo. The host porphyry stock has quartz-monzonitic composition, which intruded the volcanic and pyroclastic rocks of Eocene age. Re content of molybdenites is about 10.44-41.05 ppm which, considering the several tens of ppm concentration, is comparable with porphyry Mo deposits (e.g., Climax in USA), being clearly distinguished from porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from this PMD has given model ages between 28.1±0.15 to 29.06±0.2 Ma, and isochron age of 28.0±2.1 Ma, corresponding to the middle Oligocene (upper part of Rupelian). Comparing the ages determined for Siah Kamar PMD with porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Lesser Caucasus indicates that it is younger than most of the dated PCDs and prospects there, especially those of upper Eocene, while it is a little older than Paragachay and first-stage Kadjaran PCDs [1]. In a regional scale of NW Iran, it shows a narrow overlap with vein-type Cu-Mo-Au mineralizations in Qarachilar (Qaradagh batholith) and is nearly coeval with Haftcheshmeh PCD, indicating that mineralization in the Siah Kamar PMD corresponds to the second porphyry mineralization epoch in NW Iran, proposed by [2]. Meanwhile, mineralization in Siah Kamar is older than all the porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations along the central and SE parts of the UDMA, except the Bondar Hanza PCD in Kerman zone, which nearly

  16. Model of the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein family of deposits - Applications in Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tectonic model useful in estimating the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper and polymetallic vein systems has been developed. This model is based on the manner in which magmatic and hydrothermal fluids flow and are trapped in fault systems as far-field stress is released in tectonic strain features above subducting plates (e.g. strike-slip fault systems). The structural traps include preferred locations for stock emplacement and tensional-shear fault meshes within the step-overs that localize porphyry- and vein-style deposits. The application of the model is illustrated for the porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Central Slovakian Volcanic Field, Slovakia; the Ma??tra Mountains, Hungary; and the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

  17. The partitioning of Cu, Au and Mo between liquid and vapor at magmatic temperatures and its implications for the genesis of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajacz, Zoltán; Candela, Philip A.; Piccoli, Philip M.

    2017-06-01

    The partition coefficients of Cu, Au and Mo between liquid and vapor were determined at P = 130 MPa and T = 900 °C, and P = 90 MPa and T = 650 °C and redox conditions favoring the dominance of reduced S species in the fluid. The experiments at 900 °C were conducted in rapid-quench Molybdenum-Hafnium Carbide externally-heated pressure vessel assemblies, whereas those at 650 °C were run in René41 pressure vessels. The fluids were sampled at run conditions using the synthetic fluid inclusion technique. The host quartz was fractured in situ during the experiments ensuring the entrapment of equilibrium fluids. A new method was developed to quantify the composition of the vapor inclusions from LA-ICPMS analyses relying on the use of boron as an internal standard, an element that fractionates between vapor and liquid to a very small degree. The bulk starting fluid compositions closely represented those expected to exsolve from felsic silicate melts in upper crustal magma reservoirs (0.64 m NaCl, 0.32 m KCl, ±0.2 m HCl and/or 4 wt% S). The experiments were conducted in Au97Cu3 alloy capsules allowing the simultaneous determination of apparent Au and Cu solubilities in the liquid and the vapor phase. Though the apparent metal solubilities were strongly affected by the addition of HCl and S in both phases, all three elements were found to preferentially partition to a liquid phase at all studied conditions with an increasing degree of preference for the liquid in the following order Au < Cu < Mo. The presence of HCl and S did not have a significant effect on the liquid/vapor partition coefficients of either Au or Cu, whereas the presence of HCl slightly shifted the partitioning of Mo in favor of the vapor. Ore metal partition coefficients normalized to that of Na (Ki-Naliq/vap =Diliq/vap /DNaliq/vap) fall in the following ranges respectively for each studied metal: KAu-Naliq/vap = 0.20 ± 0.07-0.50 ± 0.19 (1σ); KCu-Naliq/vap = 0.36 ± 0.12-0.76 ± 0.22; KMo

  18. Magnetic polarity zonation within the El Teniente copper-molybdenum porphyry deposit, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astudillo, Natalia; Roperch, Pierrick; Townley, Brian; Arriagada, Cesar; Chauvin, Annick

    2010-01-01

    El Teniente porphyry copper deposit, the world’s greatest intrusion-related Cu-Mo ore body, is hosted within basaltic-andesitic volcanic and gabbroic rocks (mafic complex). This ore body is strongly affected by multiple events of alteration/mineralization with pervasive potassic and chloritic alteration and coetaneous with associated copper mineralization. We present paleomagnetic results obtained from oriented samples at four locations within the mine and from two drill cores, 200 and 400 m long, respectively. Samples are representative of all the main hydrothermally altered rock units, with emphasis on the mafic host rock and dacitic (Teniente dacite porphyry) and dioritic porphyry intrusions. Magnetic experiments [hysteresis loop, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), k- T curves, thermal, and alternating field demagnetization] show the presence of prevailing magnetite. Microscope and SEM observations show two families of magnetite, (a) large multidomain magnetite grains, associated with biotite and chlorite of various different hydrothermal alteration events, and (b) abundant small to medium grain-size magnetite (<10 μm) contained within plagioclase, either related to an early Na-Ca-Fe alteration or included within plagioclase during magmatic crystal growth. While the Teniente dacite porphyry and the quartz diorite-tonalite have low magnetic susceptibility (<0.0005 SI) and low natural remanent magnetization (NRM, 10-4-10-3 Am-1), the mineralized mafic host rocks have usually high susceptibility (>0.01 and up to 0.2 SI) with NRM in the range 0.1-2 Am-1. Most mafic complex rock samples have univectorial magnetizations during alternating field or thermal demagnetization. Within the mine, the magnetic polarity is spatially distributed. In the northern part of the deposit, the Teniente dacite porphyry, the associated hydrothermal breccias, and the hosting mafic complex record a reverse polarity magnetization, also observed in the El Teniente sub-6 mine sector

  19. The formation of Qulong adakites and their relationship with porphyry copper deposit: Geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-bin; Liu, Ji-qiang; Ling, Ming-xing; Ding, Wei; Liu, Yan; Zartman, Robert E.; Ma, Xiu-feng; Liu, Dun-yi; Zhang, Chan-chan; Sun, Sai-jun; Zhang, Li-peng; Wu, Kai; Sun, Wei-dong

    2015-04-01

    Qulong porphyry Cu deposit is the largest Cu deposit in China so far discovered, with total reserves of 10.6 Mt Cu@0.5% and 0.5 Mt Mo@0.03%. The petrogenesis of the Miocene intrusion and its genetic association with Cu mineralization have been debated. This study presents new results on whole rock major and trace elements, Sr-Nd isotopes, zircon U-Pb dating, Hf-O isotopic compositions of the Qulong ore-bearing and barren adakites. All the Qulong adakites studied here have low MgO (< 2 wt.%), high K2O (between 2 wt.% and 6 wt.%), with K2O/Na2O ratios ranging from 0.2-2.0. The SiO2 contents are mostly higher than 64 wt.%. These are dramatically different from ore-forming adakites in the circum-Pacific region and other places in general. Ore-bearing adakites have systematically higher SiO2 and K2O compared with barren ones, likely due to the addition of Si and K during alteration and mineralization. Magmatic zircons from these two series of intrusions have U-Pb ages of 16.6 ± 0.5-17.0 ± 0.6 Ma and 16.7 ± 0.3-17.4 ± 0.4 Ma, respectively, which are identical to each other within analytical errors but are systematically older than although marginally overlap with the Re-Os isochron ages of 15.36 ± 0.21-16.41 ± 0.48 Ma. The Qulong porphyries have geochemical characteristics of typical adakites, with Sr = 259-1195 ppm, Y = 1.91-9.12 ppm, Yb = 0.2-0.92 ppm, Sr/Y = 49-202 ppm, and (La/Yb)n = 13-49 for both ore-bearing and barren adakites. In a Sr/Y versus (La/Yb)n diagram, most of the samples plot in the low part of circum-Pacific field, close to the field defined by Dabie adakites. Some of the ore-bearing adakites even plot in the Dabie adakite field, indicating that both slab melts and lower continental crust melts have been involved. Zircons from the ore-bearing adakites have δ18O ranging from 5.1 to 7.3‰ (average 6.4‰) and εHf(t) from 1.9 to 10.4‰, which plot close to MORB. Similarly, zircons from the barren adakite have δ18O ranging from 4.0 to 7.4

  20. The zonal distribution of selected elements above the Kalamazoo porphyry copper deposit, San Manuel district, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    There may be many as-yet-undiscovered porphyry copper deposits that exist as blind deposits deep within exposed rock bodies. The Kalamazoo porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit is a blind deposit present at depths up to at least 1,000 m (about 3,200 ft) that contains zoning features common to many of the known porphyry copper deposits found in western North and South America. As the preliminary phase in a geochemical study of the Kalamazoo deposit, whole-rock samples of core and cuttings from two drill holes have been analyzed for 60 different elements. Each hole represents a different major rock unit and each has penetrated completely through all the existing alteration zones and the ore zone. Plots of concentration vs. depth for 17 selected elements show distinct high- or low-concentration zones that are spatially related to the ore zone. For most of the ore-related elements no significant correlation with the two lithologies is apparent. The spatial distribution and abundance of elements such as Co, Cu, S, Se, Mn, Tl, Rb, Zn, B, and Li may be useful in determining the direction for exploration to proceed to locate a blind deposit. Trace element studies should be valuable in evaluating areas containing extensive outcrops of rocks with disseminated pyrite. Elemental zoning should be at least as useful as alteration-mineralization zoning for evaluating rock bodies thought to contain blind deposits similar to the Kalamazoo deposit. ?? 1976.

  1. Lead isotope signatures of epithermal and porphyry-type ore deposits from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoux, Eric; Grancea, Luminita; Lupulescu, Marian; Milési, Jean

    2002-03-01

    Lead isotope analyses have been performed on the two major Miocene mining districts of Romania, Baia Mare and Apuseni Mountains. These two districts have different non-overlapping 206Pb/204Pb isotopic signatures ranging from 18.752 to 18.876 and 18.497 to 18.740. In the Baia Mare district, epithermal deposits are overall homogeneous in their lead isotopic compositions and have values similar to the average of the calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. These results suggest a magmatic signature for the Pb (and possibly other metals) in the hydrothermal fluids. However, magmas in this district show isotopic evidence of crustal assimilation. In the southern Apuseni Mountains, the lead isotope compositions of sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits are clustered, confirming that Pb, and probably other metals, were derived principally from associated porphyry stocks. On the other hand, lead isotope data on sulfides in epithermal ore deposits are much more scattered, indicating a notable contribution of Pb from local country rocks. In the Apuseni Mountains, 'fertile' volcanics are few and appear to come from a more primitive mantle-derived source. Most of the analysed volcanic rocks seem 'barren'. Differences in lead isotopic compositions between the Baia Mare district and the Apuseni Mountains are due to a different basement, and probably to variations in crustal assimilation superimposed on variations in the mantle source composition. In the Apuseni Mountains, Pb may be partly inherited from the previous Mesozoic magmatic-hydrothermal stage. From a geodynamic point of view, it seems that the nature and the source of volcanic rocks and their position related to the collision area of the Carpathian arc are not the only factors controlling the 'fertility' of a volcanic district.

  2. U-Pb, Re-Os and Ar-Ar dating of the Linghou polymetallic deposit, Southeastern China: Implications for metallogenesis of the Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yanwen; Xie, Yuling; Liu, Liang; Lan, Tingguan; Yang, Jianling; Sebastien, Meffre; Yin, Rongchao; Liang, Songsong; Zhou, Limin

    2017-04-01

    The Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt (QHMB) in Southeastern China has gained increasingly attention in recent years. However, due to the lack of reliable ages on intrusions and associated deposits in this belt, the tectonic setting and metallogenesis of the QHMB have not been well understood. The Linghou polymetallic deposit in northwestern Zhejiang Province is one of the typical deposits of the QHMB. According to the field relationships, this deposit consists of the early Cu-Au-Ag and the late Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization stages. Molybdenite samples with a mineral assemblage of molybdenite-chalcopyrite-pyrite ± quartz are collected from the copper mining tunnel near the Cu-Au-Ag ore bodies. Six molybdenite samples give the Re-Os model ages varying from 160.3 to 164.1 Ma and yield a mean age of 162.2 ± 1.4 Ma for the Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Hydrothermal muscovite gives a well-defined Ar-Ar isochron age of 160.2 ± 1.1 Ma for the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Three phases of granodioritic porphyry have been distinguished in this deposit, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that they have formed at 158.8 ± 2.4 Ma, 158.3 ± 1.9 Ma and 160.6 ± 2.1 Ma, comparable to the obtained ages of the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Therefore, these intrusive rocks have a close temporal and spatial relationship with the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu ore bodies. The presences of skarn minerals (e.g., garnet) and vein-type ores, together with the previous fluid inclusion and H-O-C-S-Pb isotopic data, clearly indicate that the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization are genetically related to these granodiorite porphyries. This conclusion excludes the possibility that this deposit is of ;SEDEX; type and formed in a sag basin of continental rifts setting as previously proposed. Instead, it is proposed that the Linghou polymetallic and other similar deposits in the QHMB, such as the 150-160 Ma Yongping porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo, Dongxiang porphyry? Cu, Shuikoushan/Kangjiawang skarn Pb

  3. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3

  4. Mesoarchean (3.0 and 2.86 Ga) host rocks of the iron oxide-Cu-Au Bacaba deposit, Carajás Mineral Province: U-Pb geochronology and metallogenetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina Penteado Natividade; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Amaral, Wagner S.; Dos Santos, Ticiano José S.; Juliani, Caetano; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2011-10-01

    The Bacaba iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, situated within a WNW-ESE-striking shear zone in the Carajás Domain, Carajás Mineral Province, is hosted by the Serra Dourada Granite, the Bacaba Tonalite, and crosscutting gabbro intrusions, which were intensely affected by sodic (albite-scapolite), potassic, chloritic, and hydrolytic hydrothermal alteration. This deposit is located 7 km northeast of the world-class Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit and might represent a distal and deeper portion of the same or related hydrothermal system. The U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry data for zircon from a sodically altered sample of the Serra Dourada Granite yielded a 2,860±22 Ma (MSWD=11.5) age. Three samples from the Bacaba Tonalite, including one with potassic alteration and two with Cu-Au mineralization, rendered the 3,001.2±3.6 Ma (MSWD=1.8), 2,990.9±5.8 Ma (MSWD=1.9), and 3,004.6±9 Ma (MSWD=2.2) ages, respectively. The ca. 2.86 and ca. 3.0 Ga ages are interpreted as the timing of the igneous crystallization of the Serra Dourada Granite and the Bacaba Tonalite, respectively, and represent the oldest magmatic events recognized in the Carajás Domain. The Serra Dourada Granite and the Bacaba Tonalite are interpreted to greatly predate the genesis of the Bacaba deposit. A genetic link is improbable in the light of the similarities with the Sossego deposit, which is also hosted by younger ca. 2.76 Ga metavolcano-sedimentary units of the Itacaiúnas Supergroup. In this context, the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits in the southern sector of the Carajás Domain could be mainly controlled by important crustal discontinuities, such as a regional shear zone, rather than be associated with a particular rock type. These results expand the potential for occurrences of iron oxide-copper-gold deposits within the Mesoarchean basement rocks underlying the Carajás Basin, particularly those crosscut by Neoarchean shear zones.

  5. Use of ERTS-1 images in the search for porphyry copper deposits in Pakistani Baluchistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Geomorphic features related to a known porphyry copper deposit at Saindak, western Chagai District, Pakistan, are easily distinguished on ERTS-1 images. New geologic information from the images was used in conjunction with known geology to evaluate one previously known prospect area and to suggest two additional ones, but no new prospects were recognized on the basis of the images alone. The study also showed that Saindak-type deposits are not likely to be present in some extensive areas of the Chagai District. The Saindak deposit is in an area of relatively easily eroded folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks. The deposit is characterized by an elongate zone of easily eroded sulfide-rich rock surrounded by this rim and the central sulfide-rich valley are conspicuous features on the images. Swarms of dikes are probably useful for distinguishing real rims from other resistant rock types, but there is no expression of them on the image, although they are easily seen on aerial photographs of the Saindak rim.

  6. U-Pb and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Fujiawu porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Dexing district, Southeast China: Implications for magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hu, Ruizhong; Rusk, Brian; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Cuiyun; Yang, Feng

    2013-09-01

    The Fujiawu porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is one of several porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the Dexing district, Jiangxi Province, Southeast China. New zircon SHRIMP U-Pb data yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 172.0 ± 2.1 and 168.5 ± 1.4 Ma from weakly altered granodiorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry, respectively. Two hydrothermal biotites from granodiorite porphyry give an Ar-Ar step-heating plateau age of 169.9 ± 1.8 and 168.7 ± 1.8 Ma. Hydrothermal apatite exsolved from altered biotite yields an isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry isochron age of 164.4 ± 0.9 Ma. The apatite age is similar to the ages obtained from hydrothermal rutile (165.0 ± 1.1 and 164.8 ± 1.6 Ma) and indicates that the magmatism and hydrothermal activity in the Fujiawu deposit occurred in the Middle Jurassic. Hydrothermal fluid circulation related to multiple stages of magma emplacement resulted in Cu-Mo mineralization in the Fujiawu porphyry deposit. The zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages and the published molybdenite Re-Os age (170.9 ± 1.5 Ma) represent the timing of magma crystallization and Mo mineralization, whereas the rutile and apatite U-Pb ages reflect the timing of Cu mineralization following quartz diorite emplacement. The data suggest slow cooling after emplacement of the quartz diorite porphyry.

  7. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  8. Uplift and submarine formation of some Melanesian porphyry copper deposits: Stable isotope evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chivas, A.R.; O'Neil, J.R.; Katchan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of sericites and kaolinites from four young porphyry copper deposits (Ok Tedi (1.2 Ma) and Yandera (6.5 Ma), Papua New Guinea; Koloula (1.5 Ma), Solomon Islands; and Waisoi (<5 Ma), Fiji) indicate that the fluids from which these minerals precipitated were of mixed magmatic and non-magmatic sources. The non-magmatic component of the fluid from the island arc deposits (Koloula, Waisoi) was ocean water. For Ok Tedi, the non-magmatic component was a meteoric water with an isotopic composition different from that of the present meteoric water in the region. The isotopic signature of the former meteoric water is consistent with a surface elevation of 200 m a.s.l. or less at the time of mineralization. The deposit was later exposed and supergene kaolinitization commenced at approximately 1200 m a.s.l. Uplift and erosion has continued to the present at which time the elevation of the exposed deposit is 1800 m a.s.l. This rate of uplift is consistent with that known from other geological evidence. If the rate of uplift were approximately constant during the last 1.2 Ma, the age of supergene enrichment can be dated at approximately 0.4 Ma B.P. Similarly, influx of meteoric water at Yandera occurred when the ground surface above the deposit was at an elevation of approximately 600 m a.s.l. The deposit's present elevation is 1600 m a.s.l. In this case a total uplift of approximately 2.2 km is indicated, with removal of 1.2 km of overburden by erosion. ?? 1984.

  9. Systematics of hydrothermal alteration at the volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) deposit - implications for ore genesis, structure and exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampmann, Tobias C.; Jansson, Nils J.; Stephens, Michael B.; Majka, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic, volcanic-hosted Falun Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit was mined for base and precious metals during several centuries, until its closure in 1992. The deposit is located in a 1.9 Ga ore district in the Bergslagen lithotectonic unit, Fennoscandian Shield, south-central Sweden. Both the ores and their host rock underwent polyphase ductile deformation, and metamorphism under amphibolite facies and later retrograde conditions at 1.9-1.8 Ga (Svecokarelian orogenic system). This study has the following aims: (i) Classify styles and intensities of alteration in the hydrothermally altered zone at Falun; (ii) identify precursor rocks to hydrothermally altered rocks and their spatial distribution at the deposit; (iii) evaluate the chemical changes resulting from hydrothermal alteration using mass change calculations; and (iv) assess the pre-metamorphic alteration assemblages accounting for the observed metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks at Falun. Results will have implications for both the ore-genetic and structural understanding of the deposit, as well as for local and regional exploration. Metamorphic mineral associations in the altered rocks include biotite-quartz-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and, more proximally, quartz-anthophyllite-(biotite-cordierite/almandine), biotite-cordierite-(anthophyllite) and biotite-almandine-(anthophyllite). The proximal hydrothermally altered zone corresponds to intense chlorite-style alteration. Subordinate dolomite or calcite marble, as well as calc-silicate (tremolite, diopside) rocks are also present at the deposit. Metavolcanic rocks around the deposit are unaltered, weakly sericitized or sodic-altered. Immobile-element (e.g. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, REE) systematics of the silicate-rich samples at and around the deposit suggest that the precursors to the hydrothermally altered rocks at Falun were predominantly rhyolitic in composition, dacitic rocks being subordinate and mafic-intermediate rocks

  10. Hydrothermal alteration and its effects on the magnetic properties of Los Pelambres, a large multistage porphyry copper deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, Joseline; Townley, Brian; Córdova, Loreto; Poblete, Fernando; Arriagada, César

    2016-09-01

    The Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit is located 190 km north of Santiago, Chile. A paleomagnetic and mineralogical study was conducted at this deposit to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the magnetic properties and minerals of rocks within the deposit when compared to the surrounding country rock. In the Los Pelambres deposit, magnetic properties of rocks are carried by titano-hematite and titano-magnetite solid solution minerals, where the former commonly indicates the exsolution of rutile. Magnetic minerals of intrusive rocks from the greater Los Pelambres region show that magmatic titano-magnetites and magnetites are the main magnetization carriers. The hydrothermal fluid associated with rutile exsolution textures could have played an important role in the mineralization of Cu in this deposit. The paleomagnetic properties in the Los Pelambres deposit can be divided in three main groups: (i) HMRG (high magnetic remanence group), (ii) HMSG (high magnetic susceptibility group), and (iii) LMSG (low magnetic susceptibility/remanence group). In-situ magnetic properties of the HMSG and LMSG are similar to the formations and units present regionally, however HRMG samples clearly differ from the country rocks. The high variability of in-situ magnetic properties presented in the Los Pelambres deposit has also been characteristic of other porphyry copper deposits in Chile (e.g., Chuquicamata and El Teniente). Regarding the field of exploration geophysics and porphyry copper deposits, this study suggests that phyllic, chloritic, and potassic alterations are related to low, intermediate, and high in-situ NRM, respectively, suggesting that geophysical methods must target a noisy magnetic signal depending on the scale of the study. The knowledge and results obtained are especially meaningful because magnetic surveys conducted for exploration do not commonly allow for the detection of ore mineralization.

  11. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in Derbugan metallogenic belt of the NE China, and their geological significances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bingyu; Zhang, Lianchang; Jin, Xindi; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Zhiguang; Zhu, Mingtian

    2016-03-01

    The Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Derbugan metallogenic belt, which is located in the Ergun block, NE China. In the mining area, the Cu-Mo mineralization mainly occurs in quartz diorite porphyry and is hosted within silicified-sericitized and sericite alteration zone. Geochemical results of the host porphyry is characterized by high SiO2, high Al2O3, low MgO, weak positive Eu anomalies and clearly HREE depletion, high Sr, low Y and low Yb, similar to those of adakite. The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the host porphyry displays an initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratio of 0.7036-0.7055 and positive Nd( t) values of +0.1 to +0.6, which are similar to the OIB, reflecting the source of the host porphyry may derive from subducted ocean slab, and the new lower crust also had some contribution to the magma sources. The SIMS zircon U-Pb age from the host porphyry is 229 ± 2 Ma. The Re-Os isochron age for the molybdenite in the deposit is 225 ± 2 Ma closed to zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry, indicating that Cu-Mo mineralization event occurred in Triassic. Combining the geology-geochemistry of the host porphyry and the regional tectonic evolution, we infer that the subduction processes of Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic slab under the Ergun block led to the formation of the Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit during the Triassic.

  12. Raman spectroscopic study of alunite occurrences in the Sapes porphyry-epithermal deposit, NE Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazotos, Panagiotis; Perraki, Maria; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Skliros, Vasilios

    2017-04-01

    The Sapes area, Northeastern Greece, represent a deeply eroded Oligocene volcanic edifice built up of post-collisional intermediate-to-acidic intrusives and their volcanic equivalents. The area hosts a telescoped porphyry-epithermal system and associated high-sulfidation epithermal Au-Ag-Cu-Bi-Te mineralization within advanced argillic alteration lithocaps (Voudouris, 2014). Alunite is a common mineralogical constituent among the advanced argillic alteration assemblages and it is a hydrated aluminium potassium sulfate mineral with a general formula KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6. The objective of this work is to study the alunites samples in the Sapes porphyry-epithermal deposit by means of Raman spectroscopy, as it has been shown to be a useful tool in studying the alunite structure, either natural or synthetic (Frost et al., 2006; Maubec et al., 2012). Raman spectra were excited employing a 532 nm laser at a resolution of 2 cm-1 in the range of 100-4000 cm-1. Raman spectra exhibit distinguished bands at 162 cm-1, attributed to translational mode of cations and or librational and translational modes of SO42-, at 235 cm-1 suggesting framework deformations including the SO42- entities as a whole or attributed to OH/O hydrogen bond stretching mode, a weak band at 385 cm-1 may corresponding to Al-OH stretching vibrations, a moderate band at 564 cm-1 assigned to Al-O and OH deformation modes, bands at 484 and 653 cm-1 respectively due to v2(SO42-) and v4(SO42-) bending modes, a very strong vibration at 1025 cm-1 that is ascribed to the v1 stretching vibration of the SO42- bands located at 1080 and 1186 cm-1 due to v3(SO42-) stretching modes and finally two bands at 3480 cm-1 and 3502 cm-1 that are assigned to the OH stretching vibrations (Breitinger et al., 1997; Frost et al., 2006; Maubec et al., 2012 and references therein). A Raman and FTIR spectroscopic future work will focus on the comparative study among the alunites occurrences in Greece (Sapes, Limnos, Lesvos and Milos), so

  13. "Normal" to adakite-like arc magmatism associated with the El Abra porphyry copper deposit, Central Andes, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbia, Osvaldo M.; Correa, Karen J.; Hernández, Laura B.; Ulrich, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The El Abra porphyry copper deposit belongs to the Late Eocene—Early Oligocene metallogenic belt of northern Chile, which host several world-class porphyry copper deposits. Our previous geochronological work done on this deposit provides the temporal framework for petrological data interpretation. The magmatic history of the El Abra deposit lasts for 8.6 Ma and can be divided into two stages. An early period, from about 45 to 38.7 Ma, dominated by diorites and quartz monzodiorites with "normal" (non-adakite) arc geochemistry and a late period, with rocks younger than 38.7 Ma that developed adakite-like geochemistry, where equigranular granodiorites are the volumetrically dominant rock type (e.g., Clara granodiorite 38 Ma). These granodiorites are then intruded by leucocratic porphyry dikes and aplites. Most copper mineralization is associated with multiple intrusions of these younger porphyritic rocks, described as the El Abra porphyry unit, and emplaced over a 1.4 Ma period, from 37.5 to 36.1 Ma. The adakite-like geochemistry of the younger rock units (<38.7 Ma) is attested by a significant depletion in REE contents, particularly MREE and HREE (concave MREE distribution patterns), high La/Yb and Sr/Y ratios, and Na2O and Al2O3 contents, along with the absence of the Eu anomaly in normalized REE distribution patterns. The evolution of this large, long-lived magmatic system from "normal" to adakite-like arc magmatism is discussed in a tectonic context of crust overthickening due to a major orogenic episode (Incaic compressive phase). This tectonic setting may have promoted higher pressure conditions at the lower crust "hot zone" and increased the crustal residence time of derivative melts favoring extensive differentiation leading to water-rich (and oxidized?) felsic melts, where amphibole fractionation played an important role. Strontium, Nd, and Pb isotope data suggest a common mantle source for both the non-adakite and adakite-like rocks. This implies that

  14. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  15. Hydrogeochemical prospecting for porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.; Learned, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical survey utilizing waters from streams and springs was conducted in the area of two known porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of westcentral Puerto Rico. The most important pathfinder for regional hydrogeochemical surveys is sulfate which reflects the associated pyrite mineralization. Because of increased mobility due to intense chemical weathering and the low pH environment, dissolved copper can also be used as a pathfinder for regional surveys and has the advantage of distinguishing barren pyrite from pyrite associated with copper mineralization. For follow-up surveys, the most important pathfinders are copper, sulfate, pH, zinc, and fluoride. High concentrations of dissolved copper and moderate concentrations of sulfate is a diagnostic indication of nearby sources of copper minerals. An understanding of the geochemical processes taking place in the streambeds and the weathering environment, such as the precipitation of secondary copper minerals, contributes to the interpretation of the geochemical data and the selection of the most favorable areas for further exploration. ?? 1982.

  16. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are characterised by a close spatial and temporal association with small, hypabyssal intrusions of silicic magmas in volcanic arcs. PCD formation requires elevated chlorine and water to concentrate copper in magmatic hypersaline liquids (or brines), and elevated sulphur to precipitate copper-rich sulphides. These twin requirements are hard to reconcile with experimental and petrological evidence that voluminous chlorine-rich, hydrous silicic magmas, of the variety favourable to copper enrichment, lack sufficient sulphur to precipitate directly the requisite quantities of sulphides. These features are, however, consistent with observations of active volcanic arcs whereby PCDs can be viewed as roots of dome volcanoes above shallow reservoirs where silicic magmas accumulate over long time spans. During protracted periods of dormancy metal-enriched dense brines accumulate in and above the silicic reservoir through slow, low-pressure degassing. Meanwhile cogenetic volatile-rich mafic magmas and their exsolved, sulphur and CO2-rich fluids accumulate in deeper reservoirs. Periodic destabilisation of these reservoirs leads to short-lived bursts of volcanism liberating sulphurous gases, which react with the shallow-stored brines to form copper-rich sulphides and acidic vapours. We test this hypothesis with a novel set of 'porphyry in a capsule' experiments designed to simulate low-pressure (1-2 kbar) interaction of basalt-derived, sulphur-rich gases with brine-saturated, copper-bearing, but sulphur-free, granite. Experiments were run at 720-850 ° C in cold-seal apparatus with basaltic andesite, loaded with H2O and S, situated below dacite, loaded with H2O, Cl and Cu. At run conditions both compositions are substantially degassed and crystallized. S-rich gas from the basaltic andesite ascends to react with Cu-rich brines exsolved from the dacite, Our experiments reveal the direct precipitation of copper-sulphide minerals, in vugs and veins

  17. The plutonic-volcanic connection in porphyry copper deposits: Evidence from zircon geochemistry and high-precision CA-ID-TIMS geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buret, Y.; Von Quadt, A.; Wotzlaw, J. F.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits represent the interface between plutonic and volcanic domains of upper crustal magmatic systems. These deposits are typically composed of multiple porphyritic intrusions which constrain the duration of ore formation to a maximum of several 104 years [1] and are commonly intruded into the base of volcanoes. The relationship between volcanic activity and porphyry stocks is often difficult to establish, as they are rarely exposed together unless later faulting and/or tilting occurred [2]. In order to investigate the relationships between extrusive magmatism and porphyry Cu formation we compare zircon petrochronology from late stage volcanic units with the nearby world class Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu deposit, from the Late Miocene Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex (FNVC) in Northwest Argentina. In this study we texturally characterise zircon crystals by CL-imaging prior to obtaining in-situ geochemical and geochronological information by LA-ICP-MS. Analysed zircon grains were then extracted and analysed by high precision CA-ID-TIMS. This approach has the two-fold benefit of screening for inherited cores, and obtaining texturally defined geochemical information, prior to dissolution of the zircon crystal for CA-ID-TIMS analysis. We use this information to establish temporal and geochemical links between studied volcanic and porphyry units in the FNVC. The results of this study suggest a close temporal and genetic link between the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu deposit and the late stage volcanism at the FNVC. Voluminous explosive volcanism immediately following porphyry formation has important implications for the thermal and rheological state of the magma that is parental to the porphyries and fed the eruption. Further work investigating the geochemistry of other accessory and major minerals could shed further light on the evolution of the magmatic body prior to eruption/ emplacement. References: [1] Buret et al. (2016) EPSL 450:120-131; [2

  18. Petrogenesis of the mineralized granitoids from the Kounrad and Borly porphyry Cu deposits and the East Kounrad porphyry Mo deposit in Kazakhstan: Implication for tectonic evolution and mineralization of the western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Seitmuratova, Eleonora

    2017-08-01

    The Kounrad region, located in the western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, hosts the Kounrad porphyry Cu, the Borly porphyry Cu-Mo, and the East Kounrad porphyry Mo deposits. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the mineralized granitoids from the Kounrad, the Borly and the East Kounrad deposits emplaced at 331.7 ± 2.2 Ma, 311.6 ± 2.6 Ma, and 295.4 ± 2.9 Ma, respectively. The mineralized granodiorite porphyries at Kounrad show a geochemical affinity to adakitic rocks with high Sr (357-670 ppm), Sr/Y (40-68) and Mg numbers (Mg# = molar Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +)) from 0.43 to 0.51, low Yb (0.97-1.1 ppm) and Y (8.3-11.1 ppm). They have variable Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7046 to 0.7051, εNd(t) = - 0.1 to + 1.1, εHf(t) = + 5.2 to + 9.0, δ18O = + 5.7 to + 6.8). These features indicate that the Kounrad adakitic magmas derived from the MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, homogenization) zone at depth of 40 km with 5-15% ancient basement rocks contamination. The mineralized granodiorite porphyries at Borly have a normal arc magma geochemical signature (e.g., enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) and depletion of heavy REE, Nb and Ti) and experienced fractional crystallization. They also have variable Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7047 to 0.7053, εNd(t) = 0 to - 1.3, εHf(t) = - 0.6 to + 7.4, δ18O = + 5.5 to + 6.7) and Mg# (0.45 to 0.51), indicating that they were generated by melting of juvenile basaltic lower crust with normal thickness, followed by 10-30% ancient crustal contamination. The East Kounrad mineralized intrusions, consisting of granite and leucogranite, have experienced advanced degrees of fractional crystallization and have similar Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7048, ɛNd (t) = + 1.0 to + 2.8, εHf(t) = + 4.8 to + 8.9, δ18O = + 5.6 to + 6.4) and low Mg# (0.18-0.37), indicating a juvenile lower crust source at depths of < 27 km with 10

  19. Relative oxidation states of magmas inferred from Ce(IV)/Ce(III) in zircon: application to porphyry copper deposits of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Julian; Palin, Michael; Campbell, Ian

    2002-10-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of zircons and whole rocks from 14 barren and seven ore-bearing calc-alkaline intrusions from the Chuquicamata-El Abra porphyry copper belt of northern Chile have been measured in situ by excimer laser ablation (ELA) ICP-MS. These data permit the Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratio within zircon to be calculated using a lattice-strain model for mineral-melt partitioning of Ce(IV) and Ce(III). Zircon Ce(IV)/Ce(III) and EuN/EuN* ratios, and by inference magmatic oxidation states, generally increase from older, mafic to younger, felsic units. Within this sequence, porphyry copper mineralization is directly associated only with intrusions with zircon Ce(IV)/Ce(III)>300 and EuN/EuN*>0.4. Such trends can be understood in terms of interdependent relations between oxygen fugacity, sulfur speciation and solubility, and chalcophile element partitioning in silicate magmas. Because zircon occurs in most calc-alkaline intrusions and is resistant to subsolidus alteration, zircon Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ratios provide a useful tool for evaluating the economic potential of such rocks for magmatic-hydrothermal Cu+/-Au mineralization. The approach is general and may provide a means to infer relative oxidation state in a wide range of intermediate to felsic igneous rocks.

  20. Sequential extraction techniques applied to a porphyry copper deposit in the basin and range province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filipek, L.H.; Theobald, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Samples of minus-80-mesh (<180 ??m) stream sediment, rock containing exposed fracture coatings, and jarosite and chrysocolla were collected from an area surrounding the North Silver Bell porphyry Cu deposit near Tucson, Arizona. The samples were subjected to a series of extractions in a scheme originally designed for use on samples from humid or sub-humid environments, in which the following fractions can effectively be separated: (1) carbonates and exchangeable metals; (2) Mn oxides; (3) organic compounds and sulfides; (4) hydrous Fe oxides; and (5) residual crystalline minerals. Jarosite and chrysocolla, two major minerals of the North Silver Bell area, were found to dissolve over two or more steps of the extraction scheme. The results represent only a limited number of samples from one copper deposit. Nevertheless, they do suggest that in a semiarid to arid environment, where mechanical dispersion of such minerals predominates, uncritical assignment of unique phases, such as Mn oxides or organics to a given extraction would lead to false interpretations of weathering processes. However, the relative proportions of elements dissolved in each step of the jarosite and chrysocolla extractions could be used as a "fingerprint" for recognition of the presence of these two minerals in the stream-sediment and rock samples. The relative abundance of hydrous Fe oxide and jarosite and the alteration zoning could be mapped using data from jarosite and chrysocolla extractions. Manganese oxides were also found to have a greater influence on Zn than on Cu or Pb during supergene alteration. The rapid change in relative importance of the first (1M-acetic acid) extraction for Cu, Zn, and Pb near the mineralized zone suggested the occurrence of minor hydromorphic processes within the stream sediments. Thus, the acetic acid extraction proved the most effective for pinpointing mineralization in sediments. In contrast, the residual fraction had the longest dispersion train, suggesting

  1. Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of the host porphyries and associated alteration at the Tuwu Cu deposit, NW China: a case for increased depositional efficiency by reaction with mafic hostrock?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Zhou, Taofa; Wang, Jingbin

    2014-08-01

    Tuwu is the largest porphyry copper deposit discovered in the Eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China. A newly recognized volcanic complex in the Early Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group at Tuwu consists of basalt, andesite, and diorite porphyry. The plagiogranite porphyry was emplaced into this complex at 332.8±2.5 Ma (U-Pb zircon SIMS determination). Whole-rock element geochemistry shows that the volcanic complex and plagiogranite porphyry formed in the same island arc, although the complex was derived by partial melting of the mantle wedge and the plagiogranite porphyry by partial melting of a subducting slab. The diorite and the plagiogranite porphyries have both been subjected to intense hydrothermal alteration and associated mineralization, but the productive porphyry is the plagiogranite porphyry. Three alteration and mineralization stages, including pre-, syn- and post-ore stages, have been recognized. The pre-ore stage formed a barren propylitic alteration which is widespread in the volcanic complex. The syn-ore stage is divided into three sub-stages: Stage 1 is characterized by potassic alteration with chalcopyrite + bornite + chalcocite; Stage 2 is marked by chlorite-sericite-albite alteration with chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± bornite; Stage 3 is represented by phyllic alteration with chalcopyrite + pyrite ± molybdenite. The post-ore stage produced a barren argillic alteration limited to the diorite porphyry. A specific feature of the Tuwu deposit is that the productive porphyry was emplaced into a very mafic package, and reaction of the resulting fluids with the ferrous iron-rich hostrocks was a likely reason that Tuwu is the largest porphyry in the district.

  2. Geochemical element mobility during the hydrothermal alteration in the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit represents one of the important copper source and mineral deposits in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Balikesir province, NW Turkey. It considered as a vein-type deposit locally associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones in the main host rock that represented by hornfels, as well as generally related to the shallow intermediate to silicic intrusive Eybek pluton. Based on the field and geologic relationships and types of ore mineral assemblages and the accompanied alteration types, there are two mineralization zones; hypogene (primary) and oxidation/supergene zones are observed associated with three alteration zones; potassic, phyllic, and propylitic zones related to this porphyry deposit. The phyllic and propylitic alterations locally surrounded the potassic alteration. The ore minerals related to the hypogene zone represented by mostly chalcopyrite, Molybdenite, and pyrite with subordinate amount of marcasite, enargite, and gold. On the other hand they include mainly cuprite with chalcopyrite, pyrite and gold as well as hematite and goethite at the oxidation/supergene zone. This study deals with the quantitative calculations of the mass/volume changes (gains and losses) of the major and trace elements during the different episodes of alteration in this porphyry deposit. These mass balance data reveal that the potassic alteration zone that the main Cu- and Mo-enriched zone, has enrichment of K, Si, Fe, and Mg, and depletion of Na referring to replacement of plagioclase and amphibole by K-feldspar, sericite and biotite. While the propylitic alteration that is the main Mo- and Au-enriched zone is accompanied with K and Na depletion with enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, and Ca forming chlorite, epidote, carbonate and pyrite. On the other hand the phyllic alteration that occurred in the outer part around the potassic alteration, characterized by less amount

  3. Origin and evolution of the Tertiary Maronia porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Thrace, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melfos, Vasilios; Vavelidis, Michael; Christofides, Georgios; Seidel, Eberhard

    2002-08-01

    The Maronia copper-molybdenum deposit is hosted by a porphyritic microgranite, located 30 km south-east of Komotini in Thrace (north-eastern Greece) in the Rhodope metallogenic province. The geology of the area is dominated by metamorphosed Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and Tertiary plutonic and subvolcanic intrusions. The metamorphic rocks belong to the Makri Unit of the Circum Rhodope Belt and consist mainly of marbles and calc-schists in the lower part and schists in the upper part. The marbles and schists of the Makri Unit are intruded by the Oligocene Maronia pluton of gabbroic-monzogabbroic-monzonitic composition and a younger porphyry microgranite, which is the host of the copper-molybdenum mineralisation. Three hydrothermal alteration zones have been recognised in the porphyritic microgranite: an argillic zone, a phyllic zone, and a propylitic zone which extends into the surrounding rocks. Additionally, three highly silicified zones crop out at the north-eastern, south-eastern and southern parts of the microgranite. Chalcopyrite-pyrite-molybdenite mineralisation, concentrated mainly in the silicified zones and associated with areas of phyllic and propylitic alteration, occurs as disseminations, veinlets and segregations. Surface samples of altered rock contain as much as 7,600 ppm Mo, 5,460 ppm Cu and 1 ppm Au. Geochemical data from a drill core revealed a 10-m-thick horizon containing as much as 12 ppm Au, 17 ppm Ag and 2.00% Cu. Argillic and phyllic alteration zones are characterised by relatively low REE abundances (average total: 88 and 95 ppm respectively) and negative Eu anomalies, compared to rocks in the propylitic alteration zone where REE contents are higher (average total: 177 ppm) and there is a positive Eu anomaly. The ore-related mineral assemblage consists of sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, molybdenite, sphalerite, galena and bismuthinite), sulphosalts (tetrahedrite, tennantite, zinkenite

  4. Early Paleozoic magmatism and metallogeny in Northeast China: a record from the Tongshan porphyry Cu deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xinlu; Yao, Shuzhen; Ding, Zhenju; He, Mouchun

    2017-01-01

    The Tongshan Cu deposit is located in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range and represents one of the few early Paleozoic porphyry Cu deposits in northeastern China. The granitic rocks in the Tongshan Cu deposit include concealed granodiorite and exposed tonalite, which yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 478 ± 3 Ma and 214 ± 3 Ma, respectively. The granodiorite has relatively high SiO2 (60.5-63.5 wt%) and Sr (596-786 ppm) contents, low Yb (1.21-1.53 ppm) and Y (9.81-13.0 ppm) contents, and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7038-0.7040), suggesting adakitic affinity. Combined with its positive ɛNd( t) values (3.5-5.4), low Mg# values (41-50), and low contents of Cr (18.6-29.0 ppm) and Ni (7.3-9.1 ppm), we propose an origin by partial melting of a juvenile mafic lower crust in a post-collisional setting after the amalgamation of the Erguna and Xing'an Blocks. The tonalite is characterized by high SiO2 (63.1-65.9 wt%) and Al2O3 (16.0-16.3 wt%) contents, low (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios (0.7041-0.7042), positive ɛNd( t) values (2.6-3.0), along with LILE and LREE enrichments and Nb-Ta-Ti depletions, suggesting an origin by partial melting of juvenile mafic lower crust, coupled with fractional crystallization, in a post-orogenic setting after the collision between the Xing'an and Songnen Blocks. The δD values of ore-forming fluids range from -100 to -93 ‰, and the δ18O values calculated from hydrothermal quartz are between -3 and 10 ‰. The δ34S values of sulfides vary from -2.6 to -1.1 ‰. Field observations, as well as the geochronological and H-O-S isotopic data, suggest that the Cu mineralization at Tongshan was genetically linked with the granodiorite.

  5. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  6. Geochronology, geochemistry, and mineralization of the granodiorite porphyry hosting the Matou Cu-Mo (±W) deposit, Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Hu, Jian; Gu, Lian-Xing; Li, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    Porphyry and skarn Cu-Fe-Au-Mo deposits are widespread in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt (MLYMB), eastern China. The Matou deposit has long been regarded as a typical Cu-Mo porphyry deposit within Lower Yangtze part of the belt. Recently, we identified scheelite and wolframite in quartz veins in the Matou deposit, which is uncommon in other porphyry and skarn deposits in the MLYMB. We carried out detailed zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic studies of the granodiorite porphyry at Matou to define any differences from other ore-related granitoids. The porphyry shows a SiO2 content ranging from 61.85 wt.% to 65.74 wt.%, K2O from 1.99 wt.% to 3.74 wt.%, and MgO from 1.74 wt.% to 2.19 wt.% (Mg# value ranging from 45 to 55). It is enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements, but relatively depleted in Nb, Ta, Y, Yb and compatible trace elements (such as Cr, Ni, and V), with slight negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.88-0.98) and almost no negative Sr anomalies. Results of electron microprobe analysis of rock-forming silicate minerals indicate that the Matou porphyry has been altered by an oxidized fluid that is rich in Mg, Cl, and K. The samples show relatively low ɛNd(t) values from -7.4 to -7.1, slightly high initial 87Sr/86Sr values from 0.708223 to 0.709088, and low ɛHf(t) values of zircon from -9.0 to -6.5, when compared with the other Cu-Mo porphyry deposits in the MLYMB. Zircon U-Pb dating suggests the Matou granodiorite porphyry was emplaced at 139.5 ± 1.5 Ma (MSWD = 1.8, n = 15), which is within the age range of the other porphyries in the MLYMB. Although geochemical characteristics of the Matou and other porphyries in the MLYMB are similar and all adakitic, the detrital zircons in the samples from Matou suggest that Archean lower crust (2543 ± 29 Ma, MSWD = 0.25, n = 5) was involved with the generation of Matou magma, which is different from the other porphyries in the belt. Our study

  7. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals in Arizona: Implications for the sources of plutons and metals in porphyry copper deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouse, R.M.; Ruiz, J.; Titley, S.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Porphyry copper deposits in Arizona are genetically associated with Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that consist of older intermediate volcanic rocks and younger intermediate to felsic intrusions. The igneous complexes and their associated porphyry copper deposits were emplaced into an Early Proterozoic basement characterized by different rocks, geologic histories, and isotopic compositions. Lead isotope compositions of the Proterozoic basement rocks define, from northwest to southeast, the Mojave, central Arizona, and southeastern Arizona provinces. Porphyry copper deposits are present in each Pb isotope province. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons, together with those of sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits and of Proterozoic country rocks, place important constraints on genesis of the magmatic suites and the porphyry copper deposits themselves. The range of age-corrected Pb isotope compositions of plutons in 12 Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes is 206Pb/204Pb = 17.34 to 22.66, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.43 to 15.96, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.19 to 40.33. These Pb isotope compositions and calculated model Th/U are similar to those of the Proterozoic rocks in which the plutons were emplaced, thereby indicating that Pb in the younger rocks and ore deposits was inherited from the basement rocks and their sources. No Pb isotope differences distinguish Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that contain large economic porphyry copper deposits from less rich or smaller deposits that have not been considered economic for mining. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons and sulfide minerals from 30 metallic mineral districts, furthermore, require that the southeastern Arizona Pb province be divided into two subprovinces. The northern subprovince has generally lower 206Pb/204Pb and higher model Th/U, and the southern subprovince has higher 206Pb/204Pb and

  8. Fluid inclusion characteristics and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology of the Qulong porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Selby, David; Feely, Martin; Costanzo, Alessandra; Li, Xian-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The Qulong porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit is located at the southwest margin of the Lhasa Terrane and in the eastern region of the Gangdese magmatic belt. It represents China's largest porphyry copper system, with ˜2200 million tonnes of ore comprising 0.5 % Cu and 0.03 % Mo. The mineralization is associated with Miocene granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz-diorite units, which intruded into Jurassic volcanic units in a post-collisional (Indian-Asian) tectonic setting. Field observations and core logging demonstrate the alteration and mineralization at Qulong are akin to typical porphyry copper systems in subduction settings, which comprise similar magmatic-hydrothermal, potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration assemblages. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology confirms the relative timeframe defined by field observations and core logging and indicates that the bulk copper and molybdenum at Qulong were deposited within 350,000 years: between 16.10 ± 0.06 [0.08] (without and with decay constant uncertainty) and 15.88 ± 0.06 [0.08] Ma. This duration for mineralization is in direct contrast to a long-lived intrusive episode associated with mineralization based on previous zircon U-Pb data. Our fluid inclusion study indicates that the ore-forming fluid was oxidized and contained Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mo, Cl and S. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition occurred at ˜425 °C under lithostatic pressure, while potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration occurred at hydrostatic pressure with temperature progressively decreasing from 425 to 280 °C. The fluid inclusion data presented here suggests that there has been ˜2.3 km of erosion at Qulong after its formation, and this erosion may be related to regional uplift of the Lhasa Terrane.

  9. Fluid inclusion characteristics and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology of the Qulong porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Selby, David; Feely, Martin; Costanzo, Alessandra; Li, Xian-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The Qulong porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit is located at the southwest margin of the Lhasa Terrane and in the eastern region of the Gangdese magmatic belt. It represents China's largest porphyry copper system, with ˜2200 million tonnes of ore comprising 0.5 % Cu and 0.03 % Mo. The mineralization is associated with Miocene granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz-diorite units, which intruded into Jurassic volcanic units in a post-collisional (Indian-Asian) tectonic setting. Field observations and core logging demonstrate the alteration and mineralization at Qulong are akin to typical porphyry copper systems in subduction settings, which comprise similar magmatic-hydrothermal, potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration assemblages. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology confirms the relative timeframe defined by field observations and core logging and indicates that the bulk copper and molybdenum at Qulong were deposited within 350,000 years: between 16.10 ± 0.06 [0.08] (without and with decay constant uncertainty) and 15.88 ± 0.06 [0.08] Ma. This duration for mineralization is in direct contrast to a long-lived intrusive episode associated with mineralization based on previous zircon U-Pb data. Our fluid inclusion study indicates that the ore-forming fluid was oxidized and contained Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mo, Cl and S. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition occurred at ˜425 °C under lithostatic pressure, while potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration occurred at hydrostatic pressure with temperature progressively decreasing from 425 to 280 °C. The fluid inclusion data presented here suggests that there has been ˜2.3 km of erosion at Qulong after its formation, and this erosion may be related to regional uplift of the Lhasa Terrane.

  10. Methane origin and oxygen-fugacity evolution of the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, HongDi

    2015-12-01

    Most porphyry copper deposits worldwide contain magnetite, hematite, and anhydrite in equilibrium with hypogene copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite, bornite) and have fluid inclusions with CO2 >> CH4 that are indicative of high fO2. In contrast, the Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit in the West Junggar terrain (Xinjiang, China) lacks hematite and anhydrite, contains abundant pyrrhotite and ilmenite in equilibrium with copper-iron sulfides (chalcopyrite), and has fluid inclusions with CH4 >> CO2 that are indicative of low fO2. The mineralized intrusive phases at Baogutu include the main-stage diorite stock and minor late-stage diorite porphyry dikes. The main-stage stock underwent fractional crystallization and country-rock assimilation-contamination, and consists of dominant diorite and minor gabbro and tonalite porphyry. The country rocks contain organic carbons (0.21-0.79 wt.%). The δ13CvPDB values of the whole rocks (-23.1 to -25.8 ‰) in the wall rocks suggest a sedimentary organic carbon source. The δ13CvPDB values of CH4 (-28.2 to -36.0 ‰) and CO2 (-6.8 to -20.0 ‰) in fluid inclusions require an organic source of external carbon and equilibration of their Δ13CCO2-CH4 values (8.2-25.0 ‰) at elevated temperatures (294-830 °C) suggesting a significant contribution of thermogenic CH4. Mineral composition data on the main-stage intrusions, such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, biotite, magnetite, ilmenite, sphene, apatite, and pyrrhotite, suggest that the primary magma at Baogutu was oxidized and became reduced after emplacement by contamination with country rocks. Mineral compositions and fluid inclusion gas compositions suggest that the redox state of the system evolved from log fO2 > FMQ + 1 in the magma stage, to log fO2 < FMQ as a consequence of country rocks assimilation-contamination, to log fO2 > FMQ in the hydrothermal stage. Though oxidized magma was emplaced initially, assimilation-contamination of carbonaceous country rocks decreased its fO2 such that

  11. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    Geoenvironmental concerns are generally low because of low volumes of sulfide minerals. Most deposits are marginally acid-generating to non-acid-generating with drainage waters being near-neutral pH because of the acid generating potential of pyrite being partially buffered by late-stage calcite-bearing veins. The low ore content results in a waste:ore ratio of nearly 1:1 and large tailings piles from the open-pit method of mining.

  12. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  13. Origin of the Wunugetushan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: Constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yin-Hong; Liu, Jia-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhao, Chun-Bo; Song, Zhi-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The Wunugetushan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is located in the southeastern margin of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogenic Belt and in the northwestern segment of the Great Xing'an Range, NE China. The orebodies of this deposit are mainly hosted in the monzogranitic porphyry stock and in contact with the granitic porphyry dyke and biotite granite batholith. The SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating of the granitic porphyry dyke yielded ages of 201.4 ± 3.1 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 1.5). These results indicate that the magmatism in the Wunugetushan area might have occurred at ca. 201 Ma in the early Jurassic, and that the mineralization age (ca. 181 Ma) of this deposit is later than the age of intrusive granitic porphyry in the area. Geochemically, the Wunugetushan granitoids belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic series, enriched in K, Rb, Nd, and Pb, and depleted in Sr, Nb, Ti and P, with negative Eu anomalies. In situ Hf isotopic analyses of zircons using LA-MC-ICP-MS indicate that the εHf(t) values for zircons from a granitic porphyry sample vary from +2.4 to +11.8 and that the corresponding crustal model ages (TDMC) vary from 483 to 1088 Ma. The least-altered monzogranitic porphyry, granitic porphyry and biotite granite yielded relatively uniform εNd(t) values from -1.0 to +0.6 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios ranging from 0.704387 to 0.708385. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for the granitoids indicate that the source magma for these rocks could be derived from a juvenile lower crust. The δ34S values of sulfides show a narrow range (+0.76‰ to +3.20‰) similar to those of magmatic sulfur, further implying a lower crust origin. Based on the results of this study and the regional geodynamic evolution, it is proposed that the formation of the Wunugetushan deposit and associated granitoids should be linked to the southeastward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate beneath the Erguna Massif during the early Jurassic, and that the monzogranitic porphyry intrusions in

  14. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  15. Preliminary mineralogical data on epithermal ore veins associated with Rosia Poieni porphyry copper deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iatan, E. L.; Popescu, Gh. C.

    2012-04-01

    Rosia Poieni is the largest porphyry copper (±Au±Mo) deposits associated with Neogene magmatic rocks from the South Apuseni Mountains, being located approximately 8 km northeast of the town of Abrud. During a recent examination of some epithermal mineralized veins, crosscutting the porphyry mineralization from the Roşia Poieni deposit, two species of tellurides and one tellurosulfide minerals were identified. The studied samples were collected from the + 1045 m level, SW side of the open pit and are represented by epithermal veins, crosscutting the porphyry copper mineralized body. The thickness of the veins is almost 4 cm. Following reflected-polarized light microscopy to identify the ore-mineral assemblages, the polished sections were studied with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with a back-scattered electron (BSE) detector to study fine-sized minerals. Quantitative compositional data were determined using a Cameca SX 50 electron microprobe (EMP). Based on optical microscopy, SEM and EMPA three mineral associations have been separated inside the epithermal vein, from the margins to the centre: 1. quartz+tennantite-tetrahedrite+goldfieldite+pyrite+sphalerite; 2. quartz+pyrite+tellurobismutite; 3. chalcopyrite+hessite+vivianite. Goldfieldite occurs in anhedral grains and it is associated with tennantite-tetrahedrite and quartz. The electron microprobe analysis gave a variable content in Te between 13.28-13.39 wt.%, 43.34 wt.% Cu, 0.1 wt. % Fe, 0.2 wt.% Zn, 14.68 wt.% As, 4.35 wt.% Sb and 24.84 wt.% S. The calculated formula for the goldfieldite is Cu11.8Te1.8(Sb,As)4S13.4. The EPM analyses on tetrahedrite-tennantite revealed a low content in Te (0.02-0.03 wt.%) and 42.23 wt.% Cu, 2.67 wt.% Fe, 7.34 wt.% Zn, 0.04 wt.% Sb, 19.28 wt.% As and 28.4 wt.% S. The calculated formula is Cu9.8(Fe,Zn)2.4(Sb,As,Te)3.8S13. The variable ratio of the Te content may reflect a variable content of Te in the hydrothermal fluids from which the tellurian tetrahedrite

  16. Enhanced selectivity for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to alcohols in aqueous solution with nanostructured Cu-Au alloy as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Falong; Yu, Xinxing; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-04-01

    Electrochemical reduction of CO2 in an aqueous 0.5 M KHCO3 solution is studied by use of novel nanostructured Cu-Au alloys, which are prepared through electrochemical deposition with a nanoporous Cu film (NCF) as template. Linear voltammetry results show that the as-synthesized Cu-Au alloys exhibit obvious catalysis towards electrochemical reduction of CO2. Further analysis of products reveals that faradic efficiencies of alcohols (methanol and ethanol) are greatly dependent on the nanostructures and compositions of Cu-Au alloys. It is expected that this work could provide new insight into the development of powerful electrocatalysts for reduction of CO2 to alcohols.

  17. Zircon petrochronology reveals the temporal link between porphyry systems and the magmatic evolution of their hidden plutonic roots (the Eocene Coroccohuayco deposit, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Chiaradia, Massimo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Ulianov, Alexey; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik

    2014-06-01

    We present zircon geochronologic (LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS), trace element and Hf isotopic evidence for a complex evolution of the plutonic roots of the Eocene Coroccohuayco porphyry system, southern Peru. LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating has initially been carried out to optimize grain selection for subsequent high-precision ID-TIMS dating and to characterize crustal assimilation (xenocrystic cores). This combined in-situ and whole-grain U-Pb dating of the same grains has been further exploited to derive a robust temporal interpretation of the complex magmatic system associated with the Coroccohuayco porphyry-skarn deposit. Our data reveal that a heterogeneous gabbrodioritic complex was emplaced at ca. 40.4 Ma and was followed by a nearly 5 Ma-long magmatic lull until the emplacement of dacitic porphyry stocks and dykes associated with the mineralizing event at ca. 35.6 Ma. However, at the sample scale, zircons from the porphyries provide insight into a 2 Ma-long lived “hidden” magmatism (probably at 4-9 km paleodepth) prior to porphyry intrusion and mineralization for which no other evidence can be found on the surface today. These dates together with zircon trace element analysis and Hf isotopes argue for the development of a long-lived magmatic system dominated by amphibole fractionation with an increasing amount of crustal assimilation and the development of a large and sustained thermal anomaly. The system was probably rejuvenated at an increasing rate from 37.5 to 35.6 Ma with injection of fresh and oxidized magma from the lower crust, which caused cannibalism and remelting of proto-plutons. The porphyry intrusions at Coroccohuayco were emplaced at the peak thermal conditions of this upper crustal magma chamber, which subsequently cooled and expelled ore fluids. Zircon xenocrysts and Hf isotopes in the porphyritic rocks suggest that this large upper crustal system evolved at stratigraphic levels corresponding to Triassic sediments similar to the Mitu group that may be

  18. Cu-Au-Mo-Re partitioning in Northern Chilean arcs: Oxidation and super-solidus to sub-solidus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattitch, B.; Blundy, J.

    2013-12-01

    The composition of arc magmas and the conditions during volatile exsolution influence the efficiency by which ore metals are removed from the melt, the metal ratios in the exsolved fluid(s), the mass of metals available for transport, and ultimately the grade of deposits. Experiments have shown that fluid salinity [1] as well as sulfur content [2] (e.g. Simon et al. 2006) can strongly affect the partitioning of ore metals. In addition, more subtle parameters such as cation ratios (e.g Na/K/H - [3]) along with melt ASI and H2S/SO2 ratios, may influence both Cu and Au. Thus, in a particular arc, variable magma composition, volatile exsolution temperatures and fO2 likely affect ore metal partitioning. However, the influence of these parameters on a suite of ore metals in equilibrium remains somewhat unclear. In order to further approach the complexity of proto-ore fluids, we have performed exploratory CuFeS2-MoS2 saturated, Cu-Au-Mo-Re partitioning experiments using pumice from the Cardones Ignimbrite in northern Chile. These experiments were run at 100 MPa and super-solidus conditions (810 oC) in oxidized (NNO + 2) and reduced (NNO + 0.75) environments with respect to sulphur, as well as at near-solidus conditions (740 oC and NNO + 0.75). The partitioning of Cu between the melt and the vapour decreases at more oxidized conditions at 810 oC (DCuv/m decreases from 50 × 30 to 10 × 5), whereas molybdenum partitioning remains constant (DMov/m = 3 × 1 and 4 × 2 respectively). This corresponds to a change in the vapour Cu/Mo ratio from ~40:1 down to ~1:1. The decrease in DCuv/m is likely a result of the change from an H2S dominated fluid to an SO2 dominated fluid, changing available ligands. The change in Cu complexation is reflected in an increased partitioning of Cu into coexisting brine with increasing fO2 (DCub/v increases from 5 × 3 to 17 × 9). The effect of oxidation may be stronger for Cu relative to Au as the Cu/Au ratio in the vapour drops from ~100:1 down to

  19. New thermochronologic constraints on the evolution of the Zaldívar porphyry copper deposit, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Eduardo; Wijbrans, Jan; Andriessen, Paul A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Life spans and thermal evolution of hydrothermal systems are of fundamental metallogenic importance. We were able to establish the chronology and cooling history of the Zaldívar porphyry copper deposit (Northern Chile) by applying a combination of different isotopic dating methods in minerals with different closure temperatures, including 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon fission track thermochronology, together with fluid inclusion thermometry and previous published U-Pb zircon geochronology. The hydrothermal mineralization in the Zaldívar deposit is genetically related to the Llamo Porphyry unit. Samples of igneous biotites from this intrusion yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages between 35.5 ± 0.7 and 37.7 ± 0.4 Ma defining a weighted average of 36.6 ± 0.5 Ma (2 σ). In contrast, one sample from the Zaldívar porphyry, one from the andesites, and two from the Llamo porphyry yielded considerably younger fission track ages of approximately 29 Ma with a weighted mean for all ages of 29.1 ± 1.7 Ma (2 σ). Thermal and compositional constraints for the hydrothermal system in the Zaldívar deposit from fluid inclusions thermometry show that at least three fluid types broadly characterize two main hydrothermal episodes during the evolution of the deposit. The main mineralization and alteration event is characterized by high temperature (above 320°C) hypersaline fluids (salinity between 30 and 56 wt.% NaCl equivalents) coexisting with low-density gas-rich inclusions (salinity less than 17 wt.% NaCl equivalents) that homogenizing into the gas phase at temperatures above 350°C. The second episode corresponds to a low-temperature event which is characterized by liquid-rich fluid inclusions that homogenize into the liquid phase at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 300°C with salinities lower than 10 wt.% NaCl equivalents. The 40Ar/39Ar data (36.6 ± 0.5 Ma, weighted average) obtained from igneous biotites represent the minimum age for the last high-temperature (above

  20. Inverse solution for crystal fractionation in a periodically tapped magma chamber, Sierrita porphyry copper deposit, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, E.Y.; Titley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Inversion techniques have been used to simultaneously solve for the initial concentrations, distribution coefficients, and degrees of crystallization for a suite of Laramide rocks related to subduction and porphyry copper mineralization. The suite includes diorite, andesite, and granodiorite. The granodiorite has differentiated in place to a granite core and it is this granite which immediately precedes mineralization. To perform the inversion one must verify that the rocks are genetically related by crystallization or melting. Their comagmatic nature is suggested by the similarity throughout the suite in the ratios of incompatible elements and in the few available isotopic determinations. The geochemical path of crystallization is indicated by the decrease in compatible elements and increase in incompatible elements. Inversion of the trace element data yields high initial concentrations for elements such as Ba and Ce and low concentrations for the transition metals, which is consistent with crustal melting. Thus, there was s substantial magma chamber at depth from which the more felsic liquids the authors sample have separated. The residence time of this chamber was not less than 6 million years. Such a prolonged history has been observed in other porphyry systems for which 10 million years of igneous activity and 2 million years of intermittent mineralization are recorded.

  1. Identification of hydrothermal alteration zones of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposits in northwest China using ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing technology plays a vital role in the initial stages of ore deposits exploration, with special significance in arid and semiarid regions. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) creates opportunities for geologists and many researchers to study the extraction of hydrothermal alterations of the porphyry copper and epithermal gold deposits. ASTER data were used to map distribution of hydrothermal alteration of deposits in the Baogutu region which is located in western Junggar, Xinjiang, China, including Baogutu II and Baogutu V deposits. Band ratio logical operator (BRLO), principal component analysis (PCA), mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF), and constrained energy minimization (CEM) techniques were used for detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. The alteration zones were identified using BRLO and PCA. The minerals subject to alteration were extracted by MTMF and CEM. The results were validated through field observation, spectral measurements, and petrographic studies. By comparing the extraction results and accuracy rates of four methods, CEM boasts the highest accuracy and identifies the altered minerals corresponding to three types of alterations at accuracy of over 80%. The identifying result of CEM method indicates that the prospect areas that were located in the southeast part of the Baogutu II rocks and in the southwest part of the Baogutu V rocks are valuable for further exploration.

  2. Petrogenesis of Paleocene-Eocene porphyry deposit-related granitic rocks in the Yaguila-Sharang ore district, central Lhasa terrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junxing; Li, Guangming; Evans, Noreen J.; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xia'nan

    2016-11-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene ore deposits in the Gangdese Metallogenic Belt, Tibet, are thought to have been formed during the main period of India-Asia continental collision. This paper reports the whole-rock major element, trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions and zircon trace element contents of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Paleocene Yaguila skarn Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and adjacent Eocene Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the central Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Geochemical signatures and Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the Yaguila Cretaceous rhyolitic rocks were formed by the melting of ancient continental crust, whereas the Paleocene causative granite porphyry may have resulted from the interaction between mantle-derived and crustal-derived materials when continental collision was initiated. The dramatic increase of εNd(t) values between emplacement of the granite porphyry and later porphyritic biotite granite suggests a greater involvement of mantle materials during the crystallization of the barren biotite granite stock. The post-ore Miocene granodiorite porphyry has a similar geochemical signature to the Sharang Miocene dykes, suggesting they were both generated from melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. Nd-Hf mixing calculations indicate an increasing contribution of mantle materials in Paleocene to Eocene intrusions, consistent with the regional tectonic model of Neo-Tethyan oceanic slab roll-back and break-off. Zircons from both the Yaguila and Sharang ore-related porphyries have higher Ce anomalies than those from the barren granitoids, suggesting that Mo mineralization was closely related to highly oxidized and differentiated magma. The fertile intrusions in the Yaguila-Sharang district contain EuN/EuN∗ values from 0.3 to 0.6, higher than the non-mineralized intrusions. The processes of early crystallization of plagioclase and/or SO2-degassing from underlying magma can explain the observed negative Eu anomalies in zircon.

  3. Insights Into the Formation of Deep Hydrothermal Quartz From the Porphyry-Copper- Molybdenum Deposit at Butte, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. N.; Reed, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    We combine SEM-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images of magmatic and hydrothermal quartz with trace elements and quartz precipitation temperatures to elucidate the formation of deep quartz veins in a porphyry-style deposit. Trace elements (Ti, K, Al, and Fe) were measured by EPMA along traverses crossing CL textural boundaries and quartz precipitation temperatures were calculated using the Ti in quartz (TitaniQ) geothermometer (Wark and Watson, 2006). We examined Butte granite, quartz porphyry, and five deep vein types, including biotite crackles and early dark micaceous (EDM) veins (potassic alteration), barren quartz/quartz-molybdenum veins lacking alteration, and pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration. Magmatic quartz shows concentric zoning that is cross-cut by CL-dark quartz veins. Complex textures in hydrothermal quartz indicate multiple quartz-precipitation episodes corresponding to different physical conditions of quartz growth. Concentrations of Ti have a strong positive correlation with CL brightness. K and Al concentrations show a weak relationship with CL brightness but they generally vary in unison. Fe concentrations do not appear to correlate with CL brightness or concentrations of other trace elements. TitaniQ temperatures range from 710 to 730°C in plutonic quartz, 625 to 750°C in porphyry quartz, and 650 to 730°C in barren quartz veins, overlapping with magmatic quartz. Biotite crackles and EDM vein temperatures are generally cooler than magmatic quartz and barren quartz veins, ranging from 660°C to less than 480°C, a temperature limited by our Ti detection limit. SEM-CL brightness boundaries do not necessarily match quartz grain boundaries. Careful examination of these boundaries in comparison with our existing trace element data, along with new electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping will help clarify the roles of diffusion, dissolution, and recrystallization in forming the CL textures. TitaniQ geothermometer results show that

  4. Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

    A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A

  5. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  6. Geochronology and geochemistry constraints of the Early Cretaceous Taibudai porphyry Cu deposit, northeast China, and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Mao, Jing-Wen; Wu, Xin-Li; Ouyang, Hen-Gen

    2015-05-01

    The southern Great Xing'an Range (SGXR), located in the southeastern part of Inner Mongolia, China, shows intense Mesozoic tectono-magmatic activity and hosts economically important polymetallic (Cu-Pb-Zn-Sn-Fe-Ag-Au-Mo) mineralization. Here, we present new zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemical data, Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data and Re-Os ages for the Taibudai deposit in the SGXR. The Taibudai granitoids show high SiO2 (70.62-72.13 wt.%) and alkali (Na2O + K2O = 7.04-8.60 wt.%) concentrations, low MgO (0.89-1.37 wt.%) and Al2O3 (∼14 wt.%), ASI ratios <1.1 (0.94-0.97), LILEs (e.g., Rb) enriched, HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P) depleted, and have low Sr and Yb concentrations, classifying these rocks as fractionated I-type granites. The Taibudai granitoids have negative εNd (t) values ranging from -2.2 to -1.6 and relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.70536 to 0.70581. In situ Hf isotopic analyses on zircons using LA-MC-ICP-MS show variable positive εHf (t) values ranging from +0.80 to +13.55, corresponding to relatively young two-stage Hf model ages from 801 to 942 Ma (excluding one spot). These mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic features strongly suggest that the primary magmas of the Taibudai granitoids were derived mainly from the partial remelting of Neoproterozoic juvenile crustal material, with no remarkable modification through incorporation of continental or subduction-related material. Re-Os isotope analyses of molybdenite from the deposit yield an ore-forming age of 137.1 ± 1.4 Ma. Re contents range from 4.37 to 41.77 ppm, implying ore material components have a mixed crust-mantle origin. SHRIMP analysis of zircons show that the monzogranitic porphyry and biotite granite in the Taibudai deposit were formed at 137.0 ± 0.9 Ma and 138.3 ± 0.9 Ma, respectively, indicating a temporal link between granitic magmatism and Cu mineralization. This result, combined with the regional geology, tectonic evolution, and age data from the literature

  7. Double-layer mode of acid intrusive rocks from Xiuwacu Porphyry Mo deposit, Northwestern Yunnan SW China: U-Pb geochronology evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Wenchang

    2016-04-01

    Recent research infer that, the south-north extension of the Xiuwacu-Tongchanggou acidic intrusive belt along the Geza island arc have been developed of intense molybdenum-mutimetallic mineralization(Li et al., 2012, 2013; Yu et al., 2015). The northern section of this intrusive belt exposed widly and occur much monzonitic granite, biotite-granite, granodiorite, biotite-monzogranite; while in southern section, intrusions are cocealed. The Tongchanggou district in south section have been obtained large breakthrough of porphyry-skarn type molybdenum-multimetallic deposits exploration recent years(Yu et al., 2014), the Mo-W mineral resources also increased year after year in north section of the belt. The Mo-mineral resouree potential of porphyry-skarn type Mo-mutimetallic deposits in whole area are tremendous. Xiuwacu Porphyry molybdenum deposit was explored in Geza island arc, and widespread Biotite granite and monzonitic granite that is closely related to mineralization. We have understood poorly about this ore deposit for the harsh geographical circumstance, through, some referential result in chronology have accumulated, it still lack of systematic lithogeochemical study and reliable chronology data about intrusions. We yield biotite granite and monzonitic zircons U-Pb ages(200.93±0.65Ma, 83.57±0.32Ma, respectively) of Xiuwacu. There are two periods of intermediate-acid intrusive rocks of Xiuwacu area. Indosinian Biotite granite and Yanshanian monzonitic granite were formed as superposition phenomenon.

  8. A comparison of three-dimensional electrical conductivity models of several epithermal/porphyry type deposits in Western Canada, derived from ZTEM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, J.; Lee, B.; Abbassi, B.; Liu, L.; Unsworth, M. J.; Richards, J. P.; Cheng, L.; Oldenburg, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Canadian Cordillera is host to numerous porphyry deposits which supply a substantial amount of the world's Cu, Mo and Au. With most near-surface mineralized systems already discovered, and in some cases mined, further exploration requires the development of geophysical deep-penetrating methods that can rapidly detect and characterize possible targets. The airborne Z-axis Tipper Electromagnetic (ZTEM) method with a penetration depth down to two kilometers is designed to image the electrical conductivity structure of the subsurface. The electrical response of mineral alterations associated with porphyry mineralization has shown to be more enigmatic than other deposit types. Therefore, the ZTEM data sets over three known Ag-Au epithermal/Cu-porphyry style deposits in British Columbia, Canada are analysed together with available geological information. In detail, we compare three-dimensional (3-D) models of electrical conductivity of the deposits, which were derived by the inversion of airborne ZTEM data and, where available, supported by ground MT data. The models are validated by petrophysical measurements and complemented by other geophysical models and geological evidence from borehole data.

  9. Molybdenum mineralization related to the Yangtze's lower crust and differentiation in the Dabie Orogen: Evidence from the geochemical features of the Yaochong porphyry Mo deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing-Quan; Li, Bin; Shao, Yong-Jun; Lu, An-Huai; Lai, Jian-Qing; Li, Yong-Feng; Luo, Zheng-Zhuan

    2017-06-01

    The Dabie Orogen is a world-class case for large amounts of Mo mineralization in that it contains at least 10 porphyry Mo deposits with Mo metal reserves over 3 Mt from the time period of 156-110 Ma. However, the principal mechanism for the Mo mineralization remains controversial due to the lack of a precise definition of its source and shallow ore-forming process, which is essential to understand these rare large Mo deposits. Detailed geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic data for ore-related granites and minerals were analyzed in order to place constraints on the massive Mo mineralization in the Dabie Orogen in eastern China. The Yaochong molybdenum orebodies were hosted in the transition belt and alteration zone between the granitic stocks and the Dabie Complex and were characterized as numerous veinlets with potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations. The buried Yaochong granitic intrusions and associated molybdenum mineralization yield Early Cretaceous ages of magmatic activities at ca. 138 Ma and extremely similar Re-Os isotope ages for the corresponding Mo metallogenic event at ca. 137 Ma. The Yaochong monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to the highly fractionated I-type granites, which are believed to be derived from the dominantly Yangtze's lower crust mixed with the Northern Dabie Complex due to their geochemical and isotope features. The elemental diversity and isotopic homogeneity suggest that the formation of the Yaochong monzogranite involved the fractionation of biotite, garnet and minor feldspar and accessory minerals combined with a weak crustal assimilation process. In contrast, the granite porphyry was possibly generated by the partial melting of the same mixed lower continental crust via the differentiation process involving the fractionation of feldspar, apatite, and/or titanite. Fractional crystallization processes can significantly elevate the molybdenum concentration in the residual melts. The biotite fractional crystallization

  10. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  11. Exploration for porphyry copper deposits in Pakistan using digital processing of Landsat-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Rock-type classification by digital-computer processing of Landsat-1 multispectral scanner data has been used to select 23 prospecting targets in the Chagai District, Pakistan, five of which have proved to be large areas of hydrothermally altered porphyry containing pyrite. Empirical maximum and minimum apparent reflectance limits were selected for each multispectral scanner band in each rock type classified, and a relatively unrefined classification table was prepared. Where the values for all four bands fitted within the limits designated for a particular class, a symbol for the presumed rock type was printed by the computer at the appropriate location. Drainage channels, areas of mineralized quartz diorite, areas of pyrite-rich rock, and the approximate limit of propylitic alteration were very well delineated on the computer-generated map of the test area. The classification method was used to evaluate 2,100 sq km in the Mashki Chah region. The results of the experiment show that outcrops of hydrothermally altered and mineralized rock can be identified from Landsat-1 data under favorable conditions.

  12. Exploration for porphyry copper deposits in Pakistan using digital processing of Landsat-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Rock-type classification by digital-computer processing of Landsat-1 multispectral scanner data has been used to select 23 prospecting targets in the Chagai District, Pakistan, five of which have proved to be large areas of hydrothermally altered porphyry containing pyrite. Empirical maximum and minimum apparent reflectance limits were selected for each multispectral scanner band in each rock type classified, and a relatively unrefined classification table was prepared. Where the values for all four bands fitted within the limits designated for a particular class, a symbol for the presumed rock type was printed by the computer at the appropriate location. Drainage channels, areas of mineralized quartz diorite, areas of pyrite-rich rock, and the approximate limit of propylitic alteration were very well delineated on the computer-generated map of the test area. The classification method was used to evaluate 2,100 sq km in the Mashki Chah region. The results of the experiment show that outcrops of hydrothermally altered and mineralized rock can be identified from Landsat-1 data under favorable conditions.

  13. Geological, geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-O-Hf isotopic constraints on origins of intrusions associated with the Baishan porphyry Mo deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yinhong; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Jiajun; Zhang, Fangfang

    2016-10-01

    The Baishan porphyry Mo deposit (0.72 Mt; 0.06 % Mo) is located in the interior of the eastern Tianshan orogenic belt in Xinjiang, NW China. The deposit comprises 15 orebodies that are associated with monzogranite and granite porphyry stocks and are structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating of the monzogranite and granite porphyry yielded the Middle Triassic age (228 ± 2 to 227 ± 2 Ma), which coincide with the molybdenite Re-Os model ages ranging from 226 ± 3 to 228 ± 3 Ma. The Triassic monzogranite and granite porphyry belong to high-K calc-alkaline series and are characterized by high SiO2 and Al2O3 and low MgO, TiO2, and P2O5 concentrations, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.55-0.91). The least-altered monzogranite and granite porphyry yield uniform ɛ Nd( t) values from +1.6 to +3.6, and wide (87Sr/86Sr) i ratios ranging between 0.7035 and 0.7071, indicating that they were derived from the lower crust. In situ O-Hf isotopic analyses on zircon using SIMS and laser ablation multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) indicate that the δ18O and ɛ Hf( t) values of zircon from a monzogranite sample vary from 6.1 to 7.3 ‰ and +8.0 to +11.7, respectively, whereas zircon from a granite porphyry sample vary from 6.2 to 6.9 ‰ and +7.3 to +11.2, respectively. The geochemical and isotopic data imply that the primary magmas of the Baishan granite were likely derived from partial melts from the lower crust involving some mantle components. The Baishan Mo deposit and granitic emplacement were proposed to be most likely related to post-orogenic lithospheric extension and magmatic underplating. An extensional event coupled with the rising of hot mantle-derived melts triggered partial melting of the lower crust, as well as provided metals (Mo).

  14. Abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of methane at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit, western Junggar, NW-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Jin, LuYing

    2014-09-01

    Methane is widely developed in hydrothermal fluids from reduced porphyry copper deposits, but its origin remains enigmatic. The occurrence of methane in fluid inclusions at the Late Carboniferous Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit in western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW-China, presents an excellent opportunity to address this problem. A systematic study including fluid inclusion Laser-Raman and CO2-CH4 carbon isotope analyses, igneous and hydrothermal mineral H-O isotope analyses, and in situ major, trace element and Sr isotopic analyses of hydrothermal epidote was conducted to constrain the origin of CH4 and CH4-rich fluids. The δ2H and δ18O of water in equilibrium with igneous biotite ranges from -65.0‰ to -66.0‰ and +7.2‰ to +7.4‰, respectively, indicating notable degassing of probably supercritical fluids in the magma chamber. The wide range of δ2H (-58.0‰ to -107.0‰, n = 23) for water within quartz suggests the existence of significant hydrothermal fluid boiling. Water-rock interaction is the most likely mechanism leading to the wide range of δ18O values for water in vein quartz with water/rock ratios (wt.% in O) of 0.15 to 0.75 and 0.13 to 0.46 for a closed and open system, respectively. Detailed Laser-Raman analyses indicate CO2 in apatite included in granodiorite porphyry phenocrystic biotite that records the carbon species of the early stage magmatic stage, whereas later hydrothermal fluids containing CH4 with trace or without CO2 are found in inclusions of vein quartz. We propose that CH4 is probably transformed from CO2 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions at 500 °C, assumed from CO2-CH4 C isotope equilibrium. The (87Sr/86Sr)i of hydrothermal epidote yields values of 0.70369-0.70404, consistent with that reported for the whole rocks. The δ13CCH4 (-28.6‰ to -22.6‰) and δ2HCH4 (-108.0‰ to -59.5‰) are characteristic of abiogenic methane. The measured δ13CCO2 shows a slightly depleted 13C (-13.5‰ to -7.2‰) relative to upper mantle

  15. The Stypsi-Megala Therma porphyry-epithermal mineralization, Lesvos Island, Greece: new mineralogical and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periferakis, Argyrios; Voudouris, Panagiotis; Melfos, Vasilios; Mavrogonatos, Constantinos; Alfieris, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    anomalies to those previously reported by [1] but also provide additional information in a series of elements: Cu (up to 843 ppm), Mo (up to 76 ppm), Au (up to 120 ppb), Pb (up to 339ppm), Zn (up to 815ppm), Se (up to 10ppm), Te (up to 4 ppm), Bi (up to 4 ppm) and Sn (up to 23 ppm). The Lesvos Island may be interpreted as the westward extension of the Eocene-Miocene Biga peninsula Cu-Au porphyry belt, with potential for future discoveries of Cu-Mo±Au deposits in the Aegean area. [1] Voudouris P, Alfieris D (2005) New porphyry-Cu±Mo occurrences in northeastern Aegean/Greece: Ore mineralogy and transition to epithermal environment. In: Mao J, Bierlein FP (eds) Mineral deposit research: Meeting the global challenge. Springer Verlag, 473-476; [2] Kontis E, Kelepertsis AE, Skounakis S (1994) Geochemistry and alteration facies associated with epithermal precious metal mineralization in an active geothermal system, northern Lesvos, Greece. Min Deposita, 29:430-433; [3] Muntean JL, Einaudi MT (2000) Porphyry Gold Deposits of the Refugio District, Maricunga Belt, Northern Chile. Econ. Geology, 95, 1445-1472.

  16. Genesis of ilmenite-series I-type granitoids at the Baogutu reduced porphyry Cu deposit, western Junggar, NW-China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Hollings, Pete; Jin, LuYing

    2016-03-01

    The Baogutu porphyry Cu deposit is a typical reduced porphyry Cu deposit, likely related to ilmenite-series I-type granitoids. However, the nature of the granitoids (ilmenite-series or magnetite-series) and the genesis of the Baogutu deposit are still under debate. In order to resolve these issues, whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf-O isotopic compositions were carried out. Three different intrusive phases are recognized within the deposit, from oldest to youngest, they are diorite with trace gabbro, diorite-granodiorite porphyry, and hornblende diorite porphyry, all of which were emplaced in the Late Carboniferous (320-306 Ma) and show a metaluminous, calc-alkaline I-type granitoid character with typical supra-subduction zone geochemical affinities. The intrusions are characterized by widespread primary pyrrhotite without anhydrite and hematite, dominant ilmenite over magnetite, low whole rock magnetic susceptibility (< 1 × 10- 4 emu g- 1 oe- 1 or < 3 × 10- 3 SI unit) and low whole rock Fe2O3/FeO ratios (< 0.4), indicating that the granitoids are ilmenite- rather than magnetite-series I-type granitoids. Whole rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions show limited variation but slightly enriched characteristics with (87Sr/86Sr)i values of 0.70357-0.70404, εNd (t) of + 6.3 to + 7.8, 206Pb/204Pb of 18.20-19.54 and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.97-39.55. Zircon Hf-O isotopic compositions show εHf (t) values of + 10.7 to + 15.8 and δ18O of 5.3-7.4‰. Zircon and apatite saturation thermometries yield temperatures of 720 to 920 °C with relatively higher temperatures for the porphyries than for the diorite. Limited variations in Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopic compositions and extremely young whole rock T2DM (Nd) (430 to 570 Ma) and zircon TDMC (Hf) (310 to 640 Ma) do not indicate significant crustal contamination during magma ascent or emplacement. Rather the Baogutu ilmenite-series I-type granitoids were probably formed by

  17. Preparation of biaxially cube textured Ag, Cu-Au and Cu-Au-Ag films on Cu substrates for HTS coated conductor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J.; Segarra, M.; Espiell, F.; Piñol, S.

    2001-08-01

    Copper (100) cube textured tapes have been covered successfully with biaxially textured thin and thick films of silver, gold and gold-silver by electrodeposition techniques for high temperature superconductors (HTS) coated conductor applications. The cube texture of Cu was promoted by recrystallization after smooth cold rolling. The biaxially cube textured Ag films were obtained by the electro-epitaxial deposition technique using no post-deposition heat treatment. Intermediate gold buffer layers were prepared in order to increase the thermal stability of the cube-textured Ag-buffered Cu substrates. The as-electrodeposited Au buffer layers were polycrystalline, but after an annealing treatment at high temperature the Au is absorbed by diffusion mechanism into the Cu tapes and a biaxially solid solution of Au-Cu(100) is formed on the surface. Ag thin films deposited on Cu-Au substrates form the same biaxial cube texture as the rolled Cu tapes after recrystallization at high temperature.

  18. Re-Os geochronology of the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile: Tracking analytical improvements in accuracy and precision over the past decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Morgan, John W.; Markey, Richard J.; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    Sulfide minerals from the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile, were dated by Re-Os geochronology to clarify the timing and duration of mineralization. As these data are collected over the past 10 years, they chronicle the evolution of Re-Os analytical procedures and improvements in spike-sample equilibration, mass spectrometry and data reduction. Included in the data is the first tennantite-pyrite Re-Os isochron along with tennantite-enargite-pyrite Os tracing of ore metals based on initial osmium systematics (187Os/188Osi). Porphyry-associated mineralization follows the traditional early (A), transitional (B), and late (D) stage classification of relative timing of vein formation. Most Cu- and Mo-bearing sulfides were deposited during stages A and B. Field relationships clearly show the B-stage veins are older than the D-stage veins. Samples analyzed with Carius tube digestion and mixed-double spike indicate B-stage molybdenite mineralization between 41.8 and 41.2 Ma. These ages best represent the timing of main-stage mineralization at El Salvador. A five-point 187Re-187Os isochron for pyrite-tennantite from the latest D-stage veins yields an age of 42.37 ± 0.45 Ma. The isochron age, while older, is within error of early analyses of molybdenite by alkaline fusion digestion using single Re and Os spikes (42.4-42.0 Ma). A separate pyrite and tennantite-enargite pair containing significant common Os yields an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.134 ± 0.042, compatible with a predominantly mantle origin. We appreciate the early analyses for their historical significance while emphasize the geological implications of the 41.8-41.2 Ma molybdenite ages. Temperature estimates by sulfur thermometry and fluid inclusions are 390-510 °C for the B-stage molybdenites and 230-240 °C for the latest D-stage pyrite and tennantite. Analyses based on Carius tube digestion and updated spike calibrations suggest a ∼0.6 m.y. duration (∼41.8 to 41.2 Ma) in-line with published

  19. Formation of the giant Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit in northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China: Partial melting of the juvenile lower crust in intra-plate extensional environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen-Zhen; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Guang-Ming; Ishihara, Shunso; Jin, Lu-Ying; Song, Guo-Xue; Meng, Zhao-Jun

    2014-08-01

    The Chalukou porphyry Mo deposit (2.46 Mt @ 0.087% Mo), located in the northern Great Xing'an Range, NE China, is the largest Mo deposit discovered in China so far. The host rocks consist of aplite porphyry, granite porphyry and quartz porphyry, and are intruded into Lower Ordovician intermediate-felsic volcanic-sedimentary rocks and pre-ore monzogranite and are cut by post-ore feldspar porphyry, diorite porphyry and quartz monzonite porphyry. Here, we present the zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotopic and zircon Hf isotopic data for the pre-ore, syn-ore and post-ore intrusive rocks. The Chalukou ore-forming porphyries intruded during 147-148 Ma and have high-silica, alkali-rich, metaluminous to slightly peraluminous compositions and are oxidized. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g. K, Rb, U and Th), light REE and depleted in high-field strength elements (e.g. Nb, P and Ti). Depletions in Eu, Ba, Sr, Nb, Ta, P and Ti suggest that they have experienced strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, hornblende and accessory minerals. The pre-ore monzogranite (~ 172 Ma) also belongs to the high-K calc-alkaline series. Highly fractionated REE patterns ((La/Yb) N = 19.6-21.7), high values of Sr/Y (54-69) and La/Yb (29-32), are adakite-like geochemical features. The post-ore rocks (~ 141-128 Ma) have similar geochemical characteristics with ore-forming porphyries except that quartz monzonite porphyry shows no Ba-Sr negative anomaly. All intrusive rocks have relative low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.705413-0.707889) and εNd (t) values (- 1.28 to + 0.92), positive εHf (t) values (+ 2.4 to + 10.1) and young two-stage Nd and Hf model ages (TDM2 (Nd) = 863-977 Ma, TDM2 (Hf) = 552-976 Ma). These geochemical and isotopic data are interpreted to demonstrate that the ore-forming porphyries formed by partial melting of the juvenile lower crust caused by underplating of mafic magmas in an intra-plate extensional setting. The pre

  20. The Mesozoic Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China and Paleo-Pacific subduction-related magmatism in the northern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaying; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Shu, Qihai; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Mingtian; Xiang, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit is located in the Wulanchabu area of Inner Mongolia, within the northern North China Craton (NCC). It contains more than 2385 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.075% Mo. In the Caosiyao mining district, Mo mineralization occurs mainly in a Mesozoic granite porphyry as disseminations and stockworks, with some Mo distributed in Archean metamorphic rocks and diabase as stockworks and veins. The host granite porphyry is composed of two different phases that can be distinguished based on mineral assemblages and textures: one phase contains large and abundant phenocrysts (coarse-grained), while the other phase is characterized by fewer and smaller phenocrysts (medium-grained). Zircon U-Pb-Hf analyses of the former phase yielded a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.8 ± 2.4 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.9 ± 2.4 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -12.2 to 18.3, while the latter phase gave a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.0 ± 2.2 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.0 ± 2.1 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -13.1 to 17.7. Five samples of disseminated molybdenite have a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 149.5 ± 5.3 Ma with a weighted average age of 149.0 ± 1.8 Ma, whereas six veinlet-type molybdenite samples have a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 146.9 ± 3.1 Ma and a weighted average age of 146.5 ± 0.8 Ma. Thus, it is suggested that the Mo mineralization of the Caosiyao deposit occurred during the Late Jurassic (ca. 147-149 Ma), almost coeval with the emplacement of the host granite porphyry (ca. 149-150 Ma). The host granite porphyry is characterized by high silica (SiO2 = 71.52-74.10 wt%), relatively high levels of oxidation (Fe2O3/FeO = 0.32-0.94 wt%) and high alkali element concentrations (Na2O + K2O = 8.21-8.76 wt%). The host granite porphyry also shows enrichments in U and K, and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, suggesting strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, and

  1. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  2. Geologic and environmental characteristics of porphyry copper deposits with emphasis on potential future development in the Bristol Bay Watershed, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    Pebble; Big Chunk is approximately 30 miles (48 km) north-northwest of Pebble; and Shotgun is approximately 110 miles (177 km) northwest of Pebble. The H and D Block prospects, west of Pebble, represent additional porphyry copper exploration targets in the watershed.

  3. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for copper and molybdenum in porphyry and stockwork deposits and for tungsten, iron, gold, copper, and silver in skarn deposits, Dillion 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Trautwein, C.M.; Moll, S.H.; Berger, B.R.; Hanna, W.F.; Loen, J.S.; Rowan, L.C.; Ruppel, E.T.; Segal, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of several in the series that assess the mineral resources of the Dillon quadrangle. For the purpose of the assessment, mineral deposits· in the quadrangle that are either known or suspected from a knowledge of the geologic setting have been grou~d into 30 deposit types on the basis of mineralogy, commodity, or structural or depositional setting. The emphasis in these assessment reports is on metallic minerals, but some important nonmetallic minerals will also be assessed. Fossil fuels are beyond the scope of this investigation; phosphate and uranium have been investigated previously (Swanson, 1970; Wodzicki andKrason, 1981); and certain nonmetallic. minerals, including bulk commodities such as sand and gravel, are in large supply and thus not considered. The ·mineral resource assessment discussed in this report considers two deposit types: (1) porphyry or stockwork deposits of copper. and molybdenum (referred to generally in this report as porphyry deposits) and (2) skarn deposits of tungsten, iron, gold, copper, and silver. Combining copper and molybenum porphyry deposits into a single deposit type is believed necessary for this purpose· mainly because the two metals are found together in most .deposits in the quadrangle, a geochemical signature unique to each has not been determined, and the significant petrologic characteristics of many associated plutons are not well known, especially characterist~cs of subsurface plutons whose presence is .inferred from geophysical data. In assessing mineral resources,· we have adopted a general philosophy similar to that of Harrison and others (19S6). We attempt to identify those parts of the quadrangle that are favorable for the occurrence of mineral resources. We do not attempt to locate specific exploration targets nor to determine the quantity of reserves or resources present.

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb and Ar-Ar geochronology of major porphyry and skarn Cu deposits in the Balkhash Metallogenic Belt, Central Asia, and geological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuanhua; Seitmuratova, Eleonora; Wang, Zhihong; Chen, Zhengle; Han, Shuqin; Li, Yong; Yang, Yi; Ye, Baoying; Shi, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Balkhash Metallogenic Belt (BMB) in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, with the occurrence of the super-large Kounrad and Aktogai, the large Borly porphyry Cu-Mo deposits, and the large Sayak skarn polymetallic ore-field, is one of the central regions of the Paleozoic Central Asian metallogenic domain and orogenic belt. In this study, newly obtained SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages of nine samples and 40Ar/39Ar ages of six mineral samples (inclding hornblende, biotite and K-feldspar) give more detailed constraints on the timing of the granitic intrusions and their metallogeny. Porphyritic monzonite granite and tonalite porphyry from the Kounrad deposit yield U-Pb zircon SHRIMP ages of 327.3 ± 2.1 Ma and 308.7 ± 2.2 Ma, respectively. Quartz diorite and porphyritic granodiorite from the Aktogai deposit yield U-Pb SHRIMP ages of 335.7 ± 1.3 Ma and 327.5 ± 1.9 Ma, respectively. Porphyritic granodiorite and granodiorite from the Borly deposit yield U-Pb SHRIMP ages of 316.3 ± 0.8 Ma and 305 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Diorite, granodiorite, and monzonite from the Sayak ore-field yield U-Pb SHRIMP ages of 335 ± 2 Ma, 308 ± 10 Ma, and 297 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Hornblende, biotite, and K-feldspar from the Aktogai deposit yield 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of 310.6 Ma, 271.5 Ma, and 274.9 Ma, respectively. Hornblende, biotite, and K-feldspar from the Sayak ore-field yield 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of 287.3 ± 2.8 Ma, 307.9 ± 1.8 Ma, and 249.8 ± 1.6 Ma, respectively. The new ages constrain the timing of Late Paleozoic felsic magmatism to ˜336 to ˜297 Ma. Skarn mineralization in the Sayak ore-field formed at ˜335 and ˜308 Ma. Porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization in the Kounrad deposit and the Aktogai deposit formed at ˜327 Ma, and in the Borly deposit at ˜316 Ma. The Late Paleozoic regional cooling in the temperature range of ˜600 °C to ˜150 °C occurred from ˜307 to ˜257 Ma.

  5. Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East Azarbaidjan, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calagari, Ali Asghar

    2003-05-01

    The porphyry copper deposit (PCD) at Sungun is located in East Azarbaidjan, NW of Iran. The magmatic suites in the Sungun area are a part of the NW-SE trending Cenozoic magmatic belt of Iran. The Sungun porphyries occur as stocks and dikes. The stocks are divided into two groups, I and II. Porphyry Stock II, ranging in composition from quartz monzonite through granodiorite to granite, hosts the Sungun PCD. Four distinct types of hypogene alterations were recognized at Sungun: (1) potassic; (2) potassic-phyllic; (3) phyllic; and (4) propylitic. Stable isotope (S, O, H, and C) studies were restricted to within the phyllic and potassic-phyllic alteration zones, where numerous cross-cutting quartz, sulfides, carbonates, and sulfate veinlets are present. The objective of these studies was to determine the origin of the ore-forming solutions, and their important components (e.g. sulfur and carbon). Twenty sulfide and four sulfate samples were taken from sulfide and gypsum veinlets within Porphyry Stock II and the associated skarn zone for sulfur isotopic analyses. The δ34S values of sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, galena, sphalerite) and sulfate (gypsum) range from -4.6 to -0.2‰ (mean of -1.5‰) and from 10.9 to 14.4‰ (mean of 12.9‰), respectively. These values are almost analogous to those from El Salvador (Chile) and Ajo (Arizona), and Twin Buttes (Arizona), and strongly suggest a magmatic source for the sulfur at Sungun. Twenty-eight fluid inclusion-rich quartz samples from quartz veinlets beneath the supergene zones of the Porphyry Stock II were chosen for O and H isotopic analyses. The δ18O (of quartz) and δD (of fluid inclusions in quartz) values range from 8.3 to 10.2‰ (mean of 9.2‰) and -58 to -75‰ (mean of -66‰) relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW), respectively. The calculated δ18O values of the fluids range from 4.4‰ (T=375 ° C) to 7.6‰ (T=570 ° C) with a mean of 6.4‰. The δ18O and δD values of the fluids lie

  6. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  7. Evaporatic-source model for igneous-related Fe oxide (REE-Cu-Au-U) mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    We propose that many igneous-related Fe oxide-rich (REE-Cu-Au-U-bearing) deposits form by hydrothermal processes involving evaporitic ligand sources, either coeval salars or older evaporites. These deposits are abundant in both Phanerozoic and Proterozoic extensional continental and continent-margin settings. They commonly form in global arid zones, but they also occur where magmatism is superimposed upon older evaporites. Magmatic compositions exert only second-order control, mainly on alteration mineralogy and on element abundances. Hot S-poor brines generated by interaction with evaporitic materials are consistent with geologic settings and help rationalize the distinctive element enrichments (siderophile, lithophile) and hydrothermal alteration (sodic, locally alkaline) found in these systems. This model contrasts with immiscible oxide melt and magmatic-hydrothermal origins commonly proposed for these deposits, although all three mechanisms can occur. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cyclic development of igneous features and their relationship to high-temperature hydrothermal features in the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carten, R.B.; Geraghty, E.P.; Walker, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit was formed by the superposition of coupled alteration and mineralization events, of varying intensity and size, that were associated with each of at least 11 intrusions. Deposition of molybdenite was accompanied by time-equivalent silicic and potassic alteration. High-temperature alteration and mineralization are spatially and temporally linked to the crystallization of compositionally zoned magma in the apex of stocks. Differences in hydrothermal features associated with each intrusion (e.g., mass of ore, orientation and type of veins, density of veins, and intensity of alteration) correlate with differences in primary igneous features (e.g., composition, texture, morphology, and size). The systematic relations between hydrothermal and magmatic features suggest that primary magma compositions, including volatile contents, largely control the geometry, volume, level of emplacement, and mechanisms of crystallization of stocks. These elements in turn govern the orientations and densities of fractures, which ultimately determine the distribution patterns of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. -from Authors

  9. The genesis of the Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit, Inner Mongolia, NE China: constraints from mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and multiple isotope (H, O, S, Mo, Pb) studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Degao; Liu, Jiajun; Tombros, Stylianos; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2017-06-01

    The Hashitu porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Great Hinggan Range Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag polymetallic metallogenic province of NE China, in which the Mo-bearing quartz veins are hosted in approximately coeval granites and porphyries. The deposit contains more than 100 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.13 wt.% Mo. This well-preserved magmatic-hydrothermal system provides an excellent opportunity to determine the source of the molybdenum, the evolution of the hydrothermal fluids and the controls on molybdenite precipitation in a potentially important but poorly understood metallogenic province. Studies of fluid inclusions hosted in quartz veins demonstrate that the Hashitu hydrothermal system evolved to progressively lower pressure and temperature. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion analyses and physicochemical calculations suggest that molybdenite deposition occurred at a temperature of 285 to 325 °C, a pressure from 80 to 230 bars, a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, and a ∆log fO2 (HM) of -3.0, respectively. Results of multiple isotope (O, H, S, Mo, and Pb) analyses are consistent in indicating a genetic relationship between the ore-forming fluids, metals, and the Mesozoic granitic magmatism (i.e., δ 18OH2O from +1.9 to +9.7‰, δDH2O from -106 to -87‰, δ 34SH2S from +0.3 to +3.9‰, δ 98/95Mo from 0 to +0.37‰, 206Pb/204Pb from 18.2579 to 18.8958, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.5384 to 15.5783, and 208Pb/204Pb from 38.0984 to 42.9744). Molybdenite deposition is interpreted to have occurred from a low-density magmatic-hydrothermal fluid in response to decreases in temperature, pressure, and fO2.

  10. The physical and chemical evolution of low-salinity magmatic fluids at the porphyry to epithermal transition: a thermodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2005-03-01

    Fluid-phase relationships and thermodynamic reaction modelling based on published mineral solubility data are used to re-assess the Cu Au-mineralising fluid processes related to calc-alkaline magmatism. Fluid inclusion microanalyses of porphyry ore samples have shown that vapour-like fluids of low to intermediate salinity and density (~2 10 wt% NaCl eq.; ~0.1 0.3 g cm-3) can carry percentage-level concentrations of copper and several ppm gold at high temperature and pressure. In epithermal deposits, aqueous fluids of similar low to intermediate salinity but liquid-like density are ubiquitous and commonly show a magmatic isotope signature. This paper explores the physical evolution of low-salinity to medium-salinity magmatic fluids of variable density, en route from their magmatic source through the porphyry regime to the near-surface epithermal environment, and investigates the chemical conditions required for effective transport of gold and other components from the magmatic to the epithermal domain. Multicomponent reaction modelling guided by observations of alteration zonation and vein overprinting relationships predicts that epithermal gold deposits are formed most efficiently by a specific succession of processes during the evolution of a gradually cooling magmatic hydrothermal system. (1) The low-salinity to medium-salinity fluid, after separating from the magma and possibly condensing out some hypersaline liquid in the high-temperature porphyry environment, must physically separate from the denser and more viscous liquid, and then cool within the single-phase fluid stability field. By cooling under adequate confining pressure, such a vapour will evolve above the critical curve and contract, without any heterogeneous phase change, to an aqueous liquid of the same salinity. (2) High concentrations of gold, transported as stable Au bisulphide complexes supporting >1 ppm Au even at 200°C, can be maintained throughout cooling, provided that the fluid initially

  11. Hydrothermal modification of host rock geochemistry within Mo-Cu porphyry deposits in the Galway Granite, western Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolometti, Gavin; McCarthy, Will

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of host rock is a process inherent to the formation of porphyry deposits and the required geochemical modification of these rocks is regularly used to indicate proximity to an economic target. The study involves examining the changes in major, minor and trace elements to understand how the quartz vein structures have influenced the chemistry within the Murvey Granite that forms part of the 380-425Ma Galway Granite Complex in western Ireland. Molybdenite mineralisation within the Galway Granite Complex occurred in close association with protracted magmatism at 423Ma, 410Ma, 407Ma, 397Ma and 383Ma and this continues to be of interest to active exploration. The aim of the project is to characterize hydrothermal alteration associated with Mo-Cu mineralisation and identify geochemical indicators that can guide future exploration work. The Murvey Granite intrudes metagabbros and gneiss that form part of the Connemara Metamorphic complex. The intrusion is composed of albite-rich pink granite, garnetiferous granite and phenocrytic orthoclase granite. Minor doleritic dykes post-date the Murvey Granite, found commonly along its margins. Field mapping shows that the granite is truncated to the east by a regional NW-SE fault and that several small subparallel structures host Mo-Cu bearing quartz veins. Petrographic observations show heavily sericitized feldspars and plagioclase and biotite which have undergone kaolinization and chloritisation. Chalcopyrite minerals are fine grained, heavily fractured found crystallized along the margins of the feldspars and 2mm pyrite crystals. Molybdenite are also seen along the margins of the feldspars, crystallized whilst the Murvey Granite cooled. Field and petrographic observations indicate that mineralisation is structurally controlled by NW-SE faults from the selected mineralization zones and conjugate NE-SW cross cutting the Murvey Granite. Both fault orientations exhibit quartz and disseminated molybdenite

  12. Geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints on the origin of the Qian’echong porphyry Mo deposit, Dabie orogen, east China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Mao, Jingwen; Ye, Huishou; Li, Faling; Li, Yongfeng; Luo, Zhengzhuan; Xiong, Bikang; Meng, Fang

    2014-05-01

    The giant Qian’echong porphyry molybdenum deposit is located in the Dabie orogen, east China. The molybdenum mineralization mainly occurs as molybdenite-bearing quartz veins hosted by the Devonian Nanwan Formation in the external contact zone of the Qian’echong stock. The Qian’echong stock comprises an earlier formed monzogranite and a later formed granite porphyry. Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb dating constrains the timing of crystallization of the monzogranite and granite porphyry to 130 ± 2 and 129 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The Re-Os model ages of six molybdenite samples range from 127.9 ± 1.9 to 129.7 ± 1.9 Ma with an isochron age of 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma, which are all consistent within errors with the zircon U-Pb ages, indicating an Early Cretaceous magmatic and mineralization event. The Qian’echong granites have moderate negative Eu anomalies and are relatively enriched in light rare earth elements (REE), but depleted in heavy REE, Y, and high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti). The Qian’echong granites are I-type rather than A- or S-type, and they have high (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.706771-0.710326) and low ɛNd(t) (-25.5 to -16.8). Two-stage Nd model ages (T2DM) vary between 2.29 and 2.99 Ga. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data suggest that the Qian’echong granites were not derived from the North China Craton (NCC), but rather were generated from the Yangtze Craton (YC) lower crust. Paleoproterozoic inherited zircon age and whole-rock chemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data suggest that the Qian’echong granites were derived mainly from partial melting of ultrahigh pressure eclogites, with incorporation of some Paleoproterozoic to Archean YC crustal materials at lower crustal levels. Delamination or foundering of eclogitic lower crust, which extensively occurred in the Dabie orogen during the Early Cretaceous, had not taken place beneath the Qian’echong deposit when it formed. The Qian’echong molybdenum deposit formed in

  13. Hysteresis of long-range ordering in CuAu

    SciTech Connect

    Chalupa, B.; Chmelik, F.; Sima, V.; Sprusil, B.; Spanl, M.; Lang, H.; Pfeiler, W.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of heating and cooling on the long-range order transformation in stoichiometric CuAu is investigated by several complementary measuring methods. Measurements of heat flow, resistometry and acoustic emission are done dynamically by linear heating/cooling. It is shown that measuring dynamically yields the expected effect of undercooling, which decreases with decreasing cooling rate. The dependence of undercooling on cooling rate is compared with the concept of continuous cooling for glass forming. A small influence of heating rate on disordering temperature is reported (retro-effect).

  14. Results from Cu+Au collisions at 200 GeV in PHENIX Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, Ya. A.; Kotov, D. O.; Safonov, A. S.; Ivanishchev, D. A.; Riabov, V. G.; Riabov, Yu. G.; Samsonov, V. M.

    2016-01-22

    Collisions of asymmetric nuclei (Cu+Au) differ essentially from the case of symmetric nuclei (Cu+Cu, Au+Au) collisions in the geometry of overlap region. This leads to a number of consequences, which provide more absolute and accurate information about fundamental properties of matter under extreme conditions. Nuclear modification factors for π-mesons in Cu+Au interactions at 200 GeV were measured in PHENIX Experiment at RHIC. New experimental data on measurement of flows of different order (v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}) for light hadrons in Cu+Au interactions at 200 GeV will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  16. Charge-dependent anisotropic flow in Cu + Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niida, Takafumi

    2016-12-01

    We present the first measurements of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. The directed flow has been measured as functions of the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity with the STAR detector. The results show a small but finite difference between positively and negatively charged particles. The difference is qualitatively explained by the patron-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) model including the effect of the electric field, but much smaller than the model calculation, which indicates only a small fraction of all final state quarks are created within the lifetime of the initial electric field. Higher-order azimuthal anisotropic flow is also presented up to the fourth-order for unidentified charged particles and up to the third-order for identified charged particles (π, K, and p). For unidentified particles, the results are reasonably described by the event-by-event viscous hydrodynamic model with η / s = 0.08 - 0.16. The trends observed for identified particles in Cu+Au collisions are similar to those observed in symmetric (Au+Au) collisions.

  17. Geochronology and fluid inclusion study of the Yinjiagou porphyry-skarn Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit in the East Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guang; Chen, Yuchuan; Li, Zongyan; Liu, Jun; Yang, Xinsheng; Qiao, Cuijie

    2014-01-01

    The Yinjiagou Mo-Cu-pyrite deposit of Henan Province is located in the Huaxiong block on the southern margin of the North China craton. It differs from other Mo deposits in the East Qingling area because of its large pyrite resource and complex associated elements. The deposit's mineralization process can be divided into skarn, sulfide, and supergene episodes with five stages, marking formation of magnetite in the skarn episode, quartz-molybdenite, quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite, and calcite-galena-sphalerite in the sulfide episode, and chalcedony-limonite in the supergene episode. Re-Os and 40Ar-39Ar dating indicates that both the skarn-type and porphyry-type orebodies of the Yinjiagou deposit formed approximately 143 Ma ago during the Early Cretaceous. Four types of fluid inclusions (FIs) have been distinguished in quartz phenocryst, various quartz veins, and calcite vein. Based on petrographic observations and microthermometric criteria the FIs include liquid-rich, gas-rich, H2O-CO2, and daughter mineral-bearing inclusions. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz phenocrysts of K-feldspar granite porphyry ranges from 341 °C to >550 °C, and the salinity is 0.4-44.0 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite veins is 382-416 °C, and the salinity is 3.6-40.8 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-calcite-pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite-sphalerite ranges from 318 °C to 436 °C, and the salinity is 5.6-42.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-molybdenite stockworks is in a range of 321-411 °C, and the salinity is 6.3-16.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The homogenization temperature of FIs in quartz-sericite-pyrite is in a range of 326-419 °C, and the salinity is 4.7-49.4 wt% NaCl eqv. The ore-forming fluids of the Yinjiagou deposit are mainly high-temperature, high-salinity fluids, generally with affinities to an H2O-NaCl-KCl ± CO2 system. The δ18OH2O values of ore

  18. Magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Cretaceous Duolong gold-rich porphyry copper deposit in the Bangongco metallogenic belt, Tibet: Evidence from U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxiang; Qin, Kezhang; Li, Guangming; Xiao, Bo; Zhao, Junxing; Chen, Lei

    2011-06-01

    The Duolong gold-rich porphyry copper deposit was recently discovered and represents a giant prospect (inferred resources of 4-5 Mt fine-Cu with a grade of 0.72% Cu; 30-50 t fine-gold with a grade of 0.23 g/t Au) in the Bangongco metallogenic belt, Tibet. Zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology shows that the multiple porphyritic intrusions were emplaced during two episodes, the first at about 121 Ma (Bolong mineralized granodiorite porphyry (BMGP) and barren granodiorite porphyry (BGP)) and the second about 116 Ma (Duobuza mineralized granodiorite porphyry (DMGP)). Moreover, the basaltic andesites also have two episodes at about 118 Ma and 106 Ma, respectively. One andesite yields an U-Pb zircon age of 111.9 ± 1.9 Ma, indicating it formed after the multiple granodiorite porphyries. By contrast, the 40Ar/ 39Ar age of 115.2 ± 1.1 Ma (hydrothermal K-feldspar vein hosted in DMGP) reveals the close temporal relationship of ore-bearing potassic alteration to the emplacement of the DMGP. The sericite from quartz-sericite vein (hosted in DMGP) yields a 40Ar/ 39Ar age of 115.2 ± 1.2 Ma. Therefore, the ore-forming magmatic-hydrothermal evolution probably persisted for 6 m.y. Additionally, the zircon U-Pb ages (106-121 Ma) of the volcanic rocks and the porphyries suggest that the Neo-Tethys Ocean was still subducting northward during the Early Cretaceous.

  19. Application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP to mineral prospectivity mapping of porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa; Du, Xishihui

    2017-04-01

    Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks promising target areas for further exploration. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) are knowledge-driven MPM approaches. In this study, both approaches were used for data processing, based on which MPM was performed for porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang. The results of the two methods were then compared. The two methods combined expert experience and the Studentized contrast (S(C)) values of the weights-of-evidence approach to calculate the weights of 15 layers, and these layers were then integrated by the gamma operator (γ). Through prediction-area (P-A) plot analysis, the optimal γ for fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP was determined as 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The thresholds corresponding to different levels of metallogenic probability were defined via concentration-area (C-A) fractal analysis. The prediction performances of the two methods were compared on this basis. The results showed that in MPM based on fuzzy logic, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.806 and 81.48% of the known deposits were predicted, whereas in MPM based on fuzzy AHP, the area under the ROC curve was 0.862 and 92.59% of the known deposits were predicted. Therefore, prediction based on fuzzy AHP is more accurate and can provide directions for future prospecting.

  20. Multimillion year thermal history of a porphyry copper deposit: application of U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He chronometers, Bajo de la Alumbrera copper-gold deposit, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Anthony C.; Dunlap, W. James; Reiners, Peter W.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Cooke, David R.; White, Noel C.; Campbell, Ian H.; Golding, Suzanne D.

    2008-03-01

    Application of multiple chronometers (including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology) to porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper-gold deposit, Argentina, reveals a complex history of reheating that spans millions of years. Previous U-Pb geochronology, combined with our new 40Ar/39Ar data, shows that the multiple porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera were emplaced during two episodes, the first at about 8.0 Ma (P2 and associated porphyries) and the second about a million years later (Early and Late P3 porphyries). Complex overprinting alteration events have obscured the earliest hydrothermal history of the deposit. By contrast, 40Ar/39Ar data reveal the close temporal relationship of ore-bearing potassic alteration assemblages (7.12 ± 0.13 Ma; biotite) to the emplacement of the P3 intrusions. Consistent with low closure temperatures, younger ages have been determined for associated hydrothermal alkali feldspar (6.82 ± 0.05 Ma and 6.64 ± 0.09 Ma). The temperature-sensitive Ar data also record an unexpected prolonged cooling history (to below 200°C) extending to 5.9 Ma. Our data suggest that the Bajo de la Alumbrera system underwent protracted cooling, after the collapse of the main hydrothermal system, or that one or more low-temperature (~100-200°C) reheating events occurred after emplacement of the porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These have been constrained in part by our new 40Ar/39Ar data (including multidomain diffusion modeling) and (U-Th)/He ages. Single-grain (U-Th)/He ages ( n = 5) for phenocrystic zircon from P2 and P3 intrusive phases bracket these thermal events to between 6.9 (youngest crystallization of intrusion) and 5.1 Ma. Multidomain modeling of alkali feldspar data (from both igneous and hydrothermal crystals) is consistent with the deposit cooling rapidly from magmatic temperatures to below about 300°C, with a more protracted history down to 150

  1. Geochemical characteristics of the Shujiadian Cu deposit related intrusion in Tongling: Petrogenesis and implications for the formation of porphyry Cu systems in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Cooke, David R.; Zhang, Lejun; Fu, Bin; White, Noel C.

    2016-05-01

    Porphyry Cu deposits can form in intracontinental or post-collision settings; however, both the genesis of fertile magmas and the mechanism of metal enrichment remain controversial. The Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit is located in the Tongling area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt. It is hosted by the Shujiadian complex, which mainly consists of quartz diorite porphyry (143.7 ± 1.7 Ma) and pyroxene diorite (139.8 ± 1.6 Ma). They both belong to the calc-alkaline series, with enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), depletion in high field-strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), and slightly negative Eu anomalies. Both quartz diorite porphyry and pyroxene diorite have geochemical affinities with adakite, and their low MgO (1.5-3.7 wt%), and Ni (3.7-6.9 ppm), Cr (2.0-44 ppm), and Th/Ce contents (0.06-0.11) indicate that the intrusive rocks have some characteristics of adakite-like rocks derived from thickened lower crust and melts from metabasaltic rocks and eclogites. Plagioclases from the quartz diorite porphyry are andesine (An value = 31.8-40.5) and from the pyroxene diorite are felsic albite and oligoclase with large-scale zones and variable An value (An value = 8.9-18.3), Fe and Sr contents, which indicate that mixing of mafic and felsic magma may have occurred in the shallow magma chamber. Compared to the barren quartz diorite porphyry, relatively lower SiO2 contents (49.5-55.2 wt.%), higher εNd(t) values (- 7.4 to - 6.9), εHf(t) values (- 11.0 to - 9.1) compositions, Ti-in-zircon temperatures (714-785 °C), and variations of HREE contents of the mineralization-related pyroxene diorite suggest mixing with high-temperature mafic magma. Calculated Ce4 +/Ce3 + values of pyroxene diorite plot between the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO) and magnetite-hematite buffer (MH), and barren quartz diorite porphyry samples plot below the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). Geochemical features of

  2. Porphyry copper enrichment linked to excess aluminium in plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, B. J.; Herrington, R. J.; Morris, A.

    2016-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits provide around 75%, 50% and 20% of world copper, molybdenum and gold, respectively. The deposits are mainly centred on calc-alkaline porphyry magmatic systems in subduction zone settings. Although calc-alkaline magmas are relatively common, large porphyry copper deposits are extremely rare and increasingly difficult to discover. Here, we compile existing geochemical data for magmatic plagioclase, a dominant mineral in calc-alkaline rocks, from fertile (porphyry-associated) and barren magmatic systems worldwide, barren examples having no associated porphyry deposit. We show that plagioclase from fertile systems is distinct in containing `excess’ aluminium. This signature is clearly demonstrated in a case study carried out on plagioclase from the fertile La Paloma and Los Sulfatos copper porphyry systems in Chile. Further, the presence of concentric zones of high excess aluminium suggests its incorporation as a result of magmatic processes. As excess aluminium has been linked to high melt water contents, the concentric zones may record injections of hydrous fluid or fluid-rich melts into the sub-porphyry magma chamber. We propose that excess aluminium may exclude copper from plagioclase, so enriching the remaining melts. Furthermore, this chemical signature can be used as an exploration indicator for copper porphyry deposits.

  3. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten and for stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver in the Butte 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Moll, S.H.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Lidke, D.J.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.; Trautwein, C.M.; Dwyer, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the assessment for potential occurrences of undiscovered porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten (porphyry Cu-Mo-W) and stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver (disseminated Au-Ag) in the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, in west-central Montana, is one of the best known mineral producing regions in the U.S. Mining districts in the quadrangle, including the world famous Butte or Summit Valley district, have produced a variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities valued at more than $6.4 billion (at the time of production). Because of its importance as a mineral producing region, the Butte quadrangle was selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Under this program, new data on geology, geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, mineral resources, and remote sensing were collected and synthesized. The field and laboratory studies were supported, in part, by funding from the Geologic Framework and Synthesis Program and the Wilderness Program. The methods used in this resource assessment for porphyry Cu-Mo-W and disseminated Au-Ag deposits in the quadrangle include a compilation of all data, the development of descriptive occurrence models, and the analysis of data using techniques provided by a Geographic Information System (GIS). This map is one of several maps on the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other deposit types have been assessed for the Butte quadrangle, and maps (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Miscellaneous Investigation Series Maps) for each of the following have been prepared: Vein and replacement deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, and tungsten (Elliott, Wallace, and others, 1992a) and skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron (Elliott and others, 1992b ). Other publications resulting from this study include linear features map (Rowan and others, 1991

  4. High REE and Y concentrations in Co-Cu-Au ores of the Blackbird district, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of 11 samples of strata-bound Co-Cu-Au ore from the Blackbird district in Idaho shows previously unknown high concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and Y, averaging 0.53 wt percent ???REE + Y oxides. Scanning electron microscopy indicates REE and Y residence in monazite, xenotime, and allanite that form complex intergrowths with cobaltite, suggesting coeval Co and REE + Y mineralization during the Mesoproterozoic. Occurrence of high REE and Y concentrations in the Blackbird ores, together with previously documented saline-rich fluid inclusions and Cl-rich biotite, suggest that these are not volcanogenic massive sulfide or sedimentary exhalative deposits but instead are iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Other strata-bound Co deposits of Proterozoic age in the North American Cordillera and elsewhere in the world may have potential for REE and Y resources. IOCG deposits with abundant light REE should also be evaluated for possible unrecognized heavy REE and Y mineralization. ?? 2006 by Economic Geology.

  5. Genesis and evolution of the Leimengou porphyry Mo deposit in West Henan Province, East Qinling-Dabie belt, China: Constraints from hydrothermal alteration, fluid inclusions and stable isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaodan; Ye, Huishou; Wang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    The Leimengou Mo deposit is located in the East Qinling-Dabie metallogenic Mo belt, located at the southern margin of the North China Craton. The deposit is hosted within the Mesozoic Leimengou granite porphyry pluton and at the contact between the granite and Late Archean gneisses. In light of mineral assemblage and crosscutting relationships among veinlets, the mineralization and alteration can be classified in four distinct stages: (1) a Mo-barren pre-mineralization stage of alteration characterized by massive K-feldspar alteration of the granite porphyry; (2) a K-feldspar-quartz vein stage that formed veinlets with minor molybdenite; (3) a quartz-sulfide veinlet stage, which is the main stage of mineralization; and (4) post-mineralization quartz-calcite vein stage.

  6. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The role of hydrothermal systems in the thermal evolution of magma chambers is poorly constrained yet likely significant. We analyze trends in mineral composition, vein thickness and overall volumetric fluid flux of the Butte, Montana porphyry Cu-Mo deposit to constrain the role of episodic volatile discharge in the crystallization of the source magma chamber ( 300 km3of silicic magma). An aqueous fluid sourced from injection of porphyritic dikes formed the Butte porphyry Cu network of veins. At least three separate pulses of fluid through the system are defined by alteration envelopes of [1] gray sericite (GS); [2] early-dark micaceous (EDM), pale-green sericite (PGS), and dark-green sericite (DGS); and [3] quartz-molybdenite (Qmb) and barren-quartz. Previous research using geothermometers and geobarometers has found that vein mineral composition, inferred temperatures and inferred pressures vary systematically with depth. Later fluid pulses are characterized by lower temperatures, consistent with progressive cooling of the source. We have digitized previously unused structural data from Butte area drill cores, and applied thermomechanical modeling of fluid release from the source magma chamber through time. Vein number density and vein thickness increase with depth as a clear function of mineralogy and thus primary temperature and pressure. We identify structural trends in the three fluid pulses which seem to imply time evolution of average vein characteristics. Pulses of Qmb-barren quartz and EDM-PGS-DGS (1st and 2nd in time) exhibit increasing vein number density (157 & 95 veins/50m, respectively) and thickness (300mm & 120mm, respectively) as a function of depth. EDM-PGS-DGS has a shallower peak in vein density (800m) than Qmb-barren quartz (>1600m). These data provide the basis for idealized mechanical models of hydrofractures, to predict driving pressures and to compare with existing source temperatures and total fluid volumes in order to estimate the total

  7. Early Carboniferous adakitic rocks in the area of the Tuwu deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China: Slab melting and implications for porphyry copper mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Ze-Nan; Zhao, Yun-Jiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Existing geochronological and geochemical data for the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, have been interpreted in a variety of theories regarding petrogenesis and geodynamic setting. The proposed settings include rift, back-arc basin, passive continental margin, island arc, ridge subduction, and post-collisional environment. To evaluate these possibilities, we present new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data, whole-rock geochemical, Hf isotope, and S isotope data for tonalitic rocks and ores associated with the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit located in the center of the late Paleozoic Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, eastern Tianshan. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the magmatic activity and thus associated copper mineralization occurred ca.332 Ma. The tonalitic rocks are calc-alkaline granites with A/CNK values ranging from 1.16 to 1.58; are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, and Ba; and are markedly depleted in Nb, Ta, Ti, and Th. They show geochemical affinities similar to adakites, with high Sr, Al2O3, and Na2O contents and La/Yb ratios; low Y and Yb contents; and slight positive Eu anomalies. In situ Hf isotopic analyses of zircons yielded positive initial εHf(t) values ranging from 6.9 to 17.2. The δ34S values of the ore sulfides range from -3.0‰ to +1.7‰, reflecting a deep sulfur source. Our results indicate that the paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab was being simultaneously subducted northward beneath the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, and southward beneath the Aqishan-Yamansu arc during the Early Carboniferous. The Tuwu adakitic tonalitic rocks were derived from the partial melting of the subducted paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab, which was subsequently hybridized by mantle wedge peridotites. The slab-derived magmas have considerably high copper contents and are highly oxidized, thus leading to porphyry copper mineralization. Such Early Carboniferous tonalitic rocks that are widespread in the eastern Tianshan define a province

  8. Solid-state ionics method fabricated centimeter level CuAu alloy nanowires: Application in SERS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dapeng; Dong, Jing; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Song; Peng, Yuli; Chen, Jian

    2017-04-08

    CuAu alloy nanowires were prepared by a solid-state ionics method under a direct current electric field (DCEF) using fast ionic conductor Rb4Cu16Cl13I7 films. The surface morphology, chemical composition and crystal structures of the CuAu alloy nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Raman enhancement performance of the CuAu alloy nanowires substrates was detected by Rhodamine 6G (R6G) aqueous solutions as probe molecules. Long-range disorder and short-range order CuAu alloy nanowires with the length of 1 cm were prepared by a solid-state ionics method. The nanowires were bamboo-shaped and the diameters of nanowires ranged from 40 to 100nm. The molar ratio of Cu to Au is 16:1. The crystal structure of the CuAu alloy nanowires is crystallized. A part of Cu and Au formed Au3Cu alloy structure. The limiting concentrations of R6G for the prepared CuAu alloy nanowires SERS substrates is 10(-15)mol/L.

  9. Origin of the ore-forming fluids and metals of the Bangpu porphyry Mo-Cu deposit of Tibet, China: Constraints from He-Ar, H-O, S and Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liqiang; Tang, Juxing; Cheng, Wenbin; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhi; Lin, Xin; Luo, Maocheng; Yang, Chao

    2015-05-01

    The Bangpu porphyry Mo-Cu deposit is a representative Mo-dominated deposit besides the Sharang porphyry Mo deposit in the Gangdese metallogenic belt. The Mo-Cu mineralization has a close relationship with the monzogranite porphyry and diorite porphyrite. We identify three stages during the ore formation: a pre-ore stage, a main-ore stage with Mo-Cu deposited dominantly, and a post-ore stage. In this study, He-Ar, H-O, S and Pb isotopic compositions of the Bangpu deposit were determined. Based on these determinations, integrated isotope geochemistry studies were performed to constrain the possible sources of the ore-forming fluids and metals. The 3He/4He and 40Ar/36Ar ratios of fluid inclusions exhibit a range of 0.12209-0.36370 Ra and 275.6-346.1, respectively. The 4He and 40Ar concentrations vary from 1.51 to 3.57 (10-7 cm3 STP g-1) and 0.49 to 9.31 (10-7 cm3 STP g-1), respectively. He-Ar isotopic compositions suggest dominantly crustal-derived fluid with minor amount of meteoric water in the main ore stage. The δ18Ofluid and δDfluid values vary from -1.3‰ to 3.9‰ and -140.5‰ to -73.7‰, respectively, indicating that magma fluids mixed with meteoric water. The average δ34S value of the sulfides (0.3‰) in the main-ore stage is close to the ore-forming porphyries, indicating a magmatic source. The lead isotopic components of ore sulfides exhibit restricted ranges with 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of 18.450-18.728, 15.602-5.672, and 38.715-39.211, respectively and μ values in the range of and 9.46-9.58, indicating ore-forming metals of primarily an upper crust source with a small amount of mantle materials. Compared to the Bangpu deposit, the ore metals derived from mantle are even greater in the Jiama and Qulong deposits, which leads to Cu being the dominant mineralization in the Jiama and Qulong deposit.

  10. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    PubMed

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  11. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  12. Competitive diffusion of gold and copper atoms in Cu/Au/Si and Au/Cu/Si annealed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benazzouz, C.; Benouattas, N.; Bouabellou, A.

    2005-04-01

    Thermal evaporation is used to deposit Au/Cu and Cu/Au bilayers on (1 1 1) monocrystalline silicon substrates. The layers composition and surface morphology are performed as function of annealing temperature at 200 and 400 °C using X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Independently to the sequence of copper and gold deposition, Cu3Si and Cu4Si copper silicides result to the reaction and interdiffusion at the different interfaces. The 1000 and 1200 Å thickness of gold and copper diffusion barriers are insufficient to prevent the diffusion of copper and gold atoms respectively, after an annealing of only 200 °C. The fitting of concentration profiles of RBS spectra by using the RUMP software revealed a growth of silicides layers not uniform laterally and in depth.

  13. Environmental behavior of two molybdenum porphyry systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Wanty, R.B.; Berger, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    Our study focuses on the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of a variety of molybdenum (Mo) porphyry systems. The systems are either high fluorine, granite, Climax-type, systems (e.g. Mount Emmons/ Redwell Mo deposit, Colorado and Questa Mo deposit, New Mexico) or low fluorine granodiorite systems (e.g. Buckingham Stockwork Mo deposit, Battle Mountain, Nevada and Cannivan Gulch Mo deposit, Montana). The water quality of streams, natural springs, mine discharge, and ground water from drill holes were assessed in the region of these deposits. The ultimate goal of our study is to understand the environmental behavior of these Mo porphyry systems in the context of geologic setting, hydrologic regime, and climate.

  14. LA-ICP-MS mineral chemistry of titanite and the geological implications for exploration of porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Leiluo; Bi, Xianwu; Hu, Ruizhong; Tang, Yongyong; Wang, Xinsong; Xu, Yue

    2015-04-01

    The Jinshajiang-Red River alkaline igneous belt in the eastern Indian-Asian collision zone, of southwestern China, hosts abundant, economically important Cu-Mo-Au mineralization of Cenozoic age. Major- and trace-element compositions of titanites from representative Cu-mineralized intrusions determined by LA-ICP-MS show higher values for Fe2O3/Al2O3, ΣREE + Y, LREE/HREE, Ce/Ce*, (Ce/Ce*)/(Eu/Eu*), U, Th, Ta, Nb and Ga, and lower values for Al2O3, CaO, Eu/Eu*, Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta and Sr than those for titanites from barren intrusions. Different ΣREE + Y, LREE/HREE, U, Th, Ta and Nb values of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were controlled mainly by the coexisting melt compositions. However, different Sr concentrations and negative Eu anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most probably caused by different degrees of crystallization of feldspar from melts. In addition, different Ga concentrations and positive Ce anomalies of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions were most likely caused by different magmatic fO2 conditions. Pronounced compositional differences of titanites between Cu-mineralized and barren intrusions can provide a useful tool to help discriminate between ore-bearing and barren intrusions at an early stage of exploration, and, thus, have a potential application in exploration for porphyry Cu deposits in the Jinshajiang - Red River alkaline igneous belt, and to other areas.

  15. Fabrication and surface enhanced Raman scattering effect of centimeter level AgCuAu composite nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dapeng; Zhang, Song; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2017-10-01

    Centimeter level AgCuAu composite nanowires were prepared by a solid-state ionics method under a direct current electric field (DCEF) using fast ionic conductor RbAg4I5 films and vacuum thermal evaporation method. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the AuAgCu composite nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), respectively. Raman enhancement performance of the AgCuAu composite nanowires substrates was detected by Rhodamine 6G (R6G) aqueous solutions as probe molecules. Long-range order and short-range order AgCuAu composite nanowires with the length of 1 cm were prepared. The nanowires were bamboo-shaped with high surface roughness and the diameters of nanowires ranged from 60 to 100 nm. The molar ratio of Ag:Cu:Au in composite nanowires is 15:2:1. The intrinsic Raman peaks of 10-16 mol/L R6G at 612, 773, 1125, 1182, 1307, 1361, 1418, 1506, 1545, 1575, 1597, 1650 cm-1 are all present when AgCuAu composite nanowires were used as the SERS substrates.

  16. Cu-Au Alloys Using Monte Carlo Simulations and the BFS Method for Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Good, Brian; Ferrante, John

    1996-01-01

    Semi empirical methods have shown considerable promise in aiding in the calculation of many properties of materials. Materials used in engineering applications have defects that occur for various reasons including processing. In this work we present the first application of the BFS method for alloys to describe some aspects of microstructure due to processing for the Cu-Au system (Cu-Au, CuAu3, and Cu3Au). We use finite temperature Monte Carlo calculations, in order to show the influence of 'heat treatment' in the low-temperature phase of the alloy. Although relatively simple, it has enough features that could be used as a first test of the reliability of the technique. The main questions to be answered in this work relate to the existence of low temperature ordered structures for specific concentrations, for example, the ability to distinguish between rather similar phases for equiatomic alloys (CuAu I and CuAu II, the latter characterized by an antiphase boundary separating two identical phases).

  17. Studies on polishing of Ti and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy with five dental abrasives.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Nakamura, T; Takashima, F; Maruyama, T; Taira, M; Takahashi, J

    2001-08-01

    Titanium (Ti) and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy were examined for their polishing behaviour by conducting manually controlled polishing tests using five dental abrasives [carborundum point (CR) and silicone points (R1 and R2)] driven by a high torque micromotor with rotational speeds ranging from 2000 to 15 000 r.p.m. Polishing of Ti resulted in less volume of removal upon polishing, a rougher surface and larger loss of abrasives, compared with polishing of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. Polishing of Ti with a rotational speed of 15 000 r.p.m. led to the largest volume of removal upon polishing, whilst that of 10 000 r.p.m. produced the optimal volume for Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy. It was concluded that Ti was much more difficult to polish, requiring special care (e.g. frequent exchange of abrasives). Development of new abrasives for polishing Ti is required.

  18. Trace elements in pyrite from the Petropavlovsk gold-porphyry deposit (Polar Urals): Results of LA-ICP-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikentiev, I. V.; Abramova, V. D.; Ivanova, Yu. N.; Tyukova, E. E.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Bortnikov, N. S.

    2016-09-01

    The first study of the pyrite composition from gold deposit in the Urals by the LA-ICP-MS method has been carried out. In the pyrite high contents of Au (up to 49 ppm), Ag (105 ppm), and other micronutrients (As (417 ppm), Ag (105 ppm), Co (2825 ppm), Ni (75 ppm), Cu (1442 ppm), and Zn (19 ppm)) were detected. Furthermore, an increase in the concentrations of trace elements from early to later generations of pyrite (from Py-1 to Py-3) Au, Ag, Te, Sn, Te, and Bi and depletion of Co, As, and Ni have been revealed. Gold is mainly concentrated in the pyrite of the second generation (Py-2) and occurs mostly as an "invisible" form with prevalence of nano-sized particles of native Au, similar in composition to electrum AuAg, as well as Au- and Au-Ag tellurides. The presence in the pyrite of admixtures of Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, As, and Te, possibly favors the entrance of Au into it (up to 5-50 ppm), while in common pyrite, poor in the mentioned impurities, the gold content is <1 ppm.

  19. Discrimination between mineralized and unmineralized alteration zones using primary geochemical haloes in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit in Kerman, southeastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsapoor, A.; Khalili, M.; Maghami, M.

    2017-08-01

    Primary geochemical haloes were studied at the Darreh-Zar porphyry Cu-deposit, southern Iran. In terms of geochemical signatures, high K2O/Na2O enrichment, HREEs and HFSE's depletion in the potassic alteration, high (La/Sm)cn, (La/Yb)cn and (Gd/Yb)cn ratios in mineralized sericitic and potassic zones and notable depletion in the REEs content in argillic alteration is recognized. Further, Mg, Li, Sc, P enrichment and W depletion can serve to separate potassic alteration from the other altered zones, while (Eu/Eu*)cn and (Ce/Ce*)cn don't show pronounced changes in different alteration zones. The coupled positive Tl, Se, S, Rb, Co, Cs, Mo, K and negative Te, Ta, Ti, Sr, Rb, As, Bi, Ga, Hf, In, Mn, Zn and Zr anomalies can be adequately used in discriminating between the mineralized zones (potassic, chlorite-sericite and sericite alterations) and the barren (propylitic zone). The behavior of the trace elements on isocon diagrams reveal that HFSEs are depleted in mineralized altered zones and display variations in the amounts in the barren facies. Zonality index in the axial direction from drill holes 146 to 124 estimates the zonality sequence as Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu-Pb-Zn in the surface horizons. The calculated zonality in five drill holes and six levels indicates that the level of 550 m at the DH 117 in the central part of the area has the highest value (0.76) for Cu. The zonality sequence from the surface to the depth is variable and can be demonstrated as follow: DH 146: Pb-Zn-Cu-Mo-Ag; DH 137: Zn-Cu-Mo-Pb-Ag; DH 117: Ag-Zn-Pb-Mo-Cu; DH: 121: Cu-Mo-Zn-Ag-Pb; DH 136: Pb-Ag-Zn-Cu-Mo; DH 124: Zn-Mo-Cu-Pb-Ag. Available data of the enrichment factors shows different enrichment for copper and molybdenum (i.e. EF > 10), selenium and silver (i.e. EF > 5), tin and LREEs (i.e. 1 < EF < 5).

  20. First report on the occurrence of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions in the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, Iran: implications for mineralisation processes in a continental collision setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Sina; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Khosrojerdi, Majid

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, south of the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc and southeast of the central Iranian volcano-plutonic belt has resulted in three stages of mineralisation characterised by veins and veinlets. These are, from early to late: (1) quartz + K-feldspar + biotite + pyrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± magnetite (early potassic alteration and type-A veins); (2) quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite + bornite + pyrrhotite + K- -feldspar + biotite + magnetite (potassic-sericitic alteration and type-B veins); and (3) quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite + sericite (sericitic alteration and type-C veins). Most ores were formed during stages 2 and 3. Three main types of fluid inclusions are distinguished based on petrographical, microthermometrical and laser Raman spectroscopy analyses, i.e. type I (three-phase aqueous inclusions), type II (three-phase liquid-carbonic inclusions) and type III (multi-phase solid inclusions). The fluid inclusions in quartz veins of the stages are mainly homogenised at 340-530°C (stage 1), 270-385°C (stage 2) and 214-350°C (stage 3), respectively, with salinities of 3.1-16 wt.% NaCl equivalent, 2.2-43 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 8.2-22.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The estimated trapping pressures are 97.9-123.6 MPa (3.7-4.6 km) in stage 1 and 62.5-86.1 MPa (2.3-3.1 km) in stage 2, respectively. These fluid inclusions are homogenised in different ways at similar temperatures, suggesting that fluid boiling took place in stages 2 and 3. The fluid system evolved from high-temperature, medium-salinity, high-pressure and CO2-rich to low-temperature, low-pressure, high-salinity and CO2-poor, with fluid boiling being the dominating mechanism, followed by input of meteoric water. CO2 escape may have been a factor in increasing activities of NaCl and S2- in the fluids, diminishing the oxidation of the fluids from stage 1 to 3. The result was precipitation of sulphides and trapping of multi-phase solid

  1. Late Archean-Early Proterozoic timing for an Andean-style porphyry Cu-Mo deposit at Malanjkhand, Central Indian Tectonic Zone: implications for a Late Archean supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, H. J.; Zimmerman, A.; Hannah, J. L.; Markey, R. J.

    2003-04-01

    Eight Re-Os ages from six molybdenite samples representative of Cu-Mo mineralization in a highly deformed quartz reef and granite host rock comprising the large Malanjkhand deposit were obtained using ID-NTIMS. These data provide a clear Late Archean-Early Proterozoic age for this recently discovered deposit and by implication a minimum age for its hosting terrane, the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), a continental scale structure separating peninsular India from northern India. The CITZ was previously inferred to be Middle Proterozoic or younger. Molybdenite dating indicates that stringer mineralization in the quartz reef and disseminated mineralization in the granite were contemporaneous at 2493 ± 8 Ma (2493.1 ± 1.4 Ma based on regression without uncertainty in the 187Re decay constant, MSWD = 0.5, n = 5). Additional molybdenite was precipitated during at least two pulses of reworking (ěrb1 12480 and ěrb1 12450 Ma) that we suggest configured the elongate quartz reef as the CITZ developed in response to NW-directed oblique convergence of a landmass from the south. Previously unrecognized petrographic evidence coupled with high Re concentrations for molybdenites (400-650 ppm) suggest that Malanjkhand is a porphyry Cu-Mo deposit of classic Andean-type, forming in a subduction-accretionary setting that includes involvement of mantle. We suggest that the CITZ may provide a median segment of an extensive and continuous Late Archean-Early Proterozoic orogenic belt that may include portions of the Moyar, Bhavani, Palghat, and Cauvery shear zones in southern India, the Eastern Ghats orogenic belt along the eastern side of India, and connecting to the Aravalli-Delhi belt extending through northwest India. This now folded orogenic belt could be related to the assembly of a Late Archean supercontinent whose eastward margin included East Antartica (Napier complex) at 2.5 Ga. In addition, we suggest that the Vestfold Hills complex (East Antartica) was part of this

  2. Pre-eruptive conditions of the Hideaway Park topaz rhyolite: Insights into metal source and evolution of magma parental to the Henderson porphyry molybdenum deposit, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Celestine N.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Todorov, Todor I.; Roberge, Julie; Burgisser, Alain; Adams, David T.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The Hideaway Park tuff is the only preserved extrusive volcanic unit related to the Red Mountain intrusive complex, which produced the world-class Henderson porphyry Mo deposit. Located within the Colorado Mineral Belt, USA, Henderson is the second largest Climax-type Mo deposit in the world, and is therefore an excellent location to investigate magmatic processes leading to Climax-type Mo mineralization. We combine an extensive dataset of major element, volatile, and trace element abundances in quartz-hosted melt inclusions and pumice matrix glass with major element geochemistry from phenocrysts to reconstruct the pre-eruptive conditions and the source and evolution of metals within the magma. Melt inclusions are slightly peraluminous topaz rhyolitic in composition and are volatile-charged (≤6 wt % H2O, ≤600 ppm CO2, ∼0·3–1·0 wt % F, ∼2300–3500 ppm Cl) and metal-rich (∼7–24 ppm Mo, ∼4–14 ppm W, ∼21–52 ppm Pb, ∼28–2700 ppm Zn, <0·1–29 ppm Cu, ∼0·3–1·8 ppm Bi, ∼40–760 ppb Ag, ∼690–1400 ppm Mn). Melt inclusion and pumice matrix glass chemistry reveal that the Hideaway Park magma evolved by large degrees of fractional crystallization (≤60–70%) during quartz crystallization and melt inclusion entrapment at pressures of ≤300 MPa (≤8 km depth), with little to no crystallization upon shallow ascent and eruption. Filter pressing, crystal settling, magma recharge and mixing of less evolved rhyolite melt, and volatile exsolution were important processes during magma evolution; the low estimated viscosities (∼105–1010 Pa s) of these H2O- and F-rich melts probably enhanced these processes. A noteworthy discrepancy between the metal contents in the pumice matrix glass and in the melt inclusions suggests that after quartz crystallization ceased upon shallow magma ascent and eruption, the Hideaway Park magma exsolved an aqueous fluid into which Mo, Bi, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cs, and Y strongly

  3. In situ major and trace element analysis of amphiboles in quartz monzodiorite porphyry from the Tonglvshan Cu-Fe (Au) deposit, Hubei Province, China: insights into magma evolution and related mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Deng-Fei; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2017-05-01

    The Tonglvshan deposit is the largest Cu-Fe (Au) skarn deposit in the Edong district, which is located in the westernmost part of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt, China. In this study, we performed a detailed in situ analysis of major and trace elements in amphiboles from the ore-related Tonglvshan quartz monzodiorite porphyry using electron microprobe (EMPA) analysis and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Two distinct populations of amphiboles, which can be distinguished by their aluminum content, are found in the quartz monzodiorite porphyry. The low-aluminum (Low-Al) amphiboles are subhedral or anhedral and formed at 46.3-73.5 MPa and 713-763 °C. In contrast, the high-aluminum (High-Al) amphiboles are euhedral and formed at 88-165 MPa and 778-854 °C. Some euhedral amphiboles are partially or completely replaced by Low-Al amphibole. The compositions of parental melts in equilibrium with the High-Al amphibole ( Melt 1) and Low-Al amphibole ( Melt 2) were computed by applying solid/liquid partition coefficients. This modeling shows that magma in equilibrium with High-Al amphibole ( Melt 1) underwent 40% fractional crystallization of amphibole, plagioclase and apatite at a depth of 5 km to evolve to magma in equilibrium with Low-Al amphibole ( Melt 2). Copper enrichment occurred in the magma after undergoing fractional crystallization. The magma had a high oxygen fugacity, increasing from NNO + 1 ( Melt 1) through NNO + 2 to HM ( Melt 2), which could have prevented the loss of Cu (and possibly Au) to sulfide minerals during crystallization. Finally, the evolved magma intruded to shallower depths, where it presumably exsolved aqueous ore-forming fluids. Therefore, the large Cu-Fe-Au reserves of the Tonglvshan deposit can likely be attributed to a combination of controlling factors, including high oxygen fugacity, fractional crystallization, fluid exsolution, and a shallow emplacement depth.

  4. Fabrication of bimetallic Cu/Au nanotubes and their sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Si Yin; Ye, Enyi; Pan, Pei Hua; Lee, Coryl Jing Jun; Hui, Hui Kim; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Koh, Leng Duei; Dong, Zhili; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu+-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au3+ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to the initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu+-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au3+ at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other

  5. Analysis of the applicability of Ni, Cu, Au, Pt, and Pd nanoclusters for data recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redel', L. V.; Gafner, S. L.; Gafner, Yu. Ya.; Zamulin, I. S.; Goloven'ko, Zh. V.

    2017-02-01

    The applicability of individual Ni, Cu, Au, Pt, and Pd nanoclusters as data bits in next generation memory devices constructed on the phase-change carrier principle is studied. To this end, based on the modified tight-binding potential (TB-SMA), structure formation from the melt of nanoparticles of these metals to 10 nm in diameter was simulated by the molecular dynamics method. The effect of various crystallization conditions on the formation of the internal structures of Ni, Cu, Au, Pt, and Pd nanoclusters is studied. The stability boundaries of various crystalline isomers are analyzed. The obtained systematic features are compared for nanoparticles of copper, nickel, gold, platinum, and palladium of identical sizes. It is concluded that platinum nanoclusters of diameter D > 8 nm are the best materials among studied metals for producing memory elements based on phase transitions.

  6. Large scale structural optimization of trimetallic Cu-Au-Pt clusters up to 147 atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Genhua; Sun, Yan; Wu, Xia; Chen, Run; Wang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    The stable structures of Cu-Au-Pt clusters up to 147 atoms are optimized by using an improved adaptive immune optimization algorithm (AIOA-IC method), in which several motifs, such as decahedron, icosahedron, face centered cubic, sixfold pancake, and Leary tetrahedron, are randomly selected as the inner cores of the starting structures. The structures of Cu8AunPt30-n (n = 1-29), Cu8AunPt47-n (n = 1-46), and partial 75-, 79-, 100-, and 147-atom clusters are analyzed. Cu12Au93Pt42 cluster has onion-like Mackay icosahedral motif. The segregation phenomena of Cu, Au and Pt in clusters are explained by the atomic radius, surface energy, and cohesive energy.

  7. Structural, mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the atypical komatiite-hosted Turret deposit in the Agnew-Mt. White district, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voute, F.; Thébaud, N.

    2015-08-01

    In the Norseman-Wiluna belt, Yilgarn Craton, the Agnew-Mt. White district is the host of many gold deposits. Located in the hinge of the regional Lawlers anticline, the Turret gold deposit is structurally controlled by the Table Hill shear zone that transects the Agnew Ultramafic unit. Geochemistry, coupled with petrographic data, allowed the delineation of the paragenetic sequence associated with gold mineralisation and include (1) a pervasive talc-carbonate alteration assemblage, (2) a pre-mineralisation stage associated with pervasive arsenopyrite + chalcopyrite + pyrrhotite + pyrite alteration, followed by (3) a late deformation event along a dilatational segment of the main Table Hill shear zone, leading to the formation of a breccia hosting a Cu-Bi-Mo-Au (± Ag ± Zn ± Te ± W) metal assemblage. The presence of Au-Ag-Cu alloys, native bismuth, chalcopyrite and other Bi-Te-S phases in the mineralisation stage suggest that gold may have been scavenged from the hydrothermal fluids by composite Bi-Te-Cu-Au-Ag-S liquids or melts. Using this mineral paragenetic sequence, together with mineralogical re-equilibration textures observed, we show that the gold deposition at Turret occurred over a temperature range approximately between c. 350 and 270 °C. This temperature range, together with the structural control and typical mesothermal alteration pattern including carbonate-chlorite alteration, shows that the Turret deposit shares common characteristics with the orogenic gold deposit class. However, the metal association of Cu, Au, Bi, and Mo, the quartz-poor, and high copper-sulphide content (up to 15 %) are characteristics that depart from the typical orogenic gold deposit mineralogy. Through comparison with similar deposits in the Yilgarn Craton and worldwide, we propose that the Turret deposit represents an example of a porphyry-derived Au-Cu-Bi-Mo deposit.

  8. Fabrication of bimetallic Cu/Au nanotubes and their sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.

    PubMed

    Tee, Si Yin; Ye, Enyi; Pan, Pei Hua; Lee, Coryl Jing Jun; Hui, Hui Kim; Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Koh, Leng Duei; Dong, Zhili; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-07-07

    Herein, we report a facile two-step approach to produce gold-incorporated copper (Cu/Au) nanostructures through controlled disproportionation of the Cu(+)-oleylamine complex at 220 °C to form copper nanowires and the subsequent reaction with Au(3+) at different temperatures of 140, 220 and 300 °C. In comparison with copper nanowires, these bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures exhibit their synergistic effect to greatly enhance glucose oxidation. Among them, the shape-controlled Cu/Au nanotubes prepared at 140 °C show the highest electrocatalytic activity for non-enzymatic glucose sensing in alkaline solution. In addition to high sensitivity and fast response, the Cu/Au nanotubes possess high selectivity against interferences from other potential interfering species and excellent reproducibility with long-term stability. By introducing gold into copper nanostructures at a low level of 3, 1 and 0.1 mol% relative to the initial copper precursor, a significant electrocatalytic enhancement of the resulting bimetallic Cu/Au nanostructures starts to occur at 1 mol%. Overall, the present fabrication of stable Cu/Au nanostructures offers a promising low-cost platform for sensitive, selective, reproducible and reusable electrochemical sensing of glucose.

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The database of known deposits, significant prospects, and prospects includes an inventory of mineral resources in two known porphyry copper deposits, as well as key characteristics derived from available exploration reports for 70 significant porphyry copper prospects and 86 other prospects. Resource and exploration and development activity are updated with information current through February 2013.

  10. Structural setting of Fimiston- and Oroya-style pyrite-telluride-gold lodes, Paringa South mine, Golden Mile, Kalgoorlie: 1. Shear zone systems, porphyry dykes and deposit-scale alteration zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Andreas G.

    2017-07-01

    The Golden Mile in the 2.7 Ga Eastern Goldfields Province of the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, has produced 385 million tonnes of ore at a head grade of 5.23 g/t gold (1893-2016). Gold-pyrite ore bodies (Fimiston Lodes) trace kilometre-scale shear zone systems centred on the D2 Golden Mile Fault, one of three northwest striking sinistral strike-slip faults segmenting upright D1 folds. The Fimiston shear zones formed as D2a Riedel systems in greenschist-facies (actinolite-albite) tholeiitic rocks, the 700-m-thick Golden Mile Dolerite (GMD) sill and the Paringa Basalt (PB), during left-lateral displacement of up to 12 km on the D2 master faults. Pre-mineralisation granodiorite dykes were emplaced into the D2 shear zones at 2674 ± 6 Ma, and syn-mineralisation diorite porphyries at 2663 ± 11 Ma. The widespread infiltration of hydrothermal fluid generated chlorite-calcite and muscovite-ankerite alteration in the Golden Mile, and paragonite-ankerite-chloritoid alteration southeast of the deposit. Fluid infiltration reactivated the D2 shear zones causing post-porphyry displacement of up to 30 m at principal Fimiston Lodes moving the southwest block down and southeast along lines pitching 20°SE. D3 reverse faulting at the southwest dipping GMD-PB contact of the D1 Kalgoorlie Anticline formed the 1.3-km-long Oroya Shoot during late gold-telluride mineralisation. Syn-mineralisation D3a reverse faulting alternated with periods of sinistral strike-slip (D2c) until ENE-WSW shortening prevailed and was accommodated by barren D3b thrusts. North-striking D4 strike-slip faults of up to 2 km dextral displacement crosscut the Fimiston Lodes and the barren thrusts, and control gold-pyrite quartz vein ore at Mt. Charlotte (2651 ± 9 Ma).

  11. Ultra-deep oxidation and exotic copper formation at the late pliocene boyongan and bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits, surigao, philippines: Geology, mineralogy, paleoaltimetry, and their implications for Geologic, physiographic, and tectonic controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braxton, D.P.; Cooke, D.R.; Ignacio, A.M.; Rye, R.O.; Waters, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boyongan and Bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits are part of an emerging belt of intrusion-centered gold-rich deposits in the Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, Philippines. Exhumation and weathering of these Late Pliocene-age deposits has led to the development of the world's deepest known porphyry oxidation profile at Boyongan (600 m), and yet only a modest (30-70 m) oxidation profile at adjacent Bayugo. Debris flows, volcanic rocks, and fluviolacustrine sediments accumulating in the actively extending Mainit graben subsequently covered the deposits and preserved the supergene profiles. At Boyongan and Bayugo, there is a vertical transition from shallower supergene copper oxide minerals (malachite + azurite + cuprite) to deeper sulfide-stable assemblages (chalcocite ?? hypogene sulfides). This transition provides a time-integrated proxy for the position of the water table at the base of the saturated zone during supergene oxidation. Contours of the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface based on this min- eralogical transition show that the thickest portions of the unsaturated zone coincided with a silt-sand matrix diatreme breccia complex at Boyongan. Within the breccia complex, the thickness of the unsaturated zone approached 600 in, whereas outside the breccia complex (e.g., at Bayugo), the thickness averaged 50 m. Contours of the paleopotentiometric surface suggest that during weathering, groundwater flowed into the breccia complex from the north, south, and east, and exited along a high permeability zone to the west. The high relief (>550 m) on the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface is consistent with an environment of high topographic relief, and the outflow zone to the west of the breccia complex probably reflects proximity to a steep scarp intersecting the western breccia complex margin. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has enabled estimation of the elevation of the land surface, which further constrains the physiographic setting

  12. Geodynamics and metallogeny of the central Eurasian porphyry and related epithermal mineral systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Reimar; Porter, T. Mike; Pirajno, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Major porphyry Cu-Au and Cu-Mo deposits are distributed across almost 5000 km across central Eurasia, from the Urals Mountains in Russia in the west, to Inner Mongolia in north-eastern China. These deposits were formed during multiple magmatic episodes from the Ordovician to the Jurassic. They are associated with magmatic arcs within the extensive subduction-accretion complex of the Altaid and Transbaikal-Mongolian orogenic collages that developed from the late Neoproterozoic, through the Palaeozoic, to the Jurassic intracratonic extension. The arcs formed predominantly on the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean margin of the proto-Asian continent, but also within two back-arc basins. The development of the collages commenced when slivers of an older Proterozoic subduction complex were rifted from an existing cratonic mass and accreted to the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean margin of the combined Eastern Europe and Siberian cratons. Subduction of the Palaeo-Tethys Ocean beneath the Karakum and Altai-Tarim microcontinents and the associated back-arc basin produced the overlapping late Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic Tuva-Mongol and Kipchak magmatic arcs. Contemporaneous intra-oceanic subduction within the back-arc basin from the Late Ordovician produced the parallel Urals-Zharma magmatic arc, and separated the main Khanty-Mansi back-arc basin from the inboard Sakmara marginal sea. By the Late Devonian, the Tuva-Mongol and Kipchak arcs had amalgamated to form the Kazakh-Mongol arc. By the mid Palaeozoic, the two principal cratonic elements, the Siberian and Eastern European cratons, had begun to rotate relative to each other, "drawing-in" the two sets of parallel arcs to form the Kazakh Orocline between the two cratons. During the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the Palaeo-Pacific Ocean began subducting below the Siberian craton to form the Sayan-Transbaikal arc, which expanded by the Permian to become the Selanga-Gobi-Khanka arc. By the Middle to Late Permian, as the Kazakh Orocline

  13. Petrology, zircon U-Pb ages, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of the Late Paleozoic gold-bearing magmatic rocks (porphyry intrusions) in Jiamante area, Northwest Tianshan: Implications for petrogenesis and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tongliang; Cai, Keda; Wang, Xiangsong

    2017-04-01

    A series of Cu-Au-Mo deposits distributed from east to west in the Northwestern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NTOB), which is located in the northwestern China. The tectonic settings and associated geodynamic processes of these deposits have been disputed. This paper presents whole-rock geochemical data, in-situ U-Th-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition for granite porphyry and quartz porphyry in the Jiamante gold deposit from the Yelimodun Basin, in the NTOB. These two type representative high potassium granitic intrusions have the LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 350.8±4 Ma, 351.7±3 Ma and 350.4±5 Ma, 353.9±2.5 Ma, interpreted as the crystallization ages. High contents of SiO2 ( 71.1-75.2wt.%), K2O (4.96-6.33 wt.%), Al2O3 (12.45-14.35 wt.%) and low contents of Fe2O3T (1.47-3.25 wt.%), MgO (0.3-0.5 wt.% ), and CaO (0.49-1.29wt.%), High ASI (Alumina Saturation Index, Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O+K2O)=1.37-1.80 molecular ratios) can be found in these rocks. These porphyries are enriched in both large ion lithophile and light rare earth elements, but deplet in high field strength elements and are characterized by moderately negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.27-0.66) and strong depletion in Ba, Nb,Ti and Sr elements. These two porphyries have negative and positive zircon ɛHf(t) (-11.6 to +6.7) values, low Mg# ratios (21.85-35.51wt%), and low Cr (3.24ppm -11.35ppm) and Ni (1.88ppm-13.41ppm) contents. The regional geological and geochemical characteristics of the Early Carboniferous rocks in the Northwestern Tianshan show that peraluminous granitoids, with hybrid Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic signatures, suggesting that their parental magmas could be derived from the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block and the sediments from the Yili Block. In combination with the compositions of the volcanic rocks and basic lavas in the region in the Early Carboniferous, we suggest that the Jiamante peraluminous granitic porphyries and quartz porphyries were generated by the interaction

  14. Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect, Anarak Metallogenic Complex, Central Iran: a geological, mineralogical and fluid inclusion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tale Fazel, Ebrahim; Mehrabi, Behzad; Tabbakh Shabani, Amir Ali

    2015-02-01

    The Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect is located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Belt, and is characterized by copper-iron oxide and gold veins, stockworks and breccias hosted by the Eocene Kuh-e Dom arc intrusion. Mineralization is located within NE-SW to WNW-ESE sinistral faults and likely formed in a subduction-related continental margin that is typical of IOCG deposit systems. The deposits have a distinct metal composition of Fe, Cu, Bi, Co, Mo and LREE with gold (up to 3 g/t), and the mineral assemblages are quartz, hematite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, emplectite, magnetite, free gold, calcite, barite, chlorite, and tourmaline. Three paragenetic stages of mineralized quartz veins are distinguished in the Kuh-e Dom prospect, including: (i) hematite-bearing quartz veins, (ii) quartz-sulfide stockwork and breccia veins, and (iii) quartz-calcite±sulfide infilling veins. Sodic (albitization), potassic, and quartz-calcite±chlorite pervasive alterations are commonly associated with these three mineralization stages. Three types of fluid inclusions have been identified at Kuh-e Dom, including: aqueous two-phase (H2O-NaCl-CaCl2±FeCl2), halite-saturated aqueous (H2O-NaCl±KCl), and CO2-bearing (H2O-CO2±CH4 and CO2±CH4) fluid inclusions. A hypersaline (~35 wt% NaCl equiv.), aqueous magmatic fluid was released at about 400 °C and a pressure of nearly 4 kbar, forming early hematite-bearing quartz veins. These high salinity fluids were progressively diluted further away from Kuh-e Dom intrusion due to substantial input of meteoric water and mixing with the magmatic components during the middle and late stages of mineralization. The mineralogy, alteration, and fluid composition of the Kuh-e Dom Fe-Cu-Au prospect compared well with Fe oxide Cu-Au (IOCG) deposits worldwide.

  15. Geologic setting and characteristic of mineral deposits in the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Base- and precious-metal deposits in the central Wasatch Mountains southeast of Salt Lake City were mined for more than 100 years beginning in 1868. Deposits present in the Park City, Little Cottonwood, and Big Cottonwood mining districts include Ag-Pb-Zn ± Cu ± Au replacement and veins, a low-grade porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Cu-bearing skarns, a quartz monzonite-type (low F) porphyry Mo deposit, and high sulfidation (quartz-alunite) Au deposits. Most production came from polymetallic replacement and vein deposits in the Park City mining district, which has a recorded production of more than 1.4 million oz Au , 253 million oz Ag, 2.7 billion lbs Pb, 1.5 billion lbs Zn, and 129 million lbs Cu from 1872 to 1978. Production in the Little and Big Cottonwood districts, mostly from Pb-Ag replacement deposits, was much smaller. Most mineral deposits in the central Wasatch Mountains are genetically related to the Wasatch igneous belt, a series of high-K calc-alkaline stocks and cogenetic volcanic rocks that formed about 41(?) to 30 Ma. The mineral deposits mostly formed near the end of magmatic activity between about 36 to 31.4 Ma. A subeconomic porphyry Mo deposit in the Little Cottonwood stock is notably younger having formed about 26 to 23.5 Ma. The intrusive rocks were emplaced mostly along the westward extension of the west-trending Uinta arch during a period of NW-SE-directed extension, and much of the mineralization in the Park City district controlled by ENE-striking normal faults. About 15 degrees of eastward tilting of the central Wasatch Mountains during Late Cenozoic Basin and Range extension has resulted in progressively deeper levels of exposure from <1 km on the east to about 11 km on the west and in profound variations in the types of minerals deposits exposed in different parts of the range. Most deposits formed at paleodepths ≤5 km, and the most productive deposits in the Park City district formed at depths of 1 to 2 km. The prophyry Mo deposit in the

  16. A Holistic Model That Physicochemically Links Iron Oxide - Apatite and Iron Oxide - Copper - Gold Deposits to Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. C.; Reich, M.; Knipping, J.; Bilenker, L.; Barra, F.; Deditius, A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits (IOCG) are important sources of their namesake metals and increasingly for rare earth metals in apatite. Studies of natural systems document that IOA and IOCG deposits are often spatially and temporally related with one another and coeval magmatism. However, a genetic model that accounts for observations of natural systems remains elusive, with few observational data able to distinguish among working hypotheses that invoke meteoric fluid, magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, and immiscible melts. Here, we use Fe and O isotope data and high-resolution trace element (e.g., Ti, V, Mn, Al) data of individual magnetite grains from the world-class Los Colorados (LC) IOA deposit in the Chilean Iron Belt to elucidate the origin of IOA and IOCG deposits. Values of d56Fe range from 0.08‰ to 0.26‰, which are within the global range of ~0.06‰ to 0.5‰ for magnetite formed at magmatic conditions. Values of δ18O for magnetite and actinolite are 2.04‰ and 6.08‰, respectively, consistent with magmatic values. Ti, V, Al, and Mn are enriched in magnetite cores and decrease systematically from core to rim. Plotting [Al + Mn] vs. [Ti + V] indicates that magnetite cores are consistent with magmatic and/or magmatic-hydrothermal (i.e., porphyry) magnetites. Decreasing Al, Mn, Ti, V is consistent with a cooling trend from porphyry to Kiruna to IOCG systems. The data from LC are consistent with the following new genetic model for IOA and IOCG systems: 1) magnetite cores crystallize from silicate melt; 2) these magnetite crystals are nucleation sites for aqueous fluid that exsolves and scavenges inter alia Fe, P, S, Cu, Au from silicate melt; 3) the magnetite-fluid suspension is less dense that the surrounding magma, allowing ascent; 4) as the suspension ascends, magnetite grows in equilibrium with the fluid and takes on a magmatic-hydrothermal character (i.e., lower Al, Mn, Ti, V); 5) during ascent, magnetite, apatite and

  17. New Cu(AuTiNx) copper alloy film and its features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chon-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new copper alloy [Cu(AuTiNx)] film is developed for industrial applications, by cosputtering Cu and titanium gold (AuTi) targets on a barrierless Si substrate within a vacuum chamber sparsely filled with N2 gas. Through extensive tests conducted in this study, the new alloy film, after annealing at 720 °C for 1 h, shows good thermal stability and high adhesion strength to the substrate, without appreciable interactions between the film and the substrate. The new Cu(AuTiNx) alloy film also has adequate wetting for solder, shows good solderability, and has a dissolution rate lower than that of pure Cu by at least 1 order of magnitude, in addition to having a comparable consumption rate to that of Ni. The alloy film seems to be suitable for many industrial applications, e.g., barrierless Si metallization, interconnect manufacture, and as new wetting and diffusion layers for flip-chip solder joints in conventional metallurgy.

  18. Structure and electronic behavior of 26-atom Cu-Ag and Cu-Au nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Ramírez, Gregorio; Robles, Juvencio; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2016-09-01

    We hereby present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the structural, energetic, and electronic properties of the binary clusters Cu n X26- n (with X = Ag and Au). Our electronic calculations were performed with the DFT package GAUSSIAN 09, and we chose the BPW91 exchange correlation functional in combination with an effective core potential LANL2DZ basis set as our level of theory. We find that in the case of these clusters and in a completely different way - as compared to the bulk chemical order observed in both alloys CuAg (segregation) and CuAu (ordering) -, for small n both Ag and Au clusters exhibit a similar chemical order, finding the Cu atoms in the center of the cluster with the tendency to form core shell structures. On the other hand, for large n values the Ag and Au atoms tend to occupy surface positions forming separated surface islands that keep the two metal atoms separated as long as the concentration allows it. Concerning the structural properties, a clear increase in the interatomic distance of the Ag-Ag and Au-Au surface pairs is observed, particularly in the equiatomic region. In conclusion, both nanoalloys CuAg and CuAu behave quite similarly in contrast to their respective bulk cases.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Oxidation of Cu-Au Alloy Surfaces: Effect of Bulk Au Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Michio; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Oka, Kohei; Kojima, Kazuki; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Kasai, Hideaki

    2016-08-01

    We report results of our experimental and theoretical studies on the oxidation of Cu-Au alloy surfaces, viz., Cu3Au(111), CuAu(111), and Au3Cu(111), using hyperthermal O2 molecular beam (HOMB). We observed strong Au segregation to the top layer of the corresponding clean (111) surfaces. This forms a protective layer that hinders further oxidation into the bulk. The higher the concentration of Au in the protective layer formed, the higher the protective efficacy. As a result, of the three Cu-Au surfaces studied, Au3Cu(111) is the most stable against dissociative adsorption of O2, even with HOMB. We also found that this protective property breaks down for oxidations occurring at temperatures above 300 K.

  20. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on Oxidation of Cu-Au Alloy Surfaces: Effect of Bulk Au Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Michio; Tsuda, Yasutaka; Oka, Kohei; Kojima, Kazuki; Diño, Wilson Agerico; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Kasai, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    We report results of our experimental and theoretical studies on the oxidation of Cu-Au alloy surfaces, viz., Cu3Au(111), CuAu(111), and Au3Cu(111), using hyperthermal O2 molecular beam (HOMB). We observed strong Au segregation to the top layer of the corresponding clean (111) surfaces. This forms a protective layer that hinders further oxidation into the bulk. The higher the concentration of Au in the protective layer formed, the higher the protective efficacy. As a result, of the three Cu-Au surfaces studied, Au3Cu(111) is the most stable against dissociative adsorption of O2, even with HOMB. We also found that this protective property breaks down for oxidations occurring at temperatures above 300 K. PMID:27516137

  1. U-Pb zircon and Re-Os molybdenite geochronology from La Caridad porphyry copper deposit: insights for the duration of magmatism and mineralization in the Nacozari District, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, V. A.; Ruiz, J.; Barra, F.; Geherls, G.; Ducea, M.; Titley, S. R.; Ochoa-Landin, L.

    2005-03-01

    Uranium-lead zircon (laser ablation multi-collector ICP-MS spot analysis) ages from La Caridad porphyry copper deposit in the Nacozari District, Northeastern Sonora, Mexico, suggest a short period of magmatism, between 55.5 and 52.6 Ma. Two U-Pb ages from the mineralized quartz monzonite unit, showing different textural characteristics, yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages (~54 Ma), and indicate that the intrusion responsible for the mineralization occurred as a single large complex unit, instead of multiple pulses of magmatism. Some zircons analyzed also show inherited ages in cores recording dates of 112-124 Ma, 141-166 Ma and 1.4 Ga. The Re-Os molybdenite ages from the potassic and phyllic hydrothermal alteration veins yielded identical ages within error, 53.6±0.3 Ma and 53.8±0.3 Ma, respectively (weighted average of 53.7±0.21 Ma), supporting a restricted period for the mineralization. The geochronological data thus indicate a short-lived magmatic and hydrothermal system. The inherited zircons of Precambrian and Late Jurassic-Mid Cretaceous age found in the intrusive rocks of La Caridad deposit, can be explained considering two possible scenarios within the tectonic/magmatic evolution of the area. The first scenario considers the presence of a Precambrian anorogenic granitic basement that is intruded by Mesozoic (Jurassic-Cretaceous) units present beneath the La Caridad deposit. The second scenario suggests that the Mesozoic Glance Conglomerate Formation of Arizona underlies the Paleocene volcanic-igneous pile in the La Caridad area.

  2. 3D inversion of magnetic and electrical resistivity-induced polarization data for an epithermal Au-Ag and underlying porphyry deposit: A case study from British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, B.; Huebert, J.; Liu, L.; Lee, B.; Cheng, L.; Richards, J. P.; Unsworth, M. J.; Oldenburg, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Newton property is an epithermal Au-Ag deposit containing precious metals in association with disseminated sulfide minerals such as pyrite. This type of deposit often shows variable geological patterns, so it is important to find fast and cost-efficient methods for their exploration. Aeromagnetic surveys and ground electrical resistivity-induced polarization methods were applied over the Newton property. From preliminary 3D inversion of ZTEM and aeromagnetic data, and joint 3D inversion of electrical resistivity-induced polarization data, we show that low-resistivity and high-chargeability regions are signatures of disseminated sulfide mineralization. Potassic alteration, characterized by hydrothermal biotite (now mostly chloritized) and magnetite is also present locally, and may be related to underlying porphyry-type mineralization. This type of alteration can be identified from its magnetic signature, but the occurrence of other magnetic formations in the deposit area made interpretations of magnetic data difficult. We show that filtering geological noises related to background magnetic anomalies is an essential step in focusing on potassic alteration zones. We used electrical resistivity and induced polarization chargeability models to remove the signals of barren magnetic zones to focus on the susceptibilities pertaining to deep potassic alterations. In order to test the credibility of these interpretations, extensive petrophysical measurements (magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and gamma ray spectra) were collected on drill-core samples. We show that potassic alteration can also be characterized accurately from high levels of potassium to thorium ratio (K/Th) in gamma ray spectrometric measurements, and that this correlation is stronger than the magnetic signal (likely because hydrothermal magnetite is variable in abundance). Therefore, we focused on magnetic susceptibility values correlated with high K/Th ratios in order to reduce the

  3. Magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the early Triassic Laodou lode gold deposit in the Xiahe-Hezuo district, West Qinling orogen, China: implications for gold metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao-ye; Li, Jian-wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Sui, Ji-xiang

    2017-08-01

    The Xiahe-Hezuo district in the West Qinling orogen contains numerous Au-(As-Sb) and Cu-Au-(W) deposits. The district is divided into eastern and western zones by the Xiahe-Hezuo Fault. The western zone is exposed at a shallow level and contains sediment-hosted disseminated Au-(As-Sb) deposits, whereas the eastern zone is exposed at a deeper level and contains Cu-Au-(W) skarn and lode gold deposits within or close to granitic intrusions. The Laodou gold deposit in the eastern zone consists of auriferous quartz-sulfide-tourmaline and minor quartz-stibnite veins that are structurally controlled by fault zones transecting the Laodou quartz diorite porphyry stock and enveloped by potassic and phyllic alteration. Both the veins and alteration halos commonly contain quartz, sericite, tourmaline, pyrite, and arsenopyrite, with minor galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and enargite. Gold occurs mainly as invisible gold in pyrite or arsenopyrite and locally as inclusions less than 50 μm in diameter. The zircon U-Pb age of 247.6 ± 1.3 Ma (2 σ) on the host quartz diorite porphyry and the sericite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 249.1 ± 1.6 and 249.0 ± 1.5 Ma (2 σ) on two ore-related hydrothermal sericite samples are within analytical errors of one another. At the formation temperature (275 °C) inferred from microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion, sericite and tourmaline yield calculated δDH2O values of -70 to -45‰ and δ 18OH2O of 5.8 to 9.7‰, while quartz yields calculated δ 18OH2O values of 5.1˜5.7‰. Hydrothermal tourmaline in quartz-sulfide-tourmaline veins has δ 11B of -11.2 to -0.9‰ (mean of -6.3‰) that are similar to the values of magmatic tourmaline (-8.9 to -5.5‰ with a mean of -6.8‰) in the host quartz diorite porphyry. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range from -5.9 to +5.8‰ with a mean of -0.6‰ that is typical of magmatic sulfur. Pyrite from hydrothermally altered quartz diorite porphyry and quartz

  4. Magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the early Triassic Laodou lode gold deposit in the Xiahe-Hezuo district, West Qinling orogen, China: implications for gold metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiao-ye; Li, Jian-wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Sui, Ji-xiang

    2016-12-01

    The Xiahe-Hezuo district in the West Qinling orogen contains numerous Au-(As-Sb) and Cu-Au-(W) deposits. The district is divided into eastern and western zones by the Xiahe-Hezuo Fault. The western zone is exposed at a shallow level and contains sediment-hosted disseminated Au-(As-Sb) deposits, whereas the eastern zone is exposed at a deeper level and contains Cu-Au-(W) skarn and lode gold deposits within or close to granitic intrusions. The Laodou gold deposit in the eastern zone consists of auriferous quartz-sulfide-tourmaline and minor quartz-stibnite veins that are structurally controlled by fault zones transecting the Laodou quartz diorite porphyry stock and enveloped by potassic and phyllic alteration. Both the veins and alteration halos commonly contain quartz, sericite, tourmaline, pyrite, and arsenopyrite, with minor galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and enargite. Gold occurs mainly as invisible gold in pyrite or arsenopyrite and locally as inclusions less than 50 μm in diameter. The zircon U-Pb age of 247.6 ± 1.3 Ma (2σ) on the host quartz diorite porphyry and the sericite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 249.1 ± 1.6 and 249.0 ± 1.5 Ma (2σ) on two ore-related hydrothermal sericite samples are within analytical errors of one another. At the formation temperature (275 °C) inferred from microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion, sericite and tourmaline yield calculated δDH2O values of -70 to -45‰ and δ 18OH2O of 5.8 to 9.7‰, while quartz yields calculated δ 18OH2O values of 5.1˜5.7‰. Hydrothermal tourmaline in quartz-sulfide-tourmaline veins has δ 11B of -11.2 to -0.9‰ (mean of -6.3‰) that are similar to the values of magmatic tourmaline (-8.9 to -5.5‰ with a mean of -6.8‰) in the host quartz diorite porphyry. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range from -5.9 to +5.8‰ with a mean of -0.6‰ that is typical of magmatic sulfur. Pyrite from hydrothermally altered quartz diorite porphyry and quartz

  5. Late Mio-Pliocene chemical weathering of the Yulong porphyry Cu deposit in the eastern Tibetan Plateau constrained by goethite (U-Th)/He dating: Implication for Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Shuster, David L.

    2017-08-01

    Chemical weathering has provided a potentially important feedback between tectonic forcing and climate evolution of the Asian continent, although precise constraints on the timing and history of weathering are only variably documented. Here, we use goethite (U-Th)/He and 4He/3He geochronology to constrain the timing and rates of chemical weathering at the Yulong porphyry Cu deposit on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Goethite grains have (U-Th)/He ages ranging from 6.73 ± 0.51 to 0.53 ± 0.04 Ma that correlate with independent paleoclimatic proxies inferred from supergene Mn-oxides and loess deposits under variable tectonic regimes and vegetation zones over the southeastern Asia. This correlation indicates that regional climatic conditions, especially monsoonal precipitation, controlled chemical weathering and goethite precipitation in a vast area of southeastern Asia. The goethite ages suggest that the Asian summer monsoon was relatively strong from 7 to 4.6 Ma, but weakened between 4.6 and 4 Ma, and then significantly intensified from 4 to 2 Ma. The precipitation ages of goethites collected along a 100-m-thick weathering profile decrease with depth, and indicate a downward propagation of the weathering front at rates of <6.7, 53.5 ± 10.8, and 4.8 ± 0.6 m/Ma during the intervals of 7-4, 4-2, and 2-0.7 Ma, respectively. The rapid propagation of weathering front during 4-2 Ma was caused by abrupt lowering of the water table, which was possibly related to local surface uplift or reorganization of the river systems in southeastern Tibet during this period.

  6. Geological, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Radzimowice Au As Cu deposit from the Kaczawa Mountains (Western Sudetes, Poland): an example of the transition of porphyry and epithermal style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikulski, Stanislaw Z.

    2005-03-01

    The sheeted quartz sulfide veins of the Radzimowice Au As Cu deposit in the Kaczawa Mountains are related to Upper Carboniferous post-collisional potassic magmatism of the composite Zelezniak porphyry intrusion. Multiple intrusive activity ranges from early calc-alkaline to sub-alkaline and alkaline rocks and is followed by multiple hydrothermal events. Early crustally derived dacitic magma has low mg# (<63) and very low concentrations of mantle-compatible trace elements, high large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), moderate light rare-earth elements (LREE), and low high-field-strength elements (HFSE). Later phases of more alkaline rocks have higher mg# (60 70), and LILE, LREE, and HFSE characteristics that indicate mafic magma contributions in a felsic magma chamber. The last episode of the magmatic evolution is represented by lamprophyre dikes which pre-date ore mineralization and are spatially related to quartz sulfide carbonate veins. The dikes consist of kersantite and spessartite of calc-alkaline affinity with K2O/Na2O ratios of 1.1 1.9, mg# of 77 79, and high abundances of mantle-compatible trace elements such as Cr, Ni, and V. They have high LILE, low LREE, and low HFSE contents suggesting a subduction-related post-collisional arc-setting. The mineralization started with arsenopyrite that was strongly brecciated and overprinted by multiple quartz carbonate phases associated with base-metal sulfides and Au Ag Bi Te Pb±S minerals. The sulfur isotope composition of sulfides ranges from -1.1 to 2.8‰ δ34S and suggests a magmatic source. At least two generations of gold deposition are recognized: (1) early refractory, and (2) subsequent non-refractory gold mineralization of epithermal style. Co-rich arsenopyrite with refractory gold and pyrite are the most abundant minerals of the early stage of sulfide precipitation. Early arsenopyrite formed at 535 345°C along the arsenopyrite pyrrhotite loellingite buffer and late arsenopyrite crystallized below 370

  7. An electrochemical and multispectroscopic study of corrosion of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys.

    PubMed

    Niemi, L; Minni, E; Ivaska, A

    1986-06-01

    Corrosion of a multi-phase Ag-Pd-Cu-Au-based commercial dental casting alloy and a Cu-Pd-rich and Ag-rich single-phase alloy was studied by open-circuit potential measurements, atomic absorption spectrometry, and electron spectroscopy. The alloys were immersed in an artificial saliva solution for 24 hr while the open-circuit potentials of the alloys were measured. The potentials were found to stabilize at certain levels after a steep rise during the first hours of the experiment. Cu was found to dissolve considerably from the Cu-Pd-rich alloy, with simultaneous enrichment of Pd in the surface layer of the alloy. Ag dissolved slightly from the Ag-rich alloy, but both Cu and Ag were found to dissolve from the multi-phase alloy. Neither Pd nor Au dissolved from any of the alloys studied.

  8. PHENIX results on reconstructed jets in p + p and Cu + Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Arbin

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of jet production rates in p+p and Cu+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV with the PHENIX detector are reported. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-kt algorithm with R = 0.2 from charged particles and electromagnetic clusters. The jet spectra are unfolded to correct for detector effects and underlying event background, and the resulting jet spectra are reported for the transverse momentum range 12

  9. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kumbel oxidized W-Cu-Mo skarn and Au-W stockwork deposit in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.

    2015-02-01

    The Kumbel deposit is located within a metallogenic belt of W-Mo, Cu-Mo, Au-W, and Au deposits along the Late Paleozoic active continental margin of Tien Shan. The deposit is related to a Late Carboniferous multiphase pluton, with successive intrusive phases from early olivine monzogabbro through monzonite-quartz monzonite to granodiorite and granite, with the latest monzogabbro-porphyry dikes. The deposit represents an example of a complex W-Cu-Mo-Au magmatic-hydrothermal system related to magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. It contains large bodies of W-Cu-Mo oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andradite garnet, magnetite, and especially hematite, as well as K-feldspar, molybdoscheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite, with transitions to zones of intense quartz-K-feldspar (with minor andradite and hematite) veining. The skarns are cut by quartz-carbonate ± adularia ± sericite veins (locally sheeted) and stockworks bearing scheelite and minor Cu, Zn, Pb sulfides, as well as Au, Bi, Te, and As mineralization. The association of these veins with the oxidized skarns and magnetite-series intrusion is consistent with the general oxidized, intrusion-related W-Mo-Cu-Au type of deposit, with an affinity to the alkalic (silica-saturated) Cu-Au ± Mo porphyry deposits. The fluid inclusion data show the predominance of magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous chloride fluid during the formation of skarns and quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins. The high fluid pressures (˜1,750 bars), together with their high temperature (up to 600 °C) and high salinity (˜50-60 wt% NaCl-equiv.), suggest the formation of skarns and quartz-K-feldspar-andradite-hematite veins under conditions typical of magmatic-hydrothermal transition (depth of ≥4-5 km) of intrusion-related mineralized system, possibly by exsolution of the fluids from crystallizing magma. The auriferous quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins formed from high to moderate

  10. Cu-Au alloy nanostructures coated with aptamers: a simple, stable and highly effective platform for in vivo cancer theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaosheng; Shi, Hui; He, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Yanru; He, Dinggeng; Tang, Jinlu; Lei, Yanli; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity and lower cost was introduced to generate a novel Cu-Au alloy nanostructure produced by a simple, gentle and one-pot synthetic method. Having the good qualities of both Cu and Au, the irregularly-shaped Cu-Au alloy nanostructures showed several advantages over traditional Au nanorods, including a broad and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption band from 400 to 1100 nm, an excellent heating performance under laser irradiation at different wavelengths and even a notable photostability against melting. Then, via a simple conjugation of fluorophore-labeled aptamers on the Cu-Au alloy nanostructures, active targeting and signal output were simultaneously introduced, thus constructing a theranostic platform based on fluorophore-labeled, aptamer-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures. By using human leukemia CCRF-CEM cancer and Cy5-labeled aptamer Sgc8c (Cy5-Sgc8c) as the model, a selective fluorescence imaging and NIR photothermal therapy was successfully realized for both in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor tissues. It was revealed that Cy5-Sgc8c-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures were not only capable of robust target recognition and stable signal output for molecular imaging in complex biological systems, but also killed target cancer cells in mice with only five minutes of 980 nm irradiation. The platform was found to be simple, stable, biocompatible and highly effective, and shows great potential as a versatile tool for cancer theranostics.As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity

  11. Cu-Au alloy nanostructures coated with aptamers: a simple, stable and highly effective platform for in vivo cancer theranostics.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaosheng; Shi, Hui; He, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Yanru; He, Dinggeng; Tang, Jinlu; Lei, Yanli; Wang, Kemin

    2016-01-28

    As a star material in cancer theranostics, photoresponsive gold (Au) nanostructures may still have drawbacks, such as low thermal conductivity, irradiation-induced melting effect and high cost. To solve the problem, copper (Cu) with a much higher thermal conductivity and lower cost was introduced to generate a novel Cu-Au alloy nanostructure produced by a simple, gentle and one-pot synthetic method. Having the good qualities of both Cu and Au, the irregularly-shaped Cu-Au alloy nanostructures showed several advantages over traditional Au nanorods, including a broad and intense near-infrared (NIR) absorption band from 400 to 1100 nm, an excellent heating performance under laser irradiation at different wavelengths and even a notable photostability against melting. Then, via a simple conjugation of fluorophore-labeled aptamers on the Cu-Au alloy nanostructures, active targeting and signal output were simultaneously introduced, thus constructing a theranostic platform based on fluorophore-labeled, aptamer-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures. By using human leukemia CCRF-CEM cancer and Cy5-labeled aptamer Sgc8c (Cy5-Sgc8c) as the model, a selective fluorescence imaging and NIR photothermal therapy was successfully realized for both in vitro cancer cells and in vivo tumor tissues. It was revealed that Cy5-Sgc8c-coated Cu-Au alloy nanostructures were not only capable of robust target recognition and stable signal output for molecular imaging in complex biological systems, but also killed target cancer cells in mice with only five minutes of 980 nm irradiation. The platform was found to be simple, stable, biocompatible and highly effective, and shows great potential as a versatile tool for cancer theranostics.

  12. Contrasting Cu-Au and Sn-W Granite Metallogeny through the Zircon Geochemical and Isotopic Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Hawkesworth, Chris; Robb, Laurence; Whitehouse, Martin; Roberts, Nick; Kirkland, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Magmatic genesis and evolution - mediated by geodynamic setting - exert a primary control on the propensity of granites to be metal fertile. A revolution in our understanding of these petrogenetic processes has been made through a range of mineral-based tools, most notably the common accessory mineral zircon. There is consequently considerable interest in whether the geochemical and isotopic compositions of zircon can be applied to metallogenic problems. The paired magmatic belts of Myanmar have broadly contrasting metallogenic affinities (Sn-W versus Cu-Au), and are interpreted to have formed on the accretionary margin of the subducting Neo-Tethys Ocean. They therefore present the opportunity to geochemically compare and contrast the zircon compositions in two end-member types of granite-hosted mineral deposits generated in collisional settings. We present an integrated zircon isotope (U-Pb, Lu-Hf, O) and trace element dataset that fingerprint: (a) source; (b) redox conditions; and (c) degree of fractionation. These variables all impact on magma fertility, and our key question to address is whether they can be reliably traced and calibrated within the Myanmar zircon record. Granitoid-hosted zircons from the I-type copper arc have juvenile ɛHf (+7 to +12) and mantle-like δ18O (5.3 ‰), whereas zircons from the S-type tin belt have low ɛHf (-7 to -13) and heavier δ18O (6.2-7.7 ‰). Plotting Hf versus U/Yb reaffirms that the tin belt magmas contain greater crustal contributions than the copper arc rocks. Links between whole rock Rb/Sr and zircon Eu/Eu* highlights that the latter can be used to monitor magma fractionation in systems that crystallize plagioclase (low Sr/Y). Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* in zircon are thus sensitive to redox and fractionation respectively, and can be used to evaluate the sensitivity of zircons to the metallogenic affinity of their host rocks. Tin contents that exceed the solubility limit are required in order to make a magmatic

  13. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada: Chapter C in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Ludington, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Western Canada has been thoroughly explored for porphyry copper deposits. The total estimated copper contained in known deposits is about 66.8 Mt (based on 2010 data), as compared to a 49 Mt mean of estimated copper in undiscovered deposits and a 34 Mt median of estimated copper in undiscovered deposits. The copper contained in known porphyry copper deposits represents about 58 percent of the total of known and undiscovered porphyry copper deposits (based on mean values). About 86 percent of the increase in estimated copper resources between 1993 and 2009 resulted from the discovery of extensions to known deposits. Nevertheless, exploration for undiscovered deposits continues, especially in and around significant prospects and in parts of permissive tracts that are mostly hidden beneath younger volcanic, sedimentary, or vegetated surficial cover.

  15. Microstructure processes induced by phase transitions in a CuAu alloy as studied by acoustic emission and optical cinematography

    SciTech Connect

    Masek, P.; Chmelik, F.; Sima, V.; Brinck, A.; Neuhaeuser, H.

    1999-01-15

    Combined acoustic emission measurements and surface cinematography observations have been applied to determine the structure evolution during thermal loading of the CuAu alloy. Thermal history and the fashion of thermal loading have been shown to affect considerably the structure response of the CuAu alloy on temperature changes. On thermal loading, intense plastic deformation occurs in certain temperature intervals due to the relaxation of internal stresses induced by phase transitions and structure anisotropy. The main mechanism is twinning taking place most probably in (110) planes. Dislocation glide and grain-boundary sliding have also been observed as minor mechanisms. A shape-restoration effect associated with the order-disorder transition is revealed. Thermal cycling with upper temperatures over 500 C may also result in structural damage.

  16. Comparative study of the alloying effect on the initial oxidation of Cu-Au(100) and Cu-Pt(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Langli; Zhou, Guangwen; Kang, Yihong; Yang, Judith C.; Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A.

    2014-03-24

    Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we show that the oxidation of the Cu-Au(100) results in the formation of Cu{sub 2}O islands that deeply embed into the Cu-Au substrate while the oxidation of the Cu-Pt(100) leads to the formation of Cu{sub 2}O islands that highly protrude above the Cu-Pt substrate. Their difference is attributed to the different mobilities of Pt and Au in the Cu base alloys for which the sluggish mobility of Pt in Cu results in trapped Pt atoms at the oxide/alloy interface while the faster mobility of Au in Cu leads to enhanced rehomogenization of the alloy composition.

  17. A deposit scale mineral prospectivity analysis: A comparison of various knowledge-driven approaches for porphyry copper targeting in Seridune, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Mostafavi Kashani, Seyed Bagher; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Yousefi, Mahyar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an application of a knowledge-driven mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) approach so-called ;the evidential belief functions (EBFs) using Dempster-Shafer's rule of combination; is proposed. This technique is used to weight and integrate a large scale exploration dataset in order to localize prospects for definition of further exploration drilling sites. In this study, exploration datasets of Seridune copper deposit in the Kerman province, SE Iran used for the methodology. In this regard, geophysical evidence layers extracted from interpretation of magnetic and electrical surveys, geological evidence layers derived via the geological datasets (i.e. lithology, fault and alteration), and geochemical evidence maps were generated and integrated for MPM. Furthermore, various MPM approaches including outranking, index overlay and fuzzy logic methods were examined for comparison with the introduced method. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of the methods, the productivity of the drilled boreholes (Cu concentration multiplied by its ore thickness along each drilled borehole) was used to validate the generated prospectivity models. The results showed higher efficiency of the Dempster-Shafer's model in comparison with the prospectivity models generated using other MPM approaches.

  18. Latest results of charged hadron flow measurements in CuAu collisions at RHIC-PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagomi, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Measurements of azimuthal anisotropic flow vn for inclusive charged hadrons and identified particles at mid rapidity in Cu+Au collisions at √sNN = 200GeV are presented. The data were recorded by the PHENIX experiment at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider(RHIC). Directed, elliptic and triangular flow as a function of transverse momentum pT are measured with respect to event planes. The inclusive charged hadron vi shows the negative value at high pT. The v2 and v3 are compared to those in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions. We find the v 2 and v3 follow an empirical scaling with 1/(ɛnN1/3 part). We also compare the v2 and v3 to hydrodynamical predictions. The identified particles v2 and v3 show a mass ordering in low pT region and baryon and meson splitting in high pT region. However the identified hadron v1 only shows mass ordering in mid pT region.

  19. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2016-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  20. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  1. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  2. Selective copper diffusion into quartz-hosted vapor inclusions: Evidence from other host minerals, driving forces, and consequences for Cu-Au ore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hun; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2013-07-01

    Recent experimental studies have raised concerns that Cu concentrations in quartz-hosted fluid inclusions from magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits do not represent pristine concentrations in the trapped fluids, but are modified by post-entrapment diffusional exchange through the host quartz. New microanalyses of fluid inclusions hosted in topaz show significantly lower Cu concentrations in vapor inclusions, compared to otherwise identical inclusions hosted by coexisting quartz, whereas coeval brine (hypersaline liquid) inclusions are very similar independent of host mineral in one sample. Sulfur is present as a major component in all vapor inclusions, as in most porphyry-related vapor inclusions, and Cu never exceeds S, but commonly matches the S content at a molar ratio of Cu:S ⩽ 2 in vapor inclusions hosted by quartz. Univalent ions with a radius smaller than ˜1 Å are known to diffuse rapidly through the channels of the quartz structure, parallel to its crystallographic c axis. Since only Cu concentrations differ between topaz- and quartz-hosted inclusions, we hypothesize that Cu+ and H+ re-equilibrate by diffusional ion exchange through these channels, while all other element concentrations remain essentially unchanged. A thermodynamic model considering charge-balanced Cu+H+ exchange and diffusive H2 re-equilibration of an initially Cu-poor but S-rich vapor inclusion with a typical rock-buffered fluid environment outside the host crystal demonstrates a strong chemical driving force for Cu+ to migrate from the surrounding rock into the fluid inclusion during cooling of the system. The driving force for Cu diffusion, against the gradient in total Cu concentration, is the abundant H+ liberated inside the inclusion by dissociation of HCl and particularly by the precipitation of CuFeS2 by reaction with the initially trapped H2S and/or SO2. Gold is not only a much larger ion, but is subject to an opposing driving force, suggesting that high concentrations of this

  3. Tilting history of the San Manuel-Kalamazoo porphyry system, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, E.R.; Dickinson, W.R.; Hagstrum, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Laramide San Manuel-Kalamazoo porphyry system of Arizona has been pivotal in concepts of both extensional tectonics and alteration-mineralization zoning. This paper reexamines the tilting history in light of new work in the region and reinterprets the geometry of the deposit. The porphyry mineralization occurs in and near an intrusion of Laramide San Manuel porphyry in Precambrian Oracle Granite. The area has an extremely complicated history of Tertiary crustal extension and fanglomerate deposition, but the blocks containing the two main fragments of the original orebody were involved in only the later parts of this history and are less tilted than other nearby blocks. Originally horizontal features of mid-Tertiary age are tilted about 30??, those of Laramide age about 35??, and those of pre-Laramide age about 45?? to the northeast. Paleomagnetism of the porphyry intrusion itself suggests tilting of about 33??. The data thus suggest that postemplacement tilt of the Laramide porphyry system was 30?? to 35?? and that virtually all of it was mid-Tertiary in age. -from Authors

  4. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    One implication of the economic filter results for undiscovered copper resources is that global copper supply will continue to be dominated by production from a small number of giant deposits. This domination of resource supply by a small number of producers may increase in the future, because an increasing proportion of new deposit discoveries are likely to occur in remote areas and be concealed deep beneath covering rock and sediments. Extensive mineral exploration activity will be required to meet future resource demand, because these deposits will be harder to find and more costly to mine than near-surface deposits located in more accessible areas. Relatively few of the new deposit discoveries in these high-cost settings will have sufficient tonnage and grade characteristics to assure positive economic returns on development and exploration costs.

  5. Geochronological framework of the early Paleozoic Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit, NE China, and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Mao, Jing-Wen; Ma, Xing-Hua; Che, He-Wei; Ou'yang, He-Gen; Gao, Xu

    2017-08-01

    -Mo or Cu-Au mineralization and associated epithermal Au deposits.

  6. The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Kesler, Stephen E.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Chryssoulis, Stephen L.; Walshe, John; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquity of Au-bearing arsenian pyrite in hydrothermal ore deposits suggests that the coupled geochemical behaviour of Au and As in this sulfide occurs under a wide range of physico-chemical conditions. Despite significant advances in the last 20 years, fundamental factors controlling Au and As ratios in pyrite from ore deposits remain poorly known. Here we explore these constraints using new and previously published EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, and μ-PIXE analyses of As and Au in pyrite from Carlin-type Au, epithermal Au, porphyry Cu, Cu-Au, and orogenic Au deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide (VHMS), Witwatersrand Au, iron oxide copper gold (IOCG), and coal deposits. Pyrite included in the data compilation formed under temperatures from ∼30 to ∼600 °C and in a wide variety of geological environments. The pyrite Au-As data form a wedge-shaped zone in compositional space, and the fact that most data points plot below the solid solubility limit defined by Reich et al. (2005) indicate that Au1+ is the dominant form of Au in arsenian pyrite and that Au-bearing ore fluids that deposit this sulfide are mostly undersaturated with respect to native Au. The analytical data also show that the solid solubility limit of Au in arsenian pyrite defined by an Au/As ratio of 0.02 is independent of the geochemical environment of pyrite formation and rather depends on the crystal-chemical properties of pyrite and post-depositional alteration. Compilation of Au-As concentrations and formation temperatures for pyrite indicates that Au and As solubility in pyrite is retrograde; Au and As contents decrease as a function of increasing temperature from ∼200 to ∼500 °C. Based on these results, two major Au-As trends for Au-bearing arsenian pyrite from ore deposits are defined. One trend is formed by pyrites from Carlin-type and orogenic Au deposits where compositions are largely controlled by fluid-rock interactions and/or can be highly perturbed by changes in temperature and

  7. Degradation mechanisms studies in CdS/CdTe solar cells with ZnTe:Cu/Au back contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, D.; Tang, J.; Kaydanov, V.; Ohno, T. R.; Trefny, J. U.

    1999-03-01

    CdS/CdTe/ZnTe:Cu/Au solar cells were fabricated and tested under stressed conditions including enhanced temperature, forward and reverse bias, open circuit, dark and light. Discussion of results was focused mostly on the development of the back contact Schottky diode (increase in series resistance). Changes in the cell parameters were detected based on the analysis of the dynamic resistance of a cell (dV/dJ) at forward biases. A possible role of electromigration of the Cu dopant was discussed.

  8. Facile synthesis, pharmacokinetic and systemic clearance evaluation, and positron emission tomography cancer imaging of 64Cu-Au alloy nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Sultan, Deborah; Detering, Lisa; Luehmann, Hannah; Liu, Yongjian

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been widely used for oncological applications including diagnosis and therapy. However, the non-specific mononuclear phagocyte system accumulation and potential long-term toxicity have significantly limited clinical translation. One strategy to overcome these shortcomings is to reduce the size of gold nanoparticles to allow renal clearance. Herein, we report the preparation of 64Cu alloyed gold nanoclusters (64CuAuNCs) for in vivo evaluation of pharmacokinetics, systemic clearance, and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in a mouse prostate cancer model. The facile synthesis in acqueous solution allowed precisely controlled 64Cu incorporation for high radiolabeling specific activity and stability for sensitive and accurate detection. Through surface pegylation with 350 Da polyethylene glycol (PEG), the 64CuAuNCs-PEG350 afforded optimal biodistribution and significant renal and hepatobiliary excretion. PET imaging showed low non-specific tumor uptake, indicating its potential for active targeting of clinically relevant biomarkers in tumor and metastatic organs.Gold nanoparticles have been widely used for oncological applications including diagnosis and therapy. However, the non-specific mononuclear phagocyte system accumulation and potential long-term toxicity have significantly limited clinical translation. One strategy to overcome these shortcomings is to reduce the size of gold nanoparticles to allow renal clearance. Herein, we report the preparation of 64Cu alloyed gold nanoclusters (64CuAuNCs) for in vivo evaluation of pharmacokinetics, systemic clearance, and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in a mouse prostate cancer model. The facile synthesis in acqueous solution allowed precisely controlled 64Cu incorporation for high radiolabeling specific activity and stability for sensitive and accurate detection. Through surface pegylation with 350 Da polyethylene glycol (PEG), the 64CuAuNCs-PEG350 afforded optimal

  9. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment results, presented in tables and graphs, show mean expected amounts of metal and rock in undiscovered deposits at different quantile levels, as well as the arithmetic mean for each tract. This assessment estimated a mean of 39 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the assessed permissive tracts on the Tibetan Plateau. This represents nearly four times the number of known deposits (11) already discovered. Predicted mean (arithmetic) resources that could be associated with the undiscovered deposits are about 145,000,000 t of copper and about 4,900 t of gold, as well as byproduct molybdenum and silver. Reliable reports of the identified resources in the 11 known deposits total about 27,000,000 t of copper and about 800 t of gold. Therefore, based on the assessments of undiscovered Tibetan Plateau resources in this report, about six times as much copper may occur in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits as has been identified to date.

  10. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    This assessment includes an overview of the assessment results with summary tables. Detailed descriptions of each tract are included in appendixes, with estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits, and probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. A geographic information system (GIS) that accompanies the report includes tract boundaries and a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects.

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of each permissive tract, including the rationales for delineation and assessment, are given in appendixes, along with a geographic information system (GIS) that includes permissive tract boundaries, point locations of known porphyry copper deposits and significant occurrences, and hydrothermal alteration data based on analysis of remote sensing data.

  12. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  13. Measurements of directed, elliptic, and triangular flow in Cu + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; White, A. S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients (vn) for inclusive charged particles and identified hadrons π±, K±, p , and p ¯ produced at midrapidity in Cu +Au collisions at √{s NN}=200 GeV are presented. The data were collected in 2012 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The particle azimuthal distributions with respect to different-order symmetry planes Ψn, for n =1 , 2, and 3 are studied as a function of transverse momentum pT over a broad range of collision centralities. Mass ordering, as expected from hydrodynamic flow, is observed for all three harmonics. The charged-particle results are compared with hydrodynamical and transport model calculations. We also compare these Cu +Au results with those in Cu +Cu and Au +Au collisions at the same √{sNN} and find that the v2 and v3, as a function of transverse momentum, follow a common scaling with 1 /(ɛnNpart1 /3) .

  14. First-principles analysis of the spectroscopic limited maximum efficiency of photovoltaic absorber layers for CuAu-like chalcogenides and silicon.

    PubMed

    Bercx, Marnik; Sarmadian, Nasrin; Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2016-07-27

    Chalcopyrite semiconductors are of considerable interest for application as absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaic cells. When growing films of these compounds, however, they are often found to contain CuAu-like domains, a metastable phase of chalcopyrite. It has been reported that for CuInS2, the presence of the CuAu-like phase improves the short circuit current of the chalcopyrite-based photovoltaic cell. We investigate the thermodynamic stability of both phases for a selected list of I-III-VI2 materials using a first-principles density functional theory approach. For the CuIn-VI2 compounds, the difference in formation energy between the chalcopyrite and CuAu-like phase is found to be close to 2 meV per atom, indicating a high likelihood of the presence of CuAu-like domains. Next, we calculate the spectroscopic limited maximum efficiency (SLME) of the CuAu-like phase and compare the results with those of the corresponding chalcopyrite phase. We identify several candidates with a high efficiency, such as CuAu-like CuInS2, for which we obtain an SLME of 29% at a thickness of 500 nm. We observe that the SLME can have values above the Shockley-Queisser (SQ) limit, and show that this can occur because the SQ limit assumes the absorptivity to be a step function, thus overestimating the radiative recombination in the detailed balance approach. This means that it is possible to find higher theoretical efficiencies within this framework simply by calculating the J-V characteristic with an absorption spectrum. Finally, we expand our SLME analysis to indirect band gap absorbers by studying silicon, and find that the SLME quickly overestimates the reverse saturation current of indirect band gap materials, drastically lowering their calculated efficiency.

  15. Late Carboniferous porphyry copper mineralization at La Voluntad, Neuquén, Argentina: Constraints from Re-Os molybdenite dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Mirta; Barra, Fernando; Domínguez, Eduardo; Ruiz, Joaquin; Valencia, Victor A.

    2008-07-01

    The La Voluntad porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in Neuquén, Argentina, is one of several poorly known porphyry-type deposits of Paleozoic to Early Jurassic age in the central and southern Andes. Mineralization at La Voluntad is related to a tonalite porphyry from the Chachil Plutonic Complex that intruded metasedimentary units of the Piedra Santa Complex. Five new Re-Os molybdenite ages from four samples representing three different vein types (i.e., quartz-molybdenite, quartz-sericite-molybdenite and quartz-sericite-molybdenite ± chalcopyrite-pyrite) are identical within error and were formed between ~312 to ~316 Ma. Rhenium and Os concentrations range between 34 to 183 ppm and 112 to 599 ppb, respectively. The new Re-Os ages indicate that the main mineralization event at La Voluntad, associated to sericitic alteration, was emplaced during a time span of 1.7 ± 3.2 Ma and that the deposit is Carboniferous in age, not Permian as previously thought. La Voluntad is the oldest porphyry copper deposit so far recognized in the Andes and indicates the presence of an active magmatic arc, with associated porphyry style mineralization, at the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana during the Early Pennsylvanian.

  16. Formation of nanostructured porous Cu-Au surfaces: the influence of cationic sites on (electro)-catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdovski, Ilija; Selvakannan, Pr.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; O'Mullane, Anthony P.

    2012-09-01

    The fabrication of nanostructured bimetallic materials through electrochemical routes offers the ability to control the composition and shape of the final material that can then be effectively applied as (electro)-catalysts. In this work a clean and transitory hydrogen bubble templating method is employed to generate porous Cu-Au materials with a highly anisotropic nanostructured interior. Significantly, the co-electrodeposition of copper and gold promotes the formation of a mixed bimetallic oxide surface which does not occur at the individually electrodeposited materials. Interestingly, the surface is dominated by Au(i) oxide species incorporated within a Cu2O matrix which is extremely effective for the industrially important (electro)-catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. It is proposed that an aurophilic type of interaction takes place between both oxidized gold and copper species which stabilizes the surface against further oxidation and facilitates the binding of 4-nitrophenol to the surface and increases the rate of reaction. An added benefit is that very low gold loadings are required typically less than 2 wt% for a significant enhancement in performance to be observed. Therefore the ability to create a partially oxidized Cu-Au surface through a facile electrochemical route that uses a clean template consisting of only hydrogen bubbles should be of benefit for many more important reactions.The fabrication of nanostructured bimetallic materials through electrochemical routes offers the ability to control the composition and shape of the final material that can then be effectively applied as (electro)-catalysts. In this work a clean and transitory hydrogen bubble templating method is employed to generate porous Cu-Au materials with a highly anisotropic nanostructured interior. Significantly, the co-electrodeposition of copper and gold promotes the formation of a mixed bimetallic oxide surface which does not occur at the individually electrodeposited materials

  17. Effects of He implantation on radiation induced segregation in Cu-Au and Ni-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, A. |; Rehn, L.E.; Baldo, P.M.; Funk, L.

    1997-09-01

    Effects of He implantation on radiation induced segregation (RIS) in Cu-Au and Ni-Si alloys were investigated using in-situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry during simultaneous irradiation with 1.5-MeV He and low-energy (100 or 400-keV) He ions at elevated temperatures. RIS during single He ion irradiation, and the effects of pre-implantation with low-energy He ions, were also studied. RIS near the specimen surface, which was pronounced during 1.5-MeV He single-ion irradiation, and during simultaneous irradiation with 1.5-MeV He and low-energy He ions. A similar RIS reduction was also observed in the specimens pre-implanted with low-energy He ions. The experimental results indicate that the accumulated He atoms cause the formation of small bubbles, which provide additional recombination sites for freely migrating defects.

  18. Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu+Au Collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; ...

    2017-01-05

    Here we present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu + Au collisions atmore » $$\\sqrt{s}$$$_ {NN}$$ = 200 GeV . The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e., quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1fm / c .« less

  19. Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu +Au Collisions at √{sN N } =200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, T.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Luo, S.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, Z.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, F.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, N.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu +Au collisions at √{sN N }=200 GeV . The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e., quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1 fm /c .

  20. Tectonic environments of South American porphyry copper magmatism through time revealed by spatiotemporal data mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, N.; Steinberg, D.; Müller, R. D.; Williams, S.; Merdith, A. S.; Hardy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Porphyry ore deposits are known to be associated with arc magmatism on the overriding plate at subduction zones. While general mechanisms for driving magmatism are well established, specific subduction-related parameters linking episodes of ore deposit formation to specific tectonic environments have only been qualitatively inferred and have not been formally tested. We develop a four-dimensional approach to reconstruct age-dated ore deposits, with the aim of isolating the tectonomagmatic parameters leading to the formation of copper deposits during subduction. We use a plate tectonic model with continuously closing plate boundaries, combined with reconstructions of the spatiotemporal distribution of the ocean floor, including subducted portions of the Nazca/Farallon plates. The models compute convergence rates and directions, as well as the age of the downgoing plate through time. To identify and quantify tectonic parameters that are robust predictors of Andean porphyry copper magmatism and ore deposit formation, we test two alternative supervised machine learning methods; the "random forest" (RF) ensemble and "support vector machines" (SVM). We find that a combination of rapid convergence rates ( 100 km/Myr), subduction obliquity of 15°, a subducting plate age between 25-70 Myr old, and a location far from the subducting trench boundary (>2000 km) represents favorable conditions for porphyry magmatism and related ore deposits to occur. These parameters are linked to the availability of oceanic sediments, the changing small-scale convection around the subduction zone, and the availability of the partial melt in the mantle wedge. When coupled, these parameters could influence the genesis and exhumation of porphyry copper deposits.

  1. Mineral deposits and Cu-Zn-As dispersion-contamination in stream sediments from the semiarid Coquimbo Region, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzun, R.; Oyarzún, J.; Lillo, J.; Maturana, H.; Higueras, P.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents Cu-Zn-As geochemical data from stream sediment surveys carried out in the three main watersheds of the Coquimbo Region of Chile. This mountainous semiarid realm occupies an area of 40,656 km2 between 29° and 32°S. Given that the area has a long historical record of mining activities, important environmental disturbances were expected. However, despite the detection of three major geochemical anomalies for Cu, Zn, or As, only one can be unmistakably linked to the development of mining-metal recovery procedures (Andacollo-Panulcillo). An investigation of the other two anomalies (Elqui and Hurtado) reveals three major causes that fully or partially account for them: (1) the type of ore deposit and associated hydrothermal alteration; (2) the regional structural setting (intensity of fracturing); and (3) climate-landscape. Cu-Au-As epithermal deposits/prospects along the so-called El Indio belt are here regarded as the sources of both the Elqui and Hurtado anomalies. The strong advanced argillic alteration present in some of the epithermal deposits/prospects of the El Indio belt may have induced the loss of the buffering capacity of rocks, and therefore favoured metal dispersion during later oxidation-leaching of sulphides. This applies to the Elqui and Hurtado anomalies. Conversely, given that the potassic, propylitic and phyllic alterations do not affect the buffering capacity of rocks, only minor metal dispersion is observed in relation to the Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit. Besides, the epithermal belt is located within a highly fractured Andean domain (3,000-4,000 m of altitude), which may have conditioned the fast unroofing of ore deposits, contributed to enhanced circulation of meteoric waters, and eventually, to strong oxidation, and leaching of metals. Metal dispersion is aggravated during rainy years in response to strong El Niño episodes.

  2. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  3. Mo isotope fractionation during hydrothermal evolution of porphyry Cu systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiei, Behnam; Shamanian, GholamHossein; Mathur, Ryan; Mirnejad, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    We present Mo isotope compositions of molybdenite types from three successive stages of ore deposition in several porphyry copper deposits of the Kerman region, Iran. The data provide new insights into controlling processes on Mo isotope fractionation during the hydrothermal evolution of porphyry systems. The Mo isotope compositions of 27 molybdenite samples show wide variations in δ97Mo ranging from -0.37 to +0.92 ‰. The data reveal that molybdenites in the early and transitional stages of mineralization (preferentially 2H polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.35 ‰) have higher δ97Mo values than late stage (mainly 3R polytypes; δ97Mo mean = 0.02 ‰) molybdenites. This trend suggests that fractionation of Mo isotopes occurred in high-temperature stages of mineralization and that hydrothermal systems generally evolve towards precipitation of molybdenite with lower δ97Mo values. Taking into account the genetic models proposed for porphyry Cu deposits along with the temperature-dependent fractionation of Mo isotope ratios, it is proposed that large variations of Mo isotopes in the early and the transitional stages of ore deposition could be controlled by the separation of the immiscible ore-forming fluid phases with different density, pH, and ƒO2 properties (i.e., brine and vapor). The fractionation of Mo isotopes during fluid boiling and Rayleigh distillation processes likely dominates the Mo isotope budget of the remaining ore-forming fluids for the late stage of mineralization. The lower δ97Mo values in the late stage of mineralization can be explained by depletion of the late ore-forming hydrothermal solutions in 97Mo, as these fluids have moved to considerable distance from the source. Finally, the relationship observed between MoS2 polytypes (2H and 3R) and their Mo isotopic compositions can be explained by the molecular vibration theory, in which heavier isotopes are preferentially partitioned into denser primary 2H MoS2 crystals.

  4. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation of Cu/Au thin films under temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qibin; Peng, Xianghe; Peng, Tiefeng; Tang, Qizhong; Zhang, Xiaomin; Huang, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Three modulation period thin films, 1.8 nm Cu/3.6 nm Au, 2.7 nm Cu/2.7 nm Au and 3.6 nm Cu/1.8 nm Au, are obtained from deposition method and ideal modeling based on lattice constant, to examine their structures and thermophysical characteristics under temperature gradient. The coherent lattice interface is found both at deposit and ideal thin films after annealing. Also, the vacancies are observed clearly in the deposit thin films. The defect and component of thin films will influence the energy transportation in the coatings. The vacancies and lattice mismatch can enlarge the mobility of atoms and result in the failure of coating under the thermal stress. The power spectrum of atoms' movement has no apparent rule for phonon transportation in thin films. The results are helpful to reveal the micro-mechanism and provide reasonable basis for the failure of metallic coatings.

  6. Regional mapping of hydrothermally altered igneous rocks along the Urumieh-Dokhtar, Chagai, and Alborz Belts of western Asia using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operators: a tool for porphyry copper exploration and assessment: Chapter O in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, John L.; Zientek, M.L.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Johnson, K.M.; Pierce, F.W.

    2014-01-01

    The ASTER alteration map and corresponding geologic maps were used to select circular to elliptical patterns of argillic- and phyllic-altered volcanic and intrusive rocks as potential porphyry copper sites. One hundred and seventy eight potential porphyry copper sites were mapped along the UDVB, and 23 sites were mapped along the CVB. The potential sites were selected to assist in further exploration and assessments of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  7. Geology and porphyry copper-type alteration-mineralization of igneous rocks at the Christmas Mine, Gila County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    1979-01-01

    The Christmas copper deposit, located in southern Gila County, Arizona, is part of the major porphyry copper province of southwestern North America. Although Christmas is known for skarn deposits in Paleozoic carbonate rocks, ore-grade porphyry-type copper mineralization also occurs in a composite granodioritic intrusive complex and adjacent mafic volcanic country rocks. This study considers the nature, distribution, and genesis of alteration-mineralization in the igneous rock environment at Christmas. At the southeast end of the Dripping Spring Mountains, the Pennsylvanian Naco Limestone is unconformably overlain by the Cretaceous Williamson Canyon Volcanics, a westward-thinning sequence of basaltic volcanic breccia and lava flows, and subordinate clastic sedimentary rocks. Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata are intruded by Laramide-age dikes, sills, and small stocks of hornblende andesite porphyry and hornblende rhyodacite porphyry, and the mineralized Christmas intrusive complex. Rocks of the elongate Christmas stock, intruded along an east-northeast-trending fracture zone, are grouped into early, veined quartz diorite (Dark Phase), biotite granodiorite porphyry (Light Phase), and granodiorite; and late, unveined dacite porphyry and granodiorite porphyry. Biotite rhyodacite porphyry dikes extending east and west from the vicinity of the stock are probably coeval with biotite granodiorite porphyry. Accumulated normal displacement of approximately 1 km along the northwest-trending Christmas-Joker fault system has juxtaposed contrasting levels (lower, intrusive-carbonate rock environment and upper, intrusive-volcanic rock environment) within the porphyry copper system. K-Ar age determinations and whole-rock chemical analyses of the major intrusive rock types indicate that Laramide calc-alkaline magmatism and ore deposition at Christmas evolved over an extended period from within the Late Cretaceous (~75-80 m.y. ago) to early Paleocene (~63-61 m.y. ago). The sequence of

  8. Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield: Chapter K in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutphin, David M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Large, Duncan E.; Berger, Byron R.; Dicken, Connie L.; DeMarr, Michael W.; with contributions from Billa, Mario; Briskey, Joseph A.; Cassard, Daniel; Lips, Andor; Pertold, Zdeněk; Roşu, Emilian

    2013-01-01

    The assessment includes an overview with summary tables. Detailed descriptions of each tract, including the rationales for delineation and assessment, are given in appendixes A–G. Appendix H describes a geographic information system (GIS) that includes tract boundaries and point locations of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects.

  9. Isotopic and geochemical studies of a Pliocene porphyry-Mo system, Rico, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Wareham, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    The historic mining district of Rico in southern Colorado Mineral Belt contains a Pliocene porphyry-Mo deposit and peripheral epithermal Pb-Zn-Ag deposits, and hot-springs. The porphyry-Mo mineralization is confined almost exclusively to Precambrian greenstone. The epithermal mineralization is hosted by a Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequence dominated by carbonates, but containing evaporites. The system is geologically complex and focused on a resurgent dome which is cored by a horst of Precambrian strata, and cut by reactivated Precambrian basement shears. The shears have controlled the emplacement of the Laramide and Pliocene granitoids in area. The mineralization is associated with more evolved members of the latter suite. Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotope and minor element data on the granitoid intrusions indicate that they are not simply differentiates of mantle magmas. However, Nd model ages indicate that they are not purely remelts of 1800Ma Precambrian crust. Realistically it is impossible to quantify the relative proportions of crust and mantle material involved in the genesis of the intrusions. Notwithstanding this, the Rico granitoids are isotopically distinct from those associated with Climax-type porphyry-Mo deposits in Colorado. Sd-Nd-Pb isotope and trace element data on a lamprophyre suite in the area suggest two episodes of mafic magmatism; a period whereby the source was predominantly, OIB-type, asthenospheric mantle. [sigma][sup 34]S data and ore deposit paragenesis indicate that the sulphide S has an igneous origin and that the sulphate S was derived by mobilization of Pennsylvanian evaporites. Modelling of the S isotopic data indicates a common S source for the epithermal and porphyry mineralization. The sulphate and sulphide S reservoirs remained essentially decoupled during mineralization. [sigma][sup 34]C data are compatible with the hydrothermal C having been derived by the dissolution and re-precipitation of host sequence carbonate.

  10. Nuclear matter effects on J /ψ production in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; D'Orazio, L.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miller, A. J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.

    2014-12-01

    We report on J /ψ production from asymmetric Cu + Au heavy-ion collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J /ψ yields in Cu + Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au + Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J /ψ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression in the larger Au nucleus.

  11. Facile synthesis, pharmacokinetic and systemic clearance evaluation, and positron emission tomography cancer imaging of ⁶⁴Cu-Au alloy nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Sultan, Deborah; Detering, Lisa; Luehmann, Hannah; Liu, Yongjian

    2014-11-21

    Gold nanoparticles have been widely used for oncological applications including diagnosis and therapy. However, the non-specific mononuclear phagocyte system accumulation and potential long-term toxicity have significantly limited clinical translation. One strategy to overcome these shortcomings is to reduce the size of gold nanoparticles to allow renal clearance. Herein, we report the preparation of (64)Cu alloyed gold nanoclusters ((64)CuAuNCs) for in vivo evaluation of pharmacokinetics, systemic clearance, and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in a mouse prostate cancer model. The facile synthesis in acqueous solution allowed precisely controlled (64)Cu incorporation for high radiolabeling specific activity and stability for sensitive and accurate detection. Through surface pegylation with 350 Da polyethylene glycol (PEG), the (64)CuAuNCs-PEG350 afforded optimal biodistribution and significant renal and hepatobiliary excretion. PET imaging showed low non-specific tumor uptake, indicating its potential for active targeting of clinically relevant biomarkers in tumor and metastatic organs.

  12. Nuclear matter effects on J/ψ production in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bing, X.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C. -H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Do, J. H.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; D'Orazio, L.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Isinhue, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. -J.; Kim, H. -J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y. -J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kistenev, E.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Krizek, F.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Maruyama, T.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miller, A. J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J. -C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Soumya, M.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.

    2014-12-18

    We report on J/ψ production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J/ψ yields in Cu+Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au+Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J/ψ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression in the larger Au nucleus. Thus, the relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.

  13. Modeling the formation of porphyry-copper ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Porphyry-copper ore systems, the source of much of the world's copper and molybdenum, form when metal-bearing fluids are expelled from shallow, degassing magmas. On page 1613 of this issue, Weis et al. (1) demonstrate that self-organizing processes focus metal deposition. Specifically, their simulation studies indicate that ores develop as consequences of dynamic variations in rock permeability driven by injection of volatile species from rising magmas. Scenarios with a static permeability structure could not reproduce key field observations, whereas dynamic permeability responses to magmatic-fluid injection localized a metal-precipitation front where enrichment by a factor of 103 could be achieved [for an overview of their numerical-simulation model CSMP++, see (2)].

  14. Photoelectron imaging and spectroscopy of MI(2)(-) (M = Cs, Cu, Au): evolution from ionic to covalent bonding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Lei; Wang, Xue-Bin; Xing, Xiao-Peng; Wei, Fan; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2010-10-28

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of MI(2)(-) (M = Cs, Cu, Ag, Au) to explore the chemical bonding in the group IA and IB diiodide complexes. Both photoelectron imaging and low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy are applied to MI(2)(-) (M = Cs, Cu, Au), yielding vibrationally resolved spectra for CuI(2)(-) and AuI(2)(-) and accurate electron affinities, 4.52 ± 0.02, 4.256 ± 0.010, and 4.226 ± 0.010 eV for CsI(2), CuI(2), and AuI(2), respectively. Spin-orbit coupling is found to be important in all the diiodide complexes and ab initio calculations including spin-orbit effects allow quantitative assignments of the observed photoelectron spectra. A variety of chemical bonding analyses (charge population, bond order, and electron localization functions) have been carried out, revealing a gradual transition from the expected ionic behavior in CsI(2)(-) to relatively strong covalent bonding in AuI(2)(-). Both relativistic effects and electron correlation are shown to enhance the covalency in the gold diiodide complex.

  15. Integration of Stream Sediment Geochemical and Aster Data for Porphyry Copper Deposit Exploration in Khatun Abad, North West of Iran / Integracja geochemicznych danych o osadach dennych oraz danych pozyskanych z systemu aster do poszukiwań geologicznych w rejonie złóż miedzi porfirytowej w khatun abad, w północno-zachodniej części iranu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honarpazhouh, Jamal; Hassanipak, Ali Asghar; Seifpanahi Shabani, Kumars

    2013-03-01

    Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt is the host of large porphyry copper deposits in Iran. Khatun Abad area is located in north west part of this belt, so in this study, the stream sediment geochemical survey and hydrothermal alteration zones extracted from ASTER data were used to generation new target for future lithogeochemical survey. In this study after a brief discussion on descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to compress the information to a few maps and to assist in determining multi-element associations. Then C-A fractal method was used for map classification. In order to extraction hydrothermal zones ASTER data were used. ASTER SWIR bands are most useful for the identification of alteration minerals such as Alunite, Pyrophylite, Kaolinite, Sericute and Carbonates. In this paper based on spectral analysis of ASTER SWIR data six maps of alteration zones were prepared. Geochemical study and spectral analysis of ASTER data showed that mineralization and alteration are limited to E1lb and gr lithological units and have NW-SE trends from east of Khatun Abad to Ghezeljeh-Gheshlaghi.

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of Central America and the Caribbean Basin: Chapter I in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Floyd; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Ludington, Stephen; Zürcher, Lukas; Nelson, Carl E.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Miller, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    This assessment estimated a total mean of 37 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the assessed permissive tracts in Central America and the Caribbean Basin. This represents more than five times the seven known deposits. Predicted mean (arithmetic) resources that could be associated with these undiscovered deposits are about 130 million metric tons of copper and about 5,200 metric tons of gold, as well as byproduct molybdenum and silver. The reported identified resources for the seven known deposits total about 39 million metric tons of copper and about 930 metric tons of gold. The assessment area is estimated to contain nearly four times as much copper and six times as much gold in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits as has been identified to date.

  17. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    This report includes a brief overview of porphyry copper deposits in Mexico, a description of the assessment process used, a summary of results, and appendixes. Appendixes A through K contain summary information for each tract, as follows: location, the geologic feature assessed, the rationale for tract delineation, tables and descriptions of known deposits and significant prospects, exploration history, model selection, rationale for the estimates, assessment results, and references. The accompanying digital map files (shapefiles) provide permissive tract outlines, assessment results, and data for deposits and prospects in a GIS format (appendix L).

  18. Age of Supergene oxidation and enrichment in the chilean porphyry copper province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sillitoe, R.H.; McKee, E.H.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of supergene alunite collected from deeply developed supergene profiles in porphyry copper deposits and prospects between latitudes 20?? and 27?? S in northern Chile yield K/Ar ages ranging from about 34 to 14 Ma. Therefore supergene oxidation and enrichment processes were active from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene, a minimum of 20 m.y. Supergene activity at individual deposits lasted for at least 0.4 to 6.2 m.y. The early Oligocene supergene activity affected deposits in the Paleocene porphyry copper belt, whereas early and middle Miocene supergene processes are documented in the Early Cretaceous, Paleocene, and late Eocene to early Oligocene porphyry copper belts. Middle Miocene oxidation also affected the oldest epithermal gold-silver deposits in the Maricunga belt farther east. Supergene activity commenced no less than 11 m.y. after generation of each porphyry copper deposit because of the time required to unroof the copper-bearing parts of the system. Supergene activity throughout northern Chile ceased at -14 Ma. The geologic features of deposits and prospects and their morphotectonic positions, present latitudes, and present elevations display no obvious correlations with the supergene chronology. Exploration for major cumulative enrichment blankets should not be carried out either beneath thick sequences of piedmont gravels (?? ignimbrites) of Oligocene through middle Miocene age unless their accumulation is demonstrably late in the documented history of supergene activity, or in porphyry copper provinces, such as those of central Chile and northwestern Argentina, which formed after ??? 14 Ma. The uplift responsible for efficient cumulative copper enrichment is difficult to correlate convincingly with the brief pulses of compressive tectonism postulated for northern Chile and contiguous areas unless their effects were much more prolonged. Intensifying aridity is confirmed as the likely reason for the cessation of supergene

  19. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  20. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tethys region of western and southern Asia: Chapter V in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zürcher, Lukas; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mars, John C.; Ludington, Stephen; Zientek, Michael L.; Dunlap, Pamela; Wallis, John C.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Sutphin, David M.; Berger, Byron R.; Herrington, Richard J.; Billa, Mario; Kuşcu, Ilkay; Moon, Charles J.; Richards, Jeremy P.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-11-18

    The assessment estimates that the Tethys region contains 47 undiscovered deposits within 1 kilometer of the surface. Probabilistic estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were combined with grade and tonnage models in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate probable amounts of contained metal. The 47 undiscovered deposits are estimated to contain a mean of 180 million metric tons (Mt) of copper distributed among the 18 tracts for which probabilistic estimates were made, in addition to the 62 Mt of copper already identified in the 42 known porphyry deposits in the study area. Results of Monte Carlo simulations show that 80 percent of the estimated undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Tethys region are located in four tracts or sub-tracts.

  1. Mine drainage water from the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman, IR Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahabpour, J; Doorandish, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on stream and mine waters in the area of one of the world largest porphyry copper deposit located in the southeastern Iran, the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Trace metals are present as adsorption on Fe and Mn oxide and hydroxide particles, as sulfate, simple metal ions, and scarcely as adsorption on clay particles and hydrous aluminium oxides. Mean pH decreases and the mean concentration of trace elements, EC and SO4(2-) increases from the maximum discharge period (MXDP) during snow melt run off (May), through the moderate discharge period (MDDP; March and July) to the minimum discharge period (MNDP; September). Water samples have sulfatic character essentially, however, from the MNDP through the MDDP towards the MXDP they show a bicarbonate tendency. This study indicates that the surface waters draining the Sar Cheshmeh open pit have a higher pH and lower concentration of trace metals compared with some other porphyry copper deposits.

  2. [Quantitative surface analysis of Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag alloy films by XPS and AES].

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-Zhong; Zhuo, Shang-Jun; Shen, Ru-Xiang; Qian, Rong; Gao, Jie

    2013-11-01

    In order to improve the quantitative analysis accuracy of AES, We associated XPS with AES and studied the method to reduce the error of AES quantitative analysis, selected Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag binary alloy thin-films as the samples, used XPS to correct AES quantitative analysis results by changing the auger sensitivity factors to make their quantitative analysis results more similar. Then we verified the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of AES when using the revised sensitivity factors by other samples with different composition ratio, and the results showed that the corrected relative sensitivity factors can reduce the error in quantitative analysis of AES to less than 10%. Peak defining is difficult in the form of the integral spectrum of AES analysis since choosing the starting point and ending point when determining the characteristic auger peak intensity area with great uncertainty, and to make analysis easier, we also processed data in the form of the differential spectrum, made quantitative analysis on the basis of peak to peak height instead of peak area, corrected the relative sensitivity factors, and verified the accuracy of quantitative analysis by the other samples with different composition ratio. The result showed that the analytical error in quantitative analysis of AES reduced to less than 9%. It showed that the accuracy of AES quantitative analysis can be highly improved by the way of associating XPS with AES to correct the auger sensitivity factors since the matrix effects are taken into account. Good consistency was presented, proving the feasibility of this method.

  3. From a long-lived upper-crustal magma chamber to rapid porphyry copper emplacement: Reading the geochemistry of zircon crystals at Bajo de la Alumbrera (NW Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buret, Yannick; von Quadt, Albrecht; Heinrich, Christoph; Selby, David; Wälle, Markus; Peytcheva, Irena

    2016-09-01

    The formation of world class porphyry copper deposits reflect magmatic processes that take place in a deeper and much larger underlying magmatic system, which provides the source of porphyry magmas, as well as metal and sulphur-charged mineralising fluids. Reading the geochemical record of this large magmatic source region, as well as constraining the time-scales for creating a much smaller porphyry copper deposit, are critical in order to fully understand and quantify the processes that lead to metal concentration within these valuable mineral deposits. This study focuses on the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper deposit in Northwest Argentina. The deposit is centred on a dacitic porphyry intrusive stock that was mineralised by several pulses of porphyry magma emplacement and hydrothermal fluid injections. To constrain the duration of ore formation, we dated zircons from four porphyry intrusions, including pre-, syn- and post-mineralisation porphyries based on intersection relations between successive intrusion and vein generations, using high precision CA-ID-TIMS. Based on the youngest assemblages of zircon grains, which overlap within analytical error, all four intrusions were emplaced within 29 ka, which places an upper limit on the total duration of hydrothermal mineralisation. Re/Os dating of hydrothermal molybdenite fully overlaps with this high-precision age bracket. However, all four porphyries contain zircon antecrysts which record protracted zircon crystallisation during the ∼200 ka preceding the emplacement of the porphyries. Zircon trace element variations, Ti-in-zircon temperatures, and Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the four porphyry magmas record a common geochemical and thermal history, and that the four intrusions were derived from the same upper-crustal magma chamber. Trace element zoning within single zircon crystals confirms a fractional crystallisation trend dominated by titanite and apatite crystallisation. However, zircon

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of eastern Australia: Chapter L in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Len, Richard A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Jaireth, Subhash; Cossette, Pamela M.; Wallis, John C.

    2014-01-01

    This assessment estimates that 15 undiscovered deposits contain an arithmetic mean of ~21 million metric tons or more of copper in four tracts, in addition to the 24 known porphyry copper deposits that contain identified resources of ~16 million metric tons of copper. In addition to copper, the mean expected amount of undiscovered byproduct gold predicted by the simulation is ~1,500 metric tons. The probability associated with these arithmetic means is on the order of 30 percent. Median expected amounts of metals predicted by the simulations may be ~50 percent lower than mean estimates.

  5. Origin of Late Mesozoic granitoids in the newly discovered Zha-Shan porphyry Cu district, South Qinling, central China, and implications for regional metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guiqing; Mao, Jingwen; Wang, Ruiting; Ren, Tao; Li, Jianbi; Da, Junzhi

    2015-05-01

    The newly discovered porphyry Cu deposits in the South Qinling Belt (SQB) have not been well researched as compared with the large porphyry Mo province in the southern North China Block (S-NCB), and the origin of granitoids associated with porphyry Cu mineralization in the Zha-Shan district, SQB is poorly constrained. Here, we present detailed zircon U-Pb geochronological, whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data for important Late Mesozoic granitoid stocks associated with porphyry Cu deposits in the Zha-Shan district; these data are used to constrain the age and the source of magmas that formed these granitoids, and implication of regional metallogeny. The new zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages presented here indicate that the granitoids related to porphyry Cu system at Chigou, Beishagou, Shuangyuangou and Yuanjiagou developed at 148-144 Ma, 144 Ma, 145-144 Ma and 146 Ma, respectively. These rocks are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids, which are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (e.g., Th, U, and Pb) and light rare earth elements, are depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti, characterizing by wide variations in initial εNd(t) (-3.8 to -9.5), and moderate radiogenic Sr isotopes ((87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7046 to 0.7093). These features indicate that the magmas that formed the granitoids related to porphyry Cu system in the Zha-Shan district formed as a result of variable degrees of mixing between crustal and metasomatic lithospheric mantle. The new zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages in this study, combined with previous published data, suggest that regional-scale Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous granitoid stocks, and associated porphyry Cu and Mo systems in both the S-NCB and SQB formed almost contemporaneously, with 147-139 Ma porphyry Mo deposits in the S-NCB and 148-145 Ma porphyry Cu deposits in the SQB. The Cu-related intrusions contained a greater contribution of lithospheric mantle component than the Mo-related intrusions in the East Qinling Orogeny.

  6. Re-Os and U-Pb geochronology of the Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag and concealed porphyry Mo mineralization along the Changning-Menglian suture, SW China: implications for ore genesis and porphyry Cu-Mo exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Numerous polymetallic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), vein, and replacement deposits are distributed along the Changning-Menglian suture zone in Sanjiang Tethyan metallogenic province, SW China. Laochang is the largest Pb-Zn-Ag vein and replacement deposit in this area, with a proven reserve of 0.51 Mt Pb, 0.34 Mt Zn, and 1,737 t Ag. Its age and relationship to magmatic events and VMS deposits in the region, however, have long been debated. In this paper, we present pyrite Re-Os and titanite U-Pb ages aiming to provide significant insights into the timing and genesis of the Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization. Pyrite grains in textural equilibrium with galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite from stratabound Pb-Zn-Ag and Cu-bearing Pb-Zn-Ag orebodies have a Re-Os isochron age of 45.7 ± 3.1 Ma (2 σ, mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) = 0.45), whereas titanite grains intergrown with sulfide minerals yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 43.4 ± 1.2 Ma (2 σ, n = 8). A Mo-mineralized granitic porphyry intersected by recent drilling below the Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag ores yields a zircon U-Pb age of 44.4 ± 0.4 Ma (2 σ, n = 12). Within analytical uncertainties, the ages of the Pb-Zn-Ag deposit and the concealed Mo-mineralized porphyry are indistinguishable, indicating that they are products of a single magmatic hydrothermal system. The results show that Laochang Pb-Zn-Ag deposit is significantly younger than the host mafic volcanic rock (zircon U-Pb age of 320.8 ± 2.7 Ma; 2 σ, n = 12) and Silurian VMS deposits along the Changning-Menglian suture zone, arguing against its origin as a Carboniferous VMS deposit as many researchers claimed. The initial 187Os/188Os ratio (0.540 ± 0.012) obtained from the pyrite Re-Os isochron suggests that metals were likely derived from the granitic porphyry that formed from a hybrid magma due to mixing of crustal- and mantle-derived melts, rather than from the mafic volcanic host rocks as previously thought. Our results favor that the Laochang

  7. Fluid evolution of Cerro Colorado Porphyry Copper Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Debbie Pui Wai; Wallis, Simon

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro Colorado porphyry copper deposit is the northernmost currently active copper mine in Chile, producing 90.5kt copper per year. It belongs to one of the Paleocene to early Eocene porphyry copper deposits that are distributed along the western slope of the main Andean Cordillera in Northern Chile (Bouzari & Clark, 2002). Active commercial production began in 1994, and the estimated reserves within the supergene blanket can sustain further 12 years of copper mining. Field studies of the well-exposed geology around the mine site and the access to drilled cores that penetrate into the hypogene zone provide a good opportunity to study the temporal relationship between magmatism, hypogene and supergene ore formation of the region. The geological evolution of Cerro Colorado area can be generalized as follows. The Cretaceous Cerro Empexa Formation, consisting of a sequence of volcanic rocks, mainly andesitic lava and breccia, lahars, some ignimbrite intercalations and dacitic tuff (Charrier, Pinto & Rodrigues, 2007), was intruded by tonalitic to dioritic magma in Middle-Eocene. Magmatic activities generated brecciated rocks accompanying with different alteration zones radiate outward from the intrusion. The mineralized hypogene protore later interacted with ground water, creating the supergene blanket, which is now the principal mining target of Cerro Colorado. Several plutonic lithologies with slight but distinct compositional differences were exposed in the valleys around the mine site. The presence of these several phases of small-scale intrusions suggests the ore genesis may be related to multiple pulses of heating and associated fluid flow. Complementarily, on-site geologists have reported occurrences of early stage biotites vein cutting into phyllitic alteration zone, or across terminal stage quartz-pyrite veins in the drilled cores. These observations are direct evidences of at least two major distinct phases of fluid flow, and imply the ore mineralization

  8. Timing and duration of hydrothermal activity at the Los Bronces porphyry cluster: an update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckart, K.; Silva, W.; Spröhnle, C.; Vela, I.

    2014-06-01

    New geochronological data from the Los Bronces cluster of the Río Blanco-Los Bronces mega-porphyry Cu-Mo district establish a wide range of magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization ages, both in terms of areal extent and time. The northern El Plomo and southernmost Los Piches exploration areas contain the oldest barren porphyritic intrusions with U-Pb ages of 10.8 ± 0.1 Ma and 13.4 ± 0.1 Ma, respectively. A hypabyssal barren intrusion adjacent northwesterly to the main pit area yields a slightly younger age of 10.2 ± 0.3 Ma (San Manuel sector, U-Pb), whereas in the Los Bronces (LB) open-pit area, the present day mineral extraction zone, porphyries range from 8.49 to 6.02 Ma (U-Pb). Hydrothermal biotite and sericite ages are up to 0.5 Ma younger but consistent with the cooling of the corresponding intrusion events of each area. Two quartz-molybdenite B-type veins from the LB open pit have Re-Os molybdenite ages of 5.65 ± 0.03 Ma and 5.35 ± 0.03 Ma consistent with published data for the contiguous Río Blanco cluster. The San Manuel exploration area within the Los Bronces cluster, located about 1.5-2 km southeast of the open-pit extraction zone, shows both the oldest hydrothermal biotite (7.70 ± 0.07 Ma; 40Ar/39Ar) and breccia cement molybdenite ages (8.36 ± 0.06 Ma; Re-Os) registered in the entire Río Blanco-Los Bronces district. These are also older than those reported from the El Teniente porphyry Cu(-Mo) deposit, suggesting that mineralization in the late Miocene to early Pliocene porphyry belt of Central Chile commenced 2 Ma before the previously accepted age of 6.3 Ma.

  9. Geochemical and Sr-Pb-Nd isotopic characteristics of the Shakhtama porphyry Mo-Cu system (Eastern Transbaikalia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzina, A. P.; Berzina, A. N.; Gimon, V. O.

    2014-01-01

    The Shakhtama Mo-Cu porphyry deposit is located within the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, bordering the southern margin of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture zone. The deposit includes rocks of two magmatic complexes: the precursor plutonic (J2) and ore-bearing porphyry (J3) complexes. The plutonic complex was emplaced at the final stages of the collisional regime in the region; the formation of the porphyry complex may have overlapped with a transition to extension. The Shakhtama rocks are predominantly metaluminous, I-type high K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic in composition, with relatively high Mg#, Ni, Cr and V. They are characterized by crustal-like ISr (0.70741-0.70782), relatively radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions, ɛNd(T) values close to CHUR (-2.7 to +2.1) and Nd model ages from 0.8 to 1.2 Ga. Both complexes are composed of rocks with K-adakitic features and rocks without adakite trace element signatures. The regional geological setting together with geochemical and isotopic data indicate that both juvenile and old continental crust contributed to their origin. High-Mg# K-adakitic Shakhtama magmas were most likely generated by partial melting of thickened lower crust during delamination and interaction with mantle material, while magmas lacking adakite-like signatures were probably generated at shallower levels of lower crust. The derivation of melts, related to the formation of plutonic and porphyry complexes involved variable amounts of old Precambrian lower crust and juvenile Phanerozoic crust. Isotopic data imply stronger contribution of juvenile mantle-derived material to the fertile magmas of the porphyry complex. Juvenile crust is proposed as an important source of fluids and metals for the Shakhtama ore-magmatic system.

  10. Compositional Variability of Rutile in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, J. R.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    Rutile is a relatively common accessory phase in many geological environments, and although it is almost always composed dominantly of TiO2, it is also associated with a wide range of minor and trace element substitutions. The most prominent minor elements that occur in rutile are Fe, Cr, V, Nb and Ta. Like Ti, the latter two elements are essentially immobile in most non-magmatic metallic ore deposits, and their concentrations in rutile are largely influenced by precursor mineral compositions. Iron, Cr and V concentrations vary considerably in rutile hosted by ore deposits, and reflect combinations of precursor mineral composition and the bulk chemistry of the local mineralized or altered rock environment. However, in hydrothermal alteration zones, rutile compositions are clearly anomalous compared to those in unaltered host rocks, and have distinctive elemental associations and substitutions in different types of ore deposits. We have evaluated the mineral chemistry of rutile in >40 ore deposits worldwide. In general, rutile in volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits contains Sn (and locally W, Sb and/or Cu). Rutile from mesothermal and related gold deposits invariably contains W, and in some of the larger and more important deposits, also contains Sb and/or V. Tungsten-bearing detrital rutile grains from the Witwatersrand suggest that paleoplacer mineralization may have had a mesothermal/orogenic gold source. In some magmatic-hydrothermal Pd-Ni-Cu deposits, rutile contains Ni and Cu. Rutile associated with granite-related Sn deposits has strongly elevated concentrations of Sn and W, and granite-pegmatite W-Sn deposits contain rutile with these elements plus Nb and Ta. The Olympic Dam deposit hosts rutile that is enriched in W, Sn and Cu. Rutile associated with porphyry and skarn Cu and Cu-Au deposits tends to contain elevated W, Cu (and sometimes V). Although many ore deposits have well-defined and diagnostic rutile compositions, there are some compositional

  11. In vitro study on the corrosion behavior of three commercial Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys in Ringer's and 0.1%Na2S solutions.

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Araki, Y; Kawashima, I; Yamane, Y; Ohno, H; Matsuda, K

    1989-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of three commercial Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloys was estimated in Ringer's and 0.1% Na2S solutions by electrochemical techniques and surface analyses. In Ringer's solution, the three alloys showed high corrosion resistance and there was no significant difference in the anodic polarization characteristics of the three alloys. In the 0.1% Na2S solution, the Alloy A which had the lowest noble metal content (Au + Pd) exhibited the highest anodic reactivity with the largest amount of corrosion product on the alloy surface. It was determined that the Ag-rich phase of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was preferentially attacked to form Ag2S corrosion product. The polarization resistance data showed that the corrosion rate for Alloy A in 0.1% Na2S solution was determined to be 500 times higher than that in Ringer's solution. The corrosion rate of the alloy in the freely corroded condition can be estimated quantitatively and precisely by measuring the polarization resistance.

  12. ϕ meson production in the forward/backward rapidity region in Cu + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Al-Ta'Ani, H.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Castera, P.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harper, C.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Issah, M.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Krizek, F.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Masui, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.

    2016-02-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured ϕ meson production and its nuclear modification in asymmetric Cu +Au heavy-ion collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV at both forward Cu-going direction (1.2 Cu +Au collisions averaged over all centrality is measured to be similar to the previous PHENIX result in d +Au collisions for these rapidities.

  13. Φ meson production in the forward/backward rapidity region in Cu + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; ...

    2016-02-04

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured φ meson production and its nuclear modification in asymmetric Cu + Au heavy-ion collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV at both forward Cu-going direction (1.2 < y < 2.2) and backward Au-going direction (-2.2 < y < -1.2) rapidities. The measurements are performed via the dimuon decay channel and reported as a function of the number of participating nucleons, rapidity, and transverse momentum. In the most central events, 0%–20% centrality, the φ meson yield integrated over 1 < pT < 5 GeV/c prefers a smaller value, which means amore » larger nuclear modification, in the Cu-going direction compared to the Au-going direction. Finally and additionally, the nuclear-modification factor in Cu + Au collisions averaged over all centrality is measured to be similar to the previous PHENIX result in d + Au collisions for these rapidities.« less

  14. Nuclear matter effects on J/ψ production in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; ...

    2014-12-18

    We report on J/ψ production from asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 200\\) GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. The nuclear modification of J/ψ yields in Cu+Au collisions in the Au-going direction is found to be comparable to that in Au+Au collisions when plotted as a function of the number of participating nucleons. In the Cu-going direction, J/ψ production shows a stronger suppression. This difference is comparable in magnitude and has the same sign as the difference expected from shadowing effects due to stronger low-x gluon suppression inmore » the larger Au nucleus. Thus, the relative suppression is opposite to that expected from hot nuclear matter dissociation, since a higher energy density is expected in the Au-going direction.« less

  15. Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia: China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia: Chapter G in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.

    2012-01-01

    This report includes an overview of the assessment results and summary tables. Descriptions of each tract are included in appendixes, with estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits, and probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. A geographic information system that accompanies the report includes tract boundaries and a database of known porphyry copper deposits and prospects.

  16. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions of the geologic basis for delineating each tract, the data used, the geologic criteria and rationale for the assessment, and results of the assessment are included in appendixes along with the description of a geographic information system (GIS) that includes tract boundaries, known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects, and assessment results.

  17. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  18. Microthermometric and stable isotopic (O and H) characteristics of fluid inclusions in the porphyry related Çöpler (İliç - Erzincan) gold deposit, central eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canbaz, Oktay; Gökce, Ahmet

    2014-06-01

    The Çöpler gold deposit occurs within the stockwork of quartz hosted by the Çöpler granitoid (Eosen) and by surrounding metasediments of Keban metamorphic (Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic) and the Munzur limestones (Late Carboniferous - Early Cretaceous). Native gold accompanied by small amounts of chalcopyrite, pyrite, magnetite, maghemite, hematite, fahlerz, marcasite, bornite, galena, sphalerite, specular hematite, goethite, lepidochrosite and bravoitic pyrite within the stockwork ore veinlets. In addition, epidote (pistazite - zoisite), garnet, scapolite, chlorite, tremolite/actinolite, muscovite and opaque minerals were determined within the veinlets occurred in skarn zones. The study of fluid inclusions in quartz veinlets showed that the hydrothermal fluids contain CaCl2, MgCl2 and NaCl and the salinities of the two phases (L+V) inclusions range from 1.7 to 20.6% NaCl equivalent. Salinity values up to 44% were determined within the halite bearing three phases inclusions. Their homogenization temperature values have a wide range from 145.0 to 380.0°C, indicative of catathermal/hypothermal to epithermal conditions. The δ 18O and δD values of the fluid inclusion waters from the Çöpler granitoid correspond to those assigned to Primary Magmatic Water, those from the metasediments of Keban metamorphics fall outside of the Primary Magmatic and are within the Metamorphic Water field. A sample from a quartz vein within the skarn zone hosted by the Munzur limestones has a particularly low δD value. The results suggest that fluids derived from the granitoids were mixed with those derived from the metasediments of Keban metamorphics and the the Munzur limestones and resulting in quartz veinlets in these lithologies and the formation of stockwork ores. In view of the occurrence, the features described and processes envisaged for this study area may be applicable in similar settings.

  19. Late Cretaceous caldera volcanism and porphyry copper mineralization at Silver Bell, Pima County, Arizona: geology, petrology, and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Late Cretaceous igneous activity associated with the porphyry copper deposit at Silver Bell was related to caldera volcanism. Caldera volcanism is documented by several lines of evidence: (1) the Confidence Peak Tuff, a phenocryst-rich low-silica rhyolite, ponded to a thickness of greater than 1.5 km.; (2) a belt of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks are enclosed by the tuff as caldera collapse megabreccia; and (3) caldera structure expressed by a 150/sup 0/ arcuate fault, later intruded by plutons and dikes of the QMP (quartz monzodiorite porphyry) suite host to porphyry copper mineralization. Geochemical data show that these rocks are calcalkaline and have close petrotectonic affinities with subduction-related continental arc volcanic provinces. Major element compositions range from high-K andesites to high-K dacites and low-silica rhyolites with the dacites and rhyolites being volumetrically most abundant. Caldera-related rocks have strong LREE/HREE fractionation, except that QMP suite plutons have lower HREE resulting from hornblende fractionation. The chemistry of the common dacites and rhyolites can be derived from andesite by relatively small amounts of plagioclase + pyroxene (or hornblende) + Fe-Ti oxide + apatite fractionation. The composition of the precaldera syenogranite intrusion is anomalous with its high Th, Rb, Ta and flat HREE. Lead isotope ratios for rocks and ores yield a secondary isochron age of 1700 +/- 365 Ma, similar to the age of the oldest Proterozoic crust in southern Arizona. Quartz monzodiorite porphyry plutons have similar Pb isotopic compositions as the porphyry copper ores. Coupled /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb and /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb variation are indicate of variable interaction with a U-depleted source, such as lower crust. Strontium isotopic ratios also support this model.

  20. The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikström, Anders; Pereira, Lola; Lundqvist, Thomas; Cooper, Barry

    2014-05-01

    The Dala (Älvdalen) Porphyries from Sweden Anders Wikström (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Lola Pereira (University of Salamanca, Spain) Thomas Lundqvist (retired from Geological Survey of Sweden) Barry Cooper (University of South Australia) The commercial stone industry in Älvdalen, about 350 km northwest of Stockholm, commenced in the second half of the 18th century, as a consequence of social need. The region had been plagued by severe famine and there was an urgent need for additional wealth-generating industry. At that time it was already known that the porphyry in the area was similar to the "porfido rosso antico" from Egypt which had played an important role in the Roman culture. Many ups and downs followed. During one period in the 19th century, the Swedish Royal family owned the industry. At the same time, several "porphyry" objects were presented to different courts around Europe (e.g. a 4 metre tall vase to the Russian czar, although of a more granitic variety). Otherwise most products have been smaller objects like urns, vases, candelabras, etc. The very hard stone (with variable red or black colours) can be highly polished. Many of the porphyry varieties were sourced from glacial boulders. These had been "mechanically tested" by nature and were free from joints which otherwise was a problem in the associated quarries. Comagmatic granites also occur. The porphyries and granites have an age around 1700 Ma, and the former are amazingly well preserved with magnificent volcanic textures. The porphyries and granites occupy a vast area and are in part covered with red, continental sandstones (which are quarried to-day). In the middle of the 20th century, the ignimbritic character of the porphyry was discovered. Previously, the flattened "fiamme" (collapsed pumice) had been interpreted as some kind of flow structure in a lava. The porphyry manufacturing plants in Älvdalen are a part of the Swedish industrial history. Over a significant

  1. Selecting optimum base wavelet for extracting spectral alteration features associated with porphyry copper mineralization using hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdolmaleki, Mehdi; Tabaei, Morteza; Fathianpour, Nader; Gorte, Ben G. H.

    2017-06-01

    Extracting a set of meaningful spectral features could enhance the classification performance. This is particularly important in hyperspectral images where the dataset are very large and time consuming to process. Wavelet transform as a powerful decomposition tool in both low and high frequency components could play an essential role in extracting spectral features of target minerals. Selecting the optimum base wavelet is an important step in wavelet transform. In this research, two criteria to select optimum base wavelet were implemented on three wavelet series including Daubechie (db), symlet (sym) and coiflet (coif). Energy criterion involves entropy factor and energy-to-Shannon entropy ratio while matching shape criterion operates according to correlation coefficients. High ranking base wavelets in both energy and shape criteria, coif1, db3 and db7, are recommended to be utilized in hyperspectral image classification. Neural Network technique was used for classification and trained by means of mineral spectral features related to typical porphyry copper deposits. Non-Linear wavelet feature extraction was employed to select the efficient features as input data. The study area covered by Hyperion data contains two well-known porphyry copper deposits, Darrehzar and Sarcheshmeh, located in the Iranian copper belt. Based on classification error matrix, it is concluded that db7 through 12 selected features exhibits the maximum consistency with the field measured data and can be recommended as an appropriate base wavelet for detecting porphyry copper deposits.

  2. Microstructures of phased-in Cr-Cu/Cu/Au bump-limiting metallization and its soldering behavior with high Pb content and eutectic PbSn solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, G. Z.; Liu, Ann A.; Kim, H. K.; Tu, K. N.; Totta, Paul A.

    1997-11-01

    The microstructure of phased-in Cr-Cu/Cu/Au multilayer thin films and their solderability with high Pb-content PbSn solder (95/5%) and eutectic PbSn solder (37/63%) were studied by using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We found that the phased-in Cr-Cu layer is intermixed and grains of both Cr and Cu are elongated along the growth direction. This special compositionally graded or functionally graded microstructure presents a lock-in effect of the Cr and Cu grains. It has succeeded in preventing the spalling of Cu3Sn in solder joints formed using the 95/5% solder, but failed in preventing the spalling of Cu6Sn5 in those formed using the eutectic solder. We suggest that the difference may be due to the different dissolution rates of the two compounds in the solders.

  3. Charge-Dependent Directed Flow in Cu+Au Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Anderson, D M; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Ashraf, M U; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huang, T; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Jowzaee, S; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, Y; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Luo, S; Ma, G L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McKinzie, S; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Miller, Z W; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Nonaka, T; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Ray, R L; Reed, R; Rehbein, M J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roth, J D; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, A; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shi, Z; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sugiura, T; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Z; Sun, Y; Sun, X M; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, F; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xie, G; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y F; Xu, H; Xu, Z; Xu, N; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Ye, Z; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2017-01-06

    We present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV. The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e., quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1  fm/c.

  4. ⁶⁴Cu-Doped PdCu@Au Tripods: A Multifunctional Nanomaterial for Positron Emission Tomography and Image-Guided Photothermal Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Zhao, Yongfeng; Luehmann, Hannah; Yang, Xuan; Detering, Lisa; You, Meng; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Ren, Qiushi; Liu, Yongjian; Xia, Younan

    2016-03-22

    This article reports a facile synthesis of radiolabeled PdCu@Au core-shell tripods for use in positron emission tomography (PET) and image-guided photothermal cancer treatment by directly incorporating radioactive (64)Cu atoms into the crystal lattice. The tripod had a unique morphology determined by the PdCu tripod that served as a template for the coating of Au shell, in addition to well-controlled specific activity and physical dimensions. The Au shell provided the nanostructure with strong absorption in the near-infrared region and effectively prevented the Cu and (64)Cu atoms in the core from oxidization and dissolution. When conjugated with D-Ala1-peptide T-amide (DAPTA), the core-shell tripods showed great enhancement in targeting the C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a newly identified theranostic target up-regulated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Specifically, the CCR5-targeted tripods with an arm length of about 45 nm showed 2- and 6-fold increase in tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle uptake ratios, respectively, relative to their nontargeted counterpart in an orthotopic mouse 4T1 TNBC model at 24 h postinjection. The targeting specificity was further validated via a competitive receptor blocking study. We also demonstrated the use of these targeted, radioactive tripods for effective photothermal treatment in the 4T1 tumor model as guided by PET imaging. The efficacy of treatment was confirmed by the significant reduction in tumor metabolic activity revealed through the use of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT imaging. Taken together, we believe that the (64)Cu-doped PdCu@Au tripods could serve as a multifunctional platform for both PET imaging and image-guided photothermal cancer therapy.

  5. Diversity of hydrothermal processes and different types of epithermal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, A. A.; Volkov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    It is shown that classical epithermal deposits with hydrothermal explosions, brecciated and framework-lamellar (including agate-like) structures, and well-developed bonanzas are usually pre-porphyry in origin. This inference seems to be important for development of the genetic model of a porphyry-epithermal ore-forming system as well as for exploration of gold-silver deposits and assessment of their potential.

  6. Diversity of primary CL textures in quartz from porphyry environments: implication for origin of quartz eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, O. V.; Kamenetsky, V. S.; Goemann, K.; Davidson, P.

    2013-10-01

    Porphyry-style mineralization is related to the intrusion and crystallization of small stocks, which can be of different compositions (from intermediate to felsic) and can intrude into different host rocks (from magmatic to sedimentary). We used cathodoluminescence and electron probe microanalysis to study the internal textures of more than 300 quartz eyes from six porphyry deposits, Panguna (Papua New Guinea), Far Southeast porphyry (Philippines), Batu Hijau (Indonesia), Antapaccay (Peru), Rio Blanco (Chile) and Climax (USA). Significant diversity of the internal textures in quartz eyes was revealed, sometimes even within a single sample. Quartz grains with Ti-rich cores surrounded by Ti-poor mantles were found next to the grains showing the opposite Ti distribution or only slight Ti fluctuations.We propose that diversity of the internal patterns in quartz eyes can actually reflect in situ crystallization history, and that prolonged crystallization after magma emplacement under conditions of continuous cooling can account for the observed features of internal textures. Formation of quartz eyes begins at high temperatures with crystallization of high titanium Quartz 1, which as the melt becomes more and more evolved and cooler, is overgrown by low Ti Quartz 2. Subsequent fluid exsolution brings about dramatic change in the melt composition: OH - , alkalis and other Cl-complexed elements partition into the fluid phase, whereas Ti stays in the melt, contributing to a rapid increase in Ti activity. Separation of the fluid and its further cooling causes disequilibrium in the system, and the Quartz 2 becomes partially resorbed. Exsolution of the fluid gradually builds up the pressure until it exceeds the yield strength of the host rocks and they then fracture. This pressure release most likely triggers crystallization of Quartz 3, which is higher in Ti than Quartz 2 because Ti activity in the melt is higher and pressure of crystallization is lower. As a result of the

  7. The Paleozoic tectonic evolution and metallogenesis of the northern margin of East Junggar, Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Geochronological and geochemical constraints from igneous rocks of the Qiaoxiahala Fe-Cu deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pei; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Xiao, Bing; Wu, Chao; Bao, Zhiwei; Cai, Keda

    2016-11-01

    Junggar was associated with the initiation of subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, with the formation of an island arc during the Early to Middle Devonian and generation of the coeval arc-related Fe-Cu (-Au) and porphyry Cu mineralization. Collision between the Chinese Altay and East Junggar happened in the Late Devonian with Early Carboniferous post-collisional tectonics likely explaining the synchronous Cu-Mo mineralization, while the late-Early to Late Carboniferous post-orogenic event ended without related mineralization in Qiaoxiahala.

  8. Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes.

    PubMed

    Weis, P; Driesner, T; Heinrich, C A

    2012-12-21

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production.

  9. Reliable metal deposition into TiO(2) nanotubes for leakage-free interdigitated electrode structures and use as a memristive electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Lee, Kiyoung; Schmuki, Patrik

    2013-11-18

    Nearly 100 % filling of TiO2 nanotubes with metals, including Ag, Cu, Au, and Pt, was achieved by defect-sealing treatment at the bottom of the nanotubes, followed by metal deposition using nuclei formation/coalescence. The resulting short-circuit-free interdigitated electrode configurations can, for example, be used to fabricate memristive electrodes.

  10. Petrogenesis of Late Jurassic granodiorites from Gutian, Fujian Province, South China: Implications for multiple magma sources and origin of porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Lu, An-Huai; Lai, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Yang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The Gutian porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is a newly proved porphyry copper deposit in the coastal South China associated with granodioritic porphyries. In this study, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, as well as geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Re-Os isotopic compositions, are reported for these intrusions and minerals. Both zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating suggest that the Gutian granodiorite porphyries and related mineralization formed at 160 Ma. The Gutian granodiorites show a low-Mg adakitic geochemical affinity, with relatively high K2O but low Cr and Ni contents. These rocks have initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7085 to 0.7097, negative εNd(t) values (- 12.5 to - 7.8), (206Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 18.048 to 18.241, (207Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 15.609 to 15.628, and (208Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 38.494 to 38.667. Zircons from the granodiorites have negative εHf(t) values of - 15.7 to - 8.5, which are close to those of Cathaysia crust-derived melts. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions suggest that they may be derived from Late Jurassic thickened juvenile lower crust. These lower crustal magma sources may not only contain pre-Proterozoic basement rocks, but also involve Triassic and Middle-Late Jurassic arc magmas within the lower crust, which were likely derived from an enriched mantle source associated with paleo-Pacific Plate subduction from the Middle to Late Jurassic. The Gutian ore-related granodiorites represent a new example for significant contributions of ancient subduction melts and enriched mantle-derived sources for porphyry-type magmatism and Cu-Mo mineralization, which occurred in response to an arc regime during the Middle to Late Jurassic in South China. Supplemental Table S2. Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from the studied rocks from the Gutian porphyry deposit in South China. Supplemental Table S3. Statistics for zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions from Gutian granodiorites in South China Supplemental Table S4. Major element (wt

  11. Nuclear Matter Effects on ϕ Production in Cu+Au Collisions at √{s}NN = 200 GeV with the PHENIX Muon Arms at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezghani, Margaret; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A major objective in the field of high-energy nuclear physics is to quantify and characterize the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The ϕ meson is an excellent probe for studying this hot and dense state of nuclear matter due to its very short lifetime, and the absence of strong interactions between muons and the surrounding hot hadronic matter makes the ϕ to dimuon decay channel particularly interesting. Since the ϕ meson is composed of a strange and antistrange quark, its nuclear modification in heavy-ion collisions may provide insight on strangeness enhancement in-medium. Additionally, the rapidity dependence of ϕ production in asymmetric heavy-ion collisions provides a unique means to study the entanglement of hot and cold nuclear matter effects. In this talk, we present the measurement of ϕ meson production and nuclear modification in asymmetric Cu+Au heavy-ion collisions at √{s}NN = 200 GeV at both forward (Cu-going direction) and backward (Au-going direction) rapidities. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists, Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) award program.

  12. Photoelectron Imaging and Spectroscopy of MI2- (M = Cs, Cu, Au): Evolution from Ionic to Covalent Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Lei; Wang, Xue B; Xing, Xiaopeng; Wei, Fan; Li, Jun; Wang, Lai S

    2010-10-28

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on MI2- (M = Cs, Cu, Ag, Au) to explore the chemical bonding in the group IA and IB di-iodide complexes. Both photoelectron imaging and low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy are applied to MI2- (M = Cs, Cu, Au), yielding vibrationally resolved spectra for CuI2- and AuI2- and accurate electron affinities, 4.52 ± 0.02, 4.256 ± 0.010, and 4.226 ± 0.010 eV for CsI2, CuI2, and AuI2, respectively. Spin-orbit coupling is found to be important in all the di-iodide complexes and ab initio calculations including spin-orbit effects allow quantitative assignments of the observed photoelectron spectra. A variety of chemical bonding analyses (charge population, bond order, and electron localization functions) have been carried out, revealing a gradual transition from the expected ionic behavior in CsI2- to strong covalent bonding in AuI2-. Both relativistic effects and electron correlation are shown to enhance the covalency in the gold di-iodide complex.

  13. Gold-Silver mineralization in porphyry-epithermal systems of the Baimka trend, western Chukchi Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Yu. N.; Baksheev, I. A.; Prokofiev, V. Yu.; Nagornaya, E. V.; Marushchenko, L. I.; Sidorina, Yu. N.; Chitalin, A. F.; Kal'ko, I. A.

    2016-07-01

    Mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and geochemical studies of precious metal mineralization within the Baimka trend in the western Chukchi Peninsula have been preformed. Porphyry copper-molybdenum-gold deposits and prospects of the Baimka trend are spatially related to monzonitic rocks of the Early Cretaceous Egdygkych Complex. Four types of precious metal-bearing assemblages have been identified: (1) chalcopyrite + bornite + quartz with high-fineness native gold enclosed in bornite, (2) low-Mn dolomite + quartz + sulfide (chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tennantite-tetrahedrite) ± tourmaline with low-fineness native gold and hessite, (3) rhodochrosite + high-Mn dolomite + quartz + sulfide (chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tennantite- tetrahedrite) with low-fineness native gold, electrum, acanthite, Ag and Au-Ag tellurides, and Ag sulfosalts, and (4) calcite + quartz + sulfide (chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena) with low-fineness native gold, Ag sulfides and selenides, and Ag-bearing sulfosalts. Study of fluid inclusions from quartz, sphalerite, and fluorite have revealed that hydrothermal ores within the Baimka trend precipitated from fluids with strongly variable salinity at temperatures and pressures ranging from 594 to 104°C and from 1200 to 170 bar, respectively. An indicator of vertical AgPbZn/CuBiMo geochemical zoning is proposed. The value range of this indicator makes it possible to estimate the erosion level of the porphyry-epithermal system. The erosion level of the Baimka deposits and prospects deepens in the following order: Vesenny deposit → Pryamoi prospect → Nakhodka prospect → Peschanka deposit → III Vesenny prospect.

  14. Geochronology, geochemistry, and tectonic environment of porphyry mineralization in the central Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Cox, Dennis P.

    1983-01-01

    Porphyry type sulfide systems on the central Alaska Peninsula occupy a transition zone between the Aleutian island magmatic arc and the continental magmatic arc of southern Alaska. Mineralization occurs associated with early and late Tertiary magmatic centers emplaced through a thick section of Mesozoic continental margin clastic sedimentary rocks. The systems are of the molybdenum-rich as opposed to gold-rich type and have anomalous tungsten, bismuth, and tin, attributes of continental-margin deposits, yet gravity data suggest that at least part of the study area is underlain by oceanic or transitional crust. Potassium-argon age determinations indicate a variable time span of up to 2 million years between emplacement and mineralization in a sulfide system with mineralization usually followed by postmineral intrusive events. Finally, mineralization in the study area occurred at many times during the time span of igneous activity and should be an expected stage in the history of a subduction related magmatic center.

  15. What IOCG Deposits Tell Us About Crustal Intrusion and Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathles, L. M.; Rodriguez-Mustafa, M.

    2016-12-01

    Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) deposits are major Na, Fe, Cu, Au, (REE, U) geochemical anomalies whose altering fluids (CO2 and perhaps brine) traversed the entire crust through structural vents. The deposits appear to have formed over protracted periods of time, and are not spatially related to intrusions, although thin dikes, now altered, penetrate the conduit and deposits. We hypothesize that these distinctive characteristics are fundamentally caused by the buoyant escape of a gas (CO2) in contrast to the more usual buoyant escape of a magma. Magma can self-seal when cooled, whereas gas cannot. The implications of this critical difference are explored in the talk.

  16. The physical hydrology of magmatic-hydrothermal systems: High-resolution 18O records of magmatic-meteoric water interaction from the Yankee Lode tin deposit (Mole Granite, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits are important economic Cu, Au, Mo and Sn resources (Sillitoe, 2010, Kesler, 1994). The ore formation is a result of superimposed enrichment processes and metals can precipitate due to fluid-rock interaction and/or temperature drop caused by convection or mixing with meteoric fluid (Heinrich and Candela 2014). Microthermometry and LA-ICP MS trace element analyses of fluid inclusions of a well-characterized quartz sample from the Yankee Lode quartz-cassiterite vein deposit (Mole Granite, Australia) suggest that tin precipitation was driven by dilution of hot magmatic water by meteoric fluids (Audétat et al.1998). High resolution in situ oxygen isotope measurements of quartz have the potential to detect changing fluid sources during the evolution of a hydrothermal system. We analyzed the euhedral growth zones of this previously well-studied quartz sample. Growth temperatures are provided by Audétat et al. (1998) and Audétat (1999). Calculated δ 18O values of the quartz- and/or cassiterite-precipitating fluid show significant variability through the zoned crystal. The first and second quartz generations (Q1 and Q2) were precipitated from a fluid of magmatic isotopic composition with δ 18O values of ˜ 8 - 10 ‰. δ 18O values of Q3- and tourmaline-precipitating fluids show a transition from magmatic δ 18O values of ˜ 8 ‰ to ˜ -5 ‰. The outermost quartz-chlorite-muscovite zone was precipitated from a fluid with a significant meteoric water component reflected by very light δ 18O values of about -15 ‰ which is consistent with values found by previous studies (Sun and Eadington, 1987) using conventional O-isotope analysis of veins in the distal halo of the granite intrusion. Intense incursion of meteoric water during Q3 precipitation (light δ 18O values) agrees with the main ore formation event, though the first occurrence of cassiterite is linked to Q2 precipitating fluid with magmatic-like isotope signature. This

  17. Ni, Cu, Au, and platinum-group element contents of sulphides associated with intraplate magmatism: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, S.-J.; Zientek, M.L.; Severson, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The tectonic setting of intraplate magmas, typically a plume intersecting a rift, is ideal for the development of Ni - Cu - platinum-group element-bearing sulphides. The plume transports metal-rich magmas close to the mantle - crust boundary. The interaction of the rift and plume permits rapid transport of the magma into the crust, thus ensuring that no sulphides are lost from the magma en route to the crust. The rift may contain sediments which could provide the sulphur necessary to bring about sulphide saturation in the magmas. The plume provides large volumes of mafic magma; thus any sulphides that form can collect metals from a large volume of magma and consequently the sulphides will be metal rich. The large volume of magma provides sufficient heat to release large quantities of S from the crust, thus providing sufficient S to form a large sulphide deposit. The composition of the sulphides varies on a number of scales: (i) there is a variation between geographic areas, in which sulphides from the Noril'sk - Talnakh area are the richest in metals and those from the Muskox intrusion are poorest in metals; (ii) there is a variation between textural types of sulphides, in which disseminated sulphides are generally richer in metals than the associated massive and matrix sulphides; and (iii) the massive and matrix sulphides show a much wider range of compositions than the disseminated sulphides, and on the basis of their Ni/Cu ratio the massive and matrix sulphides can be divided into Cu rich and Fe rich. The Cu-rich sulphides are also enriched in Pt, Pd, and Au; in contrast, the Fe-rich sulphides are enriched in Fe, Os, Ir, Ru, and Rh. Nickel concentrations are similar in both. Differences in the composition between the sulphides from different areas may be attributed to a combination of differences in composition of the silicate magma from which the sulphides segregated and differences in the ratio of silicate to sulphide liquid (R factors). The higher metal

  18. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  19. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-03-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  20. Magnetic effects of hydrothermal alteration in porphyry copper and iron-oxide copper-gold systems: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David A.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic anomaly patterns can be used as a tool for mapping lithology, metamorphic zones and hydrothermal alteration systems, as well as identifying structures that may control passage of magmas or hydrothermal fluids associated with mineralisation. Reliable geological interpretation of mineralised systems requires an understanding of the magmatic, metamorphic and hydrothermal processes that create, alter and destroy magnetic minerals in rocks. Predictive magnetic exploration models for porphyry copper and iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits can be derived from standard geological models by integrating magnetic petrological principles with petrophysical data, deposit descriptions, and modelling of observed magnetic signatures of these deposits. Even within a particular geological province, the magnetic signatures of similar deposits may differ substantially, due to differences in the local geological setting. Searching for “look-alike” signatures of a known deposit is likely to be unrewarding unless pertinent geological factors are taken into account. These factors include the tectonic setting and magma type, composition and disposition of host rocks, depth of emplacement and post-emplacement erosion level, depth of burial beneath younger cover, post-emplacement faulting and tilting, remanence effects contingent on ages of intrusion and alteration, and metamorphism. Because the effects of these factors on magnetic signatures are reasonably well understood, theoretical magnetic signatures appropriate for the local geological environment can qualitatively guide exploration and make semiquantitative predictions of anomaly amplitudes and patterns. The predictive models also allow detectability of deposit signatures to be assessed, for example when deposits are buried beneath a considerable thickness of nonmagnetic overburden, are covered by highly magnetic heterogeneous volcanic rocks, or there is a strong regional magnetic gradient. This paper reviews the

  1. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  2. Timing of porphyry (Cu-Mo) and base metal (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system—Morococha district, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchpole, Honza; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bendezú, Aldo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Spikings, Richard; Stein, Holly; Fontboté, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    The Morococha district in central Peru is characterised by economically important Cordilleran polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) vein and replacement bodies and the large Toromocho porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in its centre. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology data for various porphyry-related hydrothermal mineralisation styles record a 3.5-Ma multi-stage history of magmatic-hydrothermal activity in the district. In the late Miocene, three individual magmatic-hydrothermal centres were active: the Codiciada, Toromocho, and Ticlio centres, each separated in time and space. The Codiciada centre is the oldest magmatic-hydrothermal system in the district and consists of a composite porphyry stock associated with anhydrous skarn and quartz-molybdenite veins. The hydrothermal events are recorded by a titanite U-Pb age at 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os age at 9.26 ± 0.03 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages for porphyry intrusions of the composite stock and indicate a time span of 0.2 Ma for magmatic-hydrothermal activity. The small Ticlio magmatic-hydrothermal centre in the west of the district has a maximum duration of 0.3 Ma, ranging from porphyry emplacement to porphyry mineralisation at 8.04 ± 0.14 Ma (40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling age). The Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre has a minimum of five recorded porphyry intrusions that span a total of 1.3 Ma and is responsible for the formation of the giant Toromocho Cu-Mo deposit. At least two hydrothermal pulses are identified. Post-dating a first pulse of molybdenite mineralisation, wide-spread hydrous skarn covers an area of over 6 km2 and is recorded by five 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages at 7.2-6.8 Ma. These ages mark the end of the slowly cooling and long-lived Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre soon after last magmatic activity at 7.26 ± 0.02 Ma. District-wide (50 km2) Cordilleran base metal vein and replacement bodies post-date the youngest recorded porphyry mineralisation event at Toromocho

  3. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb and biotite and hornblende Ar-Ar geochronology of Sungun, Haftcheshmeh, Kighal, and Niaz porphyry Cu-Mo systems: evidence for an early Miocene porphyry-style mineralization in northwest Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Shohreh; Alirezaei, Saeed; Selby, David; Sergeev, Sergey

    2014-09-01

    The Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt (UDMB) extends for over 2,000 km from northwest to southeast Iran and is characterized by dominantly calc-alkaline volcanic, pyroclastic, and intrusive rocks. The UDMB hosts numerous porphyry-type Cu ± Mo deposits, mostly distributed in two separate areas, one known as the Kerman copper belt (KCB) in the south, and the other, here referred to as the Arasbaran Metallogenic Zone (AMZ), in the north, of the UDMB. The two areas are represented by two world-class Cu-Mo deposits, Sarcheshmeh (1,200 Mt of ore at 0.69 % Cu and 300 ppm Mo) and Sungun (>500 Mt of ore at 0.69 % Cu and ~250 ppm Mo), respectively. Chronology data were obtained for the Sungun, Haftcheshmeh, Kighal, and Niaz deposits in the AMZ. The Sungun deposit is associated with a suite of porphyritic granodiorite to monzodiorite stocks and late dykes intruding older andesitic lavas and limestones. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb data indicate that the host andesites were emplaced at 27.65 ± 0.51 Ma (±0.2σ). The main Sungun porphyritic intrusion crystallized at 20.69 ± 0.37 (±0.2σ) Ma. The Haftcheshmeh deposit is associated with a porphyritic granodiorite body intruding an older gabbro-diorite intrusion. Primary magmatic hornblende from the gabbro-diorite host rock yielded a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 27.47 ± 0.17 Ma. The main porphyritic intrusion crystallized at 19.46 ± 0.39 Ma. The Kighal porphyry system is associated with a porphyritic monzonite body intruding into older andesitic and dacitic lavas, and the Niaz porphyry system is associated with a porphyritic granodiorite stock cutting through an older monzodiorite intrusion. For the Kighal and Niaz, secondary biotite concentrates collected from potassic alteration zones in the parent porphyritic bodies yielded plateau ages of 20.1 ± 1.8 and 22.14 ± 0.13 Ma, respectively. The timing of the porphyritic intrusions and the associated mineralizations in the AMZ is considerably older than that in KCB in southern UDMB (14

  4. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb and biotite and hornblende Ar-Ar geochronology of Sungun, Haftcheshmeh, Kighal, and Niaz porphyry Cu-Mo systems: evidence for an early Miocene porphyry-style mineralization in northwest Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Shohreh; Alirezaei, Saeed; Selby, David; Sergeev, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    The Cenozoic Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt (UDMB) extends for over 2,000 km from northwest to southeast Iran and is characterized by dominantly calc-alkaline volcanic, pyroclastic, and intrusive rocks. The UDMB hosts numerous porphyry-type Cu ± Mo deposits, mostly distributed in two separate areas, one known as the Kerman copper belt (KCB) in the south, and the other, here referred to as the Arasbaran Metallogenic Zone (AMZ), in the north, of the UDMB. The two areas are represented by two world-class Cu-Mo deposits, Sarcheshmeh (1,200 Mt of ore at 0.69 % Cu and 300 ppm Mo) and Sungun (>500 Mt of ore at 0.69 % Cu and ~250 ppm Mo), respectively. Chronology data were obtained for the Sungun, Haftcheshmeh, Kighal, and Niaz deposits in the AMZ. The Sungun deposit is associated with a suite of porphyritic granodiorite to monzodiorite stocks and late dykes intruding older andesitic lavas and limestones. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb data indicate that the host andesites were emplaced at 27.65 ± 0.51 Ma (±0.2σ). The main Sungun porphyritic intrusion crystallized at 20.69 ± 0.37 (±0.2σ) Ma. The Haftcheshmeh deposit is associated with a porphyritic granodiorite body intruding an older gabbro-diorite intrusion. Primary magmatic hornblende from the gabbro-diorite host rock yielded a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 27.47 ± 0.17 Ma. The main porphyritic intrusion crystallized at 19.46 ± 0.39 Ma. The Kighal porphyry system is associated with a porphyritic monzonite body intruding into older andesitic and dacitic lavas, and the Niaz porphyry system is associated with a porphyritic granodiorite stock cutting through an older monzodiorite intrusion. For the Kighal and Niaz, secondary biotite concentrates collected from potassic alteration zones in the parent porphyritic bodies yielded plateau ages of 20.1 ± 1.8 and 22.14 ± 0.13 Ma, respectively. The timing of the porphyritic intrusions and the associated mineralizations in the AMZ is considerably older than that in KCB in southern UDMB (14

  5. The Alapaevsk-Sukhoi Log porphyry copper zone, Middle Urals: The U-Pb age of productive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Korovko, A. V.; Gerdes, A.; Azovskova, O. B.; Pribavkin, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Alapaevsk-Sukhoi Log zone about 100 km long and 3-10 km wide with numerous porphyry copper occurrences and small deposits is located in the eastern part of the East Ural volcanic megazone, Middle Urals. The long evolution of productive magmatism (according to the U-Pb (SHRIMP-II and LA-ICP-MS age of zircon) and its rejuvenation are established from the north and the south (Ma): from 411 ± 3 (Yalunina Gora pluton, town of Alapaevsk) to 404-406 ± 3 (Altynai-Artemovsk pluton, town of Artemovsk) and to 397 ± 4 (porphyric rhyodacites of the Shata area, town of Sukhoi Log). The K2O content in productive quartz diorites is 0.4-0.7, 0.8-1.2, and 0.4-0.7 wt %, respectively. The Mo-Cu porphyry occurrences are abundant in the Altynai-Artemovsk area. The granitic rocks of the quartz dioritic East Artemovsk pluton, which was recently found, are sericitized and contain significant sulfide mineralization. The structural position, age (365 ± 39 Ma, Rb-Sr errochron), composition of granitic rocks, and its mineralization are similar to those of the large (1.7 Mt Cu) Mikheevka deposit (U-Pb SHRIMP-II age of zircon is 356 ± 6 Ma) in the South Urals.

  6. A comparison of rock and soil samples for geochemical mapping of two porphyry-metal systems in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuerburg, George J.; Barton, H.N.; Watterson, J.R.; Welsch, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    Paired rock and soil samples were collected at widely spaced locations in large segments of the porphyry-metal systems of the Montezuma district in central Colorado and of a northwestward extension of the Summitville district into Crater Creek in southern Colorado. The paired samples do not covary closely enough for one sample medium to proxy for the other. However, the areal distributions of elements in both rocks and soils in these two districts conform to alteration zoning as defined by mineralogy. Differing geochemical patterns of rocks and soils reflect species-dependent responses to weathering. Soils appear to be statistically enriched in ore elements and depleted in rock elements as compared to the matching rocks. These differences are largely artificial s owing to different methods of sample preparation and chemical analysis for rocks and for soils. The distributions of metals in soils delineate the occurrence of ore-metal minerals mostly from vein deposits whereas the distributions of metals in rocks conform to zones of pervasive hydrothermal alteration and to the distribution of varied mineral deposits among these zones. Rock and soil samples are equally useful s of comparable map resolution and complement one another as a basis for geochemically mapping these porphyry-metal systems.

  7. Gold deposits of the Carajás mineral province: deposit types and metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NetunoVillas, Raimundo; Santos, Marcio

    2001-07-01

    The Carajás mineral province is located in the south-eastern part of the Amazon craton and is divided into the southern and northern tectonic blocks, which are referred to as the Rio Maria granitoid-greenstone terrane and the Itacaiúnas shear belt, respectively. The geological evolution of this province occurred almost entirely in the Archean, with no tectonism from ~2.4 to 1.9 Ga and then an episode of very extensive intraplate granitic magmatism. Distinct types of gold deposits, most associated with Archean metavolcano-sedimentary sequences, including greenstone belts as old as 2.9 Ga, comprise (1) Fe-oxide-poor Cu-Au, (2) Fe-oxide-Cu-Au-U-REE, (3) shear-zone related lode-gold, and (4) sedimentary rock-hosted Au-PGE. The shear-zone related deposits are more typical of the Rio Maria granitoid-greenstone terrane, whereas the other types are more abundant in the Itacaiunas shear belt. The first type, represented by the Serra Verde deposit, shows most characteristics of volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, except for the dominance of chalcopyrite over pyrite and/or pyrrhotite. Some deposits of the second type (Igarapé Salobo and Igarapé Bahia) are also syngenetic, but their ore mineralogy and paucity of pyrite and/or pyrrhotite are inconsistent with, or at least unusual for, classic VMS deposits. Other Fe-oxide-Cu-Au-U-REE deposits, such as the Cristalino and Sossego, occur as epigenetic stockwork mineralization related to Archean granitoid stocks. Most shear-zone related lode-gold deposits are classified as orogenic gold deposits (e.g. Sapucaia, Babaçu and Tucumã) that cut greenstone belt rocks. The Cumaru deposit is also hosted by a shear zone, but may have a genetic association with a granitoid intrusion. The Águas Claras deposit, although also hosted in a shear zone and perhaps intrusion-related, differs from the orogenic gold deposits by its extensional tectonic setting, lack of CO2 in the ore fluids, and voluminous chalcopyrite. The sedimentary

  8. HRTEM/AEM study of trace metal behavior, sheet silicate reactions, and fluid/solid mass balances in porphyry copper hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veblen, D.R.; Ilton, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to investigate copper (Cu) incorporation into silicates and alteration reactions in porphyry copper deposits. High Cu in biotites results from submicroscopic inclusions of native Cu. The incorporation of Cu in low-temperature alteration lamellae suggests that Cu enrichment occurs during weathering, rather than during the hydrothermal event. Drill core from Cyprus Casa Grande, Arizona, shows systematic variation of Cu in sheet silicates as a function of depth in the weathering column. The aims of the present project are to apply the powerful techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) to understanding the geochemical processes in porphyry copper systems at the near-atomic scale. Our primary goals are to characterize the structural state of anomalously high Cu in silicates, determine the timing and conditions of Cu enrichment in silicates such as biotite, and use these data to suggest how base metals are released and subsequently immobilized under hydrothermal or weathering conditions; and to determine the submicroscopic, atomic-level reaction mechanisms responsible for silicate alteration in porphyry-copper hydrothermal systems, which will allow us to determine reaction stoichiometries and hence mass balances between minerals and hydrothermal fluid. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, David I.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Santosh, M.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to their province scale similarities, the different giant gold deposit styles show contrasting critical controls at the district to deposit scale. For orogenic gold deposits, the giants appear to have formed by conjunction of a greater number of parameters to those that control smaller deposits, with resultant geometrical and lithostratigraphic complexity as a guide to their location. There are few giant IRGS due to their inferior fluid-flux systems relative to orogenic gold deposits, and those few giants are essentially preservational exceptions. Many Carlin-type deposits are giants due to the exceptional conjunction of both structural and lithological parameters that caused reactive and permeable rocks, enriched in syngenetic gold, to be located below an impermeable cap along antiformal “trends”. Hydrocarbons probably played an important role in concentrating metal. The supergiant Post-Betze deposit has additional ore zones in strain heterogeneities surrounding the pre-gold Goldstrike stock. All unequivocal IOCG deposits are giant or near-giant deposits in terms of gold-equivalent resources, partly due to economic factors for this relatively poorly understood, low Cu-Au grade deposit type. The supergiant Olympic Dam deposit, the most shallowly formed deposit among the larger IOCGs, probably owes its origin to eruption of volatile-rich hybrid magma at surface, with formation of a large maar and intense and widespread brecciation, alteration and Cu-Au-U deposition in a huge rock volume.

  10. Refinement of the time-space evolution of the giant Mio-Pliocene Río Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry Cu-Mo cluster, Central Chile: new U-Pb (SHRIMP II) and Re-Os geochronology and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckart, Katja; Clark, Alan H.; Cuadra, Patricio; Fanning, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Representing one of the largest known (estimated >5 Gt at 1 % Cu and 0.02 % Mo) porphyry system, the Río Blanco-Los Bronces deposit incorporates at least five hypabyssal intrusive and hydrothermal centres, extending for about 5 km from the Río Blanco and Los Bronces mines in the north, through the Don Luis mine, to the Sur Sur mine, La Americana and Los Sulfatos in the south. The new geochronology data, which now include data on different molybdenite vein types, confirm the U-Pb ages of the pre-mineralisation intrusions but slightly increase their age range from 8.8 to 8.2 Ma. The distinct magmatic pulses of the mineralisation-associated porphyritic intrusives (Late Porphyries) indicate an age interval instead of the previously suggested individual ages: the quartz monzonite porphyry ranges from 7.7 to 6.1 Ma (Sur Sur 5.74 ± 0.13 Ma), the feldspar porphyry shows an interval from 5.8 to 5.2 Ma and the Don Luis porphyry from 5.2 to 5.0 Ma. The new Re-Os data on distinct molybdenite vein types confirm the protracted history of Cu(-Mo) mineralisation, inferred previously. The vein development occurred at least from 5.94 to 4.50 Ma, indicating a time-span of 1.5 Ma for the hydrothermal activity. Hydrothermal minerals dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method are generally too young to record the age of early, high-temperature mineralisation. The majority of the 40Ar/39Ar data in the Río Blanco porphyry cluster record reheating by either the youngest member of the Late Porphyry suite or the post-mineralisation dacite or rhyolite plug formations at around 4.9-4.7 Ma.

  11. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  12. Research on remote sensing assessment technology for porphyry copper in south of Arequipa province of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rihong; Li, Zhizhong; Cheng, Xiufa; Zhao, Yuling

    2014-05-01

    The study area is located in the middle section of Andean metallogenic zone. Excellent mineralization geological conditions make it the most principal Porphyry Copper Deposits (PCDs) distribution area in southern Peru and there are several super-large PCDs for hundreds of kilometers in every direction. The regional metallogenic regularity of this area is controlled by the NNW fault parallel to the trench on the west of the South American continent. Small porphyry rocks are very common in this area (circular structure pattern in remote sensing image) with typical zoned alteration of PCD - potassic alteration, argillic alteration, phyllic alteration and propylitization (most exposed) from inside to the outside on the surface. These geologic features can be recognized and extracted by using remote sensing image data. Accordingly, the reflectivity curve of main altered minerals of the typical alteration zones of PCD was rebuilt which was corresponded to B1-B9 of ASTER satellite data, based on the altered mineral assemblages and their spectral characteristics of the typical alteration zones of PCD, and ASTER data's ability of identifying minerals with argillic alteration and carbonatite alteration. Based on the standard spectral data of USGS, We found that the information of argillic-and phyllic- altered minerals assemblages in the typical alteration zones can be extracted in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1467 while the information of propylitization altered minerals in the principal components analysis pattern based on ASTER B1348 with larger reflectivity of B9 than B8, after comparing and analyzing comprehensively the spectral curve characteristics of main altered minerals. In this method, altered minerals assemblages of argillic-and phyllic- altered zone and propylitization altered zone in this study area was extracted, and the results agree well with the distribution of known PCD. Meanwhile, remote sensing geological interpretation has

  13. Measurements of 3d occupancy from Cu L2,3 electron-energy-loss spectra of rapidly quenched CuZr, CuTi, CuPd, CuPt, and CuAu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, D. H.; Ahn, C. C.; Fultz, B.

    1994-11-01

    We used electron-energy-loss spectrometry to measure the intensities of the Cu white lines found at the onsets of the L2 and L3 absorption edges of rapidly quenched CuZr, CuTi, CuPd, CuPt, and CuAu. Enhancements of the white lines in the alloys as compared to elemental Cu were correlated with changes in the 3d occupancy of Cu atoms upon alloying. We found that the Cu atoms lost 0.2+/-0.06 d electrons when alloyed with Ti or Zr, 0.0+0.06-0.0 d electrons when alloyed with Au or Pd, and 0.03+0.06-0.03d electrons when alloyed with Pt. We found no strong correlation between measured 3d- occupancy changes and heats of formation of the alloys, consistent with expectations that outer s electrons play an important role in the alloying of Cu with Pt, Pd, and Au.

  14. Table Mountain Shoshonite Porphyry Lava Flows and Their Vents, Golden, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewes, Harald

    2008-01-01

    During early Paleocene time shoshonite porphyry lava was extruded from several plugs about 5 km north of Golden, Colo., to form lava flows intercalated in the upper part of the Denver Formation. These flows now form the caps of North and South Table Mountains. Detailed field and petrographic studies provide insights into magma development, linkage between vents and flows, and the history of the lava flows. The magma was derived from a deep (mantle) source, was somewhat turbulent on its way up, paused on its way up in a shallow granite-hosted chamber, and near the surface followed the steep Golden fault and the thick, weak, steeply dipping Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. At the surface the lava flowed out of several plug and dike vents in a nonexplosive manner, four times during a span of about 1 m.y. Potassium-rich material acquired in the shallow chamber produced distinctive textures and mineral associations in the igneous rocks. Lava flows 1 (the lowest) and 2 are channel deposits derived from the southeastern group of intrusions, and flow 1 (a composite, multiple-tongued flow) lies about 50 m below the capping flows. Provisionally, the unit termed flow 1 is considered to include older, felty-textured flows that are distinguished from a blocky-textured unit, flow 1a. Flow 2, newly recognized in this study, lies immediately beneath the capping flows. Lava flows 3 and 4, more voluminous than the earlier ones, were derived from a plug vent 1?2 km farther north-northwest and flowed south-southeast across a broad alluvial plain. This plug is a composite body; the rim phase fed flow 3, and the core phase was the source of flow 4. During the time between the effusion of the four flows, the composition of the shoshonite porphyry magma changed subtly; the later flows contain more alkali, as shown by higher proportions of sanidine. On North Table Mountain, lava flows 3 and 4 form an elongate tumulus above a stream channel that carried water at the time of their eruption. On

  15. Laser-induced chemical deposition from the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teslenko, V. V.

    1990-02-01

    The results of the study of the chemical reactions involved in the deposition of various substances from the gas phase using the pulsed, quasi-continuous, and continuous laser radiation in the wavelength range 0.193-10.6 μm have been summarised. Particular attention has been paid to the deposition of inorganic substances, including non-metals (C, Si, Ge, etc.), metals (Cu, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Cr, Mo, W, Ni), and a number of simple compounds. Detailed experimental data are given on the influence of the radiation parameters (wavelength, duration and spacing of the pulses, intensity of radiation, shape and position of the laser beam) and the nature of the reagents (hydrides, halides, carbonyls, alkyl organometallic compounds, etc.) on the rate of deposition and the composition of the deposit. The characteristics of photolytic deposition reactions and their possible applications have been examined. The bibliography contains 202 references.

  16. Telescoped porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralisation, advanced argillic alteration and quartz-sulphide-gold-anhydrite veins in the Thames District, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brathwaite, R.; Simpson, M.; Faure, K.; Skinner, D.

    2001-10-01

    phenocrysts trapped a lower salinity (3-20 wt% NaCl equiv.), moderate temperature (300-400 °C) fluid that may have caused the phyllic alteration. Fluid inclusions in the quartz-sphalerite-galena-pyrite-chalcopyrite-gold-anhydrite±carbonate veins trapped dilute (1-3 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids at 250 to 320 °C, at a minimum depth of 1.0 km under hydrostatic conditions. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the fluids that deposited the quartz stockwork veins fall within the 6 to 10‰ range of magmatic waters, whereas the quartz-sulphide-gold-anhydrite veins have lower δ18Owater values (-0.6 to 0.5‰) , reflecting a local meteoric water (-6‰) influence. A δ18O versus δD plot shows a trend from magmatic water in the quartz stockwork veins to a near meteoric water composition in kaolinite from the advanced argillic alteration. Data points for pyrophyllite and the quartz-sulphide-gold-anhydrite veins lie about midway between the magmatic and meteoric water end-member compositions. The spatial association between porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralisation, advanced argillic alteration and quartz-sulphide-gold-anhydrite veins suggests that they are all genetically part of the same hydrothermal system. This is consistent with K-Ar dates of 11.6-10.7 Ma for the intrusive porphyry, for alunite in the advanced argillic alteration, and for sericite selvages from quartz-gold veins in the Thames district.

  17. Gold deposits in the late Archaean Nzega-Igunga greenstone belt, central plateau of tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Feiss, P.G.; Siyomana, S.

    1985-01-01

    2.2 m oz of gold have been produced, since 1935, from late Archaean (2480-2740 Ma) greenstone belts of the Central Plateau, Tanzania. North and east of Nzega (4/sup 0/12'S, 3/sup 0/11'E), 18% of the exposed basement, mainly Dodoman schists and granites, consists of metavolcanics and metasediments of the Nyanzian and Kavirondian Series. Four styles of mineralization are observed. 1. Stratabound quartz-gold veins with minor sulfides. Host rocks are quartz porphyry, banded iron formation (BIF), magnetite quartzite, and dense, cherty jasperite at the Sekenke and Canuck mines. The Canuck veins are on strike from BIF's in quartz-eye porphyry of the Igusule Hills. 2. Stratabound, disseminated gold in coarse-grained, crowded feldspar porphyry with lithic fragments and minor pyrite. At Bulangamilwa, the porphyry is conformable with Nyanzian-aged submarine (.) greenstone, volcanic sediment, felsic volcanics, and sericite phyllite. The deposits are on strike with BIF of the Wella Hills, which contains massive sulfide with up to 15% Pb+Zn. 3. Disseminated gold in quartz-albite metasomes in Nyanzian greenstones. At Kirondatal, alteration is associated with alaskites and feldspar porphyry dikes traceable several hundred meters into post-Dodoman diorite porphyry. Gold is with pyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, minor chalcopyrite, and sphalerite as well as tourmalinite and silica-cemented breccias. 4. Basal Kavirondian placers in metaconglomerates containing cobbles and boulders of Dodoman and Nyanzian rocks several hundred meters up-section from the stratabound, disseminated mineralization at Bulangamilwa.

  18. Genetic Model of an Aborted Porphyry-copper System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, D. C.; Nitoi, E.; Szakacs, A.

    2009-05-01

    The Neogene Sturzii shallow intrusion from the East Carpathians (Bargau Mts., Romania), hosted by Paleogene-Miocene sediments of the Transcarpatian Flysch, developed as an immature porphyry copper structure. It consists of small volumes of dacites, andesites and related contact breccias, having a surface exposure of a few km2. Hydrothermal alteration occurred in the inner part of the intrusive body. The related mineralization consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite either as small veins or disseminated within the rock. A genetic model of the intrusive structure has been developed based on an integrated petrographic, geochemical, isotopic, fluid inclusion and geophysical study. The rapidly ascending calc-alkaline magmas that generated the intrusion are mantle-derived and contaminated with lower-crustal material. Pressure estimations for amphibole reveal significant differences between values corresponding to the crystal cores and rims, suggesting that decompression occurred during its crystallization. The occurrence of exploded fluid inclusions, as well as of primary igneous garnet, also indicate decompression regime during magma uplift and/or storage. All fluid inclusions identified in dacites are aqueous; C-N-S species were not detected. The general evolution of the fluids is toward decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature. Early high-T, high salinity fluids, most likely of magmatic origin, were subjected to a boiling event, related to a change of fluid pressure from litho- to hydrostatic, and followed by dilution with meteoric fluids as indicated by low salinities. These characteristics of the fluids suggest the tendency of the intrusion to evolve towards a porphyry copper system. We estimate that the evolution stopped due to decompression that allowed cold and dilute external fluids to enter the system and because of the small size of the intrusion that cooled down rapidly and could not induce extensive and long-lasting fluid circulation. Since there is no

  19. Geochonology and Tectonic Significance of post-collisional porphyry in Qulong area, southeast segment of the Gangdese belt, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Zeren, Z.; Du, C.; Feng, L.; Nima, C.; Zhang, L.

    2012-12-01

    With the collision of Indian plate and Eura-Asian plate, there developed complicated tectono-magmanism during Meso-Cenozoic in Gangdese belt, Xizang Tibet. Therefore, it resulted that plentiful tectonism and post-collision high-K calc-alkaline magmatism related to mineralization distrubted from east to west in the belt. And this is quite significant for us to do some rearch on large-scale metallogenetics, uplifting epoch and EW-striking extension during the post-collision in Xizang-Qinghai Plateau. Zircon samples from Cangrila Granodiorite-porphyry in Qulong area, Southeast of Gangdese porphyry copper belt, Xiangbeishan diorite-porphyrite and from Jiama Granite-porphyry give LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of 16.3Ma, 14. 4Ma, and 15.4Ma, respectively, and all these ages represent the porphyries' forming ages. From barren Xiangbeishan diorite-porphyrite through intermediately mineralized Jiama Granite-porphyry to stongly mineralized Cangrila Granodiorite-porphyry, the LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of zircon become younger and younger. According to the regional data and geochemical characteristics, these porphyries were mainly derived directly from the thickened mafic lower-crust formed in south Tibet during collision and epeirogeny. During post-collisional extension stage, for inter-earth thermal flowing, SN-striking normal faulting systems across the Tibetan orogen caused rapid rising and localization of porphyry magmas and adequately separating of massive ore-bearing fluids from the magmatic hydrothermal systems. All these data indicate that Gandese belt has experienced from post-collisional extrusion changed into intra-plate extension since Miocene. During Miocene, Gangdese belt undergone violent intraplate extension, post-collisional porphyry intrusion and paroxysmal massive mineralization of porphyry-type, and all these was controlled by deep dynamics. Key Words: Qulong area; Gangdese tectonic belt; Tibet;Zircon La-ICP-MS U-Pb dating; intra-plate extension; Image Information For CL

  20. Seeking the mantle contribution for the formation of giant ore deposits: Contemporaneous alkaline lamproites and carbonatites in the Kalmakyr and Muruntau ore districts, Tienshan, Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Reimar; Choulet, Flavien

    2014-05-01

    The decline in discoveries of ore deposits contrasted by the rising demand for e-tech metals requires the global mining industry to continuously seek innovation in exploration. Unravelling the source of metals is among the crucial questions in exploration targeting and geologists have often had to recourse to indirect determinations based on the nature of the magma conveying the metals. The relative contributions of mantle and crust in metallogenic processes and the origin of the magmas from either shallow or deep mantle are not fully understood in the current models of ore genesis. To help to resolve this dilemma, research must establish the link between anorogenic (within-plate) and orogenic processes by using a holistic approach featuring crustal processes, mantle dynamics and crust-mantle interactions that may contribute to the magma fertilization. To achieve this, our study focuses on indicators for the involvement of deep-mantle intrusions (lamproites, lamprophyres, etc.), which have the potential to encapsulate pristine samples of the mantle (xenoliths) during magma ascent [1,2]. The Tienshan belt hosting many giant ore deposits is quite exemplary for understanding mantle-crust interactions and identifying the nature of mantle contribution to ore systems. Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope systematics on granitoids [3] showed a variation of crustal to mixed signatures, indicating involvement of both older crustal sources and mantle-derived material, but the mantle source is not clearly assessed. As objects for our case study in Uzbekistan we choose the Kalmakyr Cu-Au porphyry deposit (~ 315 Ma; Chatkal-Kurama continental arc of Middle Tienshan) and the Muruntau orogenic Au deposit (~290 Ma, Turkestan-Alai / Kyzylkum accretionary complex of South Tienshan) to investigate the impact of associated alkaline magmas on the ore-bearing intrusions and mineralization. Field observations and geochronological data shed light on the spatial and temporal relationships between the

  1. In situ exploitation of deep set porphyry ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hard, R.A.; Harvey, W.W.; Lingane, P.J.; Park, W.C.; Redman, M.J.

    1981-09-29

    Disclosed is a method of economically exploiting deep set porphyry ore bodies of the type containing metal values such as sulfidic copper, nickel, or uranium minerals and minerals capable of absorbing copper, uranium, and nickel ions. The method involves establishing communication with the ore body through access and recovery wells and passing fluids sequentially therethrough. If necessary, thief zones of as low as 25 to 50 md in igneous rock of 1 to 5 md are prevented from distorting flow, by the injection of a polymeric solution of macromolecules with molecular weights of the order of 5 million along the entire wellbore, the higher permeability zones initially accepting the majority of the flow and being impaired at a much faster rate than the less permeable zones. In a first stage, the permeability of the leaching interval is stimulated as an ammoniated solution of sodium, potassium, or ammonium nitrate or chloride contacts calcium containing minerals to promote ion exchange, resulting in clay contraction or calcium carbonate dissolution. In a second stage, the leaching interval is primed as calcium ion is displaced with an aqueous solution of ammonium salt, a calcium sulfate scale inhibitor, and oxygen gas. In a third stage, a two-phase lixiviant comprising entrained oxygen containing bubbles and an ammoniacal leach liquor having a pH less than 10.5 and less than 1.0 mole/liter ammonia is passed through the leaching interval to solubilize copper, nickel, uranium, and other metal values.

  2. A comparative study of stream water and stream sediment as geochemical exploration media in the Rio Tanama porphyry copper district, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Learned, R.E.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    To test the relative effectiveness of stream water and sediment as geochemical exploration media in the Rio Tanama porphyry copper district of Puerto Rico, we collected and subsequently analyzed samples of water and sediment from 29 sites in the rivers and tributaries of the district. Copper, Mo, Pb, Zn, SO42-, and pH were determined in the waters; Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn were determined in the sediments. In addition, copper in five partial extractions from the sediments was determined. Geochemical contrast (anomaly-to-background quotient) was the principal criterion by which the effectiveness of the two media and the five extractions were judged. Among the distribution patterns of metals in stream water, that of copper most clearly delineates the known porphyry copper deposits and yields the longest discernable dispersion train. The distribution patterns of Mo, Pb, and Zn in water show little relationship to the known mineralization. The distribution of SO42- in water delineates the copper deposits and also the more extensive pyrite alteration in the district; its recognizable downstream dispersion train is substantially longer than those of the metals, either in water or sediment. Low pH values in small tributaries delineate areas of known sulfide mineralization. The distribution patterns of copper in sediments clearly delineate the known deposits, and the dispersion trains are longer than those of copper in water. The partial determinations of copper related to secondary iron and manganese oxides yield the strongest geochemical contrasts and longest recognizable dispersion trains. Significantly high concentrations of molybdenum in sediments were found at only three sites, all within one-half km downstream of the known copper deposits. The distribution patterns of lead and zinc in sediments are clearly related to the known primary lead-zinc haloes around the copper deposits. The recognizable downstream dispersion trains of lead and zinc are shorter than those of

  3. Fluid Inclusion Characteristics of Domaniç (Kütahya) Porphyry Cu-Mo Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendir, H.; Sarıiz, K.; Bozkaya, G.

    2012-04-01

    The study area is located at 30 km northwest of Domaniç (Kütahya) and covers on approximately 250 square kilometers. The Devonian (Paleozoic) schists which are composed of gneiss, mica schist and chlorite schist is the oldest unit of the study area. This units are overlain unconformably by the Permian Allıkaya Marbles. Eocene granodioritic intrusives cut other rock series and located as a batholite. Magmatic units present porphyric and holocrystalline textures. Granodioritic intrusions are represented by tonalite, tonalite porphyr, granodiorite, granodiorite porphyr, granite, diorite, diorite porphyries. Potassic, phyllitic and prophyllitic hydrothermal alteration zones are determined in host rocks and wallrocks. Mineralizations are observed as disseminated, and stockwork types within the granodioritic rocks. Ore minerals are pyrotine, pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, rutile, bornite, sphalerite, marcasite and limonite. Geochemically, it is of sub-alkaline affinity, belongs to the high-K, calc-alkaline series and displays features of typical I-type affinity. They show enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LIL) and depletion Nb and Ti indicating a subduction zone related magmatic signature for their origin. Fluid inclusion assemblages (FIAs) were measured from quartz using a Linkam THMS-600 heating/cooling stage. The inclusions contain two-phase aqueous fluids (L+V) at room temperature. All fluid inclusions belong to the H2O- NaCl-CaCl2 system. Fluid inclusion microthermometry in the ore deposits suggest two main hydrothermal fluids, with modal homogenization temperatures and salinities (wt. % equivalent NaCl): (a) between 380.2o 140.7oC and ~22.3 - 13.1 %, (b) 75.2o -128.7oC and between ~10.8 - 9.2 %, respectively.

  4. Proterozoic low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in New York and New Jersey: Relation to Fe-oxide (Cu U Au rare earth element) deposits and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foose, Michael P.; McLelland, James M.

    1995-07-01

    Low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in exposed Grenville-age rocks of New York and New Jersey belong to a distinct class of iron-oxide (Cu-U-Au rare earth element [REE]) deposits that includes similar iron deposits in southeastern Missouri and the Kiruna district of Sweden, the giant Olympic Dam U-Cu-Au-Ag deposit (Australia), and the Bayan Obo REE-Nb deposit (China). Most of the New York New Jersey deposits exhibit features consistent with a hydrothermal origin and define a regionally significant metallogenic event that provides important clues to the evolution of this part of the Grenville orogen. In the Adirondacks, the tectonic setting of these deposits is consistent with postorogenic uplift and extensive crustal melting at 1070 1050 Ma that was accompanied by late tectonic to posttectonic deposition of iron.

  5. Proterozoic low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in New York and New Jersey: relation to Fe-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element) deposits and tectonic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; McLelland, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in exposed Grenville-age rocks of New York and New Jersey belong to a distinct class of iron-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element [REE]) deposits that includes similar iron deposits in southeastern Missouri and the Kiruna district of Sweden, the giant Olympic Dam U-Cu-Au-Ag deposit (Australia), and the Bayan Obo REE-Nb deposit (China). Most of the New York-New Jersey deposits exhibit features consistent with a hydrothermal origin and define a regionally significant metallogenic event that provides important clues to the evolution of this part of the Grenville orogen. In the Adirondacks, the tectonic setting of these deposits is consistent with postorogenic uplift and extensive crustal melting at 1070-1050 Ma that was accompanied by late tectonic to posttectonic deposition of iron. -Authors

  6. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  7. The Sweet Home rhodochrosite specimen mine, Alma District, Central Colorado: the porphyry molybdenum-fluorine connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, Paul J.; Nelson, Eric P.; Misantoni, Dean

    2007-02-01

    Intermediate sulfidation veins containing quartz-sphalerite-tetrahedrite-rhodochrosite-fluorite in the Sweet Home Mine, Alma District, Colorado were originally mined for silver starting in 1873. For the last 13 years up until 2004, however, the mine has produced world-class rhodochrosite specimens. Some of these specimens are considered to be among the finest mineral specimens ever produced and the finest of their species with values well over 1 million US dollars. The extraction, preparation, and marketing techniques pioneered at the Sweet Home operation have revolutionized the minerals specimen industry. The Sweet Home deposit is interpreted as a single pulse variant of a Climax-type hydrothermal system. Evidence for this includes (1) an age of mineralization (25.8 ± 0.3 Ma) that coincides with the age of the end stages of mineralization of the Climax molybdenum deposit approximately 7.5 km to the northeast; (2) a geochemical (Mn, W, F) and mineralogical (topaz, fluorite, hubnerite, greisen muscovite) signature typically associated with Climax-type systems; (3) the presence of porphyry rhyolite dikes, a breccia dike, and local quartz-molybdenite veins in the nearby area; (4) a small pegmatite within the mine with an age (25.9 ± 0.3 Ma) coincident with mineralization, which also contains minor amounts of disseminated molybdenite; and (5) the presence of similar-appearing gemmy, red rhodochrosites at Climax and other high-silica rhyolite systems. A significant difference is that unlike Climax-type systems, the Sweet Home hydrothermal system appears to have consisted of a single, relatively small pulse of magmatic fluid that slowly cooled and diluted with groundwater. This is inferred to have occurred at moderate depths in the order of 1.5-2.5 km below the surface. The fluids that formed the Sweet Home veins were dilute (salinity in the order of 2-4 wt% NaCl equivalent), high-temperature (temperatures of homogenization up to 370°C), and initially of magmatic

  8. Measurements of 3[ital d] occupancy from Cu [ital L][sub 2,3] electron-energy-loss spectra of rapidly quenched CuZr, CuTi, CuPd, CuPt, and CuAu

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, D.H.; Ahn, C.C.; Fultz, B. )

    1994-11-01

    We used electron-energy-loss spectrometry to measure the intensities of the Cu white lines found at the onsets of the [ital L][sub 2] and [ital L][sub 3] absorption edges of rapidly quenched CuZr, CuTi, CuPd, CuPt, and CuAu. Enhancements of the white lines in the alloys as compared to elemental Cu were correlated with changes in the 3[ital d] occupancy of Cu atoms upon alloying. We found that the Cu atoms lost 0.2[plus minus]0.06 [ital d] electrons when alloyed with Ti or Zr, 0.0[sub [minus]0.0][sup +0.06] [ital d] electrons when alloyed with Au or Pd, and 0.03[sub [minus]0.03][sup +0.06][ital d] electrons when alloyed with Pt. We found no strong correlation between measured 3[ital d]- occupancy changes and heats of formation of the alloys, consistent with expectations that outer [ital s] electrons play an important role in the alloying of Cu with Pt, Pd, and Au.

  9. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications for High Ba-Sr Porphyries from South Qinling Oroganic Belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. F.; Luo, B. J.; Shen, L. M.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Qinling orgenic belt resulted from collision between the North China plate and the Yangtze blocks during Triassic. In the South Qinling orogenic belt, there are lots of small porphyry bodies with area <0.5 km2. These porphyry bodies consist mainly of granodiorite porphyries in petrography. They are closely related to Cu, Mo, Au and Fe mineralization. In this presentation, we carry out an integrated study of LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions for the porphyry bodies. U-Pb zircon dating shows that they have magma crystallization ages of 145~150 Ma.They are high-potassium calc-alkaline, characterized by high Sr (up to 1300 ppm) and Ba (up to 5000 ppm). Rear earth element data for the porphyries display moderately fractionated REE patterns with (La/Yb)N=9~26 and Eu/Eu*=0.8~1.0. Geochemical characteristics of the granodiorite porphyries are good consistent with high Ba-Sr granitoids [1,2]. These granodiorite porphyries have whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7046 to 0.7075, ɛNd (t) values ranging from - 4.6 to - 2.5, and zircon ɛHf(t) values ranging from - 2.2 to +0.8. We suggest that their magma was derived from partial melting of enriched mantle sources. The strong enrichment of Sr and Ba imply that the mantle sources could be metasomatized by fluid or melt released from subducting slab (including sediments) due to previous subduction of the Ma-Lue ocean slab at the south of the South Qinling orogenic belt. Lithospheric delamination at ~150 Ma can account for their magma generation for the porphyries. References [1] Fowler M B, Henney P J, Darbyshire D, et al. Petrogenesis of high Ba-Sr granites: the Rogart pluton, Sutherland. Journal of the Geological Society. 2001, 158: 521-534. [2] Choi S G, Rajesh V J, Seo J, et al. Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of Mesozoic high Ba-Sr granites in the Haemi area, Hongseong Belt, South Korea. Island Arc. 2009, 18: 266-281.

  10. Magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size and resistivity of the mineralized area beneath overburden, a regional east-west magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. This is a data release report of the magnetotelluric sounding data collected along the east-west profile; no interpretation of the data is included.

  11. Magmatic-hydrothermal fluids and volatile metals in the Spirit Lake pluton and Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry system, SW Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iveson, Alexander A.; Webster, James D.; Rowe, Michael C.; Neill, Owen K.

    2016-03-01

    The halogen-bearing minerals tourmaline, amphibole, and biotite formed during magmatic-hydrothermal processes associated with the late-stage cooling of the Spirit Lake granitoid pluton (Mt. St. Helens, WA) and with the younger sulphide-mineralised rocks of the Margaret Cu-Mo porphyry deposit located entirely within the pluton. Major- and trace-element discrimination suggests that one tourmaline population crystallised from fractionated late-stage melt pockets in granodiorite-monzogranitic dykes of the pluton. These coarse, euhedral, oscillatory, and complexly sector-zoned uvite tourmalines span a limited range in Mg/(Mg + Fe) [Mg#] space (0.4-0.7 apfu) and show the highest Ti, Ca, F, Nb, and Ta contents, and low X-site vacancies (<0.1 apfu), suggesting slow, ordered crystallisation. Conversely, smaller, microcrystalline, pluton-related vein tourmalines show higher X-site vacancies (>0.6 apfu), lower Ca and F contents, and the highest Li, As, and HREE contents (>80 ppm Li, >1200 ppm As). This population appears to record direct, rapid crystallisation from magmatic ± meteoric fluid(s) bearing the signature of the breakdown of primary feldspars and pyroxenes, with fluid exsolution from fractionated melt patches likely triggered by the formation of the previous generation of tourmaline. Mineralised porphyry deposit tourmaline compositions from the stockwork span a much larger range in Mg# space (0.05-0.9 apfu) and are almost entirely Ca-free. X-sites of these schorl tourmalines are dominated by Na or vacancies, and the Y-sites are strongly Fe enriched. The highest Mn and Zn concentrations (>4000 and >1000 ppm, respectively) potentially reflect the composition of mineralising fluids during ore deposition. A number of boron isotopic analyses yield predominantly heavy boron, but δ11B values range from -5.2 to 6.2 ‰ and average 1.4 ‰. Whilst most plutonic tourmalines conform to reported a- and c-sector element partitioning models, those from the mineralised porphyry

  12. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopes and trace elements of Mesozoic high Sr/Y porphyries from Ningzhen, eastern China: Constraints on their petrogenesis, tectonic implications and Cu mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fangyue; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Li, Shuguang; Akhtar, Shamim; He, Yongsheng

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between high Sr/Y (adakitic) rocks and Cu mineralization has been long recognized but the mechanism remains unclear. The Cretaceous high Sr/Y porphyries in the Ningzhen area host major Cu polymetallic deposits in the Lower Yangtze River Belt (LYRB) of eastern China. These rocks exhibit some geochemical characteristics (e.g., non-radiogenic Pb isotope ratios) that differ from adakitic rocks from adjacent locations in the LYRB. In this study, we present a study of the zircon U-Pb-Hf-O isotope and trace element compositions for five porphyries from Ningzhen to reveal their petrogenesis and how that correlates with Cu-Fe-Mo mineralization. Zircon U-Pb ages of Anjishan (Cu deposit), Tongshan (Cu-Mo deposit) and Xiangshan (Fe deposit) plutons in the Ningzhen area are 108.8 ± 1.5 Ma, 105-107 Ma and 100-105 Ma, respectively, which are significantly younger than the ore-bearing adakites (140 ± 5 Ma) in the western part of the LYRB. Zircon εHf(t) and δ18O values range from - 23.4 to - 10.6 and from 5.7 to 7.0‰, respectively, falling between subduction-related adakites from the other regions in the LYRB and delamination-related adakitic rocks from the adjacent South Tan-Lu Fault Zone. The similarities of Ce4 +/Ce3 + and Eu/Eu* ratios in zircons from Ningzhen and those from the western LYRB indicate higher oxygen fugacity in their magma sources. Ti-in-zircon thermometer yields magma temperatures of 550 to 700 °C (with an average of ~ 650 °C) for the Ningzhen porphyries, which are significantly lower than those of the South Tan-Lu Fault adakites (> 750 °C), but similar to those for the LYRB adakites (< 700 °C). In summary, the Ningzhen high Sr/Y porphyries have high Mg# (> 50), non-radiogenic Pb, enriched Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, negative zircon εHf(t), mantle-like δ18O values, high oxygen fugacities and low magma temperatures. Mafic rocks that co-exist with ore-bearing porphyries or occur as xenoliths in porphyries are widespread. We proposed

  13. A deposit model for Mississippi Valley-Type lead-zinc ores: Chapter A in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, David L.; Taylor, Ryan D.; Fey, David L.; Diehl, Sharon F.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This report also describes the geoenvironmental characteristic of MVT deposits. The response of MVT ores in the supergene environment is buffered by their placement in carbonate host rocks which commonly results in near-neutral associated drainage water. The geoenvironmental features and anthropogenic mining effects presented in this report illustrates this important environmental aspect of MVT deposits which separates them from other deposit types (especially coal, VHMS, Cu-porphyry, SEDEX, acid-sulfate polymetallic vein).

  14. Laramide alteration of proterozoic diabase: A likely contributor of copper to porphyry systems in the dripping spring mountains area, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Proterozoic diabase of the Dripping Spring range occurs as sills in the Proterozoic Apache Group and the Troy Quartzite and as intrusive sheets in basement rocks. The aggregate thickness of the diabase sills and intrusive sheets averages about 450 m in the part of the range showing little mid-Tertiary extension. Laramide alteration is of two types, dominated by chlorite and actinolite, respectively, and formed mostly from clinopyroxene. Actinolite-dominated assemblages are higher in Na and Ca. Hydrothermal biotite is common in the central areas of both alteration types. Laramide alteration forms two distribution patterns: a subequant pattern centered on Laramide intrusions and small porphyry deposits, characterized by actinolitic alteration, and a more extensive branching linear pattern that follows Laramide structures, centered on the larger Ray porphyry deposit, extending toward other Laramide districts and showing both alteration types. Alteration has apparently mobilized copper and other metals from diabase. The freshest diabase samples average about 120 ppm copper with little variation. In chloritic alteration, about 100 ppm of this copper is expelled in the most completely altered rocks. In actinolitic alteration, diabase may either gain or lose copper during alteration. Chloritic alteration constitutes roughly 70 percent of the diabase alteration in the study area, where alteration averages 41 percent complete. This implies liberation of about 9 ?? 106 tons (t) copper from diabase alteration, significantly less than the 16 ?? 106 t copper in Laramide mineral deposits of the superdistrict (Ray, Superior, Chilito, Christmas). However, diabase alteration may have been a significant component of the supply of copper to the Laramide mineral districts of the area. Synmineral magmatic sources of copper are not documented in this area. The distribution of Proterozoic diabase coincides with the central part of the southeastern Arizona copper province, which may thus

  15. HUNTER-FRYINGPAN WILDERNESS AND PORPHYRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Hunter-Fryingpan Wilderness and the Porphyry Mountain Wilderness study area, Colorado was conducted. Substantiated gold and silver resource potential was identified in one area and a surrounding area is judged to have probable mineral-resource potential for gold and silver. No other mineral or energy resources were identified in the study.

  16. Screening on binary Zr-1X (X = Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi) alloys with good in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F Y; Qiu, K J; Li, H F; Huang, T; Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the microstructures, mechanical properties, corrosion behaviors, in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic susceptibility of Zr-1X alloys with various alloying elements, including Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi, were systematically investigated to explore their potential use in biomedical applications. The experimental results indicated that annealed Zr-1X alloys consisted entirely or primarily of α phase. The alloying elements significantly increased the strength and hardness of pure Zr and had a relatively slight influence on elastic modulus. Ru was the most effective enhancing element and Zr-1Ru alloy had the largest elongation. The results of electrochemical corrosion indicated that adding various elements to Zr improved its corrosion resistance, as indicated by the reduced corrosion current density. The extracts of the studied Zr-1X alloys produced no significant deleterious effects on osteoblast-like cells (MG 63), indicating good in vitro cytocompatibility. All except for Zr-1Ag alloy showed decreased magnetic susceptibility compared to pure Zr, and Zr-1Ru alloy had the lowest magnetic susceptibility value, being comparable to that of α' phase Zr-Mo alloy and Zr-Nb alloy and far lower than that of Co-Cr alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Among the experimental Zr-1X alloys, Zr-1Ru alloy possessing high strength coupled with good ductility, good in vitro cytocompatibility and low magnetic susceptibility may be a good candidate alloy for medical devices within a magnetic resonance imaging environment. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration and mass exchange in the hornblende latite porphyry, Rico, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, P.B.; Cunningham, C.G.; Naeser, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Rico paleothermal anomaly, southwestern Colorado, records the effects of a large hydrothermal system that was active at 4 Ma. This hydrothermal system produced the deep Silver Creek stockwork Mo deposit, which formed above the anomaly's heat source, and shallower base and precious-metal vein and replacement deposits. A 65 Ma hornblende latite porphyry is present as widespread sills throughout the area and provided a homogenous material that recorded the effects of the hydrothermal system up to 8 km from the center. Hydrothermal alteration in the latite can be divided into a proximal facies which consists of two assemblages, quartz-illite-calcite and chlorite-epidote, and a distal facies which consists of a distinct propylitic assemblage. Temperatures were gradational vertically and laterally in the anomaly, and decreased away from the centra heat source. A convective hydrothermal plume, 3 km wide and at least 2 km high, was present above the stock-work molybdenum deposit and consisted of upwelling, high-temperature fluids that produced the proximal alteration facies. Distal facies alteration was produced by shallower cooler fluids. The most important shallow base and precious-metal vein deposits in the Rico district are at or close to the boundary of the thermal plume. Latite within the plume had a large loss of Na2O, large addition of CaO, and variable SiO2 exchante. Distal propylitized latite samples lost small amounts of Na2O and CaO and exchanged minor variable amounts of SiO2. The edge of the plume is marked by steep Na2O exchange gradients. Na2O exchange throughout the paleothermal anomaly was controlled by the reaction of the albite components in primary plagioclase and alkali feldspars. Initial feldspar alteration in the distal facies was dominated by reaction of the plagioclase, and the initial molar ratio of reactants (alkali feldspar albite component to plagioclase albite component) was 0.35. This ratio of the moles of plagioclase to alkali feldspar

  18. Volcanology and mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    In contrast, old volcanic regions, which host many of the world's major hydrothermal-vein, porphyry, and massive-sulfide ore deposits, have been studied mainly by economic geologists, regional stratigraphers, and structural geologists who have limited familiarity with the complexities of volcanic processes. Such "dead" volcanoes, ranging in age from a few million million years (tertiary) to a few billion years (Precambrian), are commonly incompletely and discontinuously preserved due to rapid erosion of originally high-standing volcanic edifices. They can be difficult to date reliably, especially in terms of the time scales of individual volcanic events, and are variably hydrothermally altered-impeding high-resolution petrologic and geochemical studies. Many volcanologists, geochemists, and geophysicists who work on active volcanoes accordingly have been reluctant to become involved in studies of such less tractable rocks. 

  19. Mineralogical, stable isotope, and fluid inclusion studies of spatially related porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te mineralization, Fakos Peninsula, Limnos Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornadel, Andrew P.; Voudouris, Panagiotis Ch.; Spry, Paul G.; Melfos, Vasilios

    2012-05-01

    The Fakos porphyry Cu and epithermal Au-Te deposit, Limnos Island, Greece, is hosted in a ~20 Ma quartz monzonite and shoshonitic subvolcanic rocks that intruded middle Eocene to lower Miocene sedimentary basement rocks. Metallic mineralization formed in three stages in quartz and quartz-calcite veins. Early porphyry-style (Stage 1) metallic minerals consist of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, bornite, sphalerite, molybdenite, and iron oxides, which are surrounded by halos of potassic and propylitic alteration. Stage 2 mineralization is composed mostly of quartz-tourmaline veins associated with sericitic alteration and disseminated pyrite and molybdenite, whereas Stage 3, epithermal-style mineralization is characterized by polymetallic veins containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, enargite, bournonite, tetrahedrite-tennantite, hessite, petzite, altaite, an unknown cervelleite-like Ag-telluride, native Au, and Au-Ag alloy. Stage 3 veins are spatially associated with sericitic and argillic alteration. Fluid inclusions in quartz from Stage 1 (porphyry-style) mineralization contain five types of inclusions. Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions, which homogenize at temperatures ranging from 189.5°C to 403.3°C have salinities of 14.8 to 19.9 wt. % NaCl equiv. Type II, liquid-vapor-NaCl, Type III liquid-vapor-NaCl-XCl2 (where XCl is an unknown chloride phase, likely CaCl2), and Type IV, liquid-vapor-hematite ± NaCl homogenize to the liquid phase by liquid-vapor homogenization or by daughter crystal dissolution at temperatures of 209.3 to 740.5 °C, 267.6 to 780.8 °C, and 357.9 to 684.2 °C, respectively, and, Type V, vapor-rich inclusions. Stage 2 veins are devoid of interpretable fluid inclusions. Quartz from Stage 3 (epithermal-style) veins contains two types of fluid inclusions, Type I, liquid-vapor inclusions that homogenize to the liquid phase (191.6 to 310.0 °C) with salinities of 1.40 to 9.73 wt. % NaCl equiv., and Type II, vapor-rich inclusions. Mixing

  20. Prediction of AMD generation potential in mining waste piles, in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit, Iran.

    PubMed

    Modabberi, Soroush; Alizadegan, Ali; Mirnejad, Hassan; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the possibility of acid mine drainage (AMD) generation in active and derelict mine waste piles in Sarcheshmeh Copper Mine produced in several decades, using static tests including acid-base accounting (ABA) and net acid-generating pH (NAGpH). In this study, 51 composite samples were taken from 11 waste heaps, and static ABA and NAGpH tests were carried out on samples. While some piles are acid producing at present and AMD is discharging from the piles, most of them do not show any indication on their AMD potential, and they were investigated to define their acid-producing potential. The analysis of data indicates that eight waste piles are potentially acid generating with net neutralization potentials (NNPs) of -56.18 to -199.3, net acid generating of 2.19-3.31, and NPRs from 0.18 to 0.44. Other waste piles exhibited either a very low sulfur, high carbonate content or excess carbonate over sulfur; hence, they are not capable of acid production or they can be considered as weak acid producers. Consistency between results of ABA and NAGpH tests using a variety of classification criteria validates these tests as powerful means for preliminary evaluation of AMD/ARD possibilities in any mining district. It is also concluded that some of the piles with very negative NNPs are capable to produce AMD naturally, and they can be used in heap leaching process for economic recovery of trace amounts of metals without applying any biostimulation methods.

  1. Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

  2. Application of thematic mapper-type data over a porphyry-molybdenum deposit in Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Sadowski, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of thematic mapper data as a source of geologically useful information for mountainous areas of varying vegetation density. Much of the processing was done in an a priori manner without prior ground-based information. This approach resulted in a successfull mapping of the alteration associated with the Mt. Emmons molybdenum ore body as well as several other hydrothermal systems. Supervised classification produced a vegetation map at least as accurate as the mapping done for the environmental impact statement. Principal components were used to map zones of general, subtle alteration and to separate hematitically stained rock from staining associated with hydrothermal activity. Decorrelation color composites were found to be useful field mapping aids, easily delineating many lithologies and vegetation classes of interest. The factors restricting the interpretability and computer manipulation of the data are examined.

  3. Detection of alteration associated with a porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M. J.; Siegal, B. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer processing of Landsat MSS data was performed using contrast stretching and band-to-band ratioing. A false color ratio composite picture showed color anomalies which coincided with known areas of alteration on and about Red Mountain. A helicopter survey of the study area was undertaken using a portable field reflectance spectrometer. One hundred fifty-six spectra were obtained in the 0.4 to 2.5 micrometer wavelength region. The spectra were digitized, and contour maps for 24 wavelength intervals were produced; no spectral anomalies were evident for the known altered areas. A contour map produced from the 1.6 and 2.2 micrometer ratio generally delineated the alteration areas. The 1.3, 1.6, and 2.2 micrometer wavelength data were canonically transformed using a transformation empirically derived from discriminant function analysis of altered and unaltered materials for the Goldfield, Nevada region, and a contour map was produced for the first canonical variable. The known areas of alteration were clearly defined on the contour map.

  4. Recognition of the geologic framework of porphyry deposits on ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Camp, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of a mosaic composing 20 individual ERTS-1 frames that covers most of Nevada and western Utah reveals both new and old structural features. Three separate provinces, the Basin and Range, the southern extension of the Columbia River Plateau volcanics, and the western edge of the Colorado Plateau are easily distinguishable. A west-northwest cross or transverse structural trend, the Las Vegas Shear zone, is present in the region running from the Sierra Nevada to Lake Mead. The Sevier, Hurricane and Grand Wash faults that define the Wasateh-Jerome structural zone, can be traced further on the ERTS-1 imagery than on existing tectonic maps. By use of a stereo viewer on the side-lap coverage of ERTS-1 imagery, it is possible in some instances to determine the direction of sedimentary beds, enabling anticlines and synclines to be mapped. Other geologic features, faults, direction of throw on faults, recent basalt flow contacts with older rhyolitic tuffs, volcanic cones, and subsidences can also be mapped.

  5. Typing mineral deposits using their associated rocks, grades and tonnages using a probabilistic neural network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    A probabilistic neural network is employed to classify 1610 mineral deposits into 18 types using tonnage, average Cu, Mo, Ag, Au, Zn, and Pb grades, and six generalized rock types. The purpose is to examine whether neural networks might serve for integrating geoscience information available in large mineral databases to classify sites by deposit type. Successful classifications of 805 deposits not used in training - 87% with grouped porphyry copper deposits - and the nature of misclassifications demonstrate the power of probabilistic neural networks and the value of quantitative mineral-deposit models. The results also suggest that neural networks can classify deposits as well as experienced economic geologists. ?? International Association for Mathematical Geology 2006.

  6. Geochronology and geochemistry of Eocene potassic felsic intrusions in the Nangqian basin, eastern Tibet: Tectonic and metallogenic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Bi, Xian-Wu; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, You-wei; Liu, He-qing; Xu, Lei-luo

    2016-03-01

    The Jinshajiang-Ailaoshan copper belt is the most significant porphyry copper belt in eastern Tibet. In the northern segment of this belt within the Nangqian basin, which occurs 100 km east of the Yulong porphyry copper deposit, several felsic intrusions have been recently discovered. The Yulong porphyry copper deposit is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in China, and it is associated with peraluminous adakitic rocks formed in a post-collisional setting. The Nangqian felsic intrusions vary from syenite porphyry to monzonite porphyry in rock types. No significant Cu-Au mineralization has been found in the Nangqian felsic intrusions despite extensive exploration in recent years. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the Nangqian syenite porphyry and monzonite porphyry were emplaced at 35.6±0.3 Ma and from 39.5±0.3 to 37.4±0.3 Ma, respectively, similar to the age of the Yulong porphyry copper deposit. The Nangqian felsic intrusions are characterized by metaluminous compositions (A/CNK = 0.82-1.01), and they share some common features with shoshonites such as high K2O contents (4.58-5.58 wt.%), high K2O/Na2O ratios (0.92-1.28), LREE-LILE enrichments and negative Nb-Ta-Ti-P anomalies, as well as with adakites derived from an eclogite-facies source with high Al2O3 (14.98-15.74 wt.%), Sr (954-2190 ppm), Sr/Y (68-132) and La/Yb (53-85), and low Y and Yb contents. The Nangqian felsic intrusions have high initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7050-0.7055), variable εNd(t) (- 0.31-1.43) and small variations in (206Pb/204Pb)i (18.68-18.74), (207Pb/204Pb)i (15.53-15.62) and (208Pb/204Pb)i (38.51-38.80). Zircon crystals from both syenite and monzonite porphyries are characterized by positive εHf(t) from 5.2 to 8.5. The results suggest that the syenite and monzonite magmas were differentiated from parental shoshonitic melts by fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene and minor feldspar. The parent magmas originated from a lithospheric mantle metasomatized by slab

  7. Self-ordering and complexity in epizonal mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henley, Richard W.; Berger, Byron R.

    2000-01-01

    Giant deposits are relatively rare and develop where efficient metal deposition is spatially focused by repetitive brittle failure in active fault arrays. Some brief case histories are provided for epithermal, replacement, and porphyry mineralization. These highlight how rock competency contrasts and feedback between processes, rather than any single component of a hydrothermal system, govern the size of individual deposits. In turn, the recognition of the probabilistic nature of mineralization provides a firmer foundation through which exploration investment and risk management decisions can be made.

  8. Uranium-lead dating of hydrothermal zircon and monazite from the Sin Quyen Fe-Cu-REE-Au-(U) deposit, northwestern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Chen, Wei Terry; Zhao, Xin-Fu; Tran, MyDung

    2017-06-01

    The Sin Quyen deposit in northwestern Vietnam contains economic concentrations of Cu, Au and LREE, and sub-economic concentration of U. In this deposit, massive and banded replacement ores are hosted in Neoproterozoic metapelite. The paragenetic sequence includes sodic alteration (stage I), calcic-potassic alteration and associated Fe-REE-(U) mineralization (stage II), Cu-Au mineralization (stage III), and sulfide-(quartz-carbonate) veins (stage IV). The Sin Quyen deposit experienced an extensive post-ore metamorphic overprint, which makes it difficult to precisely determine the mineralization age. In this study, zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronometers and the Rb-Sr isochron method are used to constrain the timing of mineralization. Zircon grains in the ore are closely intergrown or texturally associated with hydrothermal minerals of stage II (e.g., garnet, allanite, and hedenbergite). They may contain primary fluid inclusions and display irregular zoning in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. Zircon grains are rich in U (688 to 2902 ppm) and poor in Th (0.2 to 2.9 ppm). Their δ18OV-SMOW values range from 11.9 to 14.0‰, higher than those of typical magmatic zircon. These textural and compositional features imply that zircon precipitated from 18O- and U-rich hydrothermal fluids, coeval with the minerals of stage II. Monazite occurs in close association with stage II magnetite and allanite and has low contents of Th (<2700 ppm), indicative of a hydrothermal origin. Hydrothermal zircon and monazite have indistinguishable U-Pb ages of 841 ± 12 and 836 ± 18 Ma, respectively, representing the timing of Fe-REE mineralization. There is no direct isotopic constraint on the timing of the Cu-Au mineralization, but geological observations suggest that the Cu-Au and Fe-REE ores most likely formed within a single evolved hydrothermal process. In the plot of 87Rb/86Sr vs. 87Sr/86Sr, the composition of bulk-ore and biotite separates from ore lie along a reference line for 30 Ma

  9. Are fractal dimensions of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits meaningful?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that the spatial distribution of mineral deposits is bifractal. An implication of this property is that the number of deposits in a permissive area is a function of the shape of the area. This is because the fractal density functions of deposits are dependent on the distance from known deposits. A long thin permissive area with most of the deposits in one end, such as the Alaskan porphyry permissive area, has a major portion of the area far from known deposits and consequently a low density of deposits associated with most of the permissive area. On the other hand, a more equi-dimensioned permissive area, such as the Arizona porphyry permissive area, has a more uniform density of deposits. Another implication of the fractal distribution is that the Poisson assumption typically used for estimating deposit numbers is invalid. Based on datasets of mineral deposits classified by type as inputs, the distributions of many different deposit types are found to have characteristically two fractal dimensions over separate non-overlapping spatial scales in the range of 5-1000 km. In particular, one typically observes a local dimension at spatial scales less than 30-60 km, and a regional dimension at larger spatial scales. The deposit type, geologic setting, and sample size influence the fractal dimensions. The consequence of the geologic setting can be diminished by using deposits classified by type. The crossover point between the two fractal domains is proportional to the median size of the deposit type. A plot of the crossover points for porphyry copper deposits from different geologic domains against median deposit sizes defines linear relationships and identifies regions that are significantly underexplored. Plots of the fractal dimension can also be used to define density functions from which the number of undiscovered deposits can be estimated. This density function is only dependent on the distribution of deposits and is independent of the

  10. Examination of chloritization of biotite as a tool for reconstructing the physicochemical parameters of mineralization and associated alteration in the Zafarghand porphyry copper system, Ardestan, Central Iran: mineral-chemistry and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminroayaei Yamini, Maryam; Tutti, Faramarz; Aminoroayaei Yamini, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadian, Jamshid; Wan, Bo

    2016-12-01

    The chloritization of biotite and stable isotopes of silicate have been studied for the Zafarghand porphyry copper deposit, Ardestan, Iran. The studied area, in the central part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, contains porphyry-style Cu mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration within the Miocene (19-26 Ma, Zircon U-Pb age) granodioritc stock and adjacent andesitic to rhyodacitic volcanic rocks (ca. 56 Ma, zircon U-Pb age). The primary and secondary biotite that formed during potassic alteration in this porphyry and these volcanic host rocks are variably chloritized. Chloritization of biotite pseudomorphically is characterized by an increase in MgO, FeOt, and MnO, with decreasing in SiO2, K2O, and TiO2. Based on the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer of Henry et al. (Am Mineral 90:316-328, 2005) and Al-in-chlorite geothermometer of Cathelineau (Clay Miner 23:417-485, 1988), crystallization temperatures of primary biotite representative of magmatic conditions and later chloritization temperature range from 617° to 675 °C ± 24 °C and 177° to 346 °C, respectively. Calculated isotopic compositions of fluids that chloritized primary and secondary biotite display isotopic compositions of 1.1 to 1.7 per mil for δ18O and -19.9 to -20.5 per mil for δD consistent with meteoric water. Sericite, barren, and A-type-quartz veins from phyllic alteration were produced by mixed magmatic and meteoric water with δ18O values from -2.8 to 2.5 and δD values of ˜ -23 per mil; the narrow range of δD values of the propylitic epidote may be due to a meteoric water with δ18O values from 0.8 to 1.6 and δD values from -14.6 to -16.9 per mil.

  11. Φ meson production in the forward/backward rapidity region in Cu + Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Al-Ta'ani, H.; Andrews, K. R.; Angerami, A.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Appelt, E.; Aramaki, Y.; Armendariz, R.; Asano, H.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bai, X.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Baumgart, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Ben-Benjamin, J.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Broxmeyer, D.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Campbell, S.; Castera, P.; Chen, C. -H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choi, S.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Crossette, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Dayananda, M. K.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dietzsch, O.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; D'Orazio, L.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Eyser, K. O.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gainey, K.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, A.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, X.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guo, L.; Guragain, H.; Gustafsson, H. -Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Harper, C.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isinhue, A.; Issah, M.; Ivanishchev, D.; Iwanaga, Y.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; John, D.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, T.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kaneti, S.; Kang, B. H.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khandai, P. K.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E. -J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y. -J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kinney, E.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Král, A.; Krizek, F.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, S. R.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitgab, M.; Lewis, B.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Maruyama, T.; Masui, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mibe, T.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyachi, Y.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Mohapatra, S.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, H. J.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moskowitz, M.; Motschwiller, S.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagae, T.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; Oakley, C.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oide, H.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, B. H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J. -C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Ryu, M. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Savastio, M.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shaver, A.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shigaki, K.; Shim, H. H.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skolnik, M.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Sodre, T.; Solano, S.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Ster, A.; Stoll, S. P.; Stone, M. R.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Taneja, S.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tennant, E.; Themann, H.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Utsunomiya, K.; Vale, C.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Virius, M.; Vossen, A.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; Whitaker, S.; White, A. S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoo, J. S.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.

    2016-02-04

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured φ meson production and its nuclear modification in asymmetric Cu + Au heavy-ion collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV at both forward Cu-going direction (1.2 < y < 2.2) and backward Au-going direction (-2.2 < y < -1.2) rapidities. The measurements are performed via the dimuon decay channel and reported as a function of the number of participating nucleons, rapidity, and transverse momentum. In the most central events, 0%–20% centrality, the φ meson yield integrated over 1 < pT < 5 GeV/c prefers a smaller value, which means a larger nuclear modification, in the Cu-going direction compared to the Au-going direction. Finally and additionally, the nuclear-modification factor in Cu + Au collisions averaged over all centrality is measured to be similar to the previous PHENIX result in d + Au collisions for these rapidities.

  12. Petrogenesis of the Yangzhuang Nb- and Ta-rich A-type granite porphyry in West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guo; Xiao, Rong; Wang, Mou; Li, Yanlong; Ren, Manchuan; Bai, Yanping; Yang, Feng

    2014-06-01

    West Junggar is featured with a wide spread of Late Carboniferous-Early Permian A-type granites. Systematic comparison of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry and the regional coeval A-type granites (RCAG) shows that: (1) all the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian A-type granites are of the A2 group except the Yangzhuang granite porphyry; (2) the Nb and Ta contents of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry are nearly 10 times that of the RCAG while Ti content is more depleted; (3) εNd (t) of the Yangzhuang granite porphyry is slightly lower and the Sr isotope has a wider range relative to the RCAG. Previous research revealed that highly incompatible elements including Nb and Ta can be transferred into the mantle wedge by precipitation of amphibole from the ascending fluids generated by dehydration of subducted slab. It is inferred that enhanced heat flux brought by the Late Carboniferous ridge subduction decomposed amphibole in the mantle wedge to generate Nb and Ta-rich melt and finally produced the Yangzhuang granite porphyry.

  13. Trace element and isotope (Sr, Nd) geochemistry of porphyry- and skarn-mineralising Late Cretaceous intrusions from Banat, western South Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Alain; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline; Pin, Christian; Marincea, Ştefan; Berza, Tudor

    2002-08-01

    Geochemical and isotopic (strontium, neodymium) data have been obtained from 24 samples of seven Late Cretaceous intrusions associated with skarn (Tincova, Bocşa, Ocna de Fier - Dognecea) and porphyry copper-molybdenum/skarn deposits (Oraviţa, Ciclova, Sasca and Moldova Nouă) in the South Carpathians of Romania. The intrusions cut the Supragetic-Getic nappes and form a 100-km-long, NNE-SSW-trending lineament in the Banat metallogenic province. The samples range in composition from gabbro to granodiorite and define, in major and trace element variation diagrams, a calc-alkaline to high-potassium calc-alkaline trend ranging from 50 to 67% SiO2. They are magnetite-bearing, I-type granitoids enriched in LILE/LREE and depleted in Nb, Ta and Zr, common features for magmas associated with subduction zones. The lack of cumulate textures and of positive europium anomalies seems to indicate that the samples represent liquid compositions. The observed trend thus approximates a liquid line of descent resulting from fractional crystallisation of parental magmas with similar major and trace element compositions. Initial strontium isotopic ratios (Sri) vary from 0.7042 to 0.7058 and ɛNd(t) values range from +3.9 to -0.2. Variations of Sri and ɛNd(t) values with SiO2 show minor crustal assimilation. The generally positive ɛNd(t) values, together with moderate Sri, indicate that the parental magmas result from partial melting of a rubidium-enriched and LREE-depleted source, such as a heterogeneous lithospheric mantle or a young mafic lower crust derived from it. Selective rubidium enrichment probably occurred during a previous subduction event by metasomatism of the overlying mantle wedge, either in the Early Cretaceous or earlier, as suggested by TDM model ages (ca. 600 Ma). The Cu-Mo(-Pb-Zn-Fe) deposits are intimately associated with the intrusions, and the Banat (Romania) region can be subdivided in two metallogenic zones. In northern Banat, Fe-Cu-Pb-Zn skarns occur

  14. Tellurium, a guide to mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.; Gott, G.B.; Neuerburg, G.J.; Lakin, H.W.; Cathrall, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Te dispersion patterns are useful in exploring for different types of mineral deposits and in providing additional information about known ore deposits. The Te content of rocks is given for five mining districts in the western United States: Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; Robinson, near Ely, Nevada; Montezuma, Colorado; Crater Creek area, Colorado; Cripple Creek, Colorado. Many of the analyses were obtained by use of a new analytical method sensitive to 0.001 ppm Te. The principal ore deposits in the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, are Pb-Zn-Ag replacement veins in Precambrian rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Te dispersion patterns show the outlines of the original mineral belts, the effects of intrusive events, the location of ore deposits, the displacements caused by post-ore faulting, and the borders of the 780-km2 district. The disseminated porphyry Cu deposits of the Robinson mining district, Nevada, are associated with Cretaceous quartz monzonite stocks that have intruded Palaeozoic carbonate rocks. Te is present in rock samples in concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm and forms a halo around the areas containing the Cu deposits. The alteration zones in the porphyry Mo district near Montezuma, Colorado, are developed around several small Tertiary intrusions occurring along a regional shear zone. Te haloes reflect the locations of porphyry intrusives, individual deposits and their ore shoots, and the pattern and intensity of adjacent alteration. The Te content of soils over the Montezuma stock is higher than, and varies independently from, the Te content of adjacent outcrops. Soils generally contain more Te than adjacent outcropping rocks. Soil may collect gaseous Te compounds from mineral deposits. The Crater Creek area is a northwestern extension of the Summitville mining district, Colorado. Te dispersion patterns radiate out from exposed Cu-Pb-Zn veins, from an outcrop of molybdenite stockwork veins and from associated iron-stained altered rock. Te haloes intensify

  15. Petrology, composition, and age of intrusive rocks associated with the Quartz Hill molybdenite deposit, southeastern Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, T.; Smith, James G.; Elliott, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A large porphyry molybdenum deposit (Quartz Hill deposit) was recently discovered in the heart of the Coast Range batholithic complex about 70 km E of Ketchikan, SE Alaska. Intrusive rocks associated with the mineral deposit form two composite epizonal to hypabyssal stocks and many dikes in country rocks. All observed metallization and alteration is within the Quartz Hill stock. Molybdenite forms fracture coatings and occurs in veins with quartz. Alteration is widespread and includes development of secondary quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, biotite, white mica, chlorite, and zeolite. Field relations indicate that the stocks were emplaced after regional uplift and erosion of the Coast Range batholithic complex, and K-Ar data show that intrusion and alteration took place in late Oligocene time, about 27 to 30 Ma ago. Data from the Ketchikan quadrangle indicate that porphyry molybdenum metallization in the Coast Range batholithic complex is associated with regionally extensive but spotty, middle Tertiary or younger, felsic magmatism. -from Authors

  16. Digital data base application to porphyry copper mineralization in Alaska; case study summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trautwein, Charles M.; Greenlee, David D.; Orr, Donald G.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress in use of digital image analysis techniques in developing a conceptual model for assessing porphyry copper mineral potential. The study area consists of approximately the southern one-half of the 1? by 3? Nabesna quadrangle in east-central Alaska. The digital geologic data base consists of data compiled under the Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP) as well as digital elevation data and Landsat spectral reflectance data from the Multispectral Scanner System. The digital data base used to develop and implement a conceptual model for porphyry-type copper mineralization consisted of 16 original data types and 18 derived data sets formatted in a grid-cell (raster) structure and registered to a map base in the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection. Minimum curvature and inverse distance squared interpolation techniques were used to generate continuous surfaces from sets of irregularly spaced data points. Processing requirements included: (1) merging or overlaying of data sets, (2) display and color coding of maps and images, (3) univariate and multivariate statistical analyses, and (4) compound overlaying operations. Data sets were merged and processed to create stereoscopic displays of continuous surfaces. The ratio of several data sets were calculated to evaluate relative variations and to enhance the display of surface alteration (gossans). Factor analysis and principal components analysis techniques were used to determine complex relationships and correlations between data sets. The resultant model consists of 10 parameters that identify three areas most likely to contain porphyry copper mineralization; two of these areas are known occurrences of mineralization and the third is not well known. Field studies confirmed that the three areas identified by the model have significant copper potential.

  17. Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

    1982-01-01

    For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Mapper (TM), will have seven channels and provide data with 30 m spatial resolution. Two of the spectral channels (1.6 micron and 2.2 micron) should allow detection of hydrous minerals. Possible applications of Landsat-D TM data for copper exploration were studied on the basis of a comparison of Landsat data with simulated TM data acquired using an aircraft scanner instrument. Three porphyr copper deposits in Arizona were selected for the study. It is concluded that the new Landsat-D TM scanner will provide Exploration geologists with a new improved tool for surveying mineral resources on a global basis.

  18. Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

    1982-01-01

    For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Ma