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Sample records for portable inhalational induction

  1. A portable inhalational induction device provides co-operative induction of anaesthesia in preanaesthetic area for children

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mi-Ja; Na, Hyo-Seok; Shin, Young Duck; Han, Jun-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background We introduce a new, simple portable inhalational induction device (PD) that provides co-operative inhalational induction of anaesthesia using N2O and subsequent sevoflurane in the preanaesthetic induction area in children. Methods Forty-five children (30 to 94 months old age, <35 kg) who were scheduled to undergo simple operations were assigned randomly to one of three regimens. Patients were encouraged by their parents to inhale N2O followed by sevoflurane (PD N2O-sevo group) or sevoflurane (PD sevo group) using a portable inhalational induction device in the preanaesthetic induction area until they were unable to respond to their names. They were then transferred to the operating room while maintaining inhalation of sevoflurane via the device. The control group underwent conventional inhalational induction in the operating room with the parents in attendance. Results Patients in the PD N2O-sevo group had a higher co-operative inhalation frequency than the patients in the PD sevo or the control group. Anaesthesia induction in the PD N2O-sevo and the PD sevo groups were faster than in the control group. Parent satisfaction score (0-100) was higher for the PD N2O-sevo group than for the control group. Conclusions A new portable inhalational induction device allows faster induction in co-operation with parents present in the preanaesthetic induction area compared to conventional inhalational induction in the unfamiliar operating room with the parents in attendance. PMID:20589175

  2. Clinical effects of sevoflurane anesthesia induction with a portable inhalational anesthetic circuit in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Han, Chuanbao; Zhou, Qinhai; Liu, Cunming; Ding, Zhengnian

    2015-08-12

    Pediatric anesthesia induction with sevoflurane usually needs a special vaporizer and gas source, which limits its use to the operating room (OR). Many children feel anxious and cry when entering the OR because of being separated from their parents, which impairs anesthesia safety and their physical and mental health. In this study, we used a portable circuit to perform sevoflurane anesthesia induction outside the OR, assessed its effects and compared them with those of ketamine anesthesia in pediatric patients. One hundred children had anesthesia induced with either sevoflurane (sevoflurane group) through the portable inhalational anesthetic circuit, or ketamine by intramuscular injection (ketamine group), then were transferred to the OR. Peak inspired concentration (Cp) and steady state concentration (Cs) of sevoflurane were measured. Heart rate (HR) and saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) were monitored. Time for anesthesia induction, awakening, leaving the OR and duration of the operation were recorded. The patients' reaction during anesthesia was also analyzed. The Cp and Cs of sevoflurane were correlated with bodyweight. Compared with the ketamine group, the sevoflurane group showed shorter time for anesthesia induction (28 ±7 s vs. 195 ±34 s, p < 0.0001), awakening (11.2 ±3.6 s vs. 63.5 ±6.7 s, p < 0.0001) and leaving the OR (20.5 ±5.6 s vs. 43.4 ±10.6, p < 0.0001), less noncooperation during anesthesia induction (10% vs. 80%, p < 0.0001), lower HR (130 ±16 beats/min vs. 143 ±19 beats/min, p = 0.0004) and higher SpO2 (98.9 ±0.9% vs. 96.1 ±2.5%, p < 0.0001) on arrival at the OR. Pediatric anesthesia induction by sevoflurane with the portable inhalational anesthetic circuit is convenient, safe and effective outside the OR.

  3. A portable magnetic induction measurement system (PIMS).

    PubMed

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jérôme; Pollig, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2012-02-22

    For contactless monitoring of ventilation and heart activity, magnetic induction measurements are applicable. As the technique is harmless for the human body, it is well suited for long-term monitoring solutions, e.g., bedside monitoring, monitoring of home care patients, and the monitoring of persons in critical occupations. For such settings, a two-channel portable magnetic induction system has been developed, which is small and light enough to be fitted in a chair or bed. Because demodulation, control, and filtering are implemented on a front-end digital signal processor, a PC is not required (except for visualization/data storage during research and development). The system can be connected to a local area network (LAN) or wireless network (WiFi), allowing to connect several devices to a large monitoring system, e.g., for a residential home for the elderly or a hospital with low-risk patients not requiring standard ECG monitoring. To visualize data streams, a Qt-based (Qt-framework by Nokia, Espoo, Finland) monitoring application has been developed, which runs on Netbook computers, laptops, or standard PCs. To induce and measure the magnetic fields, external coils and amplifiers are required. This article describes the system and presents results for monitoring respiration and heart activity in a (divan) bed and for respiration monitoring in a chair. Planar configurations and orthogonal coil setups were examined during the measurement procedures. The measurement data were streamed over a LAN to a monitoring PC running Matlab (The MathWorks Inc, Natick, MA, USA).

  4. Flavored Anesthetic Masks for Inhalational Induction in Children.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aakriti; Mathew, Preethy Joseph; Bhardwaj, Neerja

    2017-05-19

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of masking the odor of inhalational agents using fruit flavors on the anxiety behavior and compliance of children for inhalational induction. A prospective randomized double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted on 60 unpremedicated children in the age group of 4-12 y. Thirty children received anesthetic masks smeared with a flavor of child's choice while the other 30 children were induced using masks without flavor. Anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Pre-operative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS) in the pre-op room and during inhalational induction. Mask acceptance was graded by Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC). The cost-effectiveness of flavored anesthetic masks was compared to that of commercially available pre-scented masks. The baseline anxiety in the two groups was comparable. The number of children demonstrating high levels of anxiety at anesthetic induction was similar in flavored and non-flavored mask groups (p 0.45). The compliance to mask induction was also equally good (p 0.99). The authors found significant difference in the cost of flavored mask (INR 56.45 per mask) as compared to commercially available pre-scented masks (INR 660 per mask). The authors observed a placebo effect that reduced the pre-op anxiety in the control group which probably made the quality of induction equivalent with flavored and non-flavored masks. Therefore, using a flavored anesthetic mask is cost-effective than using a commercially available pre-scented mask.

  5. A comparison of inhalational inductions for children in the operating room vs the induction room.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Anna M; Hagerman, Nancy; Patino, Mario; Wittkugel, Eric; Schnell, Beverly; Salisbury, Shelia; Kurth, Dean

    2012-04-01

    There has been debate about the use of an induction room (IR) compared with an operating room (OR) for inhalational induction in children. The quality of the anesthesia induction between these two physical environments has not been studied previously. We sought to compare child distress, OR utilization and efficiency, and parental satisfaction and safety, between an IR and an OR. In a prospective observational study, we studied 501 developmentally appropriate children ages 1-14 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III, presenting for the inhalational induction of anesthesia, undergoing outpatient or outpatient-admit ENT surgery. Inductions were performed in an IR (IR group) or OR (OR group) with parent(s) present. Child behavioral compliance was assessed using the Induction Compliance Checklist (ICC), a validated observational scale from 0 to 10 consisting of 10 behaviors; an ICC score ≥4 was considered poor behavioral compliance. Times for transport, anesthesia start, ready for surgery, surgery finish, out of OR, and total case process times were recorded. OR utilization and OR efficiency was derived using these times. Data on number and experience of clinical providers were also collected. Parent satisfaction with the induction was measured using a satisfaction survey. Safety was measured by recording respiratory complications during induction. The chi-squared test was conducted to determine whether induction location was associated with level of behavioral compliance. A multivariable proportional odds model was used to control for risk factors. OR utilization and efficiency were analyzed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. There were no significant differences in ICC scores between the groups (P-value = 0.12). Anesthesia, nonoperative, and transport time were statistically less in the OR group when compared with the IR group, although total case process times were similar in both groups. While OR efficiency was significantly

  6. Producing nitric oxide by pulsed electrical discharge in air for portable inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binglan; Muenster, Stefan; Blaesi, Aron H; Bloch, Donald B; Zapol, Warren M

    2015-07-01

    Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) produces selective pulmonary vasodilation and is an effective therapy for treating pulmonary hypertension in adults and children. In the United States, the average cost of 5 days of inhaled NO for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is about $14,000. NO therapy involves gas cylinders and distribution, a complex delivery device, gas monitoring and calibration equipment, and a trained respiratory therapy staff. The objective of this study was to develop a lightweight, portable device to serve as a simple and economical method of producing pure NO from air for bedside or portable use. Two NO generators were designed and tested: an offline NO generator and an inline NO generator placed directly within the inspiratory line. Both generators use pulsed electrical discharges to produce therapeutic range NO (5 to 80 parts per million) at gas flow rates of 0.5 to 5 liters/min. NO was produced from air, as well as gas mixtures containing up to 90% O2 and 10% N2. Potentially toxic gases produced in the plasma, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), were removed using a calcium hydroxide scavenger. An iridium spark electrode produced the lowest ratio of NO2/NO. In lambs with acute pulmonary hypertension, breathing electrically generated NO produced pulmonary vasodilation and reduced pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index. In conclusion, electrical plasma NO generation produces therapeutic levels of NO from air. After scavenging to remove NO2 and O3 and filtration to remove particles, electrically produced NO can provide safe and effective treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Induction of Food Allergy in Mice by Allergen Inhalation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to test the hypothesis that food allergy may develop in response to antigen inhalation. Studies in a...relative timing of antigen ingestion vs. antigen inhalation to lead to food allergy development. We are also testing whether exposure to aerosolized...antigen will reverse or exacerbate established food allergy to that antigen. Studies in year 1 of this project demonstrate that: 1) initial inhalation

  8. Induction of Food Allergy in Mice by Allergen Inhalation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    whether and how inhaling egg white can sensitize for the development of egg white food allergy. Despite difficulties related to the complicated pregnancy ...Nothing to report 10 CHANGES/PROBLEMS: Changes in Approach: Nothing to report Delays: A significant delay has been caused by pregnancy /delivery

  9. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Marijuana as Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  10. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... place a chemical- soaked rag in their mouth. Abusers may also inhale fumes from a balloon or ... by inhalants usually lasts just a few minutes, abusers often try to prolong it by continuing to ...

  11. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  12. Streamed video clips to reduce anxiety in children during inhaled induction of anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mifflin, Katherine A; Hackmann, Thomas; Chorney, Jill Maclaren

    2012-11-01

    Anesthesia induction in children is frequently achieved by inhalation of nitrous oxide and sevoflurane. Pediatric anesthesiologists commonly use distraction techniques such as humor or nonprocedural talk to reduce anxiety and facilitate a smooth transition at this critical phase. There is a large body of successful distraction research that explores the use of video and television distraction methods for minor medical and dental procedures, but little research on the use of this method for ambulatory surgery. In this randomized control trial study we examined whether video distraction is effective in reducing the anxiety of children undergoing inhaled induction before ambulatory surgery. Children (control = 47, video = 42) between 2 and 10 years old undergoing ambulatory surgery were randomly assigned to a video distraction or control group. In the video distraction group a video clip of the child's preference was played during induction, and the control group received traditional distraction methods during induction. The modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was used to assess the children's anxiety before and during the process of receiving inhalation anesthetics. All subjects were similar in their age and anxiety scores before entering the operating rooms. Children in the video distraction group were significantly less anxious at induction and showed a significantly smaller change in anxiety from holding to induction than did children in the control group. Playing video clips during the inhaled induction of children undergoing ambulatory surgery is an effective method of reducing anxiety. Therefore, pediatric anesthesiologists may consider using video distraction as a useful, valid, alternative strategy for achieving a smooth transition to the anesthetized state.

  13. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of coordination, euphoria (a feeling of intense happiness), and dizziness. Some users also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations ( ... on the type of inhalant used, the harmful health effects will differ. The table below lists some ...

  14. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  15. The pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and ease of use of a novel portable metered-dose cannabis inhaler in patients with chronic neuropathic pain: a phase 1a study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Elon; Ogintz, Miri; Almog, Shlomo

    2014-09-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain is often refractory to standard pharmacological treatments. Although growing evidence supports the use of inhaled cannabis for neuropathic pain, the lack of standard inhaled dosing plays a major obstacle in cannabis becoming a "main stream" pharmacological treatment for neuropathic pain. The objective of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, efficacy, and ease of use of a novel portable thermal-metered-dose inhaler (tMDI) for cannabis in a cohort of eight patients suffering from chronic neuropathic pain and on a stable analgesic regimen including medicinal cannabis. In a single-dose, open-label study, patients inhaled a single 15.1 ± 0.1 mg dose of cannabis using the Syqe Inhaler device. Blood samples for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-THC were taken at baseline and up to 120 minutes. Pain intensity (0-10 VAS), adverse events, and satisfaction score were monitored following the inhalation. A uniform pharmacokinetic profile was exhibited across all participants (Δ(9)-THC plasma Cmax ± SD was 38 ± 10 ng/mL, Tmax ± SD was 3 ± 1 minutes, AUC₀→infinity ± SD was 607 ± 200 ng·min/mL). Higher plasma Cmax increase per mg Δ(9)-THC administered (12.3 ng/mL/mg THC) and lower interindividual variability of Cmax (25.3%), compared with reported alternative modes of THC delivery, were measured. A significant 45% reduction in pain intensity was noted 20 minutes post inhalation (P = .001), turning back to baseline within 90 minutes. Tolerable, lightheadedness, lasting 15-30 minutes and requiring no intervention, was the only reported adverse event. This trial suggests the potential use of the Syqe Inhaler device as a smokeless delivery system of medicinal cannabis, producing a Δ(9)-THC pharmacokinetic profile with low interindividual variation of Cmax, achieving pharmaceutical standards for inhaled drugs.

  16. [Occupational exposure of operating room staff to anesthetic gases during inhaled induction--a comparison with intravenous anesthesia induction].

    PubMed

    Hasei, Mari; Hirata, Takahiko; Nishihara, Hidenobu; Tanigami, Hironobu; Takashina, Masaki; Mori, Takahiko

    2003-04-01

    The risk of occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases still remains during inhaled induction. In this study we investigated how much we were occupationally exposed to anesthetic gases during induction period. Twenty-six adult patients were induced with sevoflurane 5% using a face mask for three minutes and maintained with sevoflurane 1% after end-tracheal intubations (IH-Group). Twenty-two adult patients were induced with intravenous anesthetics and maintained with sevoflurane 1% after end-tracheal intubations(IV-Group). The concentration of sevoflurane was measured by Multi-gas Monitor 1302 (Bruel & Kjaer: Denmark) every 70 seconds. Sample gas was suctioned from breathing zone of anesthesiologists. All of our operating rooms are equipped with waste gas scavenging system. The peak concentration of sevoflurane is significantly higher in IH-Group (15.91 +/- 22.64 ppm) compared with IV-group (0.36 +/- 0.25 ppm). The period when sevoflurane concentration exceeded 0.5 ppm is significantly longer IH-Group (18.55 +/- 10.51 min.) compared to IV-Group (1.92 +/- 4.56 min.). The induction with intravenous anesthetics is a better method in order to reduce occupational exposure of anesthesiologists to anesthetic gases.

  17. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates.

  18. Portable inhaled methoxyflurane is feasible and safe for colonoscopy in subjects with morbid obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Q.; Toscano, Leanne; Lawrence, Matthew; Phan, Vinh-An; Singh, Rajvinder; Bampton, Peter; Fraser, Robert J.; Holloway, Richard H.; Schoeman, Mark N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Colonoscopy with inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) is well tolerated in unselected subjects and is not associated with respiratory depression. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the feasibility, safety, and post-procedural outcomes of portable methoxyflurane used as an analgesic agent during colonoscopy with those of anesthesia-assisted deep sedation (AADS) in subjects with morbid obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Patients and methods: The outcomes of 140 patients with morbid obesity/OSA who underwent colonoscopy with either Penthrox inhalation (n = 85; 46 men, 39 women; mean age 57.2 ± 1.1 years) or AADS (n = 55; 27 men, 28 women; mean age, 54.9 ± 1.1 years) were prospectively assessed. Results: All Penthrox-assisted colonoscopies were successful, without any requirement for additional intravenous sedation. Compared with AADS, Penthrox was associated with a shorter total procedural time (24 ± 1 vs. 52 ± 1 minutes, P < 0.001), a lower incidence of hypotension (3 /85 vs. 23 /55, P < 0.001), and a lower incidence of respiratory desaturation (0 /85 vs. 14 /55, P < 0.001). The patients in the Penthrox group recovered more rapidly and were discharged much earlier than those in the AADS group (27 ± 2 vs. 97 ± 5 minutes, P < 0.0001). Of those who underwent colonoscopy with Penthrox, 90 % were willing to receive Penthrox again for colonoscopy. More importantly, of the patients who underwent colonoscopy with Penthrox and had had AADS for previous colonoscopy, 82 % (28 /34) preferred to receive Penthrox for future colonoscopies. Penthrox-assisted colonoscopy cost significantly less than colonoscopy with AADS ($ 332 vs. $ 725, P < 0.001), with a cost saving of approximately $ 400 for each additional complication avoided. Conclusions: Compared with AADS, Penthrox is highly feasible and safe in patients with morbid obesity/OSA undergoing colonoscopy

  19. Effect of educational and policy interventions on institutional utilization of wet nebulization respiratory drugs and portable inhalers.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Donna O; Lummis, Heather; Zhang, Ying; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2008-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines support the preferential use of portable inhalers (PIs) over wet nebulization (WN) respiratory therapy. Hospital- and community-based educational initiatives and a community-based provincial drug program policy change were previously implemented to promote the conversion of WN therapy to PI and spacer device use in Nova Scotia. To examine the effect of these interventions on salbutamol, ipratropium bromide, and spacer device (Aerochamber) use at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre (QEII HSC). We conducted a time-series analysis of drug utilization data from August 1998 to July 2005. We used two intervention phases compared to the pre-intervention phase to determine whether the educational and policy interventions were associated with significant changes in monthly drug and spacer device utilization rates at the QEII HSC (1000-bed teaching hospital; Halifax, Nova Scotia). Salbutamol and ipratropium bromide PI use significantly increased in both intervention phases, compared to the pre-intervention phase. Mean (SD) defined daily doses/100 bed-days for salbutamol PI increased from 30.4 (0.4) in the pre-intervention phase to 34.6 (0.9) and 37.0 (0.4) in intervention phases I and II respectively (p<0.001 for both), and ipratropium bromide PI increased from 27.3 (3.5) to 32.8 (2.5) in intervention phase I (p=0.004) and 35.6 (3.5) in intervention phase II (p<0.001). However, a significant corresponding decrease was observed with salbutamol WN only. Mean (SD) Aerochamber units/100 bed-days significantly increased. Educational and policy interventions had limited effects on converting WN to PI use at the QEII HSC.

  20. Experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses.

    PubMed

    Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Clark, Mary Ellen; Wen, Xin; Sears, William; Huber, Leslie; Ackerley, Cameron; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses. 7 horses with and 3 horses without a history of RAO. RAO-susceptible horses ranged in age from 17 to approximately 30 years, and control horses ranged in age from 7 to approximately 15 years. Pure mold cultures were derived from repeated culture of hay and identified via gene amplification and sequencing. Pulmonary function testing and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed before and after nebulization with a suspension of spores derived from 3 fungi, lipopolysaccharide, and 1-microm silica microspheres in all horses. This was followed by a 4-month washout period and a further pulmonary function test followed by saline (0.9% NaCl) solution challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage. Lichtheimia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Eurotium amstelodami were consistently identified in cultures of moldy hay. Nebulization with fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and microspheres induced significant increases in pleural pressure in RAO-susceptible but not control horses. Airway neutrophilia developed in both groups of horses with exposure to challenge material but more severely in RAO-susceptible horses. Results indicated that inhalation of fungal spores in combination with lipopolysaccharide and silica microspheres can induce disease exacerbation in susceptible horses and may thus be a useful model for future standardized studies of RAO in horses.

  1. A scavenging double mask to reduce workplace contamination during mask induction of inhalation anesthesia in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace contamination by the use of volatile anesthetic agents should be kept to a minimum if a potential health hazard is to be minimised. Mask induction of animals is a common procedure. The present study investigates the efficiency of a novel scavenging double mask in reducing waste gas concentrations in the breathing zone of the anesthetist performing this procedure. Methods Twelve beagle dogs (ASA I) undergoing general anesthesia for a dental procedure were intravenously premedicated with medetomidine and butorphanol (10 μg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced via a custom-made scavenging mask using isoflurane in oxygen. In six dogs (group S), scavenging from the mask was performed whereas in six other dogs (group NS) the scavenging function was disabled. Isoflurane concentration was continuously measured with photoacoustic spectroscopy at the level of the shoulder of the anesthetist before and during mask induction and additionally during intubation. Statistical analysis was performed with a Student t- test and a Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05 for significance). Results The mean isoflurane concentration during baseline (premedication) was 1.8 ± 0.8 ppm and 2.3 ± 0.6 ppm in group S and NS respectively. This increased during mask induction to 2.0 ± 0.8 ppm and 11.2 ± 6.0 ppm respectively (p < 0.01). The maximum isoflurane concentration ranged from 0.7 ppm to 2.8 ppm and from from 8.3 ppm to 43.7 ppm in group S and NS respectively. Conclusion This double mask can be used to induce inhalation anesthesia in dogs. Scavenging from the mask significantly decreases the amount of waste anaesthetic gas concentrations in the breathing zone of the anesthetist. Therefore, such a system can be recommended whenever induction or maintenance of general anesthesia by mask is considered. PMID:21232109

  2. Multi-Sensor Systems Development for UXO Detection and Discrimination: Man-Portable Dual Magnetic/Electromagnetic Induction Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Portable Dual Magnetic/Electromagnetic Induction Sensor David Wright, Hollis H. Bennett, Jr., Linda Peyman Dove, John H. Ballard, Morris P...Bennett, Jr., Linda Peyman Dove, John H. Ballard, Morris P. Fields, and Tere A. Demoss Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and...NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Wright, Hollis H. Bennett, Jr., Linda Peyman Dove, John H. Ballard

  3. Measurement of human CYP1A2 induction by inhalation exposure to benzo(a)pyrene based on in vivo isotope breath method.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoli; Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Hongbiao; Lambert, George; Wei, Fusheng; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of certain carcinogens, and inducible by toxic substrates. To date, few studies have investigated in vivo CYP1A2 induction in humans and its relationship to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Non-smoking healthy male coke-oven workers (n = 30) were recruited as 'exposure' group, and non-smoking healthy office workers in the same city (n = 10) were selected as 'control' group, to test whether high inhalation exposure to PAHs can induce CYP1A2 activity in human livers. Significantly higher inhalation exposure of PAHs were found among the exposure group compared to the control. Inhalation BaP exposure concentration in the exposure group was more than 30 times higher than the control group (p < 0.001). However, the exposure group did not exhale significant higher levels of (13)CO2/(12)CO2 in breath samples (p = 0.81), and no significant relationship was found between the inhaled BaP concentration and the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 ratio (p = 0.91). A significant association was found between the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 exhalation and dietary BaP intake level. Hepatic CYP1A2 activity/induction level was not effected by inhaled BaP but was altered by ingestion of BaP.

  4. Characterization of cobalt pigments found in traditional Valencian ceramics by means of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arantegui, J; Resano, M; García-Ruiz, E; Vanhaecke, F; Roldán, C; Ferrero, J; Coll, J

    2008-02-15

    In this work, a comparison of the performances of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for the characterization of cobalt blue pigments used in the decoration of Valencian ceramics is presented. Qualitative data on the elemental composition of the blue pigments obtained using both techniques show a good agreement. Moreover, the results clearly illustrate that potters utilized different kinds of cobalt pigments in different historical periods. While both techniques seem suitable for the proposed task, they show different strengths and weaknesses. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a cheaper and totally non-destructive technique, capable of providing fast and reliable results at the mgg(-1) level. LA-ICPMS, on the other hand, offers a much higher detection power and better spatial resolution, but its use results in some sample damage (sample consumption at the mug level), while it is a more expensive and non-portable technique.

  5. Portable x-ray fluorescence for assessing trace elements in rice and rice products: Comparison with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fleming, David E B; Foran, Kelly A; Kim, Jong Sung; Guernsey, Judy R

    2015-10-01

    Portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was investigated as a means of assessing trace elements in rice and rice products. Using five measurement trials of 180 s real time, portable XRF was first used to detect arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in a variety of rice samples. The same samples were then microwave-digested and used to determine elemental concentrations using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of As, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn determined by ICP-MS were found to be consistent with other recent studies involving various types of rice and rice products. When assessing for As, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, comparison of results between XRF amplitude and ICP-MS concentration (wet weight) demonstrated a linear relationship with a significant correlation. A significant correlation between XRF amplitude and ICP-MS concentration was not found when assessing for Ni.

  6. Inflammatory dendritic cells—not basophils—are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Maud; Deswarte, Kim; Pouliot, Philippe; Willart, Monique A.M.; Kool, Mirjam; Muskens, Femke

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). Here, we show that HDM inhalation leads to the TLR4/MyD88-dependent recruitment of IL-4 competent basophils and eosinophils, and of inflammatory DCs to the draining mediastinal nodes. Depletion of basophils only partially reduced Th2 immunity, and depletion of eosinophils had no effect on the Th2 response. Basophils did not take up inhaled antigen, present it to T cells, or express antigen presentation machinery, whereas a population of FceRI+ DCs readily did. Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen. PMID:20819925

  7. Alendronate inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice by induction of apoptosis of alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Manabu; Maeno, Toshitaka; Nishimura, Satoshi; Ogata, Fusa; Masubuchi, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Aoki, Fumiaki; Suga, Tatsuo; Nagai, Ryozo; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-03-10

    Alveolar macrophages play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of emphysema, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Bisphosphonates are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. Here we show that delivery of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate alendronate via aerosol inhalation ameliorates elastase-induced emphysema in mice. Inhaled, but not orally ingested, alendronate inhibits airspace enlargement after elastase instillation, and induces apoptosis of macrophages in bronchoalveolar fluid via caspase-3- and mevalonate-dependent pathways. Cytometric analysis indicates that the F4/80(+)CD11b(high)CD11c(mild) population characterizing inflammatory macrophages, and the F4/80(+)CD11b(mild)CD11c(high) population defining resident alveolar macrophages take up substantial amounts of the bisphosphonate imaging agent OsteoSense680 after aerosol inhalation. We further show that alendronate inhibits macrophage migratory and phagocytotic activities and blunts the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signalling. Given that the alendronate inhalation effectively induces apoptosis in both recruited and resident alveolar macrophages, we suggest this strategy may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of emphysema.

  8. Effects of Inhaled Nitrous Oxide on the Induction Dose and Time Requirements of Propofol: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Kavita; Sethi, Surendra Kumar; Damor, Mamta; Jain, Neena

    2017-01-01

    Context: Propofol is a commonly used induction agent during general anesthesia. As a sole agent, it does not provide any strong analgesic effect. The nitrous oxide (N2O) used along with propofol for induction of anesthesia augments the induction characteristics and reduces the dose of propofol. Aims: To study the effects of inhaled N2O on the induction dose and time of propofol during general anesthesia and also its hemodynamic response and adverse effects. Settings and Design: The present research is a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparative study. Subjects and Methods: The study population consisted of eighty patients aged 18–60 years from either sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2 which were scheduled for various elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups comprising forty patients in each group. All patients were premedicated with glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg, and fentanyl 1 μg/kg intravenously. Group FN received breathing mixture of gases (67% N2O @ 4 L/min and 33% O2 @ 2 L/min), and propofol and Group FO received 100% O2 @ 6 L/min and propofol. The different hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and SpO2) were measured. Statistical Analysis: All observations were analyzed using Chi-square test, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance. Results: The mean induction time and dose were significantly less in Group FN as compared to Group FO (P < 0.05). The mean induction time was 172 ± 32 s in Group FN as compared to 242 ± 43 s in Group FO (P < 001), whereas the mean induction dose was 56.10 ± 13.92 mg in Group FN as compared to 81.67 ± 17.64 mg in Group FO (P < 0.05). The hemodynamic parameters remained stable with no complications. Conclusion: The coadministration of N2O during induction of anesthesia with propofol not only reduced the induction dose of propofol but

  9. Inhalation anesthesia in Dumeril's monitor (Varanus dumerili) with isoflurane, sevoflurane, and nitrous oxide: effects of inspired gases on induction and recovery.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Mads F; Mosley, Craig; Crawshaw, Graham J; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2005-03-01

    Induction and recovery from inhalation anesthesia of Dumeril's monitors (Varanus dumerili) using isoflurane, sevoflurane, and nitrous oxide (N2O) were characterized using a randomized crossover design. Mean times to induction for isoflurane in 100% oxygen (O2), sevoflurane in 100% O2, sevoflurane in 21% O2:79% nitrogen (N2; room air), and sevoflurane in 66% N2O:34% O2 were 13.00 +/- 4.55, 11.20 +/- 3.77, 10.40 +/- 2.50, and 9.40 +/- 2.80 min, respectively, at 26 degrees C (n = 10). Mask induction with sevoflurane was significantly faster than with isoflurane. There was no significant difference between the induction time for sevoflurane in O2 or in room air, but sevoflurane combined with N2O resulted in significantly faster inductions than were obtained with sevoflurane in 100% O2. All treatments resulted in a significantly higher respiratory rate than in undisturbed animals. There were no significant differences in respiratory rate among lizards receiving O2, isoflurane in 100% O2, sevoflurane in room air, and sevoflurane combined with N2O, but animals receiving sevoflurane in O2 had a lower respiratory rate than those receiving pure O2. The sequence of complete muscle relaxation during induction was consistent and not significantly different among the four treatments: front limbs lost tone first, followed by the neck and the hind limbs; then the righting reflex was lost and finally tail tone. There were no significant differences in recovery times between isoflurane and sevoflurane or between sevoflurane in 100% O2 and sevoflurane combined with N2O. Similar recovery times were observed in animals recovering in 100 and 21% O2.

  10. Portable laser ablation sampling device for elemental fingerprinting of objects outside the laboratory with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Glaus, Reto; Koch, Joachim; Günther, Detlef

    2012-06-19

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) is a powerful method for elemental fingerprinting of solid samples in a quasi-nondestructive manner. In order to extend the field of application to objects outside the laboratory, a portable laser ablation sampling device was assembled using a diode pumped solid state laser and fiber-optics. The ablated materials were sampled on membrane filters and subsequently quantified by means of LA-ICPMS. The analytical performance of this approach was investigated for glass and gold reference materials. Accuracies of better than 20% were reached for most elements and typical limits of detection were found to be in the range of 0.01-1 μg/g. In summary, this approach combines spatially resolved sampling with the detection power of ICPMS and enables elemental fingerprinting of objects which cannot be transferred to the laboratory, e.g., archeological artifacts in museums.

  11. Distribution of DNA Adducts Caused by Inhaled Formaldehyde Is Consistent with Induction of Nasal Carcinoma but Not Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kun; Collins, Leonard B.; Ru, Hongyu; Bermudez, Edilberto; Swenberg, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled formaldehyde is classified as a known human and animal carcinogen, causing nasopharyngeal cancer. Additionally, limited epidemiological evidence for leukemia in humans is available; however, this is inconsistent across studies. Both genotoxicity and cytotoxicity are key events in formaldehyde nasal carcinogenicity in rats, but mechanistic data for leukemia are not well established. Formation of DNA adducts is a key event in initiating carcinogenesis. Formaldehyde can induce DNA monoadducts, DNA-DNA cross-links, and DNA protein cross-links. In this study, highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoringmethods were developed and [13CD2]-formaldehyde exposures utilized, allowing differentiation of DNA adducts and DNA-DNA cross-links originating from endogenous and inhalation-derived formaldehyde exposure. The results show that exogenous formaldehyde induced N2-hydroxymethyl-dG monoadducts and dG-dG cross-links in DNA from rat respiratory nasal mucosa but did not form [13CD2]-adducts in sites remote to the portal of entry, even when five times more DNA was analyzed. Furthermore, no N6-HO13CD2-dA adducts were detected in nasal DNA. In contrast, high amounts of endogenous formaldehyde dG and dA monoadducts were present in all tissues examined. The number of exogenous N2-HO13CD2-dG in 1- and 5-day nasal DNA samples from rats exposed to 10-ppm [13CD2]-formaldehyde was 1.28 ± 0.49 and 2.43 ± 0.78 adducts/107 dG, respectively, while 2.63 ± 0.73 and 2.84 ± 1.13 N2-HOCH2-dG adducts/107 dG and 3.95 ± 0.26 and 3.61 ± 0.95 N6-HOCH2-dA endogenous adducts/107 dA were present. This study provides strong evidence supporting a genotoxic and cytotoxic mode of action for the carcinogenesis of inhaled formaldehyde in respiratory nasal epithelium but does not support the biological plausibility that inhaled formaldehyde also causes leukemia. PMID:20176625

  12. Comparison of a portable micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the ancient ceramics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulou, D. N.; Zachariadis, G. A.; Anthemidis, A. N.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Stratis, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Two multielement instrumental methods of analysis, micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were applied for the analysis of 7th and 5th century B.C. ancient ceramic sherds in order to evaluate the above two methods and to assess the potential to use the current compact and portable micro-XRF instrument for the in situ analysis of ancient ceramics. The distinguishing factor of interest is that micro-XRF spectrometry offers the possibility of a nondestructive analysis, an aspect of primary importance in the compositional analysis of cultural objects. Micro-XRF measurements were performed firstly directly on the ceramic sherds with no special pretreatment apart from surface cleaning (micro-XRF on sherds) and secondly on pressed pellet disks which were prepared for each ceramic sherd (micro-XRF on pellet). For the ICP-AES determination of elements, test solutions were prepared by the application of a microwave-assisted decomposition procedure in closed high-pressure PFA vessels. Also, the standard reference material SARM 69 was used for the efficiency calibration of the micro-XRF instrument and was analysed by both methods. In order to verify the calibration, the standard reference materials NCS DC 73332 and SRM620 as well as the reference materials AWI-1 and PRI-1 were analysed by micro-XRF. Elemental concentrations determined by the three analytical procedures (ICP-AES, micro-XRF on sherds and micro-XRF on pellets) were statistically treated by correlation analysis and Student's t-test (at the 95% confidence level).

  13. Portable Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A low cost, low power, self-contained portable welding gun designed for joining thermoplastics which become soft when heated and harden when cooled was developed originally by NASA's Langley Research Center for repairing helicopter windshields. Welder has a broad range of applications for joining both thermoplastic materials in the aerospace, automotive, appliance, and construction industries. Welders portability and low power requirement allow its use on-site in any type of climate, with power supplied by a variety of portable sources.

  14. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  15. Inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Storck, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet-underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This clinical report reviews key aspects of inhalant abuse, emphasizes the need for greater awareness, and offers advice regarding the pediatrician's role in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem.

  16. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to every organ over time.Also, if your child abuses inhalants, he or she is likely to try ... How can I start a discussion about inhalant abuse with my child? Other organizationsNational Inhalant Prevention Coalition (NIPC)National Institute ...

  17. Courseware Portability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.

    Portability enables interactive courseware (ICW) and associated application programs to operate on computer-based systems other than the ones on which they are developed. Courseware portability will increase sharing of ICW across a range of instructional settings within military services and across internationally allied military services. The…

  18. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  19. Portable Planetarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a method that students can use to build portable planetariums. After building the models, students are familiar with the names of constellations and major stars and are able to share their projects with other students. (DDR)

  20. Formation of DNA adducts and induction of mutagenic effects in rats following 4 weeks inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide as a basis for cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    van Sittert, N J; Boogaard, P J; Natarajan, A T; Tates, A D; Ehrenberg, L G; Törnqvist, M A

    2000-01-17

    Ethylene oxide (EO) is mutagenic in various in vitro and in vivo test systems and carcinogenic in rodents. EO forms different adducts upon reaction with DNA, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG) being the main adduct. The major objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the formation and persistence of N7-HEG adducts in liver DNA of adult male rats exposed to 0, 50, 100 and 200 ppm by inhalation (4 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 h/day) and (b) to assess dose-response relationships for Hprt gene mutations and various types of chromosomal changes in splenic lymphocytes.N7-HEG adducts were measured 5, 21, 35 and 49 days after cessation of exposure. By extrapolation, the mean concentrations of N7-HEG immediately after cessation of exposure ('day 0') to 50, 100 and 200 ppm were calculated as 310, 558 and 1202 adducts/10(8) nucleotides, respectively, while the mean concentration in control rats was 2.6 adducts/10(8) nucleotides. At 49 days, N7-HEG values had returned close to background levels. The mean levels of N-(2-hydroxyethylvaline) adducts in haemoglobin were also determined and amounted 61.7, 114 and 247 nmol/g globin, respectively. Statistically significant linear relationships were found between mean N7-HEG levels ('day 0') and Hprt mutant frequencies at expression times 21/22 and 49/50 days and between mean N7-HEG ('day 0') and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) or high frequency cells (HFC) measured 5 days post-exposure. At day 21 post-exposure, SCEs and HFCs in-part persisted and were significantly correlated with persistent N7-HEG adducts. No statistically significant dose effect relationships were observed for induction of micronuclei, nor for chromosome breaks or translocations. In conclusion, this study indicates that following sub-chronic exposure, EO is only weakly mutagenic in adult rats. Using the data of this study to predict cancer risk in man resulting from low level EO exposures in conjunction with other published data, i.e., those on (a) genotoxic

  1. Inhalant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Baydala, L

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic boundaries. Inhalants are pharmacologically diverse products that are selected for their low price, legal and widespread availability, and ability to rapidly induce euphoria. Chronic abuse is associated with serious and often irreversible effects. Widespread screening and early referrals to treatment programs have resulted in significant improvements in the mental, physical and social conditions of those affected. The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:21886449

  2. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  3. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects with inhaled steroids are thrush (a yeast infection of the mouth or throat that causes ... There have been concerns regarding the possibility of growth suppression in children. Recent studies have not shown ...

  4. Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    alpha,-antitrypsin resulting cur most often as the result of tracheal in prolonged action of proteases such as or laryngeal damage from the endotra... curs is determined by physicochemical Turbulent airflow, such as at bifurca- properties of the inhaled substance, its tions of the airway, separates

  5. Induction of anaesthesia in children.

    PubMed

    Boezaart, A P; van Hasselt, C H

    1987-05-16

    Induction of anaesthesia in children in the age group 2-6 years is a special challenge. In order to minimise emotional and physical stress during induction of anaesthesia by gas inhalation, a toy telephone has been modified to deliver induction gases to the mouthpiece while taped nursery stories can be heard from a small speaker placed in the earpiece. The child holds the hand set and listens to a suitable story, while appropriate concentrations of inhalation agents are adjusted inconspicuously.

  6. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... not use your ipratropium inhaler when you are near a flame or source of heat. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed to very high temperatures.Before you use ipratropium inhalation for the first ...

  7. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... not use your beclomethasone inhaler when you are near a flame or source of heat. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed to very high temperatures.Each beclomethasone inhaler is designed to provide 50, ...

  8. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties ... years of age and older. Albuterol powder for oral inhalation (Proair Respiclick) is used in children 12 ...

  10. Inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    MacFarland, H N

    1975-07-01

    Two kinds of problems associated with developing standardized procedures for the safety evaluation of new compounds are identified. The first of these is the question of the desirability of using such standard methods. It is concluded that a basic set of procedures is to be recommended, but this should be supplemented with special tests as may be indicated. The second problem is connected with the technical difficulties of any given type of assay and is normally dealt with in terms of the state of the art at the time. Assays by the inhalation route tend to be custom designed and do not follow standard protocols. One of the causes of this situation is the propensity of individual investigators to design de novo the equipment used to effect exposure of animals to airborne substances. Second, some confusion exists because investigators do not always appreciate that the concentration-time product is not the same as the true dose received by the exposed subjects and this may lead to anomalies when dose-response relationships are being characterized. It is suggested that interlaboratory studies be undertaken to ascertain the variability that might be expected in independent assays of inhalation toxicity.

  11. Micro- and nano-volume samples by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction using removable, interchangeable and portable rhenium coiled-filament assemblies and axially-viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiei, Hamid R.; Lai, Bryant; Karanassios, Vassili

    2012-11-01

    An electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction for micro- or nano-volume samples is described. Samples were pipetted onto coiled-filament assemblies that were purposely developed to be removable and interchangeable and were dried and vaporized into a small-volume vaporization chamber that clips onto any ICP torch with a ball joint. Interchangeable assemblies were also constructed to be small-size (e.g., less than 3 cm long with max diameter of 0.65 cm) and light-weight (1.4 g) so that they can be portable. Interchangeable assemblies with volume-capacities in three ranges (i.e., < 1 μL, 1-10 μL and 10-100 μL) were fabricated and used. The horizontally-operated NTV sample introduction was interfaced to an axially-viewed ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) system and NTV was optimized using ICP-AES and 8 elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, V, Ba, Mg, Be and Ca). Precision was 1.0-2.3% (peak height) and 1.1-2.4% (peak area). Detection limits (obtained using 5 μL volumes) expressed in absolute-amounts ranged between 4 pg for Pb to 0.3 fg (~ 5 million atoms) for Ca. Detection limits expressed in concentration units (obtained using 100 μL volumes of diluted, single-element standard solutions) were: 50 pg/mL for Pb; 10 pg/mL for Cd; 9 pg/mL for Zn; 1 pg/mL for V; 0.9 pg/mL for Ba; 0.5 pg/mL for Mg; 50 fg/mL for Be; and 3 fg/mL for Ca. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Pb in pg/mL levels of diluted natural water Certified Reference Material (CRM) and the determination of Zn in 80 nL volumes of the liquid extracted from an individual vesicle. It is shown that portable and interchangeable assemblies with dried sample residues on them can be transported without analyte loss (for the concentrations tested), thus opening up the possibility for "taking part of the lab to the sample" applications, such as testing for Cu concentration-compliance with the lead-copper rule of the Environmental

  12. Nanoparticles of pH-responsive, PEG-Doxorubicin Conjugates: Interaction with an in vitro Model of Lung Adenocarcinoma and their Direct Formulation in Propellant-based Portable Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ksv Krishna; Zhong, Qian; Bielski, Elizabeth R; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2017-10-03

    Pulmonary administration of polymer drug conjugates is of great potential clinical significance for treating lung cancer as such regimen significantly increases local drug concentrations while decreases systemic and local side effects. In this work, we demonstrate that nanoparticles prepared with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG)-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugates (mPEG-DOX) that have a pH-sensitive imine bond (Schiff base) can at the same time work as efficient carriers for DOX to kill cancer cells, and also as a strategy to directly formulate nanoparticles in propellant-based inhalers. Nanoparticles prepared by precipitation in water had a diameter in the range between 100-120 nm. We investigated the effects of molecular weight (MW) of mPEG (1K, 2K, and 5K Da) on the in vitro release kinetics, cellular internalization and cytotoxicity on in vitro model of lung adenocarcinoma and aerosol characters. It is observed that the DOX released from mPEG-DOX nanoparticles was significantly accelerated in acidic environment - pH 5.5 (endosomal/lysosomal pH) in comparison with pH 7.4 (physiological pH), as designed. Release of DOX from mPEG1K-DOX nanoparticles was significantly greater than those from mPEG2K and mPEG5K counterparts. In vitro cytotoxicity of nanoparticles, followed the sequence of mPEG1K-DOX > free DOX > mPEG2K-DOX > mPEG5K-DOX, a trend closely following their rate and extent of cellular internalization. mPEG-DOX nanoparticles with mPEG1K and mPEG2K were directly dispersed in hydrofluoroalkane (HFA), while a trace of ethanol was required to disperse mPEG5K-DOX nanoparticles in HFA. These pMDI formulations with high physical stability in HFAs display superior aerosol characteristics conducive to deep lung deposition. The fine particle fractions of these formulations ranged from 40% to 60%, higher than those of commercial products. Such formulations prepared from nanoparticles of pH-sensitive PEG-drug conjugates may also be envisioned to be extended to formulate

  13. Portable Electromyograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Luca, Gianluca; De Luca, Carlo J.; Bergman, Per

    2004-01-01

    A portable electronic apparatus records electromyographic (EMG) signals in as many as 16 channels at a sampling rate of 1,024 Hz in each channel. The apparatus (see figure) includes 16 differential EMG electrodes (each electrode corresponding to one channel) with cables and attachment hardware, reference electrodes, an input/output-and-power-adapter unit, a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter, and a hand-held computer that contains a removable 256-MB flash memory card. When all 16 EMG electrodes are in use, full-bandwidth data can be recorded in each channel for as long as 8 hours. The apparatus is powered by a battery and is small enough that it can be carried in a waist pouch. The computer is equipped with a small screen that can be used to display the incoming signals on each channel. Amplitude and time adjustments of this display can be made easily by use of touch buttons on the screen. The user can also set up a data-acquisition schedule to conform to experimental protocols or to manage battery energy and memory efficiently. Once the EMG data have been recorded, the flash memory card is removed from the EMG apparatus and placed in a flash-memory- card-reading external drive unit connected to a personal computer (PC). The PC can then read the data recorded in the 16 channels. Preferably, before further analysis, the data should be stored in the hard drive of the PC. The data files are opened and viewed on the PC by use of special- purpose software. The software for operation of the apparatus resides in a random-access memory (RAM), with backup power supplied by a small internal lithium cell. A backup copy of this software resides on the flash memory card. In the event of loss of both main and backup battery power and consequent loss of this software, the backup copy can be used to restore the RAM copy after power has been restored. Accessories for this device are also available. These include goniometers, accelerometers, foot switches, and force gauges.

  14. Lack of micronucleus induction activity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in the bone marrow of F344 rats by sub-chronic drinking-water treatment, inhalation exposure, or acute intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tadashi; Kamigaito, Tomoyuki; Katagiri, Taku; Kondou, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.

  15. Assessment of the Halogen Content of Brazilian Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10) Using High Resolution Molecular Absorption Spectrometry and Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with Direct Solid Sample Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Almeida, Tarcisio S; Alves, Jeferson C; Araujo, Rennan G O; Borges, Daniel L G

    2016-03-15

    Halogens in the atmosphere play an important role in climate change and also represent a potential health hazard. However, quantification of halogens is not a trivial task, and methods that require minimum sample preparation are interesting alternatives. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of direct solid sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS MAS) for F determination and electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for simultaneous Cl, Br, and I determination in airborne inhalable particulate matter (PM10) collected in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Analysis using HR-CS MAS was accomplished by monitoring the CaF molecule, which was generated at high temperatures in the graphite furnace after the addition of Ca. Analysis using ETV-ICP-MS was carried out using Ca as chemical modifier/aerosol carrier in order to avoid losses of Cl, Br, and I during the pyrolysis step, with concomitant use of Pd as a permanent modifier. The direct analysis approach resulted in LODs that were proven adequate for halogen determination in PM10, using either standard addition calibration or calibration against a certified reference material. The method allowed the quantification of the halogens in 14 PM10 samples collected in a northeastern coastal city in Brazil. The results demonstrated variations of halogen content according to meteorological conditions, particularly related to rainfall, humidity, and sunlight irradiation.

  16. Development of a Portable Unit for Metabolic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Piltch, N. D.; Juergens, J. R.; Lewis, M. E.; Lichter, M. J.; Struk, P. M.; Pettegrew, R. D.; Valentine, R. W.; Cabrera, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop, test and calibrate a prototype portable device that will measure human metabolic activity; namely time resolved measurements of gas temperature, pressure and flow-rate, and oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressure during inhalation and exhalation.

  17. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  18. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  19. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  20. Portable Unit for Metabolic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Pitch, Nancy D.; Lewis, Mark E.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lichter, Michael J.; Stuk, Peter M.; Diedrick, Dale M.; Valentine, Russell W.; Pettegrew, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    The Portable Unit for Metabolic Analysis (PUMA) is an instrument that measures several quantities indicative of human metabolic function. Specifically, this instrument makes time-resolved measurements of temperature, pressure, flow, and the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in breath during both inhalation and exhalation. Portable instruments for measuring these quantities have been commercially available, but the response times of those instruments are too long to enable temporal resolution of phenomena on the time scales of human respiration cycles. In contrast, the response time of the PUMA is significantly shorter than characteristic times of human respiration phenomena, making it possible to analyze varying metabolic parameters, not only on sequential breath cycles but also at successive phases of inhalation and exhalation within the same breath cycle. In operation, the PUMA is positioned to sample breath near the subject s mouth. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors are used for three of the measurements: a miniature pressure transducer for pressure, a thermistor for temperature, and an ultrasonic sensor for flow. Sensors developed at Glenn Research Center are used for measuring the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide: The carbon dioxide sensor exploits the relatively strong absorption of infrared light by carbon dioxide. Light from an infrared source passes through the stream of inhaled or exhaled gas and is focused on an infrared- sensitive photodetector. The oxygen sensor exploits the effect of oxygen in quenching the fluorescence of ruthenium-doped organic molecules in a dye on the tip of an optical fiber. A blue laser diode is used to excite the fluorescence, and the optical fiber carries the fluorescent light to a photodiode, the temporal variation of the output of which bears a known relationship with the rate of quenching of fluorescence and, hence, with the partial pressure of oxygen. The outputs of the sensors are digitized

  1. Portable Electromagnetic Induction Sensor with Integrated Positioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    of our advanced EMI codes we conducted comparisons between actual and measured data for a permeable 4-inch-diameter sphere. The sphere was placed 36...of Elkton Series type soil[53]. The Elkton Series consist of very deep, slowly permeable , poorly drained soils. These soils formed in silty aeolian...A 105-m m U X O and a box of nails are in- terrogated by the sensoron the 5 5 grid of Fig.8.Tw o separate experim ents, involving different box/U X O

  2. Portable Electromagnetic Induction Sensor with Integrated Positioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-16

    Shubitidze, Juan Fernndez, Irma Shamatava, Benjamin Barrowes, and Kevin O’Neill. Joint diagonalization applied to the detection and discrimination of...unexploded ordnance. Geophysics, submitted for publication. 3 [3] Fridon Shubitidze, Ben Barrowes, Irma Shamatava, Juano Pablo Fernndez, and Kevin...Environmental Problems, 2007 . 3 [6] F. Shubitidze, B. Barrowes, J. P. Fernández, Irma Shamatava, and K. O’Neill. NSMC for UXO discrimination in cases

  3. [Inhalant-related disorder].

    PubMed

    Mizuhara, Yuki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Fukui, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    Inhalant abuse and dependence are prevalent in adolescent population because inhalants are inexpensive, legal and accessible substance for youth. In Japan, the prevalence of inhalant abuse and dependence is gradually declining in these days, although inhalants can still become a "gateway drug" to other dependent substances such as cocaine and cannabinoids. Inhalant abuse causes show serious mental and somatic symptoms, and mortality in acute and chronic phases, while the abusers are ignorant about it. This paper reviews recent studies that investigate the symptoms and the treatments of inhalant abuse and dependence.

  4. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  5. Smoke inhalation injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, M.

    The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

  6. Focus on Inhalants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenge: Safe, Disciplines, and Drug-Free Schools, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The use of inhalants is a major health concern among the school-age population. Information presented in this publication dispels the myths about inhalant use and presents common warning signs that alert teachers to a student's use. The short- and long-term effects of inhalant use are described to shed light on the health risks involved. Lesson…

  7. CBOs Helping Inhalant Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Gloria

    1980-01-01

    Noting the high barrio use of inhalants, the environment often surrounding inhaling, and various treatment approaches, the article describes the programs of several Hispanic community-based organizations in Mexico, Arizona, and California which have been developed to assist inhalant abusers and their families in overcoming the habit. (SB)

  8. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management.

  9. Induction Heating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Induction heating technology, a magnetic non-deforming process, was developed by Langley researchers to join plastic and composite components in space. Under NASA license, Inductron Corporation uses the process to produce induction heating systems and equipment for numerous applications. The Torobonder, a portable system, comes with a number of interchangeable heads for aircraft repair. Other developments are the E Heating Head, the Toroid Joining Gun, and the Torobrazer. These products perform bonding applications more quickly, safely and efficiently than previous methods.

  10. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  11. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  12. Software Engineering for Portability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanchev, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the portability of educational software focuses on the software design and development process. Topics discussed include levels of portability; the user-computer dialog; software engineering principles; design techniques for student performance records; techniques of courseware programing; and suggestions for further research and…

  13. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  14. [New inhalation anesthetics].

    PubMed

    Conzen, P; Nuscheler, M

    1996-08-01

    Recently, two new halogenated volatile anaesthetics, sevoflurane and desflurane, have been approved for clinical use in Germany. Their low solubility in blood is the most important common property, and this represents the most obvious difference from the inhalational anaesthetics currently used. Extensive clinical and experimental evaluations have confirmed the superior pharmacokinetic properties predicted. Both sevoflurane and desflurane provide more rapid emergence from anaesthesia, permit easier titration of the anaesthetic dose during maintenance and offer more rapid recovery from anaesthesia. For sevoflurane, there are additional advantages: a pleasant odor, negligible airway irritation, and excellent pharmacodynamic characteristics that even provide cardiovascular stability comparable to isoflurane. A certain disadvantage and source of potential nephrotoxicity result from the metabolism of sevoflurane (2-5%) to anorganic fluoride and degradation to compound A in carbon dioxide absorbents. The extensive clinical data reported to date have revealed no evidence that sevoflurane has adverse renal effects. New insight into the pathomechanism of nephrotoxicity associated with either production of fluoride or compound A may well support clinical experience. Desflurane strongly resists in vivo metabolism and because of this it appears to be devoid of toxicity. Nevertheless, potential side-effects may result from degradation in dry absorbents and subsequent release of CO, from its extreme pungency and irritating airway effects. Thus, desflurane is not recommended for induction of anaesthesia, especially in children. The tendency for desflurane transiently to stimulate sympathetic activity, especially at concentrations above 1.0 MAC, limits its application in patients with cardiac disease.

  15. Use of inhaler devices in pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Selvaggio, David

    2003-01-01

    Inhalation is the preferred route for asthma therapy, since it offers a rapid onset of drug action, requires smaller doses, and reduces systemic effects compared with other routes of administration. Unfortunately, inhalation devices are frequently used in an empirical manner rather than on evidence-based awareness.A wide variety of nebulizers are available. Conventional jet nebulizers are highly inefficient, as much of the aerosol is wasted during exhalation. However, incorporating an extra open vent into the system has considerably increased the amount of drug that patients receive. Breath-assisted open vent nebulizers limit the loss of aerosol during exhalation, but are dependent on the patient's inspiratory flow. Ultrasonic nebulizers produce a high mass output and have a short nebulization time, but are inefficient for delivering suspensions or viscous solutions. Adaptive aerosol delivery devices release a precise dose that is tailored to the individual patient's breathing pattern. Nebulizers have several drawbacks, and their use should be limited to patients who cannot correctly manage other devices.Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) are practical, cheap and multidose. However, there are several problems with their use. Breath-actuated MDI are easy to use and can be activated by very low flow. However, young children may not be able to use them efficiently. Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are portable and easy to use. They are indicated either for rescue bronchodilator therapy or for regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators. The use of spacers reduces oropharyngeal deposition and improves drug delivery to the lung. Spacers do not require patient coordination, but some general rules must be followed for their optimal use.Thus, the choice of a delivery device mainly depends on the age of the patient, the drug to be administered and the condition to be treated. Proper education is also essential when prescribing an inhalation

  16. Advantages and guidelines for mask induction.

    PubMed

    Paddleford, R R

    1992-03-01

    Inhalational agents with low blood/gas solubilities (halothane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide) are preferred for mask induction. A gradual step up in the vaporizer concentration is the recommended induction method because it is generally smoother and safer than the crash induction technique.

  17. Inhalant abuse by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, T L; Otsuka, K N; Wahl, R A

    2001-03-01

    The deliberate misuse of volatile substances poses a poorly recognized risk for considerable morbidity and mortality in adolescent populations worldwide. The abuse of inhalants continues to be a significant problem among our country's youth. While many household and industrial chemicals can be inhaled, glues, paints, and aerosol propellants are among the most commonly abused. Adolescents are often unaware of the health threats posed by inhalation of solvents. Inhalation can result in serious organ system dysfunction or even sudden death. This review discusses the prevalence of inhalant abuse in the United States, summarizes the various types of substances used, highlights the major physiologic effects of inhalants, and briefly discusses associated risk behaviors, prevention and medical management.

  18. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers).

  19. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Richardson, Heather N; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each.

  20. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Bouchier, Francis A.; Hannum, David W.; Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated.

  1. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  2. Inhalant allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inexpensive portable drug detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, self-scanning, self-calibrating, portable unit automatically graphs fluorescence spectrum of drug sample. Device also measures rate of movement through chromatographic column for forensic and medical testing.

  4. Inexpensive portable drug detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, self-scanning, self-calibrating, portable unit automatically graphs fluorescence spectrum of drug sample. Device also measures rate of movement through chromatographic column for forensic and medical testing.

  5. Portable Microfiche Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zybura, Edward L.

    1980-01-01

    Provides an introduction to use of three types of portable microfiche readers: hand-held readers, briefcase readers, and self-contained mobile readers. Features described include image quality, method of operation, product history, and optimal environments for utilization. (SW)

  6. Propellant-based inhalers for the non-invasive delivery of genes via oral inhalation.

    PubMed

    Conti, Denise S; Bharatwaj, Balaji; Brewer, Daniel; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2012-02-10

    In this work we describe the development of a propellant-based, portable oral inhalation platform for the pulmonary delivery of genes. A core-shell strategy is utilized to efficiently disperse cationic-polymer-DNA nanoparticles in hydrofluoroalkane propellants, and to generate aerosols from the corresponding pressurized metered-dose inhaler formulations (pMDIs) that have excellent aerosol characteristics, suitable for deep lung deposition. The engineered polyplexes and core-shell structures were fully characterized, and their ability to transfect model lung alveolar epithelium cells in vitro was demonstrated. We also show that the propellant does not affect the biological activity of the plasmid DNA, and that the core-shell formulations have no in vitro cytotoxicity. The relevance of this work stems from the fact that pMDIs are the least expensive and most widely used portable oral inhalation devices, and are thus promising platforms for targeting genes to the lungs for the treatment of medically relevant diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  8. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  9. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  10. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  11. Field use of isoflurane as an inhalant anesthetic in the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Cheveau, Marianne; Imbeau, Louis; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and practicality of using isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic with oxygen as a gas carrier for American martens (Martes americana) in a field setting. Sixty-eight martens were trapped in the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (Québec, Canada) from October to November 2005 and anesthetized with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (1 l/min) using a face mask. Induction setting of isoflurane was 3% for all animals. Mean (+/-SD) length of induction was 1.8+/-1.2 min. Maintenance isoflurane settings ranged from 1% to 4%. Procedures lasted an average of 16.4+/-7.1 min and were uneventful. Length of recovery, defined as the interval between the end of the procedure and animal release, was short (6.3+/-2.8 min), and well below reported lengths of recovery using injectable anesthetics (>/=70 min). As compared to open drop administration of isoflurane described in previous studies, the use of an anesthesia machine prevents the risk of potential fatal anesthetic overdose. We conclude that among anesthesia techniques currently available, isoflurane with oxygen as a gas carrier is a safe and useful field anesthetic in martens, when issues with equipment portability can be overcome.

  12. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. Images Figure PMID:9519180

  13. Reasons for Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents in a Texas drug abuse program, initial use of toxicant inhalants was related to availability and sensation-seeking, followed by psychological problems, parental and home problems, and peer influence. Quitting inhalant use was related to social pressures, attitude change, and perceived health risks. (Author/SV)

  14. Nonthermal Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    understand the effects of the various byproducts of combustion on the human body. A thorough knowledge of the physiological mechanisms , relevant...as soon as possible. Overview of Smoke Inhalation Physiology The physiologic mechanisms of injury from smoke inhalation are multiple and complex...to breathe Lower airway obstruction Dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, rhonchi, carbonaceous sputum Parenchymal injury Dyspnea, tachypnea, rales Table 1

  15. Inhalants in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  16. Portable biochip scanner device

    DOEpatents

    Perov, Alexander; Sharonov, Alexei; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2002-01-01

    A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

  17. Deflectometry using portable devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butel, Guillaume P.; Smith, Greg A.; Burge, James H.

    2015-02-01

    Deflectometry is a powerful metrology technique that uses off-the-shelf equipment to achieve nanometer-level accuracy surface measurements. However, there is no portable device to quickly measure eyeglasses, lenses, or mirrors. We present an entirely portable new deflectometry technique that runs on any Android™ smartphone with a front-facing camera. Our technique overcomes some specific issues of portable devices like screen nonlinearity and automatic gain control. We demonstrate our application by measuring an amateur telescope mirror and simulating a measurement of the faulty Hubble Space Telescope primary mirror. Our technique can, in less than 1 min, measure surface errors with accuracy up to 50 nm RMS, simply using a smartphone.

  18. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Puissant, James G.; Varley, Nathan R.

    2003-08-12

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated. The screen can be positioned directly in front of the detector prior to heating to improve detection capability.

  19. Albuterol and Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... out of the box and insert the narrow end into the inhaler. You can press the inhaler against a hard surface to be sure it is inserted correctly. Replace the clear plastic base on the inhaler. Hold the inhaler upright with ...

  20. Portable reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Graham, R. A.; Ozawa, T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A portable reflectance spectrometer is disclosed. The spectrometer essentially includes an optical unit and an electronic recording unit. The optical unit includes a pair of thermoelectrically-cooled detectors, for detecting total radiance and selected radiance projected through a circular variable filter wheel, and is capable of operating to provide spectral data in the range 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers without requiring coventional substitution of filter elements. The electronic recording unit includes power supplies, amplifiers, and digital recording electronics designed to permit recordation of data on tape casettes. Both the optical unit and electronic recording unit are packaged to be manually portable.

  1. [Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps].

    PubMed

    Magallón Pedrera, I; Soto Torres, I

    1999-11-01

    Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps allow one to administer pharmaceuticals in hospitals as well as in primary health care centers and furthermore these pumps present multiple advantages for patients and their families since they make it possible to carry out treatment in a patient's home while at the same time lowering the costs involved. The authors analyze the most out standing aspects of portable peristaltic perfusion pumps along with their characteristics, installation, programming, and how to turn them on; in addition, the authors list the maintenance care which these pumps require.

  2. Bringing part of the lab to the field: On-site chromium speciation in seawater by electrodeposition of Cr(III)/Cr(VI) on portable coiled-filament assemblies and measurement in the lab by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiei, Hamid R.; McEnaney, Jennifer; Karanassios, Vassili

    2012-12-01

    A field-deployable electrochemical approach to preconcentration, matrix clean up and selective electrodeposition of Cr(III) and Cr(III) + Cr(VI) in seawater is described. Using portable, battery-operated electrochemical instrumentation, Cr species in seawater were electrodeposited in the field on portable coiled-filament assemblies made from Re. Assemblies with dried residues of Cr(III) or Cr(III) + Cr(VI) on them were transported to the lab for concentration determination by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Electrodeposition offers selective species deposition, preconcentration and matrix clean up from seawater samples. For selective deposition, free Cr(VI) was electrodeposited at - 0.3 V and Cr(III) + Cr(VI) at - 1.6 V (both vs Ag/AgCl). Interestingly, at 0 V (vs Ag/AgCl) and in the absence of an electrodeposition potential only Cr(VI) was spontaneously and selectively adsorbed on the coil and reasons for this are given. Due to preconcentration afforded by electrodeposition, the detection limits obtained after a 60 s electrodeposition at the voltages stated above using buffered (pH = 4.7) artificial seawater spiked with either Cr(III) or Cr(VI) were 20 pg/mL for Cr(III) and 10 pg/mL for Cr(VI). For comparison, the detection limit for Cr obtained by pipetting directly on the coil 5 μL of diluted standard solution was 500 pg/mL, thus it was concluded that electrodeposition offered 40 to 60 fold improvements. Matrix clean up is required due to the high salt content of seawater and this was addressed by simply rinsing the coil with 18.2 MΩ water without any loss of Cr species. Reasons for this are provided. The method was validated in the lab using buffered artificial seawater and it was used in the field for the first time by sampling seawater, buffering it and immediately electrodepositing Cr species on portable assemblies on-site. Electrodeposition in the

  3. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, pollen, dust mites, or chemicals, such as ... disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, ...

  4. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  5. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchodilators. It works by relaxing and opening air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. ... and stays up. Hold the inhaler around the middle and shake gently several times. Continue to hold ...

  6. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you use an inhaled medication to treat asthma, emphysema, or other breathing problems and you are scheduled ... the air passages that lead to the lungs); emphysema (damage to air sacs in the lungs); or ...

  7. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... LABAs). It works by relaxing and opening air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. ... use extra doses of indacaterol. Call your doctor right away.Indacaterol inhalation controls the symptoms of COPD ...

  8. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  9. Acetylcysteine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Acetylcysteine inhalation is used along with other treatments to relieve chest congestion due to thick or abnormal ... that causes problems with breathing, digestion, and reproduction). Acetylcysteine is in a class of medications called mucolytic ...

  10. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  11. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use umeclidinium inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  12. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  13. Fixed Facts about Portable Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the easing of overcrowded schools through the use of portable classrooms and provides an example from Elk Grove Unified School District (California) which has opened entire elementary schools using only portables. Fifteen tips for installing relocatables are highlighted. (GR)

  14. Fixed Facts about Portable Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the easing of overcrowded schools through the use of portable classrooms and provides an example from Elk Grove Unified School District (California) which has opened entire elementary schools using only portables. Fifteen tips for installing relocatables are highlighted. (GR)

  15. Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Cable-Dunlap, Paula

    2005-11-15

    A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

  16. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  17. Portable dynamic fundus instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gerald R. (Inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (Inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (Inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (Inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

  18. Portable Suction Lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-07-13

    A portable lysimeter including a collection vessel having an inflatable bladder and a semi-permeable member assembly at least partially movable in response to inflation of the bladder, a sample conduit in fluid communication with the semi-permeable member and a reservoir in fluid communication with the sample conduit.

  19. Portable COHB Analyzer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A portable spectrophotometric apparatus and method therefore for measuring the percentage of carboxyhemoglobin ( COHb ) in blood. The apparatus...comprises a spectrophotometer and wavelength selection filters for testing a reference sample having a hemolizing agent and sodium hyposulfite and a treated...blood sample with the hemolizing agent and sodium hyposulfite and providing a two component COHb -Hb system for determining relative absorbance values

  20. Portable Weld Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    This training manual, which was developed for employees of an automotive plant, is designed to teach trainees to operate a portable weld tester (Miyachi MM-315). In chapter 1, the weld tester's components are illustrated and described, and the procedure for charging its batteries is explained. Chapter 2 illustrates the weld tester's parts,…

  1. Portable Weld Tester.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    This training manual, which was developed for employees of an automotive plant, is designed to teach trainees to operate a portable weld tester (Miyachi MM-315). In chapter 1, the weld tester's components are illustrated and described, and the procedure for charging its batteries is explained. Chapter 2 illustrates the weld tester's parts,…

  2. Portable Breathing Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Jacobs Test and Operations Support Contract, or TOSC, technicians fill portable breathing apparatuses, or PBAS. The PBAs are to be use on board the International Space Staton to provide astronauts with breathable air in the event of a fire or other emergency situation.

  3. Portable Chamfering Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berson, Leo A.

    1987-01-01

    Portable machine tool precisely cuts chamfer on valve seat. With tool, delicate machining operation done without removing part to machine shop. Taken to part and used wherever pressurized air and electric power available. Plug and bushing nest in bore chamfered. They guide steady cutter rod as it cuts 15 degrees chamfer on top edge of bore.

  4. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  5. Portable headset microphone checker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, J.; Foster, J. A.; Langley, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Simple and reliable test system gives go/no-go indication of output level of headset microphones. Portable system has its own internal battery power supply and can be used in field or in laboratory with wide variety of headset types.

  6. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  7. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  8. Portable Breathing Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Jacobs Test and Operations Support Contract, or TOSC, technician Rod Ostgrard helps fill portable breathing apparatuses, or PBAS. The PBAs are to be use on board the International Space Staton to provide astronauts with breathable air in the event of a fire or other emergency situation.

  9. Portable Breathing Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Jacobs Test and Operations Support Contract, or TOSC, technician John Thompson helps fill portable breathing apparatuses, or PBAS. The PBAs are to be use on board the International Space Staton to provide astronauts with breathable air in the event of a fire or other emergency situation.

  10. Portable Chamfering Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berson, Leo A.

    1987-01-01

    Portable machine tool precisely cuts chamfer on valve seat. With tool, delicate machining operation done without removing part to machine shop. Taken to part and used wherever pressurized air and electric power available. Plug and bushing nest in bore chamfered. They guide steady cutter rod as it cuts 15 degrees chamfer on top edge of bore.

  11. 300 WATT PORTABLE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMOELECTRICITY, POWER SUPPLIES), (* GENERATORS , THERMOELECTRICITY), (*ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION, THERMOELECTRICITY), PORTABLE EQUIPMENT, THERMOCOUPLES, ENERGY CONVERSION, HEAT EXCHANGERS, WIRING DIAGRAMS

  12. Use of pressurized metered dose inhalers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Bhumika; Gogtay, Jaideep

    2014-06-01

    The inhaled route is considered to be the best route to administer drugs for treating respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), for both safety and efficacy. Inhalation devices are classified into four types - pressuriszed metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), dry powder inhalers, breath actuated inhalers and nebulizers. pMDIs are portable, convenient, multi-dose devices and these advantages have made them very popular with patients. They were introduced in the 1950s as the first portable, multi-dose delivery system for bronchodilators. Even though pMDIs are the most widely used devices for inhalation therapy in asthma and COPD, studies establishing their use and providing clinical data with bronchodilators and combination therapies in patients with COPD are limited. A summary of the use of pMDI with spacers in patients with COPD in terms of lung deposition and impact on lung function are presented in this review article. A review of use of the pMDI device in patients with COPD with different available and prescribed medications (bronchodilators-β2-agonists and anticholinergics, and their combination with inhaled corticosteroids) is discussed.

  13. Epidemiology of inhalant use.

    PubMed

    Medina-Mora, María Elena; Real, Tania

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present article is to review recent research on the prevalence and correlates of inhalant use. During the review period more prevalence studies have been conducted in the developing world, adding information to the ongoing studies that are periodically undertaken in the more developed countries. These studies suggest that inhalant use is widespread among children and adolescents and is increasing among females in the developing and developed world. Not all surveys report inhalants as a separate group from other illegal substances; data by type of inhalants are even rarer, and few studies address abuse or dependence. New evidence suggests lower reliability rates for the diagnostic criteria of dependence as compared with other substances, suggesting the need for a review including the evidence of withdrawal. Studies conducted in the period identify vulnerable groups and suggest an increased risk of injecting drug use, HIV, suicidality and psychiatric disorders among inhalant users. The extension of inhalant abuse and its adverse consequences argues for greater efforts to advance classification and to increase knowledge through research, including the evaluation of prevention and treatment models.

  14. Inhalant Use and Inhalant Use Disorders in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Matthew O.; Bowen, Scott E.; Garland, Eric L.; Perron, Brian E.; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    More than 22 million Americans age 12 and older have used inhalants, and every year more than 750,000 use inhalants for the first time. Despite the substantial prevalence and serious toxicities of inhalant use, it has been termed “the forgotten epidemic.” Inhalant abuse remains the least-studied form of substance abuse, although research on its epidemiology, neurobiology, treatment, and prevention has accelerated in recent years. This review examines current findings in these areas, identifies gaps in the research and clinical literatures pertaining to inhalant use, and discusses future directions for inhalant-related research and practice efforts. PMID:22003419

  15. Inhaled human insulin.

    PubMed

    Strack, Thomas R

    2006-04-01

    The benefit of subcutaneous insulin therapy in patients with diabetes is frequently limited due to difficulty in convincing patients of the importance of multiple daily insulin injections to cope effectively with meal-associated glycemic changes. Thus, the aim of achieving tight glycemic control, which is critical for reducing the risk of long-term diabetes-related complications, frequently remains elusive. The successful development of an inhalable insulin as a noninvasive alternative promises to change the management of diabetes. The first product to become available to patients is inhaled human insulin, a dry-powder formulation packaged into discrete blisters containing 1 or 3 mg of dry-powder human insulin and administered via a unique pulmonary inhaler device. It has recently been approved in both the United States and the European Union for the control of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled human insulin closely mimics the natural pattern of insulin secretion, and resembles that of rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs. Similarly to rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs, inhaled human insulin has a more rapid onset of glucose-lowering activity compared to subcutaneous regular insulin, allowing it to be administered shortly before meals. It has a duration of glucose-lowering activity comparable to subcutaneous regular insulin and longer than rapid-acting insulin analogs. Inhaled human insulin effectively controls postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia, and even improves fasting glucose levels compared to subcutaneous insulin. Inhaled human insulin has an overall favorable safety profile. There are small reductions in lung function (1-1.5% of total lung forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] capacity) after onset of treatment that are reversible in most patients if treatment is discontinued. Inhaled human

  16. Pulmonary monoclonal antibody delivery via a portable microfluidic nebulization platform

    PubMed Central

    Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Qi, Aisha; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Friend, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Nebulizers have considerable advantages over conventional inhalers for pulmonary drug administration, particularly because they do not require coordinated breath actuation to generate and deliver the aerosols. Nevertheless, besides being less amenable to miniaturization and hence portability, some nebulizers are prone to denature macromolecular drugs due to the large forces generated during aerosolization. Here, we demonstrate a novel portable acoustomicrofluidic device capable of nebulizing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies into a fine aerosol mist with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1.1 μm, optimal for deep lung deposition via inhalation. The nebulized monoclonal antibodies were tested for their stability, immunoactivity, and pharmacological properties, which confirmed that nebulization did not cause significant degradation of the antibody. In particular, flow cytometry demonstrated that the antigen binding capability of the antibody is retained and able to reduce phosphorylation in cells overexpressing the EGFR, indicating that the aerosols generated by the device were loaded with stable and active monoclonal antibodies. The delivery of antibodies via inhalation, particularly for the treatment of lung cancer, is thus expected to enhance the efficacy of this protein therapeutic by increasing the local concentration where they are needed. PMID:25945147

  17. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    PubMed

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  18. Portable neon purification system

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.A.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes the principle design features of a portable neon purification system and the results of the system performance testing. Neon gas replaces air in the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector without using vacuum, in experiment E781(SELEX) at Fermilab. The portable neon purification system purifies neon gas by, first purging air with CO{sub 2}, freezing the CO{sub 2}, then cryoadsorbing the remaining contaminants. The freezer removes carbon dioxide from a neon gas mixture down to a maximum concentration of 500 parts-per-million (ppm). The charcoal bed adsorber removes nitrogen from neon gas down to a maximum concentration of 100 ppm. The original RICH vessel was designed to hold vacuum but its photomultiplier tube plates were not.

  19. Portable outgas detection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven Julian; Malinowski, Michael E.

    2004-05-11

    A portable device for detecting surface outgas contaminants of an article includes: (i) a portable housing that has a chamber which is in communication with a port that is adapted to be sealably attached to a surface of the article; (ii) a mass spectrometer that is coupled to the chamber for analyzing gaseous materials in the chamber; and (iii) means for generating a vacuum within the chamber thereby drawing outgas contaminants from the surface of the article into the chamber for analysis by the mass spectrometer. By performing a mass spectrometric analysis of the surface of interest and comparing the data with mass spectrometric data ascertained with the device from a clean surface, the type and amount of outgas contaminants, if any, can be determined.

  20. Portable Laser Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.T.

    1994-07-01

    A Portable Laser Laboratory (PLL) is being designed and built for the CALIOPE Program tests which will begin in October of 1994. The PLL is designed to give maximum flexibility for evolving laser experiments and can be readily moved by loading it onto a standard truck trailer. The internal configuration for the October experiments will support a two line DIAL system running in the mid-IR. Brief descriptions of the laser and detection systems are included.

  1. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  2. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  3. Portable laser laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, J. T.

    1994-07-01

    A Portable Laser Laboratory (PLL) is being designed and built for the CALIOPE Program tests which will begin in October of 1994. The PLL is designed to give maximum flexibility for evolving laser experiments and can be readily moved by loading it onto a standard truck trailer. The internal configuration for the October experiments will support a two line DIAL system running in the mid-IR. Brief descriptions of the laser and detection systems are included.

  4. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  5. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  6. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  7. Portable Planetariums Teach Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    With the Internet proving to be the wave of the future, in the 1990s Johnson Space Center awarded grants to Rice University in Houston for developing the world's first Internet-accessible museum kiosk. Further grants were awarded to the school for creating educational software for use in homes and schools, leading to the creation of Museums Teaching Planet Earth Inc. The company has gone on to develop and sell portable planetariums and accompanying educational shows.

  8. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  9. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and gases. The various modes of inhalation exposure (whole body, head only, nose or mouth only, etc.) are described at length, including the advantages and disadvantages inherent to each mode. Numerous literature citations are included for further reading. Among the topics briefly discussed are the selection of appropriate animal species for toxicological testing, and the types of inhalation studies performed (acute, chronic, etc.). PMID:6383799

  10. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    PubMed

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  11. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    PubMed Central

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to

  12. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  13. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  14. Who Can Use an Inhaler?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help stop breathing problems related to asthma. Inhalers are small and easily fit into your pocket or backpack. Research shows that even young kids can use inhalers, especially when they're used with a spacer . There are two types of inhalers: Metered (say: ...

  15. Recent advances in inhalation anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Steffey, Eugene P

    2002-04-01

    Both desflurane and sevoflurane offer theoretical and practical advantages over other inhalation anesthetics for horses. The lower solubility of both agents provides improved control of delivery and helps to counteract the confounding influence of the voluminous patient breathing circuit commonly used for anesthetizing horses. The lower solubility should account for faster rates of recovery compared with the older agents; whether or not the quality of recovery differs remains to be objectively evaluated in a broad range of circumstances. The pharmacodynamic effects are, in large part, similar to those of isoflurane (e.g., low arrhythmogenicity) but with some differences. For example, desflurane may be overall more sparing to cardiovascular function (especially during controlled ventilation) compared with isoflurane and sevoflurane, which are roughly similar. Respiratory depression with both new agents is equal to or more depressing than isoflurane, suggesting the use of mechanical ventilation, especially in circumstances of prolonged management (i.e., hours of anesthesia). Both new anesthetics, not surprisingly, are expensive. From this point there are some agent-unique considerations. The anesthetic potency of both agents is less than that of isoflurane, which influences the cost of anesthesia, but also places an upper limit on inspired oxygen concentration (of particular concern with desflurane). Both agents require new vaporizers, but because of the high boiling point and steep vapor-pressure curve of desflurane, new technology was required. This translates into more costly equipment, adding to the cost of desflurane use. In addition, electricity is necessary for the new desflurane vaporizer to function, which limits its portability and adds additional practical considerations in its clinical use. On the other hand, desflurane strongly resists degradation both in vitro and in vivo, but in vitro degradation of sevoflurane by CO2 absorbents may produce renal

  16. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  17. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  18. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application.

  19. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  20. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  1. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1996-06-11

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

  2. Portable wastewater flow meter

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  3. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

  4. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  5. Application Portable Parallel Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Townsend, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) computer program is subroutine-based message-passing software library intended to provide consistent interface to variety of multiprocessor computers on market today. Minimizes effort needed to move application program from one computer to another. User develops application program once and then easily moves application program from parallel computer on which created to another parallel computer. ("Parallel computer" also include heterogeneous collection of networked computers). Written in C language with one FORTRAN 77 subroutine for UNIX-based computers and callable from application programs written in C language or FORTRAN 77.

  6. Portable drilling mud system

    SciTech Connect

    Etter, R. W.; Briggs, J. M.

    1984-10-02

    A portable well drilling mud storage and recirculation unit includes a mud storage tank mounted on an over-the-road semi-trailer having an engine driven circulating pump mounted onboard and adapted to withdraw mud from the tank for circulation to the well and for recirculation through a set of mud agitating nozzles disposed in the bottom of the tank. A mud degassing vessel, a solids separator unit and an additive blending unit are all mounted above the tank. The degassing vessel is supported by hydraulic cylinder actuators for movement between a retracted transport position and a vertically elevated working position.

  7. Application Portable Parallel Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Townsend, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) computer program is subroutine-based message-passing software library intended to provide consistent interface to variety of multiprocessor computers on market today. Minimizes effort needed to move application program from one computer to another. User develops application program once and then easily moves application program from parallel computer on which created to another parallel computer. ("Parallel computer" also include heterogeneous collection of networked computers). Written in C language with one FORTRAN 77 subroutine for UNIX-based computers and callable from application programs written in C language or FORTRAN 77.

  8. Portable solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Way, L.V.

    1980-09-02

    A portable solar cooker of the type having an insulated housing with an oven compartment enclosed therein and associated reflector elements is adapted for cooking with the housing and oven compartment in a tilted or level position. When employing only the tilting mode for tracking the sun, reflecting panels are removably attached to the top of the cooker housing. When there is a need to maintain the oven compartment level while tracking the sun during the cooking operation, the reflecting panels are removably mounted on a pivotal frame connected to a telescoping strip assembly which, in turn, is removably mounted on the topside of the cooker housing.

  9. Portable Extensible Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Jay G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of Nonuniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) to represent geometry and data offers a standard way to facilitate the multidisciplinary analysis and design of aeropropulsion products. Using standard geometry defined by NURBS throughout design, analysis, part definition, manufacture, and test processes saves money and time. The Portable Extensible Viewer (PEV) offers engineers of different disciplines a means to view and manipulate NURBS geometry and associated data. Under the guidance of a team of Lewis, Boeing Company, and Navy personnel, PEV was developed by NASA Lewis Research Center's Computer Services Division for Lewis' Interdisciplinary Technology Office. The aeropropulsion industry provided input to the design requirements.

  10. Portable classroom leads to partnership.

    PubMed

    Le Ber, Jeanne Marie; Lombardo, Nancy T; Weber, Alice; Bramble, John

    2004-01-01

    Library faculty participation on the School of Medicine Curriculum Steering Committee led to a unique opportunity to partner technology and teaching utilizing the library's portable wireless classroom. The pathology lab course master expressed a desire to revise the curriculum using patient cases and direct access to the Web and library resources. Since the pathology lab lacked computers, the library's portable wireless classroom provided a solution. Originally developed to provide maximum portability and flexibility, the wireless classroom consists of ten laptop computers configured with wireless cards and an access point. While the portable wireless classroom led to a partnership with the School of Medicine, there were additional benefits and positive consequences for the library.

  11. 300 WATT PORTABLE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GENERATORS , *ELECTRIC POWER PRODUCTION, POWER SUPPLIES, THERMOELECTRICITY, THERMOELECTRICITY, PORTABLE EQUIPMENT, THERMOCOUPLES, ENERGY CONVERSION, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), HEAT TRANSFER, VOLTAGE REGULATORS.

  12. Portable Virtual Training Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Reagan; Johnston, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Mission Operations Lab initiated a project to design, develop, deliver, test, and validate a unique training system for astronaut and ground support personnel. In an effort to keep training costs low, virtual training units (VTUs) have been designed based on images of actual hardware and manipulated by a touch screen style interface for ground support personnel training. This project helped modernized the training system and materials by integrating them with mobile devices for training when operators or crew are unavailable to physically train in the facility. This project also tested the concept of a handheld remote device to control integrated trainers using International Space Station (ISS) training simulators as a platform. The portable VTU can interface with the full-sized VTU, allowing a trainer co-located with a trainee to remotely manipulate a VTU and evaluate a trainee's response. This project helped determine if it is useful, cost effective, and beneficial for the instructor to have a portable handheld device to control the behavior of the models during training. This project has advanced NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) VTU capabilities with modern and relevant technology to support space flight training needs of today and tomorrow.

  13. Fragrance sensitisers: Is inhalation an allergy risk?

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that some fragrance substances have the potential to cause skin sensitisation associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances are invariably relatively volatile leading to the consideration that inhalation of fragrances might be a relevant route for either the induction of allergic sensitisation or the elicitation of allergic reactions. Moreover, there has been increasing recognition that allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract can be induced by topical exposure to certain chemical allergens. Here the central question addressed is whether inhalation exposure to fragrance allergens has the potential to cause skin and/or respiratory sensitisation via the respiratory tract, or elicit allergic symptoms in those already sensitised. In addressing those questions, the underlying immunobiology of skin and respiratory sensitisation to chemicals has been reviewed briefly, and the relevant experimental and clinical evidence considered. The essential mechanistic differences between skin and respiratory allergy appear consistent with other sources of information, including the phenomenon of ACD that can arise from topical exposure to airborne allergens, but in the absence of accompanying respiratory effects. The conclusion is that, in contrast to topical exposure (including topical exposure to airborne material), inhalation of fragrance sensitisers does not represent a health risk with respect to allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chlorine Gas Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    White, Carl W.; Martin, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled β-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  15. A review of the development of Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Dalby, R; Spallek, M; Voshaar, T

    2004-09-28

    Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation inhaler from Boehringer Ingelheim developed for use with respiratory drugs. The device functions by forcing a metered dose of drug solution through a unique and precisely engineered nozzle (the uniblock), producing two fine jets of liquid that converge at a pre-set angle. The collision of these two jets generates the soft mist. The soft mist contains a high fine particle fraction of approximately 65 to 80%. This is higher than aerosol clouds from conventional portable inhaler devices, such as pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In addition, the relatively long generation time of the aerosol cloud (approximately 1.5s) facilitates co-ordination of inhalation and actuation--a major problem with pMDIs. These features, together with the slow velocity of the soft mist, result in larger amounts of the drug reaching the lungs and less being deposited in the oropharynx compared with either pMDIs or DPIs. Generation of the soft mist from Respimat SMI is purely mechanical, so propellants are not necessary. The innovative design of Respimat SMI, using water-based drug formulations, ensures patients receive consistent and reliable doses of the drug with each actuation. The device was initially tested in scintigraphic lung deposition studies and produced encouraging results when compared with the chlorofluorocarbon-based pMDI (CFC-MDI). Subsequent clinical studies have confirmed that Respimat SMI is effective and safe in delivering bronchodilators to patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  16. The electrospray and its application to targeted drug inhalation.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alessandro

    2002-12-01

    This review explains the fundamentals of electrostatic spray (electrospray) atomization, with emphasis on operation in the so called cone-jet mode, which produces droplets with a very narrow size distribution. Since the control of droplet size is key to maximizing distal lung deposition, the electrospray should be well-suited to targeted drug inhalation. Electrospray droplets are a few micrometers in diameter, but they originate from a much larger nozzle, which allows nebulization of suspensions without clogging. Also discussed are: the physical principles of the break-up of the liquid ligament; droplet dispersion by Coulombic forces; and the most important scaling law linking the droplet size to liquid flow rate and liquid physical properties. The effects of the most critical of those properties may result in some restrictions on drug formulation. Droplets produced by electrospray are electrically charged, so to prevent electrostatic image forces from causing upper respiratory tract deposition. The charge is neutralized by generating a corona discharge of opposite polarity. Briefly discussed are the main differences between the laboratory systems (with which the electrospray has been quantitatively characterized during research in the past 10 years) and commercial electrospray inhalers under development at BattellePharma. Some remarkable miniaturization has incorporated liquid pump, power supply, breath activation, and dose counter into a palm-size portable device. The maximum flow rates dispersed from these devices are in the range of 8-16 microL/s, which makes them suitable for practical drug inhalation therapy. Fabrication is economically competitive with inexpensive nebulizers. Dramatic improvements in respirable dose efficiency (up to 78% by comparison with commercial metered-dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers) should ensure the commercialization of this promising technology for targeted drug inhalation.

  17. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  18. Treatment of Inhalation Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-21

    injuries not visible with endoscopy. . Thermal and especially chemical inhalation injuries. Direct damage to the surfactant is probably implicated. o...exists a set of indirect alveolar lesions, subordinated to the skin burn itself, which is common in patients with extensive burns. This we call the...normo or hypocapnia. Very likely, a 5th lesional level exists which is the capillary itself(Venus et al). By primary or secondary damage , it affects the

  19. Portable Hyperbaric Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); Locke, James P. (Inventor); DeLaFuente, Horacio (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A portable, collapsible hyperbaric chamber was developed. A toroidal inflatable skeleton provides initial structural support for the chamber, allowing the attendant and/or patient to enter the chamber. Oval hatches mate against bulkhead rings, and the hyperbaric chamber is pressurized. The hatches seal against an o-ring, and the internal pressure of the chamber provides the required pressure against the hatch to maintain an airtight seal. In the preferred embodiment, the hyperbaric chamber has an airlock to allow the attendant to enter and exit the patient chamber during treatment. Visual communication is provided through portholes in the patient and/or airlock chamber. Life monitoring and support systems are in communication with the interior of the hyperbaric chamber and/or airlock chamber through conduits and/or sealed feed-through connectors into the hyperbaric chamber.

  20. Portable Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Portable Medical Status and Treatment System (PMSTS) is designed for use in remote areas where considerable time may elapse before a patient can be transported to a hospital. First units were delivered to the Department of Transportation last year and tested in two types of medical emergency environments: one in a rural Pennsylvania community and another aboard a U.S. Coast Guard rescue helicopter operating along Florida's Gulf Coast. The system has the capability to transmit vital signs to a distantly located physician, who can perform diagnosis and relay treatment instructions to the attendant at the scene. The battery powered PMSTS includes a vital signs monitor and a defibrillator. Narco has also developed a companion system, called Porta-Fib III designed for use in a hospital environment with modifications accordingly. Both systems are offshoots of an earlier NASA project known as the Physician's Black Bag developed by Telecare, Inc., a company now acquired by NARCO.

  1. Portable Radiation Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from Kennedy Space Center, General Pneumatics Corporation's Western Research Center satisfied a NASA need for a non-clogging Joule-Thomson cryostat to provide very low temperature cooling for various sensors. This NASA-supported cryostat development played a key part in the development of more portable high-purity geranium gamma-ray detectors. Such are necessary to discern between the radionuclides in medical, fuel, weapon, and waste materials. The outcome of the SBIR project is a cryostat that can cool gamma-ray detectors, without vibration, using compressed gas that can be stored compactly and indefinitely in a standby mode. General Pneumatics also produces custom J-T cryostats for other government, commercial and medical applications.

  2. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R.; Jones, David Carl

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  3. Portable active interrogation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Brener, M. W.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    The system consists of a pulsed DT neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 7} n/s) and a portable but high intrinsic efficiency, custom-designed, polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He neutron detector. A multichannel scaler card in a ruggedized laptop computer acquires the data. A user-friendly LabVIEW program analyzes and displays the data. The program displays a warning message when highly enriched uranium or any other fissionable materials is detected at a specified number of sigmas above background in the delayed region between pulses. This report describes the system and gives examples of the response of the system to highly enriched uranium and some other fissionable materials, at several distances and with various shielding materials.

  4. Portable Cooler/Warmers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Early in the space program, NASA recognized the need to replace bulky coils, compressers, and motors for refrigeration purposes by looking at existing thermoelectric technology. This effort resulted in the development of miniaturized thermoelectric components and packaging to accommodate tight confines of spacecraft. Koolatron's portable electronic refrigerators incorporate this NASA technology. Each of the cooler/warmers employs one or two miniaturized thermoelectric modules. Although each module is only the size of a book of matches, it delivers the cooling power of a 10-pound block of ice. In some models, the cooler can be converted to a warmer. There are no moving parts. The Koolatrons can be plugged into auto cigarette lighters, recreational vehicles, boats or motel outlets.

  5. Portable appliance security apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for securing a small computer, or other portable appliance, against theft is described. It is comprised of a case having an open back through which the computer is installed or removed. Guide members in the form of slots are formed in a rear portion of opposite walls of the case for receiving a back plate to cover the opening and thereby secure the computer within the case. An opening formed in the top wall of the case exposes the keyboard and display of the computer. The back plate is locked in the closed position by a key-operated plug type lock. The lock is attached to one end of a hold down cable, the opposite end thereof being secured to a desk top or other stationary object. Thus, the lock simultaneously secures the back plate to the case and retains the case to the stationary object.

  6. Portable Hyperbaric Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); Locke, James P. (Inventor); DeLaFuente, Horacio (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A portable, collapsible hyperbaric chamber was developed. A toroidal inflatable skeleton provides initial structural support for the chamber, allowing the attendant and/or patient to enter the chamber. Oval hatches mate against bulkhead rings, and the hyperbaric chamber is pressurized. The hatches seal against an o-ring, and the internal pressure of the chamber provides the required pressure against the hatch to maintain an airtight seal. In the preferred embodiment, the hyperbaric chamber has an airlock to allow the attendant to enter and exit the patient chamber during treatment. Visual communication is provided through portholes in the patient and/or airlock chamber. Life monitoring and support systems are in communication with the interior of the hyperbaric chamber and/or airlock chamber through conduits and/or sealed feed-through connectors into the hyperbaric chamber.

  7. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  8. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaler the right way so that the full dose of medication reaches your lungs. You can use ... inhaler.These directions explain how to use metered-dose inhalers. If you are using a different type ...

  9. Inhalation exposure of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F

    1976-01-01

    Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

  10. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... construction requirements of the following standards: ANSI A14.1-1990, Safety Requirements for Portable Wood... otherwise specified. (b) Standards for existing manufactured portable ladders. (1) Rungs of manufactured... ladder length. (c) Standards for manufactured portable ladders. Portable manufactured ladders obtained...

  11. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine. 176.137 Section 176.137... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.137 Portable magazine. (a) Each portable magazine... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed...

  12. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine. 176.137 Section 176.137... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.137 Portable magazine. (a) Each portable magazine... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed...

  13. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine. 176.137 Section 176.137... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.137 Portable magazine. (a) Each portable magazine... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed...

  14. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine. 176.137 Section 176.137... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.137 Portable magazine. (a) Each portable magazine... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed...

  15. 49 CFR 176.137 - Portable magazine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine. 176.137 Section 176.137... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.137 Portable magazine. (a) Each portable magazine... wood, a portable magazine must be framed of nominal 5 cm × 10 cm (2×4 inch) lumber, and sheathed with...

  16. Advanced Microdisplays for Portable Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    THROUGH SCIENCE mm WE DEFEND TECHNICAL REPORT NATICK/TR-99/037 AD ADVANCED MICRODISPLAYS FOR PORTABLE SYSTEMS by Phillip Alvelda Michael...1996 - 19 October 1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED MICRODISPLAYS FOR PORTABLE SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Phillip Alvelda , Michael Bolotski, Ramon...MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory which forms the basis for this proposal. Under DARPA funding, Mr. Alvelda and Mr. Knight developed the highest

  17. Portable Slot-Sizing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuver, Nelson T.

    1987-01-01

    Portable milling tool consisting of air-motor-driven cutter held in adjustable moving slide made possible local removal of chromium plating in close-tolerance, onsite remachining and sizing of half-hole slots on longeron bridges. Made from commercially available parts, including air motor capable of variable speeds up to 900 rpm, ball end mill, revolving handle, two miter gears, and ball slide. Adaptation of portable sizing tool useful for field modification of such large equipment as trucks, aircraft, and ships.

  18. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    OPEN COMPONENT PORTABILITY INFRASTRUCTURE (OPENCPI) MERCURY FEDERAL SYSTEMS, INC. MARCH 2013 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...NUMBER OC 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER PI 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Federal Systems, Inc. 1901 South Bell Street, Suite...Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI) ,” AFRL-RI-RS-TR- 2009-257, Mercury Federal Systems, Inc., Arlington, VA, Nov 2009. 2. Kulp, J., “OpenCPI

  19. Inhaled technosphere regular insulin powder.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Zachary L; Clements, Jennifer N

    2015-11-01

    The lungs are an effective way to deliver insulin for patients with diabetes, but an initial inhaled insulin product was withdrawn from the market because of high cost and inconsistent dosing. This article describes a recently approved inhaled insulin that appears to control blood glucose as well as rapid-acting injectable insulin.

  20. American Indian Adolescent Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Green, Vicki A.

    1997-01-01

    A study of inhalant use among 87 American Indian boarding school students aged 10-18 found that inhalant use was negatively related to participation in traditional tribal activities for both males and females and was also related to measures of cognitive ability and cognitive egocentrism for males. (Contains 43 references.) (SV)

  1. Hydrodynamics of viscous inhalant flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Aaron C.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2017-05-01

    Inhalant flows draw fluid into an orifice from a reservoir and are ubiquitous in engineering and biology. Surprisingly, there is a lack of quantitative information on viscous inhalant flows. We consider here laminar flows (Reynolds number Re≤100 ) developing after impulsive inhalation begins. We implement finite element simulations of flows with varying Re and extraction height h (orifice height above a bottom bed). Numerical results are experimentally validated using particle image velocimetry measurements in a physical model for a representative flow case in the middle of the Re-h parameter space. We use two metrics to characterize the flow in space and time: regions of influence (ROIs), which describe the spatial extent of the flow field, and inhalation volumes, which describe the initial distribution of inhaled fluid. The transient response for all Re features an inviscid sinklike component at early times followed by a viscous diffusive component. At lower Re, diffusion entrains an increasing volume of fluid over time, enlarging the ROI indefinitely. In some geometries, these flows spatially bifurcate, with some fluid being inhaled through the orifice and some bypassing into recirculation. At higher Re, inward advection dominates outward viscous diffusion and the flow remains trapped in a sinklike state. Both ROIs and inhalation volumes are strongly dependent on Re and extraction height, suggesting that organisms or engineers could tune these parameters to achieve specific inhalation criteria.

  2. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    PubMed

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

    2006-03-24

    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  3. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  4. Inhalation delivery of protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Colleen; O'Neil, Karyn; Conk, Michelle; Picha, Kristen

    2013-04-01

    Inhaled therapeutics are used routinely to treat a variety of pulmonary diseases including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. In addition, biological therapies represent the fastest growing segment of approved pharmaceuticals. However, despite the increased availability of biological therapies, nearly all inhaled therapeutics are small molecule drugs with only a single inhaled protein therapeutic approved. There remains a significant unmet need for therapeutics in pulmonary diseases, and biological therapies with potential to alter disease progression represent a significant opportunity to treat these challenging diseases. This review provides a background into efforts to develop inhaled biological therapies and highlights some of the associated challenges. In addition, we speculate on the ideal properties of a biologic therapy for inhaled delivery.

  5. Portable Multiplex Pathogen Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S; McBride, M T; Matthews, D; Rao, R

    2002-07-15

    Tumor marker concentrations in serum provide useful information regarding clinical stage and prognosis of cancer and can thus be used for presymptomatic diagnostic purposes. Currently, detection and identification of soluble analytes in biological fluids is conducted by methods including bioassays, ELISA, PCR, DNA chip or strip tests. While these technologies are generally sensitive and specific, they are time consuming, labor intensive and cannot be multiplexed. Our goal is to develop a simple, point-of-care, portable, liquid array-based immunoassay device capable of simultaneous detection of a variety of cancer markers. Here we describe the development of assays for the detection of Serum Prostate Specific Antigen, and Ovalbumin from a single sample. The multiplexed immunoassays utilize polystyrene microbeads. The beads are imbedded with precise ratios of red and orange fluorescent dyes yielding an array of 100 beads, each with a unique spectral address (Figure 1). Each bead can be coated with capture antibodies specific for a given antigen. After antigen capture, secondary antibodies sandwich the bound antigen and are indirectly labeled by the fluorescent reporter phycoerythrin (PE). Each optically encoded and fluorescently-labeled microbead is then individually interrogated. A red laser excites the dye molecules imbedded inside the bead and classifies the bead to its unique bead set, and a green laser quantifies the assay at the bead surface. This technology has been proven to be comparable to the ELISA in terms of sensitivity and specificity. We also describe the laser-based instrumentation used to acquire fluorescent bead images Following the assay, droplets of bead suspension containing a mixture of bead classes were deposited onto filters held in place by a disposable plexiglass device and the resultant arrays viewed under the fluorescent imaging setup. Using the appropriate filter sets to extract the necessary red, orange and green fluorescence from the

  6. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  7. Pattern of inhalation of tobacco smoke in pipe, cigarette, and never smokers.

    PubMed

    Rodenstein, D O; Stănescu, D C

    1985-09-01

    There is controversy on whether both primary and secondary pipe smokers do inhale tobacco smoke. We studied inhalation of tobacco smoke in 6 primary and 6 secondary pipe smokers and compared it with that in 20 cigarette smokers and 11 never smokers. Respiratory movements were assessed with inductive plethysmography, nasal flow through measurements of nasal pressure, oral flow with an oral thermistor, puffing through pressure measurements in the cigarette holder or the pipe, and upper airways by fluoroscopy. In all pipe smokers except 1, breathing and smoking appeared as independent activities. The former was exclusively nasal, whereas the latter was exclusively oral. Smoke was sucked and puffed by a to-and-fro movement of the tongue sliding along the soft palate. The oropharyngeal isthmus was closed (or only intermittently opened) by the apposition of the soft palate and the tongue, thus preventing overt inhalation of smoke. In most cigarette smokers, smoking interfered with the breathing route. Once smoke was sucked into the mouth, the oropharyngeal isthmus opened and inspiration proceeded through both mouth (with inhalation of smoke) and nose. Cigarette smoking interfered also with the evenness of ventilation. Never smokers avoided inhalation by oropharyngeal closure followed by oral expiration. We conclude that the oropharyngeal isthmus is the essential gate controlling smoke inhalation. Most secondary pipe smokers are able to change their smoking pattern and avoid overt inhalation when switching from cigarette to pipe smoking. The inhalation pattern appears to be acquired in the course of the smoking history.

  8. Inhalant abuse in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Michael; Frampton, Laura; Fountain, John

    2006-05-05

    To describe patterns of inhalant abuse in New Zealand and discuss management. Calls to the National Poisons Centre (NPC) from January 1 2003 to December 31 2004 were analysed. In addition, deaths following inhalational abuse were identified from the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) database for 2001 and 2002 and available data for 2003. Seventy calls were classified as relating to inhalational abuse incidents. In abusers whose age was known, 83% were between 11 and 20 years, and 61% were male. Over half (44/70) of the calls involved abuse of propane or butane, either alone or in combination with a synthetic pyrethroid. ESR coronial data identified 11 inhalant abuse related deaths, most commonly attributed to cardiac effects. 73% of deaths were in teenagers and all but one fatality involved propane and/or butane. Inhalant abuse is a persisting problem in New Zealand. NPC and ESR data demonstrate that teenagers are more likely to abuse inhalants than other age groups and butane and propane are the inhalants of choice. Acute management can be difficult, with significant mortality and morbidity. Continued education and other preventive measures are essential to help curb an extremely dangerous practice.

  9. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  10. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers. PMID:21760757

  11. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-06-14

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers.

  12. Pedemis: A Portable Electromagnetic Induction Sensor with Integrated Positioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-27

    12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS PEDEMIS Benjamin E. Barrowes, Fridon Shubitidze, Tomasz M. Grzegorczyk, Pablo Fernandez ...Integrated Positioning Benjamin E. Barrowesa,b, Fridon Shubitidzeb, Tomasz M. Grzegorczykc, Pablo Fernándezb, and Kevin O’Neilla,b aUSACE-ERDC-CRREL, 72 Lyme...Barrowes, B. E., Shubitidze, F., Fernandez , J. P., and O’Neill, K., “Simultaneous identification of multiple unexploded ordnance using electromagnetic

  13. [Portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuai; Chen, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    A portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment containing sensor module, acquisition board and embedded module was developed for home care in this paper. The sensor module consists of one ECG module and three pulse wave extraction modules, synchronously acquiring human ECG and pulse wave signal of carotid, radial, and dorsal, respectively. The acquisition board converts the sensor module's analog output signals into digital signals and transmits them to the embedded module. The embedded module realizes the functions including signal display, storage and the calculation and output of pulse wave velocity. The structure of the proposed portable instrument is simple, easy to use, and easy to expand. Small size, low cost, and low power consumption are also the advantages of this device. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment has high accuracy, good repeatability and can assess the degree of atherosclerosis appropriately.

  14. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    DOEpatents

    Schmierer, Eric N.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  15. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use umeclidinium and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  16. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use fluticasone and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short acting ( ...

  17. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of lung diseases that includes chronic ... and salmeterol during an attack of asthma or COPD. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting inhaler ...

  18. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article This paper presents a simulation-based approach for assessing short-term, water-distribution-system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from showering and the use of humidifiers during contamination events.

  19. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings. PMID:26866411

  20. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.

  1. Infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuto; Muir, William W; Tsubakishita, Sae; Abrahamsen, Eric; Lerch, Phillip; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Kotani, Tadao

    2002-10-15

    To evaluate effects of infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses. Randomized clinical trial. 40 horses. Horses were premedicated with xylazine and anesthetized with diazepam and ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained by infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine and inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses) or by inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses). A surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained by controlling the inhaled concentration of sevoflurane. Sodium pentothal was administered as necessary to prevent movement in response to surgical stimulation. Hypotension was treated with dobutamine; hypoxemia and hypercarbia were treated with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The quality of anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery and the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were scored. The delivered concentration of sevoflurane (ie, the vaporizer dial setting) was significantly lower and the quality of transition to inhalation anesthesia and of anesthetic maintenance were significantly better in horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion than in horses that did not. Five horses, all of which received sevoflurane alone, required administration of pentothal. Recovery time and quality of recovery were not significantly different between groups, but horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion required fewer attempts to stand. Results suggest that in horses, the combination of a guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion and inhalation of sevoflurane resulted in better transition and maintenance phases while improving cardiovascular function and reducing the number of attempts needed to stand after the completion of anesthesia, compared with inhalation of sevoflurane.

  2. Installing Portable Classrooms With Good Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfrey, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of modular classrooms and improvements made in indoor air quality, including the pros and cons of portables, challenges districts face when planning and installing portables, and cost considerations. Concluding comments highlight system costs and maintenance required. (GR)

  3. Inhaler Technique in Asthma: How Does It Relate to Patients' Preferences and Attitudes Toward Their Inhalers?

    PubMed Central

    Jahedi, Lia; Downie, Sue R.; Saini, Bandana; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique. Methods: Twenty-five patients with asthma (mean age 43.1 years) participated. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative patient satisfaction and preference questionnaires (PASAPQ) were used to explore patients' preferences, attitudes, and perceptions about their inhalers. Objective inhalation technique assessment was performed. Data were triangulated to identify characteristics that could indicate a relationship between inhaler technique, satisfaction, preference, and decision making. Results: Themes from qualitative interviews were as follows: asthma inhalers and expectations; inhaler preference; characteristics of an ideal inhaler; perceived effectiveness of inhalers; and inhalers and patient decision making. PASAPQ scores indicated that all patients were at least “somewhat satisfied” with their inhalers, regardless of technique. Only 12% of inhalers were used correctly, despite pilot PASAPQ data suggesting that most patients were confident with their technique. The inhaler technique was unlikely to be related to satisfaction, perception of inhaler devices, or choice in device selection. Patients with correct inhaler technique were more aware of their asthma and expressed motivation to achieve optimal asthma control. Conclusions: The majority of the asthmatic patients did not use their inhaler(s) correctly, despite most having confidence in their technique. Patients attributed confidence in their inhaler technique to their belief that

  4. Inhaler Technique in Asthma: How Does It Relate to Patients' Preferences and Attitudes Toward Their Inhalers?

    PubMed

    Jahedi, Lia; Downie, Sue R; Saini, Bandana; Chan, Hak-Kim; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2017-02-01

    Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique. Twenty-five patients with asthma (mean age 43.1 years) participated. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative patient satisfaction and preference questionnaires (PASAPQ) were used to explore patients' preferences, attitudes, and perceptions about their inhalers. Objective inhalation technique assessment was performed. Data were triangulated to identify characteristics that could indicate a relationship between inhaler technique, satisfaction, preference, and decision making. Themes from qualitative interviews were as follows: asthma inhalers and expectations; inhaler preference; characteristics of an ideal inhaler; perceived effectiveness of inhalers; and inhalers and patient decision making. PASAPQ scores indicated that all patients were at least "somewhat satisfied" with their inhalers, regardless of technique. Only 12% of inhalers were used correctly, despite pilot PASAPQ data suggesting that most patients were confident with their technique. The inhaler technique was unlikely to be related to satisfaction, perception of inhaler devices, or choice in device selection. Patients with correct inhaler technique were more aware of their asthma and expressed motivation to achieve optimal asthma control. The majority of the asthmatic patients did not use their inhaler(s) correctly, despite most having confidence in their technique. Patients attributed confidence in their inhaler technique to their belief that their inhaler was effective. Most patients had not been

  5. Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

  6. Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS) is an automated, non-destructive inspection system based on positron annihilation, which characterizes a material's in situatomic-level properties during the manufacturing processes of formation, solidification, and heat treatment. Simultaneous manufacturing and quality monitoring now are possible. Learn more about the lab's project on our facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Portable Positron Measurement System (PPMS) is an automated, non-destructive inspection system based on positron annihilation, which characterizes a material's in situatomic-level properties during the manufacturing processes of formation, solidification, and heat treatment. Simultaneous manufacturing and quality monitoring now are possible. Learn more about the lab's project on our facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. Portable Liquid-Injecting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuck, T.; Chin, F.; Hansen, M.

    1988-01-01

    Portable injecting-gun system dispenses predetermined amount of liquid at moderately high pressure. Tool belt holds components of liquid-injecting system. Pump and four-way valve combined in nylon housing. Connected to injecting nozzle and other components by polyvinyl tubing.

  9. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  10. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  11. 33 CFR 149.410 - Where must portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-portable fire extinguishers be located? 149.410 Section 149.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located? All portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers described in table 149.409 must be located in the open so as to be readily seen....

  12. 33 CFR 149.410 - Where must portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-portable fire extinguishers be located? 149.410 Section 149.410 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and semi-portable fire extinguishers be located? All portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers described in table 149.409 must be located in the open so as to be readily seen....

  13. Inhalant Withdrawal as a Clinically Significant Feature of Inhalant Dependence Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jarman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant use is the intentional inhalation of vapors from commercial products or specific chemical agents for the purpose of achieving intoxication. Inhalants are among the most common and pernicious forms of substance use and the least studied of the major drugs. Diagnosis of inhalant dependence, according to the DSM-IV [1] excludes inhalant withdrawal symptoms, as expert opinion has suggested that an inhalant withdrawal syndrome is neither common nor clinically significant. This article draws from multiple sources of data to suggest that withdrawal symptoms can be part of inhalant dependence and are clinically significant. This hypothesis needs rigorous evaluation to ensure the diagnostic validity of inhalant use disorders. PMID:19632058

  14. 46 CFR 120.430 - Portable lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable lights. 120.430 Section 120.430 Shipping COAST... Systems § 120.430 Portable lights. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station and the other at the...

  15. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  16. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  17. 46 CFR 120.430 - Portable lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable lights. 120.430 Section 120.430 Shipping COAST... Systems § 120.430 Portable lights. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station and the other at the...

  18. 46 CFR 120.430 - Portable lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable lights. 120.430 Section 120.430 Shipping COAST... Systems § 120.430 Portable lights. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station and the other at the...

  19. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  20. 46 CFR 120.430 - Portable lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable lights. 120.430 Section 120.430 Shipping COAST... Systems § 120.430 Portable lights. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station and the other at the...

  1. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  2. 46 CFR 183.430 - Portable lights

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable lights 183.430 Section 183.430 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Lighting Systems § 183.430 Portable lights Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station...

  3. 46 CFR 120.430 - Portable lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable lights. 120.430 Section 120.430 Shipping COAST... Systems § 120.430 Portable lights. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two operable portable battery lights. One of these lights must be located at the operating station and the other at the...

  4. 47 CFR 51.203 - Number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Number portability. 51.203 Section 51.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.203 Number portability. The rules governing number portability...

  5. 47 CFR 51.203 - Number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Number portability. 51.203 Section 51.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.203 Number portability. The rules governing number portability...

  6. 47 CFR 51.203 - Number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Number portability. 51.203 Section 51.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.203 Number portability. The rules governing number portability...

  7. Portable Library Support for Irregular Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    portable multithreading execution environment for latency hiding. The thread layer also allows the programmer to supply customized schedulers to enforce...which are code sequences that appear to execute atomically. The ber abstraction enables a portable multithreading execution environment for latency...suspension. The ber abstraction enables a portable multithreading execution environment for latency hiding. The thread layer also provides mechanisms for

  8. 47 CFR 51.203 - Number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Number portability. 51.203 Section 51.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.203 Number portability. The rules governing number portability...

  9. 47 CFR 51.203 - Number portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Number portability. 51.203 Section 51.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.203 Number portability. The rules governing number portability...

  10. 48 CFR 1837.170 - Pension portability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pension portability. 1837... ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 1837.170 Pension portability. (a) It is NASA's policy not to require pension portability in service contracts. However, pension...

  11. Adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-04-01

    Inhalants are widely misused by adolescents and are among the most toxic of psychoactive substances. This investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication. Adolescent inhalant users (n = 279) in residential care completed structured interviews including assessments of the characteristics of their inhalant use. Multivariate logistic and linear regression and path analyses identified correlates of adverse inhalant intoxication-related experiences. Results of this study indicated that high-risk behaviors and adverse outcomes experienced during episodes of inhalant intoxication were common in this sample. High-frequency inhalant users were significantly more likely than moderate- and low-frequency users to experience adverse consequences of inhalant intoxication. Certain risky behaviors and consequences, such as engaging in unprotected sex or acts of physical violence while high on inhalants, were dramatically more common among high-frequency users than low-frequency users. Prior traumatic experiences, trait impulsivity, self-medication use of inhalants, and polydrug use were significant correlates of adverse inhalant-intoxication-related consequences. Adverse events and high-risk behaviors commonly occurred during episodes of inhalant intoxication in this sample of adolescents. High-frequency inhalant users and youth who used inhalants to medicate negative affective states were at elevated risk for such events.

  12. [Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease].

    PubMed

    Solé, Amparo; Girón, Rosa Ma

    2015-09-01

    Nebulized antibiotic therapy is an attractive therapeutic option given the high concentration obtained from the drug at the site of infection, minimizing the adverse effects and possible drug interactions. Inhalation of drugs as treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. Other limited areas of experience in this field are lung transplant recipients, immunosuppressed patients, bronchiectasis and ventilated patients. In this review document we analyse the current status of the inhaled medications, their modes of administration and indications and their results as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics, and additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Several factors contribute to a highly variable pulmonary drug deposition as the devices, the physical properties of the administered antimicrobial agent, the type of respiratory disease and the inhalation technique. Despite many clinicians have obtained a valuable experience from the aerosolized administration of antimicrobials and persuaded of their efficacy and safety. However, RCTs out of CF are needed to answer important clinical questions, such as what is the appropriate dose, the optimal delivery device, the optimal way of drug administration, as well as the exact therapeutic role and pharmacokinetic profile of aerosolized drug.

  13. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET {gamma}-irradiation or {alpha}-irradiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning.

  14. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  15. [Advances of portable electrocardiogram monitor design].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shenping; Wang, Yinghai; Wu, Weirong; Deng, Lingli; Lu, Jidong

    2014-06-01

    Portable electrocardiogram monitor is an important equipment in the clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases due to its portable, real-time features. It has a broad application and development prospects in China. In the present review, previous researches on the portable electrocardiogram monitors have been arranged, analyzed and summarized. According to the characteristics of the electrocardiogram (ECG), this paper discusses the ergonomic design of the portable electrocardiogram monitor, including hardware and software. The circuit components and software modules were parsed from the ECG features and system functions. Finally, the development trend and reference are provided for the portable electrocardiogram monitors and for the subsequent research and product design.

  16. Gravitational induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Donato; Cherubini, Christian; Chicone, Carmen; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2008-11-01

    We study the linear post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity known as gravitoelectromagnetism (GEM); in particular, we examine the similarities and differences between GEM and electrodynamics. Notwithstanding some significant differences between them, we find that a special nonstationary metric in GEM can be employed to show explicitly that it is possible to introduce gravitational induction within GEM in close analogy with Faraday's law of induction and Lenz's law in electrodynamics. Some of the physical implications of gravitational induction are briefly discussed.

  17. Inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  19. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  20. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station.

  1. Portable plant health measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Nejat

    1999-01-01

    This system is designed to assist diagnosis of the plant health globally. The system is formed by portable plant health measurement devices connected to a diagnosis and analysis center through a flexible information network. A flexible network is formed so that users from the remote areas as well as internet are able to use the system. The hardware and software is designed in an open technology for easier upgrades. Portable plant health measurement instrument is a networkable leaf flash spectrophotometer capable of measuring Qa, Electrochromy, P700, Fluorescence, S Fluorescence, reflectance spectra, temperature, humidity and image of the leaf with GPS information. The network and intelligent user interface options of the system can be used by any commercially or user designed instrument.

  2. [Ciclesonide -- a new inhaled corticosteroid].

    PubMed

    Ukena, D

    2005-10-01

    Ciclesonide is a novel inhaled corticosteroid delivered as inactive prodrug via a hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler with a deposition rate of 50 - 60 %. At its target sites, the lungs, ciclesonide is converted to an active metabolite, desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC) [so-called on-site activation]. High lipophilicity and formation of local depot prolong pulmonary duration of action, explaining once-daily administration of ciclesonide. High protein binding and rapid clearance reduce systemic interactions. In long-term studies, ciclesonide at doses as high as 1280-1600 microg/d did not suppress biochemical markers of adrenal function. Since ciclesonide is not being activated in the oropharynx, the incidence of local adverse effects is comparable to that of placebo. Compared to other ICS, ciclesonide shows a improved therapeutic index and can, therefore, be regarded as prototype of a new, third generation of inhaled corticosteroids.

  3. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1989-01-01

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observation means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns.

  4. Portable Immune-Assessment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mishra, Saroj K.

    1995-01-01

    Portable immune-assessment system developed for use in rapidly identifying infections or contaminated environment. System combines few specific fluorescent reagents for identifying immune-cell dysfunction, toxic substances, buildup of microbial antigens or microbial growth, and potential identification of pathogenic microorganisms using fluorescent microplate reader linked to laptop computer. By using few specific dyes for cell metabolism, DNA/RNA conjugation, specific enzyme activity, or cell constituents, one makes immediate, onsite determination of person's health or of contamination of environment.

  5. Portable Presentation And Instruction Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christman, L.; Hoang, N.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic display unit reminiscent of kiosk serves as portable, interactive, multimedia information terminal. Used as traveling science exhibit, aid for teaching science in schools, or training and skill-refresher device for space flight crews. Provides interactive video and audio displays, including three-dimensional-appearing video simulations. Speeds learning and improves retention by applying principles of scientific visualization. Also helps previously trained but recently unpracticed personnel relearn special skills and procedures quickly.

  6. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  7. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-06-11

    S68-34580 (1968) --- With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be easily studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside-the-spacecraft activity. JSC photographic frame no. S68-34582 is a close-up view of the working parts of the PLSS.

  8. Apollo Portable Life Support System

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-06-11

    S68-34582 (1968) --- With its exterior removed, the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) can be easily studied. The PLSS is worn as a backpack over the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) a multi-layered spacesuit used for outside-the-spacecraft activity. JSC photographic frame no. S68-34582 is a wider view of the exposed interior working parts of the PLSS and its removed cover.

  9. Portable Presentation And Instruction Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christman, L.; Hoang, N.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed electronic display unit reminiscent of kiosk serves as portable, interactive, multimedia information terminal. Used as traveling science exhibit, aid for teaching science in schools, or training and skill-refresher device for space flight crews. Provides interactive video and audio displays, including three-dimensional-appearing video simulations. Speeds learning and improves retention by applying principles of scientific visualization. Also helps previously trained but recently unpracticed personnel relearn special skills and procedures quickly.

  10. Portable telepathology: methods and tools.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Luis; Roca, Ma José

    2008-07-15

    Telepathology is becoming easier to implement in most pathology departments. In fact e-mail image transmit can be done from almost any pathologist as a simplistic telepathology system. We tried to develop a way to improve capabilities of communication among pathologists with the idea that the system should be affordable for everybody. We took the premise that any pathology department would have microscopes and computers with Internet connection, and selected a few elements to convert them into a telepathology station. Needs were reduced to a camera to collect images, a universal microscope adapter for the camera, a device to connect the camera to the computer, and a software for the remote image transmit. We found out a microscope adapter (MaxView Plus) that allowed us connect almost any domestic digital camera to any microscope. The video out signal from the camera was sent to the computer through an Aver Media USB connector. At last, we selected a group of portable applications that were assembled into a USB memory device. Portable applications are computer programs that can be carried generally on USB flash drives, but also in any other portable device, and used on any (Windows) computer without installation. Besides, when unplugging the device, none of personal data is left behind. We selected open-source applications, and based the pathology image transmission to VLC Media Player due to its functionality as streaming server, portability and ease of use and configuration. Audio transmission was usually done through normal phone lines. We also employed alternative videoconferencing software, SightSpeed for bi-directional image transmission from microscopes, and conventional cameras allowing visual communication and also image transmit from gross pathology specimens. All these elements allowed us to install and use a telepathology system in a few minutes, fully prepared for real time image broadcast.

  11. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    The planned instrument was to be small enough to be portable in small vehicles and was to be able to use either an atmospheric pressure ion source or a...conventional electron impact/chemical ionization ion source. In order to accomplish these developments an atmospheric pressure ionization source was...developed for a compact, commercially available tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. This ion source could be readily exchanged with the conventional

  12. Compact portable diffraction moire interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1988-05-23

    A compact and portable moire interferometer used to determine surface deformations of an object. The improved interferometer is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent wave splitters, and collimating lenses directing the split beam at one or more specimen gratings. Observations means including film and video cameras may be used to view and record the resultant fringe patterns. 7 figs.

  13. Software Complexity Threatens Performance Portability

    SciTech Connect

    Gamblin, T.

    2015-09-11

    Modern HPC software packages are rarely self-contained. They depend on a large number of external libraries, and many spend large fractions of their runtime in external subroutines. Performance portability depends not only on the effort of application teams, but also on the availability of well-tuned libraries. At most sites, the burden of maintaining libraries is shared by code teams and facilities. Facilities typically provide well-tuned default versions, but code teams frequently build with bleeding-edge compilers to achieve high performance. For this reason, HPC has no “standard” software stack, unlike other domains where performance is not critical. Incompatibilities among compilers and software versions force application teams and facility staff to re-build custom versions of libraries for each new toolchain. Because the number of potential configurations is combinatorial, and because HPC software is notoriously difficult to port to new machines [3, 7, 8], the tuning effort required to support and maintain performance-portable libraries outstrips the available manpower at most sites. Software complexity is a growing obstacle to performance portability for HPC.

  14. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

    2004-07-20

    The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.

  15. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  16. Asthma Inhalers: Which One's Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication in these inhalers by breathing in a deep, fast breath. There are multiple-dose devices, which ... and convenient to carry. Doesn't require a deep, fast, inhaled breath. Doesn't require a deep, ...

  17. Huffing: prehospital identification & treatment of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Criss, Liz

    2009-05-01

    Sniffing. Huffing. Bagging. These street terms describe methods of inhaling toxic chemicals to achieve mind-altering states of intoxication or euphoria. Just about anything in the house that comes in spray form can be used as an inhalant.

  18. [New technical developments for inhaled sedation].

    PubMed

    Meiser, A; Bomberg, H; Volk, T; Groesdonk, H V

    2017-01-31

    The circle system has been in use for more than 100 years, whereas the first clinical application of an anaesthetic reflector was reported just 15 years ago. In the circle system, all breathing gas is rebreathed after carbon dioxide absorption. A reflector, on the other hand, with the breathing gas flowing to and fro, specifically retains the anaesthetic during expiration and resupplies it during the next inspiration. A high reflection efficiency (number of molecules resupplied/number of molecules exhaled, RE 80-90%) decreases consumption. In analogy to the fresh gas flow of a circle system, pulmonary clearance ((1-RE) × minute ventilation) defines the opposition between consumption and control of the concentration.It was not until reflection systems became available that volatile anaesthetics were used routinely in some intensive care units. Their advantages, such as easy handling, and better ventilatory capabilities of intensive care versus anaesthesia ventilators, were basic preconditions for this. Apart from AnaConDa™ (Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden), the new MIRUS™ system (Pall Medical, Dreieich, Germany) represents a second, more sophisticated commercially available system.Organ protective effects, excellent control of sedation, and dose-dependent deep sedation while preserving spontaneous breathing with hardly any accumulation or induction of tolerance, make volatile anaesthetics an interesting alternative, especially for patients needing deep sedation or when intravenous drugs are no longer efficacious.But obviously, the outcome is most important. We know that deep intravenous sedation increases mortality, whereas inhalational sedation could prove beneficial. We now need prospective clinical trials examining mortality, but also the psychological outcome of those most critically ill patients sedated by inhalation or intravenously.

  19. Perceived Risk of Harm and Intentions of Future Inhalant Use among Adolescent Inhalant Users

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of perceived a) risk of harm associated with inhalant use and b) intention to use inhalants among adolescent inhalant users. Method Participants were 279 lifetime inhalant users (Mage = 15.5, 84 % male) identified in a statewide survey of 723 adolescents in Missouri Division of Youth Services’ residential care for antisocial conduct. Youth completed interviews assessing inhalant and other drug use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behavior. Results More than one-third (37%) of youth perceived experimental inhalant use as of slight or no risk; one-in-eight (11.9 %) youth perceived regular inhalant use as of slight or no risk. Risk perceptions of experimental and regular inhalant use were not associated with intentions to use. Youth with friends/sibling inhalant who use inhalants were less likely to perceive risks associated with experimental and regular inhalant use compared to youth without friends/sibling users. Adolescents who were younger and those with more extensive substance abuse problems, prior problems with inhalants, greater current psychiatric distress, friends/sibling who use inhalants were significantly more likely to report intentions of future inhalant use than their counterparts. Conclusions Assessment of substance use among youth, particularly those in the criminal justice system, should include an assessment of inhalants. Intervention efforts should include addressing misperceptions of risk associated with inhalants and developing strategies for managing social network influences. PMID:18524500

  20. Inhalant Use by Canadian Aboriginal Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Charles, Grant; Collins, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Study followed youth who received treatment for inhalant abuse. Many came from backgrounds marked by isolation, poverty, family violence, and substance abuse. Average age the youths first used inhalants was 9.72 years. Model predicted those who abused inhalants immediately before admission, were described as unmotivated in treatment, and were…

  1. Assessment of personal direct-reading dust monitors for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The performances of five portable direct-reading dust monitors were investigated in a wind tunnel for a range of industrial dusts and three sizes of aluminium oxide test dust to mainly determine their suitability for measuring the inhalable fraction of airborne dust in workplaces. The instruments tested were Split 2 (SKC Ltd), Sidepak (TSI Inc.), Dataram (Thermo Electron Ltd), PDS-2 (Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd) and the Respicon TM (Hund Ltd). The instruments' responses were compared with reference dust samplers. These were the IOM sampler for the inhalable fraction and the Casella cyclone sampler for the respirable fraction. All instruments are predominantly responsive to and are designed to measure particles in the respirable size range, although two of the instruments, the Split 2 and Respicon TM, are claimed to be capable of measuring inhalable-sized particles. For the purpose of the tests, major modifications to an existing wind tunnel dust injection system were made to facilitate the generation of uniform concentrations of large inhalable-sized dust particles at low air velocities. Each monitor greatly underestimated the measurement of inhalable concentration for all the dusts tested, although the linearity was good over a wide range of concentrations for any particular size distribution of dust. However, their calibration factors, defined as the ratio of reference inhalable concentration to monitor concentration, were especially sensitive to changes in particle size as the response of the instruments decreased rapidly with increasing particle size. The monitors generally overestimated the measurement of respirable dust concentration by up to a factor of about 2, apart from the PDS-2, which underestimated it by a factor of up to 3. There was, however, a great deal more scatter in the reference respirable concentration measurements owing to the collection of small dust samples. Therefore, monitor linearity and effects of monitor response to changes in

  2. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  3. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  4. Acculturation Influences on Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Mark E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of data on 110 Mexican-American adolescent inhalant users and 78 of their mothers indicate that level of acculturation, cultural factors, and socioeconomic factors did not directly affect youth's drug use and criminality but may have had indirect effects through socialization and psychological factors. Contains 22 references. (Author/SV)

  5. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  6. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  7. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  8. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  9. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  10. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  11. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  12. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Brewer, John

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  13. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Hunter, A.J.R.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    We are part-way through the second phase of a 4-year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Our analysis approach is to excite atomic and molecular fluorescence by the technique of active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET). The active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier (D-B) discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Only a few emission lines or bands are excited for each hazardous species, so spectral resolution requirements are greatly simplified over those of other spectroscopic techniques. The D-B discharge is compact, 1 to 2 cm in diameter and 1 to 10 cm long. Furthermore, the discharge power requirements are quite modest, so that the unit can be powered by batteries. Thus an instrument based on ANET can readily be made portable. Our results indicate that ANET is a very sensitive technique for monitoring heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons. We have demonstrated an overall detection sensitivity for most species that is at or below ppb levels. ANET alone, however, appears to be most successful in treating hazardous species that have been atomized. We are therefore developing a hybrid technique which combines a miniature, solid-state laser for sample collection and vaporization with ANET for subsequent detection. This approach requires no special sample preparation, can operate continuously, and lends itself well to compact packaging.

  14. Speed of induction of anaesthesia in dogs administered halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane or propofol in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Pottie, R G; Dart, C M; Perkins, N R

    2008-01-01

    To compare the speed and quality of induction of general anaesthesia using three different inhalant agents and one intravenous agent, in healthy dogs undergoing desexing surgery. Less excitable dogs were not premedicated; others were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine and morphine. Anaesthesia induction protocol was randomly assigned, with halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered by mask, or propofol delivered intravenously. Maximum vaporiser settings were used for inhalant inductions. Induction of anaesthesia was considered complete at the time of endotracheal intubation. Quality of induction was scored by the administering veterinarian. Seventy-one dogs were enrolled. Twenty-four received no premedication and 47 received premedication. Isoflurane inductions were significantly faster than halothane inductions (2.86 +/- 0.25 vs 3.71 +/- 0.22 min; mean +/- SE, P = 0.013). Sevoflurane inductions (3.29 +/- 0.24 min) were not significantly different from either halothane (3.71 +/- 0.22 min, P = 0.202) or isoflurane inductions (2.86 +/- 0.25 min, P = 0.217). Induction with propofol (1.43 +/- 0.13 min) was significantly faster than inhalant induction (P < 0.001 in each case). Premedication decreased the dose requirement and time to induction for dogs induced with propofol, but did not significantly change the time to intubation for inhalant inductions. Dogs administered propofol and/or premedication were significantly more likely to have an excellent quality of induction, but there was no difference between inhalant agents in terms of induction quality. Sevoflurane possesses chemical properties that should produce a more rapid induction of anaesthesia in comparison to halothane or isoflurane. However, in clinical practice patient related factors outweigh this improvement.

  15. 75 FR 5013 - Local Number Portability Porting Interval and Validation Requirements; Telephone Number Portability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 52 Local Number Portability Porting Interval and Validation Requirements; Telephone Number Portability AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The...

  16. Suppression of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Mice by Radon Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils plays important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in various organs of mice. In this study, we examined the protective effects of radon inhalation on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS) induced colitis in mice which were subjected to DSS for 7 days. Mice were continuously treated with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 from a day before DSS administration to the end of colitis induction. In the results, radon inhalation suppressed the elevation of the disease activity index score and histological damage score induced by DSS. Based on the changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in plasma and myeloperoxidase activity in the colon, it was shown that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colonic inflammation. Moreover, radon inhalation suppressed lipid peroxidation of the colon induced by DSS. The antioxidant level (superoxide dismutase and total glutathione) in the colon after DSS administration was significantly higher in mice treated with radon than with the sham. These results suggested that radon inhalation suppressed DSS-induced colitis through the enhancement of antioxidative functions in the colon. PMID:23365486

  17. Exposure of F344 rats to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.; Bechtold, W.E.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear workers may be accidently exposed to radioactive materials such as {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} by inhalation, and thus have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radionuclides and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. This study is being conducted to better determine the combined effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and cigarette smoke on the induction of lung cancer in rats.

  18. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  19. Portable X-Ray Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  20. Portable receiver for radar detection

    DOEpatents

    Lopes, Christopher D.; Kotter, Dale K.

    2008-10-14

    Various embodiments are described relating to a portable antenna-equipped device for multi-band radar detection. The detection device includes a plurality of antennas on a flexible substrate, a detection-and-control circuit, an indicator and a power source. The antenna may include one or more planar lithographic antennas that may be fabricated on a thin-film substrate. Each antenna may be tuned to a different selection frequency or band. The antennas may include a bolometer for radar detection. Each antenna may include a frequency selective surface for tuning to the selection frequency.

  1. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  2. Portable Ethylene Oxide Sterilization Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Songer, J. R.; Mathis, R. G.

    1969-01-01

    A portable ethylene oxide sterilization chamber was designed, constructed, and tested for use in the sterilization of embolectomy catheters. The unit can accommodate catheters up to 40 inches (101.6 cm) in length and can be operated for less than 4 cents per cycle. A constant concentration of 500 mg of ethylene oxide per liter of space and holding periods of 4 and 6 hr at 43 and 22 C, respectively, were adequate when tested with B. subtilis spores. The estimated cost of construction was $165.00. If temperature control is unnecessary, the cost is approximately $80.00. Images PMID:4977644

  3. Improved Portable Ultrasonic Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Polk, Jimmy D.; Strobel, James P.; Luaces, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Improved portable ultrasonic leak detector features three interchangeable ultrasonic-transducer modules, each suited for operation in unique noncontact or contact mode. One module equipped with ultrasound-collecting horn for use in scanning to detect leaks from distance; horn provides directional sensitivity pattern with sensitivity multiplied by factor of about 6 in forward direction. Another module similar, does not include horn; this module used for scanning close to suspected leak, where proximity of leak more than offsets loss of sensitivity occasioned by lack of horn. Third module designed to be pressed against leaking vessel; includes rugged stainless-steel shell. Improved detectors perform significantly better, smaller, more rugged, and greater sensitivity.

  4. Open Component Portability Infrastructure (OPENCPI)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2009-257 Final Technical Report November 2009 OPEN COMPONENT PORTABILITY INFRASTRUCTURE (OPENCPI) Mercury ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Federal Systems, Inc. 1901 South Bell Street, Suite 402 Arlington, VA 22202-4511 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...APPLICATIONS  30  6.0  REFERENCES  31  7.0  LIST OF ABBRVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS  32  APPENDIX A: ADDITIONAL REFERENCES  34  APPENDIX B:  MERCURY  CPI ITAR

  5. Dry-powder inhalers in acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof

    2014-01-01

    An updated literature search was performed to evaluate the efficacy of rapid-acting β2-agonists delivered via dry powder inhalers in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute asthma. Databases were searched from 1985 up to December 2012. A total of 23 randomized, double-blind or open clinical studies in acute asthma comparing the efficacy of a dry powder inhaler with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler or a nebulizer, and performed under controlled hospital conditions, were identified. This review found that administration of β2-agonist bronchodilators via dry powder inhalers (formoterol, salbutamol, terbutaline and budesonide/formoterol) was effective during severe asthma worsening and acute asthma attacks, and was as effective as established therapies with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler with or without a spacer, or nebulization. These results ensure that patients can rely upon dry powder inhalers equally well as other inhaler devices during episodes of asthma worsening.

  6. Toxicity and bio-accumulation of inhaled cerium oxide nanoparticles in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Aalapati, Srinivas; Ganapathy, Selvam; Manapuram, Saikumar; Anumolu, Goparaju; Prakya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2014-11-01

    Male CD1 mice were subjected to nose-inhalation exposure of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days with 14 or 28 days of recovery time at an aerosol concentration of 2 mg/m(3). Markers of lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), oxidative stress in lungs, bio-accumulation, and histopathology of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues were assessed. BALF analysis revealed the induction of pulmonary inflammation, as evident by an increase in the influx of neutrophils with a significant secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that lead to generation of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, as is evident by induction of lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase and protein. The histopathological examination revealed that these inhaled CeO2 NPs were located all over the pulmonary parenchyma, inducing a severe, chronic, active inflammatory response characterised by necrosis, proteinosis, fibrosis and well-formed discrete granulomas in the pulmonary tissue and tubular degeneration leading to coagulative necrosis in kidneys. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer results showed a significant bio-accumulation of these particles in the pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues, even after one month of post-inhalation exposure. Together, these findings suggest that inhalation exposure of CeO2 NPs can induce pulmonary and extrapulmonary toxicity.

  7. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare.

  8. 46 CFR 119.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fuel systems. 119.458 Section 119.458 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where used for portable dewatering...

  9. 46 CFR 119.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable fuel systems. 119.458 Section 119.458 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where used for portable dewatering pumps...

  10. 46 CFR 119.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable fuel systems. 119.458 Section 119.458 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where used for portable dewatering pumps...

  11. 49 CFR 180.603 - Qualification of portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CSC). (e) Exemption portable tanks based on DOT 51 portable tanks. The owner of a portable tank... conformance with the requirements for Specification DOT 51 portable tanks with the exception of the location... number). During the period the portable tank is in service, and for one year thereafter, the owner of...

  12. Perceived risk of harm and intentions of future inhalant use among adolescent inhalant users.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-09-01

    To identify predictors of perceived (a) risk of harm associated with inhalant use and (b) intention to use inhalants among adolescent inhalant users. Participants were 279 lifetime inhalant users (M(age)=15.5, 84% male) identified in a statewide survey of 723 adolescents in Missouri Division of Youth Services' residential care for antisocial conduct. Youth completed interviews assessing inhalant and other drug use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behavior. More than one-third (37%) of youth perceived experimental inhalant use as of slight or no risk; one-in-eight (11.9%) youth perceived regular inhalant use as of slight or no risk. Risk perceptions of experimental and regular inhalant use were not associated with intentions to use. Youth with friends/siblings who use inhalants were less likely to perceive risks associated with experimental and regular inhalant use compared to youth without friends/sibling users. Adolescents who were younger and those with more extensive substance abuse problems, prior problems with inhalants, greater current psychiatric distress, and friends/siblings who use inhalants were significantly more likely to report intentions of future inhalant use than their counterparts. Assessments of substance use among youth, particularly those in the criminal justice system, should include an assessment of inhalant use. Intervention efforts should focus on developing strategies for managing social network influences.

  13. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  14. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  15. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  16. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  17. 33 CFR 145.01 - Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portable and semi-portable fire extinguishers. 145.01 Section 145.01 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES FIRE-FIGHTING EQUIPMENT § 145.01 Portable and...

  18. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  19. a Portable Pulsed Neutron Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulakis, A.; Androulakis, G. C.; Clark, E. L.; Hassan, S. M.; Lee, P.; Chatzakis, J.; Bakarezos, M.; Dimitriou, V.; Petridis, C.; Papadogiannis, N. A.; Tatarakis, M.

    2014-02-01

    The design and construction of a pulsed plasma focus device to be used as a portable neutron source for material analysis such as explosive detection using gamma spectroscopy is presented. The device is capable of operating at a repetitive rate of a few Hz. When deuterium gas is used, up to 105 neutrons per shot are expected to be produced with a temporal pulse width of a few tens of nanoseconds. The pulsed operation of the device and its portable size are its main advantage in comparison with the existing continuous neutron sources. Parts of the device include the electrical charging unit, the capacitor bank, the spark switch (spark gap), the trigger unit and the vacuum-fuel chamber / anode-cathode. Numerical simulations are used for the simulation of the electrical characteristics of the device including the scaling of the capacitor bank energies with total current, the pinch current, and the scaling of neutron yields with energies and currents. The MCNPX code is used to simulate the moderation of the produced neutrons in a simplified geometry and subsequently, the interaction of thermal neutrons with a test target and the corresponding prompt γ-ray generation.

  20. Portable Health Algorithms Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Wong, Edmond; Fulton, Christopher E.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Maul, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses the Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System, which has been designed as a means for evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT system allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment, to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback, and to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. The integrated hardware and software development environment provides a seamless transition from algorithm development to real-time implementation. The portability of the hardware makes it quick and easy to transport between test facilities. This hard ware/software architecture is flexible enough to support a variety of diagnostic applications and test hardware, and the GUI-based rapid prototyping capability is sufficient to support development execution, and testing of custom diagnostic algorithms. The PHALT operating system supports execution of diagnostic algorithms under real-time constraints. PHALT can perform real-time capture and playback of test rig data with the ability to augment/ modify the data stream (e.g. inject simulated faults). It performs algorithm testing using a variety of data input sources, including real-time data acquisition, test data playback, and system simulations, and also provides system feedback to evaluate closed-loop diagnostic response and mitigation control.

  1. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.A. III

    1997-06-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development.

  2. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    SciTech Connect

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Portable electronic endoscopic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lihui; Wang, Liqiang; Ye, Bin; Duan, Huilong

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents a low-power, inexpensive and portable endoscopic imaging system. A 1.3 million pixels CMOS sensor is considered as an image capture. The sensor and the lens system are designed to minify the cannula diameter of the endoscope and therefore minimize the incision size for insertion. LVDS is used for image data transmission between the sensor and CPU to realize a long distance, high speed and low noise system. An ARM 920T based microcontroller is employed as the control core for the image transmission module, display module and other modules. The camera interface and LCD controller are integrated in the microcontroller and both have a dedicated DMA supports to transmit image data though AHB to or from frame buffer located in system memory without CPU intervention. The image is displayed on an 8 inch LCD screen with 800 × 600 resolution and 16 bits of color depth. With the maximum capture and display rate of 15 fps, this system can provide a clear image enough for laparoscopy or industrial application. And with integrated camera, light source and video display function, it can also be used as a portable, miniature and inexpensive endoscope.

  4. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  5. [Modern inhalational anesthesia in pediatric maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Afonin, D V; Afonina, N V; Marusev, D L; Petrova, L L

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the use of sevoflurane and isoflurane in elective pediatric maxillofacial surgery. Having outlined the major features of anesthesia in this category of patients, the authors emphasize the application of the conception of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and its derivatives (MAC bar and MAC awake) reflecting the analgesic and hypnotic power of an inhalational anesthetic, respectively, and theoretically substantiate the use of certain anesthetic concentrations at particular stages of surgery. The technique described in the paper was used in 82 patients aged 1.5 months to 18 years, undergoing cleft lip and cleft palate repair, residual lip and nose deformation repair, and other elective maxillofacial procedures. The interventions lasted 40 minutes to 8 hours. Sevoflurane was commonly used as an induction agent while isoflurane was applied to maintain anesthesia. The anesthetics were administered at 1 to 1.3 and 0.8 MAC at traumatic and low traumatic stages of surgery, respectively. During the first traumatic period, the dose of fentanyl was not greater than 1.5 and 2.5 microg/kg in old and young children, respectively. Hemodynamics was characterized by moderate controlled hypotension with an average decrease in mean blood pressure by 30% of the age-related value. Emergence occurred 5-15 min after an anesthetic was discontinued. By and large, the technique demonstrated its efficiency and safety in this group of patients.

  6. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  7. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  8. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  9. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  10. 46 CFR 25.30-10 - Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire... UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Fire Extinguishing Equipment § 25.30-10 Hand-portable fire extinguishers and semi-portable fire-extinguishing systems. (a) Hand portable fire extinguishers and semiportable...

  11. Inhaled anesthetics: an historical overview.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Francis X; Bacon, Douglas R; Smith, Hugh M

    2005-09-01

    Inhalational agents have played a pivotal role in anesthesia history. The first publicly demonstrated anesthetic of the modern era, diethyl ether, was an inhalational anesthetic. The attributes of a good agent, ability to rapidly induce anesthesia, with limited side effects has led research efforts for over a hundred and fifty years. The explosion hazard was largely conquered with the development of the halogenated agents in the 1950s. Rapid emergence, with limited nausea and vomiting continue to drive discovery efforts, yet the 'modern' agents continue to improve upon those in the past. The future holds promise, but perhaps the most interesting contrast over time is the ability to rapidly introduce new agents into practice. From James Young Simpson's dinner table one evening to the operating suite the next day, modern agents take decades from first synthesis to clinical introduction.

  12. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  13. Neptunium-237 inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Ruemmler, P S; Buschbom, R L

    1986-12-01

    Groups of rats were exposed to aerosols of 237Np nitrate to determine clearance rates, retention and distribution at various intervals after inhalation. Initial lung burdens (ILB) after 237Np inhalation by three treatment groups were 0.12, 0.19 and 0.37 mu Ci/kg, respectively. Radiochemical analyses of animals killed at 4, 8, 14, 28 and 90 d, as well as data for others maintained until they became moribund, showed that their lung clearance followed a three-compartment model, clearance half-times for which were 1, 35, and 10,000 d, respectively. Only 3% of the ILB was retained after 90 d; 12% of that burden had translocated to the skeleton at 750 d; the half-time for skeletal retention was 2500 d. A single tumor was the only malignancy detected in the lungs of the 35 animals allowed to survive the early phase of the study.

  14. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants.

  15. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies.

  16. 46 CFR 129.450 - Portable lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable lighting. 129.450 Section 129.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.450 Portable lighting. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two...

  17. 46 CFR 129.450 - Portable lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable lighting. 129.450 Section 129.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.450 Portable lighting. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two...

  18. 46 CFR 129.450 - Portable lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable lighting. 129.450 Section 129.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.450 Portable lighting. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two...

  19. 46 CFR 129.450 - Portable lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable lighting. 129.450 Section 129.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.450 Portable lighting. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two...

  20. 46 CFR 129.450 - Portable lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable lighting. 129.450 Section 129.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.450 Portable lighting. Each vessel must be equipped with at least two...

  1. Portable direct methanol fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.

    2002-01-01

    This article includes discussion of the specific power and power density requirements for various portable system applications, the status of stack technology, progress in the implementation of balance-of-plant designs, and a summary of the characteristics of various DMFC portable power source demonstrations.

  2. Do Portable Classrooms Impact Teaching and Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the possible impact portable classrooms have on the teaching and learning process by exploring current related literature. Design/methodology/approach: This paper takes a synthesis approach, analyzing current studies to assess the impact of portable classrooms on teaching and learning. Findings: No…

  3. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  4. Portable Micros: Potentials for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    Description of portable microcomputers discusses design features of Tandy TRS-80, Nippon Electric Company PC-8200, Epson HX-20, Texas Instruments TI CC 40, and Convergent Technologies' Workslate and provides several caveats and recommendations to those making purchasing decisions. Potential uses for portable microcomputers in education are also…

  5. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  6. 49 CFR 180.603 - Qualification of portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Convention for Safe Containers (CSC). (e) Exemption portable tanks based on DOT 51 portable tanks... for one year thereafter, the owner of the portable tank must retain on file, at its principal place...

  7. Brain permeability of inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vikram; Issar, Manish; Wang, Yaning; Talton, James D; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the permeability of inhaled corticosteroids entering the brain is reduced and if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters are involved. Currently employed inhaled corticosteroids were given intravenously and intratracheally to rats at a dose of 100 microg kg-1. An ex-vivo receptor binding assay was used to monitor over 12 h the glucocorticoid receptor occupancy in the brain and a systemic reference organ (kidney). The involvement of P-gp in the brain permeability of triamcinolone acetonide was assessed in wild-type mice and mdr1a(-/-) knockout mice (mice lacking the gene for expressing P-gp). After both forms of administration, the average brain receptor occupancies were 20-56% of those of the reference organ, with the more lipophilic drugs showing a more pronounced receptor occupation. While the receptor occupancies in the liver of wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice were similar after administration of triamcinolone acetonide, brain receptor occupancies in mdr1a(-/-) mice were significantly greater (mdr1a(-/-): 47.6%, 40.2-55.0%, n=14; 2; wild-type: 11.5+/-33.0%, n=14; 3). Penetration into the brain for inhaled corticosteroids (especially those of lower lipophilicity) is reduced. Experiments in mdr1a(-/-) mice confirmed the involvement of P-gp transporters. Further studies are needed to assess whether potential drug interactions at the transporter level are of pharmacological significance.

  8. Precise time dissemination via portable atomic clocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putkovich, K.

    1982-01-01

    The most precise operational method of time dissemination over long distances presently available to the Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) community of users is by means of portable atomic clocks. The Global Positioning System (GPS), the latest system showing promise of replacing portable clocks for global PTTI dissemination, was evaluated. Although GPS has the technical capability of providing superior world-wide dissemination, the question of present cost and future accessibility may require a continued reliance on portable clocks for a number of years. For these reasons a study of portable clock operations as they are carried out today was made. The portable clock system that was utilized by the U.S. Naval Observatory (NAVOBSY) in the global synchronization of clocks over the past 17 years is described and the concepts on which it is based are explained. Some of its capabilities and limitations are also discussed.

  9. Satellite sound broadcasting system, portable reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser; Vaisnys, Arvydas

    1990-01-01

    Studies are underway at JPL in the emerging area of Satellite Sound Broadcast Service (SSBS) for direct reception by low cost portable, semi portable, mobile and fixed radio receivers. This paper addresses the portable reception of digital broadcasting of monophonic audio with source material band limited to 5 KHz (source audio comparable to commercial AM broadcasting). The proposed system provides transmission robustness, uniformity of performance over the coverage area and excellent frequency reuse. Propagation problems associated with indoor portable reception are considered in detail and innovative antenna concepts are suggested to mitigate these problems. It is shown that, with the marriage of proper technologies a single medium power satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability to CONUS in UHF or L Bands, for high quality portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers.

  10. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  11. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  12. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  13. Compact portable electric power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. RTOS kernel in portable electrocardiograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, C. A.; Voos, J. A.; Riva, G. G.; Zerbini, C.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the use of a Real Time Operating System (RTOS) on a portable electrocardiograph based on a microcontroller platform. All medical device digital functions are performed by the microcontroller. The electrocardiograph CPU is based on the 18F4550 microcontroller, in which an uCOS-II RTOS can be embedded. The decision associated with the kernel use is based on its benefits, the license for educational use and its intrinsic time control and peripherals management. The feasibility of its use on the electrocardiograph is evaluated based on the minimum memory requirements due to the kernel structure. The kernel's own tools were used for time estimation and evaluation of resources used by each process. After this feasibility analysis, the migration from cyclic code to a structure based on separate processes or tasks able to synchronize events is used; resulting in an electrocardiograph running on one Central Processing Unit (CPU) based on RTOS.

  15. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  16. Implementing a Portable Trusted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zic, John; Nepal, Surya

    The development of trusted systems, as envisaged by the Trusted Computing Group, assumed that the computing environments are uniform in terms of their operational environment, including hardware configuration, execution of a standard set of applications, operating system and facilities and procedures that allow the issue, revocation and maintenance of critical encryption keys and authorization certificates. These assumptions may be applicable to a single managed enterprise infrastructure. However, in situations where the users are mobile, or the computing environment is heterogeneous and the Internet provides the connectivity, the management of trust between enterprises becomes overwhelmingly difficult, if not impossible. As a result, deployment and uptake of trusted secure systems based on Trusted Platform Module have not been as successful as first envisaged. In this paper, we report on our experiences in designing and implementing a prototype personal trusted device called the Trust Extension Device, or TED, that provides users with a portable trustworthy environment for conducting transactions on any Internet connected computer.

  17. A Portable Diode Array Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, David

    2016-05-01

    A cheap portable visible light spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses readily sourced items and could be constructed by anyone with a knowledge of electronics. The spectrometer covers the wavelength range 450-725 nm with a resolution better than 5 nm. The spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to separate wavelengths, which are detected using a 128-element diode array, the output of which is analyzed using a microprocessor. The spectrum is displayed on a small liquid crystal display screen and can be saved to a micro SD card for later analysis. Battery life (2 × AAA) is estimated to be 200 hours. The overall dimensions of the unit are 120 × 65 × 60 mm, and it weighs about 200 g.

  18. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    PubMed

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  19. Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's methodology for estimation of inhalation reference concentrations (RfCs) as benchmark estimates of the quantitative dose-response assessment of chronic noncancer toxicity for individual inhaled chemicals.

  20. Inhalant withdrawal as a clinically significant feature of inhalant dependence disorder.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Jarman, Christopher N

    2009-12-01

    Inhalant use is the intentional inhalation of vapors from commercial products or specific chemical agents for the purpose of achieving intoxication. Inhalants are among the most common and pernicious forms of substance use and the least studied of the major drugs. Diagnosis of inhalant dependence, according to the DSM-IV [Weintraub E, Gandhi D, Robinson C. Medical complications due to mothball abuse. South Med J 2000;93:427-9] excludes inhalant withdrawal symptoms, as expert opinion has suggested that an inhalant withdrawal syndrome is neither common nor clinically significant. This article draws from multiple sources of data to suggest that withdrawal symptoms can be part of inhalant dependence and are clinically significant. This hypothesis needs rigorous evaluation to ensure the diagnostic validity of inhalant use disorders.

  1. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  2. 46 CFR 119.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where used for portable dewatering pumps or outboard motor installations. (b) The design, construction and stowage of portable tanks...

  3. Telephonic Monitoring and Optimization of Inhaler Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Philip; Young, Henry N.; Knobloch, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Improper inhaler technique is a common problem affecting asthma control and healthcare costs. Telephonic asthma management can increase access to care while reducing costs and hospitalizations. However, no reliable method has been established for telephonically evaluating and correcting inhaler technique. Objective The purpose of this study was to pilot test a method for assessing and correcting patient inhaler technique via telephone. Methods Participants (n=30) were adults with asthma using metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and diskus inhalers. A pharmacist was located in one room and communicated via telephone with a participant in another room. The pharmacist telephonically assessed and taught inhaler technique. Participants were video-recorded, and videos were later examined by a second pharmacist to visually evaluate inhaler technique. Participants were assigned pre- and posteducation inhaler technique scores for the telephonic and video assessments. Scores were based on summated scales for MDI (0–9) and diskus (0–11) inhalers. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare telephone and video assessments. Results Findings indicated a significant difference between the telephone and video assessments of MDI technique (p<0.05); however, no difference was found for the diskus inhaler. Comparing pre- and posteducation inhaler technique for MDI and diskus, mean scores significantly improved from 5.7 to 7.8 (p<0.05) and from 8.5 to 10.4 (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The telephonic method was able to improve and detect some deficiencies in patients' inhaler technique. However, modifications and further investigation will more clearly determine the role and value of such a telephonic intervention. PMID:21943162

  4. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    acetyl -L- cysteine (Mucomyst™; NAC ), in ameliorating inhaled HD-induced lung injury was then assessed in the established model. This work was conducted...J and Sciuto AM. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects Against Inhaled Sulfur Mustard (HD) Poisoning in the Large Swine. Clinical Toxicology, 2012...2012. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects against inhaled sulfur mustard (HD) poisoning in the large swine. Clinical Toxicology; in preparation

  5. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    model. The thiol compound, N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC - Mucomyst™) was chosen due to its anti-oxidant and mucolytic effects, administered via the inhaled...other beneficial therapies. Sulfur mustard, pig, inhalation, toxicology, pathology, physiology, N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) 347 bjjugg@dstl.gov.uk 4...Finally, the efficacy of the commercial off the shelf (COTS) drug, N- acetyl -L- cysteine (Mucomyst™; NAC ), in ameliorating inhaled HD-induced lung

  6. Inhalant use and suicidality among incarcerated youth.

    PubMed

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Vaughn, Michael G; Jenson, Jeffrey M; Howard, Matthew O

    2007-09-06

    Studies consistently indicate that inhalant use is associated with increased mental health problems in adolescents, but few investigations have focused on the potential relationship of inhalant use to suicidality (ideation or attempt). This study examined how different levels of volatile solvent use relate to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among 723 incarcerated youth (mean age=15.5, S.D.=1.2; 87% male) in Missouri, and whether any associations between solvent use and suicidality differ by gender. In bivariate analyses, severity of inhalant use was positively associated with histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for both boys and girls. In multivariate analyses, inhalant use disorders remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt histories even after adjusting for general level of psychiatric symptoms, prior trauma, other substance use, gender, and additional potential confounders. Inhalant use without abuse or dependence also significantly related to suicidal ideation in multivariate analyses, but an interaction between gender and inhalant use signified this relationship was stronger for girls. Inhalant use disorders in incarcerated youth, as well as inhalant use without abuse or dependence (particularly in girls), may signal elevated suicide risk. Suicide risk assessments should, therefore, include questions about inhalation of volatile solvents such as paint, gasoline, and household cleaners.

  7. Inhalant use and suicidality among incarcerated youth

    PubMed Central

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2007-01-01

    Studies consistently indicate that inhalant use is associated with increased mental health problems in adolescents, but few investigations have focused on the potential relationship of inhalant use to suicidality (ideation or attempt). This study examined how different levels of volatile solvent use relate to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among 723 incarcerated youth (mean age = 15.5, S.D. = 1.2; 87% male) in Missouri, and whether any associations between solvent use and suicidality differ by gender. In bivariate analyses, severity of inhalant use was positively associated with histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for both boys and girls. In multivariate analyses, inhalant use disorders remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt histories even after adjusting for general level of psychiatric symptoms, prior trauma, other substance use, gender, and additional potential confounders. Inhalant use without abuse or dependence also significantly related to suicidal ideation in multivariate analyses, but an interaction between gender and inhalant use signified this relationship was stronger for girls. Inhalant use disorders in incarcerated youth, as well as inhalant use without abuse or dependence (particularly in girls), may signal elevated suicide risk. Suicide risk assessments should, therefore, include questions about inhalation of volatile solvents such as paint, gasoline, and household cleaners. PMID:17433572

  8. Inhaled hyperosmolar agents for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Anna; Sugumar, Karnam; Milan, Stephen J; Fowler, Stephen J; Crossingham, Iain

    2014-05-12

    Mucus retention in the lungs is a prominent feature of bronchiectasis. The stagnant mucus becomes chronically colonised with bacteria, which elicit a host neutrophilic response. This fails to eliminate the bacteria, and the large concentration of host-derived protease may contribute to the airway damage. The sensation of retained mucus is itself a cause of suffering, and the failure to maintain airway sterility probably contributes to the frequent respiratory infections experienced by many patients.Hypertonic saline inhalation is known to accelerate tracheobronchial clearance in many conditions, probably by inducing a liquid flux into the airway surface, which alters mucus rheology in a way favourable to mucociliary clearance. Inhaled dry powder mannitol has a similar effect. Such agents are an attractive approach to the problem of mucostasis, and deserve further clinical evaluation. To determine whether inhaled hyperosmolar substances are effective in the treatment of bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, trials registries, and the reference lists of included studies and review articles. Searches are current up to April 2014. Any randomised controlled trial (RCT) using hyperosmolar inhalation in patients with bronchiectasis not caused by cystic fibrosis. Two review authors assessed studies for suitability. We used standard methods recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria of the review (1021 participants).Five studies on 833 participants compared inhaled mannitol with placebo but poor outcome reporting meant we could pool very little data and most outcomes were reported by only one study. One 12-month trial on 461 participants provided results for exacerbations and demonstrated an advantage for mannitol in terms of time to first exacerbation (median time to exacerbation 165 versus 124 days for mannitol and placebo respectively (hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0

  9. Tobramycin Inhalation Powder (TIP): An Efficient Treatment Strategy for the Management of Chronic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lam, John; Vaughan, Steven; Parkins, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Repeated bouts of acute and chronic lung infections are responsible for progressive pulmonary function decline in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the archetypical CF pathogen, causes chronic infection in 70% of individuals, and is associated with an accelerated clinical decline. The management of P. aeruginosa in CF has been revolutionized with the development and widespread use of inhaled antibiotics. Aerosol delivery of antimicrobial compounds in CF enables extremely high concentrations of antibiotics to be reached directly at the site of infection potentially overcoming adaptive resistance and avoiding the potential for cumulative systemic toxicities. Tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP) represents the first dry powder inhaled (DPI) antibiotic available for use in CF. DPIs are notable for a markedly reduced time for administration, ease of portability, and increased compliance. TIP has been developed as a therapeutic alternative to tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), the standard of care for the past 20 years within CF. Relative to TIS 300 mg nebulized twice daily in on-and-off cycles of 28 days duration, TIP 112 mg twice daily via the T-326 inhaler administered on the same schedule is associated with marked time savings, increased patient satisfaction, and comparable clinical end points. TIP represents an innovative treatment strategy for those individuals with CF and holds the promise of increased patient compliance and thus the potential for improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24324354

  10. Availability and consumption status of CFC and non-CFC inhalers for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bunnag, Chaweewan; Vasanavathana, Sirinart; Punyaratabandhu, Por

    2006-01-01

    In response to the Montreal Protocol and the calls for global early-bird CFC phase-out before 2010, the demand and supply status of both CFC and non-CFC inhalers for prevention and treatment of asthma and COPD in Thailand were evaluated to determine how soon the country would be able to discontinue CFC MDIs with least impacts to both consumers and importers. Availability and supply of the inhalers were collected from registration and importation database of the Thai FDA. Demand and product cost were obtained from the local importers and from IMS, Thailand. Available inhaled products comprise of 39% CFC MDIs, 28% DPIs, 20% solutions for nebulizers and 13% HFA MDls, respectively. All 31 brands of portable hand-held inhalers, comprising 16 CFC MDIs, 6 HFA MDIs and 9 DPIs, are imported, only solutions for nebulization are locally manufactured. Salbutamol is mostly prescribed MDI, its consumption is over 50% of all. The transition to non-CFC alternatives (HFA MDIs and DPIs) has become evidence since 2000. After being informed about the demand and supply of the inhalers, in 2005, Thai FDA has announced its CFC phase-out policy and encouraged importation of HFA alternatives by facilitating the registration and approval process. When the most prescribing CFC MDls, salbutamol, is completely replaced with non-CFC form in 2006, Thailand would be able to reduce considerable amount of CFCs into our atmosphere.

  11. Evaluating Performance Portability of OpenACC

    SciTech Connect

    Sabne, Amit J; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in High Performance Computing arena. However, the increased complexity of the accelerator architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle the problem. While the abstraction endowed by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions on its portability. This paper evaluates the performance portability obtained by OpenACC on twelve OpenACC programs on NVIDIA CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel MIC architectures. We study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  12. Architecture for portable direct liquid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Weimin; Wilkinson, David P.; Shen, Jun; Wang, Haijiang; Zhang, Jiujun

    Direct fuel cells (DFCs) are receiving increased interest for portable power applications. Cell and stack architecture is a vital technical issue for portable DFCs. The architecture of a DFC not only has to meet particular application requirements such as a compact size and easy handling, but also has to ensure desired performance, reliability and fabrication costs. In this paper, the most recent advances related to portable DFCs and their architecture are reviewed. The current status of system architecture, stack/unit cell architecture, flow-field designs and MEA morphology strategies along with analysis are surveyed. In addition, promising methods of passive fuel delivery are also presented.

  13. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  14. Characterizing solar mirror materials using portable reflectometers

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    Currently available portable instrumentation for hemispherical and specular reflectance measurements of solar mirror materials is discussed. Particular attention is given to the wavelength dependence of the measurement spectrum, which in most cases does not approximate a solar spectral distribution, and to other limitations of each instrument. Because a portable instrument is not available that can determine the solar averaged specular reflectance from a single measurement, two procedures are recommended for obtaining a reasonable estimate for this quantity using the existing portable equipment. Finally, future developments in this area are briefly discussed.

  15. Prevalence, timing, and predictors of transitions from inhalant use to inhalant use disorders.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O; Maitra, Samopriyo; Vaughn, Michael G

    2009-03-01

    Few studies of the natural history of DSM-IV inhalant substance use disorders (I-SUDs) have been conducted. This investigation examined the prevalence, timing, and predictors of transitions from inhalant use to formal I-SUDs among inhalant users within a nationally representative sample. Participants were 664 U.S. residents participating in the 2000-2001 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who reported lifetime inhalant use. Respondents completed structured interviews assessing DSM-IV psychiatric/substance use disorders. Bivariate and Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for transitions from inhalant use to I-SUDs. Nearly one in five (19.4%) persons initiating inhalant use developed an I-SUD. Most I-SUD transitions were to inhalant abuse rather than inhalant dependence. Risk for development of I-SUDs was greatest in the first year following initiation of inhalant use and low thereafter. Multivariate proportional hazards models indicated that presence of a mood/anxiety disorder (HR=7.7, CI=3.1-18.9) or alcohol use disorder (HR=11.9, CI=5.46-26.00) antedating initiation of inhalant use predicted significantly elevated risk for I-SUDs, whereas being married conferred a lower risk for onset of I-SUDs. I-SUDs were relatively common among inhalant users, generally occurred in the year following initiation of inhalant use, and were associated with early-onset mood/anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Given the young average age at onset of inhalant use and the rapidity with which most I-SUDs developed, interventions directed to adolescents who have initiated inhalant use might be effective in reducing the proportion of inhalant users who develop I-SUDs.

  16. Adolescent inhalant use, abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O

    2009-07-01

    To compare adolescent inhalant users without DSM-IV inhalant use disorders (IUDs) to youth with IUDs (i.e. abuse or dependence) across demographic, psychosocial and clinical measures. Cross-sectional survey with structured psychiatric interviews. Facilities (n = 32) comprising the Missouri Division of Youth Services (MDYS) residential treatment system for juvenile offenders. Participants Current MDYS residents (n = 723); 97.7% of residents participated. Most youth were male (87%) and in mid-adolescence (mean = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.2, range = 11-20); more than one-third (38.6%, n = 279) reported life-time inhalant use. Antisocial behavior, temperament, trauma-exposure, suicidality, psychiatric symptoms and substance-related problems. Among life-time inhalant users, 46.9% met criteria for a life-time DSM-IV IUD (inhalant abuse = 18.6%, inhalant dependence = 28.3%). Bivariate analyses showed that, in comparison to non-users, inhalant users with and without an IUD were more likely to be Caucasian, live in rural or small towns, have higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, evidence more impulsive and fearless temperaments and report more past-year antisocial behavior and life-time suicidality, traumatic experiences and global substance use problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and adverse outcomes was observed, with comparatively high rates of dysfunction observed among inhalant-dependent youth. Multivariate regression analyses showed that inhalant users with and without an IUD had greater levels of suicidal ideation and substance use problems than non-users. Youth with IUDs have personal histories characterized by high levels of trauma, suicidality, psychiatric distress, antisocial behavior and substance-related problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and serious adverse outcomes was observed.

  17. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Arsine toxicity is induced by inhalation but not by percutaneous exposure in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kato, Koichi; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Shimoda, Yasuyo; Yamano, Yuko; Nagano, Kasuke; Hata, Akihisa; Endo, Yoko; Tachikawa, Mariko; Endo, Ginji

    2014-04-01

    Arsine (AsH₃) is used in many industries, but there is insufficient knowledge about the potential for percutaneous absorption. In order to examine possible percutaneous absorption of arsine, we conducted inhalation studies. Arsine was generated by reducing arsenic trioxide with NaBH₄. Male 5-week-old Hos:HR-1 hairless mice were subjected to a single percutaneous exposure or whole-body inhalation exposure of ca. 300 ppm arsine for 5 min. The examination was performed 0-6 hr after the exposure. Total arsenic in whole blood and hematocrit (Ht) values were measured. Generation of an arsenic-hemoglobin (As-Hb) adduct in the blood was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HPLC-ICP-MS). Ht values in the inhalation group significantly decreased after 3 hr, but those in the percutaneous exposure group did not. Total arsenic in the inhalation group was 9.0-14.2 mg/l, which was significantly higher than that in the percutaneous group. The As-Hb adduct was detected only in mice in the inhalation group. Histopathological changes were noted only in the inhalation group, with marked deposition of eosinophilic globules in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys, the Kupffer cells of the liver, and the red pulp in the spleen, but not in the lungs. Immunohistochemically, these eosinophilic globules were stained positively by hemoglobin (Hb) antibody. In the present study, arsine-induced hemolysis and deposition of Hb occurred in the kidney via the inhalation route but not via percutaneous exposure. The presence of As-Hb adduct may be a useful indicator for confirming arsine poisoning.

  19. Induction synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Ken; Kishiro, Junichi

    2000-08-01

    A novel proton synchrotron employing induction cells instead of radio frequency cavities is proposed. The major feature of the barrier bucket acceleration, where acceleration and longitudinal focusing are independently achieved is theoretically discussed with the help of multi-particle simulations. It is proved that barrier bucket acceleration allows ultimate use of longitudinal phase-space and is quite effective to substantially increase the beam intensity in synchrotrons. Engineering aspects of key devices to realize the novel synchrotron, a ferri/ferro-magnetic material loaded induction cell and a modulator being rapidly switched in synchronization with beam acceleration are described in detail. The idea is applied to an existing machine (the KEK 12 GeV-PS) and high-intensity proton rings such as JHF, ESS, and SNS and their predicted improvement in machine performance is given with numerical values for each case.

  20. Induction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.H.

    1980-10-14

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizes, a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  1. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  2. Inhalant Abuse: A Call for Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary B.

    1998-01-01

    The percentage of youth inhaling volatile substances is on the rise in the United States. Professional literature has been critical of the helping professions for not doing enough to address this problem adequately. This article attempts to heighten the awareness of the mental health profession by defining inhalant abuse, its consequences, and…

  3. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  4. Investigation of Inhalation Anthrax Case, United States

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States. PMID:24447835

  5. Inhalant initiation and the relationship of inhalant use to the use of other substances.

    PubMed

    Shamblen, Stephen R; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study examined the sequencing of substances relative to inhalants and the post-initiation correlates of inhalant use between youth and young adulthood in nationally representative Add Health data. Analyses examined the relationship of substance of initiation to use of other substances, as well as an examination of the relationship between substance use and consequences. The analyses suggest that (a) those initiating their substance use careers with inhalants often go on to use hard drugs, (b) inhalant use likely occurs after alcohol and marijuana use, and (c) inhalant use during adolescence was associated with health and criminal consequences in both adolescence and young adulthood.

  6. Portable basketball rim testing device

    DOEpatents

    Abbott, W. Bruce; Davis, Karl C.

    1993-01-01

    A portable basketball rim rebound testing device 10 is illustrated in two preferred embodiments for testing the rebound or energy absorption characteristics of a basketball rim 12 and its accompanying support to determine likely rebound or energy absorption charcteristics of the system. The apparatus 10 includes a depending frame 28 having a C-clamp 36 for releasably rigidly connecting the frame to the basketball rim 12. A glide weight 60 is mounted on a guide rod 52 permitting the weight 60 to be dropped against a calibrated spring 56 held on an abutment surface on the rod to generate for deflecting the basketball rim and then rebounding the weight upwardly. A photosensor 66 is mounted on the depending frame 28 to sense passage of reflective surfaces 75 on the weight to thereby obtain sufficient data to enable a processing means 26 to calculate the rebound velocity and relate it to an energy absorption percentage rate of the rim system 12. A readout is provided to display the energy absorption percentage.

  7. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  8. Development of portable fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N.

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  9. High intensity portable fluorescent light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, F. B.

    1972-01-01

    Eight high intensity portable fluorescent lights were produced. Three prototype lights were also produced, two of which were subsequently updated to the physical and operational configuration of the qualification and flight units. Positioning of lamp apertures and reflectors in these lights is such that the light is concentrated and intensified in a specific pattern rather than widely diffused. Indium amalgam control of mercury vapor pressure in the lamp gives high output at lamp ambient temperatures up to 105 C. A small amount of amalgam applied to each electrode stem helps to obtain fast warm-up. Shrinking a Teflon sleeve on the tube and potting metal caps on each end of the lamp minimizes dispersion of mercury vapor and glass particles in the event of accidental lamp breakage. Operation at 20 kHz allows the lamps to consume more power than at low frequency, thus increasing their light output and raising their efficiency. When used to expose color photographic film, light from the lamps produces results approximately equal to sunlight.

  10. Portable Microleak-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Sikora, Joseph G.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a portable microleak-detection system that has been built especially for use in testing hydrogen tanks made of polymer-matrix composite materials. (As used here, microleak signifies a leak that is too small to be detectable by the simple soap-bubble technique.) The system can also be used to test for microleaks in tanks that are made of other materials and that contain gases other than hydrogen. Results of calibration tests have shown that measurement errors are less than 10 percent for leak rates ranging from 0.3 to 200 cm3/min. Like some other microleak-detection systems, this system includes a vacuum pump and associated plumbing for sampling the leaking gas, and a mass spectrometer for analyzing the molecular constituents of the gas. The system includes a flexible vacuum chamber that can be attached to the outer surface of a tank or other object of interest that is to be tested for leakage (hereafter denoted, simply, the test object). The gas used in a test can be the gas or vapor (e.g., hydrogen in the original application) to be contained by the test object. Alternatively, following common practice in leak testing, helium can be used as a test gas. In either case, the mass spectrometer can be used to verify that the gas measured by the system is the test gas rather than a different gas and, hence, that the leak is indeed from the test object.

  11. Manual resuscitators and portable ventilators.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G D; Skowronski, G A

    1986-08-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in Australia of manually operated, self-inflating bag resuscitators, including the Laerdal, Air Viva and Ambu; manually operated bags dependent upon an oxygen supply, including Mapleson B, C, E and F, the CIG Medishield Oxy-Saver and modified Oxy-Viva Resuscitator 3, and the Komesaroff Oxy-Resuscitator RD85; oxygen-powered resuscitators, including the Oxy-Viva Resuscitator 3 with Demand and RM2 Valves, and the Oxylife FM85; and portable ventilators, including the Drager Oxylog, and Ohmeda Logic 07. Specific comment is made to the effect that the design of the resuscitator is often less important than the knowledge and ability of the operator in using the equipment to achieve adequate lung ventilation. The simplest, cheapest, most useful resuscitators are the manually operated self-inflating bag assemblies. With special training, use of more complex equipment can be justified in some circumstances. The more complex the equipment, the greater the risk of inappropriate use, and the greater the risk of equipment malfunction unless a regular maintenance program is followed.

  12. Scalable, extensible, and portable numerical libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Smith, B.

    1995-01-01

    Designing a scalable and portable numerical library requires consideration of many factors, including choice of parallel communication technology, data structures, and user interfaces. The PETSc library (Portable Extensible Tools for Scientific computing) makes use of modern software technology to provide a flexible and portable implementation. This talk will discuss the use of a meta-communication layer (allowing the user to choose different transport layers such as MPI, p4, pvm, or vendor-specific libraries) for portability, an aggressive data-structure-neutral implementation that minimizes dependence on particular data structures (even vectors), permitting the library to adapt to the user rather than the other way around, and the separation of implementation language from user-interface language. Examples are presented.

  13. 77 FR 31894 - Portable Gauge Licenses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... materials, protection of sensitive information, a revised appendix on training for portable gauge users, and changes in regulatory policies and practices. This document is intended for use by applicants,...

  14. The Portable War Room Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govers, Francis X., III; Fry, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The Portable War Room is an internal TASC project to research and develop a visualization and simulation environment to provide for decision makers the power to review the past, understand the present, and peer into the future.

  15. Portable breathing apparatus for coal mines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandolah, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The state of the art in portable oxygen breathing equipment is reported. Considered are self-containing as well as chemically generating oxygen sources and their effectiveness and limitations in mine rescue operations.

  16. Portable, Folding Tray Retainer and Stand (Multipurpose).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention relates generally to the field of service tray supports and, in particular, to an improved combined portable tray support and stand especially adaptable for use with a litter-borne patient.

  17. Evaluation of a portable air purifier.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J C; Lilly, H A; Wilkins, M D

    1981-04-01

    A portable air purifier significantly reduced mal odour in a small room. If the atmosphere was deliberately contaminated with Serratia marcescens the unit rapidly removed this organism. However, if incorrectly sited, the purifier could disperse organisms into the atmosphere.

  18. The Portable War Room Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govers, Francis X., III; Fry, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The Portable War Room is an internal TASC project to research and develop a visualization and simulation environment to provide for decision makers the power to review the past, understand the present, and peer into the future.

  19. 46 CFR 182.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable fuel systems. 182.458 Section 182.458 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where...

  20. 46 CFR 182.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable fuel systems. 182.458 Section 182.458 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where...

  1. 46 CFR 182.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable fuel systems. 182.458 Section 182.458 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where...

  2. 46 CFR 182.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel... for portable dewatering pumps or outboard motor installations. (b) The design, construction, and stowage of portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories must meet the requirements of ABYC...

  3. 46 CFR 182.458 - Portable fuel systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable fuel systems. 182.458 Section 182.458 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.458 Portable fuel systems. (a) Portable fuel systems, including portable tanks and related fuel lines and accessories, are prohibited except where...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board fixed...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5655 - Portable liquid oxygen unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Portable liquid oxygen unit. 868.5655 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5655 Portable liquid oxygen unit. (a) Identification. A portable liquid oxygen unit is a portable, thermally insulated container of liquid oxygen...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5655 - Portable liquid oxygen unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Portable liquid oxygen unit. 868.5655 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5655 Portable liquid oxygen unit. (a) Identification. A portable liquid oxygen unit is a portable, thermally insulated container of liquid oxygen...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5655 - Portable liquid oxygen unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Portable liquid oxygen unit. 868.5655 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5655 Portable liquid oxygen unit. (a) Identification. A portable liquid oxygen unit is a portable, thermally insulated container of liquid oxygen...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5655 - Portable liquid oxygen unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Portable liquid oxygen unit. 868.5655 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5655 Portable liquid oxygen unit. (a) Identification. A portable liquid oxygen unit is a portable, thermally insulated container of liquid oxygen...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5655 - Portable liquid oxygen unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Portable liquid oxygen unit. 868.5655 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5655 Portable liquid oxygen unit. (a) Identification. A portable liquid oxygen unit is a portable, thermally insulated container of liquid oxygen...

  14. 46 CFR 195.11-30 - Portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks. 195.11-30 Section 195.11-30 Shipping... AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Portable Vans and Tanks § 195.11-30 Portable tanks. (a) All portable tanks, whether hazardous or nonhazardous commodities, shall be loaded and stowed in...

  15. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  17. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  18. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  19. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  20. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  4. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  5. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  6. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters...

  7. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  8. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS...

  12. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  13. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE —...

  15. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE...

  16. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters at...

  17. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP...

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND...

  19. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST...

  20. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  1. Experimental inhalation injury in the goat.

    PubMed

    Walker, H L; McLeod, C G; McManus, W F

    1981-11-01

    Inhalation injuries are usually produced by inhalation of gaseous or particulate products of incomplete combustion and are rarely due to heat per se unless steam is inhaled. The clinical and anatomic characteristics of an appropriate animal model should mimic the disease encountered clinically. A model of inhalation injury has been produced in anesthetized goats through the use of a modified bee smoker. The smoke is delivered at a low temperature and contains byproducts of incomplete combustion. This reproducible injury produces necrotic tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis with pseudomembrane and cast formation in association with mild multifocal atelectasis and bronchopneumonia. These lesions spontaneously resolve within 3 weeks without supportive therapy. The upper trachea, protected from smoke injury by the inflated cuff of the endotracheal tube, showed no evidence of injury. This nonlethal injury is proposed as an appropriate model for evaluation of the pathophysiology and treatment of inhalation injury.

  2. Prelude: A System for Portable Parallel Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    even when they do not migrate. In PRELUDE , we follow the philosophy used in Emerald [JHB88]: the ability to migrate should have little or no effect on...AD-A243 114I llltll LII 1111 l 1 1 llIIl MITMLCS/TR-519 PRELUDE : A SYSTEM FOR PORTABLE PARALLEL SOFTWARE William Weihl, Eric Brewer, Adrian Colbrnok...FUNDING NUMBERS PRELUDE : A System for Portable Parallel Software 6. AUTHOR(S) William Weihl, Eric Brewer, Adrian Colbrook, Chrysanthos Dellarocas, Wilson

  3. Forensic Analysis of the Sony Playstation Portable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Scott; Rodriguez, Carlos; Marberry, Chris; Craiger, Philip

    The Sony PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a popular portable gaming device with features such as wireless Internet access and image, music and movie playback. As with most systems built around a processor and storage, the PSP can be used for purposes other than it was originally intended - legal as well as illegal. This paper discusses the features of the PSP browser and suggests best practices for extracting digital evidence.

  4. Portable apparatus for separating sample and detecting target analytes

    DOEpatents

    Renzi, Ronald F.; Wally, Karl; Crocker, Robert W.; Stamps, James F.; Griffiths; Stewart K. ,; Fruetel, Julia A.; Horn, Brent A.; Shokair, Isaac R.; Yee, Daniel D.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Wiedenman, Boyd J.; West, Jason A. A.; Ferko, Scott M.

    2008-11-18

    Portable devices and methods for determining the presence of a target analyte using a portable device are provided. The portable device is preferably hand-held. A sample is injected to the portable device. A microfluidic separation is performed within the portable device and at least one separated component detected by a detection module within the portable device, in embodiments of the invention. A target analyte is identified, based on the separated component, and the presence of the target analyte is indicated on an output interface of the portable device, in accordance with embodiments of the invention.

  5. Effects of inhaled alpha-emitting actinides on mouse alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A; Talbot, R J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of inhaled alpha-emitting actinides on the alveolar macrophage (AM) population of the rodent lung are reviewed and, in particular, of the effects of 239PuO2 on murine AM. The effects discussed include changes the AM pool size, macrophage diameter, mobility, phagocytic competence, and enzyme content. Finally, similarities in the dose-response relationships for the induction of nuclear aberrations by alpha emitters and in the induction of lung tumors by the same materials are noted. PMID:1327735

  6. Pharmacokinetics of fluticasone propionate multidose, inhalation-driven, novel, dry powder inhaler versus a prevailing dry powder inhaler and a metered-dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Michael; Song, Sharon; Steinfeld, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A novel inhalation-driven multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) that eliminates the need for the patient to coordinate device actuation with inhalation has been developed for delivery of inhaled asthma medications. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of single-dose fluticasone propionate (Fp) MDPI compared with single doses of Fp dry powder inhaler (DPI) and a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in healthy subjects. This was a single-center, open-label, randomized, three-period crossover, single-dose pilot study in healthy adults ages 18 to 45 years. Eligible subjects (N = 18) were randomized to one of six treatment sequences that contained three treatment arms: Fp MDPI 400 μg/inhalation × two inhalations (800 μg total dose); Fp DPI 250 μg/inhalation × four (1000 μg total dose); and Fp MDI 220 μg/inhalation × four (880 μg total dose). Pharmacokinetics (area under concentration-versus-time curve [AUC], maximum plasma concentration [Cmax], time to Cmax [tmax], and elimination half-life [t½]), safety, and tolerability were assessed for each treatment. Plasma Fp concentration-versus-time curves were comparable across treatments. Geometric mean AUC0-t and Cmax for Fp MDPI 800 μg were 19% and 18% higher, respectively, compared with Fp DPI 1000 μg, and 47% and 82% higher, respectively, compared with Fp MDI 880 μg. Median tmax (60.0-60.6 minutes) and median t1/2 (9.1-9.8 hours) were comparable across the three treatments. Single-dose Fp was well tolerated, with no new safety issues noted. Single-dose administration of Fp MDPI 800 μg produced systemic exposure comparable with those for Fp DPI 1000 μg and Fp MDI 880 μg.

  7. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patients with inhalation injury. Several factors explain slower progress for improvement in management of patients with inhalation injury. Inhalation injury is a more complex clinical problem. Burned cutaneous tissue may be excised and replaced with skin grafts. Injured pulmonary tissue must be protected from secondary injury due to resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and infection while host repair mechanisms receive appropriate support. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result from an inflammatory response involving mediators whose number and role remain incompletely understood despite improved tools for processing of clinical material. Improvements in mortality from inhalation injury are mostly due to widespread improvements in critical care rather than focused interventions for smoke inhalation. Morbidity associated with inhalation injury is produced by heat exposure and inhaled toxins. Management of toxin exposure in smoke inhalation remains controversial, particularly as related to carbon monoxide and cyanide. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been evaluated in multiple trials to manage neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide exposure. Unfortunately, data to date do not support application of hyperbaric oxygen in this population outside the context of clinical trials. Cyanide is another toxin produced by combustion of natural or synthetic materials. A number of antidote strategies have been evaluated to address tissue hypoxia associated with cyanide exposure. Data

  8. Particle inhalability at low wind speeds.

    PubMed

    Brown, James S

    2005-12-15

    Accurate quantification of the dose delivered by aerosol exposures is essential for estimating the risk of potential adverse health effects. The fraction of airborne particles that can enter the nose or mouth during inhalation is referred to as the inspirable particulate mass fraction. This inhalable fraction is equivalent to delivered dose for particles greater than approximately 25 microm (aerodynamic particle diameter, d(ae)), which deposit completely and almost exclusively in the extrathoracic airways. Particle inhalability at high wind speeds (1-9 m/s) has been well characterized. However, there is a paucity of data describing the inhalability of particles at low wind speeds (< or =0.3 m/s), which are typical of indoor environments. High-wind-speed criteria poorly describe inhalability at low wind speeds. Based on the aspiration efficiencies of blunt and sharp-edged inlets, a function was developed for oral inhalability, P(I(O)), of particles at low wind speeds. This function predicts a slow decline in P(I(O)) from 0.95 at d(ae)= 8 microm, to 0.5 at d(ae) = 74 microm, and 0.1 at d(ae)= 175 microm. Data available from the literature for inhalability at relatively low wind speeds during oral breathing are well described by this logistic function (r(2)= 0.69).

  9. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  10. Inhaled Corticosteroids and Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Sellahewa, Luckni; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstones in the management of bronchial asthma and some cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although ICS are claimed to have low side effect profiles, at high doses they can cause systemic adverse effects including bone diseases such as osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Corticosteroids have detrimental effects on function and survival of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and with the prolongation of osteoclast survival, induce metabolic bone disease. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) can be associated with major complications such as vertebral and neck of femur fractures. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published criteria in 2010 for the management of GIO. ACR recommends bisphosphonates along with calcium and vitamin D supplements as the first-line agents for GIO management. ACR recommendations can be applied to manage patients on ICS with a high risk of developing metabolic bone disease. This review outlines the mechanisms and management of ICS-induced bone disease. PMID:25674178

  11. Inhalation challenge in humidifier fever.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J H; Cockcroft, A

    1981-05-01

    When exposed to an amount of contaminated humidifier water roughly equivalent to that inhaled over an 8-hour period at their work place, four out of six subjects developed symptoms of humidifier fever. Two non-exposed subjects failed to react to the same challenge. Characteristic lung function, temperature and leucocyte changes were recorded; however, a fall in gas transfer previously reported was not seen. That the reaction was immunologically mediated and not due to endotoxin activity was shown by a negative pyrogen response in rabbits inoculated intravenously with concentrated humidifier water. The nature of the immune response has not as yet been evaluated but it does not reside with the ability of humidifier fever antigens to activate complement. Skin testing produced an immediate weal and flare in the four subjects with precipitins and may reflect the presence of short-term anaphylactic IgG antibody.

  12. Clearance of inhaled ceramic fibers from rat lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, H; Tanaka, I; Higashi, T; Kido, M

    1994-01-01

    Deposition, clearance, retention, and durability of inhaled particles in lung are important factors for induction of pulmonary fibrosis or lung cancer. To study the deposition and clearance of aluminium silicate ceramic fibers from the lung, male Wistar rats were exposed to ceramic fibers, with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 3.7 microns, for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks. The average exposure concentration was 27.2 mg/m3 (SD 9.0). The rats were killed at 1 day, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the end of exposure, and the fiber numbers and dimensions were measured with a scanning electron microscope. No significant difference in length of residual ceramic fibers in the lungs was found among the groups. The geometric mean diameter and number of ceramic fibers, however, decreased according to the clearance period. These findings suggest that the fibers were dissolved at their surface. PMID:7882924

  13. A historical perspective: Are inhaled corticoids sufficient to control asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Renaud; Demarche, Sophie; Schleich, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticoids (ICS) made a dramatic breakthrough in the management of asthma in the late eighties resulting in a sharp reduction in morbidity and mortality in the following decades. Soon after, the association between ICS and long acting β2 agonists (LABA) soon became the gold standard of maintenance asthma treatment. With the advent of sputum induction it has become clear that asthma could not be considered as a unique entity but rather a display of several inflammatory phenotypes. Eosinophilic phenotype shows good response to ICS while non-eosinophilic, and in particular the neutrophilic phenotype, seems to be more resistant. Severe asthmatics show insufficient asthma control despite ICS/LABA. Those who are allergic and eosinophilic may benefit from add-on treatment with anti-IgE or anti-IL-5. Severe neutrophilic asthma could benefit from maintenance treatment with macrolides while thermoplasty offers some promise to those in whom airway smooth muscle hypertrophy contributes to disease instability. PMID:27847898

  14. Inhalant use and disorders among adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L

    2006-10-15

    To examine the patterns of adult inhalant use and correlates of inhalant use disorder. We drew study data from the 2002 and 2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We used logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated both with inhalant use and inhalant use disorder. One in 10 of all adults had used an inhalant at least once in their lives, and 0.5% used one in the past year. Among all past year inhalant users, 8% met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder (i.e., 6.6% for abuse and 1.1% for dependence) within that period. We found an increased prevalence of past year inhalant use among young adults aged 18-25 years, Asians, past year alcohol abusers and dependents, lifetime drug users, white women, and men reporting symptoms of serious mental illness. Inhalant-using adults who met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder were predominantly adults aged 35-49 years and were less educated, had received recent professional treatment for emotional or psychological problems, used inhalants weekly, and had a coexisting alcohol use disorder. The patterns and consequences of adult inhalant use differ from those of adolescents. Compared with adolescent inhalant users, adult users tend not to initiate inhalant use until adulthood, use inhalants less frequently, use fewer inhalants, and are less likely to engage in criminal activities.

  15. Inhalant Use and Disorders among Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of adult inhalant use and correlates of inhalant use disorder. Method We drew study data from the 2002 and 2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We used logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated both with inhalant use and inhalant use disorder. Results One in ten of all adults had used an inhalant at least once in their lives, and 0.5% used one in the past year. Among all past year inhalant users, 8% met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder (i.e., 6.6% for abuse and 1.1% for dependence) within that period. We found an increased prevalence of past year inhalant use among young adults aged 18–25, Asians, past year alcohol abusers and dependents, lifetime drug users, white women, and men reporting symptoms of serious mental illness. Inhalant-using adults who met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder were predominantly adults aged 35–49 and were less educated, had received recent professional treatment for emotional or psychological problems, used inhalants weekly, and had a coexisting alcohol use disorder. Conclusion The patterns and consequences of adult inhalant use differ from those of adolescents. Compared with adolescent inhalant users, adult users tend not to initiate inhalant use until adulthood, use inhalants less frequently, use fewer inhalants, and are less likely to engage in criminal activities. PMID:16581202

  16. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  17. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  18. Animal model of sensitization by inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Barboriak, J J; Knoblock, H W; Hensley, G T; Gombas, O F; Fink, J N

    1976-01-01

    Groups of rats exposed to daily inhalation challenge with aerosolized pigeon serum developed precipitating antibody within 2 weeks and definitive granulomatous inflammatory changes in the lung after 7 weeks of exposure. The dissociation of the two responses to an inhalation challenge indicate that the rat model may serve for screening of the various inhalant antigens for their sensitizing potential, and for investigation of the contributory role of some of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:939055

  19. Quantitative determinations using portable Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Navin, Chelliah V; Tondepu, Chaitanya; Toth, Roxana; Lawson, Latevi S; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2017-03-20

    A portable Raman spectrometer was used to develop chemometric models to determine percent (%) drug release and potency for 500mg ciprofloxacin HCl tablets. Parallel dissolution and chromatographic experiments were conducted alongside Raman experiments to assess and compare the performance and capabilities of portable Raman instruments in determining critical drug attributes. All batches tested passed the 30min dissolution specification and the Raman model for drug release was able to essentially reproduce the dissolution profiles obtained by ultraviolet spectroscopy at 276nm for all five batches of the 500mg ciprofloxacin tablets. The five batches of 500mg ciprofloxacin tablets also passed the potency (assay) specification and the % label claim for the entire set of tablets run were nearly identical, 99.4±5.1 for the portable Raman method and 99.2±1.2 for the chromatographic method. The results indicate that portable Raman spectrometers can be used to perform quantitative analysis of critical product attributes of finished drug products. The findings of this study indicate that portable Raman may have applications in the areas of process analytical technology and rapid pharmaceutical surveillance. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. SAW atomization application on inhaled pulmonary drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Aisha; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2008-12-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery transports the drug formulations directly to the respiratory tract in the form of inhaled particles or droplets. Because of the direct target treatment, it has significant advantages in the treatment of respiratory diseases, for example asthma. However, it is difficult to produce monodispersed particles/droplets in the 1-10 micron range, which is necessary for deposition in the targeted lung area or lower respiratory airways, in a controllable fashion. We demonstrate the use of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) as an efficient method for the generation of monodispersed micron dimension aerosols for the treatment of asthma. SAWs are ten nanometer order amplitude electroacoustic waves generated by applying an oscillating electric field to an interdigital transducer patterned on a piezoelectric substrate. The acoustic energy in the waves induces atomization of the working fluid, which contains a model drug, albuterol. Laser diffraction techniques employed to characterize the aerosols revealed mean diameter of the aerosol was around 3-4 μm. Parallel experiments employing a one-stage (glass) twin impinger as a lung model demonstrated a nearly 80% of atomized drug aerosol was deposited in the lung. The aerosol size distribution is relatively independent of the SAW frequency, which is consistent with our predictive scaling theory which accounts for the dominant balance between viscous and capillary stresses. Moreover, only 1-3 W powers consumption of SAW atomization suggests that the SAW atomizer can be miniaturized into dimensions commensurate with portable consumer devices.

  1. Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla; Westberg, Håkan

    2010-10-01

    Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in μg/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

  2. Myocardial damage after inhalation of chloramines.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Castro, Alejandro; Holanda, Maria Soledad; Canas, Borja S; Morlote, Jesús G; Minambres, Eduardo; Prieto Solis, José A

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this case report was to document a rare case of myocardial damage, in the context of an accidental inhalation of chloramines, demonstrated by electrocardiogram and myocardium-specific enzymes.

  3. ARDS following inhalation of hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Bansal, D P; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Radhika, P; Sharma, Manish

    2011-02-01

    The clinical spectrum of Inhalation injury can range from mild cough to a devastating ARDS. We herewith present a patient who is a goldsmith by occupation and his work consists of dissolving gold in Hydrochloric acid. He had accidentally inhaled fumes of Hydrochloric acid and presented with cough and breathlessness, later on required mechanical ventilation for ARDS and improved. This highlights the importance of not to neglect mild symptoms like cough and dyspnea in such a scenario which may have some hidden catastrophe.

  4. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Kimbell, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This article aims to (i) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (ii) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1-100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1-2 nm particles with ∼1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans in the 1--7 nm size range due to the larger inhalation rate in humans. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

  5. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  6. Three cases of sudden death due to butane or propane gas inhalation: analysis of tissues for gas components.

    PubMed

    Sugie, Hideaki; Sasaki, Chizuko; Hashimoto, Chikako; Takeshita, Hiroshi; Nagai, Tomonori; Nakamura, Shigeki; Furukawa, Masataka; Nishikawa, Takashi; Kurihara, Katsuyoshi

    2004-07-16

    We report three cases of sudden death due to inhalation of portable cooking stove fuel (case 1), cigarette lighter fuel (case 2), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (case 3). Specimens of blood, urine, stomach contents, brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and fat were collected and analyzed for propylene, propane, isobutane, and n-butane by headspace gas chromatography. n-Butane was the major substance among the volatiles found in the tissues of cases 1 and 2, and propane was the major substance in case 3. A combination of the autopsy findings and the gas analysis results revealed that the cause of death was ventricular fibrillation induced by hard muscle exercise after gas inhalation in cases 1 and 2, and that the cause of death in case 3 might be hypoxia. It is possible that the victim in case 3 was under anesthetic toxicity of accumulated isobutane which is a minor component of liquefied petroleum gas.

  7. Current update on portable dental equipment.

    PubMed

    Charlton, David G; Ehrlich, A D; Miniotis, Nicholas J

    2007-02-01

    The dental care needs of the elderly are increasing as their population grows. For some of the elderly (eg, the nonambulatory, homebound, institutionalized), accessing dental care is a problem because they are unable to visit a traditional dental clinic. In the past, dental care has been taken to the homebound or institutionalized elderly by dentists using portable dental equipment. However, the perception that such equipment is difficult or impossible to obtain has limited the availability of on-site care. The purpose of this article is to describe various types of portable dental equipment and their features so that dentists interested in providing care to this group of patients are aware of them.

  8. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27147888

  9. Exposure to inhaled isobutyl nitrite reduces T cell-dependent responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, L.S.F.; Barnett, J.B. )

    1991-03-11

    Isobutyl nitrite is a drug of abuse popular among male homosexuals and among adolescents. In order to approximate the nitrite exposures of inhalant abusers, mice were treated with 900 ppm isobutyl nitrite in an inhalation chamber for 45 min per day for 14 days. At 72 hr after the last exposure, mice were assayed for immune competence. Under these conditions, mice gained only half the weight of mice exposed to air. The spleens of nitrite exposed mice weighed 15% less and had 24% fewer cells per spleen than controls. Adjusted for equal cell numbers, T cell mitogenic and allogeneic proliferative responses were significantly reduce by 33% and 47%, respectively. Unstimulated spleen cells had elevated levels of IL-2 transcription following exposure to isobutyl nitrite suggesting that nitrite inhalation caused a nonspecific induction of T cells. In contrast, B cell proliferative responses to LPS were unaltered. Exposure to the nitrite reduced the frequency of T-dependent antibody plaque-forming cells (PFC) by 63% and the total number of reduced by 60% after as few as five daily exposures to isobutyl nitrite. Therefore, the data suggest that habitual inhalation of isobutyl nitrite impairs immune competence and that toxicity appears to be directed toward T cell functions.

  10. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David A.; Man, Jonathan C.; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P.; Sommerer, K.; Stone, Howard A.; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These “exhaled bioaerosols” may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these “high-producer” individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 ± 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  11. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension.

  12. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  13. A review of rapid and field-portable analytical techniques for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Logue, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Another relatively common, but consistently overlooked, mode of cyanide exposure is inhalation of fire smoke. Both civilians and fire rescue personnel risk exposure during the unfortunate event of a structure fire. Additionally, fire rescue personnel risk long-term effects of habitual exposure throughout their careers in fire rescue. The relatively rapid onset of cyanide toxicity and the fact that cyanide exposure symptoms mimic other medical conditions necessitate a rapid, sensitive, portable, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure. This review focuses on the important issues concerning accurate point-of-care diagnosis of cyanide exposure and cyanide detection technologies that may allow a commercial cyanide exposure diagnostic to become a reality.

  14. Oral and inhaled corticosteroids: Differences in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Andrew Tan, Ai May

    2012-05-01

    There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of only 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (> 20 × 10{sup −6} cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (> 5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs. -- Highlights: ► Inhaled corticosteroids are only weak substrates for P-gp, including budesonide. ► Inhaled corticosteroid potent P-gp inducers especially

  15. [Inhalation therapy by dose-inhalers: analysis of patients performance and possibilities for improvement].

    PubMed

    Petro, W; Schuppenies, A

    2005-05-01

    Inhalation therapy in chronic obstructive airways disease requires an efficient inhalation technique. This study analyses step by step the mistakes made in the usage of different MDIs, relates these to patient information prior to the testing and examines several teaching procedures for improvement of knowledge and performance of the inhalation technique. 125 patients suffering from COPD were assigned to six different groups according to their background knowledge in the inhalation technique. The performance was assessed in standardized single steps and as overall performance. Furthermore the efficacy of an interactive pc-based-training program was evaluated. The worst performance was seen in patients who only used the suppliers medication leaflet as a guide. Patients trained in outpatient clinics as well as patients trained in small groups during an inpatient stay showed a better performance. A high improvement rate was seen in prior MDI naive patients after they had undergone the interactive pc-based training program. Most problems were detected in the application step "exhalation before inhalation" and in the actuation-inhalation step. Besides the classical and the pc-based training the use of MDI phantoms showed very good results. The practical conclusion of this study is that the ability of patients to use inhalation pharmacotherapy efficiently needs improvement. Training programs of different intensity lead to a different outcome in performance and knowledge depending on prior knowledge. Inhalation pharmacotherapy without adequate training is insufficient.

  16. Automatic identification and accurate temporal detection of inhalations in asthma inhaler recordings.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; Le Menn, Marine; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; MacHale, Elaine; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is chronic airways disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing. Adherence to medication regimes is a common failing for asthmatic patients and there exists a requirement to monitor such patients' adherence. The detection of inhalations from recordings of inhaler use can provide empirical evidence about patients' adherence to their asthma medication regime. Manually listening to recordings of inhaler use is a tedious and time consuming process and thus an algorithm which can automatically and accurately carry out this task would be of great value. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler to record the acoustic signals of patients taking their prescribed medication. An algorithm was developed to automatically detect and accurately demarcate inhalations from the acoustic signals. This algorithm was tested on a dataset of 255 separate recordings of inhaler use in real world environments. The dataset was obtained from 12 asthma outpatients who attended a respiratory clinic over a three month period. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset achieved sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 94% and an accuracy of 89% in detecting inhalations compared to manual inhalation detection.

  17. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  18. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  19. Checklists for the Assessment of Correct Inhalation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Knipel, V; Schwarz, S; Magnet, F S; Storre, J H; Criée, C P; Windisch, W

    2017-02-01

    Introduction For the long-term treatment of obstructive lung diseases inhalation therapy with drugs being delivered directly to the lungs as an aerosol has become the method of choice. However, patient-related mistakes in inhalation techniques are frequent and recognized to be associated with reduced disease control. Since the assessment of patient-mistakes in inhalation has yet not been standardized, the present study was aimed at developing checklists for the assessment of correct inhalation. Methods Checklists were developed in German by an expert panel of pneumologists and professionally translated into English following back-translation procedures. The checklists comparably assessed three major steps of inhalation: 1) inhalation preparation, 2) inhalation routine, and 3) closure of inhalation. Results Checklists for eight frequently used inhalers were developed: Aerolizer, Breezhaler, Diskus (Accuhaler), metered-dose inhaler, Handihaler, Novolizer, Respimat, Turbohaler. Each checklist consists of ten items: three for inhalation preparation, six for inhalation routine, and one for closure of inhalation. Discussion Standardized checklists for frequently used inhalers are available in German and English. These checklists can be used for clinical routines or for clinical trials. All checklists can be downloaded free of charge for non-profit application from the homepage of the German Airway League (Deutsche Atemwegsliga e. V.): www.atemwegsliga.de.

  20. Portable Data Logger for Photovoltaic Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, S. W.

    1983-01-01

    Instrument measures rapidly changing knee of V-I curve with extra care. Portable data logger runs on own batteries. Includes microcomputer, which controls voltage-, current-measurement increment, and solid state memory, which stores data until transferred to EPROM module. Data logger is light, compact and easily caried to remote field locations.

  1. A microcontroller-based portable electrocardiograph recorder.

    PubMed

    Segura-Juárez, José J; Cuesta-Frau, David; Samblas-Pena, Luis; Aboy, Mateo

    2004-09-01

    We describe a low cost portable Holter design that can be implemented with off-the-shelf components. The recorder is battery powered and includes a graphical display and keyboard. The recorder is capable of acquiring up to 48 hours of continuous electrocardiogram data at a sample rate of up to 250 Hz.

  2. Portable tool cleans pipes and tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, C. A.; Headley, R.; Jones, D. D.

    1965-01-01

    Portable tool cleans and polishes the external surfaces of tubes and pipes without contaminating the interior areas with loose particles. The tool is driven by an electric drill and is connected to a vacuum source that removes debris resulting from the cleaning and polishing action.

  3. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... otherwise specified. (b) Standards for existing manufactured portable ladders. (1) Rungs of manufactured... without deformation. (2) Rungs shall be evenly spaced from 9 to 161/2 inches (22.9 to 41.9 cm), center to center. (3) Rungs shall be continuous members between rails. Each rung of a double-rung ladder (two...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... otherwise specified. (b) Standards for existing manufactured portable ladders. (1) Rungs of manufactured... without deformation. (2) Rungs shall be evenly spaced from 9 to 161/2 inches (22.9 to 41.9 cm), center to center. (3) Rungs shall be continuous members between rails. Each rung of a double-rung ladder (two...

  5. Very Portable Remote Automatic Weather Stations

    Treesearch

    John R. Warren

    1987-01-01

    Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS) were introduced to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management field units in 1978 following development, test, and evaluation activities conducted jointly by the two agencies. The original configuration was designed for semi-permanent installation. Subsequently, a need for a more portable RAWS was expressed, and one was...

  6. Miniaturized, Portable Sensors Monitor Metabolic Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to measure astronauts' metabolic rates in space, Glenn Research Center partnered with Case Western University and the Cleveland Clinic to develop the Portable Unit for Metabolic Analysis (PUMA). Cleveland-based Orbital Research licensed and then modified PUMA to help the US Navy assess pilot oxygen problems and is now designing a device that can be used in hospitals.

  7. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minimum number of portable fire extinguishers required on each vessel is determined by the Officer in... of 1301 21/2 pounds Foam 11/4 gallons Carbon dioxide 4 pounds B-I. Dry chemical 2 pounds Propulsion machinery space with fixed CO2 or halon system 1 Foam 11/4 gallons Carbon dioxide 4 pounds B-I. Dry chemical...

  8. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimum number of portable fire extinguishers required on each vessel is determined by the Officer in... of 1301 21/2 pounds Foam 11/4 gallons Carbon dioxide 4 pounds B-I. Dry chemical 2 pounds Propulsion machinery space with fixed CO2 or halon system 1 Foam 11/4 gallons Carbon dioxide 4 pounds B-I. Dry chemical...

  9. 46 CFR 169.567 - Portable extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... minimum number of portable fire extinguishers required on each vessel is determined by the Officer in... of 1301 21/2 pounds Foam 11/4 gallons Carbon dioxide 4 pounds B-I. Dry chemical 2 pounds Propulsion machinery space with fixed CO2 or halon system 1 Foam 11/4 gallons Carbon dioxide 4 pounds B-I. Dry chemical...

  10. Weekend Study Buddies: Using Portable Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Harristina; Jairrels, Veda

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how one teacher uses a weekend study buddy as a portable learning center for students (ages 5-9) with mild disabilities. The study buddy is a colorful cloth or paper bag that the students take home over the weekend. It can also be individualized to target particular needs. (Contains 8 references.) (CR)

  11. Portable Linear Sled (PLS) for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallotton, Will; Matsuhiro, Dennis; Wynn, Tom; Temple, John

    1993-01-01

    The PLS is a portable linear motion generating device conceived by researchers at Ames Research Center's Vestibular Research Facility and designed by engineers at Ames for the study of motion sickness in space. It is an extremely smooth apparatus, powered by linear motors and suspended on air bearings which ride on precision ground ceramic ways.

  12. Portable Horizontal-Drilling And Positioning Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smigocki, Edmund; Johnson, Clarence

    1988-01-01

    Portable horizontal-drilling and positioning device, constructed mainly of off-the-shelf components, accurately drills horizontal small holes in irregularly shaped objects. Holes precisely placed and drilled in objects that cannot be moved to shop area. New device provides three axes of movement while maintaining horizontal drilling.

  13. Data logger based on a portable computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, James A.; Vik, S.; Saunderson, H.; Stone, M.

    1984-11-01

    A portable multichannel data logger is described. The system utilizes a commercially available compact computer which is coupled to a single-chip voltmeter via a UART. Channel selection, under the direction of the computer, is performed by an analog multiplexer. Substantial data storage capabilities are provided by resident RAM within the computer.

  14. PORTABLE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING INSTRUMENT FOR FOOD INDUSTRY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this paper is to design and fabricate a hand-held multispectral instrument for real-time contaminant detection. Specifically, the protocol to develop a portable multispectral instrument including optical sensor design, fabrication, calibration, data collection, analysis and algorith...

  15. Portable medical status and treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A portable medical status and treatment system is discussed. The vital signs monitor includes electrocardiogram, respiration, temperature, blood pressure, alarm, and power subsystems, which are described. A DC defibrillator module, a radio module, and their packaging are also described. These subsystems were evaluated and the results and recommendations are presented.

  16. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  17. Portable AI Lab for Teaching Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Michael; Baj, Fabio.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Portable AI Lab, a computing environment containing artificial intelligence (AI) tools, examples, and documentation for use with university AI courses. Two modules of the lab are highlighted: the automated theorem proving module and the natural language processing module, which includes augmented transition networks. (23 references)…

  18. Portable Tactile Aids for Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Experiments using portable tactile aids in speech perception are reviewed, focusing on training studies, additive benefit studies, and device comparison studies (including the "Tactaid II,""Tactaid V,""Tacticon 1600," and "Tickle Talker"). The potential of tactual information in perception of the overall…

  19. 49 CFR 172.326 - Portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable tanks. 172.326 Section 172.326 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  20. 49 CFR 172.326 - Portable tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks. 172.326 Section 172.326 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...