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Sample records for portland cement paste

  1. Model for the developing microstructure in Portland cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, H.M.; Tennis, P.D. )

    1994-12-01

    A method is proposed for quantitatively predicting the volume of the major phases in hydrated cement pastes as a function of (1) the composition of the cement, (2) the degree of reaction, and (3) the initial water: cement ratio. This procedure is then used to develop a quantitative model for the surface area and volume of porosity that is accessible to nitrogen in calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H). Published values for surface areas and volume of pores are compared with the predictions made by the model. An implication of the model is that there are two types of C-S-H, or perhaps regions within the C-S-H: one that nitrogen can penetrate and one that it cannot.

  2. Antimicrobial and chemical study of MTA, Portland cement, calcium hydroxide paste, Sealapex and Dycal.

    PubMed

    Estrela, C; Bammann, L L; Estrela, C R; Silva, R S; Pécora, J D

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial action of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Portland cement, calcium hydroxide paste (CHP), Sealapex and Dycal. The chemical elements of MTA and two Portland cements were also analyzed. Four standard bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), one wild fungus, Candida albicans (ICB/USP-562), and one mixture of these were used. Thirty Petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with 0.1 ml of the experimental suspensions. Three cavities, each one measuring 4 mm in depth and 4 mm in diameter, were made in each agar plate using a copper coil and then completely filled with the product to be tested. The plates were pre-incubated for 1 h at environmental temperature followed by incubation at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The diameters of the zones of microbial inhibition were then measured. Samples from diffusion and inhibition halos were extracted from each plate and immersed in 7 ml BHI broth and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 h. Analyses of chemical elements present in MTA and in two samples of Portland cement were performed with a fluorescence spectrometer Rx. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity of CHP was superior to those of MTA, Portland cement, Sealapex and Dycal, for all microorganisms tested, presenting inhibition zones of 6-9.5 mm and diffusion zones of 10-18 mm. MTA, Portland cement, and Sealapex presented only diffusion zones and among these, Sealapex produced the largest zone. Dycal did not show inhibition or diffusion zones. Portland cements contain the same chemical elements as MTA except that MTA also contains bismuth.

  3. Study on temperature and damage sensing capability of Portland cement paste through the thermoelectric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Tai, Ko-Hung; Su, Yu-Min

    2017-04-01

    This study attempted to investigate the self-sensing capability of Portland cement composites in sensing temperature and detecting damages through the measurements of materials' thermoelectric properties. Specimens were made of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with the water to cement ratio of 0.4. Temperature sensing property was characterized at various ages of the specimens from 28 to 49 days and at dried/moisturized conditions. It was found there exists an approximately linear relationship between temperature differences (ΔT) and the measured thermoelectric potentials, which is known as the Seebeck effect. This linearity was observed to be varied but able to be characterized for cement pastes at different ages and water saturation conditions. Mechanical loading that introduced different types and degrees of damages also translated into the variations of thermoelectric properties. Specifically, different types of compressive loads were tested for comparison. The study results have shown that Seebeck coefficient dropped with introduced damages, and restored with the subsequent re-curing as well as the continued cement hydration. Mild and moderate damages can be partially or fully restored, while severe damages that have resulted in significant drop of the Seebeck coefficients would restrain the self-restoration. Determination of the damage threshold was not yet revealed in this study, while it was shown obviously there existed one. Our investigation results indicated that characterizing the self-sensing capability of Portland cement composites is achievable through the measurements of thermoelectric properties. This study, in particular, has showcased the temperature sensing and damage detection capability.

  4. Flow properties of MK-based geopolymer pastes. A comparative study with standard Portland cement pastes.

    PubMed

    Favier, Aurélie; Hot, Julie; Habert, Guillaume; Roussel, Nicolas; d'Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-02-28

    Geopolymers are presented in many studies as alternatives to ordinary Portland cement. Previous studies have focused on their chemical and mechanical properties, their microstructures and their potential applications, but very few have focussed on their rheological behaviour. Our work highlights the fundamental differences in the flow properties, which exist between geopolymers made from metakaolin and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). We show that colloidal interactions between metakaolin particles are negligible and that hydrodynamic effects control the rheological behaviour. Metakaolin-based geopolymers can then be described as Newtonian fluids with the viscosity controlled mainly by the high viscosity of the suspending alkaline silicate solution and not by the contribution of direct contacts between metakaolin grains. This fundamental difference between geopolymers and OPC implies that developments made in cement technology to improve rheological behaviour such as plasticizers will not be efficient for geopolymers and that new research directions need to be explored.

  5. Pore size distribution, strength, and microstructure of portland cement paste containing metal hydroxide waste

    SciTech Connect

    Majid, Z.A.; Mahmud, H.; Shaaban, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes is used to convert hazardous metal hydroxide waste sludge into a solid mass with better handling properties. This study investigated the pore size development of ordinary portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxide waste sludge and rice husk ash using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effects of acre and the addition of rice husk ash on pore size development and strength were studied. It was found that the pore structures of mixes changed significantly with curing acre. The pore size shifted from 1,204 to 324 {angstrom} for 3-day old cement paste, and from 956 to 263 {angstrom} for a 7-day old sample. A reduction in pore size distribution for different curing ages was also observed in the other mixtures. From this limited study, no conclusion could be made as to any correlation between strength development and porosity. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, T.S.; Wakeley, L.D.; Young, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine.

  7. Modeling the degradation of Portland cement pastes by biogenic organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    De Windt, Laurent; Devillers, Philippe

    2010-08-15

    Reactive transport models can be used to assess the long-term performance of cement-based materials subjected to biodegradation. A bioleaching test (with Aspergillus niger fungi) applied to ordinary Portland cement pastes during 15 months is modeled with HYTEC. Modeling indicates that the biogenic organic acids (acetic, butyric, lactic and oxalic) strongly accelerate hydrate dissolution by acidic hydrolysis whilst their complexation of aluminum has an effect on the secondary gel stability only. The deepest degradation front corresponds to portlandite dissolution and decalcification of calcium silicate hydrates. A complex pattern of sulfate phases dissolution and precipitation takes place in an intermediate zone. The outermost degraded zone consists of alumina and silica gels. The modeling accurateness of calcium leaching, pH evolution and degradation thickness is consistently enhanced whilst considering increase of diffusivity in the degraded zones. Precipitation of calcium oxalate is predicted by modeling but was hindered in the bioleaching reactor.

  8. Examination of Portland cement paste hydrated in the presence of malic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Sarita; Chaturvedi, Shivani; Singh, N.B

    2004-03-01

    When malic acid (MA) solutions are added to ordinary Portland cement (OPC), rapid heat evolution takes place, but the hydration is retarded considerably at all the MA concentrations. To understand the mechanism of retardation, UV-visible and IR spectral studies were made and the results have revealed that some interaction occurs between MA and certain constituents of OPC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies have proved the formation of a new reaction product due to interaction between MA and some of the mineral phases of Portland cement. The retardation of the hydration of Portland cement may be attributed to the formation of this new compound.

  9. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Orsáková, D.; Geiker, M.R.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  10. Properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes with Portland cement as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phoo-ngernkham, Tanakorn; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Sata, Vanchai; Pangdaeng, Saengsuree; Sinsiri, Theerawat

    2013-02-01

    The effect of Portland cement (OPC) addition on the properties of high calcium fly ash geopolymer pastes was investigated in the paper. OPC partially replaced fly ash (FA) at the dosages of 0, 5%, 10%, and 15% by mass of binder. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions were used as the liquid portion in the mixture: NaOH 10 mol/L, Na2SiO3/NaOH with a mass ratio of 2.0, and alkaline liquid/binder (L/B) with a mass ratio of 0.6. The curing at 60°C for 24 h was used to accelerate the geopolymerization. The setting time of all fresh pastes, porosity, and compressive strength of the pastes at the stages of 1, 7, 28, and 90 d were tested. The elastic modulus and strain capacity of the pastes at the stage of 7 d were determined. It is revealed that the use of OPC as an additive to replace part of FA results in the decreases in the setting time, porosity, and strain capacity of the paste specimens, while the compressive strength and elastic modulus seem to increase.

  11. Effects of porosity on leaching of Ca from hardened ordinary Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Kazuko . E-mail: Kazuko_Haga@grp.taiheiyo-cement.co.jp; Sutou, Shunkichi; Hironaga, Michihiko; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya

    2005-09-01

    Aiming at evaluating the effects of porosity in hardened cement paste on dissolution phenomena, we prepared hardened ordinary Portland cement (OPC), with variation in pore volume, and then leached them in deionized water. It was found that the bulk density and pore volume were affected by the dissolution of portlandite. The larger the pore volume of the sample, the more rapidly portlandite is dissolved. An electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) performed on the cross-section of the solid phase showed the 'portlandite (CH) dissolution front'. As the leaching period became longer, the CH dissolution front shifted towards the inner part. In addition, the movement of the CH dissolution front was described by the diffusion model, with consideration of the dissolution of portlandite. It was concluded that the transport of leached constituents is diffusion controlled, and the major leached constituents of hardened OPC are portlandite and C-S-H gel. Large pore, which was generated associated with the leaching of portlandite, was considered significantly to affect the diffusion of leached constituents.

  12. The microstructure of Portland cement paste and its relationship to drying shrinkage: A study of blended cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Rudolph Andrew, III

    1998-12-01

    The objective was to understand how the microstructure of cement paste influences its susceptibility to drying shrinkage. The strategy was to vary the microstructure via processing and relate the changes to the deformation behavior. There were many processing parameters to choose from that were capable of varying the microstructure, but one very effective way was through addition of mineral admixtures. Since the use of mineral admixtures also has the potential to address current economic, social, and environmental problems, achieving a better understanding of blended cement paste was an added benefit. Ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and silica fume were the mineral admixtures chosen for this study because they represent a wide range of reactivity. Blended cement pastes of various compositions and degrees of hydration were characterized. Calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrate, pH, free water, and nitrogen surface area were the microstructural parameters chosen for analysis. Because calcium silicate hydrate is usually measured by indirect techniques which are not applicable to blended cements, a technique based on water adsorption was developed; results compared favorably with calculations from the Jennings-Tennis hydration model. The connectivity of the pore network was characterized using impedance spectroscopy. Drying shrinkage was analyzed on the macrolevel using bulk shrinkage measurements and the microstructural level using a deformation mapping technique. Several processing-microstructure-property relationships were developed. Mineral admixtures were found to significantly reduce the connectivity of the pore network and increase the nitrogen surface area of cement paste per gram of calcium silicate hydrate. The bulk drying shrinkage of blended cement pastes dried to 50% relative humidity was found to depend primarily on calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate content; shrinkage decreased with increasing amounts of calcium hydroxide

  13. Characterization of high-calcium fly ash and its influence on ettringite formation in portland cement pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishmack, Jody Kathleen

    High-calcium Class C fly ashes derived from Powder River Basin coal are currently used as supplementary cementing materials in portland cement concrete. These fly ashes tend to contain significant amounts of sulfur, calcium, and aluminum, thus they are potential sources of ettringite. Characterization of six high-calcium fly ashes originating from Powder River Basin coal have been carried out. The hydration products formed in pastes made from fly ash and water were investigated. The principal phases produced at room temperature were ettringite, monosulfate, and stratlingite. The relative amounts formed varied with the specific fly ash. Removal of the soluble crystalline sulfur bearing minerals indicated that approximately a third of the sulfur is located in the fly ash glass. Pore solution analyses indicated that sulfur concentrations increased at later ages. Three fly ashes were selected for further study based on their ability to form ettringite. Portland cement-fly ash pastes made with the selected fly ashes were investigated to evaluate ettringite and monosulfate formation. Each of the fly ashes were mixed with four different types of portland cements (Type I, I/II, II, and III) as well as three different Type I cements exhibiting a range of C3A and sulfate contents. The pastes had 25% or 35% fly ash by total weight of solids and a water:cement-fly ash ratio of 0.45. The samples were placed in a curing room (R.H. = 100, 23°C) and were then analyzed at various ages by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the principal hydration products. The hydration products identified by XRD were portlandite, ettringite (an AFt phase), monosulfate, and generally smaller amounts of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate (all AFm phases). Although the amount of ettringite formed varied with the individual cement, only a modest correlation with cement sulfate content and no correlation with cement C3A content was observed. DSC

  14. Temperature dependence, 0 to 40 deg. C, of the mineralogy of Portland cement paste in the presence of calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Matschei, Thomas; Glasser, Fredrik P.

    2010-05-15

    Thermodynamic calculations disclose that significant changes of the AFm and AFt phases and amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} occur between 0 and 40 deg. C; the changes are affected by added calcite. Hydrogarnet, C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}, is destabilised at low carbonate contents and/or low temperatures < 8 deg. C and is unlikely to form in calcite-saturated Portland cement compositions cured at < 40 deg. C. The AFm phase actually consists of several structurally-related compositions which form incomplete solid solutions. The AFt phase is close to its ideal stoichiometry at 25 deg. C but at low temperatures, < 20 deg. C, extensive solid solutions occur with CO{sub 3}-ettringite. A nomenclature scheme is proposed and AFm-AFt phase relations are presented in isothermal sections at 5, 25 and 40 deg. C. The AFt and AFm phase relations are depicted in terms of competition between OH, CO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} for anion sites. Diagrams are presented showing how changing temperatures affect the volume of the solid phases with implications for space filling by the paste. Specimen calculations are related to regimes likely to occur in commercial cements and suggestions are made for testing thermal impacts on cement properties by defining four regimes. It is concluded that calculation provides a rapid and effective tool for exploring the response of cement systems to changing composition and temperature and to optimise cement performance.

  15. Microstructure: Surface and cross-sectional studies of hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of white Portland cement paste in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaipanich, Arnon; Torkittikul, Pincha

    2011-08-01

    The formation of hydroxyapatite was investigated at the surface and at the cross-section of white Portland cement paste samples before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscope images showed that hydroxyapatite were found at the surface of white Portland cement after immersion in simulated body fluid. Hydroxyapatite grains of mostly ≈1 μm size with some grain size of ≈2-3 μm were seen after 4 days immersion period. More estabilshed hydroxyapatite grain size of ≈3 μm grains were observed at longer period of immersion at 7 and 10 days. The cross-section of the samples was investigated using line scanning technique and was used to determine the hydroxyapatite layer. A strong spectrum of phosphorus is detected up to 6-8 μm depth for samples after 4, 7 and 10 days immersion in simulated body fluid when compared to weak spectrum detected before immersion. The increase in the phosphorus spectrum corresponds to the hydroxyapatite formation on the surface of the samples after the samples were placed in simulated body fluid.

  16. Effect of various Portland cement paste compositions on early-age strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetta, Alana G.

    Early-age strain in paste, mortar, and concrete mixtures was investigated using a new method where the specimen shape was a cone frustum. Strain of the specimen from both the horizontal and vertical directions was captured by height change measurement. The volumetric strain was then calculated as a function of the height change and was plotted versus time. A correlation was found between the slopes of the volumetric strain curve resulting from this test method and the initial setting time of the tested material. An initial evaluation of the repeatability of this innovative test method was conducted. The early-age strain effects of aggregate volume, shrinkage reducing admixture, water-cementitious ratio (w/cm), and partial cement replacement with supplementary cementitious materials were tested and individually compared. From these comparisons, it was observed that ambient temperature, bleed water development, and rheological properties had a significant impact on the volumetric strain results. Data showed increased strain as aggregate volume was reduced and as the w/cm was changed from 0.25 up to 0.50. The addition of shrinkage reducing admixture generally caused an increase in the 36-hour volumetric strain value. In most of the mixtures, cement replacement with 20% fly ash or 10% metakaolin reduced the measured volumetric strain when the w/cm was 0.30. Replacement of cement with 10% silica fume caused an insignificant change in volumetric strain results.

  17. Hydration kinetics of cements by Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Application to Portland-cement-derived endodontic pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolotti, Villiam; Fantazzini, Paola; Sauro, Salvatore; Zanna, Silvano

    2012-03-15

    Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) of {sup 1}H nuclei is used to monitor the maturation up to 30 days of three different endodontic cement pastes. The 'Solid-liquid' separation of the NMR signals and quasi-continuous distributions of relaxation times allow one to follow the formation of chemical compounds and the build-up of the nano- and subnano-structured C-S-H gel. {sup 1}H populations, distinguished by their different mobilities, can be identified and assigned to water confined within the pores of the C-S-H gel, to crystallization water and Portlandite, and to hydroxyl groups. Changes of the TD-NMR parameters during hydration are in agreement with the expected effects of the different additives, which, as it is known, can substantially modify the rate of reactions and the properties of cementitious pastes. Endodontic cements are suitable systems to check the ability of this non-destructive technique to give insight into the complex hydration process of real cement pastes.

  18. Impact of the associated cation on chloride binding of Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Colombo, A.; Coppola, L.; Justnes, H.; Geiker, M.R.

    2015-02-15

    Well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2} and NaCl solutions at 20 °C. The chloride binding isotherms for free chloride concentrations ranging up to 1.5 mol/l were determined experimentally. More chlorides were found to be bound when the associated cation was Mg{sup 2} {sup +} or Ca{sup 2} {sup +} compared to Na{sup +}. The chloride binding capacity of the paste appeared to be related to the pH of the exposure solution. In order to explain the cation dependency of the chloride binding a selection of samples was investigated in detail using experimental techniques such as TG, XRD and SEM–EDS to identify the phases binding the chlorides. The experimentally obtained data were compared with the calculations of a thermodynamic model, GEMS. It was concluded that the measured change in chloride binding depending on the cation was mainly governed by the pH of the exposure solution and thereby the binding capacity of the C-S-H.

  19. Role of aluminous component of fly ash on the durability of Portland cement-fly ash pastes in marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo, MaP.; Goni, S.; Guerrero, A

    2003-07-01

    The durability, of mixtures of two kinds of Spanish fly ashes from coal combustion (ASTM class F) with 0, 15 and 35% replacement of Portland cement by fly ash, in a simulated marine environment (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+NaCl solution of equivalent concentration to that of sea water: 0.03 and 0.45 M for sulphate and chloride, respectively), has been studied for a period of 90 days. The resistance of the different mixtures to the attack was evaluated by means of the Koch-Steinegger test. The results showed that all the mixtures were resistant, in spite of the great amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content of the fly ash. The diffusion of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions through the pore solution activated the pozzolanic reactivity of the fly ashes causing the corresponding microstructure changes, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result, the flexural strength of the mixtures increased, principally for the fly ash of a lower particle size and 35% of addition.

  20. Sorption kinetics of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) in fresh Portland cement-based pastes visualized and quantified by neutron radiography and correlated to the progress of cement hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Schroefl, Christof; Mechtcherine, Viktor; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan; Lehmann, Eberhard

    2015-09-15

    Water sorption of two superabsorbent polymers in cement-based pastes has been characterized by neutron radiography. Cement pastes with W/C of 0.25 and 0.50 and one additionally containing silica fume (W/C = 0.42) were investigated. The SAPs differed in their inherent sorption kinetics in extracted cement pore solution (SAP 1: self-releasing; SAP 2: retentive). Desorption from SAP 1 started very early after paste preparation. Hence, its individual non-retentiveness governs its behavior only. SAP 2 released water into all matrices, but its kinetics were different. In the paste with the highest W/C, some moderate water release was recorded from the beginning. In the other two pastes, SAP 2 retained its stored liquid during the dormant period, i.e., up to the percolation threshold. Intense desorption then set in and continued throughout the acceleration period. These findings explain the pronouncedly higher efficiency of SAP 2 as internal curing admixture as compared to SAP 1.

  1. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J.

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  2. Hydration kinetics modeling of Portland cement considering the effects of curing temperature and applied pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Feng Meyer, Christian

    2009-04-15

    A hydration kinetics model for Portland cement is formulated based on thermodynamics of multiphase porous media. The mechanism of cement hydration is discussed based on literature review. The model is then developed considering the effects of chemical composition and fineness of cement, water-cement ratio, curing temperature and applied pressure. The ultimate degree of hydration of Portland cement is also analyzed and a corresponding formula is established. The model is calibrated against the experimental data for eight different Portland cements. Simple relations between the model parameters and cement composition are obtained and used to predict hydration kinetics. The model is used to reproduce experimental results on hydration kinetics, adiabatic temperature rise, and chemical shrinkage of different cement pastes. The comparisons between the model reproductions and the different experimental results demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model, especially for cement hydration at elevated temperature and high pressure.

  3. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4281 (December 2011), entitled Gray Portland...

  4. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  5. 77 FR 46371 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants,'' which was published in the Federal Register on July 18, 2012....

  6. 76 FR 2860 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. The final rules were published on September 9, 2010... Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Docket, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0051, 1200 Pennsylvania...

  7. 76 FR 2832 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance for Portland Cement Plants... (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and Standards of Performance (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. The final rules were published on September 9, 2010. This direct final action...

  8. Petrographic Analysis of Portland Cement Concrete Cores from Pease Air National Guard Base, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Petrographic Analysis of Portland Cement Concrete Cores from Pease Air National Guard Base, New Hampshire E n g in e e r R e s e a rc h a n d...coarse aggregate boundary, (c) crack in coarse aggregate into the paste, (d) view of cement and fine aggregate, with infilling of voids...infilling crack and voids, (d) view of cement and fine aggregate, with infilling of voids

  9. Producing Portland cement from iron and steel slags and limestone

    SciTech Connect

    Monshi, A.; Asgarani, M.K.

    1999-09-01

    The slags from blast furnace (iron making) and converter (steel making) after magnetic separation are mixed with limestone of six different compositions. The ground materials are fired in a pilot plant scale rotary kiln to 1,350 C for 1 h. The clinker is cooled, crushed, mixed with 3% gypsum, and ground to fineness of more than 3,300 cm{sub 2}/g. Initial and final setting times, consistency of standard paste, soundness, free CaO, and compressive and fractural strengths after 3, 7, and 28 days are measured. Samples with higher lime saturation factor developed higher C{sub 3}S content and better mechanical properties. Blending 10% extra iron slag to a cement composed of 49% iron slag, 43% calcined lime, and 8% steel slag kept the compressive strength of concrete above standard values for type I ordinary Portland cement.

  10. The physical properties of accelerated Portland cement for endodontic use.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, J

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the physical properties of a novel accelerated Portland cement. The setting time, compressive strength, pH and solubility of white Portland cement (Lafarge Asland; CEM 1, 52.5 N) and accelerated Portland cement (Proto A) produced by excluding gypsum from the manufacturing process (Aalborg White) and a modified version with 4 : 1 addition of bismuth oxide (Proto B) were evaluated. Proto A set in 8 min. The compressive strength of Proto A was comparable with that of Portland cement at all testing periods (P > 0.05). Additions of bismuth oxide extended the setting time and reduced the compressive strength (P < 0.05). Both cements and storage solution were alkaline. All cements tested increased by >12% of their original weight after immersion in water for 1 day with no further absorption after 28 days. Addition of bismuth oxide increased the water uptake of the novel cement (P < 0.05). The setting time of Portland cement can be reduced by excluding the gypsum during the last stage of the manufacturing process without affecting its other properties. Addition of bismuth oxide affected the properties of the novel cement. Further investigation on the effect that bismuth oxide has on the properties of mineral trioxide aggregate is thus warranted.

  11. Galvanic corrosion of Mg-Zr fuel cladding and steel immobilized in Portland cement and geopolymer at early ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooses, Adrien; Lambertin, David; Chartier, David; Frizon, Fabien

    2013-04-01

    Galvanic corrosion behaviour of Mg-Zr alloy fuel cladding and steel has been studied in Ordinary Portland cement and Na-geopolymer. Portland cements implied the worse magnesium corrosion performances due to the negative effects of cement hydrates, grinding agents and gypsum on the galvanic corrosion. Galvanic corrosion in Na-geopolymer paste remains very low. Silicates and fluoride from the geopolymer activation solution significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the magnesium alloy while coupling with a cathode.

  12. Odor investigation of a Portland cement plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pleus, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The main concern expressed by Smithville residents is whether the odors they were smelling during odor events were due to chemicals that could cause adverse health effects. Odors were allegedly emanating from the town`s Portland cement plant. The purpose of the study was to measure the ambient air for 20 reduced sulfur, 50 volatile organic compounds, and air samples for olfactometric analysis. Carbonyl sulfide was found to be at a concentration that could create a sense of odor and irritation. This sense of irritation may be due to a physiological response by the central nervous system, and is not associated with any known adverse effects. This physiological response could account for some or all of the irritation experienced by residents during odor events. Comparing chemical concentrations that were detected in air samples to standard and recognized guidelines for acceptable exposure, all measured concentrations were found to be well below the acceptable criteria. From these data the authors conclude that no acute or chronic adverse health effects are expected at the concentrations of the chemicals detected downwind of the cement plant, either routinely or during odor events.

  13. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  14. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United... cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  15. Comparative chemical study of MTA and Portland cements.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Gerhardt de; Xavier, Cristina Braga; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Pinheiro, Antônio Luis Barbosa; Costa, Aline Tempel; Pozza, Daniel Humberto

    2007-01-01

    Portland cement has been analyzed and compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) because of their chemical similarity. The possibility of using this material as a less expensive alternative to MTA in dental practice should be considered. In view of this, the present study compared the components of a Portland cement (Votoran) to two commercial brands of MTA (Pro-Root and MTA-Angelus). Twelve specimens of each material were fabricated and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to obtain their percentage of chemical elements. The means of the chemical elements found in each material was compared by descriptive statistics. Bismuth was present only in MTA cements to provide radiopacity. In conclusion, the tested cements have similar components, which supports, as far as composition is concerned, the possible clinical use of Portland as an option to MTA.

  16. Energy conservation potential of Portland cement particle size distribution control, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Helmuth, R.A; Whiting, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The main objectives of Phase 2 are to determine the feasibility of using cements with controlled particle size distributions (CPSD cements) in practical concrete applications, and to refine our estimates of the potential energy savings that may ensue from such use. The work in Phase 2 is divided into two main tasks, some parts of which will be carried out simultaneously: Task 1 will continue cement paste studies to optimize cement performance similar to those of Phase 1, but with particular emphasis on gypsum requirements, blended cements, and water-reducing admixtures. This task will also include preparation of sufficient CPSD cements for use in all Phase 2 work. Task 2 will be a comprehensive examination of the properties of concretes made with CPSD cements. This will include optimization of concrete mix designs to obtain the best possible performance for practical applications of both portland and blended cements. The effects of chemical admixtures and curing temperature variations will also be determined.

  17. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Pangdaeng, S; Sata, V; Aguiar, J B; Pacheco-Torgal, F; Chindaprasirt, P

    2015-06-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer was investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali concentration and curing temperature. The calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer with relatively high compressive strength could be fabricated for use as biomaterial. The mix with 50% white Portland cement and 50% calcined kaolin had 28-day compressive strength of 59.0MPa and the hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked sample surface was clearly evident.

  18. The use of glass powder as a partial Portland cement replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Tydlitát, Vratislav; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Finely grinded waste glass powder can become material having suitable properties from the point of view of particle size and pozzolanic activity. Glass powder incorporation into cement paste and cement-based composites can bring improvement in porous structure resulting in increased mechanical strength and durability characteristics. On this account, two types of recycled glass powder are investigated in the presented paper as a possible partial Portland cement substitutes in cement blends. For raw glass powders, basic physical parameters and chemical composition are measured. The studied glass powders are applied as 5, 10 and 20 mass% of Portland cement replacement in cement paste mix composition, whereas water/binder ratio of 0.3 is used for all studied pastes. Fresh paste mixtures are characterized using initial and final setting time measurement. For hardened pastes cured 28 days in water, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity and mechanical properties represented by flexural and compressive strength are accessed. Portlandite consumption by the pozzolanic reaction is monitored with TGA. The obtained results show effectiveness of a borosilicate glass powder that acts as a pozzolanic active admixture. This resulted in improvement of mechanical characteristics for cement substitution up to 10 mass%.

  19. Use of ancient copper slags in Portland cement and alkali activated cement matrices.

    PubMed

    Nazer, Amin; Payá, Jordi; Borrachero, María Victoria; Monzó, José

    2016-02-01

    Some Chilean copper slag dumps from the nineteenth century still remain, without a proposed use that encourages recycling and reduces environmental impact. In this paper, the copper slag abandoned in landfills is proposed as a new building material. The slags studied were taken from Playa Negra and Púquios dumps, both located in the region of Atacama in northern Chile. Pozzolanic activity in lime and Portland cement systems, as well as the alkali activation in pastes with copper slag cured at different temperatures, was studied. The reactivity of the slag was measured using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electrical conductivity and pH in aqueous suspension and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, copper slag-Portland cement mortars with the substitution of 25% (by weight) of cement by copper slag and alkali-activated slag mortars cured at 20 and 65 °C were made, to determine the compressive strength. The results indicate that the ancient copper slags studied have interesting binding properties for the construction sector.

  20. Traditional Portland cement and MgO-based cement: a promising combination?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, Monica; Martini, Francesca; Calucci, Lucia; Geppi, Marco; Borsacchi, Silvia; Ridi, Francesca

    2017-06-01

    MgO/SiO2 cements are materials potentially very useful for radioactive waste disposal, but knowledge about their physico-chemical properties is still lacking. In this paper we investigated the hydration kinetics of cementitious formulations prepared by mixing MgO/SiO2 and Portland cement in different proportions and the structural properties of the hydrated phases formed in the first month of hydration. In particular, the hydration kinetics was investigated by measuring the free water index on pastes by means of differential scanning calorimetry, while the structural characterization was carried out by combining thermal (DTA), diffractometric (XRD), and spectroscopic (FTIR, 29Si solid state NMR) techniques. It was found that calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) and magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gels mainly form as separate phases, their relative amount and structural characteristics depending on the composition of the hydrated mixture. Moreover, the composition of the mixtures strongly affects the kinetics of hydration and the pH of the aqueous phase in contact with the cementitious materials. The results here reported show that suitable mixtures of Portland cement and MgO/SiO2 could be used to modify the properties of hydrated phases with potential application in the storage of nuclear waste in clayey disposal.

  1. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Krishna, C.R.

    1986-07-29

    A coal-water mix is described for use as a fossil fuel containing up to 70% by weight coal particles, based on the total weight of the mix, stabilized by the presence in the mix of up to 15% by weight, based on the weight of the coal, of portland cement, the portland cement stabilizing the mix by greatly extending the time that the coal particles remain in suspension, thus eliminating problems of transporting and storing the mix which result when the coal particles come out of suspension.

  2. Pavement management and rehabilitation of portland cement concrete pavements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegeer, C. V.; Agent, K. R.; Rizenbergs, R. L.; Curtayne, P. C.; Scullion, T.; Pedigo, R. D.; Hudson, W. R.; Roberts, F. L.; Karan, M. A.; Haas, R.

    Pavement management and rehabilitation projects and techniques are discussed. The following topics are discussed: economic analyses and dynamic programming in resurfacing project selection; implementation of an urban pavement management system; pavement performance modeling for pavement management; illustration of pavement management: from data inventory to priority analysis; rehabilitation of concrete pavements by using portland cement concrete overlays; pavement management study: Illinois tollway pavement overlays; resurfacing of plain jointed-concrete pavements; design procedure for premium composite pavement; model study of anchored pavement; prestressed concrete overlay at O'Hare International Airport: in-service evaluation; and, bonded portland cement concrete resurfacing.

  3. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the... International Trade Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement...

  4. Natural cement as the precursor of Portland cement: Methodology for its identification

    SciTech Connect

    Varas, M.J. . E-mail: mjvaras@geo.ucm.es; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2005-11-15

    When cements appeared in the 19th century, they took the place of traditional binding materials (lime, gypsum, and hydraulic lime) which had been used until that time. Early cements can be divided into two groups, natural and artificial (Portland) cements. Natural cements were introduced first, but their widespread usage was short-lived as they were quickly replaced by artificial cements (Portland), still the most important and predominant today. The main differences between natural and artificial cements arise during the manufacturing process. The final properties of the cements are greatly influenced by differences in the raw materials and burning temperatures employed. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of traditional analytical techniques (petrographic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)) used to differentiate natural and artificial cements.

  5. Mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement promote biomineralization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Luonothar Antunes Schmitt; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Reyes-Carmona, Jessie Fabiola; Felippe, Gabriela Santos; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2012-03-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement have been shown to be bioactive because of their ability to produce biologically compatible carbonated apatite. This study analyzed the interaction of MTA and white Portland cement with dentin in vivo. Seventy-two human dentin tubes were filled with MTA Branco, MTA BIO, and white Portland cement + 20% bismuth oxide (PC1) or PC1 + 10% of calcium chloride (PC2) and implanted subcutaneously in 18 rats at 4 sites from the dorsal area. Empty dentin tubes, implanted in rats of a pilot study, were used as control. After 30, 60, and 90 days, the animals were killed, and the dentin tubes were retrieved for scanning electron microscope analysis. In the periods of 30 and 60 days, the mineral deposition in the material-dentin interface (interfacial layer) and in the interior of dentinal tubules was detected in more tubes filled with MTA Branco and MTA BIO than in tubes filled with PC1 and PC2. After 90 days, the interfacial layer and intratubular mineralization were detected in all tubes except for 3 and 1 of the tubes filled with PC2, respectively. It was concluded that all the cements tested were bioactive. The cements released some of their components in the tissue capable of stimulating mineral deposition in the cement-dentin interface and in the interior of the dentinal tubules. MTA BIO and MTA Branco were more effective in promoting the biomineralization process than Portland cements, mainly after 30 and 60 days. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of oil-fuel ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Paya, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Monzo, J.; Bonilla, M.

    1999-06-01

    The residue of oil-fuel burned at the electrical power plant of Grao de Castellon (Spain) has been incorporated in Portland cement mortar and concrete. The used oil-fuel ash (OFA) had a high percentage of magnesium compounds because of magnesium oxide addition for removing slag and ashes from boilers and pipes. Several studies had been carried out on stabilization of toxic metals also occurring in oil-fuel ashes (particularly vanadium and nickel), by mixing with coal fly ashes and cement. In this case, the presence of magnesium compounds in the composition of the studied oil-fuel ashes could alter the mechanical and chemical properties of the cement matrix in fresh and hardened mortar and concrete. The authors present here the chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of oil-fuel ashes and the behavior of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of these oil-fuel ashes. The study includes workability, water demand, setting time, expansion and compressive strength developments. Preliminary results demonstrate a high absorption of water by oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash particles, which promotes an increase in the water/cement ratio for a given workability. Acceleration of Portland cement/oil-fuel ash pastes setting times was observed, due to the presence of carbonates. On the other hand, no significant expansion in specimens due to the presence of magnesium compounds was detected and, consequently, mechanical properties of hardened mortars containing oil-fuel ashes did not decrease with curing time. Compressive strengths for mortars containing OFA were much lower, however, than control mortar samples.

  7. Steel foundry electric arc furnace dust management: stabilization by using lime and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat

    2008-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine an appropriate treatment for steel foundry electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) prior to permanent disposal. Lime and Portland cement (PC)-based stabilization was applied to treat the EAFD that contains lead and zinc above the landfilling limits, and is listed by USEPA as hazardous waste designation K061 and by EU as 10 02 07. Three types of paste samples were prepared with EAFD content varying between 0 and 90%. The first type contained the EAFD and Portland cement, the second contained the EAFD, Portland cement, and lime, and the third contained the EAFD and lime. All the samples were subjected to toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) after an air-curing period of 28 days. pH changes were monitored and acid neutralization capacity of the samples were examined. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated in terms of reducing the heavy metal leachability to the levels below the USEPA landfilling criteria. An optimum composition for the EAFD stabilization was formulated as 30% EAFD +35% lime +35% Portland cement to achieve the landfilling criteria. The pH interval, where the solubility of the heavy metals in the EAFD was minimized, was found to be between 8.2 and 9.4.

  8. Stabilization and solidification of waste phosphate sludge using Portland cement and fly ash as cement substitute

    SciTech Connect

    Vedat Pinarli; Gizem Karaca; Guray Salihoglu; Nezih Kamil Salihoglu

    2005-07-01

    Stabilization and solidification of the waste phosphate sludge (WPS) using Portland cement (PC) and fly ash (FA) were studied in the present work. The WPS content in the cement mortars varied from 5% to 15%. Setting times were measured, and unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) were determined for the mortars cured in water for 3, 7, 28, 56, and 90 days. Zinc and nickel leaching of the solidified products were measured according to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Setting times were extended as the WPS content in the paste samples increased. The UCS values of the mortar containing 5% WPS solidified by using 95% PC were similar to the reference sample. Use of 10% FA as cement substitute increased the UCS values by 10% at the end of curing period of 56 days. The WPS contained initially 130.2 mg L{sup -1} of zinc and 22.7 mg L{sup -1} of nickel. The zinc and nickel leached from the 5% WPS solidified by using 95% PC were measured as 3.8 mg L{sup -1} and 0.4 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. These metal concentrations were below the limits given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for landfilling the solidified wastes.

  9. The effects of utilizing silica fume in Portland Cement Pervious Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Daniel Allen

    Silica fume has long been used as a supplementary cementing material to provide a high density, high strength, and durable building material. Silica fume has a particle size a fraction of any conventional cement, which allows it to increase concrete strength by decreasing the porosity especially near the aggregates surface. Because Portland Cement Pervious Concrete (PCPC) has a smaller bond area between aggregate and paste, silica fume has significant impacts on the properties of the PCPC. The research in this paper studies the workability of a cement paste containing silica fume in addition to analyzing the results of testing on Portland Cement Pervious Concrete mixtures that also contained silica fume. Testing conducted included a study of the effects of silica fume on cement's rheological properties at various dosage rates ranging from zero to ten percent by mass. It was determined that silica fume has negligible effects on the viscosity of cement paste until a dosage rate of five percent, at which point the viscosity increases rapidly. In addition to the rheological testing of the cement paste, trials were also conducted on the pervious concrete samples. Sample groups included mixes with river gravel and chipped limestone as aggregate, washed and unwashed, and two different void contents. Workability tests showed that mixtures containing a silica fume dosage rate of 5 percent or less had comparable or slightly improved workability when compared to control groups. Workability was found to decrease at a 7 percent dosage rate. Samples were tested for compressive strength at 7 and 28 days and splitting tensile strength at 28 days. It was found in most sample groups, strength increased with dosage rates of 3 to 5 percent but often decreased when the dosage reached 7 percent. Abrasion testing showed that both samples containing washed aggregate and samples containing silica fume exhibited a reduced mass loss.

  10. How to Avoid Deficiencies in Portland-Cement Plaster Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    WES, and under the direct supervision of Mr. John M. Scanlon, Chief, Concrete Technology Division, SL, who served as Task Force Manager. In addition... Concrete Consultant to Al Batin District, Middle East Division (Forward); Mr. Joseph A. Dobrowolski, an industry architectural concrete consultant; and...Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE), has for many years recognized that too many deficiencies have been occurring in architectural concrete and portland- cement

  11. Latex Admixtures for Portland Cement Concrete and Mortar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMR-CS-3 LATEX ?uJIV11XTURES t-OR PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE ...designating technical reports of research published under the Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation (REMR) Research Program identify the...problem area under which the report was prepared: cs GT HY Problem Area Concrete and Steel Structures Geotechnical Hydraulics EM El OM Problem

  12. Polypropylene Fibers in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Bibliography on Fiber- Reinforced Cement and Concrete," Miscellaneous Paper C-76-6, with supplements 1, 2, 3, and 4 ( 1977 , 1979, 1980, and 1982), US Army... Mindess , S., Bentur, A., Yan, C., and Vondran, G., "Impact Resistance of Concrete Containing Both Conventional Steel Reinforcement and Fibrillated...Roads, Streets, Walks, and Open Storage Areas," TM 5-822-6/AFM 88-7, Chap. 7, Washington, DC, 1977 . 18. __ , "Concrete Floor Slabs on Grade Subjected

  13. Solidification of ion exchange resins saturated with Na+ ions: Comparison of matrices based on Portland and blast furnace slag cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafond, E.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Gauffinet, S.; Chartier, D.; Stefan, L.; Le Bescop, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the conditioning of ion exchange resins used to decontaminate radioactive effluents. Calcium silicate cements may have a good potential to encapsulate spent resins. However, certain combinations of cement and resins produce a strong expansion of the final product, possibly leading to its full disintegration. The focus is placed on the understanding of the behaviour of cationic resins in the Na+ form in Portland or blast furnace slag (CEM III/C) cement pastes. During hydration of the Portland cement paste, the pore solution exhibits a decrease in its osmotic pressure, which causes a transient expansion of small magnitude of the resins. At 20 °C, this expansion takes place just after setting in a poorly consolidated material and is sufficient to induce cracks. In the CEM III/C paste, swelling of the resins also occurs, but before the end of setting, and induces limited stress in the matrix which is still plastic.

  14. Portland cement: A solidification agent for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1991-10-01

    This bulletin discusses the solidification of waste streams using portland-type cement to provide the structural stability required by 10 CFR 61. Portland cement has been used in this role since early in the commercial nuclear program as a simple and inexpensive solidification medium for immobilization of radioactive wastes. Through the use of additives, most waste streams can be satisfactorily immobilized with portland cement. However, some problem waste streams can not be solidified with portland cement at this time, and those are discussed in this document.

  15. Capture of green-house carbon dioxide in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.; Knox, L.

    1993-12-31

    A novel process has been developed to sequester green-house carbon dioxide produced by the cement industry in precast cement products. Typically, 10--24 wt % of CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering of the cement may be captured. The carbonation process also cures the cement paste within minutes into hard bodies. The process maintains high pH conditions during curing, to allow conventional steel reinforcement of concrete. The process will save time and money to the cement industry, and at the same time, help them to comply with the Clean Air Act by sequestering the green-house carbon dioxide.

  16. Injectable citrate-modified Portland cement for use in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wynn-Jones, Gareth; Shelton, Richard M; Hofmann, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    The injectability of Portland cement (PC) with several citrate additives was investigated for use in clinical applications such as vertebroplasty (stabilization of a fractured vertebra with bone cement) using a syringe. A 2-wt % addition of sodium or potassium citrate with PC significantly improved cement injectability, decreased cement setting times from over 2 h to below 25 min, while increasing the compressive strength to a maximum of 125 MPa. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that the citrate anion was binding to one or more of the positively charged species causing charged repulsion between cement particles which dispersed aggregates and caused the liquefying effect of the anion. Analysis of the hydrating phases of PC indicated that the early strength producing PC phase (ettringite) developed within the first 2 h of setting following addition of the citrate anion, while this did not occur in the control cement (PC only). Within 24 h ettringite developed in PC as well as calcium–silicate–hydrate (C–S–H), the major setting phase of PC, whereas cements containing citrate did not develop this phase. The evidence suggested that in the presence of citrate the cements limited water supply appeared to be utilized for ettringite formation, producing the early strength of the citrate cements. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to modify PC with citrate to both improve the injectability and crucially reduce the setting times of PC while improving the strength of the cement. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 102B: 1799–1808, 2014. PMID:24711245

  17. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    SciTech Connect

    Le Saout, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Hori, Akihiro; Higuchi, Takayuki; Winnefeld, Frank

    2013-01-15

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C-S-H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA-OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  18. Rapid setting of portland cement by greenhouse carbon dioxide capture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Knox, L.J.

    1994-04-01

    Following the work by Berger et al. on rapid setting of calcium silicates by carbonation, a method of high-volume capture of CO{sub 2} in portland cement has been developed. Typically, 10--24 wt. % of CO{sub 2} produced by the calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering, may be captured, and the set cement acquires most of its full strength in less than a day. The approach will have economic advantages in fabrication of precast structures, in emergency development of infrastructure during natural disasters, and in defense applications. Moreover, it will help the cement industry comply with the Clean Air Act of 1990 by sequestering the greenhouse carbon dioxide.

  19. Early hydration of portland cement with crystalline mineral additions

    SciTech Connect

    Rahhal, V. . E-mail: vrahhal@fio.unicen.edu.ar; Talero, R.

    2005-07-01

    This research presents the effects of finely divided crystalline mineral additions (quartz and limestone), commonly known as filler, on the early hydration of portland cements with very different mineralogical composition. The used techniques to study the early hydration of blended cements were conduction calorimeter, hydraulicity (Fratini's test), non-evaporable water and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that the stimulation and the dilution effects increase when the percentage of crystalline mineral additions used is increased. Depending on the replacement proportion, the mineralogical cement composition and the type of crystalline addition, at 2 days, the prevalence of the dilution effect or the stimulation effect shows that crystalline mineral additions could act as sites of heat dissipation or heat stimulation, respectively.

  20. Immobilization and fixation of molybdenum (6) by Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kindness, A.; Lachowski, E.E.; Minocha, A.K.; Glasser, F.P. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    The immobilization of molybdenum (6) in Portland cement has been studied. Analytical methods are reviewed. As a precursor to studies using commercial cements, the cement constituent phases Ca[sub 3]Al[sub 2]O[sub 6] and Ca[sub 3]SiO[sub 5] and mixtures of Ca[sub 3]Al[sub 2]O[sub 6] and gypsum (CaSO[sub 4][center dot]2H[sub 2]O) have been synthesized and subsequently hydrated with an aqueous solution containing initially 2,000 ppm Mo. The aqueous Mo contents decrease slowly over the first 12 days before attaining a steady-state concentration, ca. 40--50 ppm. Its main speciation is as molybdate, MoO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  1. A thermodynamic approach to the hydration of sulphate-resisting Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Lothenbach, Barbara; Wieland, Erich

    2006-01-01

    A thermodynamic approach is used to model changes in the hydrate assemblage and the composition of the pore solution during the hydration of calcite-free and calcite-containing sulphate-resisting Portland cement CEM I 52.5 N HTS. Modelling is based on thermodynamic data for the hydration products and calculated hydration rates for the individual clinker phases, which are used as time-dependent input parameters. Model predictions compare well with the composition of the hydrate assemblage as observed by TGA and semi-quantitative XRD and with the experimentally determined compositions of the pore solutions. The calculations show that in the presence of small amounts of calcite typically associated with Portland cement, C-S-H, portlandite, ettringite and calcium monocarbonate are the main hydration products. In the absence of calcite in the cement, however, siliceous hydrogarnet instead of calcium monocarbonate is observed to precipitate. The use of a higher water-to-cement ratio for the preparation of a calcite-containing cement paste has a minor effect on the composition of the hydrate assemblage, while it significantly changes the composition of the pore solution. In particular, lower pH value and higher Ca concentrations appear that could potentially influence the solubility and uptake of heavy metals and anions by cementitious materials.

  2. Recycling of porcelain tile polishing residue in portland cement: hydration efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pelisser, Fernando; Steiner, Luiz Renato; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-02-21

    Ceramic tiles are widely used by the construction industry, and the manufacturing process of ceramic tiles generates as a major residue mud derived from the polishing step. This residue is too impure to be reused in the ceramic process and is usually discarded as waste in landfills. But the analysis of the particle size and concentration of silica of this residue shows a potential use in the manufacture of building materials based on portland cement. Tests were conducted on cement pastes and mortars using the addition of 10% and 20% (mass) of the residue. The results of compressive strength in mortars made up to 56 days showed a significant increase in compressive strength greater than 50%. The result of thermogravimetry shows that portlandite is consumed by the cement formed by the silica present in the residue in order to form calcium silicate hydrate and featuring a pozzolanic reaction. This effect improves the performance of cement, contributes to research and application of supplementary cementitious materials, and optimizes the use of portland cement, reducing the environmental impacts of carbon dioxide emissions from its production.

  3. Understanding mineral trioxide aggregate/Portland-cement: a review of literature and background factors.

    PubMed

    Steffen, R; van Waes, H

    2009-06-01

    This was to carry out a review of the literature concerning mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement with regards to clinical, biological and mechanical findings and a possible substitution of MTA through Portland cement for endodontic use. Electronic literature search of scientific papers from January 1993 to January 2009 was carried out on the MEDLINE and Scopus databases using specific key words. In total, 57 papers were identified that dealt with MTA and Portland cement in a relevant way. The review of 50 papers conforming to the applied criteria showed that MTA and Portland cements have the same clinical, biological and mechanical properties. In animal experiments and technical characterisations both materials seemed to have very similar properties. The only difference is bismuth oxide in MTA added for better radio opacity. It seems likely that MTA materials are based on industrial Portland cements mixed with bismuth oxide. More studies, especially some long-term studies comparing MTA and Portland cement, are necessary. The existing literature gives a solid base for clinical studies with Portland cement in order to replace MTA as an endodontic material. Portland cement could be a substitute for most endodontic materials used in primary teeth.

  4. 75 FR 54969 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...EPA is finalizing amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry and to the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Portland Cement Plants. The final amendments to the NESHAP add or revise, as applicable, emission limits for mercury, total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM) from new and......

  5. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited... review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this... duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

  6. Characterization of Slag, Fly Ash and Portland Cement for Saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J

    2006-02-01

    Batch-to-batch variability in the chemical and physical properties of the fly ash, slag and portland cement (binders) will be an ongoing concern over the many years that salt waste from Tank 50 will be processed into grout at the Saltstone Processing Facility. This batch-to-batch variability in the properties of the binder materials translates to variability in the fresh and cured properties of Saltstone. Therefore, it is important to quantify the batch-to-batch variability of the binder materials and the resultant variation in grout properties. This report is the starting point for that process by providing the baseline (reference point) binder properties to which future batches of binder materials can be compared. For this characterization effort, properties of fly ash, slag and portland cement were obtained and documented in this report. These properties included particle size distribution by laser light scattering and dry sieving, particle size and morphology by scanning electron microscopy, true, aerated and tapped densities, chemical composition, rheological properties of the water based slurries made from individual binder material, and volatility through thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The properties presented in this report also provide a baseline data set to assist in problem solving efforts when or if unanticipated and/or unwanted processing events occur at the Saltstone Processing Facility.

  7. Effect of wastewater on properties of Portland pozzolana cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, G. Reddy

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the effect of wastewaters on properties of Portland pozzolana cement (PPC). Fourteen water treatment plants were found out in the Narasaraopet municipality region in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Approximately, from each plant, between 3500 and 4000 L/day of potable water is selling to consumers. All plants are extracting ground water and treating through Reverse Osmosis (RO) process. During water treatment, plants are discharging approximately 1,00,000 L/day as wastewater in side drains in Narasaraopet municipality. Physical and chemical analysis was carried out on fourteen plants wastewater and distilled water as per producer described in APHA. In the present work, based on the concentrations of constituent's in wastewater, four typical plants i.e., Narasaraopeta Engineering College (NECWW), Patan Khasim Charitable Trust (PKTWW), Mahmadh Khasim Charitable Trust (MKTWW) and Amara (ARWW) were considered. The performance of four plants wastewater on physical properties i.e., setting times, compressive strength, and flexural strength of Portland pozzolana Cement (PPC) were performed in laboratories and compared same with reference specimens i.e., made with Distilled Water (DW) as mixing water. No significant change was observed in initial and finial setting time but setting times of selected wastewaters were retarded as compared to that of reference water. Almost, no change was observed in 90 days compressive and flexural strengths in four plants wastewaters specimens compared to that of reference water specimens. XRD technique was employed to find out main hydration compounds formed in the process.

  8. Differentiating seawater and groundwater sulfate attack in Portland cement mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanam, Manu . E-mail: manus@iitm.ac.in; Cohen, Menashi; Olek, Jan

    2006-12-15

    The study reported in this article deals with understanding the physical, chemical and microstructural differences in sulfate attack from seawater and groundwater. Portland cement mortars were completely immersed in solutions of seawater and groundwater. Physical properties such as length, mass, and compressive strength were monitored periodically. Thermal analysis was used to study the relative amounts of phases such as ettringite, gypsum, and calcium hydroxide, and microstructural studies were conducted by scanning electron microscopy. Portland cement mortars performed better in seawater solution compared to groundwater solution. The difference in performance could be attributed to the reduction in the quantity of the expansive attack products (gypsum and ettringite). The high Cl concentration of seawater could have played an important role by binding the C{sub 3}A to form chloroaluminate compounds, such as Friedel's salt (detected in the microstructural studies), and also by lowering the expansive potential of ettringite. Furthermore, the thicker layer of brucite forming on the specimens in seawater could have afforded better protection against ingress of the solution than in groundwater.

  9. Physical evaluation of a new pulp capping material developed from portland cement

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Ahmed; Hassanien, Ehab; Abu-Seida, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of addition of 10% and 25% by weight calcium hydroxide on the physicochemical properties of Portland cement associated with 20% bismuth oxide in order to develop a new pulp capping material. Material and Methods The solubility, pH value, setting time, compressive strength, and push out bond strength of modified Portland were evaluated and compared to those of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement containing 20% bismuth oxide. Results The statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test. The results show that the strength properties and push out bond strength of Portland cement were adversely affected by addition of calcium hydroxide especially with a ratio of 25 wt%, however, the setting time and pH were not affected. MTA showed a statistically significant lower setting time than other cements (P≤0.001). Portland cement with bismuth oxide and Port Cal I showed a statistically significant higher Push out Bond strength than MTA and Port Cal II (P=0.001). Conclusions Taking the setting time, push out bond strength and pH value into account, addition of 10 wt% calcium hydroxide to Portland cement associated with 20% bismuth oxide produces a new pulp capping material with acceptable physical and adhesive properties. Further studies are recommended to test this cement biologically as a new pulp capping material. Key words:Calcium hydroxide, MTA, Portland cement, setting time, solubility, strength. PMID:27398178

  10. The Investigation of Properties of Insulating Refractory Concrete with Portland Cement Binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudžma, A.; Antonovič, V.; Stonys, R.; Škamat, J.

    2015-11-01

    The present work contains the results of experimental study on properties of insulating refractory concrete created on the basis of Portland cement (PC) binder and modified with microsilica (MS). The experimental compositions were made using Portland cement, lightweight aggregates (expanded clay and vermiculite) and microsilica additives. It was established that MS additives enable significant improvement of mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of PC-based insulating concrete with values comparable to insulating refractory concrete based on calcium aluminate cement.

  11. Increase in the strength characteristics of Portland cement due to introduction of the compound mineral supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Gichko, Nikolai; Mukhina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    At the initial phase of hardening it is the limestone component that plays a major role in the hardening process, which acts as the substrate for the crystallization of hydrate tumors due to its chemical affinity with the products of Portland cement hydration. After 7 days, the diopside supplement influences the processes more significantly. Diopside has a high modulus of elasticity compared to the cement paste. As a result, stresses are redistributed within the cement paste and the whole composition is hardened. An increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement to more than 66.7% does not provide a substantial increase in the strength of the cement paste. As the hardness of diopside is higher than the hardness of limestone, much more energy is required to grind it down to a usable component. Therefore, a further increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement is not economically feasible. An evaluation of the optimum quantity of input compound mineral supplements can be made based on the ideas of close packing of spherical particles and the Pauling rules. The optimum content of the supplement is 8-8.5% provided that its dispersion and density are close to the dispersion and density of the binder. An increase in the dispersion of the supplement reduces its optimal quantity.

  12. Aluminum dross oxide products for the portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zuck, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Recovery of aluminum metal from drosses is a major factor in the recyclability success story enjoyed by the United States aluminum industry. Today`s modern dross processor uses the latest technology to maximize metal recovery at the lowest cost while complying with all environmental laws and regulations. Most dross processors, however, pay little attention to the resulting saltcake, the end residual of dross recycling, and rely on landfills for disposition of this material. The alternative is to recycle the saltcake, but the success of this technology is dependent on the development of reliable outlets for each of the saltcake constituents. This paper discusses the evolution of an aluminum dross oxide processing technology that produces an economically attractive source of alumina for the production of portland cement.

  13. Pulpotomies with Portland cement in human primary molars.

    PubMed

    Conti, Taísa Regina; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Fornetti, Ana Paula Camolese; Moretti, Ana Beatriz Silveira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Abdo, Ruy Cesar Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Two clinical cases in which Portland cement (PC) was applied as a medicament after pulpotomy of mandibular primary molars in children are presented. Pulpotomy using PC was carried out in two mandibular first molars and one mandibular second molar, which were further followed-up. At the 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up appointments, clinical and radiographic examinations of the pulpotomized teeth and their periradicular area revealed that the treatments were successful in maintaining the teeth asymptomatic and preserving pulpal vitality. Additionally, the formation of a dentin bridge immediately below the PC could be observed in the three molars treated. PC may be considered as an effective alternative for primary molar pulpotomies, at least in a short-term period. Randomized clinical trials with human teeth are required in order to determine the suitability of PC before unlimited clinical use can be recommended.

  14. Detecting flaws in Portland cement concrete using TEM horn antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qadi, Imad L.; Riad, Sedki M.; Su, Wansheng; Haddad, Rami H.

    1996-11-01

    To understand the dielectric properties of PCC and better correlate them with type and severity of PCC internal defects, a study was conducted to evaluate PCC complex permittivity and magnetic permeability over a wideband of frequencies using both time domain and frequency domain techniques. Three measuring devices were designed and fabricated: a parallel plate capacitor, a coaxial transmission line, and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antennae. The TEM horn antenna covers the microwave frequencies. The measurement technique involves a time domain setup that was verified by a frequency domain measurement. Portland cement concrete slabs, 60 by 75 by 14 cm, were cast; defects include delamination, delamination filled with water, segregation, and chloride contamination. In this paper, measurements using the TEM horn antennae and the feasibility of detecting flaws at microwave frequency are presented.

  15. PULPOTOMIES WITH PORTLAND CEMENT IN HUMAN PRIMARY MOLARS

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Taísa Regina; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy; Fornetti, Ana Paula Camolese; Moretti, Ana Beatriz Silveira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Lourenço, Natalino; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; Abdo, Ruy Cesar Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Two clinical cases in which Portland cement (PC) was applied as a medicament after pulpotomy of mandibular primary molars in children are presented. Pulpotomy using PC was carried out in two mandibular first molars and one mandibular second molar, which were further followed-up. At the 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up appointments, clinical and radiographic examinations of the pulpotomized teeth and their periradicular area revealed that the treatments were successful in maintaining the teeth asymptomatic and preserving pulpal vitality. Additionally, the formation of a dentin bridge immediately below the PC could be observed in the three molars treated. PC may be considered as an effective alternative for primary molar pulpotomies, at least in a short-term period. Randomized clinical trials with human teeth are required in order to determine the suitability of PC before unlimited clinical use can be recommended. PMID:19148409

  16. Chromium stabilization chemistry of paint removal wastes in Portland cement and blast furnace slag

    SciTech Connect

    Boy, J.H.; Race, T.D.; Reinbold, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The use of cement based systems for solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes has been proposed. The stabilization of Cr contaminated paint removal wastes in ordinary Portland cement and in a Portland cement and blast furnace slag matrix was investigated. A loading by volume of 75% waste and 25% cement (or cement + slag) was used. The expression of pore solution was utilized to determine the chemical environment encountered by the waste species in the cement matrix. The highly alkaline conditions of ordinary Portland cement determined the stability of the metal species, with Cr being highly soluble. The replacement of 25% of the Portland cement by blast furnace slag was found to decrease the [OH-] of the pore solution resulting in a decrease of the Cr concentration. For cement wastes forms hydrated for 28 days, the Cr concentration decreased in the expressed pore solution. During the TCLP tests the cement waste form and extraction solution were found to react, changing the chemistry of the extraction solution. The expression of pore solution was found to give a direct measure of the chemistry of the waste species in the cement matrix. This avoids the reaction of the TCLP extraction solution with the cement matrix which changes the solubility of the hazardous metals. 15 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements

    SciTech Connect

    Soin, Alexander V.; Catalan, Lionel J.J.; Kinrade, Stephen D.

    2013-06-15

    A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

  18. Effect of different mixing methods on the physical properties of Portland cement

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Jafari, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The Portland cement is hydrophilic cement; as a result, the powder-to-liquid ratio affects the properties of the final mix. In addition, the mixing technique affects hydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing techniques (conventional, amalgamator and ultrasonic) on some selective physical properties of Portland cement. Material and Methods The physical properties to be evaluated were determined using the ISO 6786:2001 specification. One hundred sixty two samples of Portland cement were prepared for three mixing techniques for each physical property (each 6 samples). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results The mixing technique had no significant effect on the compressive strength, film thickness and flow of Portland cement (P>0.05). Dimensional changes (shrinkage), solubility and pH increased significantly by amalgamator and ultrasonic mixing techniques (P<0.05). The ultrasonic technique significantly decreased working time, and the amalgamator and ultrasonic techniques significantly decreased the setting time (P<0.05). Conclusions The mixing technique exerted no significant effect on the flow, film thickness and compressive strength of Portland cement samples. Key words:Physical properties, Portland cement, mixing methods. PMID:27957256

  19. Experimental Study on Artificial Cemented Sand Prepared with Ordinary Portland Cement with Different Contents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongliang; Liu, Xinrong; Liu, Xianshan

    2015-01-01

    Artificial cemented sand test samples were prepared by using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as the cementing agent. Through uniaxial compression tests and consolidated drained triaxial compression tests, the stress-strain curves of the artificial cemented sand with different cementing agent contents (0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.08) under various confining pressures (0.00 MPa, 0.25 MPa, 0.50 MPa and 1.00 MPa) were obtained. Based on the test results, the effect of the cementing agent content (Cv) on the physical and mechanical properties of the artificial cemented sand were analyzed and the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory was modified by using Cv. The research reveals that when Cv is high (e.g., Cv = 0.03, 0.05 or 0.08), the stress-strain curves of the samples indicate a strain softening behavior; under the same confining pressure, as Cv increases, both the peak strength and residual strength of the samples show a significant increase. When Cv is low (e.g., Cv = 0.01), the stress-strain curves of the samples indicate strain hardening behavior. From the test data, a function of Cv (the cementing agent content) with c′ (the cohesion force of the sample) and Δϕ′ (the increment of the angle of shearing resistance) is obtained. Furthermore, through modification of the Mohr-Coulomb strength theory, the effect of cementing agent content on the strength of the cemented sand is demonstrated. PMID:28793418

  20. Evaluation of genetic damage in human peripheral lymphocytes exposed to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements.

    PubMed

    Braz, M G; Camargo, E A; Salvadori, D M F; Marques, M E A; Ribeiro, D A

    2006-03-01

    summary Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement are being used in dentistry as root-end-filling material for periapical surgery and for the sealing of communications between the root canal system and the surrounding tissues. However, genotoxicity tests for complete risk assessment of these compounds have not been conducted up to now. In the present study, the genotoxic effects of MTA and Portland cements were evaluated in peripheral lymphocytes from 10 volunteers by the alkaline single cell gel (comet) assay. The results pointed out that the single cell gel (comet) assay failed to detect the presence of DNA damage after a treatment of peripheral lymphocytes by MTA and Portland cements for concentrations up to 1000 mug mL(-1). In summary, our results indicate that exposure to MTA or Portland cements may not be a factor that increases the level of DNA lesions in human peripheral lymphocytes as detected by single cell gel (comet) assay.

  1. Good Cause Final Rule and Proposal: NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Alternative Monitoring Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Withdrawing direct final rule that would have extended approval for the use of an alternative compliance monitoring method for hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits at Portland cement plants and reopening public comment on parallel proposal.

  2. The existence of amorphous phase in Portland cements: Physical factors affecting Rietveld quantitative phase analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Snellings, Ruben Bazzoni, Amélie Scrivener, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Rietveld quantitative phase analysis has become a widespread tool for the characterization of Portland cement, both for research and production control purposes. One of the major remaining points of debate is whether Portland cements contain amorphous content or not. This paper presents detailed analyses of the amorphous phase contents in a set of commercial Portland cements, clinker, synthetic alite and limestone by Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction measurements using both external and internal standard methods. A systematic study showed that the sample preparation and comminution procedure is closely linked to the calculated amorphous contents. Particle size reduction by wet-grinding lowered the calculated amorphous contents to insignificant quantities for all materials studied. No amorphous content was identified in the final analysis of the Portland cements under investigation.

  3. Final Rule: NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: Alternative Monitoring Method

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is extending its approval for the use of an alternative method to show compliance with hydrogen chloride (HCl) emissions limits in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry

  4. The hardening of Portland cement studied by ? NMR stray-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Teresa; Randall, E. W.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Bodart, P.; Feio, G.

    1996-03-01

    Hydration and hardening processes of Portland cement (type I) were studied by analysis of the one-dimensional projections (profiles) obtained periodically with the 0022-3727/29/3/044/img8 stray-field imaging technique over two days. The influence of additives, such as gypsum, in Portland cement (type IA) was also investigated. The decay of the signal intensity as a function of time was found to be bi-exponential for type I and mono-exponential for type IA.

  5. Analyses of heavy metals in mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Schembri, Matthew; Peplow, George; Camilleri, Josette

    2010-07-01

    Portland cement is used in the construction industry as a binder in concrete. It is manufactured from chalk, limestone, and clay, which are clinkered at very high temperatures and ground with gypsum to form Portland cement. The raw materials and the manufacturing process can result in the inclusion of heavy metals in Portland cement. Portland cement with a four to one addition of bismuth oxide is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), which is used mainly as a dental material. Heavy metal inclusion can be of concern because MTA is in contact with hard and soft tissues. Measurements of arsenic, lead, and chromium in hydrated gray and white Portland cement, ProRoot MTA, and MTA Angelus were conducted with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion on the hydrated material. The leaching of the metal ions from the solid material in water and simulated body fluid (SBF) was also determined. All cement types showed high relative values of leached chromium compared with arsenic and lead in both the total metal content and leached species. The gray Portland cement showed the highest total amount of metal. The white Portland and both MTAs had lower values for all the leached metal ions. Both MTAs released more arsenic than the amount specified in ISO 9917-1 (2007). Portland cements and MTAs showed evidence of heavy metals in the acid-soluble form as well as leaching in deionized water and SBF. MTA contained levels of arsenic higher than the safe limit specified by the ISO 9917-1 (2007). Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation of Ni speciation in hardened cement paste.

    PubMed

    Vespa, M; Dähn, R; Grolimund, D; Wieland, E; Scheidegger, A M

    2006-04-01

    Cement-based materials play an important role in multi-barrier concepts developed worldwide for the safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Cement is used to condition and stabilize the waste materials and to construct the engineered barrier systems (container, backfill, and liner materials) of repositories for radioactive waste. In this study, Ni uptake by hardened cement paste has been investigated with the aim of improving our understanding of the immobilization process of heavy metals in cement on the molecular level. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques were used to determine the local environment of Ni in cement systems. The Ni-doped samples were prepared at two different water/cement ratios (0.4, 1.3) and different hydration times (1 hour to 1 year) using a sulfate-resisting Portland cement. The metal loadings and the metal salts added to the system were varied (50 up to 5000 mg/kg; NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl-). The XAS study showed that for all investigated systems Ni(ll) is predominantly immobilized in a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase, which was corroborated by DRS measurements. Only a minor extent of Ni(ll) precipitates as Ni-hydroxides (alpha-Ni(OH)2 and beta-Ni(OH)2). This finding suggests that Ni-Al LDH, rather than Ni-hydroxides, is the solubility-limiting phase in the Ni-doped cement system.

  7. Ion release and pH of a new endodontic cement, MTA and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Amini Ghazvini, Sara; Abdo Tabrizi, Maryam; Kobarfard, Farzad; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    This in vitro study measured and compared pH and phosphate and calcium ions release of a new endodontic material (CEM cement), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and Portland cement (PC) using UV-visible technique, atomic absorption spectrophotometry methods, and pH meter, respectively. Each material was placed in a plastic tube (n=10) and immersed in a glass flask containing deionized water. Half of the samples were tested for determining pH and released ions after 1h, 3h, 24h, 48h, 7d and 28d. Remaining samples (n=5), were evaluated after 28d. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results indicated that all materials were highly alkaline and released calcium and low concentration of phosphate ions in all the time intervals. CEM cement released considerably higher concentration of phosphate during the first hour (P<0.05). This novel endodontic cement promoted alkaline pH in a similar manner to MTA and released calcium and phosphate. These conditions can stimulate the calcification process and explain the basic physico-chemical mechanisms of hard tissue regeneration of CEM cement.

  8. Coagulated silica - a-SiO2 admixture in cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Záleská, Martina; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous silica (a-SiO2) in fine-grained form possesses a high pozzolanic activity which makes it a valuable component of blended binders in concrete production. The origin of a-SiO2 applied in cement-based composites is very diverse. SiO2 in amorphous form is present in various amounts in quite a few supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) being used as partial replacement of Portland cement. In this work, the applicability of a commercially produced coagulated silica powder as a partial replacement of Portland cement in cement paste mix design is investigated. Portland cement CEM I 42.5R produced according to the EU standard EN 197-1 is used as a reference binder. Coagulated silica is applied in dosages of 5 and 10 % by mass of cement. The water/binder ratio is kept constant in all the studied pastes. For the applied silica, specific surface area, density, loss on ignition, pozzolanic activity, chemical composition, and SiO2 amorphous phase content are determined. For the developed pastes on the basis of cement-silica blended binder, basic physical properties as bulk density, matrix density, and total open porosity are accessed. Pore size distribution is determined using MIP analysis. Initial and final setting times of fresh mixtures are measured by automatic Vicat apparatus. Effect of silica admixture on mechanical resistivity is evaluated using compressive strength, bending strength, and dynamic Young's modulus measurement. The obtained data gives evidence of a decreased workability of paste mixtures with silica, whereas the setting process is accelerated. On the other hand, reaction activity of silica with Portland cement minerals results in a slight decrease of porosity and improvement of mechanical resistivity of cement pastes containing a-SiO2.

  9. Blasted copper slag as fine aggregate in Portland cement concrete.

    PubMed

    Dos Anjos, M A G; Sales, A T C; Andrade, N

    2017-07-01

    The present work focuses on assessing the viability of applying blasted copper slag, produced during abrasive blasting, as fine aggregate for Portland cement concrete manufacturing, resulting in an alternative and safe disposal method. Leaching assays showed no toxicity for this material. Concrete mixtures were produced, with high aggregate replacement ratios, varying from 0% to 100%. Axial compressive strength, diametrical compressive strength, elastic modulus, physical indexes and durability were evaluated. Assays showed a significant improvement in workability, with the increase in substitution of fine aggregate. With 80% of replacement, the concrete presented lower levels of water absorption capacity. Axial compressive strength and diametrical compressive strength decreased, with the increase of residue replacement content. The greatest reductions of compressive strength were found when the replacement was over 40%. For tensile strength by diametrical compression, the greatest reduction occurred for the concrete with 80% of replacement. After the accelerated aging, results of mechanic properties showed a small reduction of the concrete with blasted copper slag performance, when compared with the reference mixture. Results indicated that the blasted copper slag is a technically viable material for application as fine aggregate for concrete mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Portland cement for SO/sub 2/ control in coal-fired power plants

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.

    1984-10-17

    A method is described for removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. The cement products that result from this method is also described. 1 tab.

  11. Portland cement for SO.sub.2 control in coal-fired power plants

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1985-01-01

    There is described a method of removing oxides of sulfur from the emissions of fossil fuel combustion by injecting portland cement into the boiler with the fuel, the combustion air, or downstream with the combustion gases. There is also described the cement products that result from this method.

  12. Drilling fluid conversion: Selection and use of Portland or blast-furnace-slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    Schlemmer, R.P.; Branam, N.E.; Edwards, T.M.; Valenziano, R.C.

    1994-12-01

    Conversion of drilling mud to oilwell cement has advanced from an unpredictable laboratory curiosity to a practical reality. Recent field introduction of polymer dispersants, organic accelerators, and an alternative cementitious material have provided two refined and practical conversion methods. Each method claims universal applicability plus performance superior to that of conventionally mixed and pumped Portland cement. Both blast-furnace-slag (BFS) and Portland cement are used for drilling-mud conversion. Portland and BFS mud conversions can use the same recently developed polymer dispersants, filtration-control materials, defoamers, and other additives that are typically used to treat high-temperature, highly-salt-contaminated drilling muds. Experience in the field and laboratory has demonstrated that conversion with BFS or Portland cement is essentially one technology from a pilot-test and application standpoint. While use of these two materials reflects essentially one technology, distinct performance and cost differences exist. These differences define the specific economic application advantages and must be considered when a decision to use BFS or Portland cement is made. Rational selection of mud-to-cement conversion depends on a detailed economic comparison of basic materials, logistics, and equipment availability.

  13. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Marques, Nádia Carolina Teixeira; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila de Oliveira; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to MTA Fillapex® (Angelus), an experimental root canal filling material based on Portland cement and propylene glycol (PCPG), and a zinc oxide, eugenol and iodoform (ZOEI) paste. These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated regarding inflammatory reaction parameters by optical microscopy. The intensity of inflammatory response against the sealers was analyzed by two blinded and previously calibrated examiners for all experimental periods (kappa=0.96). The histological evaluation showed that all materials caused a moderate inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which subsided with time. A greater inflammatory reaction was observed at 7 days in the tubes filled with ZOEI paste. Tubes filled with MTA Fillapex presented some giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes after 7 days. At 15 days, the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed indicating normal tissue healing. The tubes filled with PCPG showed similar results to those observed in MTA Fillapex. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent at the tissue, with several collagen fibers indicating normal tissue healing. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found only between PCPG at 15 days and ZOEI at 7 days groups. No significant differences were observed among the other groups/periods (p>0.05). MTA Fillapex and Portland cement added with propylene glycol had greater tissue compatibility than the PCPG paste.

  14. Effect of fly ash on the optimum sulfate of Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemuth, Mark D.

    Calcium sulfate is typically added to ordinary portland cement (OPC) clinker during grinding to prevent flash set and to improve early-age strength development without causing volume instabilities. Recent changes to ASTM C150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, have enabled greater flexibility in determining optimum sulfate levels in portland cement by not requiring ASTM C563, Approximation of Optimum SO3 in Hydraulic Cement Using Compressive Strength, to be used in setting sulfate target levels. ASTM C563 requires strength testing using only the hydraulic cement, which is not always indicative of the optimum sulfate for field use, since supplementary materials (e.g., fly ash) may be used by the concrete producer. Adding additional sulfate to account for the sulfate demand of fly ashes can enable an improvement in the early age strength for cement-fly ash systems and decrease in problems that may be attributed to OPC-admixture-fly ash incompatibility such as abnormal setting and slow strength gain. This thesis provides experimental data on the strength development and heat release during early hydration for cement-fly ash systems with different sulfate levels. The thesis focused on high calcium fly ashes, but low calcium fly ash was also tested. It is demonstrated that some fly ashes have their own sulfate demand and when these ashes are used in cement-fly ash blends there is effectively an increase in the optimal sulfate level that could be used for the OPC. It is also shown that optimum sulfate determined by heat of hydration measured with isothermal calorimetry is similar to the optimum sulfate determined by compressive strength at 1 day. Using isothermal calorimetry can result in substantial time and cost savings at plants for determining the optimal sulfate content. Theories for the mechanisms that drive the differences in sulfate demand in OPC are reviewed. These theories are adapted for OPC-fly ash blends and are outlined, tested and discussed. The

  15. Physical and microstructural aspects of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone blended Portland cements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Thomas; Lothenbach, Barbara; Romer, Michael; Neuenschwander, Juerg; Scrivener, Karen

    2009-12-15

    The consequences of external sulfate attack were investigated by traditional test methods, i.e. length and mass change, as well as by a newly developed, surface sensitive ultrasonic method, using Leaky Rayleigh waves (1 MHz). The macroscopic changes are discussed and compared with thermodynamic calculations and microstructural findings (SEM/EDS). The results show that the main impact of limestone additions on resistance to sulfate degradation are physical - i.e. addition of a few percent in Portland cement reduces the porosity and increases the resistance of Portland cement systems to sulfate; but higher addition of 25% increase porosity and lower resistance to sulfate. The kinetics of degradation were dramatically affected by the solution concentration (4 or 44 g Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/l) and the higher concentration also resulted in the formation of gypsum, which did not occur at the low concentration. However the pattern of cracking was similar in both cases and it appears that gypsum precipitates opportunistically in pre-formed cracks so it is not considered as making a significant contribution to the degradation. At 8 deg. C limited formation of thaumasite occurred in the surface region of the samples made from cement with limestone additions. This thaumasite formation led to loss of cohesion of the paste and loss of material from the surface of the samples. However thaumasite formation was always preceded by expansion and cracking of the samples due to ettringite formation and given the very slow kinetics of thaumasite formation it was probably facilitated by the opening up of the structure due to ettringite induced cracking. The expansion of the samples showed a steady stage, followed by a rapidly accelerating stage, with destruction of the samples. The onset of the rapidly accelerating stage occurred when the thickness of the cracked surface layer reached about 1-1.5 mm-10-15% of the total specimen thickness (10 mm).

  16. Microstructural Origins of Cement Paste Degradation by External Sulfate Attack

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pan; Garboczi, Edward J.; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    A microstructure model has been applied to simulate near-surface degradation of portland cement paste in contact with a sodium sulfate solution. This new model uses thermodynamic equilibrium calculations to guide both compositional and microstructure changes. It predicts localized deformation and the onset of damage by coupling the confined growth of new solids with linear thermoelastic finite element calculations of stress and strain fields. Constrained ettringite growth happens primarily at the expense of calcium monosulfoaluminate, carboaluminate and aluminum-rich hydrotalcite, if any, respectively. Expansion and damage can be mitigated chemically by increasing carbonate and magnesium concentrations or microstructurally by inducing a finer dispersion of monosulfate. PMID:26722191

  17. Microstructural Origins of Cement Paste Degradation by External Sulfate Attack.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pan; Garboczi, Edward J; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W

    2015-10-15

    A microstructure model has been applied to simulate near-surface degradation of portland cement paste in contact with a sodium sulfate solution. This new model uses thermodynamic equilibrium calculations to guide both compositional and microstructure changes. It predicts localized deformation and the onset of damage by coupling the confined growth of new solids with linear thermoelastic finite element calculations of stress and strain fields. Constrained ettringite growth happens primarily at the expense of calcium monosulfoaluminate, carboaluminate and aluminum-rich hydrotalcite, if any, respectively. Expansion and damage can be mitigated chemically by increasing carbonate and magnesium concentrations or microstructurally by inducing a finer dispersion of monosulfate.

  18. Portland cement for bone tissue engineering: Effects of processing and metakaolin blends.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Higuita-Castro, Natalia; Quiroz, Felipe García; Posada, Olga M; López, Luis E; Litsky, Alan S; Hansford, Derek J

    2011-08-01

    The need for a suitable scaffolding material for load bearing bone tissue engineering still has yet to be met satisfactorily. In this study, Portland cement and Portland cement/metakaolin (MK) blends were processed to render them biologically and mechanically suitable for such application. Portland cement was mixed with MK at different ratios. The slurries were hydrated under atmospheric (noncarbonated samples) and high-CO₂ conditions (carbonated samples). The mechanical properties were characterized via compressive tests. The bioactivity was analyzed in a simulated body fluid solution. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to evaluate sample morphology and chemistry. The cytocompatibility (direct contact assay, MTT test, and alkaline phosphatase activity) was tested using human osteoblast-like cells. Cell responses were observed via conventional and electron microscopy. The results showed that the implementation of MK did not significantly influence the mechanical properties. All the samples evidenced bioactive behavior. Cell experiments confirmed a highly cytotoxic response to the noncarbonated specimens. The introduction of MK as well as the CO₂ pretreatment significantly improved the cytocompatibility of the specimens. These results show that properly processed Portland cement and Portland cement/MK blends could present suitable properties for the development of load-bearing scaffolding structures in bone tissue-engineering applications.

  19. Immediate and delayed solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Bodanezi, Augusto; Carvalho, Nara; Silva, Daniela; Bernardineli, Norberti; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement since its mixture until 672 hours, by means of two complimentary methods. Metal ring molds filled with the cements were covered with distilled water and, at each experimental time (3, 24, 72, 168, 336 and 672 hours), were weighed as soon as the plates in which the samples have been placed. Empty rings served as the control group (n=8). Mean weight gain and loss was determined and analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for all pairwise comparisons. Only Portland cement showed less than 3% weight loss through 24 hours. Detached MTA residues were heavier than those of Portland cement over the 3 to 168 hours. The weight of MTA rings increased more than that of Portland rings within 672 hours (p=0.05). The findings of the present study indicate that, in an aqueous environment MTA is more soluble than Portland cement and exceeds the maximum weight loss considered acceptable by ISO 6876 standard (2001).

  20. Characterization via nuclear magnetic resonance of Portland cement and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Christopher Lane

    The physicochemical and engineering performance properties of several API class G and H ordinary Portland cements (OPCs) from various foreign and domestic sources have been investigated. The engineering performance properties are found to vary from sample to sample, and sources for this variation were sought out and identified. Magic angle spinning (MAS) 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were marked by unusual relaxation behavior due to paramagnetism inherent in OPCs. A model system was created to mimic the paramagnetism of the cements and the system's relaxation behavior was analyzed. The iron in the calcium aluminoferrite (C4AF) provides the paramagnetism sufficient to substantially increase the relaxation rates of the 29Si in the tricalcium silicate (C3S) and dicalcium silicate (C2S) of cement. Several relaxation techniques were evaluated for analyzing cement relaxation, and saturation recovery was identified as the preferred technique. Correlations of data from the saturation recovery experiments with engineering performance properties, especially the strength development of cement pastes, were obtained facilely. An error analysis of the NMR and engineering performance testing techniques was conducted, which indicated that NMR measurements produced less error than the engineering performance tests. A best practice, modified from the saturation recovery experiment, is proposed for use in property correlations. Additionally, 13C MAS NMR was used to characterize various fluorinated single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWNTs), which proved surprisingly effective in attenuating 13C-19F dipolar interactions and quantifying the extent of functionalization present at high degrees of reaction. The mixed-metal nanocluster known as FeMoC was also characterized by MAS NMR. The impact of the paramagnetic Fe3+ in the Keplerate cage on the 31P nuclei in the caged Keggin ion of FeMoC was evident in the greatly reduced relaxation times measured.

  1. Characterization and utilization of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) as partial replacements of Portland cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Om Shervan

    The characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) and their effects as partial replacement of Portland Cement (PC) were studied in this research program. The cement industry is currently under pressure to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and solid by-products in the form of CKDs. The use of CKDs in concrete has the potential to substantially reduce the environmental impact of their disposal and create significant cost and energy savings to the cement industry. Studies have shown that CKDs can be used as a partial substitute of PC in a range of 5--15%, by mass. Although the use of CKDs is promising, there is very little understanding of their effects in CKD-PC blends. Previous studies provide variable and often conflicting results. The reasons for the inconsistent results are not obvious due to a lack of material characterization data. The characteristics of a CKD must be well-defined in order to understand its potential impact in concrete. The materials used in this study were two different types of PC (normal and moderate sulfate resistant) and seven CKDs. The CKDs used in this study were selected to provide a representation of those available in North America from the three major types of cement manufacturing processes: wet, long-dry, and preheater/precalciner. The CKDs have a wide range of chemical and physical composition based on different raw material sources and technologies. Two fillers (limestone powder and quartz powder) were also used to compare their effects to that of CKDs at an equivalent replacement of PC. The first objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive composition analysis of CKDs and compare their characteristics to PC. CKDs are unique materials that must be analyzed differently from PC for accurate chemical and physical analysis. The present study identifies the chemical and physical analytical methods that should be used for CKDs. The study also introduced a method to quantify the relative abundance of the different

  2. Use of coir pith particles in composites with Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Gisela Azevedo Menezes; Vieira, Jhonatas Augusto Rocha; Barreto, Ledjane Silva

    2013-12-15

    Brazil is the fourth largest world's producer of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Coconut crops generate several wastes, including, coir pith. Coir pith and short fibers are the byproducts of extracting the long fibers and account for approximately 70% of the mature coconut husk. The main use of coir pith is as an agricultural substrate. Due to its shape and small size (0.075-1.2 mm), this material can be considered as a particulate material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of coir pith as an aggregate in cementitious composites and to evaluate the effect of the presence of sand in the performance of these composites. Some composites were produced exclusively with coir pith particles and other composites with coir pith partially substituting the natural sand. The cementitious composites developed were tested for their physical and mechanical properties and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to evaluate the effect of coir pith particles addition in cement paste and sand-cement-mortar. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by multiple comparisons of the means by Tukey's test that showed that the composites with coir pith particles, with or without natural sand, had similar mechanical results, i.e., means were not statistically different at 5% significance level. There was a reduction in bulk density and an improved post-cracking behavior in the composites with coir pith particles compared to conventional mortar and to cement paste. These composites can be used for the production of lightweight, nonstructural building materials, according to the values of compressive strength (3.97-4.35 MPa) and low bulk density (0.99-1.26 g/cm(3)).

  3. Stabilization/solidification of selenium-impacted soils using Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    PubMed

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Grubb, Dennis G; Reilly, Trevor L

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes were utilized to immobilize selenium (Se) as selenite (SeO(3)(2-)) and selenate (SeO(4)(2-)). Artificially contaminated soils were prepared by individually spiking kaolinite, montmorillonite and dredged material (DM; an organic silt) with 1000 mg/kg of each selenium compound. After mellowing for 7 days, the Se-impacted soils were each stabilized with 5, 10 and 15% Type I/II Portland cement (P) and cement kiln dust (C) and then were cured for 7 and 28 days. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the S/S treatments. At 28 days curing, P doses of 10 and 15% produced five out of six TCLP-Se(IV) concentrations below 10mg/L, whereas only the 15% C in DM had a TCLP-Se(IV) concentration <10mg/L. Several treatments satisfied the USEPA TCLP best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) limits (5.7 mg/L) for selenium at pozzolan doses up to 10 times less than the treatments that established the BDAT. Neither pozzolan was capable of reducing the TCLP-Se(VI) concentrations below 25mg/L. Se-soil-cement slurries aged for 30 days enabled the identification of Se precipitates by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). XRD and SEM-EDX analyses of the Se(IV)- and Se(VI)-soil-cement slurries revealed that the key selenium bearing phases for all three soil-cement slurries were calcium selenite hydrate (CaSeO(3).H(2)O) and selenate substituted ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SeO(4))(3)(OH)(12).26H(2)O), respectively.

  4. Enhancement of cemented waste forms by supercritical CO{sub 2} carbonation of standard portland cements

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.; Taylor, C.M.V.

    1997-08-01

    We are conducting experiments on an innovative transformation concept, using a traditional immobilization technique, that may significantly reduce the volume of hazardous or radioactive waste requiring transport and long-term storage. The standard practice for the stabilization of radioactive salts and residues is to mix them with cements, which may include additives to enhance immobilization. Many of these wastes do not qualify for underground disposition, however, because they do not meet disposal requirements for free liquids, decay heat, head-space gas analysis, and/or leachability. The treatment method alters the bulk properties of a cemented waste form by greatly accelerating the natural cement-aging reactions, producing a chemically stable form having reduced free liquids, as well as reduced porosity, permeability and pH. These structural and chemical changes should allow for greater actinide loading, as well as the reduced mobility of the anions, cations, and radionuclides in aboveground and underground repositories. Simultaneously, the treatment process removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement. The treatment method allows for on-line process monitoring of leachates and can be transported into the field. We will describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of solid and semi-solid waste forms. some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed, with particular attention to the engineering requirements for the establishment of on-site processing facilities. Finally, the initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid processing will be presented.

  5. pH and Antimicrobial Activity of Portland Cement Associated with Different Radiopacifying Agents.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Cornélio, Ana Lívia G; Andolfatto, Carolina; Salles, Loise P; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and pH changes induced by Portland cement (PC) alone and in association with radiopacifiers. Methods. The materials tested were pure PC, PC + bismuth oxide, PC + zirconium oxide, PC + calcium tungstate, and zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by agar diffusion test using the following strains: Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. After 24 hours of incubation at 37°C, inhibition of bacterial growth was observed and measured. For pH analysis, material samples (n = 10) were placed in polyethylene tubes and immersed in 10 mL of distilled water. After 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, the pH of the solutions was determined using a pH meter. Results. All microbial species were inhibited by the cements evaluated. All materials composed of PC with radiopacifying agents promoted pH increase similar to pure Portland cement. ZOE had the lowest pH values throughout all experimental periods. Conclusions. All Portland cement-based materials with the addition of different radiopacifiers (bismuth oxide, calcium tungstate, and zirconium oxide) presented antimicrobial activity and pH similar to pure Portland cement.

  6. Comparative investigation of corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement in alinite and Portland cement mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Kostogloudis, G.C.; Kalogridis, D.; Ftikos, C.; Malami, C.; Georgali, B.; Kaloidas, V.

    1998-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of steel-reinforced mortar specimens made from alinite cement was investigated using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) specimens as reference. The specimens were prepared and exposed in three different environments: continuous exposure in tap water, interrupted exposure in tap water, and interrupted exposure in 3.5% NaCl solution. The steel weight loss and the half cell potential were measured vs. exposure time, up to the age of 12 months. Pore solution extraction and analysis and porosity determination were also performed. In continuous exposure in tap water, alinite cement provided adequate protection against corrosion. In interrupted exposure in tap water, a higher corrosion was observed for alinite cement compared to OPC. In the case of interrupted exposure in 3.5% NaCl solution, the simultaneous action of free chlorides and oxygen resulted in the depassivation of steel reinforcing bars in alinite and Portland cement mortars, and led to severe corrosion effect.

  7. The chemical constitution and biocompatibility of accelerated Portland cement for endodontic use.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, J; Montesin, F E; Di Silvio, L; Pitt Ford, T R

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate and accelerated Portland cement and their eluants by assessing cell metabolic function and proliferation. The chemical constitution of grey and white Portland cement, grey and white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and accelerated Portland cement produced by excluding gypsum from the manufacturing process (Aalborg White) was determined using both energy dispersive analysis with X-ray and X-ray diffraction analysis. Biocompatibility of the materials was assessed using a direct test method where cell proliferation was measured quantitatively using Alamar Blue dye and an indirect test method where cells were grown on material elutions and cell proliferation was assessed using methyltetrazolium assay as recommended by the International standard guidelines, ISO 10993-Part 5 for in vitro testing. The chemical constitution of all the materials tested was similar. Indirect studies of the eluants showed an increase in cell activity after 24 h compared with the control in culture medium (P<0.05). Direct cell contact with the cements resulted in a fall in cell viability for all time points studied (P<0.001). Biocompatibility testing of the cement eluants showed the presence of no toxic leachables from the grey or white MTA, and that the addition of bismuth oxide to the accelerated Portland cement did not interfere with biocompatibility. The new accelerated Portland cement showed similar results. Cell growth was poor when seeded in direct contact with the test cements. However, the elution made up of calcium hydroxide produced during the hydration reaction was shown to induce cell proliferation.

  8. Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized with Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Karaca, Gizem

    2007-10-01

    Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was designed including XRF characterization, setting time, unconfined compressive strength, and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) tests. The results were evaluated in order to determine if the solidified /stabilized product can be disposed of at a landfill site with domestic waste or at a segregated landfill. The effect of using sand on S/S performance was also investigated. The results indicated that the solidification /stabilization process using PC helps the heavy metals to be bound in the cement matrix, but the TCLP leaching results exceeded the EPA landfilling limits. The SPLP leaching results conformed to the limits implying that the waste or S/S products can be disposed of at a segregated landfill; however the low ANC of the S/S products reveals that there may be leaching in the long-term. The sand used in the mortar samples adversely affected the S/S performance, causing higher heavy metal leaching levels, and lower pH levels in the leachate after the TCLP extraction than those measured in the leachate of the paste samples.

  9. The effects of complex glyoxal based modifiers on properties of cement paste and hardened cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakova, A.; Kudyakov, A.; Efremova, V.; Latypov, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effect of organic and glyoxal containing additives on the properties of cement paste and hardened cement paste. Complex modifying additives based on liquid glyoxal increasing the strength of the cement paste by 35-63% were developed. Physico-chemical investigations showed that hardened cement paste modified by polylactic acid with glyoxal has a homogeneous and fine-grained structure. Developed complex modifying additives containing glyoxal are approved for use in production technology of heavy cement concretes with advanced properties.

  10. Sulfate impurities from deicing salt and durability of Portland cement mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Schluter, M.C.

    1987-06-01

    This thesis reports research on the effects of calcium sulfate in halite on Portland cement durability. Much has been published about sulfate ions causing expansion reactions in Portland cement concrete, on scaling caused by sodium chloride, and the participation of magnesium sulfate in seawater attack. However, little work has been done on the influence of sodium chloride and calcium sulfate solutions as they are found combined in natural halite. Durability studies were conducted using brines containing different amounts of gypsum as an impurity. Damage mechanisms, reaction products and pore structure changes were evaluated. 16 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Recycling of portland cement concrete pavement, Johnson County. Final report, 1986-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wojakowski, J.B.; Fager, G.A.; Catron, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in recycling construction materials. Surface courses of bituminous pavements are currently being actively recycled all over Kansas. The recycling of portland cement concrete pavements (PCCP) can help alleviate any material disposal problems during construction, especially in urban areas and reduce the consumption or importation of virgin aggregate into aggregate poor areas. Two test sections using the coarser fraction from the original crushed portland cement concrete pavement were placed on K-7 in 1985. One section incorporated a recycled base and standard PCCP construction, another section was designed as a recycled base and recycled PCCP. Two other sections were control sections constructed with regular aggregate.

  12. Construction Productivity Advancement Research (CPAR) Program: Improved Materials and Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements - Field Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    compositions of material- are currently used for scaling portland cement concrete (PCC) joints . These materials vary widely in chemi- cal complexity...PRODUCTIVITY ADVANCEMENT RESEARCH (CPAR) PROGRAM Improved Materials and Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements...Processes for Sealing and Resealing Joints in Portland Cement Concrete Pavements-Field Evaluation by Larry N. Lynch, Dewey W. White Accesion

  13. Comparison of the root-end sealing ability of MTA and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Islam, Intekhab; Chng, Hui Kheng; Yap, Adrian U Jin

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro sealing ability of ProRoot MTA, ProRoot MTA (Tooth-Coloured Formula), ordinary Portland cement and white Portland cement when used as root-end filling materials. Twenty-four single-rooted human premolars were prepared and obturated using standard techniques, then retrofilled with the test materials. The prepared teeth were immersed in 1% methylene blue dye for 72 hours and then assessed for dye leakage. The depth of dye penetration was measured and expressed as a percentage of the length of the retrofilling. Data was analysed using ANOVA and Fisher's Least Significant Test (LSD) (p < 0.05). None of the teeth in any of the test groups showed leakage beyond the retrofillings. Given the low cost and apparently similar sealing ability of the cements, it is reasonable to consider Portland cement as a possible substitute for MTA as a root-end filling material. However, further tests, especially in vivo biocompatibility tests, need to be conducted before Portland cement can be recommended for clinical use.

  14. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-11-15

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C{sub 3}S, 18% C{sub 2}S, 8% C{sub 3}A and 8% C{sub 4}AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO{sub 2}) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C{sub 3}S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C{sub 3}S into C{sub 2}S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C{sub 3}A. Ca{sub 6}Zn{sub 3}Al{sub 4}O{sub 15} was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C{sub 3}A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  15. ESEM analysis of polymeric film in EVA-modified cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, D.A. . E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2005-10-01

    Portland cement pastes modified by 20% weight (polymer/cement ratio) of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) were prepared, cured, and immersed in water for 11 days. The effects of water saturation and drying on the EVA polymeric film formed in cement pastes were observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). This technique allowed the imaging of the EVA film even in saturated samples. The decrease of the relative humidity inside the ESEM chamber did not cause any visual modification of the polymeric film during its drying.

  16. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of two calcium-silicate based cements: Portland cement and biodentine.

    PubMed

    Alhodiry, W; Lyons, M F; Chadwick, R G

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of contamination with saliva and blood on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of pure gray Portland cement and Biodentine (Septodont, Allington, UK). A one-way ANOVA showed that contamination caused no significant difference between the cements in bi-axial flexural strength (P> 0.05). However there was a significant difference in setting time (PPortland cement taking longer than Biodentine, regardless of the contaminant, and contamination with blood increased the setting time of both materials. Biodentine was similar in strength to Portland cement, but had a shorter setting time for both contaminated and non-contaminated samples.

  17. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity of three cements: new endodontic cement (NEC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland.

    PubMed

    Hasan Zarrabi, Mohammad; Javidi, Maryam; Naderinasab, Mahboube; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2009-09-01

    Using the agar diffusion method, we conducted an in vitro study to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), new endodontic cement (NEC) and Portland cement at different concentrations against five different microorganisms. A base layer was made using Muller-Hinton agar for Escherichia coli (ATCC 10538) and Candida (ATCC 10231). For Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 15987), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 10541) and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) blood agar medium was used. Wells were formed by removing the agar, and the materials were placed in the well immediately after manipulation. The plates were kept at room temperature for 2 h for prediffusion, and then incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 h. The inhibition zones were then measured. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test to compare the differences among the three cements at different concentrations. The positive controls showed bacterial growth, while the negative controls showed no bacterial growth. All materials showed antimicrobial activity against the tested strains except for Enterococcus faecalis. NEC created larger inhibition zones than MTA and Portland cement. This difference was significant for Portland cement (P < 0.05), but not for MTA (P > 0.05). Among the examined microorganisms, the largest inhibition zone was observed for Actinomyces group (P < 0.05). The antimicrobial activity of the materials increased with time and concentration (P < 0.05). It was concluded that NEC is a potent inhibitor of microorganism growth.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pozzolan Portland and MTA-Based Cements.

    PubMed

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pozzolan Portland cement were compared to ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. To test the pH, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. After the pH analysis, the sample was retained in the plastic recipient, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to specification 57 of the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA). The statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a 5% level of significance. Pozzolan Portland cement exhibited pH and electrical conductivity mean values similar to those of the MTA-based cements. The solubilities of all tested materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA standards. Only the MTA-based cements met the ANSI/ADA recommendations for radiopacity. It might be concluded that the pH and electrical conductivity of pozzolan Portland cement are similar to and comparable to those of MTA-based cements.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Selected Physicochemical Properties of Pozzolan Portland and MTA-Based Cements

    PubMed Central

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio; Semenoff-Segundo, Alex; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of pozzolan Portland cement were compared to ProRoot MTA and MTA BIO. To test the pH, the samples were immersed in distilled water for different periods of time. After the pH analysis, the sample was retained in the plastic recipient, and the electrical conductivity of the solution was measured. The solubility and radiopacity properties were evaluated according to specification 57 of the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA). The statistical analyses were performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test at a 5% level of significance. Pozzolan Portland cement exhibited pH and electrical conductivity mean values similar to those of the MTA-based cements. The solubilities of all tested materials were in accordance with the ANSI/ADA standards. Only the MTA-based cements met the ANSI/ADA recommendations for radiopacity. It might be concluded that the pH and electrical conductivity of pozzolan Portland cement are similar to and comparable to those of MTA-based cements. PMID:27437473

  20. 77 FR 42367 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (D.C. Circuit). These amendments... government Not affected. State/local/tribal government.... Portland cement manufacturing plants. \\1\\ North... impacts, and energy requirements. See CAA section 112(d)(2).\\1\\ \\1\\ Section 112(d)(7) states that ``...

  1. A Thermoelectric Waste-Heat-Recovery System for Portland Cement Rotary Kilns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qi; Li, Peng; Cai, Lanlan; Zhou, Pingwang; Tang, Di; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie

    2015-06-01

    Portland cement is produced by one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Energy consumption in the manufacture of Portland cement is approximately 110-120 kWh ton-1. The cement rotary kiln is the crucial equipment used for cement production. Approximately 10-15% of the energy consumed in production of the cement clinker is directly dissipated into the atmosphere through the external surface of the rotary kiln. Innovative technology for energy conservation is urgently needed by the cement industry. In this paper we propose a novel thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system to reduce heat losses from cement rotary kilns. This system is configured as an array of thermoelectric generation units arranged longitudinally on a secondary shell coaxial with the rotary kiln. A mathematical model was developed for estimation of the performance of waste heat recovery. Discussions mainly focus on electricity generation and energy saving, taking a Φ4.8 × 72 m cement rotary kiln as an example. Results show that the Bi2Te3-PbTe hybrid thermoelectric waste-heat-recovery system can generate approximately 211 kW electrical power while saving 3283 kW energy. Compared with the kiln without the thermoelectric recovery system, the kiln with the system can recover more than 32.85% of the energy that used to be lost as waste heat through the kiln surface.

  2. Try-in Pastes Versus Resin Cements: A Color Comparison.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Edenize Cristina; Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Rodrigues Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz; Takano, Alfa Emília; de Carvalho Cardoso, Paula; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the color of ceramic veneer restorations using different shades of try-in pastes and resin cement. Researchers found no differences between try-in pastes and resin cements after cementation.

  3. Thermal analysis of borogypsum and its effects on the physical properties of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Elbeyli, Iffet Yakar; Derun, Emek Moeroeydor; Guelen, Jale; Piskin, Sabriye

    2003-11-01

    Borogypsum, which consists mainly of gypsum crystals, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and some impurities, is formed during the production of boric acid from colemanite, which is an important borate ore. In this study, the effect of borogypsum and calcined borogypsum on the physical properties of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) has been investigated. The calcination temperature and transformations in the structures of borogypsum and natural gypsum were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Thermal experiments were carried out between ambient temperature and 500 deg. C in an air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1}. After calculation of enthalpy and determination of conversion temperatures, borogypsum (5% and 7%), hemihydrate borogypsum (5%) and natural gypsum (5%) were added separately to Portland cement clinker and cements were ground in the laboratory. The final products were tested for chemical analysis, compressive strength, setting time, Le Chatelier expansion and fineness properties according to the European Standard (EN 196). The results show that increasing the borogypsum level in Portland cement from 5% to 7% caused an increase in setting time and a decrease in soundness expansion and compressive strength. The cement prepared with borogypsum (5%) was found to have similar strength properties to those obtained with natural gypsum, whereas a mixture containing 5% of hemihydrate borogypsum was found to develop 25% higher compressive strength than the OPC control mixtures at 28 days. For this reason, utilization of calcined borogypsum in cement applications is expected to give better results than untreated borogypsum. It is concluded that hemihydrate borogypsum could be used as a retarder for Portland cement as an industrial side. This would play an important role in reducing environmental pollution.

  4. Pulp tissue response to Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulpotomy of human primary molars.

    PubMed

    Marques, N; Lourenço Neto, N; Fernandes, A P; Rodini, C; Hungaro Duarte, M; Rios, D; Machado, M A; Oliveira, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the response of Portland cement associated with different radio pacifying agents on pulp treatment of human primary teeth by clinical and radiographic exams and microscopic analysis. Thirty mandibular primary molars were randomly divided into the following groups: Group I - Portland cement; Group II - Portland cement with iodoform (Portland cement + CHI3 ); Group III - Portland cement with zirconium oxide (Portland cement + ZrO2 ); and treated by pulpotomy technique (removal of a portion of the pulp aiming to maintain the vitally of the remaining radicular pulp tissue using a therapeutic dressing). Clinical and radiographic evaluations were recorded at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. The teeth at the regular exfoliation period were extracted and processed for histological analysis. Data were tested using statistical analysis with a significance level of 5%. The microscopic findings were descriptively analysed. All treated teeth were clinically and radiographically successful at follow-up appointments. The microscopic analysis revealed positive response to pulp repair with hard tissue barrier formation and pulp calcification in the remaining roots of all available teeth. The findings of this study suggest that primary teeth pulp tissue exhibited satisfactory biological response to Portland cement associated with radio pacifying agents. However, further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to determine the safe clinical indication of this alternative material for pulp therapy of primary teeth.

  5. Comparison of radioactive transmission and mechanical properties of Portland cement and a modified cement with trommel sieve waste

    SciTech Connect

    Boncukcuoglu, Recep . E-mail: rboncuk@yahoo.com; Icelli, Orhan; Erzeneoglu, Salih; Muhtar Kocakerim, M.

    2005-06-01

    In this study, it was aimed to stabilize trommel sieve waste (TSW) occurring during manufacture of borax from tincal. The effects of TSW added on the mechanical properties and radioactive transmission of modified cement prepared by adding TSW to clinker was investigated. The properties which TSW as additive caused the cement to gain were tested and compared with normal Portland cement. Measurements have been made to determine variation of mass attenuation coefficients of TSW and cement by using an extremely narrow-collimated-beam transmission method in the energy range 15.746-40.930 keV with X-ray transmission method. The characteristic K{alpha} and K{beta} X-rays of the different elements (Zr, Mo, Ag, In, Sb, Ba and Pr) passed through TSW and cement were detected with a high-resolution Si(Li) detector. Results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Juu-En

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic β-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydration and leaching characteristics of cement pastes made from electroplating sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Chang, Juu-En

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydration and leaching characteristics of the pastes of belite-rich cements made from electroplating sludge. The compressive strength of the pastes cured for 1, 3, 7, 28, and 90 days was determined, and the condensation of silicate anions in hydrates was examined with the {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology. The leachabilities of the electroplating sludge and the hardened pastes were studied with the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (MTCLP) and the tank leaching test (NEN 7345), respectively. The results showed that the electroplating sludge continued to leach heavy metals, including nickel, copper, and zinc, and posed a serious threat to the environment. The belite-rich cement made from the electroplating sludge was abundant in hydraulic {beta}-dicalcium silicate, and it performed well with regard to compressive-strength development when properly blended with ordinary Portland cements. The blended cement containing up to 40% the belite-rich cement can still satisfy the compressive-strength requirements of ASTM standards, and the pastes cured for 90 days had comparable compressive strength to an ordinary Portland cement paste. It was also found that the later hydration reaction of the blended cements was relatively more active, and high fractions of belite-rich cement increased the chain length of silicate hydrates. In addition, by converting the sludge into belite-rich cements, the heavy metals became stable in the hardened cement pastes. This study thus indicates a viable alternative approach to dealing with heavy metal bearing wastes, and the resulting products show good compressive strength and heavy-metal stability.

  8. Permeability of consolidated incinerator facility wastes stabilized with portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-04-19

    The Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) burns low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes as a method of treatment and volume reduction. The CIF generates secondary waste, which consists of ash and offgas scrubber solution. Currently the ash is stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process. The scrubber solution (blowdown) is sent to the SRS Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment as wastewater. In the past, the scrubber solution was also stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process as blowcrete, and will continue to be treated this way for listed waste burns and scrubber solutions that do not meet the ETF Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The disposal plan for Ashcrete and special case blowcrete is to bury these containerized waste forms in shallow unlined trenches in E-Area. The WAC for intimately mixed, cement-based wasteforms intended for direct disposal specifies limits on compressive strength and permeability. Simulated waste and actual CIF ash and scrubber solution were mixed in the laboratory and cast into wasteforms for testing. Test results and related waste disposal consequences are given in this report.

  9. Mechanical properties of Portland cement and its constituents at the nano-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Brent Alexander

    The following is a summary of research for a portion of the project titled Nano to Continuum Multi-Scale Modeling Techniques and Analysis For Cementitious Materials Under Dynamic Loading in association with North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University and the US Army. This research investigates several attempts at creating a better Portland cement model at the atomistic level through molecular dynamics simulations. These models are modified to simulate damage to the basic cement structure, and are simulated using several combinations of forcefields and molecular dynamics tools. Experimental techniques such as nanoindentation, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction are applied to Portland cement samples to correlate mechanical properties among these techniques, as well as the numerical simulations.

  10. To evaluate the biocompatibility of the Indian Portland cement with potential for use in dentistry: An animal study

    PubMed Central

    Mangala, M G; Chandra, S M Sharath; Bhavle, Radhika M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study evaluated the biocompatibility of the Indian Portland cement with potential for use in dentistry. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in Swiss albino mice, by implanting the Indian Portland cement pellets subcutaneously. After 1, 3, and 6 weeks the tissue specimens were prepared for histological examination. Results: The histological analysis showed moderate to severe inflammation at 1 week. The inflammation gradually decreased by 6 weeks, with most of the specimens showing the absence of inflammatory reaction. Conclusions: According to these experimental conditions, the tested Indian Portland cement was biocompatible. PMID:26752835

  11. Precipitation of anionic emulsifier with ordinary Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xing; Winnefeld, Frank; Lura, Pietro

    2016-10-01

    Cement has traditionally been used to accelerate bitumen emulsion breaking in cold mix asphalt and cold recycling asphalt. For cold emulsion mixtures, the mixing stability of bitumen emulsion is a crucial property, because it determines the distribution of bitumen and eventually affects the microstructure and the strength development of asphalt mixtures. Recent studies have proven that the interaction between cement and emulsifiers causes the destabilization of bitumen emulsions. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between cement particles and rosin emulsifiers. For this purpose, the Ca(2+) ions and rosin emulsifier concentration after filtration were measured to identify the interaction between cement and rosin emulsifiers. The consumed emulsifier increases linearly with the amount of added cement or CaCl2 concentration in the case of diluted rosin emulsifier solutions in which the rosin emulsifier concentration is below the CMC (critical micelle concentration). In the case of concentrated rosin emulsifier solutions (above the CMC), the rosin emulsifier concentration shows a sharp decrease when a certain amount of cement or CaCl2 is added. This study indicates that cement destabilizes anionic bitumen emulsion due to the precipitation of rosin emulsifiers caused by Ca(2+) ions which are released by early cement hydration. Further studies on precipitation behavior have shown that micelles of rosin emulsifier can complex Ca(2+) ions but do not precipitate. These findings explain why slow-setting bitumen emulsions, which contain a higher concentration of emulsifier, show better mixing stability.

  12. 76 FR 34252 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Portland Cement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on May 12, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Portland Cement... specified circumstances. Specifically, Drake Cement, LLC, Scottsdale, AZ; Argos USA Corporation, Houston,...

  13. Low-alumina portland cement from lime-soda sinter residue

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A byproduct for the Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process for recovering alumina from power plant fly ash was investigated as a cement raw material. This investigation dealt with a determination of the best method to utilize the process residue from both a clinker quality and an economic perspective. The experimental work was divided into 4 major areas; characterization of the sinter residue, laboratory burnability tests, physical testing of produced residue-cements, and a kinetic study of C{sub 3}S formation. Other important topics were considered such as the effect use of the sinter residue has on the energy requirements of a commercial cement kiln and on the economics of a combined lime-soda sinter, cement plant. It was found that a low-alumina, C{sub 3}S-bearing cement could be readily produced from a raw mix containing significant amounts of sinter residue, which was found to consist of {beta}-C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A, CaCO{sub 3}, MgO, and C{sub 4}AF. Based on an energy balance using a typical cement feed containing around 75%{sub w} limestone as a reference, use of the residue in a cement feed allows for a 50% reduction in required energy for the kiln and a 32%{sub w} increased throughput. A laboratory produced residue-cement was found to meet all of the specifications for a Type 5 portland cement. The rate of return found for a combined lime-soda sinter and cement facility processing 43,800 tons per year (TPY) of alumina and 530,400 TPY of portland cement was 4.7%.

  14. Monitoring of sulphate attack on hardened cement paste studied by synchrotron XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroh, J.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2015-10-01

    The complex matter of external sulphate attack on cement-based construction materials is still not completely understood. The concentration of sulphate is a crucial factor for the formation of secondary phases and phase transitions of cement hydrates due to sulphate ingress into the microstructure. The sulphate attack on building materials for high and low sulphate concentrations was monitored by laboratory experiments. Hardened cement paste consisting of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I) were exposed to aqueous solutions of sodium sulphate for 18 months. Three sample compositions were used for this research, including different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM). The phase composition was determined for different time spans by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Cross sections of exposed cement prisms were investigated as a representation of the microstructural profile. Based on the data, a temporal and spatial determination of the stages of the sulphate attack and the deterioration course was possible. Cement matrices blended with slag showed the highest resistance against sulphate attack.

  15. Low-density foamed Portland cements fill variety of needs

    SciTech Connect

    Montman, R.; Harms, W.M.; Mody, B.G.; Sutton, D.L.

    1982-07-26

    Several important conclusions can be stated as follows. Foam cement offers many attractive properties whenever there is a need for ultra-low density cements in the oil field. Among these properties are high strengths and reasonably low permeabilities. Foam cement can be accurately prepared, placed, and cured both in the laboratory and in the field. Certain guidelines must be followed to provide good results from foam cement jobs. These have been identified and are achievable. Foam cement has proven to be very effective in remedying pressure parting lost circulation. However, one must recognize that large volumes of foam slurry can easily be lost into a fractured formation because most foam slurries have low API fluid loss values and a very low solid volume/ slurry volume ratio-the exact properties desired for an effective fracturing fluid. Therefore, successful lost circulation control with foam cement depends mainly on its low density thixotropic properties. By contrast, light weight slurries that contain micro-spheres, gilsonite or walnut hulls owe much of their lost circulation control to their fracture plugging ability. For this reason, it is advantageous to incorporate solid lost circulation materials into foam cement slurries. Cellophane flakes have been routinely used.

  16. A review of binders used in cemented paste tailings for underground and surface disposal practices.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Amjad; Yanful, Ernest K

    2013-12-15

    Increased public awareness of environmental issues coupled with increasingly stringent environmental regulations pertaining to the disposal of sulphidic mine waste necessitates the mining industry to adopt more competent and efficient approaches to manage acid rock drainage. Cemented paste tailings (CPT) is an innovative form of amalgamated material currently available to the mining industry in developed countries. It is made usually from mill tailings mingled with a small amount of binder (customarily Portland cement) and water. The high cost associated with production and haulage of ordinary Portland cement and its alleged average performance as a sole binder in the long term (due to vulnerability to internal sulphate attack) have prompted users to appraise less expensive and technically efficient substitutes for mine tailings paste formulations. Generally, these binders include but are not limited to sulphate resistant cements, and/or as a partial replacement for Portland cement by artificial pozzolans, natural pozzolans, calcium sulphate substances and sodium silicates. The approach to designing environmentally efficient CPT is to ensure long-term stability and effective control over environmental contaminants through the use of composite binder systems with enhanced engineering properties to cater for inherit deficiencies in the individual constituents. The alkaline pore solution created by high free calcium rich cement kiln dust (CKD) (byproduct of cement manufacturing) is capable of disintegrating the solid glassy network of artificial pozzolans to produce reactive silicate and aluminate species when attacked by (OH(-)) ions. The augmented pozzolanic reactivity of CKD-slag and CKD-fly ash systems may produce resilient CPT. Since cemented paste comprising mine tailings and binders is a relatively new technology, a review of the binding materials used in such formulations and their performance evaluation in mechanical fill behaviour was considered pertinent in

  17. Low-density foamed Portland cements fill variety of needs

    SciTech Connect

    Montman, R.; Harms, W.M.; Mody, B.G.; Sutton, D.L.

    1982-07-26

    Foam cement has proven to be very effective in remedying pressure parting lost circulation. However, one must recognize that large volumes of foam slurry can easily be lost into a fractured formation because most foam slurries have low API fluid loss values and a very low solid volume/ slurry volume ratio--the exact properties desired for an effective fracturing fluid. Therefore: Successful lost circulation control with foam cement depends mainly on its low density thixotropic properties. By contrast, light weight slurries that contain micro-spheres, gilsonite or walnut hulls owe much of their lost circulation control to their fracture plugging ability. For this reason, it is advantageous to incorporate solid lost circulation materials into foam cement slurries. Cellophane flakes have been routinely used. In addition to overcoming the density limitations mandated by breakdown gradients, the successful foam cement job should always meet two general objectives. It should provide sufficient hydrostatic pressure to prevent entry of fluids or gas into the annulus. It should provide good cement soundness and sufficiently low permeability to prevent corrosive water and/ or gas from penetrating the cement sheath and affecting the casing.

  18. Regulation and control of NO{sub x} emissions from the Portland Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Streitman, F.L.; Carter, T.B.; Hawkins, G.J.

    1999-07-01

    In response to current and anticipated regulation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), the US and Canadian portland cement industries evaluated how to mitigate and manage NOx produced from its manufacturing processes. To accomplish this, several tasks were completed: (1) Estimate the amount of NO{sub x} released by the cement industry; (2) Evaluate across all industries what technologies are available to control NO{sub x}; (3) Determine the technologies that are feasible for use in cement plants and the NO{sub x} reduction those technologies might provide; and (4) Calculate the installation and operational cost of the applicable NO{sub x}-control technologies. Virtually all of the NO{sub x} produced by a Portland cement plant occurs in the combustion zones of the kiln. Nitrogen in the combustion air and fuel is converted into NO{sub x} by the temperature in the combustion zones of the kiln system. Estimating the amount of NO{sub x} released is especially challenging, because every cement plant is different in its equipment design, and the types of raw materials and fuels utilized vary from location to location. Most existing NO{sub x}-control processes are designed for electric power boilers. Unlike electric power boilers, cement kilns produce a product and the operation must be controlled to maintain product quality. Depending on the type of kiln system being used, the technologies that can be applied to the portland cement industry include: (1) Process controls; (2) Fuel firing changes (low-NO{sub x} burners with indirect firing); (3) Secondary firing; (4) Staged combustion (low-NO{sub x} precalciner); and (5) Selective noncatalytic reduction systems. The NO{sub x} reductions that might occur from the utilization of these technologies will vary, and the cost effectiveness will range from $2,100 to $11,500 per short ton of NO{sub x} reduced.

  19. DSC and TG Analysis of a Blended Binder Based on Waste Ceramic Powder and Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo; Černý, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Cement industry belongs to the business sectors characteristic by high energy consumption and high {CO}2 generation. Therefore, any replacement of cement in concrete by waste materials can lead to immediate environmental benefits. In this paper, a possible use of waste ceramic powder in blended binders is studied. At first, the chemical composition of Portland cement and ceramic powder is analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence method. Then, thermal and mechanical characterization of hydrated blended binders containing up to 24 % ceramic is carried out within the time period of 2 days to 28 days. The differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry measurements are performed in the temperature range of 25°C to 1000°C in an argon atmosphere. The measurement of compressive strength is done according to the European standards for cement mortars. The thermal analysis results in the identification of temperature and quantification of enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates dehydration and portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition. The portlandite content is found to decrease with time for all blends which provides the evidence of the pozzolanic activity of ceramic powder even within the limited monitoring time of 28 days. Taking into account the favorable results obtained in the measurement of compressive strength, it can be concluded that the applied waste ceramic powder can be successfully used as a supplementary cementing material to Portland cement in an amount of up to 24 mass%.

  20. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Subpart LLL Rule Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Spring 2016 document is intended for the use of EPA staff, State and Local regulatory agencies and their staff, and industry plant managers for the NESHAP for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry.

  1. United States Air Force Research on Airfield Pavement Repairs Using Precast Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Slabs (BRIEFING SLIDES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-28

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2008-4582 POSTPRINT UNITED STATES AIR FORCE RESEARCH ON AIRFIELD PAVEMENT REPAIRS USING PRECAST PORTLAND CEMENT CONCRETE ...pavement Portland cement concrete (PCC) slab repairs using precast PCC slab panels. AFRL is leading the technology development by critically reviewing the...technology transfer activities including, but not limited to, training, reports and preparation of ETLs. 2 The use of precast concrete slabs for repair of

  2. Spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of portland cement based unleached and leached solidified waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaita, Ghaleb N.; Tate, Philip H.

    1998-05-01

    In this study, portland cement based solidified/stabilized (S/S) waste and a cement-only control were studied before and after leaching. The solidified waste samples were prepared from a mix of organic-containing industrial waste sludge and portland cement. Toxicity characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) was the leaching test employed. The samples were studied using multi-surface analytical techniques including XPS, SIMS, XRD, FE-SEM and EDS. The data obtained from the various techniques show that leaching does not measurably affect the morphology or composition of the solidified waste sample. However, subtle changes in the composition of the cement control sample were observed. While the concentration of the elements observed on the surface of leached and unleached waste samples by XPS are very similar (except for Mg, Na and N), study of the corresponding cement samples exhibit differences in the level of C, Si, S, and Ca. The unleached cement sample shows lower levels of C and Si, but higher levels of O, S, Ca and Mg, indicating that leaching alters the cement sample. EDS analyses of the elemental composition of the bulk of the leached and unleached waste samples are similar, and also are similar for the leached and unleached cement samples, indicating that under the conditions of the TCLP test, leaching has no effect on the bulk. The high level of Ca present on the surface of the solidified waste indicates entrapment of the waste by the cement. The information and results obtained show that the surface analytical techniques used in this work, when combined with environmental wet methods, can provide a more complete picture of the concentration, chemical state and immobility of solidified waste.

  3. Interaction of ordinary Portland cement and Opalinus Clay: Dual porosity modelling compared to experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenni, A.; Gimmi, T.; Alt-Epping, P.; Mäder, U.; Cloet, V.

    2017-06-01

    Interactions between concrete and clays are driven by the strong chemical gradients in pore water and involve mineral reactions in both materials. In the context of a radioactive waste repository, these reactions may influence safety-relevant clay properties such as swelling pressure, permeability or radionuclide retention. Interfaces between ordinary Portland cement and Opalinus Clay show weaker, but more extensive chemical disturbance compared to a contact between low-pH cement and Opalinus Clay. As a consequence of chemical reactions porosity changes occur at cement-clay interfaces. These changes are stronger and may lead to complete pore clogging in the case of low-pH cements. The prediction of pore clogging by reactive transport simulations is very sensitive to the magnitude of diffusive solute fluxes, cement clinker chemistry, and phase reaction kinetics. For instance, the consideration of anion-depleted porosity in clays substantially influences overall diffusion and pore clogging at interfaces. A new concept of dual porosity modelling approximating Donnan equilibrium is developed and applied to an ordinary Portland cement - Opalinus Clay interface. The model predictions are compared with data from the cement-clay interaction (CI) field experiment in the Mt Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland), which represent 5 y of interaction. The main observations such as the decalcification of the cement at the interface, the Mg enrichment in the clay detached from the interface, and the S enrichment in the cement detached from the interface, are qualitatively predicted by the new model approach. The model results reveal multiple coupled processes that create the observed features. The quantitative agreement of modelled and measured data can be improved if uncertainties of key input parameters (tortuosities, reaction kinetics, especially of clay minerals) can be reduced.

  4. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Deschner, Florian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Neubauer, Jürgen

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

  5. Impact of chloride on the mineralogy of hydrated Portland cement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Balonis, Magdalena; Lothenbach, Barbara; Le Saout, Gwenn; Glasser, Fredrik P.

    2010-07-15

    Chloride ion is in part bound into ordinary Portland cement paste and modifies its mineralogy. To understand this a literature review of its impacts has been made and new experimental data were obtained. Phase pure preparations of Friedel's salt, Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}(Cl){sub 1.95}(OH){sub 12.05}.4H{sub 2}O, and Kuzel's salt, Ca{sub 4}Al{sub 2}(Cl)(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.5}(OH){sub 12}.6H{sub 2}O, were synthesized and their solubilities were measured at 5, 25, 55 and 85 {sup o}C. After equilibration, solid phases were analysed by X-ray diffraction while the aqueous solutions were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography. The solid solutions and interactions of Friedel's salt with other AFm phases were determined at 25 {sup o}C experimentally and by calculations. In hydrated cements, anion sites in AFm are potentially occupied by OH, SO{sub 4} and CO{sub 3} ions whereas Cl may be introduced under service conditions. Chloride readily displaces hydroxide, sulfate and carbonate in the AFm structures. A comprehensive picture of phase relations of AFm phases and their binding capacity for chloride is provided for pH {approx} 12 and 25 {sup o}C. The role of chloride in AFt formation and its relevance to corrosion of embedded steel are discussed in terms of calculated aqueous [Cl{sup -}]/[OH{sup -}] molar ratios.

  6. Bracket bond strength and cariostatic potential of an experimental resin adhesive system containing Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masanori; Nakagaki, Susumu; Muguruma, Takeshi; Kohda, Naohisa; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2012-09-01

    To determine if a new experimental resin-based material containing Portland cement (PC) can help prevent enamel caries while providing adequate shear bond strength (SBS). Brackets were bonded to human premolars with experimental resin-based adhesive pastes composed of three weight rations of resin and PC powder (PC 30, 7:3; PC 50, 5:5; PC 70, 3:7; n  =  7). Self-etching primer (SEP) adhesive (Transbond Plus) and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) adhesive (Fuji Ortho FC Automix) were used for comparison. All of the bonded teeth were subjected to alternating immersion in demineralizing (pH 4.55) and remineralizing (pH 6.8) solutions for 14 days. The SBS for each sample was examined, and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was calculated. The hardness and elastic modulus of the enamel were determined by a nanoindenter at 20 equidistant depths from the external surface at 100 µm from the bracket edge. Data were compared by one-way analysis of variance and a chi-square test. PC 50 and PC 70 showed significantly greater SBS than Fuji Ortho FC Automix, although Transbond Plus showed significantly greater SBS than other bonding systems. No significant difference in the ARI category was observed among the five groups. For specimens bonded with PC 50 and PC 70, the hardness and elastic modulus values in most locations were equivalent to those of Fuji Ortho FC Automix. Experimental resin-based bonding material containing PC provides adequate SBS and a caries-preventive effect equivalent to that of the RMGIC adhesive system.

  7. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  8. Short-Term Analysis of Human Dental Pulps After Direct Capping with Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Antonio Vinicius Holanda; Sampaio, Gerhilde Callou; Gomes, Fábio Almeida; de Oliveira, Daniel Pinto; de Albuquerque, Diana Santana; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the short-term response of human pulp tissue when directly capped with Portland cement. In this series of cases, twenty human third molars that were scheduled for extraction were used. After cavity preparation, pulp exposure was achieved and Portland cement pulp capping was performed. Teeth were extracted after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days following treatment and prepared for histological examination and bacterial detection. Each group had 5 teeth. The results were descriptively analysed. Dentin bridge formation was seen in two teeth with some distance from the material interface (14 and 21 days). Soft inflammatory responses were observed in most of the cases. Bacteria were not disclosed in any specimen. PC exhibited some features of biocompatibility and capability of inducing mineral pulp response in short-term evaluation. The results suggested that PC has a potential to be used as a less expensive pulp capping material in comparison to other pulp capping materials. PMID:19444341

  9. Radiopacity evaluation of Portland and MTA-based cements by digital radiographic system

    PubMed Central

    BORGES, Alvaro Henrique; PEDRO, Fabio Luiz Miranda; SEMANOFF-SEGUNDO, Alex; MIRANDA, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; PÉCORA, Jesus Djalma; CRUZ FILHO, Antônio Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiopacity of Portland and MTA-based cements using the Digora TM digital radiographic system. Material and Methods The performed tests followed specification number 57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000) for endodontic sealing materials. The materials were placed in 5 acrylic plates, especially designed for this experiment, along with a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1 to 10 mm in thickness. The set was radiographed at a 30 cm focus-object distance and with 0.2 s exposure time. After the radiographs were taken, the optical laser readings of radiographs were performed by Digora TM system. Five radiographic density readings were performed for each studied material and for each step of the aluminum scale. Results White ProRoot MTA (155.99±8.04), gray ProRoot MTA (155.96±16.30) and MTA BIO (143.13±16.94) presented higher radiopacity values (p<0.05), while white non-structural Portland (119.76±22.34), gray Portland (109.71±4.90) and white structural Portland (99.59±12.88) presented lower radiopacity values (p<0.05). Conclusions It was concluded that MTA-based cements were the only materials presenting radiopacity within the ANSI/ADA specifications. PMID:21625738

  10. Effects of composition and exposure on the solar reflectance of Portland Cement Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-06-01

    Increasing the solar reflectance (albedo) of a paved surface keeps it cooler in the sun, reducing convection of heat from pavement to air and thereby decreasing the ambient air temperature. Lower air temperatures decrease demand for cooling energy and slow the formation of urban smog. Variations with composition and environmental exposure of the albedos of portland cement concrete pavements were investigated through laboratory fabrication and exposure of 32 mixes of concrete. Concrete albedo generally correlated with cement albedo and sand albedo and, after abrasion, with rock albedo. Cement albedo had a disproportionately strong influence on the reflectance of concrete. Simulated weathering, soiling, and abrasion each reduced average concrete albedo, though some samples became slightly more reflective through weathering or soiling. Concrete albedo grew as the cement hydration reaction progressed, but stabilized within six weeks of casting.

  11. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement for Direct Pulp Capping in Dog: A Histopathological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth. PMID:25346831

  12. Biological evaluation of a new pulp capping material developed from Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Negm, Ahmed M; Hassanien, Ehab E; Abu-Seida, Ashraf M; Nagy, Mohamed M

    2017-03-02

    This study evaluates the biological properties of a new pulp capping material developed from Portland cement. This study was conducted on 48 teeth in 4 dogs (12 teeth/dog). The dogs were classified into two equal groups (n=24 teeth) according to the evaluation period including: group A (3 weeks) and group B (3 months). Each group was further subdivided into three equal subgroups (n=8 teeth) according to the capping material including: subgroup 1: mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), subgroup2: Portland cement+10% calcium hydroxide+20% bismuth oxide (Port Cal) and subgroup 3: Portland cement+bismuth oxide. After general anesthesia, a class V buccal cavity was prepared coronal to the gingival margin. After pulp exposure and hemostasis,the capping materials and glass ionomer filling were placed on the exposure sites. All histopathological findings, inflammatory cell count and dentin bridge formation were recorded. Data were analyzed statistically. After 3 months, the histopathological picture of the pulp in subgroup 1 showed normal pulp, continuous odontoblastic layer and complete dentin bridge formation while subgroup 2 showed partial and complete dentin bridge over a normal and necrotic pulps. Subgroup 3 showed loss of normal architecture, areas of necrosis, complete, or incomplete dentin bridge formation, attached and detached pulp stones and fatty degeneration in group B. For group A, MTA subgroup showed the least number of inflammatory cell infiltrate followed by Port Cal subgroup. While subgroup 3 showed the highest number of inflammatory cell infiltrate. For group B, the mean inflammatory cell count increased with the three tested materials with no statistical difference. Regarding dentin bridge formation at group A, no significant differences was found between subgroups, while at group B, MTA subgroup exhibited significantly higher scores than other subgroups. In conclusion, addition of calcium hydroxide to Portland cement improves the dentin bridge formation

  13. Mineral trioxide aggregate and portland cement for direct pulp capping in dog: a histopathological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Naghavi, Neda; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Sheik-Nezami, Mahshid; Fallahrastegar, Amir; Afkhami, Farzaneh; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Nargesi, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide are considered the gold standard pulp-capping materials. Recently, Portland cement has been introduced with properties similar to those of mineral trioxide aggregate. Histopathological effects of direct pulp capping using mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cements on dog dental pulp tissue were evaluated in the present study. Materials and methods. This histopatological study was carried out on 64 dog premolars. First, the pulp was exposed with a sterile bur. Then, the exposed pulp was capped with white or gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white or gray Portland cements in each quadrant and sealed with glass-ionomer. The specimens were evaluated under a light microscope after 6 months. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was defined at α=5%. Results. There was no acute inflammation in any of the specimens. Chronic inflammation in white and gray mineral trioxide aggregates and white and gray Portland cements was reported to be 45.5%, 27.3%, 57.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Although the differences were not statistically significant, severe inflammation was observed mostly adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate. The largest extent of increased vascularization (45%) and the least increase in fibrous tissue were observed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, with no significant differences. In addition, the least calcified tissue formed adjacent to white mineral trioxide aggregate, although the difference was not significant. Conclusion. The materials used in this study were equally effective as pulp protection materials following direct pulp capping in dog teeth.

  14. In Situ Evaluation of Unsurfaced Portland Cement-Stabilized Soil Airfields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    interparticle friction within the soil mass, and reduce the moisture susceptibility of the parent material. Stabilization with Portland cement can be used...Materials underlying a bound surface layer can be tested by first drilling or coring an access hole. The typical apparatus is composed of a handle, two...methods for the determination of the modulus and damping properties of ERDC/GSL TR-09-20 15 soils using the cyclic triaxial apparatus .” In this

  15. Hydration of blended cement pastes containing waste ceramic powder as a function of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Trník, Anton; Kulovaná, Tereza; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Rahhal, Viviana; Irassar, Edgardo F.; Černý, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The production of a cement binder generates a high amount of CO2 and has high energy consumption, resulting in a very adverse impact on the environment. Therefore, use of pozzolana active materials in the concrete production leads to a decrease of the consumption of cement binder and costs, especially when some type of industrial waste is used. In this paper, the hydration of blended cement pastes containing waste ceramic powder from the Czech Republic and Portland cement produced in Argentina is studied. A cement binder is partially replaced by 8 and 40 mass% of a ceramic powder. These materials are compared with an ordinary cement paste. All mixtures are prepared with a water/cement ratio of 0.5. Thermal characterization of the hydrated blended pastes is carried out in the time period from 2 to 360 days. Simultaneous DSC/TG analysis is performed in the temperature range from 25 °C to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Using this thermal analysis, we identify the temperature, enthalpy and mass changes related to the liberation of physically bound water, calcium-silicate-hydrates gels dehydration, portlandite, vaterite and calcite decomposition and their changes during the curing time. Based on thermogravimetry results, we found out that the portlandite content slightly decreases with time for all blended cement pastes.

  16. Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack. 3: Sulfate-resisting Portland cement -- Reactions with sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gollop, R.S.; Taylor, H.F.W.

    1995-10-01

    Cubes of a sulfate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) paste that had been stored for 6 months in solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or MgSO{sub 4} were examined by scanning electron microscopy using backscattered electron imaging and X-ray microanalysis. The changes observed were broadly similar to those which the authors have found with a normal Portland cement (PC), but cracking and loss of material were less marked, less ettringite was formed, and decalcification of the C-S-H was much reduced. At with the PC gypsum was formed, both in veins and mixed with the C-S-H. The differences are attributed to the low content of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the hydration products of the SRPC, and to the fact that some of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is already present as ettringite. The decreased formation of ettringite and decreased decalcification of the C-S-H in the SRPC together explain the superior resistance to sulfate attack.

  17. Effects of Using Pozzolan and Portland Cement in the Treatment of Dispersive Clay

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, A. H.; Selamat, M. R.; Moayedi, H.

    2013-01-01

    Use of dispersive clay as construction material requires treatment such as by chemical addition. Treatments to dispersive clay using pozzolan and Portland cement, singly and simultaneously, were carried out in this study. When used alone, the optimum amount of pozzolan required to treat a fully dispersive clay sample was 5%, but the curing time to reduce dispersion potential, from 100% to 30% or less, was 3 month long. On the other hand, also when used alone, a 3% cement content was capable of reducing dispersion potential to almost zero percent in only 7 days; and a 2% cement content was capable of achieving similar result in 14 days. However, treatment by cement alone is costly and could jeopardize the long term performance. Thus, a combined 5% pozzolan and 1.5% cement content was found capable of reducing dispersion potential from 100% to zero percent in 14 days. The results indicate that although simultaneous treatment with pozzolan and cement would extend the required curing time in comparison to treatment by cement alone of a higher content, the task could still be carried out in a reasonable period of curing time while avoiding the drawbacks of using either pozzolan or cement alone. PMID:23864828

  18. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  19. Comparative SEM study of the marginal adaptation of white and grey MTA and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Moradi, Saeed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Bidad, Salma

    2007-04-01

    The use of a suitable substance that prevents egress of potential contaminants into the periapical tissues is important in endodontic surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare the marginal adaptation of three root-end filling materials (white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), grey MTA and Portland cement), using scanning electron microscopy. Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used. The canals were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. Following root-end resection and cavity preparation, root-end cavities were filled with white MTA, grey MTA or Portland cement. Using a diamond saw, roots were longitudinally sectioned into two halves. Under scanning electron microscopy, the gaps between the material and dentinal wall were measured. The data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean of the gap in grey MTA, white MTA and Portland cement was 211.6, 349 and 326.3 microm, respectively. The results indicate that the gap between grey MTA and the dentinal wall is less than other materials, but there was no significant difference between the materials tested in this study (P > 0.05).

  20. Impact of admixtures on the hydration kinetics of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, J.; Jeknavorian, A.; Roberts, L.; Silva, D.

    2011-12-15

    Most concrete produced today includes either chemical additions to the cement, chemical admixtures in the concrete, or both. These chemicals alter a number of properties of cementitious systems, including hydration behavior, and it has been long understood by practitioners that these systems can differ widely in response to such chemicals. In this paper the impact on hydration of several classes of chemicals is reviewed with an emphasis on the current understanding of interactions with cement chemistry. These include setting retarders, accelerators, and water reducing dispersants. The ability of the chemicals to alter the aluminate-sulfate balance of cementitious systems is discussed with a focus on the impact on silicate hydration. As a key example of this complex interaction, unusual behavior sometimes observed in systems containing high calcium fly ash is highlighted.

  1. Mathematical modeling of cement paste microstructure by mosaic pattern. Part II. Application

    SciTech Connect

    Tennis, P.D.; Xi, Y.; Jennings, H.M.

    1997-07-01

    A model based on mosaic pattern analysis is shown to have the potential to describe the complex shapes and spatial distribution of phases in the microstructures of multiphase materials. Several characteristics of both micrographs of portland cement pastes and images generated using the few parameters of the model are determined and, for the most part, agreement is good. The advantage is that spatial features of the microstructures can be captured by a few parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  2. Reaction of rat subcutaneous tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement: a secondary level biocompatibility test.

    PubMed

    Karanth, P; Manjunath, M K; Kuriakose, E S

    2013-01-01

    This secondary-level animal study was conducted to assess and compare the subcutaneous tissue reaction to implantation of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and white Portland cement. Polyethylene tubes filled with either freshly mixed white MTA (Group I) or white Portland cement (Group II) were implanted subcutaneously into 12 Wistar Albino rats. Each animal also received an empty polyethylene tube as the control (Group III). After 7, 14, 21 and 30 days, the implants, together with surrounding tissues were excised. Two pathologists blinded to the experimental procedure, evaluated sections taken from the biopsy specimens for the severity of the inflammatory response, calcification and the presence and thickness of fibrous capsule surrounding the implant. Statistical analysis was performed using the Cross-tabs procedure, Univariate analysis of the variance two-way and the Pearson product moment correlation to assess inter-rater variability between the two evaluators. At 7 days, there was no significant difference in the severity of inflammation between the control group, white MTA, and white Portland cement groups. In the 14 day, 21 day and 30 day test periods, control group had significantly less inflammation than white MTA and white Portland cement. There was no significant difference in the grading of inflammation between white MTA and white Portland cement. All materials exhibited thick capsule at 7 days and thin capsule by 30 days. Both white MTA and white Portland cement were not completely non-irritating at the end of 30 days as evidenced by the presence of mild inflammation. However, the presence of a thin capsule around the materials, similar to the control group, indicates good tissue tolerance. White MTA and white Portland cement seem to be materials of comparable biocompatibility.

  3. Photocatalytic cementitious materials: influence of the microstructure of cement paste on photocatalytic pollution degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2009-12-01

    Incorporation of nanophotocatalysts into cementitious materials is an important development in the field of photocatalytic pollution mitigation. In this study, the photocatalytic nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) conversion by titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) blended cement pastes was used as a standard process to evaluate the internal factors that may influence the depollution performance. The chemical composition and microstructure of the TiO(2) modified cement pastes were characterized and analyzed. The active photocatalytic sites related to the surface area of TiO(2) are the key factor in determining the photocatalytic activity. Ordinary Portland cement pastes showed lower photocatalytic activity than white cement pastes probably due to the influence of minor metallic components. X-ray diffraction and thermal gravity analysis demonstrated that TiO(2) was chemically stable in the hydrated cement matrix. The NO(x) removal ability decreased with the increase of curing age. This could be attributed to the cement hydration products which filled up capillary pores forming diffusion barriers to both reactants and photons. It was also proved that surface carbonation could reduce the photocatalytic pollution removal efficiency after the hydration of cement.

  4. Glycerol Salicylate-based Pulp-Capping Material Containing Portland Cement.

    PubMed

    Portella, Fernando Freitas; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Santos, Paula Dapper; Sartori, Cláudia; Wegner, Everton; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water sorption, solubility, pH and ability to diffuse into dentin of a glycerol salicylate-based, pulp-capping cement in comparison to a conventional calcium hydroxide-based pulp capping material (Hydcal). An experimental cement was developed containing 60% glycerol salicylate resin, 10% methyl salicylate, 25% calcium hydroxide and 5% Portland cement. Water sorption and solubility were determined based on mass changes in the samples before and after the immersion in distilled water for 7 days. Material discs were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 days and 28 days, and a digital pHmeter was used to measure the pH of water. The cement's ability to diffuse into bovine dentin was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. The glycerol salicylate-based cement presented higher water sorption and lower solubility than Hydcal. The pH of water used to store the samples increased for both cements, reaching 12.59 ± 0.06 and 12.54 ± 0.05 after 7 days, for Hydcal and glycerol salicylate-based cements, respectively. Both cements were able to turn alkaline the medium at 24 h and sustain its alkalinity after 28 days. Hydcal exhibited an intense diffusion into dentin up to 40 µm deep, and the glycerol salicylate-based cement penetrated 20 µm. The experimental glycerol salicylate-based cement presents good sorption, solubility, ability to alkalize the surrounding tissues and diffusion into dentin to be used as pulp capping material.

  5. Vibrational study on the bioactivity of Portland cement-based materials for endodontic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, P.; Tinti, A.; Gandolfi, M. G.; Rossi, P. L.; Prati, C.

    2009-04-01

    The bioactivity of a modified Portland cement (wTC) and a phosphate-doped wTC cement (wTC-P) was studied at 37 °C in Dulbecco's Phosphate Buffered Saline (DPBS). The cements, prepared as disks, were analysed at different ageing times (from 1 day to 2 months) by micro-Raman and ATR/FT-IR spectroscopies. The presence of deposits on the surface of the cements and the composition changes as a function of the storage time were investigated. The presence of an apatite deposit on the surface of both cements was already revealed after one day of ageing in DPBS. The trend of the I 965/I 991 Raman intensity ratio indicated the formation of a meanly thicker apatite deposit on the wTC-P cement at all the investigated times. This result was confirmed by the trend of the I 1030/I 945 IR intensity ratio calculated until 14 days of ageing. At 2 months, the thickness of the apatite deposit on wTC and wTC-P was about 200 and 500 μm, respectively, as estimated by micro-Raman spectroscopy, confirming the higher bioactivity of the phosphate-doped cement. Vibrational techniques allowed to gain more insights into the cement transformation and the different hydration rates of the various cement component. The setting of the cement and the formation of the hydrated silicate gel (C-S-H phase) was spectroscopically monitored through the I 830/I 945 IR intensity ratio.

  6. Effects of composition and exposure on the solar reflectance of Portland cement concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem

    2001-12-21

    Increasing the solar reflectance (albedo) of a paved surface keeps it cooler in the sun, reducing convection of heat from pavement to air and thereby decreasing the ambient air temperature. Simulations of the influence of pavement albedo on air temperature in Los Angeles predict that increasing the albedo of 1,250 km2 of pavement by 0.25 would save cooling energy worth $15M yr-1, and reduce smog-related medical and lost-work expenses by $76M yr-1. Most sidewalks and a small fraction of roads and parking areas are paved with portland cement concrete, which can be made quite reflective through suitable choice of cement and aggregate. Variations with composition and environmental exposure of the albedos of portland cement concrete pavements were investigated through laboratory fabrication and exposure of 32 mixes of concrete. Twenty-four mixes yielded substandard, ''rough'' concretes due to high, unmet aggregate water demand. The albedos of the remaining eight ''smooth'' concrete mixes ranged from 0.41 to 0.77 (mean 0.59). Simulated weathering, soiling, and abrasion each reduced average concrete albedo (mean decreases 0.06, 0.05, and 0.19, respectively), though some samples became slightly more reflective through weathering or soiling. Simulated rain (wetting) strongly depressed the albedos of concretes (mean decrease 0.23) until their surfaces were dried. Concrete albedo grew as the cement hydration reaction progressed (mean increase 0.08), but stabilized within six weeks of casting. White-cement concretes were on average significantly more reflective than gray-cement concretes. The albedo of the most-reflective white-cement concrete was 0.18 to 0.39 higher than that of the most-reflective gray-cement concrete, depending on state of exposure. Concrete albedo generally correlated with cement albedo and sand albedo, and, after abrasion, with rock albedo. Cement albedo had a disproportionately strong influence on the reflectance of concrete. Efflorescence and surface

  7. Lime kiln dust as a potential raw material in portland cement manufacturing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M. Michael; Callaghan, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, the manufacture of portland cement involves burning in a rotary kiln a finely ground proportional mix of raw materials. The raw material mix provides the required chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron, and small amounts of other ingredients. The majority of calcium is supplied in the form of calcium carbonate usually from limestone. Other sources including waste materials or byproducts from other industries can be used to supply calcium (or lime, CaO), provided they have sufficiently high CaO content, have low magnesia content (less than 5 percent), and are competitive with limestone in terms of cost and adequacy of supply. In the United States, the lime industry produces large amounts of lime kiln dust (LKD), which is collected by dust control systems. This LKD may be a supplemental source of calcium for cement plants, if the lime and cement plants are located near enough to each other to make the arrangement economical.

  8. Assessment of arsenic immobilization in synthetically prepared cemented paste backfill specimens.

    PubMed

    Coussy, Samuel; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Blanc, Denise; Moszkowicz, Pierre; Bussière, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Mine tailings coming from the exploitation of sulphide and/or gold deposits can contain significant amounts of arsenic (As), highly soluble in conditions of weathering. Open mine voids backfilling techniques are now widely practiced by modern mining companies to manage the tailings. The most common one is called cemented paste backfill (CPB), and consists of tailings mixed with low amounts of hydraulic binders (3-5%) and a high proportion of water (typically 25%). The CPB is transported through a pipe network, to be placed in the mine openings. CPB provides storage benefits and underground support during mining operations. Moreover, this technique could also enhance contaminant stabilization, by fixing the contaminants in the binder matrix. CPB composites artificially spiked with As were synthesized in laboratory, using two types of hydraulic binders: a Portland cement, and a mix of fly ash and Portland cement. After curing duration of 66 days, the CPB samples were subjected to several leaching tests in various experimental conditions in order to better understand and then predict the As geochemical behaviour within CPBs. The assessment of the As release indicates that this element is better stabilized in Portland cement-based matrices rather than fly ash-based matrices. The As mobility differs in these two matrices, mainly because of the different As-bearing minerals formed during hydration processes. However, the total As depletion does not exceed 5% at the end of the most aggressive leaching test, indicating that As is well immobilized in the two types of CPB.

  9. Setting time and flowability of accelerated Portland cement mixed with polycarboxylate superplasticizer.

    PubMed

    Wongkornchaowalit, Norachai; Lertchirakarn, Veera

    2011-03-01

    Important limitations of mineral trioxide aggregate for use in clinical procedures are extended setting time and difficult handling characteristics. The removal of gypsum at the end stage of the Portland cement manufacturing process and polycarboxylate superplasticizer admixture may solve these limitations. Different concentrations of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (0%, 1.2%, 1.8%, and 2.4% by volume) and liquid-to-powder ratios (0.27, 0.30, and 0.33 by weight) were mixed with white Portland cement without gypsum (AWPC-experimental material). Type 1 ordinary white Portland cement mixed with distilled water at the same ratios as the experimental material was used as controls. All samples were tested for setting time and flowability according to the International Organization for Standardization 6876:2001 guideline. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. Then, one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the significance among groups. The data are presented in mean ± standard deviation values. In all experimental groups, the setting times were in the range of 4.2 ± 0.4 to 11.3 ± 0.2 minutes, which were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the control groups (26.0 ± 2.4 to 54.8 ± 2.5 minutes). The mean flows of AWPC plus 1.8% and 2.4% polycarboxylate superplasticizer groups were significantly increased (p < 0.001) at all liquid-to-powder ratios compared with control groups. Polycarboxylate superplasticizer at concentrations of 1.8% and 2.4% and the experimental liquid-to-powder ratios reduced setting time and increased flowability of cement, which would be beneficial for clinical use. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Properties of Portland cement concretes containing pozzolanic admixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, D. D.; Pasko, T. J., Jr.; Jones, W. R.

    1981-04-01

    A laboratory comparison was made of the properties of a concrete containing no pozzolan with several mixtures containing pozzolans. Used were a natural pozzolan (Lassenite), two fly ashes of different fineness and low carbon and an amorphous silica fume dust from a metal-producing plant. One cement, one coarse crushed limestone aggregate, and one fine river aggregate were used. Replacing a faster reacting binder with a slower one, produced lower early strengths and adversely affected the properties which are highly dependent on strength. The measures of durability were greatly affected by the air contents and aging or treatment prior to exposure. The amorphous silica fume dust increased the early strengths of a fly ash mixture.

  11. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  12. Prospection of Portland cement raw material: A case study in the Marmara region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgüner, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    Representative sampling of the raw materials used to make Portland cement, correct calculations for the possible clinker mixtures, sufficient reserves of the raw materials and selection of the correct infrastructure for the location of a cement factory are essential to the protection of the great investment in the factory. The results of chemical analyses of pipe samples taken in the field at right angles to the strikes of favourable limestone, clay, shale, and marl outcrops were used in Kind's lime saturation formula for clinker calculations of the possible mixtures. The cement modulus values were calculated using the corresponding clinker oxide ratios and were confirmed to be within the standard intervals for positive cement raw material mixtures. The most promising raw material source, a double lithologic mixture of limestone and mudstone was found during the prospection in north of Bilecik Province, where rhyolitic tuff outcrops with pozzolanic properties also exist. Some marble quarries nearby have been inclined to dispose of their marble wastes for use in cement production to prevent polluting the environment with them. The nearby Gemlik fertiliser factory provides inexpensive waste gypsum that can be used as a cool cement mixing material. The limestone, mudstone and trass raw material reserves in this area were calculated to be sufficient for the factory's requirements for more than 100 years of operation as results of the detailed geological mapping. The regional infrastructure is most suitable for distribution and marketing of cement products. The cement factory described in this study has been producing cement for the last 3 years, after coring and testing of the raw material reserves.

  13. Search of a prompt gamma ray for chlorine analysis in a Portland cement sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Kidwai, S.; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Maslehuddin, M.

    2004-11-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray analysis of chlorine contaminated Portland cement samples have been carried out using an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis setup. The chlorine concentration was measured over a range of 0.25-4 wt% using 1.165 MeV capture γ-rays from chlorine. The experimental results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and an excellent agreement was observed between the two results. Further theoretical study has shown that yield of the 1.165 MeV prompt γ-rays from chlorine is not very sensitive to variation in moisture contents of the Portland sample. An order of magnitude increase in sample moisture content resulted in only 16-20% increase in yield of 1.165 MeV prompt γ-rays.

  14. The impact of zirconium oxide radiopacifier on the early hydration behaviour of white Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Nichola J; Li, Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium oxide has been identified as a candidate radiopacifying agent for use in Portland cement-based biomaterials. During this study, the impact of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide on the hydration and setting reactions of white Portland cement (WPC) was monitored by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), (29)Si and (27)Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vicat apparatus. The presence of 20 wt.% zirconium oxide particles in the size-range of 0.2 to 5 μm was found to reduce the initial and final setting times of WPC from 172 to 147 min and 213 to 191 min, respectively. Zirconium oxide did not formally participate in the chemical reactions of the hydrating cement; however, the surface of the zirconium oxide particles presented heterogeneous nucleation sites for the precipitation and growth of the early C-S-H gel products which accelerated the initial setting reactions. The presence of zirconium oxide was found to have little impact on the development of the calcium (sulpho)aluminate hydrate phases.

  15. The Estimation of Compaction Parameter Values Based on Soil Properties Values Stabilized with Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, A. S.; Muis, Z. A.; Pasaribu, M. I.

    2017-03-01

    The strength and durability of pavement construction is highly dependent on the properties and subgrade bearing capacity. This then led to the idea of the selection methods to estimate the density of the soil with the proper implementation of the system, fast and economical. This study aims to estimate the compaction parameter value namely the maximum dry unit weight (γd max) and optimum moisture content (wopt) of the soil properties value that stabilized with Portland Cement. Tests conducted in the laboratory of soil mechanics to determine the index properties (fines and liquid limit) and Standard Compaction Test. Soil samples that have Plasticity Index (PI) between 0-15% then mixed with Portland Cement (PC) with variations of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%, each 10 samples. The results showed that the maximum dry unit weight (γd max) and wopt has a significant relationship with percent fines, liquid limit and the percentation of cement. Equation for the estimated maximum dry unit weight (γd max) = 1.782 - 0.011*LL + 0,000*F + 0.006*PS with R2 = 0.915 and the estimated optimum moisture content (wopt) = 3.441 + 0.594*LL + 0,025*F + 0,024*PS with R2 = 0.726.

  16. Investigation on the potential of waste cooking oil as a grinding aid in Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Jianfeng; Huang, Yuyan; Jiang, Zhengwu; Yang, Xiaojie; Yang, Zhenghong; Chen, Qing

    2016-12-15

    Although there are several methods for managing waste cooking oil (WCO), a significant result has not been achieved in China. A new method is required for safe WCO management that minimizes the environmental threat. In this context, this work was developed in which cement clinker and gypsum were interground with various WCOs, and their properties, such as grindability, water-cement ratio required to achieve a normal consistency, setting times, compressive strength, contents of calcium hydroxide and ettringite in the hardened paste, microstructure and economic and environmental considerations, were addressed in detail. The results show that, overall, WCO favorably improves cement grinding. WCO prolonged the cement setting times and resulted in longer setting times. Additionally, more remarkable effects were found in cements in which WCO contained more unsaturated fatty acid. WCOs increased the cement strength. However, this enhancement was rated with respect to the WCO contents and components. WCOs decreased the CH and AFt contents in the cement hardened paste. Even the AFt content at later ages was reduced when WCO was used. WCO also densify microstructure of the hardened cement paste. It is economically and environmentally feasible to use WCOs as grinding aids in the cement grinding process. These results contribute to the application of WCOs as grinding aids and to the safe management of WCO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and antimicrobial efficacy of Portland cement impregnated with silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE This study investigated the effects of silver nanoparticle (SN) loading into hydraulic calcium silicate-based Portland cement on its mechanical, antibacterial behavior and biocompatibility as a novel dental bone substitute. MATERIALS AND METHODS Chemically reduced colloidal SN were combined with Portland cement (PC) by the concentrations of 0 (control), 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt%. The physico-mechanical properties of silver-Portland cement nanocomposites (SPNC) were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), setting time, compressive strength, solubility, and silver ion elution. Antimicrobial properties of SPNC were tested by agar diffusion against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Cytotoxic evaluation for human gingival fibroblast (HGF) was performed by MTS assay. RESULTS XRD certified that SN was successfully impregnated in PC. SPNC at above 3.0 wt% significantly reduced both initial and final setting times compared to control PC. No statistical differences of the compressive strength values were detected after SN loadings, and solubility rates of SPNC were below 3.0%, which are acceptable by ADA guidelines. Ag ion elutions from SPNC were confirmed with dose-dependence on the concentrations of SN added. SPNC of 5.0 wt% inhibited the growth of Streptococci, whereas no antimicrobial activity was shown in control PC. SPNC revealed no cytotoxic effects to HGF following ISO 10993 (cell viability > 70%). CONCLUSION Addition of SN promoted the antibacterial activity and favored the bio-mechanical properties of PC; thus, SPNC could be a candidate for the futuristic dental biomaterial. For clinical warrant, further studies including the inhibitory mechanism, in vivo and long-term researches are still required. PMID:28680554

  18. Characterization and antimicrobial efficacy of Portland cement impregnated with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Young

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of silver nanoparticle (SN) loading into hydraulic calcium silicate-based Portland cement on its mechanical, antibacterial behavior and biocompatibility as a novel dental bone substitute. Chemically reduced colloidal SN were combined with Portland cement (PC) by the concentrations of 0 (control), 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt%. The physico-mechanical properties of silver-Portland cement nanocomposites (SPNC) were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), setting time, compressive strength, solubility, and silver ion elution. Antimicrobial properties of SPNC were tested by agar diffusion against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Cytotoxic evaluation for human gingival fibroblast (HGF) was performed by MTS assay. XRD certified that SN was successfully impregnated in PC. SPNC at above 3.0 wt% significantly reduced both initial and final setting times compared to control PC. No statistical differences of the compressive strength values were detected after SN loadings, and solubility rates of SPNC were below 3.0%, which are acceptable by ADA guidelines. Ag ion elutions from SPNC were confirmed with dose-dependence on the concentrations of SN added. SPNC of 5.0 wt% inhibited the growth of Streptococci, whereas no antimicrobial activity was shown in control PC. SPNC revealed no cytotoxic effects to HGF following ISO 10993 (cell viability > 70%). Addition of SN promoted the antibacterial activity and favored the bio-mechanical properties of PC; thus, SPNC could be a candidate for the futuristic dental biomaterial. For clinical warrant, further studies including the inhibitory mechanism, in vivo and long-term researches are still required.

  19. HEALING OF ROOT PERFORATIONS TREATED WITH MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE (MTA) AND PORTLAND CEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Broon, Norberto Juárez; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; de Assis, Gerson Francisco; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Bernardineli, Norberti; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Garcia, Roberto Brandão

    2006-01-01

    Fourteen root perforations were performed for microscopic evaluation of the repair of interradicular tissue in dogs' teeth. These perforations were accomplished at low-speed with a STP 58 bur at the cervical third of the mesial root toward the furcation under irrigation with saline solution, followed by immediate sealing with ProRoot MTA, MTA-Angelus and white Portland cement. The dogs were killed after 90 days, revealing good results. The Kruskal-Wallis test did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference. It was concluded that the three materials showed good sealing in mineralized tissue, with complete closure, and they were free of inflammation in most teeth. PMID:19089049

  20. Dimensional stability of materials based on Portland cement at the early stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesa Yandy, Angélica; Zerbino, Raúl L.; Giaccio, Graciela M.; Russo, Nélida A.; Duchowicz, Ricardo

    2014-09-01

    In this work two fiber optic sensing techniques are used to study the dimensional stability in fresh state of different cementitious materials. A conventional Portland cement mortar and two commercial grouts were selected. The measurements were performed by using a Bragg grating embedded in the material and a non-contact Fizeau interferometer. The first technique was applied in a horizontal sample scheme, and the second one, by using a vertical configuration. In addition, a mechanical length comparator was used in the first case in order to compare the results. The evolution with time of the dimensional changes of the samples and the analysis of the observed behavior are included.

  1. Healing of apical rarefaction of three nonvital open apex anterior teeth using a white portland cement apical plug

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Amitabha; Dey, Bibhas; Dhar, Reema; Sardar, Prabir

    2012-01-01

    The major challenge of performing root canal treatment in an open apex pulp-less tooth is to obtain a good apical seal. MTA has been successfully used to achieve a good apical seal, wherein the root canal obturation can be done immediately. MTA and White Portland Cement has been shown similarity in their physical, chemical and biological properties and has also shown similar outcome when used in animal studies and human trials. In our study, open apex of three non vital upper central incisors has been plugged using modified white Portland cement. 3 to 6 months follow up revealed absence of clinical symptoms and disappearance of peri-apical rarefactions. The positive clinical outcome may encourage the future use of white Portland cement as an apical plug material in case of non vital open apex tooth as much cheaper substitute of MTA. PMID:23230357

  2. Permeability of Consolidated Incinerator Facility Wastes Stabilized with Portland Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-08-23

    The Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) burns low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes as method of treatment and volume reduction. The CIF generates secondary waste, which consists of ash and off-gas scrubber solution. Currently the ash is stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process. The scrubber solution (blowdown) is sent to the SRS Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment as waste water. In the past, the scrubber solution was also stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process as blowcrete and will continue to be treated this way for listed waste burns and scrubber solution that do not meet the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).

  3. Study on the hydration and microstructure of Portland cement containing diethanol-isopropanolamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Suhua Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Shenbiao; Hu, Yueyang; Shen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-15

    Diethanol-isopropanolamine (DEIPA) is a tertiary alkanolamine used in the formulation of cement grinding-aid additives and concrete early-strength agents. In this research, isothermal calorimetry was used to study the hydration kinetics of Portland cement with DEIPA. A combination of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)–thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the phase development in the process of hydration. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to study the pore size distribution and porosity. The results indicate that DEIPA promotes the formation of ettringite (AFt) and enhances the second hydration rate of the aluminate and ferrite phases, the transformation of AFt into monosulfoaluminate (AFm) and the formation of microcrystalline portlandite (CH) at early stages. At later stages, DEIPA accelerates the hydration of alite and reduces the pore size and porosity.

  4. Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E.; Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM

    2007-05-17

    A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.

  5. The effect of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinas, A. Baltakys, K.; Siauciunas, R.

    2012-01-15

    The influence of gyrolite additive on the hydration properties of ordinary Portland cement was examined. It was found that the additive of synthetic gyrolite accelerates the early stage of hydration of OPC. This compound binds alkaline ions and serves as a nucleation site for the formation of hydration products (stage I). Later on, the crystal lattice of gyrolite becomes unstable and turns into C-S-H, with higher basicity (C/S {approx} 0.8). This recrystallization process is associated with the consumption of energy (the heat of reaction) and with a decrease in the rate of heat evolution of the second exothermic reaction (stage II). The experimental data and theoretical hypothesis were also confirmed by thermodynamic and the apparent kinetic parameters of the reaction rate of C{sub 3}S hydration calculations. The changes occur in the early stage of hydration of OPC samples and do not have a significant effect on the properties of cement stone.

  6. Burning wastes as an industrial resource. Their effect on Portland cement clinker

    SciTech Connect

    Trezza, M.A.; Scian, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The use of industrial wastes as an alternative fuel in the cement industry is a reality in several countries because wastes are removed and economic incomes are obtained preserving non-renewable energy resources. In the present work, the effect of the addition of small amounts of ashes from pyrolysis of used oil from cars in the clinkering process of Portland cement is studied. The study simulates the burning process in an industrial furnace that uses up to 30% of this kind of waste fuel. The different behaviors of the clinker so obtained (clinkering, milling, phases, hydration, etc.) are discussed and these behaviors are compared with those of a clinker obtained without additions. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Blaine specific surface, calorimetry, Differential thermal analysis-thermal gravimetry (DTA-TG), pyrometric cone equivalent, porosimetry and mechanical strength were used as the main evaluation techniques.

  7. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mikols, E.H.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-07-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III.

  8. The Greenhouse Gas Emission from Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Yang, Panpan; Huang, Yue

    2016-06-24

    This study proposes an inventory analysis method to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Portland cement concrete pavement construction, based on a case project in the west of China. The concrete pavement construction process was divided into three phases, namely raw material production, concrete manufacture and pavement onsite construction. The GHG emissions of the three phases are analyzed by a life cycle inventory method. The CO₂e is used to indicate the GHG emissions. The results show that for 1 km Portland cement concrete pavement construction, the total CO₂e is 8215.31 tons. Based on the evaluation results, the CO₂e of the raw material production phase is 7617.27 tons, accounting for 92.7% of the total GHG emissions; the CO₂e of the concrete manufacture phase is 598,033.10 kg, accounting for 7.2% of the total GHG emissions. Lastly, the CO₂e of the pavement onsite construction phase is 8396.59 kg, accounting for only 0.1% of the total GHG emissions. The main greenhouse gas is CO₂ in each phase, which accounts for more than 98% of total emissions. N₂O and CH₄ emissions are relatively insignificant.

  9. The Greenhouse Gas Emission from Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction in China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Yang, Panpan; Huang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes an inventory analysis method to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Portland cement concrete pavement construction, based on a case project in the west of China. The concrete pavement construction process was divided into three phases, namely raw material production, concrete manufacture and pavement onsite construction. The GHG emissions of the three phases are analyzed by a life cycle inventory method. The CO2e is used to indicate the GHG emissions. The results show that for 1 km Portland cement concrete pavement construction, the total CO2e is 8215.31 tons. Based on the evaluation results, the CO2e of the raw material production phase is 7617.27 tons, accounting for 92.7% of the total GHG emissions; the CO2e of the concrete manufacture phase is 598,033.10 kg, accounting for 7.2% of the total GHG emissions. Lastly, the CO2e of the pavement onsite construction phase is 8396.59 kg, accounting for only 0.1% of the total GHG emissions. The main greenhouse gas is CO2 in each phase, which accounts for more than 98% of total emissions. N2O and CH4 emissions are relatively insignificant. PMID:27347987

  10. Stabilized phosphogypsum: class C fly ash: Portland type II cement composites for potential marine application.

    PubMed

    Guo, T; Malone, R F; Rusch, K A

    2001-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG, CaSO4 x H20), a byproduct of phosphoric acid manufacturing, contains low levels of Ra226. PG can be stabilized with portland type II cement and class C fly ash for use in marine environments, thus eliminating the airborne vector of transmission for radon gas. An augmented simplex centroid design with pseudocomponents was used to select 10 PG:class C fly ash:portland type II cement compositions. The 43 cm3 blocks were fabricated and subjected to a 1.5-yr field submergence test and a 28-d saltwater dynamic leaching study. All field composites survived with no signs of degradation. Dynamic leaching resulted in effective calcium diffusion coefficients ranging from 0.21 to 7.5 x 10(-14)m2 s(-1). Effective diffusion depths, calculated for t=1 and 30 yr, ranged from 0.4 to 2.2 mm and from 2.0 to 11.9 mm, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and wavelength dispersive microprobe and X-ray diffraction analyses of the leached composites identified a 40-60-microm calcite layer that was absent in the control composites. This suggests that a reaction between the composites and the saltwater results in the precipitation of calcite onto the block surface, encapsulating the composites and protecting them from saltwater attack and dissolution.

  11. Evaluation of Adhesion and Morphology of Human Osteoblasts to White MTA and Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Bidar, Maryam; Tavakkol Afshari, Jalil; Shahrami, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Osteoblasts and periodontal ligament cells are major cells for wound healing after root end resection. The interaction of osteoblasts with filling materials could play a critical role in healing of surgical lesion. Adhesion and spreading of cells on material surface are the initial phase for cellular function. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of morphology and attachment of human osteoblasts in present of white MTA, Portland cement (PC) and IRM as root end filling and perforation repair materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human osteoblasts (MG-63 cell line) were prepared from Iranian Pasteur Institute; Cellular Bank, were grown in RPMI 1640 medium. The testing materials were mixed according to the manufacture's instruction, inserted in to the wells of 24-well flat-bottomed plate, and condensed to disk of 1mm thickness and 1×1mm diameter. Cells were added to the materials after two weeks. During 1,3,7 days intervals, the disk of materials along with cells were grown on their surface, examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We used of IRM as negative group. RESULTS: Results showed that after 7 days many of osteoblasts were attached on the surface of white MTA and PC and appeared partially round or flat. The cells appeared round with no attachment and spreading in conjunction with IRM. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that human osteoblasts have a favorable response to white MTA and Portland cement compared with IRM. PMID:24298287

  12. Use of waste gypsum to replace natural gypsum as set retarders in portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Chandara, Chea; Azizli, Khairun Azizi Mohd; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin Sakai, Etsuo

    2009-05-15

    The present study is focused on clarifying the influence of waste gypsum (WG) in replacing natural gypsum (NG) in the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). WG taken from slip casting moulds in a ceramic factory was formed from the hydration of plaster of paris. Clinker and 3-5 wt% of WG was ground in a laboratory ball mill to produce cement waste gypsum (CMWG). The same procedure was repeated with NG to substitute WG to prepare cement natural gypsum (CMNG). The properties of NG and WG were investigated via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)/thermogravimetric (TG) to evaluate the properties of CMNG and CMWG. The mechanical properties of cement were tested in terms of setting time, flexural and compressive strength. The XRD result of NG revealed the presence of dihydrate while WG contained dihydrate and hemihydrate. The content of dihydrate and hemihydrates were obtained via DSC/TG, and the results showed that WG and NG contained 12.45% and 1.61% of hemihydrate, respectively. Furthermore, CMWG was found to set faster than CMNG, an average of 15.29% and 13.67% faster for the initial and final setting times, respectively. This was due to the presence of hemihydrate in WG. However, the values obtained for flexural and compressive strength were relatively the same for CMNG and CMWG. Therefore, this result provides evidence that WG can be used as an alternative material to NG in the production of OPC.

  13. Analysis of Metal Contents in Portland Type V and MTA-Based Cements

    PubMed Central

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Villa, Ricardo Dalla; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), the concentration levels of 11 metals in Type V gray and structural white PC, ProRoot MTA, and MTA Bio. Samples, containing one gram of each tested cement, were prepared and transferred to a 100 mL Teflon tube with a mixture of 7.0 mL of nitric acid and 21 mL of hydrochloric acid. After the reaction, the mixture was filtered and then volumed to 50 mL of distilled water. For each metal, specific patterns were determined from universal standards. Arsenic quantification was performed by hydride generator. The analysis was performed five times and the data were statistically analyzed at 5% level of significance. Only the cadmium presented concentration levels of values lower than the quantification limit of the device. The AAS analysis showed increased levels of calcium, nickel, and zinc in structural white PC. Type V PC presented the greatest concentration levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and manganese (P < 0.05). Bismuth was found in all cements, and the lowest concentration levels were observed in Portland cements, while the highest were observed in ProRoot MTA. Both PC and MTA-based cements showed evidence of metals inclusion. PMID:25436238

  14. Analysis of metal contents in Portland Type V and MTA-based cements.

    PubMed

    Dorileo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Dalla Villa, Ricardo; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), the concentration levels of 11 metals in Type V gray and structural white PC, ProRoot MTA, and MTA Bio. Samples, containing one gram of each tested cement, were prepared and transferred to a 100 mL Teflon tube with a mixture of 7.0 mL of nitric acid and 21 mL of hydrochloric acid. After the reaction, the mixture was filtered and then volumed to 50 mL of distilled water. For each metal, specific patterns were determined from universal standards. Arsenic quantification was performed by hydride generator. The analysis was performed five times and the data were statistically analyzed at 5% level of significance. Only the cadmium presented concentration levels of values lower than the quantification limit of the device. The AAS analysis showed increased levels of calcium, nickel, and zinc in structural white PC. Type V PC presented the greatest concentration levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and manganese (P < 0.05). Bismuth was found in all cements, and the lowest concentration levels were observed in Portland cements, while the highest were observed in ProRoot MTA. Both PC and MTA-based cements showed evidence of metals inclusion.

  15. Use of waste gypsum to replace natural gypsum as set retarders in portland cement.

    PubMed

    Chandara, Chea; Azizli, Khairun Azizi Mohd; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Sakai, Etsuo

    2009-05-01

    The present study is focused on clarifying the influence of waste gypsum (WG) in replacing natural gypsum (NG) in the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). WG taken from slip casting moulds in a ceramic factory was formed from the hydration of plaster of paris. Clinker and 3-5wt% of WG was ground in a laboratory ball mill to produce cement waste gypsum (CMWG). The same procedure was repeated with NG to substitute WG to prepare cement natural gypsum (CMNG). The properties of NG and WG were investigated via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)/thermogravimetric (TG) to evaluate the properties of CMNG and CMWG. The mechanical properties of cement were tested in terms of setting time, flexural and compressive strength. The XRD result of NG revealed the presence of dihydrate while WG contained dihydrate and hemihydrate. The content of dihydrate and hemihydrates were obtained via DSC/TG, and the results showed that WG and NG contained 12.45% and 1.61% of hemihydrate, respectively. Furthermore, CMWG was found to set faster than CMNG, an average of 15.29% and 13.67% faster for the initial and final setting times, respectively. This was due to the presence of hemihydrate in WG. However, the values obtained for flexural and compressive strength were relatively the same for CMNG and CMWG. Therefore, this result provides evidence that WG can be used as an alternative material to NG in the production of OPC.

  16. Portland cement industry PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} emission testing

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.; Holder, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Portland Cement Association and its member companies have undertaken a study of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} particulate emissions from cement plants to compile accurate emission factor data and chemical characterization data. The scope of the testing for the cement manufacturing sources includes cement kilns, alkali bypass streams, clinker coolers, finish mills, raw mills, coal mills, silos, bagging operations, and loadout operations. To ensure consistency of the data, a recently developed PCA emission test protocol is being used at the plants participating in the program. This protocol was developed for PCA by Air Control Techniques, P.C. based on draft EPA PM{sub 2.5} test procedures released in 1989. The testing procedure specified in the PCA Protocol was developed because the US EPA has not yet promulgated a PM{sub 2.5} emission test reference method for stationary sources. The PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} data are being obtained simultaneously using a dual cyclone sampling train operated in a manner consistent with US EPA Method 201A. The sampling times are selected to ensure that there are adequate particulate catch weights in each particulate size category to allow for chemical analyses. The particulate samples are being analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, and ammonium compounds. The measured emissions of filterable PM{sub 2.5} were very low. The preliminary results of tests conducted at five cement plants indicate that the emissions of filterable PM{sub 10} are approximately sixteen percent (16%) of the value of the limited PM{sub 10} emission factor data published in the Fifth Edition of AP-42, Section 11.6. The air emission test data compiled from 1997 to 1999 for the PCA test program represent the most accurate and complete analyses of Portland cement industry particulate emissions that are presently available. These data will be helpful in the development of PM{sub 2.5} implementation programs.

  17. Effect exerted by a radio wave electromagnetic field on the rheological properties of water and portland-cement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Belous, N. Kh.; Rodtsevich, S. P.; Koshevar, V. D.; Shkadretsova, V. G.; Goncharik, S. V.; Chubrik, N. I.; Orlovich, A. I.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the effect of the regimes of high-frequency (radio wave) electromagnetic treatment of gauging water on the process of structurization and on the technological characteristics of portland-cement systems. It has been established that the radio wave electromagnetic activation of water leads to a reduction in its surface tension, dynamic viscosity, and shear stress, as well as intensifies the formation of coagulation structures in a portlandcement slurry and aids in increasing the mobility of cement-sand mixtures.

  18. Effect of alkali ions on the strength development of cement paste by Mössbauer spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaan, M. Y.; Moutawie, M. A.; Eissa, N. A.

    1989-03-01

    Two clinker raw mixtures (83 wt% limestone +12 wt% clay +5 wt% α-Fe2O3) were fired at 1150°C for three hours in open furnace, each with 100 wt%-in addition-of an alkali carbonate (Na2CO3 and K2CO3) respectively. Each produced cliker was mixed with 5 wt% natural gypsum to produce portland cement, then with 25 wt% tap water. Compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse test, X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer effect measurements were carried out each at different times of hydration (21, 28 and 45 days). The effect of alkali ions on the strength development of cement pastes is discussed, the accuracy of Mössbauer, spectrometer in determining the cement strength is demonstrated.

  19. Microscopic air void analysis of hardened Portland cement concrete by the isolated shadow technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Basil Mark

    The Isolated Shadow Technique is an image processing and analysis procedure for identifying and characterizing surface voids dispersed on an otherwise flat plane of heterogeneous solids. The objective of the Isolated Shadow Technique is to capture, process, and analyze images of a flat surface in which all of the features, save the boundary outlines of any surface voids, are eliminated. In short, the technique utilizes a series of digital images of the subject planar surface; where each image of the series is subjected to a unique lighting condition. By positioning the lights such that the shadows cast into the craters vary between images, these variations can be sequestered and the edges of the voids can subsequently be reconstructed from the isolated shadows. The primary purpose of this work was the development of the Isolated Shadow Technique for the particular application of quantitatively describing the microscopic voids in hardened Portland cement concrete. The Isolated Shadow System was developed for this application of the technique. The hardware and software of the system are described and the function is demonstrated. The system was found to have an average accuracy of 2.7% with a maximum deviation of 5.0% when compared to physical measurements. The results of polished sections of concrete specimens characterized by the Isolated Shadow System are compared to the results obtained with the commonly used standard methods (ASTM C 457; A and B). The coefficients of variation of parameters calculated to describe the air-void system (according to the ASTM C 457 formulations) are shown to be in the neighborhood of one percent when the observed test area includes at least 7,830 mmsp2 of polished concrete (with paste contents ranging from approximately 28% to 32%). The sensitivity of the air-void system parameters (as computed by the system) to changes in magnification and mosaic size are evaluated. A critical analysis of the underlying assumptions of the ASTM C

  20. Effect of Nano-SiO₂ on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland Cement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liguo; Zheng, Dapeng; Zhang, Shupeng; Cui, Hongzhi; Li, Dongxu

    2016-12-15

    This paper systematically studied the modification of cement-based materials by nano-SiO₂ particles with an average diameter of about 20 nm. In order to obtain the effect of nano-SiO₂ particles on the mechanical properties, hydration, and pore structure of cement-based materials, adding 1%, 3%, and 5% content of nano-SiO₂ in cement paste, respectively. The results showed that the reaction of nano-SiO₂ particles with Ca(OH)₂ (crystal powder) started within 1 h, and formed C-S-H gel. The reaction speed was faster after aging for three days. The mechanical properties of cement-based materials were improved with the addition of 3% nano-SiO₂, and the early strength enhancement of test pieces was obvious. Three-day compressive strength increased 33.2%, and 28-day compressive strength increased 18.5%. The exothermic peak of hydration heat of cement increased significantly after the addition of nano-SiO₂. Appearance time of the exothermic peak was advanced and the total heat release increased. Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis showed that nano-SiO₂ promoted the formation of C-S-H gel. The results of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the total porosity of cement paste with 3% nano-SiO₂ was reduced by 5.51% and 5.4% at three days and 28 days, respectively, compared with the pure cement paste. At the same time, the pore structure of cement paste was optimized, and much-detrimental pores and detrimental pores decreased, while less harmful pores and innocuous pores increased.

  1. Effect of Nano-SiO2 on the Hydration and Microstructure of Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liguo; Zheng, Dapeng; Zhang, Shupeng; Cui, Hongzhi; Li, Dongxu

    2016-01-01

    This paper systematically studied the modification of cement-based materials by nano-SiO2 particles with an average diameter of about 20 nm. In order to obtain the effect of nano-SiO2 particles on the mechanical properties, hydration, and pore structure of cement-based materials, adding 1%, 3%, and 5% content of nano-SiO2 in cement paste, respectively. The results showed that the reaction of nano-SiO2 particles with Ca(OH)2 (crystal powder) started within 1 h, and formed C–S–H gel. The reaction speed was faster after aging for three days. The mechanical properties of cement-based materials were improved with the addition of 3% nano-SiO2, and the early strength enhancement of test pieces was obvious. Three-day compressive strength increased 33.2%, and 28-day compressive strength increased 18.5%. The exothermic peak of hydration heat of cement increased significantly after the addition of nano-SiO2. Appearance time of the exothermic peak was advanced and the total heat release increased. Thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis showed that nano-SiO2 promoted the formation of C–S–H gel. The results of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) showed that the total porosity of cement paste with 3% nano-SiO2 was reduced by 5.51% and 5.4% at three days and 28 days, respectively, compared with the pure cement paste. At the same time, the pore structure of cement paste was optimized, and much-detrimental pores and detrimental pores decreased, while less harmful pores and innocuous pores increased. PMID:28335369

  2. Utilization of water-reducing admixtures in cemented paste backfill of sulphide-rich mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2010-07-15

    This study presents the effect of three different water-reducing admixtures (WRAs) on the rheological and mechanical properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples. A 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa and the maintenance of the stability (i.e. > or = 0.7 MPa) over 360 days of curing were desired as the design criteria. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland composite cement (PCC) were used as binders at 5 wt.% dose. WRAs were initially tested to determine the dosage of a WRA for a required consistency of 7'' for CPB mixtures. A total of 192 CPB samples were then prepared using WRAs. The utilization of WRAs enhanced the flow characteristics of the CPB mixture and allowed to achieve the same consistency at a lower water-to-cement ratio. For OPC, the addition of WRAs appeared to improve the both short- and long-term performance of CPB samples. However, only polycarboxylate-based superplasticiser produced the desired 28-day strength of > or = 0.7 MPa when PCC was used as the binder. These findings suggest that WRAs can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich tailings to improve the strength and stability in short and long terms allowing to reduce binder costs in a CPB plant.

  3. Arsenic Encapsulation Using Portland Cement With Ferrous Sulfate/Lime And Terra-BondTM Technologies - Microcharacterization And Leaching Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-BondTM, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials treated we...

  4. Arsenic Encapsulation Using Portland Cement With Ferrous Sulfate/Lime And Terra-BondTM Technologies - Microcharacterization And Leaching Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-BondTM, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials treated we...

  5. Comparing the Environmental Impacts of Alkali Activated Mortar and Traditional Portland Cement Mortar using Life Cycle Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheu, P. S.; Ellis, K.; Varela, B.

    2015-11-01

    Since the year 1908 there has been research into the use alkali activated materials (AAM) in order to develop cementitious materials with similar properties to Ordinary Portland Cement. AAMs are considered green materials since their production and synthesis is not energy intensive. Even though AAMs have a high compressive strength, the average cost of production among other issues limits its feasibility. Previous research by the authors yielded a low cost AAM that uses mine tailings, wollastonite and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This mortar has an average compressive strength of 50MPa after 28 days of curing. In this paper the software SimaPro was used to create a product base cradle to gate Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This compared the environmental impact of the AAM mortar to an Ordinary Portland Cement mortar (PCHM) with similar compressive strength. The main motivation for this research is the environmental impact of producing Ordinary Portland Cement as compared to alkali activated slag materials. The results of this LCA show that the Alkali Activated Material has a lower environmental impact than traditional Portland cement hydraulic mortar, in 10 out of 12 categories including Global Warming Potential, Ecotoxicity, and Smog. Areas of improvement and possible future work were also discovered with this analysis.

  6. Cement evaluation; Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkington, P.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Cement evaluation began with the calculation of cement tops. This calculation assumed gauge holes and no channeling of the cement through the mud. Calipers were not available at that time. In the mid-1930's, the use of temperature surveys to determine the top of cement (TOC) was documented in technical journals. Properly run temperature surveys can identify the TOC, but distribution of cement-e.g., vertical isolation through zones of interest-is difficult to ascertain. Radioactive tracer surveys were run in the late 1930's to determine cement tops. Carnotite was mixed in the lead slurry and cement tops were determined with a gamma ray log. Tracer surveys had the same limitations as temperature logs but were not time-sensitive. This paper reports on methods that have been and are currently being used for cement evaluation including temperature logs, radioactive traces, and cement bond tools.

  7. Monitoring accelerated carbonation on standard Portland cement mortar by nonlinear resonance acoustic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiras, J. N.; Kundu, T.; Popovics, J. S.; Monzó, J.; Borrachero, M. V.; Payá, J.

    2015-03-01

    Carbonation is an important deleterious process for concrete structures. Carbonation begins when carbon dioxide (CO2) present in the atmosphere reacts with portlandite producing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In severe carbonation conditions, C-S-H gel is decomposed into silica gel (SiO2.nH2O) and CaCO3. As a result, concrete pore water pH decreases (usually below 10) and eventually steel reinforcing bars become unprotected from corrosion agents. Usually, the carbonation of the cementing matrix reduces the porosity, because CaCO3 crystals (calcite and vaterite) occupy more volume than portlandite. In this study, an accelerated carbonation-ageing process is conducted on Portland cement mortar samples with water to cement ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the carbonation process on mortar is monitored at different levels of ageing until the mortar is almost fully carbonated. A nondestructive technique based on nonlinear acoustic resonance is used to monitor the variation of the constitutive properties upon carbonation. At selected levels of ageing, the compressive strength is obtained. From fractured surfaces the depth of carbonation is determined with phenolphthalein solution. An image analysis of the fractured surfaces is used to quantify the depth of carbonation. The results from resonant acoustic tests revealed a progressive increase of stiffness and a decrease of material nonlinearity.

  8. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC) Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel–space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods. PMID:28772472

  9. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC) Concrete.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yong

    2017-01-26

    Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel-space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods.

  10. Pore Distribution and Water Uptake in a Cenosphere-Cement Paste Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baronins, J.; Setina, J.; Sahmenko, G.; Lagzdina, S.; Shishkin, A.

    2015-11-01

    Alumina silicate cenospheres (CS) is a significant waste material from power plants that use a coal. Use CS as Portland cement replacement material gives opportunity to control physical and mechanical properties and makes a product lighter and more cost-effective. In the frame of this study, Portland cement paste samples were produced by adding CS in the concentration range from 0 to 40 volume %. Water uptake of hardened samples was checked and pore size distribution by using the mercury porosimetry was determined. In a cold climate where the temperature often falls below 0 °C, it is important to avoid the amount of micrometer sized pores in the final structure and to decrease water absorption capacity of material. In winter conditions, water fills such pores and causes additional stresses to their walls by expansion while freezing. It was found that generally water uptake capacity for cement paste samples decreased up to 20% by increasing the concentration of CS up to 40 volume %, at the same time, the volume of micrometer sized opened pores increases.

  11. The influence of mineral additives on the strength and porosity of OPC mortar[Ordinary Portland Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, S.P.; Sharma, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury intrusion porosimetry study was carried out on samples of ordinary Portland cement mortars made with mineral additives such as fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, phosphorus furnace slag, limestone, and lime sludge. The total porosity and compressive strength of all the blended cement mortar samples were determined at 7, 18, and 90 days of hydration. The porosity and mean pore diameter were found to increase with the addition of fly ash and slags, although the total pore volume was almost the same. The strength was found to decrease with the increase in porosity, but the extent of decrease in strength was more closely related to slags and fly ash addition than to limestone and lime sludge. Acceleration of the strength development of ordinary Portland cement was also observed with limestone and lime sludge addition.

  12. Utilization of lime-sinter process residue for the manufacture of a low-alumina portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, J.A.; Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.

    1984-01-01

    The lime-sinter process for recovery of alumina from coal conversion solid wastes produces a residue that is largely dicalcium silicate (C/sub 2/S) and that contains only 3 to 5% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Use of this residue will eliminate the need for its disposal and will make the lime-sinter process more attractive financially. The unique composition of the residue makes it an attractive raw material for the manufacture of ASTM Type V (sulfate resistant) portland cement. There is a substantial demand for this type of cement in the western states. The feasibility of thus using the residue is examined and a cost analysis for a combined alumina-portland cement plant capable of using the fly ash from a 1000 MWe coal-fired power station is presented. 12 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  13. Effect of gypsum on the strength development of portland cement by Mössbauer spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassaan, M. Y.

    1988-02-01

    Portland cement was prepared by adding 1,3,5 and 6 wt% gypsum to Egyptian clinker. Each sample was mixed with 25wt% water and was hydrated at 1,3,7,28 and 90 days. The Mössbauer spectra showed two doublets, one represents the tetrahedral ferric ions and the other the octahedral ferric ions in addition to the iron metal. The degree of hydration was calculated from the spectra. The compressive strength test was performed. The time at which complete hydration takes place and the corresponding value of compressive strength were expected by calculations. The 5wt% sample showed the highest value of strength at the same degree of hydration. It showed also the lowest degree of hydration at the same value of compressive strength. It could be concluded that the optimum amount of gypsum addition should be 5 wt%, and the rate of hydration didn't affect by the different amount of gypsum.

  14. Microstructural study of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone Portland cements at ambient temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Irassar, E.F.; Bonavetti, V.L.; Gonzalez, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the mechanism of sulfate attack on Portland cements (PCs) containing limestone filler. It is based on the analysis of microstructure and composition of mortar specimens (ASTM C 1012) stored for 2 years in sodium sulfate solution (0.352 M). Microstructure was studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) on samples taken from the surface to the core of the specimens. The profile of compounds formed by sulfate attack was determined millimeter by millimeter at 1 and 2 years. Results show that sulfate attack in mortars containing limestone filler is characterized by an inward movement of the reaction front leading first to the formation of ettringite, later to gypsum deposition, and finally to thaumasite formation when the decalcification of mortar leads to the breakdown of C-S-H.

  15. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M.; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Study Design: Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey’s contrast tests. Results: Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. Conclusions: The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration. Key words:MTA, Portland cement, citric acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, surface roughness. PMID:23722143

  16. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    PubMed

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement.

  17. The effect of portland cement for solidification of soils contaminated by mine tailings containing heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-Jun, Chen; Zheng-Miao, Xie

    2010-05-01

    Portland cement(PC) was used to solidify the lead-zinc mine tailings contaminated soils(CS) in this work. The soils were heavily polluted by heavy metals with lead(up to 19592 mg/kg), zinc(up to 647mg/kg), Cd(up to 14.65mg.kg) and Cu(up to 287mg/kg). Solidified/stabilized(s/s)forms with a range of cement contents, 40-90 wt%, were evaluated to determine the optimal binder content. Unconfined compression strength test(UCS), Chinese solid waste-extraction procedure for leaching toxicity - Horizontal vibration method, toxicity characteristic leaching procedures(TCLP) were used for physical and chemical characterization of the s/s forms. The procedure of Tessier et al.(1979) was used to separate S/S forms Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu into different fractions. The results show that addition of 50% cement was enough for the s/s forms to satisfy the MU10 requirements (0.10 MPa). Under the 50% addition, the content of the water-exchangeable fraction of Pb reduced from 2.25% to 0.2%, the carbonate-bound fraction and organic-bound fraction reduced by about half, while the Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction was more than doubled. The residual fraction decreased 8% on the contrary. For Zn, except for the carbonate-bound fraction increased slightly, the features of other items were same as that of Pb. For Cd, the water-exchangeable fraction was reduced largely, the residual fraction and Fe-Mn oxide-bound fraction increased 2-3%. For Cu, A distinct feature is the organic-bound fraction reduced with the reduction in consumption of cement, at the same time, the residual fraction increased corresponding. Leaching test results indicate that the leaching contents of Pb2+ of the six specimens are quite different at low pH value(

  18. Upscaling Cement Paste Microstructure to Obtain the Fracture, Shear, and Elastic Concrete Mechanical LDPM Parameters.

    PubMed

    Sherzer, Gili; Gao, Peng; Schlangen, Erik; Ye, Guang; Gal, Erez

    2017-02-28

    Modeling the complex behavior of concrete for a specific mixture is a challenging task, as it requires bridging the cement scale and the concrete scale. We describe a multiscale analysis procedure for the modeling of concrete structures, in which material properties at the macro scale are evaluated based on lower scales. Concrete may be viewed over a range of scale sizes, from the atomic scale (10(-10) m), which is characterized by the behavior of crystalline particles of hydrated Portland cement, to the macroscopic scale (10 m). The proposed multiscale framework is based on several models, including chemical analysis at the cement paste scale, a mechanical lattice model at the cement and mortar scales, geometrical aggregate distribution models at the mortar scale, and the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) at the concrete scale. The analysis procedure starts from a known chemical and mechanical set of parameters of the cement paste, which are then used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the LDPM concrete parameters for the fracture, shear, and elastic responses of the concrete. Although a macroscopic validation study of this procedure is presented, future research should include a comparison to additional experiments in each scale.

  19. XRD Analysis of Cement Paste Samples Exposed to the Simulated Environment of a Deep Repository - 12239

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Eduardo G.A.; Marumo, Julio T.; Vicente, Roberto; Gobbo, Luciano

    2012-07-01

    Portland cement materials are widely used as engineered barriers in repositories for radioactive waste. The capacity of such barriers to avoid the disposed of radionuclides to entering the biosphere in the long-term depends on the service life of those materials. Thus, the performance assessment of structural materials under a series of environmental conditions prevailing at the environs of repositories is a matter of interest. The durability of cement paste foreseen as backfill in a deep borehole for disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources is investigated in the development of the repository concept. Results are intended to be part of the body of evidence in the safety case of the proposed disposal technology. This paper presents the results of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis of cement paste exposed to varying temperatures and simulated groundwater after samples received the radiation dose that the cement paste will accumulate until complete decay of the radioactive sources. The XRD analysis of cement paste samples realized in this work allowed observing some differences in the results of cement paste specimens that were submitted to different treatments. The cluster analysis of results was able to group tested samples according to the applied treatments. Mineralogical differences, however, are tenuous and, apart from ettringite, are hardly observed. The absence of ettringite in all the seven specimens that were kept in dry storage at high temperature had hardly occurred by natural variations in the composition of hydrated cement paste because ettringite is observed in all tested except the seven specimens. Therefore this absence is certainly the result of the treatments and could be explained by the decomposition of ettringite. Although the temperature of decomposition is about 110-120 deg. C, it may be initially decomposed to meta-ettringite, an amorphous compound, above 50 deg. C in the absence of water. Influence of irradiation on the mineralogical

  20. Mechanical properties and leaching modeling of activated incinerator bottom ash in Portland cement blends

    SciTech Connect

    Onori, Roberta; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2011-02-15

    In the present study the evolution of mechanical strength and the leaching behavior of major and trace elements from activated incinerator bottom ash/Portland cement mixtures were investigated. Chemical and mechanical activation were applied with the purpose of improving the reactivity of bottom ash in cement blends. Chemical activation made use of NaOH, KOH, CaCl{sub 2} or CaSO{sub 4}, which were selected for the experimental campaign on the basis of the results from previous studies. The results indicated that CaCl{sub 2} exhibited by far the best effects on the evolution of the hydration process in the mixtures; a positive effect on mechanical strength was also observed when CaSO{sub 4} was used as the activator, while the gain in strength produced by KOH and NaOH was irrelevant. Geochemical modeling of the leaching solutions provided information on the mineral phases responsible for the release of major elements from the hardened materials and also indicated the important role played by surface sorption onto amorphous Fe and Al minerals in dictating the leaching of Pb. The leaching of the other trace metal cations investigated (Cu, Ni and Zn) could not be explained by any pure mineral included in the thermodynamic database used, suggesting they were present in the materials in the form of complex minerals or phase assemblages for which no consistent thermodynamic data are presently available in the literature.

  1. Investigation of the formation of a Portland Cement plant detached plume

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, J.L.; Knapp, K.T.

    1986-05-01

    A gaseous and particulate-source emissions sampling program was conducted at a Portland Cement production plant in Rapid City, South Dakota. The study was conducted to determine the cause of the formation of an opaque detached plume from the plants' dry process kiln. The instack opacity of the emissions was less than 10% while the opacity of the plume five to ten stack diameters from the mouth of the stack was in excess of 40%, thus giving an appearance of a detached plume. The sampling and analysis program included particulate emissions measurements, particle sizing and composition, and measurements of gaseous and particle ammonia, chloride, fluoride, and sulfur dioxide. Extensive process materials sampling and analysis were also conducted. Based on the resulting data, one conclusion is that the opaque detached plume is the result of ammonium chloride particles formed by the reaction of gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid. It was also found that the ammonia in the cement plant was generated from the shale portion of the raw products when the raw product was passed through the heat exchanger.

  2. Structure and mechanical properties of aluminosilicate geopolymer composites with Portland cement and its constituent minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Tailby, Jonathan; MacKenzie, Kenneth J.D.

    2010-05-15

    The compressive strengths and structures of composites of aluminosilicate geopolymer with the synthetic cement minerals C{sub 3}S, beta-C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and commercial OPC were investigated. All the composites showed lower strengths than the geopolymer and OPC paste alone. X-ray diffraction, {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and SEM/EDS observations indicate that hydration of the cement minerals and OPC is hindered in the presence of geopolymer, even though sufficient water was present in the mix for hydration to occur. In the absence of SEM evidence for the formation of an impervious layer around the cement mineral grains, the poor strength development is suggested to be due to the retarded development of C-S-H because of the preferential removal from the system of available Si because geopolymer formation is more rapid than the hydration of the cement minerals. This possibility is supported by experiments in which the rate of geopolymer formation is retarded by the substitution of potassium for sodium, by the reduction of the alkali content of the geopolymer paste or by the addition of borate. In all these cases the strength of the OPC-geopolymer composite was increased, particularly by the combination of the borate additive with the potassium geopolymer, producing an OPC-geopolymer composite stronger than hydrated OPC paste alone.

  3. Influence of radiopacifying agents on the solubility, pH and antimicrobial activity of portland cement.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; Machado, Adriano Cosme de Oliveira; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Polleto, Raquel da Silva; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interference of the radiopacifiers bismuth oxide (BO), bismuth carbonate (BC), bismuth subnitrate (BS), and zirconiun oxide (ZO) on the solubility, alkalinity and antimicrobial properties of white Portland cement (WPC). The substances were incorporated to PC, at a ratio of 1:4 (v/v) and subjected to a solubility test. To evaluate the pH, the cements were inserted into retrograde cavities prepared in simulated acrylic teeth and immediately immersed in deionized water. The pH of the solution was measured at 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by a radial diffusion method against the microorganisms S. aureus (ATCC 25923), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and C. albicans (ATCC 10231). The zone of microbial growth inhibition was measured after 24 h. The addition of BS and BC increased the solubility of the cement. The pH values demonstrated that all materials produced alkaline levels. At 3 h, BS showed lower pH than WPC (p<0.05). At 168 h, all materials showed similar pHs (p>0.05). The materials did not present antimicrobial activity for S. aureus, P. aeruginosas and E. faecalis (p>0.05). With regards to C. albicans, all materials formed an inhibition zone, mainly the mixture of WPC with ZO (p<0.05). The type of radiopacifier incorporated into WPC interfered with its physical and antimicrobial properties. ZO was found to be a viable radiopacifier that can be used with WPC.

  4. Effect of silica fume on hydration of air-cured blended cement pastes measured by DSC/TG analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinherrová, Lenka; Trník, Anton; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Černý, Robert

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes. Samples were prepared using Portland cement partially replaced by silica fume of 0, 4, and 12 mass%. Analyses were performed using TG/DSC in the temperature range from 25 °C to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. The amount of C-S-H gels decreases in time with an increasing amount of silica fume, which is in the contrary to the vaterite/calcite content. The portlandite content decreases with an increasing amount of silica fume which provides the pozzolanic activity.

  5. Incorporation of phosphorus guest ions in the calcium silicate phases of Portland cement from 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Søren L; Jakobsen, Hans J; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2010-06-21

    Portland cements may contain small quantities of phosphorus (typically below 0.5 wt % P(2)O(5)), originating from either the raw materials or alternative sources of fuel used to heat the cement kilns. This work reports the first (31)P MAS NMR study of anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements that focuses on the phase and site preferences of the (PO(4))(3-) guest ions in the main clinker phases and hydration products. The observed (31)P chemical shifts (10 to -2 ppm), the (31)P chemical shift anisotropy, and the resemblance of the lineshapes in the (31)P and (29)Si MAS NMR spectra strongly suggest that (PO(4))(3-) units are incorporated in the calcium silicate phases, alite (Ca(3)SiO(5)) and belite (Ca(2)SiO(4)), by substitution for (SiO(4))(4-) tetrahedra. This assignment is further supported by a determination of the spin-lattice relaxation times for (31)P in alite and belite, which exhibit the same ratio as observed for the corresponding (29)Si relaxation times. From simulations of the intensities, observed in inversion-recovery spectra for a white Portland cement, it is deduced that 1.3% and 2.1% of the Si sites in alite and belite, respectively, are replaced by phosphorus. Charge balance may potentially be achieved to some extent by a coupled substitution mechanism where Ca(2+) is replaced by Fe(3+) ions, which may account for the interaction of the (31)P spins with paramagnetic Fe(3+) ions as observed for the ordinary Portland cements. A minor fraction of phosphorus may also be present in the separate phase Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), as indicated by the observation of a narrow resonance at delta((31)P) = 3.0 ppm for two of the studied cements. (31)P{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR spectra following the hydration of a white Portland cement show that the resonances from the hydrous phosphate species fall in the same spectral range as observed for (PO(4))(3-) incorporated in alite. This similarity and the absence of a large (31)P chemical shift ansitropy indicate that the hydrous (PO(4

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Northwestern States Portland Cement Company site, Mason City, IA. (First remedial action), June 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-26

    The Northwestern States Portland Cement site, a cement manufacturing facility, is in Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, Iowa. Calmus Creek flows between the Northwestern States Portland Cement Company (NWSPCC) facility and another cement manufacturing plant facility located just north of the site. The site includes a 150-acre area named the West Quarry where NWSPCC disposed of 2 million tons of waste cement kiln dust from 1969 to 1985. Local ground water and surface water have been impacted by elevated pH levels as a result of waste cement kiln dust disposal in the West Quarry. The Record of Decision addresses the contamination source, the cement kiln dust disposed of in the West Quarry, and the resulting ground water and surface water contamination. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water and surface water are organics including phenols; metals including chromium and lead; and other inorganics including waste cement kiln dust.

  7. Mechanism for the stabilization/solidification of arsenic-contaminated soils with Portland cement and cement kiln dust.

    PubMed

    Yoon, In-Ho; Moon, Deok Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Keun-Young; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Min Gyu

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the mechanism for the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils with Portland cement (PC), and cement kiln dust (CKD) using 1 N HCl extraction fluid, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was investigated. The degree of As immobilization after stabilization was assessed using a 1 N HCl extraction on the basis of the Korean Standard Test (KST). After 1 day of curing with 30 wt% PC and 7 days of curing with 50 wt% CKD, the concentration of As leached from the amended soils was less than the Korean countermeasure standard (3 mg L(-1)). The As concentrations in the leachate treated with PC and CKD were significantly decreased at pH > 3, indicating that pH had a prevailing influence on As mobility. XRPD results indicated that calcium arsenite (Ca-As-O) and sodium calcium arsenate hydrate (NaCaAsO(4).7.5H(2)O) were present in the PC- and CKD-treated slurries as the key phases responsible for As(III) and As(V) immobilization, respectively. The XANES spectroscopy confirmed that the As(III) and As(V) oxidation states of the PC and CKD slurry samples were consistent with the speciated forms in the crystals identified by XRPD. EXAFS spectroscopy showed As-Ca bonding in the As(III)-PC and As(III)-CKD slurries. The main mechanism for the immobilization of As-contaminated soils with PC and CKD was strongly associated with the bonding between As(III) or As(V) and Ca. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A case history: Effect of moisture on the setting behaviour of a Portland cement reacting with an alkali-free accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Maltese, C. . E-mail: Building.lab@mapei.it; Pistolesi, C.; Bravo, A.; Cella, F.; Cerulli, T.; Salvioni, D.

    2007-06-15

    chemical (ICP) analyses on cement paste samples were carried out. This study showed a significant setting time reduction of cement paste samples admixed with an alkali-free accelerator when they are composed of a Portland cement containing {beta}-hemihydrate that was previously exposed to moisture. Such an effect seems to be related to the reduction of the {beta}-hemihydrate dissolution rate.

  9. Effect of Waste Brick as Mineral Admixture on the Mechanical Performance of Cemented Paste Backfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külekçi, Gökhan; Erçikdi, Bayram; Aliyazicioğlu, Şener

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the replacement and addition of granulated waste brick (WB) to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in a cemented paste backfill (CPB) of sulphide tailings. The addition and OPC rate is about 15-45% and 7% in weight respectively. Pozzolanic activity tests indicated the fineness of WB samples being the major factor of pozzolanic activity instead of chemical composition. All CPB samples displayed the required strength and durability when WB was used as an additive to OPC. On the other hand, a binder dosage of >7wt % was needed to apply the required 28-day strength of ≥ 0.7 MPa when the OPC was replaced by 15-45 wt% WB samples. The durability of CPB samples is closely inter-related with the calcination temperatures and glass phase content of WB.

  10. Measuring permeability and stress relaxation of young cement paste by beam bending

    SciTech Connect

    Vichit-Vadakan, W.; Scherer, George W

    2003-12-01

    When a saturated rod of a porous material is deflected in three-point bending, two types of time-dependent relaxation processes occur simultaneously: hydrodynamic relaxation, caused by the flow of liquid in the porous body, and viscoelastic (VE) relaxation of the solid network. By measuring the decrease in the force required to sustain a constant deflection, it is possible to obtain the permeability from the hydrodynamic relaxation function, in addition to the VE stress relaxation function of the sample. We report the early-age evolution of permeability, elastic modulus, and stress relaxation function for Type III Portland cement paste with water-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.45, 0.50, and 0.55. The stress relaxation function is shown to preserve its shape during aging; that function is numerically transformed into the creep function.

  11. Assessment of strength properties of cemented paste backfill by ultrasonic pulse velocity test.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Tekin; Ercikdi, Bayram; Karaman, Kadir; Külekçi, Gökhan

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test is one of the most popular non-destructive techniques used in the assessment of the mechanical properties of concrete or rock materials. In this study, the effects of binder type/dosage, water to cement ratio (w/c) and fines content (<20 μm) of the tailings on ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples were investigated and correlated with the corresponding unconfined compressive strength (UCS) data. A total of 96 CPB samples prepared at different mixture properties were subjected to the UPV and UCS tests at 7, 14, 28 and 56-days of curing periods. UPV and UCS of CPB samples of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5 R) and sulphate resistant cement (SRC 32.5) initially increased rapidly, but, slowed down after 14 days. However, UPV and UCS of CPB samples of the blast furnace slag cement (CEM III/A 42.5 N) steadily increased between 7 and 56 days. Increasing binder dosage or reducing w/c ratio and fines content (<20 μm) increased the UCS and UPV of CPB samples. UPV was found to be particularly sensitive to fines content. UCS data were correlated with the corresponding UPV data. A linear relation appeared to exist between the UCS and UPV of CPB samples. These findings have demonstrated that the UPV test can be reliably used for the estimation of the strength of CPB samples.

  12. Cement paste prior to setting: A rheological approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bellotto, Maurizio

    2013-10-15

    The evolution of cement paste during the dormant period is analyzed via small amplitude oscillation rheological measurements. Cement paste, from the very first moments after mixing cement and water, shows the formation of an elastic gel whose strength is rapidly increasing over time. Up to the onset of Portlandite precipitation G′(t) increases by more than 2 orders of magnitude and in the acceleratory period G′(t) continues steadily to increase. A microstructural modification is likely to occur between the dormant and the acceleratory period. At low deformations in the linearity domain the storage modulus G′(ω) exhibits a negligible frequency dependence. At higher deformations cement paste shows a yield stress which increases on increasing paste concentration. The presence of superplasticizers decreases the yield stress and increases the gelation threshold of the paste. Above the gelation threshold the evolution of cement paste with superplasticizers follows similar trends to the neat paste. -- Highlights: •The gelation of cement paste during the dormant period is analyzed via rheometry. •The observed evolution is proposed to be related to the pore structure refinement. •Similarities are observed with colloidal gels and colloidal glasses.

  13. IN VITRO SEALING ABILITY OF WHITE AND GRAY MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE (MTA) AND WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT USED AS APICAL PLUGS

    PubMed Central

    Coneglian, Patrícia Zanatta Aranha; Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs made of white and gray MTA-Angelus® and white Portland cement placed via the root canal and having different thicknesses (2, 5 and 7 mm). Ninety extracted human single-rooted teeth were instrumented using a size 40 K-file to standardize the foraminal opening by the stepback technique. The teeth were assigned to 3 groups (n=30), according to the material used for fabrication of the apical plugs: A = gray MTA; B = white MTA; C = white Portland cement. The groups were subdivided into groups of 10 teeth each according to the apical plug thickness (2, 5 and 7 mm). Marginal apical dye leakage was assessed using 0.2% Rhodamine B solution in which the specimens were immersed for 72 hours at 37°C. The roots were sectioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction for apical plug exposure, and digital photographs were taken and analyzed by Image Tool image-analysis software. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Significance level was set at 5%. The least percent leakage was observed for 5- and 7-mm-thick plugs (p<0.05). No significant difference (p>0.05) was found between gray MTA and white Portland cement. Among the three materials analyzed, white MTA presented the highest marginal leakage (p<0.05). The findings of the present study showed that gray MTA and Portland cement had better sealing ability than white MTA when used as apical plugs. Dye leakage was smaller for 5- and 7-mm-thick plugs compared to 2-mm-thick plugs. PMID:19089127

  14. Waste-form development for conversion to portland cement at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55)

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, G.W.; Schake, A.R.; Shalek, P.D.; Romero, D.A.; Smith, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    The process used at TA-55 to cement transuranic (TRU) waste has experienced several problems with the gypsum-based cement currently being used. Specifically, the waste form could not reliably pass the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) prohibition for free liquid and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) standard for chromium. This report describes the project to develop a portland cement-based waste form that ensures compliance to these standards, as well as other performance standards consisting of homogeneous mixing, moderate hydration temperature, timely initial set, and structural durability. Testing was conducted using the two most common waste streams requiring cementation as of February 1994, lean residue (LR)- and oxalate filtrate (OX)-based evaporator bottoms (EV). A formulation with a pH of 10.3 to 12.1 and a minimum cement-to-liquid (C/L) ratio of 0.80 kg/l for OX-based EV and 0.94 kg/L for LR-based EV was found to pass the performance standards chosen for this project. The implementation of the portland process should result in a yearly cost savings for raw materials of approximately $27,000 over the gypsum process.

  15. Biocompatibility and setting time of CPM-MTA and white Portland cement clinker with or without calcium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Kato, Marcia Magro; Assis, Gerson Francisco de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bernardineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Bramante, Alexandre Silva

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and the setting time of Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA-CPM. Twenty-four mice (Rattus norvegicus) received subcutaneously polyethylene tubes filled with Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and specimens were prepared for microscopic analysis. For evaluation of the setting time, each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles weighing 113.5 g and 456.5 g, according to the ASTM specification Number C266-08 guideline. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for setting time and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test for biocompatibility at 5% significance level. Histologic observation showed no statistically significant difference of biocompatibility (p>0.05) among the materials in the subcutaneous tissues. For the setting time, clinker without calcium sulfate showed the shortest initial and final setting times (6.18 s/21.48 s), followed by clinker with 2% calcium sulfate (9.22 s/25.33 s), clinker with 5% calcium sulfate (10.06 s/42.46 s) and MTA (15.01 s/42.46 s). All the tested materials showed biocompatibility and the calcium sulfate absence shortened the initial and final setting times of the white Portland cement clinker.

  16. Biocompatibility and setting time of CPM-MTA and white Portland cement clinker with or without calcium sulfate

    PubMed Central

    BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; KATO, Marcia Magro; de ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; de MORAES, Ivaldo Gomes; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; BRAMANTE, Alexandre Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biocompatibility and the setting time of Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA-CPM. Material and Methods: Twenty-four mice (Rattus norvegicus) received subcutaneously polyethylene tubes filled with Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and specimens were prepared for microscopic analysis. For evaluation of the setting time, each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles weighing 113.5 g and 456.5 g, according to the ASTM specification Number C266-08 guideline. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for setting time and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test for biocompatibility at 5% significance level. Results: Histologic observation showed no statistically significant difference of biocompatibility (p>0.05) among the materials in the subcutaneous tissues. For the setting time, clinker without calcium sulfate showed the shortest initial and final setting times (6.18 s/21.48 s), followed by clinker with 2% calcium sulfate (9.22 s/25.33 s), clinker with 5% calcium sulfate (10.06 s/42.46 s) and MTA (15.01 s/42.46 s). Conclusions: All the tested materials showed biocompatibility and the calcium sulfate absence shortened the initial and final setting times of the white Portland cement clinker. PMID:23559109

  17. Study of the Microstructure Evolution of Low-pH Cements Based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) by Mid- and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and Their Influence on Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement.

    PubMed

    García Calvo, José Luis; Sánchez Moreno, Mercedes; Alonso Alonso, María Cruz; Hidalgo López, Ana; García Olmo, Juan

    2013-06-18

    Low-pH cements are designed to be used in underground repositories for high level waste. When they are based on Ordinary Portland Cements (OPC), high mineral admixture contents must be used which significantly modify their microstructure properties and performance. This paper evaluates the microstructure evolution of low-pH cement pastes based on OPC plus silica fume and/or fly ashes, using Mid-Infrared and Near-Infrared spectroscopy to detect cement pastes mainly composed of high polymerized C-A-S-H gels with low C/S ratios. In addition, the lower pore solution pH of these special cementitious materials have been monitored with embedded metallic sensors. Besides, as the use of reinforced concrete can be required in underground repositories, the influence of low-pH cementitious materials on steel reinforcement corrosion was analysed. Due to their lower pore solution pH and their different pore solution chemical composition a clear influence on steel reinforcement corrosion was detected.

  18. High-Strain-Rate behavior of Hydrated Cement Paste.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-29

    bar and the transmitter bar are made from high yield- strength material, peak loads of 150,000 psi or 10 kbar are easily reached. Typical strain rates...was originally set up for testing very high yield- strength materials. Therefore, for use with cement paste samples, a series of new pressure bars -- 1...a. A a.5.. ~ A - a .- ~- . . . ~0 MML TR 87-12c HIGH -STRAIN-RATE BEHAVIOR OF HYDRATED CEMENT PASTE

  19. First insights of Cr speciation in leached Portland cement using X-ray spectromicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jérôme; Bénard, Anne; Susini, Jean; Borschneck, Daniel; Hazemann, Jean-Louis; Cheylan, Pascal; Vichot, Angélique; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2003-11-01

    X-ray spectromicroscopy has been successfully applied to determine the evolution of the Cr oxidation state in Portland cement during leaching experiments. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates the possibility to study the chromium oxidoreduction phenomena in cement materials at natural Cr concentration (approximately 60 ppm) and at the micron scale. Line scans of Cr for Cr(VI) doped (2000 ppm) and undoped samples indicate that the altered layer (0-1000 microm from the surface) is characterized by a lower amount of Cr as compared to the core part, whereas an accumulation appears in the intermediate region (1000-1300 microm). This Cr-rich interface could correspond to an accumulation of ettringite (3CaO x Al2O3 x 3CaSO4 x 32H2O) as reported by previous works. This mineral exhibits the property to incorporate Cr(III) and Cr(VI) by replacement of aluminum and sulfate, respectively, in the structure. The most surprising result concerns the evolution of the Cr(VI)/Cr(tot) ratio along the line spectra, which is constant from the altered layer to the core (both for doped and undoped samples). This means thatthe same amounts of Cr(VI) and Cr(tot) are released during leaching. Even for the undoped sample, Cr(VI) was detected in the altered layer at 40 microm from the surface. This result is not in perfect agreement with literature, which usually states that Cr(VI) is mainly leached out. Although this result must be confirmed, it clearly indicates that Cr(VI) may be less mobile than predicted by models. An attempt is made to identify potential Cr(VI) fixation phases.

  20. Influence of bismuth oxide concentration on the pH level and biocompatibility of white Portland cement

    PubMed Central

    MARCIANO, Marina Angélica; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; MINOTTI, Paloma Gagliardi; MIDENA, Raquel Zanin; GUIMARÃES, Bruno Martini; ORDINOLA-ZAPATA, Ronald; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate if there is a relation between the increase of bismuth oxide and the decrease of pH levels and an intensification of toxicity in the Portland cement. Material and Methods White Portland cement (WPC) was mixed with 0, 15, 20, 30 and 50% bismuth oxide, in weight. For the pH level test, polyethylene tubes were filled with the cements and immersed in Milli-Q water for 15, 30 and 60 days. After each period, the increase of the pH level was assessed. For the biocompatibility, two polyethylene tubes filled with the cements were implanted in ninety albino rats (n=6). The analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate was performed after 15, 30 and 60 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Friedman tests for the pH level and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for the biological analysis (p<0.05). Results The results showed an increase of the pH level after 15 days, followed by a slight increase after 30 days and a decrease after 60 days. There were no significant statistical differences among the groups (p>0.05). For the inflammatory infiltrates, no significant statistical differences were found among the groups in each period (p>0.05). The 15% WPC showed a significant decrease of the inflammatory infiltrate from 15 to 30 and 60 days (p<0.05). Conclusions The addition of bismuth oxide into Portland cement did not affect the pH level and the biological response. The concentration of 15% of bismuth oxide resulted in significant reduction in inflammatory response in comparison with the other concentrations evaluated. PMID:25141197

  1. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  2. Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetric Analysis of Portland Cement as a Function of Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trník, Anton; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Kulovaná, Tereza; Černý, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We study the hydration and pozzolanic reactions of an ordinary Portland cement as a function of age, using the differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The measurements are done for 2 days, 7 days, 28 days, 90 days, 180 days, and 360 days cured samples in order to monitor the rate of hydration. The investigation is performed in the temperature range from 25° C to 1000° C with a heating rate 5° C {\\cdot} min^{-1} in an argon atmosphere. The temperature, enthalpy, and mass change during the decomposition of calcium silicate hydrate gels, ettringite, portlandite, vaterite, and calcite are determined, and the changes in the portlandite amount are estimated in dependence on the time of hydration. We found out that the temperature and enthalpy of liberation of physically bound water, C-S-H gels and ettringite decomposition (all occurring from 50° C to 250° C) and Portlandite decomposition (420° C to 530° C) decrease with hydration time of studied samples. On the other hand, vaterite and calcite decomposition (530° C to 850° C) the temperature varies and the enthalpy increases with hydration time of samples.

  3. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    DOE PAGES

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydrationmore » of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators« less

  4. Suppression of phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Heng-Peng Ye; Fan-Zhong Chen; Yan-Qing Sheng; Guo-Ying Sheng; Jia-Mo Fu

    2006-08-15

    In this study, the effect of suppression on phosphate liberation from eutrophic lake sediment by using fly ash and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated by small scale experiment. A system including sediment, lake water, and several kinds of capping materials was designed to clarify the suppression of phosphate liberation from sediment under the anaerobic condition. The suppression efficiencies of fly ash, OPC and glass bead used as control material were also determined, and these effects were discussed. The suppression efficiency of glass bead was 44.4%, and those of fly ash and OPC were 84.4%, 94.9%, respectively. The suppression by fly ash and OPC was mainly carried out by the adsorption effect, in addition to the covering effect. The suppression efficiency depended on the amounts of the material used, and about 90% of liberated phosphate was suppressed by fly ash of 10.0 Kg m{sup -2}, and OPC of 6.0 Kg m{sup -2}. The concentrations of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, chromium, silver, arsenic and nickel, in fly ash and OPC were lower than those in the environmental materials. And it was considered that the concentrations of heavy metals in fly ash and OPC were too low to influence the ecosystem in natural water region.

  5. Biocompatibility of Portland Cement Modified with Titanium Oxide and Calcium Chloride in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Hoshyari, Narjes; Labbaf, Hossein; Jalayer Naderi, Nooshin; Kazemi, Ali; Bastami, Farshid; Koopaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of two modified formulations of Portland cement (PC) mixed with either titanium oxide or both titanium oxide and calcium chloride. Methods and Materials: Polyethylene tubes were filled with modified PCs or Angelus MTA as the control; the tubes were then implanted in 28 Wistar rats subcutaneously. One tube was left empty as a negative control in each rat. Histologic samples were taken after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. Sections were assessed histologically for inflammatory responses and presence of fibrous capsule and granulation tissue formation. Data were analyzed using the Fisher’s exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Result: PC mixed with titanium oxide showed the highest mean scores of inflammation compared with others. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean inflammatory grades between all groups in each of the understudy time intervals. Conclusion: The results showed favorable biocompatibility of these modified PC mixed with calcium chloride and titanium oxide. PMID:27141221

  6. Noise characteristics of hot mix asphalt and Portland cement concrete pavements in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Douglas I.

    2005-09-01

    In today's society, traffic noise is a serious problem that generally is considered an environmental pollution because it lowers the standard of living. Research in Europe and in the United States has indicated that it is possible to build pavement surfaces that will reduce the level of noise generated on roadways. In January of 2002 the National Center for Asphalt Technology initiated a research study with the objective to develop safe, quiet and durable asphalt pavement surfaces. As a part of that study over 300 pavement surfaces [both Portland Cement Concrete (PCCP) and Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)] throughout the United States have been tested using a close-proximity noise trailer. The study has shown that in general PCCP surfaces have a higher noise level than HMA surfaces. But, it has also shown that by properly choosing the surface texture of the PCCP surface significant reductions in the noise level of a PCCP surface can be achieved. The study has shown that it is possible to construct low-noise HMA mixes and that in general the smaller the nominal maximum size for those mixes (regards whether they are dense graded, SMA or OFGC mixes) the lower the noise level.

  7. The use of fly ash and portland cement to chemically fix metal mine drainage treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Hustwit, C.C.

    1996-11-01

    The conventional treatment of metal mine drainages produces a sludge consisting principally of metal hydroxides and oxides. There are no commonly used treatment technologies or methods to convert the metal hydroxides and oxides to more stable chemical forms. Industrial solid or semisolid wastes are often stabilized prior to final disposal with admixtures of fly ash, portland cement, or a combination of these materials. In this study, an adaptation of this stabilization method was evaluated for its ability to improve the settling rate, density, and chemical stability of a metal mine drainage treatment sludge. The corresponding properties of a hydrated lime-generated sludge were used as the basis of comparison. Hydrated lime is frequently used as a neutralizing reagent in mine drainage treatment. In this adaptation, the stabilizing materials were mixed with the mine drainage during treatment, rather than added to the sludge after treatment. There were two reasons for doing this. First, metal mine drainage treatment systems include mixers and their use for blending the stabilizing agent with the sludge during treatment would eliminate the need for separate mixing equipment. Second, the stabilizing agents tested were alkaline materials and may reduce the volume of hydrated lime required for treatment. Water treatment performance was also evaluated in this study.

  8. Solidification/stabilisation of air pollution control residues using Portland cement: Physical properties and chloride leaching.

    PubMed

    Lampris, C; Stegemann, J A; Cheeseman, C R

    2009-03-01

    Portland cement (CEMI) was used to solidify air pollution control (APC) residues from an energy-from-waste plant burning municipal solid waste. APC residue/CEMI mixes were prepared with CEMI additions ranging from 0 to 50 weight% (wt%) of total dry mass and water/solids ratios between 0.40 and 0.80. Isothermal conduction calorimetry was used to assess the effect of APC residues on the hydration of CEMI. Although up to 30wt% additions of APC residues accelerated CEMI hydration, the total heat of hydration during the initial 98h was significantly reduced. Higher levels of APC residues severely inhibited CEMI hydration. The consistence, setting time, compressive strength, porosity and chloride leaching characteristics of the solidified products were determined. As might be expected, increasing the CEMI addition and reducing the water content resulted in increased compressive strengths. All mixes achieved compressive strengths greater than 1MPa at 7 and 28days but only 50wt% samples did not show significant strength reduction when tested after immersion in water. Monolithic leaching tests indicated low physical immobilisation of chloride in the CEMI solidified APC residues, with chloride leaching in excess of relevant UK landfill waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The results of this study show that greater than 50% CEMI additions would be required to effectively treat APC residues to meet current WAC limits.

  9. EFFECT OF NaF AND SnO{sub 2} ON PORTLAND CEMENT CLINKER FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Paceagiu, Jenica; Amzica, Florin; Chendrean, Teofil; Paraschiv, Tatiana

    2008-08-28

    The paper aimed at studying the effect of NaF and SnO{sub 2} employed as mineralisers on Portland cement clinker fabrication. In order to do this, the raw mix included in turn 0.5% NaF, 0.5% SnO{sub 2}, and a combination of 0.5% NaF and 0.5% SnO{sub 2}, all expressed as weight percentages of the raw mix. The effects of the presence of NaF and SnO{sub 2} mineralisers on the raw mix were studied by investigations of the loss on ignition at 700 deg. C and 800 deg. C with calculating the corresponding decarbonation ratio of the raw mix, determination of free lime and XRD analysis. NaF was found to have a positive effect both during the decarbonation of the raw mix and during the formation of minerals in clinker. On the other hand, SnO{sub 2} has but a little effect on the decarbonation process. Finally, the combined use of NaF and SnO{sub 2} modifies the kinetics of binding the free lime to the effect of accelerating the process as compared to the separate use of each mineraliser.

  10. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    SciTech Connect

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydration of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators

  11. Setting expansion of gray and white mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Storm, Buffy; Eichmiller, Frederick C; Tordik, Patricia A; Goodell, Gary G

    2008-01-01

    One possible reason for the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is its slight expansion upon setting. Both gray mineral trioxide aggregate (GMTA) and white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) are composed of approximately 75% Portland cement (PC). WMTA differs from GMTA in its lower content of tetracalcium aluminoferrite. This difference in composition may affect setting expansion. The purpose of this study was to compare the hydroscopic linear setting expansions of GMTA, WMTA, and PC with a new device. Materials were mixed with water, placed into a cylindrical mold, and covered with sterile water or Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). Expansion changes were measured by using a linear variable displacement transformer dilatometer. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc tests (alpha = 0.05) showed the mean expansion at 24 hours was 1.02% for GMTA, 0.29% for PC, and 0.08% for WMTA in water immersion and 0.68% for GMTA and 0.11% for WMTA in HBSS immersion. GMTA expanded significantly more than WMTA in either water or HBSS immersion.

  12. Effect of MTA and Portland Cement on Fracture Resistance of Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Maryam; Bidar, Maryam; Shahrami, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Maryam; Attaran Mashhadi, Niloufar

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. It is important to evaluate the effects of endodontic materials on tooth structures to avoid endodontic treatment failure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) and Portland cement (PC) on fracture resistance of dentin. Materials and methods. Thirty-six freshly extracted human single-rooted premolar teeth were selected. The crowns were removed and the roots were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. The root samples were longitudinally divided into two halves and a dentin bar (2×2×10 mm) was cut from each root section for short-term (2weeks) and long-term (12 weeks) evaluations. The root sections in the experimental groups were exposed to MTA or PC, while keeping the control group specimens in physiologic saline. The fracture resistance of each specimen was measured using an Instron testing machine. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, a post hoc Tukey test and paired t-test at 5% significance level. Results. The fracture resistance of MTA-treated specimens significantly increased between 2 and 12 weeks (P<0.05). After 12 weeks, MTA-treated specimens had the highest fracture resistance. In the PC group, the fracture resistance of specimens did not change significantly over time (P>0.05). Conclusion. The results showed that MTA increased the fracture resistance of root dentin, while PC had no significant effect on dentin fracture resistance. PMID:23875085

  13. Radiopacity and cytotoxicity of Portland cement associated with niobium oxide micro and nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    MESTIERI, Leticia Boldrin; TANOMARU-FILHO, Mário; GOMES-CORNÉLIO, Ana Livia; SALLES, Loise Pedrosa; BERNARDI, Maria Inês Basso; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is composed of Portland Cement (PC) and bismuth oxide (BO). Replacing BO for niobium oxide (NbO) microparticles (Nbµ) or nanoparticles (Nbη) may improve radiopacity and bioactivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity and cytotoxicity of the materials: 1) PC; 2) White MTA; 3) PC+30% Nbµ; 4) PC+30% Nbη. Material and Methods For the radiopacity test, specimens of the different materials were radiographed along an aluminum step-wedge. For cell culture assays, Saos-2 osteoblastic-cells (ATCC HTB-85) were used. Cell viability was evaluated through MTT assay, and bioactivity was assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Results The results demonstrated higher radiopacity for MTA, followed by Nbµ and Nbη, which had similar values. Cell culture analysis showed that PC and PC+NbO associations promoted greater cell viability than MTA. Conclusions It was concluded that the combination of PC+NbO is a potential alternative for composition of MTA. PMID:25591023

  14. Stabilization of geothermal residues by encapsulation in polymer concrete and portland cement mortar composites

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.P.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1987-11-01

    Presented are the results from the preliminary phase of a laboratory test program conducted to identify and evaluate materials for converting hazardous geothermal residues to a non-hazardous and potentially usable form. Laboratory test results indicate that geothermal residues can be effectively incorporated, as a fine aggregate, into polymer concrete (PC) and portland cement mortar (PCM) composites. PC composites made using an emulsifiable polyester resin and a methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based monomer system exhibited compressive strengths varying between 3700 and 16,500 psi (25.5 and 113.8 MPa), depending upon the type of binder used and the moisture content of the residue. Waste extraction tests (WET) performed on ground samples of the composites indicate elemental levels of leachable heavy metals are below specified soluble threshold limit concentrations (STLC), thereby allowing the composites to be classified as non-hazardous. PCM composites exhibited compressive strengths varying between 2875 and 5530 psi (19.8 and 38.1 MPa), depending upon the type, amount and moisture content of the residue. WET analysis indicates that all but one of the PCM composites evaluated can be classified as non-hazardous. 8 tabs.

  15. Experimental determination of carbonation rate in Portland cement at 25°C and relatively high CO2 partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Ana; Montegrossi, Giordano; Huet, Bruno; Virgili, Giorgio; Orlando, Andrea; Vaselli, Orlando; Marini, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study the alteration of Portland class G Cement at ambient temperature under a relatively high CO2 partial pressure through suitably designed laboratory experiments, in which cement hydration and carbonation are taken into account separately. First, the hydration process was carried out for 28 days to identify and quantify the hydrated solid phases formed. After the completion of hydration, accompanied by partial carbonation under atmospheric conditions, the carbonation process was investigated in a stirred micro-reactor (Parr instrument) with crushed cement samples under 10 bar or more of pure CO2(g) and MilliQ water adopting different reaction times. The reaction time was varied to constrain the reaction kinetics of the carbonation process and to investigate the evolution of secondary solid phases. Chemical and mineralogical analyses (calcimetry, chemical composition, SEM and X-ray Powder Diffraction) were carried out to characterize the secondary minerals formed during cement hydration and carbonation. Water analyses were also performed at the end of each experimental run to measure the concentrations of relevant solutes. The specific surface area of hydrated cement was measured by means of the BET method to obtain the rates of cement carbonation. Experimental outcomes were simulated by means of the PhreeqC software package. The obtained results are of interest to understand the comparatively fast cement alteration in CO2 production wells with damaged casing.

  16. Critical review: Injectability of calcium phosphate pastes and cements.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, R; McCarthy, H O; Montufar, E B; Ginebra, M-P; Wilson, D I; Lennon, A; Dunne, N

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have seen clinical success in many dental and orthopaedic applications in recent years. The properties of CPC essential for clinical success are reviewed in this article, which includes properties of the set cement (e.g. bioresorbability, biocompatibility, porosity and mechanical properties) and unset cement (e.g. setting time, cohesion, flow properties and ease of delivery to the surgical site). Emphasis is on the delivery of calcium phosphate (CaP) pastes and CPC, in particular the occurrence of separation of the liquid and solid components of the pastes and cements during injection; and established methods to reduce this phase separation. In addition a review of phase separation mechanisms observed during the extrusion of other biphasic paste systems and the theoretical models used to describe these mechanisms are discussed.

  17. Effects of setting regulators on the efficiency of an inorganic acid based alkali-free accelerator reacting with a Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Maltese, C. . E-mail: Building.lab@mapei.it; Pistolesi, C.; Bravo, A.; Cella, F.; Cerulli, T.; Salvioni, D.

    2007-04-15

    Today, in the field of underground constructions, alkali-free accelerators are commonly employed, during tunnel excavation, to allow flash concrete setting. In this way, the cementitious sprayed material can firmly bond to the tunnel walls, controlling the convergence (the tendency of the section to squeeze). Their efficiency may be related to many parameters like: cement type, setting regulator, concrete composition, working temperature. Nevertheless, the influence of such factors on the accelerator performance has not been clarified yet. The accelerator efficacy is evaluated by real spraying test in job site or, when only laboratory equipment are available, by measuring the final setting times of cement systems admixed with the accelerator. Several alkali-free flash setting admixtures are available on the market. They can be divided into two main categories both containing aluminium sulphate complexes stabilized either by inorganic acids or by organic acids. In this paper, the influence of different setting regulators on the performances of an inorganic acid based alkali-free accelerator was analysed. Portland cement samples were obtained by mixing clinker with gypsum, {alpha}-hemihydrate, {beta}-hemihydrate or anhydrite. The setting regulator instantaneous dissolution rates were evaluated through conductivity measurements. The setting time of cement pastes with and without the accelerator was measured. It was found that the shorter the final setting time (therefore the more efficient is the accelerator) the lower the setting regulator instantaneous dissolution rate. In order to understand this phenomenon, a comparison was performed between accelerated cement paste samples containing the setting regulator with the highest ({beta}-hemihydrate) and the lowest instantaneous dissolution rate (anhydrite). The analytical work included morphological (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy-Field Emission Gun - ESEM-FEG), crystal-chemical (X-Ray Powder Diffraction

  18. Application of Thermoporometry to Evaluate the Mesoporosity of Cement Pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, T.-H.; Lorente, S.

    2010-05-30

    In the context of temporary near-surface or reversible deep geological storage of intermediate-level radioactive waste (ILW), most wastes package concepts comprise an external container made of fiber reinforced concrete, receiving several primary waste packages. Self-irradiation of encapsulating and/or embedding matrices can lead to continuous production of hydrogen which, for obvious safety reasons, must be removed from the container. Previous studies have demonstrated that gas transport depends on two interdependent factors: the water saturation and the microstructural properties of the material. Most techniques used to investigate cement paste porosity require drying of the cement paste prior to the test, which can modify the material microstructure and does not permit the localization of the aqueous phase in the material with various degrees of saturations. This paper focuses on the characterization of pores in cement paste by thermoporometry. The technique, based on the thermodynamic conditions of the melting-solidification reactions of a condensate inside a porous body, provides a simple method for determining the pore size distribution in saturated cement pastes. The results obtained on cement pastes of different formulations with different types of cement are discussed in term of material microstructure and compared with those obtained by other techniques.

  19. Soil Remediation of an Arsenic-Contaminated Site With Ferrous Sulfate and Type V Portland Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, V.; O'Day, P. A.; Rivera, N.; Root, R.; Rafferty, M. T.; Vlassopoulos, D.

    2005-12-01

    High levels of arsenic are present in a site adjacent to San Francisco Bay (in East Palo Alto, CA) as a consequence of the activity of a former pesticide manufacturing plant. Most of the readily accessible arsenic at the site has been removed by remedial excavation and surface capping. In-situ fixation of residual arsenic was performed close to the source about 10 years ago where arsenic values in capped soils ranged from 500 to 5000 mg kg-1. The fixation method consisted of the addition of ferrous sulfate (3% w/w), type V Portland cement (10% w/w) and water. Both products were mixed with the contaminated soil to a treatment depth between 1.5 and 9 meters. The treated soil was then capped to prevent weathering. This long-term amended soil offers an opportunity to compare the processes that prevent microbial arsenic reduction and control the immobilization of arsenic in the treated soils versus natural soils, and to study the aging effects of arsenic sorption. Solid phase characterization of soil samples from both the field and controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to study the speciation and bioavailability of arsenic and to ascertain the mechanisms of the arsenic immobilization in the treated soil. These methods included physical description by field observations, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, total elemental concentrations, and solid phase fractionation by sequential extraction. Both synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and XRD measurements were used to determine oxidation state of arsenic and iron and host phases present in the soil. The remedial treatment was successful in immobilizing the arsenic in the contaminated soil, and decreasing its leachability. Measurements taken at short aging times (during the first month) showed that the treatment was effective in reducing leachable arsenic as evidenced by the TCLP wet test (< 5 mg l-1 leached). The field amendment influenced

  20. Influence of fly ash fineness and shape on the porosity and permeability of blended cement pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsiri, Theerawat; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai

    2010-12-01

    The effects of the fineness and shape of fly ash on the porosity and air permeability of cement pastes were investigated. Pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash and fluidized bed coal combustion (FBC) fly ash classified into three different finenesses were used. River sand with particle size distribution similar to that of fly ash was also used for comparison. Portland cement was replaced with fly ash and ground sand at the dosages of 0, 20wt%, and 40wt%. A water-to-binder ratio (w/b) of 0.35 was used throughout the experiment. The results show that the porosity and air permeability of the pastes are influenced by the shape, fineness, and replacement level of fly ash. The porosity and air permeability of FBC fly ash pastes are higher than those of PCC fly ash pastes. This is due to the higher irregular shape and surface of FBC fly ash compared to the spherical shape and relatively smooth surface of PCC fly ash. The porosity increases with the increase in fly ash replacement level and decreases with the increase in its fineness. The permeability of PCC fly ash pastes decreases with the increase in replacement level and fineness, while for FBC fly ash, the permeability increases with the increase in replacement level. Decreases in porosity and permeability are due to a combined effect of the packing of fine particles and the reaction of fly ash.

  1. Cement Paste Matrix Composite Materials Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    not being fully funded. The projects are: The Effect of Chemical Doping and Phase Transformations on Microstructural Development of Dicalcium Silicate...Ceramics Alumina phosphate cements S. Granick* MSE -Ceramics Polymer-solid interfaces J. Homeny* MSE+-Ceramics Fracture of composites R. J. Kirkpatrick

  2. Measurement of the leaching rate of radionuclide 134Cs from the solidified radioactive sources in Portland cement mixed with microsilica and barite matrixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Ismail; Assi, Nasim

    2011-08-01

    Portland cement was mixed with radionuclide 134Cs to produce low-level radioactive sources. These sources were surrounded with cement mixed with different materials like microsilica and barite. The leaching rate of 134Cs from the solidified radioactive source in Portland cement alone was found to be 4.481 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day. Mixing this Portland cement with microsilica and with barite reduced significantly the leaching rate to 1.091 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day and 3.153 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 1 wt.% mixing, and to 1.401 × 10 -5 g/cm 2 per day and 1.703 × 10 -4 g/cm 2 per day for 3 wt.% mixing, respectively. It was also found that the application of a latex paint reduced these leaching rates by about 6.5%, 20.3% and 13.3% for Portland cement, cement mixed with microsilica and with barite, respectively. The leaching data were also analyzed using the polynomial method. The obtained results showed that cement mixed with microsilica and with barite can be effectively used for radioactive sources solidification.

  3. Porosity-strength relation in calcium aluminate cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Matusinovic, T.; Sipusic, J.; Vrbos, N

    2003-11-01

    The compressive strength and the volume porosity of calcium aluminate cement pastes have been studied in order to connect their relationship. The influence of mass fraction of lithium carbonate on compressive strength and porosity of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been investigated at different water-cement (w/c) ratios. The functions proposed in the literature for different technical materials were tested on obtained strength and porosity data. Those functions have been a base for further development of more general functional dependence of strength and porosity for cement materials. Thus, we propose the following equation to relate the strength and porosity for CAC pastes:{sigma}={sigma}{sub P0}1-PP{sub 0}{sup 2}.

  4. Intrafibrillar mineralization of polyacrylic acid-bound collagen fibrils using a two-dimensional collagen model and Portland cement-based resins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shiyu; Gu, Lisha; Huang, Zihua; Sun, Qiurong; Chen, Huimin; Ling, Junqi; Mai, Sui

    2017-02-01

    The biomimetic remineralization of apatite-depleted dentin is a potential method for enhancing the durability of resin-dentin bonding. To advance this strategy from its initial proof-of-concept design, we sought to investigate the characteristics of polyacrylic acid (PAA) adsorption to desorption from type I collagen and to test the mineralization ability of PAA-bound collagen. Portland cement and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) were homogenized with a hydrophilic resin blend to produce experimental resins. The collagen fibrils reconstituted on nickel (Ni) grids were mineralized using different methods: (i) group I consisted of collagen treated with Portland cement-based resin in simulated body fluid (SBF); (ii) group II consisted of PAA-bound collagen treated with Portland cement-based resin in SBF; and (iii) group III consisted of PAA-bound collagen treated with β-TCP-doped Portland cement-based resin in deionized water. Intrafibrillar mineralization was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. We found that a carbonyl-associated peak at pH 3.0 increased as adsorption time increased, whereas a hydrogen bond-associated peak increased as desorption time increased. The experimental resins maintained an alkaline pH and the continuous release of calcium ions. Apatite was detected within PAA-bound collagen in groups II and III. Our results suggest that PAA-bound type I collagen fibrils can be mineralized using Portland cement-based resins.

  5. Effect of additives on the compressive strength and setting time of a Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Machado, Desirée Freitas Mryczka; Bertassoni, Luiz Eduardo; Souza, Evelise Machado de; Almeida, Janaina Bertoncelo de; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Improvements in strength and setting time of Portland cements (PC) are needed to enhance their performance as endodontic and load bearing materials. This study sought to enhance the compressive strength and setting time of a PC by adding one of the following additives: 20% and 30% poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA), 20% and 30% irregular and spherical amalgam alloys, and 10% CaCl(2). The control consisted of unreinforced PC specimens. Setting time was determined using a Gillmore apparatus according to standardized methods while compressive strength was measured using a universal testing machine after 21 hours or 60 days of water storage. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and Games-Howell tests (alpha = 5%). All additives significantly decreased both initial and final setting times as compared with the PC-control (p < .05). 30% PMMA and 30% irregular alloy had the lowest values of initial setting time. 30% irregular alloy also produced the lowest values of final setting time while 30% spherical alloy yielded the highest (p < .05). No differences were detected between the compressive strength values of 21 hours and 60 days. While 10% CaCl(2), 20% and 30% PMMA produced values significantly lower than the PC-control, 30% spherical alloy significantly improved the compressive strength of the reinforced PC (p < .05). In summary, all additives significantly reduced the setting time and 30% spherical amalgam alloy yielded a significant increase in compressive strength for the tested PC, which might represent an improved composition for PCs to expand their use as endodontic and potentially load bearing materials.

  6. Interferometric microscopy study of the surface roughness of Portland cement under the action of different irrigants.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Palacios, Maria L; Berástegui-Jimeno, Esther M; Parellada-Esquius, Neus; Canalda-Sahli, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Some investigations suggested common Portland cement (PC) as a substitute material for MTA for endodontic use; both MTA and PC have a similar composition. The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness of common PC before and after the exposition to different endodontic irrigating solutions: 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Fifty PC samples in the form of cubes were prepared. PC was mixed with distilled water (powder/liquid ratio 3:1 by weight). The samples were immersed for one minute in 10% and 20% citric acid, 17% EDTA and 5% sodium hypochlorite. After gold coating, PC samples were examined using the New View 100 Zygo interferometric microscope. It was used to examine and register the surface roughness and the profile of two different areas of each sample. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out, and as the requirements were not met, use was made of the Kruskal-Wallis test for analysis of the results obtained, followed by contrasts using Tukey's contrast tests. Sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 5% significantly reduced the surface roughness of PC, while 20% citric acid significantly increased surface roughness. The other evaluated citric acid concentration (10%) slightly increased the surface roughness of PC, though statistical significance was not reached. EDTA at a concentration of 17% failed to modify PC surface roughness. Irrigation with 5% sodium hypochlorite and 20% citric acid lowered and raised the roughness values, respectively. The surface texture of PC is modified as the result of treatment with different irrigating solutions commonly used in endodontics, depending on their chemical composition and concentration.

  7. Ozone-induced respiratory illness during the repair of a portland cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, W T; Almaguer, D; Kirk, L H

    1999-06-01

    Workers at a portland cement plant had experienced acute respiratory and eye irritation when performing maintenance inside a kiln. These episodes were associated with a bleach-like odor, which was only reported during maintenance operations. An industrial hygiene investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the illness. While workers replaced refractory brick inside the kiln, air samples were collected for chlorine, sulfur dioxide, inorganic acid, ozone, and dust. After the rebricking was completed and all the workers had exited the kiln, its electrostatic precipitator was reduced to half power and the induced-draft (ID) fan was turned off to recreate conditions present during illness episodes. Chlorine, inorganic acid, and ozone were not detected, and only trace concentrations of sulfur dioxide were detected while workers were inside the kiln. However, when conditions present during previous episodes were recreated, the bleach-like odor was soon evident. Chlorine was not detected, but 0.09 to 0.11 ppm of ozone was measured at the discharge end of the kiln, and 4.5 ppm was measured at the inlet end. Within a half hour after the electrostatic precipitator was turned off and the ID fan was turned on, the ozone concentrations decreased to background levels of 0.02-0.03 ppm. Somewhat lower ozone exposures may have occurred during previous kiln maintenance operations due to more open access portals, but previous episodes of eye and respiratory irritation were probably caused when ozone, generated by the electrostatic precipitator, back-drafted into the kiln after the ID fan was turned off.

  8. Permeability predictions for sand-clogged Portland cement pervious concrete pavement systems.

    PubMed

    Haselbach, Liv M; Valavala, Srinivas; Montes, Felipe

    2006-10-01

    Pervious concrete is an alternative paving surface that can be used to reduce the nonpoint source pollution effects of stormwater runoff from paved surfaces such as roadways and parking lots by allowing some of the rainfall to permeate into the ground below. This infiltration rate may be adversely affected by clogging of the system, particularly clogging or covering by sand in coastal areas. A theoretical relation was developed between the effective permeability of a sand-clogged pervious concrete block, the permeability of sand, and the porosity of the unclogged block. Permeabilities were then measured for Portland cement pervious concrete systems fully covered with extra fine sand in a flume using simulated rainfalls. The experimental results correlated well with the theoretical calculated permeability of the pervious concrete system for pervious concrete systems fully covered on the surface with sand. Two different slopes (2% and 10%) were used. Rainfall rates were simulated for the combination of direct rainfall (passive runoff) and for additional stormwater runoff from adjacent areas (active runoff). A typical pervious concrete block will allow water to pass through at flow rates greater than 0.2 cm/s and a typical extra fine sand will have a permeability of approximately 0.02 cm/s. The limit of the system with complete sand coverage resulted in an effective system permeability of approximately 0.004 cm/s which is similar to the rainfall intensity of a 30 min duration, 100-year frequency event in the southeastern United States. The results obtained are important in designing and evaluating pervious concrete as a paving surface within watershed management systems for controlling the quantity of runoff.

  9. Stabilization/solidification (S/S) of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes using thiol-functionalized zeolite and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Yan; Wang, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Shao-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Sheng

    2009-09-15

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) of mercury-containing solid wastes using thiol-functionalized zeolite and cement was investigated in this study. The thiol-functionalized zeolite (TFZ) used in the study was obtained by grafting the thiol group (-SH) to the natural clinoptilolite zeolites, and the mercury adsorption by TFZ was investigated. TFZ was used to stabilize mercury in solid wastes, and then the stabilized wastes were subjected to cement solidification to test the effectiveness of the whole S/S process. The results show that TFZ has a high level of -SH content (0.562 mmol g(-1)) and the adsorption of mercury by TFZ conform to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The mercury adsorption capacity is greatly enhanced upon thiol grafting, the maximum of which is increased from 0.041 mmol Hg g(-1) to 0.445 mmol Hg g(-1). TFZ is found to be effective in stabilizing Hg in the waste surrogate. In the stabilization process, the optimum pH for the stabilization reaction is about 5.0. The optimum TFZ dosage is about 5% and the optimum cement dosage is about 100%. Though Cl(-) and PO(4)(3-) have negative effects on mercury adsorption by TFZ, the Portland cement solidification of TFZ stabilized surrogates containing 1000 mg Hg/kg can successfully pass the TCLP leaching test. It can be concluded that the stabilization/solidification process using TFZ and Portland cement is an effective technology to treat and dispose mercury-containing wastes.

  10. Solidification/stabilization of used abrasive media for non-structural concrete using portland cement. Interim research report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, M.T.; Carrasquillo, R.L.; Loehr, R.C.; Fowler, D.W.

    1994-11-01

    Highway bridges in the United States are painted to resist corrosion and to help maintain the structural integrity of the bridge. Periodically, it is necessary to remove the existing paint so that the surface can be repainted. Most often the removal process consists of blasting the surface with an abrasive such as sand or slag. The blast media then contains elements present in the paint, such as cadmium, chromium and lead. The spent media may be a hazardous waste as defined by EPA`s Toxicity Characteristic (TC) criterion. This criterion uses the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to determine whether a waste is classified as a hazardous waste. This procedure subjects the waste to a highly acidic environment in which chemicals can leach out of the waste. The leachate enviornment is then analyzed to determine the concentration of chemical leached, which must fall within the TC criterion. Some spent blasting material has been shown to have TCLP metal concentrations exceeding the TC criterion. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has begun to recycle spent abrasive media in portland cement-based concrete using solidification/stabilization (S/S) techniques. This technology is designed to immobilize the metals while recycling the spent abrasive media as a component in non-structural concrete. The study has revealed the effectiveness of portland cement-based S/S systems in recycling contaminated spent abrasive media in portland cement-based concrete. The long-term leaching behavior of metals from these concrete products was examined using sequential extraction leaching tests.

  11. Healing process of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and pulp covering with mineral trioxide aggregate or Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Holland, R; de Souza, V; Murata, S S; Nery, M J; Bernabé, P F; Otoboni Filho, J A; Dezan Júnior, E

    2001-01-01

    Considering several reports about the similarity between the chemical compositions of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC), the subject of this investigation was to analyze the behavior of dog dental pulp after pulpotomy and direct pulp protection with these materials. After pulpotomy, the pulp stumps of 26 roots of dog teeth were protected with MTA or PC. Sixty days after treatment, the animal was sacrificed and the specimens removed and prepared for histomorphological analysis. There was a complete tubular hard tissue bridge in almost all specimens. In conclusion, MTA and PC show similar comparative results when used in direct pulp protection after pulpotomy.

  12. Temperature influence on water transport in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Drouet, Emeline; Poyet, Stéphane; Torrenti, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-15

    Describing water transport in concrete is an important issue for the durability assessment of radioactive waste management reinforced concrete structures. Due to the waste thermal output such structures would be submitted to moderate temperatures (up to 80 °C). We have then studied the influence of temperature on water transport within hardened cement pastes of four different formulations. Using a simplified approach (describing only the permeation of liquid water) we characterized the properties needed to describe water transport (up to 80 °C) using dedicated experiments. For each hardened cement paste the results are presented and discussed.

  13. Characterisation of cement pastes by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Victor; Mrabet, Béchir; Baeta Neves, Maria Inês; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Benzarti, Karim

    2002-09-06

    Two cement pastes, commonly used in concrete formulations, were characterised by IGC at 35-80 degrees C before and after coating with an epoxy resin and a hardener. The cements are mixtures of hydrates in various proportions, such as calcium silicate hydrate (CaO-SiO2-H2O) and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2. Apolar and polar probes were used to determine the dispersive and acid-base characteristics of the cement pastes. These materials have high surface energy as judged from the dispersive contribution to the surface free energy (gamma(s)d) values lying in the 50-70 mJ/m2 range at 60-80 degrees C. Examination of the specific interactions permitted to show that the cement pastes are strongly amphoteric species with a substantial predominant Lewis basicity that is in line with the basic pH of their aqueous suspensions. Following coating with an epoxy resin (DGEBA) and a hardener (triethylene tetramine), the surface energy of the cements decreases substantially with the mass loading of the organic material. The surface thermodynamic properties were also correlated with the surface chemical composition as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. Assessment of the interaction of Portland cement-based materials with blood and tissue fluids using an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Schembri Wismayer, P.; Lung, C. Y. K.; Rappa, F.; Cappello, F.; Camilleri, J.

    2016-01-01

    Portland cement used in the construction industry improves its properties when wet. Since most dental materials are used in a moist environment, Portland cement has been developed for use in dentistry. The first generation material is mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), used in surgical procedures, thus in contact with blood. The aim of this study was to compare the setting of MTA in vitro and in vivo in contact with blood by subcutaneous implantation in rats. The tissue reaction to the material was also investigated. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) was implanted in the subcutaneous tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats in opposite flanks and left in situ for 3 months. Furthermore the material was also stored in physiological solution in vitro. At the end of the incubation time, tissue histology and material characterization were performed. Surface assessment showed the formation of calcium carbonate for both environments. The bismuth was evident in the tissues thus showing heavy element contamination of the animal specimen. The tissue histology showed a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate associated with the MTA. MTA interacts with the host tissues and causes a chronic inflammatory reaction when implanted subcutaneously. Hydration in vivo proceeds similarly to the in vitro model with some differences particularly in the bismuth oxide leaching patterns. PMID:27683067

  15. Performance of lime-soda sinter process residue in the manufacture of sulfate-resistant portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, J.A.; Burnet, G.

    1986-04-25

    The residue from the Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process for recovering alumina from power plant fly ash consists largely of dicalcium silicate and shows promise as a raw material for the manufacture of a low-alumina, sulfate-resistant portland cement. A laboratory burnability study has been conducted to determine the best way to utilize this raw material from both clinker quality and economic perspectives. These tests are essential when a new material, such as the lime-sinter process residue, it to be considered as a possible cement raw material. The amount of unreacted lime can be used as a measure of the reactivity of a raw mix by indicating the extent to which the cement reactions have progressed. Conditions of residence time and temperature used for the burnability tests were chosen to simulate actual kiln operation. A factorial experimental design made of the parameters of burning temperature, lime content, and lumina (flux) content. Preliminary results from this study indicate that a raw mix made from the sinter residue yields a satisfactory cement.

  16. Mössbauer and calorimetric studies of portland cement hydration in the presence of black gram pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Sarita; Kurian, Sajith; Dwivedi, V. N.; Das, S. S.; Singh, N. B.; Gajbhiye, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Effect of different concentrations of naturally occurring admixture in the form of fine powder of black gram pulse (BGP) on the hydration of Portland cement was studied by isothermal calorimetry and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The spectra were recorded for anhydrous cement and the hydration products at room temperature and 77 K. In the presence of BGP, the spectra showed superparamagnetic doublets at room temperature and the sextet at 77 K, due to the presence of fine particles of iron containing component. Mössbauer studies of hydration products confirmed the formation of nanosize hydration products containing Fe3 + . The isomer shift ( δ) and the quadrupole splitting (Δ E Q) values of C4AF in the cement confirmed iron in an octahedral and tetrahedral environment with +3 oxidation state. The high value of quadrupole splitting showed the high asymmetry of the electron environment around the iron atom. The overall mechanism of the hydration of cement in presence of BGP is discussed.

  17. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    PubMed

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique; Zanni, Hélène; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress.

  18. Microstructure of Wet Cement Pastes: a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehng, Jyh-Yuar

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis has been applied to interpret the evolution of microstructure in a cement paste during hydration. The work in this thesis has yielded a better understanding of the geometric and physical characterization of porous materials, and specifically cement pastes. A basic understanding of the wet-dry and freeze-thaw processes of cement pastes has been developed. The pore structure evolution has been studied by the suppression of the freezing temperature of water and compared with relaxation analysis performed at room temperature. Both methods consistently show that hydrating cement pastes have two principal components in their size distribution. Firstly, in situ measurements have been made of the water consumption, the total specific surface area, and pore water size distribution as a function of hydration time. The amount of evaporable water in the pore space can be determined from the magnitude of the NMR signal, and the NMR relaxation times provide a measure of the characteristic pore sizes. Drying studies have been performed to determine the surface spin-spin relaxation time. The NMR results on evolution of cement pore structure with hydration clearly show five different stages. The water consumption was determined to be a linear function of the logarithm of hydration time over a wide range during which the total surface area of the wet gel remains constant. These experiments support a model of capillary and gel pores in the cement paste and provide strong evidence of a stable dense-gel structure. Secondly, supercooling and thawing point depression of confined water has been studied systematically. The depression of the freezing point of liquid water confined within a pore was found to be dependent on the pore size with capillary pore water freezing at 240 K and the remaining gel pore water freezing over a temperature range extending to as low as 160 K. Finally, an important application of NMR has been developed to monitor

  19. Accelerated carbonation of Friedel's salt in calcium aluminate cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Goni, S.; Guerrero, A

    2003-01-01

    The stability of Friedel's salt with respect to carbonation has been studied in calcium aluminate cement (CAC) pastes containing NaCl (3% of Cl{sup -} by weight of cement). Carbonation was carried out on a powdered sample in flowing 5% CO{sub 2} gas at 65% relative humidity to accelerate the process. At an intermediate carbonation step, a part of the sample was washed and dried up to 10 cycles to simulate a dynamic leaching attack. The two processes were followed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH and Cl{sup -} analyses in the simulated pore solution.

  20. Chemical characterization and bioactivity of epoxy resin and Portland cement-based sealers with niobium and zirconium oxide radiopacifiers.

    PubMed

    Viapiana, Raqueli; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Hungaro-Duarte, Marco Antonio; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Camilleri, Josette

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the bioactivity potential of experimental root canal sealers (ES) based on Portland cement, epoxy resin with nano- and micro-particles of niobium or zirconium oxide used as radiopacifiers in comparison to AH Plus and MTA Fillapex. Specimens of the sealers (10 mm in diameter×1 mm thick) were prepared and the radiopacity was evaluated according to ISO 6876 (2012) specifications. Characterization of the sealers was performed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after setting and after immersion for 28 days in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS). In addition X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were also performed. The pH and calcium ion release were measured after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after completion of seating using a digital pH meter and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, respectively. The experimental sealers exhibited an average radiopacity of 2.5 mm thickness of aluminum, which was similar to MTA Fillapex (P>0.05) and inferior to AH Plus (P<0.05). AH Plus did not show bioactivity. Although the experimental sealers did not exhibit the formation of hydration product, they encouraged the deposition of crystalline spherical structures of calcium deficient phosphate. The highest pH and calcium release values were observed with the experimental sealers (P<0.01). ES-Nb-micro was the only sealer to present hexagonal shaped crystal deposition. Novel root canal sealers based on a mixture of Portland cement, epoxy resin and radiopacifier exhibited a degree of bioactivity although no evidence of cement hydration was demonstrated on material characterization. The radiopacifier particle size had limited effect on the sealer microstructure and chemical properties. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A preliminary study of CO2 sequestration of cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Lee, H.; Hwang, J.; Oh, J.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, CO2 capture and storage technologies to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere have been extensively studied because global warming is a worldwide issue. Waste cement is a potential raw material for mineral carbonation. In general, carbonation refers a calcite forming reaction in hydrated cement. The carbonation of portlandite in hydrated cement is very straightforward. However, the carbonation of CSH (calcium silicate hydrate: CaO-SiO2-H2O) composing the largest portion of hydrated cement involved in complex reactions and is a key to increase the carbonation efficiency of waste cement. The present study was conducted to have basic information for utilizing waste cement as a raw material for CO2 sequestration. Cement paste was made with W:C= 6:4 and stored for 28 days in water bath. The prepared cement paste was pulverized, and fine grains sizing less than 0.15mm was used for experiment. For the direct aqueous carbonation experiment, 15g of sample is reacted with 200 ml of 1M NaHCO3 in 500ml HDPE bottle. 1M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 was used for additives after leaching test with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5M NaCl and MgCl2 solutions, and the carbonation efficiency of these additives was evaluated. After reaction, the reacted cement paste and supernatant solution were separated from centrifuging at 5000rpm. The reacted cement paste was analyzed with XRD, DSC/TGA and SEM/EDS. The supernatant solution was filtered with 0.45um membrane filter, and nitric acid was added to lower 2 for preventing calcite precipitation. Then, chemical composition of solution was analyzed with ICP-OES. The leaching of Ca ion is increased with increasing NaCl concentration and is maximized at 1M solution. Extremely small leaching of Si ion indicates that NaCl feebly affect on the carbonation of CSH. The leaching of Ca ion in MgCl2 solution is 10 times greater than in NaCl solution and is maximized at 0.5M solution. The increased Ca leaching is probably caused by the decalcification of

  2. Influence of polymer on cement hydration in SBR-modified cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ru . E-mail: wr_irene@163.com; Li Xingui; Wang Peiming

    2006-09-15

    The influence of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) latex on cement hydrates Ca(OH){sub 2}, ettringite, C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} and C-S-H gel and the degree of cement hydration is studied by means of several measure methods. The results of DSC and XRD show that the Ca(OH){sub 2} content in wet-cured SBR-modified cement pastes increases with polymer-cement ratio (P/C) and reaches a maximum when P/C is 5%, 10% and 10% for the pastes hydrated for 3 d, 7 d and 28 d, respectively. With wet cure, appropriate addition of SBR promotes the hydration of cement, while the effect of SBR on the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} and the degree of cement hydration is not remarkable in mixed-cured SBR-modified cement pastes. XRD results illustrate that SBR accelerates the reaction of calcium aluminate with gypsum, and thus enhances the formation and stability of the ettringite and inhibits the formation of C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}. The structure of aluminum-oxide and silicon-oxide polyhedron is characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si solid state NMR spectrum method, which shows that tetrahedron and octahedron are the main forms of aluminum-oxide polyhedrons in SBR-modified cement pastes. There are only [SiO{sub 4}]{sup 4-} tetrahedron monomer and dimer in the modified pastes hydrated for 3 d, but there appears three-tetrahedron polymer in the modified pastes hydrated for 28 d. The effect of low SBR dosage on the structure of aluminum-oxide and silicon-oxide polyhedron is slight. However, the combination of Al{sup 3+} with [SiO{sub 4}]{sup 4-} is restrained when P/C is above 15%, and the structure of Al{sup 3+} is changed obviously. Meantime, the polymerization of the [SiO{sub 4}]{sup 4-} tetrahedron in C-S-H gel is controlled.

  3. Sealing ability of MTA and radiopaque Portland cement with or without calcium chloride for root-end filling.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Broon, Norberto Juárez; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on the sealing ability of three Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) cements, ProRoot MTA, MTA-Angelus, and radiopaque White Portland cement (WPC), for retrograde root filling. Seventy roots of extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented and obturated. After sectioning the samples at 2 mm from the apex, they received one layer of Araldite and two coats of nail enamel, except for the apical dentinal surface submitted to apicectomy. Standardized retrograde cavities were prepared, filled with one of the materials, and immersed in 0.2% Rhodamine B solution for 72 hours. Dye leakage was analyzed on a light microscope with ocular micrometer. Kruskal-Wallis and Miller tests were used to compare groups arranged in increasing order of leakage, according to mean rank of scores: WPC+CaCl(2), MTA-Angelus+CaCl(2), ProRoot MTA+CaCl(2), MTA-Angelus, ProRoot MTA, and WPC. CaCl(2) improved the sealing ability of all three MTA cements.

  4. Determination of strontium and simultaneous determination of strontium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide content of Portland cement by derivative ratio spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Idriss, K A; Sedaira, H; Ahmed, S S

    2009-04-15

    A derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of strontium in Portland cement. The method is applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of SrO, MgO and CaO. It is based on the use of Alizarin Complexone (AC) as a complexing agent and measurement of the derivative ratio spectra of the analytes. Interferences of manganese(II) and zinc(II) were eliminated by precipitation. The validity of the method was examined by analyzing several Standard Reference Material (SRM) Portland cement samples. The strontium complex formed at pH 9.5 allows precise and accurate determination of strontium over the concentration range of 1.5-18 mg L(-1) of strontium. The MDL (at 95% confidence level) was found to be 25 ng mL(-1) for strontium in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cement samples using the proposed method.

  5. Effect of different radiopacifying agents on the physicochemical properties of white Portland cement and white mineral trioxide aggregate.

    PubMed

    Hungaro Duarte, Marco Antonio; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Rodrigues, Clarissa Teles; Zapata, Ronald Ordinola; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Tanomaru Filho, Mário; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Bombarda de Andrade, Flaviana

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, calcium ion release, setting time, and solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and white Portland cement (WPC) combined with the following radiopacifying agents: bismuth oxide (BO), calcium tungstate (CT), and zirconium oxide (ZO). Fifty acrylic teeth with root-end filling material were immersed in ultrapure water for measurement of pH and calcium release (atomic absorption spectrophotometry) at 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. For evaluation of setting time, each material was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines 266/08. The solubility test was performed according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association specification no. 57/2000. Solubility, setting time, and pH values were compared by using analysis of variance and Tukey test, and the values of calcium release were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Miller tests. The significance level was set at 5%. The pH and calcium release were higher at 3 and 24 hours. WPC was the material with the higher values for both properties. WMTA had the greatest solubility among all materials (P < .05). All radiopacifiers increased the setting time of WPC, and WMTA had the shortest setting time among all materials (P < .05). All materials released calcium ions. Except for WPC/CT at 168 hours, all materials promoted an alkaline pH. On the basis of the obtained results, ZO and CT can be considered as potential radiopacifying agents to be used in combination with Portland cement. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, H.W.; Nagy, K.L.; Morris, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    A set of ``templates`` was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ``affinity effect`` cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity.

  7. The influence of loading on the corrosion of steel in cracked ordinary Portland cement and high performance concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffer, Shahzma Jafferali

    Most studies that have examined chloride-induced corrosion of steel in concrete have focused on sound concrete. However, reinforced concrete is seldom uncracked and very few studies have investigated the influence of cracked concrete on rebar corrosion. Furthermore, the studies that have examined the relationship between cracks and corrosion have focused on unloaded or statically loaded cracks. However, in practice, reinforced concrete structures (e.g. bridges) are often dynamically loaded. Hence, the cracks in such structures open and close which could influence the corrosion of the reinforcing steel. Consequently, the objectives of this project were (i) to examine the effect of different types of loading on the corrosion of reinforcing steel, (ii) the influence of concrete mixture design on the corrosion behaviour and (iii) to provide data that can be used in service-life modelling of cracked reinforced concretes. In this project, cracked reinforced concrete beams made with ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPCC) and high performance concrete (HPC) were subjected to no load, static loading and dynamic loading. They were immersed in salt solution to just above the crack level at their mid-point for two weeks out of every four (wet cycle) and, for the remaining two weeks, were left in ambient laboratory conditions to dry (dry cycle). The wet cycle led to three conditions of exposure for each beam: (i) the non-submerged region, (ii) the sound, submerged region and (iii) the cracked mid-section, which was also immersed in the solution. Linear polarization resistance and galvanostatic pulse techniques were used to monitor the corrosion in the three regions. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical current noise and concrete electrical resistance measurements were also performed. These measurements illustrated that (i) rebar corroded faster at cracks than in sound concrete, (ii) HPC was more protective towards the rebar than OPCC even at cracks and (iii) there

  8. Modelling of nano-silica in cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupasinghe, Madhuwanthi; Mendis, Priyan; Sofi, Massoud; Ngo, Tuan

    2013-08-01

    Recently published experimental evidence shows that nano-silica is a material that can be used to enhance the strength and durability characteristics of concrete. Engineered concrete at the nano-scale is achieved through the integration of nano-materials in suitable proportions and relevant mixing methods. Being a pozzolanic and reactive material along with nucleation effects and miniature particle size, nano-silica has been found to significantly improve the micro-structural characteristics of concrete making it denser and more uniform. The ongoing research work at the University of Melbourne is based on a novel modelling approach to further investigate the performance characteristics of nano-silica on cement paste at the micro-meter scale. The volumetric proportions of different phases present in concrete are computed considering hydration characteristics of cement and those of nanosilica. A Representative Volume Element (RVE) of the cement paste at micro scale is developed considering the hydrated gel as the matrix material while other phases present are integrated as randomly distributed spherical particles. Constitutive material models for these phases are assumed. The stress-strain relationship for the RVE is then generated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The approach proposed in this paper is an initiation towards developing an acute and compressive model to predict the performance characteristics of nano-engineered concrete.

  9. Cement paste compressive strength estimation using nondestructive microwave reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoughi, Reza; Gray, S.; Nowak, Paul S.

    1994-09-01

    Microwave reflection properties of four cement paste samples with various water-cement (w/c) ratios were measured daily for 28 days using microwave frequencies of 5, 9, and 13 GHz. The dielectric properties of these samples, and hence their reflection coefficients, were measured daily and shown to decrease as a function of increasing w/c ratio. This is as a direct result of curing (no chemical interaction or hydration). The presence of curing as indicated by this result indicates that microwaves could be used to monitor the amount of curing in a concrete member. The variation in the reflection coefficient of these samples as a function of w/c ratio followed a trend similar to the variation of compressive strength as a function of w/c ratio. Subsequently, a correlation between the measured compressive strength and reflection coefficient of these blocks was obtained. The early results indicated that lower frequencies are more sensitive to compressive strength variations. However, further investigations showed that there may be a frequency around 5 GHz which is the optimum measurement frequency. This result can be used to directly and nondestructively estimate the compressive strength of a cement paste and mortar blocks.

  10. 1H NMR spin-spin relaxation and imaging in porous systems: an application to the morphological study of white portland cement during hydration in the presence of organics.

    PubMed

    Gussoni, M; Greco, F; Bonazzi, F; Vezzoli, A; Botta, D; Dotelli, G; Natali Sora, I; Pelosato, R; Zetta, L

    2004-07-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin relaxation and imaging have been applied to investigate white Portland cement pastes during hydration in the absence and in the presence of organic solvents. The main organic solvent investigated was methanol, alone or together with the organic waste 2-chloroaniline (2-CA), an aromatic amine representative of an important class of highly toxic compounds. For all the analysed samples, prepared with a solvent-to-cement ratio of 0.4, the decay of the echo magnetization has been fitted by adopting a model that combines an exponential component with a gaussian one. The calculated independent relaxation parameters have been discussed in terms of morphological and dynamical changes that occur during the cement hardening process and pore formation. Three kinds of water molecules: "solid-like" (chemically and physically bound), "liquid-like" (porous trapped) and "free" water, endowed with anisotropic, near isotropic and isotropic motion, respectively, were identified. Spin-echo images collected on the same samples during the hydration kinetics, allowed the changes of water and solvents spatial distribution in the porous network to be monitored, showing percolation phenomena and confirming the multimodal open channels structure of the hardened cement system. Both T(2) relaxation and imaging data indicated that a pronounced delay occurs in the cement hardening when organics are present.

  11. Rheology and Extrusion of Cement-Fly Ashes Pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micaelli, F.; Lanos, C.; Levita, G.

    2008-07-01

    The addition of fly ashes in cement pastes is tested to optimize the forming of cement based material by extrusion. Two sizes of fly ashes grains are examinated. The rheology of concentrated suspensions of ashes mixes is studied with a parallel plates rheometer. In stationary flow state, tested suspensions viscosities are satisfactorily described by the Krieger-Dougherty model. An "overlapped grain" suspensions model able to describe the bimodal suspensions behaviour is proposed. For higher values of solid volume fraction, Bingham viscoplastic behaviour is identified. Results showed that the plastic viscosity and plastic yield values present minimal values for the same optimal formulation of bimodal mixes. The rheological study is extended to more concentrated systems using an extruder. Finally it is observed that the addition of 30% vol. of optimized ashes mix determined a significant reduction of required extrusion load.

  12. Low-alumina portland cement from lime-soda sinter residue

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A byproduct for the Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process for recovering alumina from power plant fly ash was investigated as a cement raw material. This investigation dealt with a determination of the best method to utilize the process residue from both a clinker quality and an economic perspective. The experimental work was divided into characterization of the sinter residue, laboratory burnability tests, physical testing of produced residue-cements, and a kinetic study of C/sub 3/S formation. Other important topics were considered such as the effect use of te sinter residue has on the energy requirements of a commercial cement kiln and on the economics of a combined lime-soda sinter, cement plant. (130 refs., 61 figs., 56 tabs

  13. The influence of cellulose nanocrystal additions on the performance of cement paste

    Treesearch

    Yizheng Cao; Pablo Zavaterri; Jeff Youngblood; Robert Moon; Jason Weiss

    2015-01-01

    The influence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) addition on the performance of cement paste was investigated. Our mechanical tests show an increase in the flexural strength of approximately 30% with only 0.2% volume of CNCs with respect to cement. Isothermal calorimetry (IC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that the degree of hydration (DOH) of the cement paste...

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity of white MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Patrícia; Nishiyama, Celso Kenji; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Sipert, Carla Renata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests after the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5x3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

  15. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    SciTech Connect

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-04-30

    Part of the urban heat island effect can be attributed to dark pavements that are commonly used on streets and parking lots. In this paper we consider two light colored, hence cooler, alternative paving materials that are in actual use in cities today. These are Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and chip seals. We report measurements of the albedos of some PCC and chip sealed pavements in the San Francisco Bay Area. The albedos of the PCC pavements ranged from about 0.18 to 0.35. The temperatures of some PCC pavements are also measured and calculated. We then consider how the albedos of the constituent materials of the PCC (stone, sand and cement) contribute to the albedos of the resulting finished concrete. The albedos of a set of chip sealed pavements in San Jose, CA, were measured and correlated with the times of their placement. It is found that the albedos decrease with age (and use) but remain higher than that of standard asphalt concrete (AC) for about five years. After t hat, the albedos of the chip seals are about 0.12, similar to aged AC. The fact that many PCC pavements have albedos at least twice as high as aged AC suggests that it is possible to have pavement albedos that remain high for many years.

  16. Calcium looping spent sorbent as a limestone replacement in the manufacture of portland and calcium sulfoaluminate cements.

    PubMed

    Telesca, Antonio; Marroccoli, Milena; Tomasulo, Michele; Valenti, Gian Lorenzo; Dieter, Heiko; Montagnaro, Fabio

    2015-06-02

    The calcium looping (CaL) spent sorbent (i) can be a suitable limestone replacement in the production of both ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement, and (ii) promotes environmental benefits in terms of reduced CO2 emission, increased energy saving and larger utilization of industrial byproducts. A sample of CaL spent sorbent, purged from a 200 kWth pilot facility, was tested as a raw material for the synthesis of two series of OPC and CSA clinkers, obtained from mixes heated in a laboratory electric oven within temperature ranges 1350°-1500 °C and 1200°-1350 °C, respectively. As OPC clinker-generating mixtures, six clay-containing binary blends were investigated, three with limestone (reference mixes) and three with the CaL spent sorbent. All of them showed similar burnability indexes. Moreover, three CSA clinker-generating blends (termed RM, MA and MB) were explored. They included, in the order: (I) limestone, bauxite and gypsum (reference mix); (II) CaL spent sorbent, bauxite and gypsum; (III) CaL spent sorbent plus anodization mud and a mixture of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) fly and bottom ashes. The maximum conversion toward 4CaO·3Al2O3·SO3, the chief CSA clinker component, was the largest for MB and almost the same for RM and MA.

  17. Hydration Characteristics of Metakaolin Admixtured Cement using DTA, XRD and SEM Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindarajan, D.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2008-04-01

    The paper aims to investigate hydration and pozzolanic reaction in Portland cement paste with different replacement percentages (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) of metakaolin. The compressive strength of the metakaolin admixtured cement was measured at 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks. The compressive strength developments of the metakaolin admixtured cement are compared with Portland cement. It is found that metakaolin contributes significantly to strength development as an accelerating admixture for Portland cement. The pozzolanic reactions and the reaction products were determined by DTA, XRD and SEM.

  18. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  19. 76 FR 28318 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ..., and sulfur dioxide at cement kilns that commence construction, modification, or reconstruction after...-2002-0051-2922.1), the EPA modified the proposed standards so that they are expressed as stack... standards related to PM, the NSPS for PM as applied to modified sources, and the alternative PM compliance...

  20. THE MECHANISM OF PORE REDUCTION DUE TO CARBONATION REACTION OF γ-2CaO.SiO2 AND POZZOLANIC ADMIXTURES WITH LOW-HEAT-PORTLAND-CEMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenzo; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Sakata, Noboru; Sakai, Etsuo

    The durability of cementitious material can be effectively improved by reducing permeability and by changing cement hydrates due to car bonation reaction. This paper describes the examination results about the mechanism of pore reductio n during the curing with CO2 gasses of new cementisious materials containing low heat Portland cement, γ-2CaO.SiO2 and pozzolanic admixtures. As a result, it was provided that the pore of the mortar containing the pozzolanic admixtures and γ-2CaO.SiO2 got small, because the pozzolanic admixtures would accelerate the reaction of γ-2CaO.SiO2 and CO2 gasses.

  1. Predictive Mechanical Characterization of Macro-Molecular Material Chemistry Structures of Cement Paste at Nano Scale - Two-phase Macro-Molecular Structures of Calcium Silicate Hydrate, Tri-Calcium Silicate, Di-Calcium Silicate and Calcium Hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla Espinosa, Ingrid Marcela

    Concrete is a hierarchical composite material with a random structure over a wide range of length scales. At submicron length scale the main component of concrete is cement paste, formed by the reaction of Portland cement clinkers and water. Cement paste acts as a binding matrix for the other components and is responsible for the strength of concrete. Cement paste microstructure contains voids, hydrated and unhydrated cement phases. The main crystalline phases of unhydrated cement are tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and di-calcium silicate (C2S), and of hydrated cement are calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH). Although efforts have been made to comprehend the chemical and physical nature of cement paste, studies at molecular level have primarily been focused on individual components. Present research focuses on the development of a method to model, at molecular level, and analysis of the two-phase combination of hydrated and unhydrated phases of cement paste as macromolecular systems. Computational molecular modeling could help in understanding the influence of the phase interactions on the material properties, and mechanical performance of cement paste. Present work also strives to create a framework for molecular level models suitable for potential better comparisons with low length scale experimental methods, in which the sizes of the samples involve the mixture of different hydrated and unhydrated crystalline phases of cement paste. Two approaches based on two-phase cement paste macromolecular structures, one involving admixed molecular phases, and the second involving cluster of two molecular phases are investigated. The mechanical properties of two-phase macromolecular systems of cement paste consisting of key hydrated phase CSH and unhydrated phases C3S or C2S, as well as CSH with the second hydrated phase CH were calculated. It was found that these cement paste two-phase macromolecular systems predicted an isotropic material behavior. Also

  2. The C-S-H gel of Portland cement mortars: Part I. The interpretation of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses from scanning electron microscopy, with some observations on C-S-H, AFm and AFt phase compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Famy, C.; Brough, A.R.; Taylor, H.F.W

    2003-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microanalyses of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel in Portland cement pastes rarely represent single phases. Essential experimental requirements are summarised and new procedures for interpreting the data are described. These include, notably, plots of Si/Ca against other atom ratios, 3D plots to allow three such ratios to be correlated and solution of linear simultaneous equations to test and quantify hypotheses regarding the phases contributing to individual microanalyses. Application of these methods to the C-S-H gel of a 1-day-old mortar identified a phase with Al/Ca=0.67 and S/Ca=0.33, which we consider to be a highly substituted ettringite of probable composition C{sub 6}A{sub 2}S-bar{sub 2}H{sub 34} or {l_brace}Ca{sub 6}[Al(OH){sub 6}]{sub 2}{center_dot}24H{sub 2}O{r_brace}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}[Al(OH){sub 4}]{sub 2}. If this is true for Portland cements in general, it might explain observed discrepancies between observed and calculated aluminate concentrations in the pore solution. The C-S-H gel of a similar mortar aged 600 days contained unsubstituted ettringite and an AFm phase with S/Ca=0.125.

  3. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Formocresol, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate, Portland Cement, and Enamel Matrix Derivative in Primary Teeth Pulpotomies: A Two Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ceren; Basak, Feridun; Akgun, Ozlem Marti; Polat, Gunseli Guven; Altun, Ceyhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes of 4 materials (formocresol, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Portland cement and enamel matrix derivative) using in primary teeth pulpotomies. Sixty-five patients aged 5-9 years (32 female, 33 male) were included in this study. A total of 140 primary first and second molars with deep caries were treated with pulpotomy. All teeth were then restored with stainless steel crowns. The treated teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. At 24 months, the clinical success rates of formocresol, MTA, Portland cement, and enamel matrix derivative were 96.9%, 100%, 93.9%, and 93.3%, respectively. The corresponding radiographic success rates were 84.4%, 93.9%, 86.7% and 78.1%, respectively. Although there were no statistically significant differences in clinical and radiographic success rates among the 4 groups, MTA appears to be superior to formocresol, Portland cement, and enamel matrix derivative as a pulpotomy agent in primary teeth.

  4. Determination of potassium, sodium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete by a simple flow injection flame photometric system.

    PubMed

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-01-01

    A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05-1.0 mg L(-1) and 1.0-20.0 mg L(-1) were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 mg L(-1), for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10 mg L(-1) potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120 h(-1) was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement.

  5. Determination of Potassium, Sodium, and Total Alkalies in Portland Cement, Fly Ash, Admixtures, and Water of Concrete by a Simple Flow Injection Flame Photometric System

    PubMed Central

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-01-01

    A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05–1.0 mg L−1 and 1.0–20.0 mg L−1 were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 mg L−1, for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10 mg L−1 potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120 h−1 was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement. PMID:21747733

  6. Reaction processes and permeability changes during CO2-rich brine flow through fractured Portland cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdoulghafour, H.; Luquot, L.; Gouze, P.

    2012-12-01

    So far, cement alteration was principally studied experimentally using batch reactor (with static or renewed fluid). All exhibit similar carbonation mechanisms. The acidic solution, formed by the dissolution of the CO2 into the pore water or directly surrounding the cement sample, diffuses into the cement and induces dissolution reactions of the cement hydrates in particular portlandite and CSH. The calcium released by the dissolution of these calcium bearing phases combining with carbonate ions of the fluid forms calcium carbonates. The cement pH, initially around 13, falls to values where carbonate ion is the most dominant element (pH ~ 9), then CaCO3 phases can precipitate. These studies mainly associate carbonation process with a reduction of porosity and permeability. Indeed an increase of volume (about 10%) is expected during the formation of calcite from portlandite (equation 2) assuming a stoichiometric reaction. Here we investigated the cement alteration mechanisms in the frame of a controlled continuous renewal of CO2-rich fluid in a fracture. This situation is that expected when seepage is activated by the mechanical failure of the cement material that initially seals two layers of distinctly different pressure: the storage reservoir and the aquifer above the caprock, for instance. We study the effect of flow rates from quasi-static flow to higher flow rates for well-connected fractures. In the quasi-static case we observed an extensive conversion of portlandite (Ca(OH)2) to calcite in the vicinity of the fracture similar to that observed in the published batch experiments. Eventually, the fracture was almost totally healed. The experiments with constant flow revealed a different behaviour triggered by the continuous renewing of the reactants and withdrawal of reaction products. We showed that calcite precipitation is more efficient for low flow rate. With intermediate flow rate, we measured that permeability increases slowly at the beginning of the

  7. Characterization of cement-stabilized Cd wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Diez, J.M.; Madrid, J.; Macias, A.

    1997-04-01

    Portland cement affords both physical and chemical immobilization of cadmium. The immobilization has been studied analyzing the pore fluid of cement samples and characterizing the solid pastes by X-ray diffraction. The influence of cadmium on the cement hydration and on its mechanical properties has been also studied by isothermal conduction calorimetry and by the measure of strength and setting development. Finally, the effect of cement carbonation on the immobilization of cadmium has been analyzed.

  8. Characterization of cement-stabilized Cd wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Diez, J.M.; Madrid, J.; Macias, A.

    1997-03-01

    Portland cement affords both physical and chemical immobilization of cadmium. The immobilization has been studied analyzing the pore fluid of cement samples and characterizing the solid pastes by X-ray diffraction. The influence of cadmium on the cement hydration and on its mechanical properties has been also studied by isothermal conduction calorimetry and by the measure of strength and setting development. Finally, the effect of cement carbonation on the immobilization of cadmium has been analyzed.

  9. Use of cemented paste backfill in arsenic-rich tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamberg, Roger; Maurice, Christian; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Gold is extracted by cyanide leaching from inclusions in arsenopyrite from a mine in the north of Sweden. The major ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite-loellingite. Effluents from the gold extraction were treated with Fe2(SO4)3, with the aim to form stable As-bearing Fe-precipitates (FEP). The use of the method called cemented paste backfill (CPB) is sometimes suggested for the management of tailings. In CPB, tailings are commonly mixed with low proportions (3 - 7 %) of cement and backfilled into underground excavated area. To reduce costs, amendments such as granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), biofuel fly ash (BFA) and cement kiln dust (CKD) are used for partial replacement of cement in CPB due to their pozzolanic and alkaline properties. The objective for this study was to evaluate the leaching behaviour of As in CPB-mixtures with low proportions (1 - 3 %) of BFA and ordinary cement and unmodified tailings. The selection of CPB-recipies was made based on technical and economical criterias to adress the demands deriving from the mining operations. Speciation of the As in ore and tailings samples revealed that mining processes have dissolved the majority of the arsenopyrite in the ore, causing secondary As phases to co-precipitate with newly formed FEP:s. Tank leaching tests (TLT) and weathering cells (WCT) were used to compare leaching behaviour in a monolithic mass contra a crushed material. Quantification of the presumed benefit of CPB was made by calculation of the cumulative leaching of As. Results from the leaching tests (TLT and WCT) showed that the inclusion of As-rich tailings into a cementitious matrix increased leaching of As. This behaviour could partially be explained by an increase of pH. The addition of alkaline binder materials to tailings increased As leaching due to the relocation of desorbed As from FEPs into less acid-tolerant species such as Ca-arsenates and cementitious As-phases. Unmodified tailings generated an

  10. Data for the physical and mechanical properties of staple fibers cement paste composites.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ertug

    2017-10-01

    The data presented herein are compiled of the research summary of "Staple-wire-reinforced high-volume fly-ash cement paste composites" (Aydin, in preparation) [1]. This data article provides general information about the novel high volume fly ash cement paste composites composed of various volume of staple wires. The dataset here also helps the readers to understand the mechanisms of staple wires on physical and mechanical properties of pure cement paste composites.

  11. Radon resistant potential of concrete manufactured using Ordinary Portland Cement blended with rice husk ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, R. P.; Kumar, Amit

    2013-12-01

    The emission of radon from building materials and soil depends upon the radium content, porosity, moisture content and radon diffusion length of materials. Several techniques have been used to reduce the radon emission from the soil using different flooring materials. But the effectiveness of radon shielding depends upon the diffusion of radon through these materials. The present study proposes a method for producing a radon resistant material for decreasing radon diffusion through it. The method involves rice husk ash (RHA) in addition to cement for the preparation of concrete used for flooring and walls. The radon diffusion, exhalation and mechanical property of concrete prepared by rice husk ash blended cement were studied. The addition of RHA caused the reduction in radon diffusion coefficient, exhalation rates, porosity and enhanced the compressive strength of concrete. The bulk radon diffusion coefficient of cementitious concrete was reduced upto 69% by addition of rice husk ash as compare to that of control concrete.

  12. Degradation of recycled PET fibers in Portland cement-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, D.A. . E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Betioli, A.M.; Gleize, P.J.P.; Roman, H.R.; Gomez, L.A.; Ribeiro, J.L.D.

    2005-09-01

    In order to investigate the durability of recycled PET fibers embedded in cement-based materials, fiber-reinforced mortar specimens were tested until 164 days after mixing. Compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths, elasticity modulus, and toughness of the specimens were determined. The mortars were also analyzed by SEM. The results have shown that PET fibers have no significant influence on mortars strengths and elasticity modulus. However, the toughness indexes I {sub 5}, I {sub 10}, and I {sub 20} decreased with time due to the degradation of PET fibers by alkaline hydrolysis when embedded in the cement matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM analysis of PET fibers immersed and kept for 150 days in alkaline solutions supported the conclusions.

  13. Gel/Space Ratio Evolution in Ternary Composite System Consisting of Portland Cement, Silica Fume, and Fly Ash.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengxue; Li, Chen; Yao, Wu

    2017-01-11

    In cement-based pastes, the relationship between the complex phase assemblage and mechanical properties is usually described by the "gel/space ratio" descriptor. The gel/space ratio is defined as the volume ratio of the gel to the available space in the composite system, and it has been widely studied in the cement unary system. This work determines the gel/space ratio in the cement-silica fume-fly ash ternary system (C-SF-FA system) by measuring the reaction degrees of the cement, SF, and FA. The effects that the supplementary cementitious material (SCM) replacements exert on the evolution of the gel/space ratio are discussed both theoretically and practically. The relationship between the gel/space ratio and compressive strength is then explored, and the relationship disparities for different mix proportions are analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the SCM replacements promote the gel/space ratio evolution only when the SCM reaction degree is higher than a certain value, which is calculated and defined as the critical reaction degree (CRD). The effects of the SCM replacements can be predicted based on the CRD, and the theological predictions agree with the test results quite well. At low gel/space ratios, disparities in the relationship between the gel/space ratio and the compressive strength are caused by porosity, which has also been studied in cement unary systems. The ratio of cement-produced gel to SCM-produced gel ( G C to G S C M ratio) is introduced for use in analyzing high gel/space ratios, in which it plays a major role in creating relationship disparities.

  14. Gel/Space Ratio Evolution in Ternary Composite System Consisting of Portland Cement, Silica Fume, and Fly Ash

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengxue; Li, Chen; Yao, Wu

    2017-01-01

    In cement-based pastes, the relationship between the complex phase assemblage and mechanical properties is usually described by the “gel/space ratio” descriptor. The gel/space ratio is defined as the volume ratio of the gel to the available space in the composite system, and it has been widely studied in the cement unary system. This work determines the gel/space ratio in the cement-silica fume-fly ash ternary system (C-SF-FA system) by measuring the reaction degrees of the cement, SF, and FA. The effects that the supplementary cementitious material (SCM) replacements exert on the evolution of the gel/space ratio are discussed both theoretically and practically. The relationship between the gel/space ratio and compressive strength is then explored, and the relationship disparities for different mix proportions are analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the SCM replacements promote the gel/space ratio evolution only when the SCM reaction degree is higher than a certain value, which is calculated and defined as the critical reaction degree (CRD). The effects of the SCM replacements can be predicted based on the CRD, and the theological predictions agree with the test results quite well. At low gel/space ratios, disparities in the relationship between the gel/space ratio and the compressive strength are caused by porosity, which has also been studied in cement unary systems. The ratio of cement-produced gel to SCM-produced gel (GC to GSCM ratio) is introduced for use in analyzing high gel/space ratios, in which it plays a major role in creating relationship disparities. PMID:28772420

  15. Leaching behavior of pollutants in ferrochrome arc furnace dust and its stabilization/solidification using ferrous sulphate and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Ulkü; Ozverdi, Arzu; Erdem, Mehmet

    2009-03-15

    In this study, dissolution properties under different conditions and pollution potential by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) of arc furnace dust generated in the production of ferrochrome were examined and some stabilization/solidification (S/S) techniques were applied to the dust depending on contaminants determined. Dissolution properties and pollution potentials of all the materials stabilized/solidified were also studied under the similar conditions. It was determined that the metallic components concentrations dissolved from the ferrochrome arc furnace dust (FAFD) except for chromium and zinc were below the detection limits. The chromium concentration dissolved from the FAFD by TCLP was found to be 9.8 mg/l. Portland cement (PC), PC-FeSO(4) and PC-sand-FeSO(4) mixtures for S/S of the FAFD were tested. Although metal ions in the cationic form were stabilized when the PC was only used, Cr(VI) in the sample was not changed depending on PC amount and remained in the soluble chromate form. The stabilization efficiency of Cr(VI) increased by the increasing amounts of PC and FeSO(4). The best S/S of the FAFD was accomplished when the 5 stoichiometric amounts of FeSO(4), 30% PC and 16% sand mixture were used. TCLP leaching results of the samples obtained under the optimum conditions were below the EPA landfilling limits.

  16. The evaluation of ordinary Portland cement concrete subject to elevated temperatures in conjunction with acoustic emission and splitting tensile test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Min; Hou, Tsung-Chin; Chen, Guan-Ying; Hou, Ping-Ni

    2017-04-01

    The research objective was to evaluate Ordinary Portland Cement concrete subject to various elevated temperatures. Single OPC concrete mixture with water to cementitious (w/c) equal to 0.45 was proportioned. Concrete specimens were cast and placed in the curing tank in which water was saturated with calcium hydroxide. After ninety days of moist-cure, three elevated temperatures, namely 300, 600, and 900-°C, were carried out upon hardened concrete specimens. Furthermore, two post-damaged curing conditions were executed to recover damaged concrete specimens: one was to recure under 23°C with 50% humidity in a controlled environmental chamber and the other was to recure in the same curing tank. Acoustic emission apparatus coupled with the splitting tensile test was utilized and found able to assess damaged concrete. Before concrete subject to elevated temperatures, the development of indirect tensile strength versus displacement diagram fit well with the tendency of AE energy release. It was found there was a large amount of AE energy released when stress and displacement diagram developed about 40-50%. As such could be identified as the onset of first fracture and the plain concrete generally exhibited a quasi-brittle fracture with two major series of AE energy dissipations; however when concrete specimens were subject to elevated temperatures, the damaged concrete specimens displayed neither fracture pattern nor the "double-hump" AE energy dissipation in comparison with those of plain concrete.

  17. Comparison of the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement used as root-end filling materials.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid R; Rahimi, Saeed; Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Shakouei, Sahar; Unchi, Mahsa

    2011-12-01

    Inadequate apical seal is the major cause of surgical endodontic failure. The root-end filling material used should prevent egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue. The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of four root-end filling materials: white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), gray MTA, white Portland cement (PC) and gray PC by dye leakage test. Ninety-six human single-rooted teeth were instrumented, and obturated with gutta-percha. After resecting the apex, an apical cavity was prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (A: white MTA, B: gray MTA, C: white PC and D: gray PC; n = 20) and two control groups (positive and negative control groups; n = 8). Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. The teeth were exposed to Indian ink for 72 hours. The extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope at 16× magnification. The negative controls showed no dye penetration and dye penetration was seen in the entire root-end cavity of positive controls. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the four experimental groups (P > 0.05). All retrograde filling materials tested in this study showed the same microleakage in vitro. Given the low cost and apparently similar sealing ability of PC, PC could be considered as a substitute for MTA as a root-end filling material.

  18. Monitoring the ettringite formation in cement paste using low field T2-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Alexandra; Badea, Codruta; Ardelean, Ioan

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, we study the transverse relaxation time evolution of water molecules confined inside cement paste during the hydration process. The cement paste under study was manufactured with different water-to-cement ratios and using two types of cement: gray cement (CEM I 52.5 R) having a high content of magnetic impurities and white cement (CEM I 52.5 N) with lower amount of magnetic impurities. The two cement types were chosen in order to better distinguish the surface contribution to the relaxation process. On this basis a relationship between porosity evolution, ettringite formation and the transverse relaxation time evolution was established. It was also observed that the increase in the water-to-cement ratio better reveals the ettringite formation.

  19. Carbonation profiles in cement paste analyzed by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, I.; Sanchez, J.; Andrade, C.; Evans, A.

    2012-02-01

    The present work deals with the carbonation process in cement based materials such as concrete. In order to clarify the evolution of the two main phases involved in the process, portlandite and calcium carbonate as a function of depth, spatially resolved neutron diffraction experiments have been performed at SALSA diffractometer at ILL in carbonated cement paste samples. Specimens submitted to different carbonation processes, both natural and accelerated, have been analyzed with this non destructive technique. The evolution of the main diffraction peaks of portlandite and calcite has been followed by means of neutron diffraction patterns measured at different depths. The results indicate that, in specimens subjected to CO2 atmospheres for 24 and 48 hours, the amount of calcite increases from the centre of the specimen to the surface. In both type of specimens calcite is formed at all depths analyzed, with higher quantities for the ones submitted to the longest carbonation period. Regarding the evolution of portlandite in these specimens, it almost completely disappeared, with only a low amount of the phase constant throughout the sample. In specimens subjected to air in a closed chamber for 21 months, higher amounts of portlandite were observed throughout the sample and little increase of calcite in the outer part, pointing out a much less severe reaction. The absorption effects are characterized by measuring in perpendicular directions and an absorption coefficient is calculated for portlandite.

  20. Evaluation of the Apical Sealability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement as Root Canal Filling Cements: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rekab, M.S.; Ayoubi, H. Rushdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: One of the principle purposes of root canal obturation is to obtain hermetic sealing of the root canal system. According to the development of technology, many materials are now used in root canal filling. An in vitro dye leakage study was performed to evaluate the apical sealability of White-colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Gray-colored Portland Cement (GPC) when used alone or as a sealer with gutta-percha points in root canal filling. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used in this study. After cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into five equal groups of 15 teeth each based on the root canal filling material used; Group 1, (WMTA) alone; Group 2, (GPC) alone; Group 3, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA); Group 4, (Gutta-percha points + GPC); Group 5, (Gutta-percha points + AH26). Methylene blue was used to determine the apical leakage. After sectioning the teeth longitudinally, linear dye penetration was measured with a caliper under the stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA tests with (P ≤ 0.05) as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the materials of five groups. Conclusion: (WMTA) alone, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA), (GPC) alone and (Gutta-percha points + GPC) may be used in the root canal filling. PMID:21998797

  1. The effect of fly ash and coconut fibre ash as cement replacement materials on cement paste strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuaji, R.; Kurniawan, R. W.; Yasin, A. K.; Fatoni, H. AT; Lutfi, F. M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Concrete is the backbone material in the construction field. The main concept of the concrete material is composed of a binder and filler. Cement, concrete main binder highlighted by environmentalists as one of the industry are not environmentally friendly because of the burning of cement raw materials in the kiln requires energy up to a temperature of 1450° C and the output air waste CO2. On the other hand, the compound content of cement that can be utilized in innovation is Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH), this compound will react with pozzolan material and produces additional strength and durability of concrete, Calcium Silicate Hydrates (CSH). The objective of this research is to explore coconut fibers ash and fly ash. This material was used as cement replacement materials on cement paste. Experimental method was used in this study. SNI-03-1974-1990 is standard used to clarify the compressive strength of cement paste at the age of 7 days. The result of this study that the optimum composition of coconut fiber ash and fly ash to substitute 30% of cement with 25% and 5% for coconut fibers ash and fly ash with similar strength if to be compared normal cement paste.

  2. Degree of dispersion of latex particles in cement paste, as assessed by electrical resistivity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The degree of dispersion of latex particles in latex-modified cement paste was assessed by measurement of the volume electrical resistivity and modeling this resistivity in terms of latex and cement phases that are partly in series and partly in parallel. The assessment was best at low values of the latex-cement ratio; it underestimated the degree of latex dispersion when the latex/cement ratio was high, especially > 0.2.

  3. Constitution of green rust and its significance to the corrosion of steel in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sagoe-Crentsil, K.K. . Div. of Building Construction and Engineering); Glasser, F.P. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1993-06-01

    Studies of the corrosion of pure iron showed green rust, approximately Fe[sub 4][sup 2+]Fe[sub 2][sup 3+] (OH)[sub 12](Cl,OH)[sub 2], was a stable corrosion product at high pH and low E[sub h] in the presence of chloride. The structure, constitution, preparation, and characterization of green rust was reviewed. A diagram relevant to the corrosion of iron in cement, constructed for pH 12, showed stability fields of green rust, [alpha],[delta] FeO(OH), and [beta]FeO(OH,Cl). Overall implications of chloride to the corrosion process were investigated.

  4. FEASIBILITY OF USING COMBUSTION-TITRIMETRIC APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE SULFATE CONTENT IN PORTLAND CEMENTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in 10 min. The precision of the procedure was determined to be 0.030% of sulfur trioxide ( SO3 ), which is equivalent to the precision obtained with the referee gravimetric procedure that is presently in general use. (Author)...Feasibility of using a combustion-titrimetric apparatus and procedure to determine sulfate content in hydraulic cements was investigated. The...statistically designed experiments. It was found that a blank determination is necessary only when a new supply of crucibles, crucible covers, and accelerators

  5. Measurement and modeling of the surface potential evolution of hydrated cement pastes as a function of degradation.

    PubMed

    Pointeau, Ingmar; Reiller, Pascal; Macé, Nathalie; Landesman, Catherine; Coreau, Nathalie

    2006-08-01

    Hydrated cement pastes (HCP) have a high affinity with a lot of (radio)toxic products and can be used as waste confining materials. In cementitious media, elements are removed from solution via (co)precipitation reactions or via sorption/diffusion mechanisms as surface complexation equilibria. In this study, to improve the knowledge of the surface charge evolution vs the degradation of the HCP particles, two cements have been studied: CEM-I (ordinary Portland cement, OPC) and CEM-V (blast furnace slag and fly ash added to OPC). Zeta potential measurements showed that two isoelectric points exist vs HCP leaching, i.e., pH. Zeta potential increases from -17 to +20 mV for pH 13.3 to pH 12.65 (fresh HCP states) and decreases from 20 to -8 mV for pH 12.65 to 11 (degraded HCP states). The use of a simple surface complexation model of C-S-H, limited in comparison with the structural modeling of C-S-H in literature, allows a good prediction of the surface potential evolution of both HCP. Using this operational modeling, the surface charge is controlled by the deprotonation of surface sites (>SO(-)) and by the sorption of calcium (>SOCa(+)), which brings in addition a positive charge. The calcium concentration is controlled by portlandite or calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) solubilities.

  6. Microstructure and its relationship to fracture in portland cement mortar and concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Anne Bernadine

    This research explores the relationship between the geometry of crack propagation and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete. The crack deflection and branching are measured using several microscopy techniques along with image analysis of crack profiles intruded by a low melting-point alloy. The toughness measured by mechanical testing, the fracture surface geometry, phases and elastic properties identified by image analysis and microscopy, along with the crack branching relationships are used to predict the increase in the toughness of these materials with respect to the flat-crack toughness using a micromechanical model. The effect of the model parameters, microscopy techniques, material elastic properties, void modeling and branching ratio were investigated. The parametric analysis and modeling conditions determine a nearly uniform flat-crack toughness for the cement matrix of the mortar samples and a higher flat-wrack toughness for the cement matrix of the concrete samples. The trend toward a single toughness value may be an indication that there is a single material parameter to describe the fracture energy of these materials.

  7. The use of electrical impedance spectroscopy for monitoring the hydration products of Portland cement mortars with high percentage of pozzolans

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, J.M.; Fita, I.C.; Soriano, L.; Payá, J.; Borrachero, M.V.

    2013-08-15

    In this paper, mortars and pastes containing large replacement of pozzolan were studied by mechanical strength, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of metakaolin (35%) and fly ash (60%) was evaluated and compared with an inert mineral addition (andalusite). The portlandite content was measured, finding that the pozzolanic reaction produced cementing systems with all portlandite fixed. The EIS measurements were analyzed by the equivalent electrical circuit (EEC) method. An EEC with three branches in parallel was applied. The dc resistance was related to the degree of hydration and allowed us to characterize plain and blended mortars. A constant phase element (CPE) quantified the electrical properties of the hydration products located in the solid–solution interface and was useful to distinguish the role of inert and pozzolanic admixtures present in the cement matrix.

  8. Computational Modeling of Multi-Scale Material Features in Cement Paste - An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-25

    material chemistry level config- uration of hydrated cement paste CSH Jennite structure. 3 MICRO SCALE MODELING The advent of scalable computing ...ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Computational modeling of complex, heterogeneous, multi-scale features of cement paste requires starting from...that in-fluence the properties and behavior of materials through associated computational , material and mechanistic models. Such modeling starting

  9. Strength and ultrasonic properties of cemented paste backfill.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Yılmaz, Tekin; Külekci, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the strength (UCS) and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) produced from two different mill tailings (Tailings T1 and T2). A total of 240 CPB samples with diameter×height of 5 × 10 cm and 10 × 20 cm prepared at different binder dosages (5-7 wt.%) and water-to-cement ratios (3.97-5.10) were subjected to the UPV and UCS tests at 7, 14, 28 and 56-days of curing periods. UCS and UPV of CPB samples increased with increasing the binder dosage and reducing the w/c ratio irrespective of the sample size and tailings type. CPB samples with a diameter × height of 5 × 10 cm were observed to produce consistently higher (up to 1.69-fold) UCSs than those of 10 × 20 cm CPB samples at all binder dosages and w/c ratios. However, at the corresponding binder dosages and w/c ratios, the maximum variation of UPV between the CPB samples of 5 × 10 cm and 10 × 20 cm was only 7.45%. Using the method of least squares regression, the UCS values were correlated with the UPV values for CPB samples of 10 × 20 cm in size. A linear relation with a high correlation coefficient appeared to exist between the UCS and UPV for CPB samples. These findings suggest that the UPV is essentially independent of the sample size. In this regard, the UPV test can be suitably exploited for the rapid estimation of the strength and quality of CPB samples even using small samples with concomitant benefits of reducing sample size.

  10. Solidification/Stabilization of High Nitrate and Biodenitrified Heavy Metal Sludges with a Portland Cement/Flyash System

    SciTech Connect

    Canonico, J. Scott

    1995-07-26

    Pond 207C at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) contains process wastewaters characterized by high levels of nitrates and other salts, heavy metal contamination, and low level alpha activity. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of treating a high-nitrate waste, contaminated with heavy metals, with a coupled dewateriug and S/S process, as well as to investigate the effects of biodenitrification pretreatment on the S/S process. Pond 207C residuals served as the target waste. A bench-scale treatability study was conducted to demonstrate an S/S process that would minimize final product volume without a significant decrease in contaminant stabilization or loss of desirable physical characteristics. The process formulation recommended as a result a previous S/S treatability study conducted on Pond 207C residuals was used as the baseline formulation for this research. Because the actual waste was unavailable due to difficulties associated with radioactive waste handling and storage, a surrogate waste, of known composition and representative of Pond 207C residuals, was used throughout this research. The contaminants of regulatory concern added to the surrogate were cadmium, chromium, nickel, and silver. Product volume reduction was achieved by dewatering the waste prior to S/S treatment. The surrogate was dewatered by evaporation at 60 to 80 C to total solids contents from 43% to 78% by weight, and treated with Portland cement and fly ash. Two cement to flyash ratios were tested, 2:1 and 1:2, by weight. Contaminant leachability testing was conducted with a 0.5 water to pozzolan (the cement/flyash mixture) ratio and both cement to flyash ratios. Each product was tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and for contaminant leachability by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP). At the highest solids content achieved by dewatering, 78% solids by weight, the predicted final waste form volume f or Pond 207C

  11. Effect of different mixing methods on the bacterial microleakage of white Portland cement and white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Bashirzadeh, Asmar; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Jafari, Farnaz; Salem Milani, Amin; Ghasemi, Negin; Samiei, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background. of this study was to investigate the effect of different mixing methods (ultrasonic, amalgamator, and conventional) on the bacterial microleakage of white Portland cement (WPC) and white MTA (Tooth-colored Formula, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK). Methods. A hundred human single-rooted permanent teeth were decoronated to obtain 14 mm of root length in all the samples. The root canals were cleaned, shaped and obturated. Three millimeters of each root apex were cut off and randomly divided into 6 groups of 15 each (3 groups for WMTA and 3 groups for WPC, each with 3 different mixing methods) and 2 positive and negative control groups (each containing 5 samples). Brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) suspension containing the bacterial species Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was used for leakage assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and Kaplan Mayer survival analysis with censored data and log rank test using SPSS 18. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. The survival means in PC for conventional method, amalgamator, and ultrasonic were 80.2±13.64, 78.5±13.46 and 84.667±11.42 days, with 49.13±12.96, 66±13.32 and 69.07±11.5 days for MTA, respectively. The log rank test showed no significant differences between the three methods in each material (P>0.05). Conclusion. Bacterial microleakage in the studied samples was not significantly different in terms of the type of the mixing method. PMID:28748048

  12. Arsenic encapsulation using Portland cement with ferrous sulfate/lime and Terra-Bond™ technologies - Microcharacterization and leaching studies.

    PubMed

    Randall, Paul M

    2012-03-15

    This work reports the results of an investigation on the treatment and encapsulation of arsenic-containing materials by Portland cement with ferrous sulfate and lime (PFL) and Terra-Bond™, a commercially available patented technology. The arsenic materials included: chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood materials; scorodite-rich mine tailings from the La Trinidad Mine in California; and a soil/smelter dust mixture from the Anaconda Superfund site spiked with monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) to simulate an organoarsenic soil material. SEM/EDS and XRD spectra of PFL treated samples showed similarity across all three waste materials while Terra-Bond treated samples showed predominance of elemental sulfur. SEM/EDS of PFL treated samples showed that calcium was imbedded in the structure while micrographs of Terra-Bond treated samples showed the appearance of an epoxy material on the surface. The epoxy material appears to be responsible for encapsulating and reducing the leachability of arsenic. XANES spectra for the PFL treatment of CCA-containing samples showed that arsenic has a predominant pentavalent form (As +5), and the PFL treatment process did not alter the arsenic oxidation state. But, distinct differences were observed for XANES spectra of untreated and PFL treated scorodite-rich mine tailing which changed the arsenic coordination structure from a mixture of As (+3/+5) to exclusively As (+5). Both S/S techniques reduced the amount of arsenic released in the leaching tests. Most cases show lower amounts of arsenic released from wastes treated by the Terra-Bond™ technique when compared to the PFL technique. The pH of the solution significantly affected the leachability, with the amount of arsenic released increasing with pH. Sequential extraction results indicate that sodium hydroxide was favorable in releasing arsenic in the mine tailings. This is due to ligand displacement reactions of hydroxyl ions with arsenic species and high pH conditions that

  13. The influence of different radiopacifying agents on the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Medigovic, Ivana; Zrilic, Milorad; Jokic, Bojan; Vukovic, Zorica; Todorovic, Ljubomir

    2014-07-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the radiopacity, compressive strength, setting time, and porosity of white Portland cement (PC) with the addition of bismuth oxide (Bi2O3), zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), and ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) after immersion at 37 °C for 7 days in distilled water or phosphate buffer saline. Specimens measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness were fabricated from PC with the addition of 10, 20, and 30 wt% Bi2O3, ZrO2 or YbF3. ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA) and pure PC were used as controls. For radiopacity assessments, specimens were radiographed alongside a tooth slices and an aluminum stepwedge on Extraspeed occlusal dental films (Insight Kodak, Rochester, New York). Mean optical density of each specimen was calculated and used to express radiopacity of the material as an equivalent thickness of aluminum. Compressive strength was measured by using 4-mm diameter and 6-mm high specimens and Universal testing machine. High-pressure mercury intrusion porosimeter (Carlo Erba Porosimeter 2000) was employed to measure the porosity of the specimens. The setting time was measured by using a needle of 100 g in weight. The morphology of specimens was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (TESCAN Mira3 XMU, USA Inc.). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test (P < 0.05). The PC with the addition of at least 10 wt% Bi2O3 and 20 wt% ZrO2 or YbF3 demonstrated greater radiopacity value than the recommended 3 mmAl cut-off. ZrO2 and YbF3 increased the compressive strength of PC, but it was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), while Bi2O3 decreased it (P < 0.05). All radiopacifiers significantly increased the porosity of the experimental cements (P < 0.05). Bi2O3 extended the setting time of PC (P < 0.05), whilst ZrO2 and YbF3 did not significantly affect it (P > 0.05). ZrO2 and YbF3 may be used as a suitable alternative to replace Bi2O3 in MTA without influencing its physical properties.

  14. Color agreement between nanofluorapatite ceramic discs associated with try-in pastes and with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Paulo; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro color agreement between nanofluorapatite ceramic discs (e.max Ceram / Ivoclar Vivadent / A2) associated with try-in pastes and those bonded with resin cements (Vitique / DMG/ try-in shade A2½ and cement shade A2½, Variolink II / Ivoclar Vivadent / try-in shade A1 and cement shade A1, and Choice 2 / Bisco / try-in shade A2 and cement shade A2), and to evaluate the shade stability of the discs bonded with resin cements. The shades of composite resin discs (Lliss / FGM / A2) and nanofluorapatite ceramic discs with try-in pastes or cements were evaluated according to the Vita Classical shade guide by a digital spectrophotometer (Micro EspectroShade, MHT) immediately after placing the try-in pastes or resin cements between composite resin discs and ceramic discs. Other evaluations were performed at 2, 5, and 6 day intervals after cementation with the resin cements. All ceramic discs that received try-in pastes presented an A2 shade. There was no statistical difference in the shade of the ceramic specimens fixed with different cements at the different intervals, as evaluated by the Friedman test (p > 0.05). Two try-in pastes presented shade compatibility with those recommended by the manufacturers. There was no similarity of shades between the ceramic discs with try-in pastes and those with the respective resin cements. Shade stability was observed in ceramic discs with resin cements within the intervals evaluated.

  15. Influence of electrified surface of cementitious materials on structure formation of hardened cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A.; Gusakov, A.

    2015-01-01

    To provide high strength and durability of concrete it is necessary to study the influence of physical and chemical and mechanical principles of dispersed cementitious systems. The experimental bench was developed to study the influence of electrified surface of cementitious materials on structure formation of hardened cement paste. The test bench allows accelerating the processes of dissolution of cementing materials in water due to influence of electric discharge on their surface. Cement activation with high-voltage corona discharge when AC current is applied allows increasing the ultimate compressive strength of hardened cement paste by 46% at the age of one day and by 20% at the age of 28 days.

  16. Effect of various superplasticizers on rheological properties of cement paste and mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, I.; Agarwal, S.K. )

    1994-01-01

    The effect of eight commercial superplasticizers including one developed from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) at CBRI on the rheological properties viz. viscosity and flow of cement paste and mortars have been investigated. The viscosity measurements have been made at various shear rates (5--100 rpm). It is found that at higher rates (100 rpm) even with the low concentration of superplasticizers (0.1), the viscosity of the cement paste is more or less the same as that obtained with 0.6 % dosages of SPs at lesser shear rates. The effect of split addition (delayed addition) of superplasticizers on viscosity of cement paste and 1:3 cement sand mortar have also been studied. A decrease in viscosity due to split addition has been observed in the cement paste and there is an increase of 15--20 % in flow of mortars.

  17. Effect of Microorganism Sporosarcina pasteurii on the Hydration of Cement Paste.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Cheol; Lee, Chang Joon; Chun, Woo Young; Kim, Wha Jung; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2015-08-01

    Years of research have shown that the application of microorganisms increases the compressive strength of cement-based material when it is cured in a culture medium. Because the compressive strength is strongly affected by the hydration of cement paste, this research aimed to investigate the role of the microorganism Sporosarcina pasteurii in hydration of cement paste. The microorganism's role was investigated with and without the presence of a urea-CaCl2 culture medium (i.e., without curing the specimens in the culture medium). The results showed that S. pasteurii accelerated the early hydration of cement paste. The addition of the urea-CaCl2 culture medium also increased the speed of hydration. However, no clear evidence of microbially induced calcite precipitation appeared when the microorganisms were directly mixed with cement paste.

  18. Influence of chloride in mortar made of Portland cement types II, III, and V on the near-field microwave reflection properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Cairong; Benally, Aaron D.; Case, Tobias; Zoughi, Reza; Kurtis, Kimberly

    2000-07-01

    Corrosion of steel rebar in reinforced concrete structures, can be induced by the presence of chloride in the structure. Corrosion of steel rebar is a problematic issue in the construction industry as it compromises the strength and integrity of the structure. Although techniques exist for chloride detection and its migration into a structure, they are destructive, time consuming and cannot be used for the interrogation of large surfaces. In this investigation three different portland cement types; namely, ASTM types II, III and V were used, and six cubic (8' X 8' X 8') mortar specimens were produced all with water-to-cement (w/c) ratio of 0.6 and sand-to-cement (s/c) ratio of 1.5. Tap water was used when producing three of these specimens (one of each cement type). For the other three specimens calcium chloride was added to the mixing tap water resulting in a salinity of 2.5%. These specimens were placed in a hydration room for one day and thereafter left it the room temperature with low humidity. The reflection properties of these specimens, using an open-ended rectangular waveguide probe, were monitored daily at 3 GHz (S-band) and 10 GHz (X-band). The results show the influence of cement type on the reflection coefficient as well as the influence of chloride on the curing process and setting time.

  19. Physico-chemical studies of hardened cement paste structure with micro-reinforcing fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Steshenko, Aleksei Kudyakov, Aleksander; Konusheva, Viktoriya

    2016-01-15

    The results of physico-chemical studies of modified hardened cement paste with micro-reinforcing fibers are given in this article. The goal was to study the reasons of the increase of strength properties of modified hardened cement paste by the method of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. It is shown that the use of mineral fibers in the production of cement based material has positive effect on its properties. The study found out that the increase in the strength of the hardened cement paste with micro-reinforcing fibers is due to the increase of the rate of hydration of cement without a significant change in the phase composition in comparison with hardened cement paste without additive. The results of microstructure investigation (of control samples and samples of the reinforced hardened cement paste) have shown that introduction of mineral fibers in the amount of 0.1-2 % by weight of cement provides the structure of the homogeneous microporous material with uniform distribution of the crystalline phase provided by densely packed hydrates.

  20. Physico-chemical studies of hardened cement paste structure with micro-reinforcing fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Aleksei; Kudyakov, Aleksander; Konusheva, Viktoriya

    2016-01-01

    The results of physico-chemical studies of modified hardened cement paste with micro-reinforcing fibers are given in this article. The goal was to study the reasons of the increase of strength properties of modified hardened cement paste by the method of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. It is shown that the use of mineral fibers in the production of cement based material has positive effect on its properties. The study found out that the increase in the strength of the hardened cement paste with micro-reinforcing fibers is due to the increase of the rate of hydration of cement without a significant change in the phase composition in comparison with hardened cement paste without additive. The results of microstructure investigation (of control samples and samples of the reinforced hardened cement paste) have shown that introduction of mineral fibers in the amount of 0.1-2 % by weight of cement provides the structure of the homogeneous microporous material with uniform distribution of the crystalline phase provided by densely packed hydrates.

  1. 76 FR 12370 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Portland Cement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on February 02, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the... Cement Association (``PCA'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and..., PA; Lehigh Cement Company LLC, Allentown, PA; Lehigh Northwest Cement Company, Seattle, WA;...

  2. 77 FR 5573 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Portland Cement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on January 6, 2012, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the... Cement Association (``PCA'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and... this venture. Also, Texas-Lehigh Cement Company, Buda, TX; Arizona Cement Association, Phoenix,...

  3. Behavior of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the porosity and microstructure of cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nochaiya, Thanongsak; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2011-01-01

    The porosity and microstructure of a Portland cement-multi-walled carbon nanotube composite were investigated. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), up to 1 wt.% of cement, synthesized by infusion chemical vapor deposition, and Portland cement type I (PC) were used to produce pastes with a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize Portland cement-CNTs systems. MIP analysis of the results indicates that total porosity of the mixes with CNTs was found to decrease with increasing CNTs content. Moreover, an important effect of additional CNTs was a reduction in the number of mesopores, while SEM technique showed dispersion of CNTs between the hydration phases of Portland cement pastes.

  4. A speciation solver for cement paste modeling and the semismooth Newton method

    SciTech Connect

    Georget, Fabien; Prévost, Jean H.; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2015-02-15

    The mineral assemblage of a cement paste may vary considerably with its environment. In addition, the water content of a cement paste is relatively low and the ionic strength of the interstitial solution is often high. These conditions are extreme conditions with respect to the common assumptions made in speciation problem. Furthermore the common trial and error algorithm to find the phase assemblage does not provide any guarantee of convergence. We propose a speciation solver based on a semismooth Newton method adapted to the thermodynamic modeling of cement paste. The strong theoretical properties associated with these methods offer practical advantages. Results of numerical experiments indicate that the algorithm is reliable, robust, and efficient.

  5. Effect of natural pozzolans as mineral admixture on the performance of cemented-paste backfill of sulphide-rich tailings.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the effect of the natural pozzolans as mineral additives on the short- and long-term strength and stability performance of cemented paste backfill (CPB) samples. Prior to their use in CPB studies, the natural pozzolans - the volcanic tuffs (Akkus Trass [AT] and Fatsa Trass [FT]) and pumice (KP) - were tested for their pozzolanic characteristics. These tests revealed that the pozzolanic activity of the natural pozzolans is closely inter-related with their content of reactive silica and, accordingly, KP has the highest pozzolanic activity. The addition, or increasing the amount, of natural pozzolans in the binder phase resulted in a slower rate of strength development of CPB samples. The deterioration in stability of CPB samples prepared from Portland cement (PC) alone (i.e. a strength loss of 24.6%) occurred following 56 days. The replacement of PC with FT and AT led to even higher losses in strength. However, the addition of KP (up to 30 wt%) mitigated, to a certain extent, long-term strength and stability problems with the losses in strength of CPB samples consistently lower than 20%. It can be inferred that the performance of the natural pozzolans as a mineral additive in CPB is dependent intimately on their pozzolanic characteristics.

  6. Prediction of unconfined compressive strength of cement paste containing industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, J A; Buenfeld, N R

    2003-01-01

    Neural network analysis was used to construct models of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) as a function of mix composition using existing data from literature studies of Portland cement containing real industrial wastes. The models were able to represent the known non-linear dependency of UCS on curing time and water content, and generalised from the literature data to find relationships between UCS and quantities of five waste types. Substantial decreases in UCS were caused by all wastes; except for EAF dust, the effect was nonlinear with the greatest decrease caused initially by approx. 12% plating sludge, 40% foundry dust, 58% other ash, and 72% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. It appears that the maximum waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste addition to Portland cement, i.e., 50% plating sludge or EAF dust, 64% foundry dust, 92% other ash, and 85% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. The laboratory was found to be a key predictive variable and acted as a surrogate for laboratory-specific variables related to cement composition, strength and hardening class, product mixing and preparation details, laboratory conditions, and testing details. While the neural network modelling approach has been shown to be feasible, development of better models would require larger data sets with more complete information regarding laboratory-specific variables and waste composition.

  7. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Gordon, L. E.; Ko, S.-C.

    2014-09-01

    Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  8. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions.

    PubMed

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoğlu, Salih Zeki

    2010-06-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho), photon interaction cross sections (sigma(t)), effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and effective electron densities (N(e)) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25keV and gamma-rays at 88keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition.

  9. Removal of arsenic from aqueous solution using pottery granules coated with cyst of Azotobacter and portland cement: characterization, kinetics and modeling.

    PubMed

    Gauri, Samiran S; Archanaa, S; Mondal, Keshab C; Pati, Bikas R; Mandal, Santi M; Dey, Satyahari

    2011-05-01

    A new low cost adsorbents, pottery granules coated with cyst of Azotobacter and portland cement has been developed for aqueous arsenic removal. The developed granule is solid and porous structure forms a stable complex of Fe-Al-Si-O(2) allied with cyst biomass. Batch experiments were revealed that As removal was up to 96% using PGAC beads, whereas 65% by cyst biomass. Immobilization of cyst biomass to pottery granules through portland cement improved the stability of granules and adsorption capacity. Kinetics studies revealed that Langmuir isotherm was followed with a better correlation than the Freundlich isotherm and adsorption was first order diffusion controlled. Presence of Fe-Al-Si-O(2) and polysaccharide complex on the granule surface may be responsible for the adsorption of arsenic and preferentially binds to biomass containing composite than only biomass. Thus, this recently developed cost-effective novel biocomposite, PGAC granule can be used as household level to mitigate the arsenic problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 4423 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Portland Cement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Cement Association Notice is hereby given that, on December 14, 2009, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the... Cement Association (``PCA'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the Attorney General and... damages under specified circumstances. Specifically, Continental Cement, Hannibal, MO has been added as...

  11. Ultrasound frequency analysis for identification of aggregates and cement paste in concrete.

    PubMed

    Cosmes-López, Mario F; Castellanos, Francisco; Cano-Barrita, Prisciliano F de J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify specific frequencies related to aggregates and cement paste during concrete hydration, by performing a Fourier analysis of the ultrasonic response of concrete specimens to different excitation frequencies. This identification will reduce the high influence of aggregates in the ultrasound signal analysis, enabling a better assessment of changes occurring in the cement paste. Thirty-five cylindrical specimens with a diameter of 100mm and a length of 200mm were cast with a water to cement ratio=0.60. Thirty specimens were destructively tested at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28days for their compressive strength. The remaining five specimens were non-destructively tested at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28 and 56days using longitudinal and transversal ultrasonic wave transducers with frequencies from 50kHz to 500kHz. Analysis of the evolution in frequency observed in the specimens identified variations related to progressive hydration of the cement paste, in contrast with the invariant behavior of the inert aggregates. Results show that it is possible to distinguish the behavior of cement paste and aggregates in the frequency domain. As a consequence, it should be possible in future research to evaluate more efficiently different phenomena that affect only the cement paste.

  12. Influence of increasing amount of recycled concrete powder on mechanical properties of cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topič, Jaroslav; Prošek, Zdeněk; Plachý, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with using fine recycled concrete powder in cement composites as micro-filler and partial cement replacement. Binder properties of recycled concrete powder are given by exposed non-hydrated cement grains, which can hydrate again and in small amount replace cement or improve some mechanical properties. Concrete powder used in the experiments was obtained from old railway sleepers. Infrastructure offer more sources of old concrete and they can be recycled directly on building site and used again. Experimental part of this paper focuses on influence of increasing amount of concrete powder on mechanical properties of cement paste. Bulk density, shrinkage, dynamic Young’s modulus, compression and flexural strength are observed during research. This will help to determine limiting amount of concrete powder when decrease of mechanical properties outweighs the benefits of cement replacement. The shrinkage, dynamic Young’s modulus and flexural strength of samples with 20 to 30 wt. % of concrete powder are comparable with reference cement paste or even better. Negative effect of concrete powder mainly influenced the compression strength. Only a 10 % cement replacement reduced compression strength by about 25 % and further decrease was almost linear.

  13. High-Strain-Rate Behavior of Hydrated Cement Paste

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-31

    REFERENCES 1. Mindess , S., in Structure and Performance of Cements, Ch. 7, P. Barnes (ed.), Applied Sci. Publ., London, p. 319 (1983). 2. Jawed, I...175, 626 (1972). 6. R.L. Berger, F.V. Lawrence, Jr. and J.F. Young, Cem. Concr. Res., 3, 497 (1973). 7. B. Marchese, Cem. Concr. Res., 7, 9 ( 1977 ). 8

  14. Enhancing the mechanical properties of cement paste by growing in-situ fiber reinforcement during hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinides, Margarita

    Efforts to improve the mechanical properties of concrete by modifying the cement paste matrix have focused entirely on strength enhancement. But the intrinsic brittleness of the cement paste matrix limits the possible improvement in the mechanical properties of concrete, and in particular the toughness of the material. Increasing the toughness of the cement paste matrix could lead to a reduction in flaw sensitivity by delaying unstable crack propagation. Consequently, the resistance of the material to cracking due to drying shrinkage, thermal shrinkage, expansive deterioration processes, and applied loads could increase considerably. The goal of this study was to grow in-situ fiber reinforcement in cement paste, a technique never before applied to cement-based materials, to enhance the toughness of the material. Ettringite, an existing, fiber-like hydration product was selected as the fiber reinforcement. Ettringite met all the necessary criteria to act as reinforcement in cement paste: adequate distribution in the matrix; adjustable volume fraction, aspect ratio and size; high stiffness along the fiber length; and finally compatibility with existing hydration products. Alkali-free accelerators were selected as the admixtures used to grow the ettringite in the cement paste. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy experiments were performed to study the volume fraction, distribution, size, and morphology of the ettringite crystals in the cement paste matrix (both plain and accelerator-containing). Mechanical tests (compression, splitting tension, flexural, compact tension) were used to evaluate the effect of the accelerators on the strength and toughness of cement paste. Microindentations on the surface of the cement paste matrix were performed to study the morphology of the cracks and the toughening mechanisms taking place. Through the characterization tests we identified that while more ettringite forms with the addition of the alkali-free accelerators

  15. Colour matching of composite resin cements with their corresponding try-in pastes.

    PubMed

    Kampouropoulos, D; Gaintantzopoulou, M; Papazoglou, E; Kakaboura, A

    2014-06-01

    Two shades of four resin cements (Calibra, Clearfil Esthetic, Insure, Variolink II), in light- and dual-curing modes, were tested for colour matching with their corresponding try-in pastes, immediately after photopolymerization and after 24-hour dry and dark storage. Colour measurements were performed for 0.8 mm-thick specimens through a 0.8mm-thick ceramic plate. For each resin cement, colour differences (deltaE) were calculated between the two curing modes, and between the corresponding try-in paste, at baseline and after 24h. deltaE>0 values were detected between all resin cements and their try-in pastes, which were brand/shade/curing mode depended. The try-in pastes of the Variolink II system demonstrated the best colour matching (deltaE<2). Try-in pastes of Calibra and Insure, at both curing modes, did not match at an acceptable value, the shade of their corresponding resin cements (deltaE>3.3). Calibra presented the highest colour differences. deltaE values of the Clearfil Esthetic system immediately after photo-activation ranged between 2 and 3 units. A ceramic restoration may fail aesthetically as a result of not acceptable colour match (deltaE>3.3) between the shade of certain resin cements and their relevant try-in pastes.

  16. Influence of Carbon Nanotube Clustering on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Cement Pastes

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Hwan; Kawashima, Shiho; Yin, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Given the continued challenge of dispersion, for practical purposes, it is of interest to evaluate the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different states of clustering on the eventual performance properties of cement paste. This study evaluated the clustering of MWCNTs and the resultant effect on the mechanical and electrical properties when incorporated into cement paste. Cement pastes containing different concentrations of MWCNTs (up to 0.5% by mass of cement) with/without surfactant were characterized. MWCNT clustering was assessed qualitatively in an aqueous solution through visual observation, and quantitatively in cement matrices using a scanning electron microscopy technique. Additionally, the corresponding 28-day compressive strength, tensile strength, and electrical conductivity were measured. Results showed that the use of surfactant led to a downward shift in the MWCNT clustering size distribution in the matrices of MWCNT/cement paste, indicating improved dispersion of MWCNTs. The compressive strength, tensile strength, and electrical conductivity of the composites with surfactant increased with MWCNT concentration and were higher than those without surfactant at all concentrations. PMID:28773348

  17. Influence of various amount of diatomaceous earth used as cement substitute on mechanical properties of cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Medved, Igor; Pavlík, Zbyšek; Zahálková, Jana; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Černý, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Active silica containing materials in the sub-micrometer size range are commonly used for modification of strength parameters and durability of cement based composites. In addition, these materials also assist to accelerate cement hydration. In this paper, two types of diatomaceous earths are used as partial cement replacement in composition of cement paste mixtures. For raw binders, basic physical and chemical properties are studied. The chemical composition of tested materials is determined using classical chemical analysis combined with XRD method that allowed assessment of SiO2 amorphous phase content. For all tested mixtures, initial and final setting times are measured. Basic physical and mechanical properties are measured on hardened paste samples cured 28 days in water. Here, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, compressive and flexural strength, are measured. Relationship between compressive strength and total open porosity is studied using several empirical models. The obtained results give evidence of high pozzolanic activity of tested diatomite earths. Their application leads to the increase of both initial and final setting times, decrease of compressive strength, and increase of flexural strength.

  18. Beta-tricalcium phosphate, white mineral trioxide aggregate, white Portland cement, ferric sulfate, and formocresol used as pulpotomy agents in primary pig teeth.

    PubMed

    Shayegan, Amir; Petein, Michel; Abbeele, Astrid Vanden

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of formocresol (FC), ferric sulfate (FS), white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), white Portland cement (WPC), and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) on pulpotomized primary teeth of pigs. Fifty teeth of three 3-month old pigs were pulpotomized with these materials. Three weeks later, the animals were euthanized and the specimens were prepared for histological examination. There was no significant difference between beta-TCP, WMTA, and WPC in terms of primary pulp response, hard tissue formation, and normal pulp tissue preservation. But, both FS and FC irritated the pulp tissue, provoking a more inflammatory pulp response than beta-TCP, WMTA, and WPC. Beta-TCP, WMTA, and WPC are histologically more effective pulpotomy agents than formocresol and ferric sulfate in primary pig teeth.

  19. The influence of cellulose nanocrystals on the microstructure of cement paste

    Treesearch

    Yizheng Cao; Nannan Tian; David Bahr; Pablo D. Zavattieri; Jeffrey Youngblood; Robert J. Moon; Jason Weiss

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of raw and sonicated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) on the micro-structure of cement paste. A novel centrifugation method is designed to measure the concentrations of the adsorbed CNCs (aCNCs) on the cement surface, and the free CNCs (fCNCs) which are mobile in water. It is found that, the majority of the CNCs (>94%) are aCNCs....

  20. A comparative study of ordinary and mineralised Portland cement clinker from two different production units Part I: Composition and hydration of the clinkers

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuelson, Anna; Hansen, Staffan; Viggh, Erik

    2003-10-01

    Portland cement clinkers from two production units were investigated; Plant 1: ordinary clinker (P1) and clinker mineralised with CaF{sub 2}+CaSO{sub 4} (P1m); Plant 2: ordinary clinker (P2) and two clinkers mineralised with CaF{sub 2}+CaSO{sub 4} (P2m, low SO{sub 3} and P2m', high SO{sub 3}). The chemical composition of the clinkers was determined by X-ray fluorescence, ICP analysis, titration (free lime) and ion selective electrode measurements (F). Observed clinker parameters (LSF, SR, AR, R, wt.% MgO, F, SO{sub 3}, free lime): P1 (0.96, 2.72, 1.27, 1.04, 0.78, 0.06, 0.64, 0.71); P1m (1.03, 2.21, 1.58, 2.18, 0.87, 0.23, 1.95, 0.69); P2 (1.00, 2.66, 1.72, 0.75, 4.06, 0.20, 1.38, 1.51); P2m (1.01, 2.91, 1.96, 0.90, 3.21, 0.39, 1.72, 2.06); P2m' (0.97, 2.70, 1.84, 1.15, 3.86, 0.42, 2.48, 0.89). The qualitative and quantitative phase compositions were characterised using X-ray powder diffraction, backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and elemental mapping, plus optical reflection microscopy. Phases observed in all clinkers were: alite, {beta}-belite, cubic aluminate, ferrite and free lime. Additional phases observed were: aphthitalite (P1, P2, P2m, P2m'), calcium langbeinite (P1m) and periclase (P2, P2m, P2m'). The clinker composition and texture differ more between the two plants, than between ordinary and mineralised clinker from the same production unit. Laboratory cements were prepared by mixing ground clinker with CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. The cements were hydrated in an isothermal calorimeter at 20 deg. C (water/cement weight ratio=0.5) during 33 h. After 12 h, the laboratory cement based on P1m reached a higher level of reaction than the one based on P1. The P2m and P2m' laboratory cements had a slower reaction than the P2 cement.

  1. Ultrasonic measurement of viscoelastic shear modulus development in hydrating cement paste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Subramaniam, Kolluru V; Lin, Fengbao

    2010-06-01

    A test procedure for measuring changes in amplitude and phase of SH ultrasonic waves from the interface between fused-quartz and cement paste samples is presented. The phase change is determined from the temporal shift in the reflected signal relative to the incident signal. The sensitivity of the measured parameters to changes in acoustic impedance of the materials in contact with fused-quartz is evaluated for different angles of incidence. It is shown that a reflection measurement at normal incidence at nano-second temporal resolution does not provide sufficient sensitivity to measure the viscous component of shear modulus of low viscosity fluids and cannot be applied to cement paste while it is in a fluid state. Monitoring the measured amplitude and phase at oblique angle of incidence allows for measuring fluids with acoustic impedance comparable to cement paste. The reflection measurements are used to determine the evolution of elastic and viscous components of shear modulus cement paste with time. Influence of sampling rate and temperature effects on the phase measurements are evaluated and shown to be significant. It is shown that the initial loss of workability of cement paste through setting process is associated with a larger relative increase in the viscous component of shear modulus. Following the initial rapid rise of the viscous component of shear modulus, there is a larger relative increase in the elastic component, which can be related to the emergence of a solid structure capable of retaining an imprint.

  2. Reactivity of NO2 and CO2 with hardened cement paste containing activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgnies, M.; Dubois-Brugger, I.; Krou, N. J.; Batonneau-Gener, I.; Belin, T.; Mignard, S.

    2015-07-01

    The development of building materials to reduce the concentration of NO2 is growing interest in a world where the air quality in urban areas is affected by the car traffic. The main binder in concrete is the cement paste that is partly composed of calcium hydroxide. This alkaline hydrate composing the hardened cement paste shows a high BET surface area (close to 100 m2.g-1) and can absorb low-concentrations of NO2. However, the presence of CO2 in the atmosphere limits the de-polluting effect of reference cement paste, mainly due to carbonation of the alkaline hydrates (reaction leading to the formation of calcium carbonate). The results established in this paper demonstrate that the addition of activated carbon in the cement paste, because of its very high BET surface area (close to 800 m2.g-1) and its specific reactivity with NO2, can significantly improve and prolong the de-polluting effect in presence of CO2 and even after complete carbonation of the surface of the cement paste.

  3. Effect of High Doses of Chemical Admixtures on the Freeze-Thaw Durability of Portland Cement Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    volume (Neville 1988). The hydrated cement is often referred to as cement gel, which has a characteristic porosity of about 28% ( Mindess and Young...Structure, Properties, and Materials. New York: Prentice-Hall. Mindess , S., and J.F. Young (1981) Concrete. New York: Prentice-Hall. Neville, A.M

  4. Mechano-Physical Properties and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Paste after Thermal Load

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the modification of a cement matrix. Carbon nanotubes were introduced into a cement paste in the form of an aqueous dispersion in the presence of a surfactant (SDS—sodium dodecyl sulfate), which was sonicated. The selected physical and mechanical parameters were examined, and the correlations between these parameters were determined. An analysis of the local microstructure of the modified cement pastes has been carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDS). In addition, the effect of carbon nanotubes on the change in characteristics of the cementitious material exposed to the sudden, short-term thermal load, was determined. The obtained material was characterized by a much lower density than a traditional cement matrix because the phenomenon of foaming occurred. The material was also characterized by reduced durability, higher shrinkage, and higher resistance to the effect of elevated temperature. Further research on the carbon nanotube reinforced cement paste, with SDS, may contribute to the development of a modified cement binder for the production of a lightweight or an aerated concrete. PMID:28891976

  5. Mechano-Physical Properties and Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Paste after Thermal Load.

    PubMed

    Szeląg, Maciej

    2017-09-11

    The article presents the results obtained in the course of a study on the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the modification of a cement matrix. Carbon nanotubes were introduced into a cement paste in the form of an aqueous dispersion in the presence of a surfactant (SDS-sodium dodecyl sulfate), which was sonicated. The selected physical and mechanical parameters were examined, and the correlations between these parameters were determined. An analysis of the local microstructure of the modified cement pastes has been carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray microanalysis (EDS). In addition, the effect of carbon nanotubes on the change in characteristics of the cementitious material exposed to the sudden, short-term thermal load, was determined. The obtained material was characterized by a much lower density than a traditional cement matrix because the phenomenon of foaming occurred. The material was also characterized by reduced durability, higher shrinkage, and higher resistance to the effect of elevated temperature. Further research on the carbon nanotube reinforced cement paste, with SDS, may contribute to the development of a modified cement binder for the production of a lightweight or an aerated concrete.

  6. Minimising alkalinity and pH spikes from Portland cement-bound Bauxsol (seawater-neutralized red mud) pellets for pH circum-neutral waters.

    PubMed

    Despland, Laure M; Clark, Malcolm W; Aragno, Michel; Vancov, Tony

    2010-03-15

    Bauxsol reagents (powder, slurry, or pellet forms) are powerful tools in environmental remediation and water and sewage treatment However, when used in circum-neutral water treatments, cement-bound Bauxsol pellets produce a sustained pH and alkalinity spike due to the presence of unreacted CaO in the cement binder. This study developed a pellet treatment system to minimize the alkalinity/pH spike. The recipe for pelletization consisted of Bauxsol powder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC), hydrophilic fumed silica, aluminum powder, a viscosity modifier, and water. Several batches (including different ratios and sizes) were run using modified makeup waters (H(2)0 + CO(2) or NaHCO(3)) or curing brines (CO(2), NaHCO(3), or Mg/CaCl(2)). Alkalinity, pH stability, and slake durability tests were performed on pellets before and/or after curing. The best result for reducing the alkalinity/pH spike was obtained from a MgCl(2), CaCl(2) bath treatment using a Bauxsol:cement ratio of 2.8:1 (pH 8.28; alkalinity 75.1 mg/L) for a 100 g batch or 245:1 (pH 8.05; alkalinity 35.4 mg/L) for a 1 kg batch. Although brine curing does provide a control on pH/alkalinity release, the pellets may still contain unreacted CaO. Therefore, a freshwater rinse of pellets before treating circum-neutral waters is recommended as is the continued investigation of alternative pellet binders.

  7. The influence of calcium chloride on the setting time, solubility, disintegration, and pH of mineral trioxide aggregate and white Portland cement with a radiopacifier.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Broon, Norberto Juárez; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Tanomaru Filho, Mario; Esberard, Roberto Miranda

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of addition of 10% calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on the setting time, solubility, disintegration, and pH of white MTA (WMTA) and white Portland cement (WPC). A test of the setting time was performed following the #57 ADA specifications and a test of the final setting time according to the ASTM. For the solubility tests disintegration and pH, Teflon rings were filled with the cements and weighed after setting. After 24 h in a desiccator, they were once again weighed. Thereafter, they were immersed in MiliQ water for 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, and 28 days, with maintenance in the desiccator and weighing between periods. The pH of water in which the rings were immersed was measured immediately after contact with them and in the other periods. The addition of CaCl(2) provided a significant reduction (50%) in the initial setting time of cements. The final setting time of WMTA was reduced in 35.5% and the final setting time of WPC in 68.5%. The WMTA with CaCl(2) absorbed water and gained weight with time, except for in the 24-h period. The addition of CaCl(2) to the WPC reduced its solubility. The addition of CaCl(2) increased the pH of WMTA in the immediate period and at 24 and 72 h and for WPC in the immediate period and at 24 h. The addition of CaCl(2) to WMTA and WPC reduced the setting times and solubility of both and increased the pH of cements in the initial periods.

  8. The Effect of Curing Temperature on the Properties of Cement Pastes Modified with TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta Teixeira, Karine; Perdigão Rocha, Isadora; De Sá Carneiro, Leticia; Flores, Jessica; Dauer, Edward A.; Ghahremaninezhad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of curing temperature on the hydration, microstructure, compressive strength, and transport of cement pastes modified with TiO2 nanoparticles. These characteristics of cement pastes were studied using non-evaporable water content measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength test, electrical resistivity and porosity measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was shown that temperature enhanced the early hydration. The cement pastes cured at elevated temperatures generally showed an increase in compressive strength at an early age compared to the cement paste cured at room temperature, but the strength gain decreased at later ages. The electrical resistivity of the cement pastes cured at elevated temperatures was found to decrease more noticeably at late ages compared to that of the room temperature cured cement paste. SEM examination indicated that hydration product was more uniformly distributed in the microstructure of the cement paste cured at room temperature compared to the cement pastes cured at elevated temperatures. It was observed that high temperature curing decreased the compressive strength and electrical resistivity of the cement pastes at late ages in a more pronounced manner when higher levels of TiO2 nanoparticles were added. PMID:28774073

  9. Utilization of industrial waste products as pozzolanic material in cemented paste backfill of high sulphide mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2009-09-15

    In this study, the potential use of the industrial waste products including waste glass (WG), fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and silica fume (SF) as pozzolanic additive for the partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cemented paste backfill (CPB) of sulphide-rich mill tailings was investigated. The influence of these industrial waste products on the short- and long-term mechanical performance of CPB was demonstrated. The rate of development of strength of CPB samples tended to slow down when the pozzolanic wastes were incorporated or increased in dosage in the binder phase. Severe losses (by 26%) in the strength of CPB samples produced from exclusively OPC occurred after an initial curing period of 56 days. The addition of WG (10-30 wt%) as a partial replacement of OPC was observed to aggravate further the strength losses of CPB samples. GBFS, FA and SF appeared to improve the long-term performance of CPB samples; albeit, only GBFS and SF could be incorporated into the binder phase only at certain levels i.e. up to 20 wt% GBFS and 15wt% SF in order to maintain a threshold strength level of 0.7MPa over 360 days. SEM studies have provided further insight into the microstucture of CPB and confirmed the formation of deleterious gypsum as the expansive phase. These findings have demonstrated that the industrial waste products including GBFS and SF can be suitably used as mineral additives to improve the long-term mechanical performance of CPB produced from sulphide-rich tailings as well as to reduce the binder costs in a CPB plant.

  10. Rice-husk ash paste and concrete: Some aspects of hydration and the microstructure of the interfacial zone between the aggregate and paste

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.H.; Lastra, R.; Malhotra, V.M.

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the effects of the incorporation of rice-husk ash (RHA) in cement paste and concrete on the hydration and the microstructure of the interfacial zone between the aggregate and paste. The influence on the compressive strength of concrete is discussed, and the results are compared with those obtained with the control portland cement concrete and concrete incorporating silica fume. As for ordinary portland cement paste, it was found that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrates [C-S-H] were the major hydration and reaction products for the HA paste. Because of the pozzolanic reaction, the paste incorporating RHA had lower Ca(OH){sub 2} content than the control portland cement paste. The incorporation of the RHA in concrete reduced its porosity and the Ca(OH){sub 2} amount in the interfacial zone; the width of the interfacial zone between the aggregate and the cement paste was also reduced compared with the control portland cement composite. However, the porosity in the interfacial zone of the rice-husk ash composite was higher than that of the silica fume composite. The incorporation of the RHA in the cement paste did not increase its compressive strength compared with that of the control. The higher compressive strength of the RHA concrete compared with that of the control is due probably to the reduced porosity, reduced Ca(OH){sub 2}, and reduced width of the interfacial zone between the paste and the aggregate.

  11. Investigation of Cement Pastes and Related Materials by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    metric (SI) units as follows: Multiply By To Obtain angstroms 0.1 nanometres torr 133.322 pascals inches 25.4 millimetres 3 3 r.° I-i?5 INVESTIGATION OF...cement pastes were cast in rubber finger cots to allow for expansion. The hydrated pastes of alite and the ettringite-forming material were examined...freeze-dried to fracture the surface that will be examined. ** 10 angstroms = 1 nanometre . 7 elected samples of hydrated cement were polished and exam

  12. Feasibility of using in situ fusion for the determination of Co, Cr and Mn in Portland cement by direct solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intima, Danielle Polidorio; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano

    2009-06-01

    In situ fusion on the boat-type graphite platform has been used as a sample pretreatment for the direct determination of Co, Cr and Mn in Portland cement by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF AAS). The 3-field Zeeman technique was adopted for background correction to decrease the sensitivity during measurements. This strategy allowed working with up to 200 µg of sample. The in situ fusion was accomplished using 10 µL of a flux mixture 4.0% m/v Na 2CO 3 + 4.0% m/v ZnO + 0.1% m/v Triton® X-100 added over the cement sample and heated at 800 °C for 20 s. The resulting mould was completely dissolved with 10 µL of 0.1% m/v HNO 3. Limits of detection were 0.11 µg g - 1 for Co, 1.1 µg g - 1 for Cr and 1.9 µg g - 1 for Mn. The accuracy of the proposed method has been evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials. The values found presented no statistically significant differences compared to the certified values (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). In general, the relative standard deviation was lower than 12% ( n = 5).

  13. Numerical simulation of heat and mass transport during hydration of Portland cement mortar in semi-adiabatic and steam curing conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Bautista, E.; Bentz, D. P.; Sandoval-Torres, S.; de Cano-Barrita, P. F. J.

    2015-01-01

    A model that describes hydration and heat-mass transport in Portland cement mortar during steam curing was developed. The hydration reactions are described by a maturity function that uses the equivalent age concept, coupled to a heat and mass balance. The thermal conductivity and specific heat of mortar with water-to-cement mass ratio of 0.30 was measured during hydration, using the Transient Plane Source method. The parameters for the maturity equation and the activation energy were obtained by isothermal calorimetry at 23 °C and 38 °C. Steam curing and semi-adiabatic experiments were carried out to obtain the temperature evolution and moisture profiles were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Three specimen geometries were simulated and the results were compared with experimental data. Comparisons of temperature had maximum residuals of 2.5 °C and 5 °C for semi-adiabatic and steam curing conditions, respectively. The model correctly predicts the evaporable water distribution obtained by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27022208

  14. Effects of silica fume, latex, methylcellulose, and carbon fibers on the thermal conductivity and specific heat of cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1997-12-01

    Due to their poor conductivity, latex (20--30% by weight of cement), methylcellulose (0.4--0.8% by weight of cement), and silica fume (15% by weight of cement) decreased the thermal conductivity of cement paste by up to 46%. In addition, these admixtures increased the specific heat of cement paste by up to 10%. The thermal conductivity decreased and the specific heat increased with increasing latex or methylcellulose content. Short carbon fibers (0.5--1.0% by weight of cement) either did not change or decreased the thermal conductivity of cement paste, such that the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing fiber content due to the increase in air void content. The fibers increased the specific heat due to the contribution of the fiber-matrix interface to vibration.

  15. Study on Utilization of Carboxyl Group Decorated Carbon Nanotubes and Carbonation Reaction for Improving Strengths and Microstructures of Cement Paste

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiantong; Cui, Hongzhi; Qin, Qinghua; Tang, Waiching; Zhou, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have excellent mechanical properties and can be used to reinforce cement-based materials. On the other hand, the reaction product of carbonation with hydroxides in hydrated cement paste can reduce the porosity of cement-based materials. In this study, a novel method to improve the strength of cement paste was developed through a synergy of carbon nanotubes decorated with carboxyl group and carbonation reactions. The experimental results showed that the carboxyl group (–COOH) of decorated carbon nanotubes and the surfactant can control the morphology of the calcium carbonate crystal of carbonation products in hydrated cement paste. The spindle-like calcium carbonate crystals showed great morphological differences from those observed in the conventional carbonation of cement paste. The spindle-like calcium carbonate crystals can serve as fiber-like reinforcements to reinforce the cement paste. By the synergy of the carbon nanotubes and carbonation reactions, the compressive and flexural strengths of cement paste were significantly improved and increased by 14% and 55%, respectively, when compared to those of plain cement paste. PMID:28335281

  16. Study on Utilization of Carboxyl Group Decorated Carbon Nanotubes and Carbonation Reaction for Improving Strengths and Microstructures of Cement Paste.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiantong; Cui, Hongzhi; Qin, Qinghua; Tang, Waiching; Zhou, Xiangming

    2016-08-19

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have excellent mechanical properties and can be used to reinforce cement-based materials. On the other hand, the reaction product of carbonation with hydroxides in hydrated cement paste can reduce the porosity of cement-based materials. In this study, a novel method to improve the strength of cement paste was developed through a synergy of carbon nanotubes decorated with carboxyl group and carbonation reactions. The experimental results showed that the carboxyl group (-COOH) of decorated carbon nanotubes and the surfactant can control the morphology of the calcium carbonate crystal of carbonation products in hydrated cement paste. The spindle-like calcium carbonate crystals showed great morphological differences from those observed in the conventional carbonation of cement paste. The spindle-like calcium carbonate crystals can serve as fiber-like reinforcements to reinforce the cement paste. By the synergy of the carbon nanotubes and carbonation reactions, the compressive and flexural strengths of cement paste were significantly improved and increased by 14% and 55%, respectively, when compared to those of plain cement paste.

  17. Application of Neutron imaging in pore structure of hydrated wellbore cement: comparison of hydration of H20 with D2O based Portland cements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussenova, D.; Bilheux, H.; Radonjic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Wellbore Cement studies have been ongoing for decades. The studies vary from efforts to reduce permeability and resistance to corrosive environment to issues with gas migration also known as Sustained Casing Pressure (SCP). These practical issues often lead to health and safety problems as well as huge economic loss in oil and gas industry. Several techniques have been employed to reduce the impact of gas leakage. In this study we purely focus on expandable liners, which are introduced as part of oil well reconstruction and work-overs and as well abandonment procedures that help in prevention of SCP. Expandable liner is a tube that after application of a certain tool can increase its diameter. The increase in diameter creates extra force on hydrated cement that results in reducing width of interface fractures and cement-tube de-bonding. Moreover, this also causes cement to change its microstructure and other porous medium properties, primarily hydraulic conductivity. In order to examine changes before and after operations, cement pore structure must be well characterized and correlated to cement slurry design as well as chemical and physical environmental conditions. As modern oil well pipes and tubes contain iron, it is difficult to perform X-ray tomography of a bulk measurement of the cement in its wellbore conditions, which are tube wall-cement-tube wall. Neutron imaging is a complementary technique to x-ray imaging and is well suited for detection of light elements imbedded in metallic containers. Thus, Neutron Imaging (NI) is investigated as a tool for the detection of pore structure of hydrated wellbore cement. Recent measurements were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) neutron imaging facility. NI is is highly sensitive to light elements such as Hydrogen (H). Oil well cements that have undergone a full hydration contain on average 30%-40% of free water in its pore structure. The unreacted water is the main

  18. Effect of Exposure to Portland Cement Dust on the Periodontal Status and on the Outcome of Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhamid, Alaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Cement dust contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead and chromium, pollutants hazardous to the biotic environment, with adverse impact for vegetation, human and animal health and ecosystems. Objective To investigate if long term exposure to cement dust can affect the periodontal health and affect the outcome of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Methods A total of sixty subjects were included in this study. Forty patients with chronic periodontitis were grouped into; Group I comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis working in the Portland Cement Company and Group II comprised of 20 patients with chronic periodontitis who does not work in cement factories nor live near any of them. Twenty healthy subjects were included in this study as healthy control group (Group III). Clinical parameters including gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CLA) were scored for all patients before and after periodontal therapy. All patients received non-surgical periodontal therapy together with strict oral hygiene program for one month. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from both groups at baseline and one month after periodontal therapy. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the GCF samples for detection and assessment of the levels of IL-1β and TNFα. Results The two studied groups responded well to non-surgical periodontal treatment and there was no significant difference between GI and GII (P>0.05). The levels of TNFα was higher in GI than in GII before and after periodontal therapy (P<0.05). The levels of IL-1β did not show any significant difference between the two groups at base line (P>0.05), but represented with a highly significant difference between G1 and GII after periodontal therapy (P<0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between the levels of both IL-1β and TNFα and all the clinical parameters in GI before and after periodontal therapy and in GII

  19. Quantifying the distribution of paste-void spacing of hardened cement paste using X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Choo, Jinhyun; Kang, Dong Hun

    2012-11-15

    The distribution of paste-void spacing in cement-based materials is an important feature related to the freeze-thaw durability of these materials, but its reliable estimation remains an unresolved problem. Herein, we evaluate the capability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for reliable quantification of the distribution of paste-void spacing. Using X-ray CT images of three mortar specimens having different air-entrainment characteristics, we calculate the distributions of paste-void spacing of the specimens by applying previously suggested methods for deriving the exact spacing of air-void systems. This methodology is assessed by comparing the 95th percentile of the cumulative distribution function of the paste-void spacing with spacing factors computed by applying the linear-traverse method to 3D air-void system and reconstructing equivalent air-void distribution in 3D. Results show that the distributions of equivalent void diameter and paste-void spacing follow lognormal and normal distributions, respectively, and the ratios between the 95th percentile paste-void spacing value and the spacing factors reside within the ranges reported by previous numerical studies. This experimental finding indicates that the distribution of paste-void spacing quantified using X-ray CT has the potential to be the basis for a statistical assessment of the freeze-thaw durability of cement-based materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paste-void spacing in 3D can be quantified by X-ray CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of the paste-void spacing follows normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spacing factor and 95th percentile of CDF of paste-void spacing are correlated.

  20. Utilization of cathode ray tube waste: encapsulation of PbO-containing funnel glass in Portland cement clinker.

    PubMed

    Lairaksa, Nirut; Moon, Anthony R; Makul, Natt

    2013-03-15

    The disposal of cathode ray tube (CRT) generates large quantities of leaded glass waste. The encapsulation of glass from the funnel portion of CRT in cement clinker was investigated. Samples of cement raw material containing 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5 wt% of CRT funnel glass ground to less than 75 μm were heated to 1480 °C in an electric furnace for 1.5 h at a heating rate of 5 °C/min to produce cement clinker. The Pb encapsulation and chemical composition of the clinkers were analysed using X-ray techniques and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The maximum PbO encapsulation occurred in mixtures containing 0.1 wt% funnel glass.

  1. Mechanical behavior of mortars containing sewage sludge ash (SSA) and Portland cements with different tricalcium aluminate content

    SciTech Connect

    Monzo, J.; Paya, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Peris-Mora, E.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of sewage sludge ash (SSA) on cement mortars strength has been studied. To evaluate better the increase of strength compared to control mortar, relative compressive strength gain (CSGr) and flexural strength gain (FSGr) were calculated. The experience shows that SSA behaves as an active material, producing an increase of compressive strength compared to control mortar, probably due to pozzolanic properties of SSA. It can be emphasized that high sulfur content of SSA (12.4%) does not seem to have influence on compressive strength of mortars containing SSA. When CSGr of mortars containing different types of cements are compared, no clear correlation is observed between CSGr and C{sub 3}A content in cement.

  2. Microstructurally based mechanisms for modeling shrinkage of cement paste at multiple levels

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, H.M.; Xi, Yunping

    1993-07-15

    Shrinkage of cement paste is controlled by a number of mechanisms that operate in various parts of the microstructure and at various length scales. A model for creep and shrinkage can be developed by combining several models that describe phenomena at each of several length scales, ranging from the nanometer to the meter. This model is described and preliminary results are discussed.

  3. Cement paste surface roughness analysis using coherence scanning interferometry and confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Apedo, K.L.; Munzer, C.; He, H.; Montgomery, P.; Serres, N.; Fond, C.; Feugeas, F.

    2015-02-15

    Scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy have been used for several decades to better understand the microstructure of cementitious materials. Very limited work has been performed to date to study the roughness of cementitious materials by optical microscopy such as coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) and chromatic confocal sensing (CCS). The objective of this paper is to better understand how CSI can be used as a tool to analyze surface roughness and topography of cement pastes. Observations from a series of images acquired using this technique on both polished and unpolished samples are described. The results from CSI are compared with those from a STIL confocal microscopy technique (SCM). Comparison between both optical techniques demonstrates the ability of CSI to measure both polished and unpolished cement pastes. - Highlights: • Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) was used to analyze cement paste surfaces. • The results from the CSI were compared with those from a confocal microscopy. • 3D roughness parameters were obtained using the window resizing method. • Polished and unpolished cement pastes were studied.

  4. The Shock Hugoniot Properties of Cement Paste & Mortar up to 18 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsembelis, K.; Proud, W. G.; Willmott, G. R.; Cross, D. L. A.

    2004-07-01

    A series of plate impact experiments was performed on cement paste and mortar. Longitudinal stresses were measured using embedded manganin stress gauges up to ca. 18 GPa. Data are then compared to those obtained in previous studies on concrete varied on aggregate size using a plate reverberation technique and velocity interferometry.

  5. Shotcrete -- Understanding of the hydration process of mixes containing CAC and Portland cement and proposal for a simple rheological characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bayoux, J.P.; Testud, M.; Guinot, D.; Willocq, J.; Capmas, A.

    1995-12-31

    In order to better understand the performances of CAC-slag cement and CAC--PC cement the hydration study of these mixes was undertaken. The hydrates which are responsible for the early stiffening/strengthening are identical in both mixes; it is only the time of appearance and amount which varies. Ettringite always forms first followed by the precipitation of C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}. They will both form faster then the temperature rises. As a complement, a simple laboratory equipment is proposed to characterize the stiffening behavior of the mixes straight after gauging.

  6. Thermodynamics and cement science

    SciTech Connect

    Damidot, D.; Lothenbach, B.; Herfort, D.; Glasser, F.P.

    2011-07-15

    Thermodynamics applied to cement science has proved to be very valuable. One of the most striking findings has been the extent to which the hydrate phases, with one conspicuous exception, achieve equilibrium. The important exception is the persistence of amorphous C-S-H which is metastable with respect to crystalline calcium silicate hydrates. Nevertheless C-S-H can be included in the scope of calculations. As a consequence, from comparison of calculation and experiment, it appears that kinetics is not necessarily an insuperable barrier to engineering the phase composition of a hydrated Portland cement. Also the sensitivity of the mineralogy of the AFm and AFt phase compositions to the presence of calcite and to temperature has been reported. This knowledge gives a powerful incentive to develop links between the mineralogy and engineering properties of hydrated cement paste and, of course, anticipates improvements in its performance leading to decreasing the environmental impacts of cement production.

  7. Chloride diffusivity in hardened cement paste from microscale analyses and accounting for binding effects.

    PubMed

    Carrara, P; De Lorenzis, L; Bentz, D P

    2016-08-01

    The diffusion of chloride ions in hardened cement paste (HCP) under steady-state conditions and accounting for the highly heterogeneous nature of the material is investigated. The HCP microstructures are obtained through segmentation of X-ray images of real samples as well as from simulations using the cement hydration model CEMHYD3D. Moreover, the physical and chemical interactions between chloride ions and HCP phases (binding), along with their effects on the diffusive process, are explicitly taken into account. The homogenized diffusivity of the HCP is then derived through a least square homogenization technique. Comparisons between numerical results and experimental data from the literature are presented.

  8. Superplasticizer effect on cement paste structure and concrete freeze-thaw resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuldyakov, Kirill; Kramar, Lyudmila; Trofimov, Boris; Ivanov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Article presents the results of studies of various types of superplasticizer additives and their influence on concrete structure and resistance under cyclic freezing-thawing. Glenium ACE 430 was taken as a polycarboxylate superplasticizer, and SP-1 - as a naphthalene-formaldehyde superplasticizer. It is revealed that at identical structure, W/C and fluidity of concrete mix, application of the polycarboxylate superplasticizer, Glenium AC 430, in comparison to the naphthalene-formaldehyde one SP-1, facilitates the increase of the concrete grade in freeze and thaw resistance from F2300 to F2400, concrete freeze and thaw resistance can be possible even higher if the gravel with higher freeze and thaw resistance is applied. To assess the superplasticizers influence on cement paste structure tests of the phase composition of the cement paste of the studied concrete were conducted. It is established that the use of polycarboxylate superplasticizer together with silica fume facilitates formation of cement plaster structure from tobermorite gel. This gel has increased basicity and is resistant to crystallization due to cyclic freezing. It is shown that in the presence of SP-1+SF in the cement paste of concrete during hydration the structure of hydrosilicate phases preferably comprises of C-S-H(I) and C-S-H(II) phases which actively crystallize while cyclic freezing and thawing and reduce freeze-thaw resistance of concrete.

  9. The effect of ageing and heat treatment on microstructure evolution of a commercial cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Hassen; Platret, Gérard; Vincent, Julien

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes on a 2 year-old cement paste, unprotected from contact with air, heated to various temperature regimes up to 1000 °C in steps of 100 °C for a constant period of 6 h. This work has been carried out using a thermal analysis technique and XRD. The parameter involved in this study is the state of the samples: powdered samples and blocks of paste. As a result, it is possible to monitor the major features of the experiments, i.e. the phase's existence domains and their growing of hydrated calcium silicate, portlandite, calcite as well as their decaying: alite, belite and lime. The result shows higher amounts of portlandite and carbonate calcium for the aged cement paste compared to fresh OPC. The carbonation is more marked for the blocks of paste while the crystallinity degree is higher for the powdered cement paste samples. The new portlandite formed during cooling continues to exist until the 1000 °C temperature plateau. Nevertheless, this portlandite is less crystalline than the original one, and its temperature of thermal decomposition gets lower. An increase in the total weight loss and in the crystallinity at 900 and 1000 °C, compared to 800 °C is also noted. The CSH dehydration to β-C2S and C3S become significant above 600 °C and the corresponding rate increases with increasing temperature.

  10. The effect of ageing and heat treatment on microstructure evolution of a commercial cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Hassen; Platret, Gérard; Vincent, Julien

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes on a 2 year-old cement paste, unprotected from contact with air, heated to various temperature regimes up to 1000 °C in steps of 100 °C for a constant period of 6 h. This work has been carried out using a thermal analysis technique and XRD. The parameter involved in this study is the state of the samples: powdered samples and blocks of paste. As a result, it is possible to monitor the major features of the experiments, i.e. the phase's existence domains and their growing of hydrated calcium silicate, portlandite, calcite as well as their decaying: alite, belite and lime. The result shows higher amounts of portlandite and carbonate calcium for the aged cement paste compared to fresh OPC. The carbonation is more marked for the blocks of paste while the crystallinity degree is higher for the powdered cement paste samples. The new portlandite formed during cooling continues to exist until the 1000 °C temperature plateau. Nevertheless, this portlandite is less crystalline than the original one, and its temperature of thermal decomposition gets lower. An increase in the total weight loss and in the crystallinity at 900 and 1000 °C, compared to 800 °C is also noted. The CSH dehydration to β-C2S and C3S become significant above 600 °C and the corresponding rate increases with increasing temperature.

  11. Assessment of Pozzolanic Activity Using Methods Based on the Measurement of Electrical Conductivity of Suspensions of Portland Cement and Pozzolan

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Sergio; Monzó, José M.; Borrachero, María V.; Payá, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The use of methods based on measuring electrical conductivity to assess pozzolanic activity has recently been used primarily in aqueous suspensions of pozzolan: calcium hydroxide. However, the use of similar methods in suspensions of cement with pozzolans has not been widely studied. This paper proposes a new method for rapid assessment of the pozzolanic activity of mineral admixtures in aqueous cement suspensions. In this study, the conditions for the application of the method were optimized, such as time, temperature, w/c ratio and dosage procedure. Finally, results are presented from the application of this method for characterizing the pozzolanic activity of the spent catalytic cracking catalyst. These results corroborate as previously reported, namely the high reactivity of this pozzolan obtained by other methods, such as thermogravimetry or evolution of the mechanical strength. In addition, the pozzolanic activity of the catalyst was compared with other pozzolans such as metakaolin and silica fume. PMID:28788261

  12. Effect of Admixtures on the Yield Stresses of Cement Pastes under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Hong Jae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kwon, Seung Hee

    2016-01-01

    When cement-based materials are transported at a construction site, they undergo high pressures during the pumping process. The rheological properties of the materials under such high pressures are unknown, and estimating the workability of the materials after pumping is a complex problem. Among various influential factors on the rheology of concrete, this study investigated the effect of mineral and chemical admixtures on the high-pressure rheology. A rheometer was fabricated that could measure the rheological properties while maintaining a high pressure to simulate the pumping process. The effects of superplasticizer, silica fume, nanoclay, fly ash, or ground granulated blast furnace slag were investigated when mixed with two control cement pastes. The water-to-cement ratios were 0.35 and 0.50. PMID:28773273

  13. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  14. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-03-25

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns.

  15. Macro- and microspectroscopic study of Nd (III) uptake mechanisms in hardened cement paste.

    PubMed

    Mandaliev, Peter; Dähn, Rainer; Wehrli, Bernhard; Wieland, Erich

    2009-11-01

    Cement is an important component in repositories for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Nd uptake by hardened cement paste (HCP) has been investigated with the aim of developing a mechanistic understanding of the immobilization processes of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in HCP on the molecular level. Information on the microstructure of HCP, the Nd distribution in the cement matrix, and the coordination environment of Nd in these matrices was gained from the combined use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF), micro-X-ray (micro-XAS), and bulk-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (bulk-XAS) on Nd doped cement samples. The samples were reacted over periods of time between 15 min and 200 days. SEM and micro-XRF investigations suggest preferential Nd accumulation in rims around "inner"-calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The EXAFS data indicate that the coordination environment of Nd taken up by HCP was dependent on reaction time. Changes in the structural parameters derived from EXAFS support the idea of Nd incorporation into the structure of C-S-H phases. The Nd binding mechanisms proposed in this study have implication for an overall assessment of the safe disposal of trivalent actinides in cement-based repositories for radioactive waste.

  16. Undrained heating and anomalous pore-fluid pressurization of a hardened cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghabezloo, S.; Sulem, J.; Saint-Marc, J.

    2009-04-01

    Temperature increase in a fluid-saturated porous material in undrained condition leads to volume change and pore pressure increase due to the discrepancy between the thermal expansion coefficients of the pore fluid and of the pore volume. This increase of the pore fluid pressure induces a reduction of the effective mean stress, and can lead to shear failure or hydraulic fracturing. This phenomenon is important is important in environmental engineering for radioactive (exothermal) waste disposal in deep clay geological formations as well as in geophysics in the studies of rapid fault slip events when shear heating tends to increase the pore pressure and to decrease the effective compressive stress and the shearing resistance of the fault material (Sulem et al. 2007). This is also important in petroleum engineering where the reservoir rock and the well cement lining undergo sudden temperature changes for example when extracting heavy oils by steam injection methods. This rapid increase of temperature could damage cement sheath integrity of wells and lead to loss of zonal isolation. The values of the thermal pressurization coefficient, defined as the pore pressure increase due to a unit temperature increase in undrained condition, is largely dependent upon the nature of the material, the state of stress, the range of temperature change, the induced damage. The large variability of the thermal pressurization coefficient reported in the literature for different porous materials with values from 0.01MPa/°C to 1.5MPa/°C highlights the necessity of laboratory studies. This phenomenon of thermal pressurization is studied experimentally for a fluid-saturated hardened cement paste in an undrained heating test. Careful analysis of the effect of the dead volume of the drainage system of the triaxial cell has been performed based on a simple correction method proposed by Ghabezloo and Sulem (2008, 2009). The drained and undrained thermal expansion coefficients of the hardened

  17. Prompt gamma ray analysis of Portland cement sample using keV neutrons with a Maxwellian energy spectrum—a Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, A. A.

    2003-08-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to determine the prompt gamma ray yield from a Portland cement sample using keV neutrons from a 3H(p,n) reaction with a Maxwellian energy distribution with kT=52 keV. This work is a part of wider Monte Carlo studies being conducted at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) in search of a more efficient neutron source for its D(d,n) reaction based (2.8 MeV neutrons) Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) facility. In this study a 3H(p,n) reaction based prompt gamma ray PGNAA setup was simulated. For comparison purposes, the diameter of a cylindrical external moderator of the 3H(p,n) reaction based PGNAA setup was assumed to be similar to the one used in the KFUPM PGNAA setup. The results of this study revealed that the optimum geometry of the 3H(p,n) reaction based setup is different from that of the KFUPM PGNAA facility. The performance of the 3H(p,n) reaction based setup is also better than that of the 2.8 MeV neutrons based KFUPM facility and its prompt gamma ray yield is about 60-70% higher than that from the 2.8 MeV neutrons based facility. This study has provided a theoretical base for experimental test of a 3H(p,n) reaction based setup.

  18. Radiopacity, pH and antimicrobial activity of Portland cement associated with micro- and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide and niobium oxide.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Storto, Inara; Da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Bosso, Roberta; Costa, Bernardo Cesar; Bernardi, Maria Inês Basso; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate some properties of the calcium silicate materials Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and Portland cement (PC) with microparticulated (micro) and nanoparticulated (nano) zirconium oxide (ZrO2) or niobium oxide (Nb2O5). The experimental materials: White PC (PC), MTA-Angelus(®) (MTA), PC+ZrO2micro, PC+ZrO2nano, PC+Nb2O5micro and PC+Nb2O5nano were submitted to radiopacity and pH evaluations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms was assessed by agar diffusion test. MTA presented higher radiopacity than other materials. However, all materials except PC presented higher radiopacity than recommended by ISO/ADA. MTA promoted higher pH values in all analyzed periods (p≤0.05). At the initial periods, PC and PC+ZrO2micro showed pH similar to MTA. All materials showed antimicrobial activity against the evaluated microorganisms. In conclusion, ZrO2 and Nb2O5 could be alternative radiopacifiers to be added to calcium silicate materials.

  19. The influence of alkalinity of portland cement on the absorption characteristics of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) for use in internally cured concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabares Tamayo, Juan D.

    The concrete industry increasingly emphasizes advances in novel materials that promote construction of more resilient infrastructure. Due to its potential to improve concrete durability, internal curing (IC) of concrete by means of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) has been identified as one of the most promising technologies of the 21st century. The addition of superabsorbent polymers into a cementitious system promotes further hydration of cement by providing internal moisture during the hardening and strength development periods, and thus limits self-desiccation, shrinkage, and cracking. This thesis presents the work performed on the series of cement pastes with varying alkalinity of their pore solutions to provide a better understanding of: (1) the influence of the chemistry of the pore solution (i.e. its level of alkalinity and the type of ionic species present) on the absorption capacity of SAP, and (2) the effectiveness of SAP with different absorption capacities as an internal curing agent. This research work was divided into three stages: (a) materials characterization, (b) measurement of absorption capacity of SAP in synthetic pore solutions, and (c) evaluation of the internal curing effectiveness of SAP. During the first stage (Materials Characterization), pore solutions were extracted from the fresh (5 minutes old) cement pastes prepared using cements with three different levels of alkalinity. The pH values of the extracted solutions were determined (using the pH meter) and their chemical analysis was performed by means of titration (concentration of hydroxyl), ion chromatography (sulfates and chlorides), atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP) (sodium, potassium and calcium). The commercial SAP adopted for this study was used with "as-supplied" gradation and with the finer gradation obtained by grinding the original polymer in the 6850 Cryomilling Freezer/Mill. The physical properties of these SAP's, such

  20. Development of Carbon Nanotube Modified Cement Paste with Microencapsulated Phase-Change Material for Structural–Functional Integrated Application

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongzhi; Yang, Shuqing; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase-change materials (MPCM) can be used to develop a structural–functional integrated cement paste having high heat storage efficiency and suitable mechanical strength. However, the incorporation of MPCM has been found to degrade the mechanical properties of cement based composites. Therefore, in this research, the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the properties of MPCM cement paste was evaluated. Test results showed that the incorporation of CNTs in MPCM cement paste accelerated the cement hydration reaction. SEM micrograph showed that CNTs were tightly attached to the cement hydration products. At the age of 28 days, the percentage increase in flexural and compressive strength with different dosage of CNTs was found to be up to 41% and 5% respectively. The optimum dosage of CNTs incorporated in MPCM cement paste was found to be 0.5 wt %. From the thermal performance test, it was found that the cement paste panels incorporated with different percentages of MPCM reduced the temperature measured at the center of the room by up to 4.6 °C. Inverse relationship was found between maximum temperature measured at the center of the room and the dosage of MPCM. PMID:25867476

  1. The effects of the mechanical-chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-01

    A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH)2 and led to the generation of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.

  2. Multi-criteria analysis of the mechanism of degradation of Portland cement based mortars exposed to external sulphate attack

    SciTech Connect

    El-Hachem, R.; Roziere, E.; Grondin, F.; Loukili, A.

    2012-10-15

    This work aims to contribute to the design of durable concrete structures exposed to external sulphate attacks (ESA). Following a preliminary study aimed at designing a representative test, the present paper suggests a study on the effect of the water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and the cement composition in order to understand the degradation mechanisms. Length and mass measurements were registered continuously, leached calcium and hydroxide ions were also quantified. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy observations as well as X-ray microtomography were realised at different times to identify the formed products and the crack morphology. Test results provide information on the basic aspects of the degradation mechanism, such as the main role of leaching and diffusion in the sulphate attack process. The mortar composition with a low w/c ratio leads to a better resistance to sulphate attack because the microstructure is less permeable. Reducing the C{sub 3}A content results in a macro-cracking decrease but it does not prevent expansion, which suggests the contribution of other expansive products, such as gypsum, in damage due to ESA. The observation of the cracks network in the microstructure helps to understand the micro-mechanisms of the degradation process.

  3. Changes in constituent equilibrium leaching and pore water characteristics of a Portland cement mortar as a result of carbonation.

    PubMed

    Garrabrants, A C; Sanchez, F; Kosson, D S

    2004-01-01

    Two equilibrium-based characterization protocols were applied to ground samples of a cement-based material containing metal oxide powders in both noncarbonated and carbonated states. The effects of carbonation were shown through comparison of (i) material buffering capacity, (ii) constituent equilibrium as a function of leachate pH, and (iii) constituent solubility and release as a function of liquid-to-solid (LS) ratio. As expected, the material alkalinity was significantly neutralized during carbonation. In addition, carbonation of the cement material led to the formation of calcium carbonate and a corresponding increase in arsenic release across the entire pH range. The solubility as a function of pH for lead and copper was lower in the alkaline pH range (pH>9) for carbonated samples compared with the parent material. When solubility and release as a function of LS ratio was compared, carbonation was observed to decrease calcium solubility, sodium and potassium release, and ionic strength. In response to carbonate solid formation, chloride and sulfate release as a function of LS ratio was observed to increase. Trends in constituent concentration as a function of LS ratio were extrapolated to estimate pore water composition at a 0.06 mL/g LS ratio. Significant differences were observed upon comparison of estimated pore water composition to leachate concentrations extracted at LS ratio of 5 mL/g. These differences show that practical laboratory extractions cannot be assumed directly representative of pore water concentrations.

  4. Pore structure of hydrating cement paste by magnetic resonance relaxation analysis and freezing.

    PubMed

    Jehng, J Y; Sprague, D T; Halperin, W P

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation analysis has been applied to interpret the evolution of microstructure in a cement paste during hydration. A basic understanding of the wet-dry and freeze-thaw processes of cement pastes has been developed. The pore structure evolution has been studied by the suppression of the freezing temperature of water and compared with spin-spin relaxation analysis performed at room temperature. Both methods consistently show that hydrating cement pastes have two principal components in their size distribution. The NMR relaxation times provide a measure of the characteristic pore sizes. Their interpretation is made in the context of a fast exchange model. Supercooling and thawing point depression of confined water has been studied systematically. The depression of the freezing point of liquid water confined within a pore was found to be dependent on the pore size, with capillary pore water freezing at 240 K and the remaining gel pore water freezing over a temperature range extending to as low as 160 K.A modified Gibbs-Thompson analysis was used to determine pore volume distributions from the distribution of thawing temperatures.

  5. Use of admixtures in organic-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    PubMed

    Gallo Stampino, Paola; Zampori, Luca; Dotelli, Giovanni; Meloni, Paola; Sora, Isabella Natali; Pelosato, Renato

    2009-01-30

    In this work microstructure, porosity and hydration degree of cement-based solidified/stabilized wasteforms were studied before assessing their leaching behaviour. 2-Chloroaniline was chosen as a model liquid organic pollutant and included into cement pastes, which were also modified with different admixtures for concrete: a superplasticizer based on acrylic-modified polymer, a synthetic rubber latex and a waterproofing agent. An organoclay, modified with an ammonium quaternary salt (benzyl-dimethyl-tallowammonium, BDMTA), was added to the pastes as pre-sorbent agent of the organic matter. All the samples were dried up to constant weight in order to stop the hydration process at different times during the first 28 days of curing, typically, after 1 day (1d), 7 days (7d) and 28 days. Then, the microstructure of the hardened cement-clay pastes was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydration degree and porosity were studied by thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), respectively. For samples cured for 28 days a short-term leach test set by Italian regulation for industrial waste recycling (D.M. 5 February 1998) was performed. The best results showed a 5% release of the total initial amount of organic pollutant.

  6. Deteriorated hardened cement paste structure analyzed by XPS and {sup 29}Si NMR techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kurumisawa, Kiyofumi; Nawa, Toyoharu; Owada, Hitoshi; Shibata, Masahito

    2013-10-15

    In this report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and {sup 29}Si-MAS-NMR was used for the evaluation of deteriorated hardened cement pastes. The deterioration by ammonium nitrate solution was accompanied by changes in the pore structure as well as by structural changes in the C–S–H in the hardened cement paste. The CaO/SiO{sub 2} ratio of the C–S–H decreased with the progress of deterioration, there was also polymerization of the silicate in the C–S–H. It was confirmed that the degree of polymerization of silicate of the C–S–H in hardened cement paste can be determined by XPS. It was also shown that the polymerization depends on the structure of the C–S–H. -- Highlights: •The polymerization of silicate of the C–S–H in the HCP can be observed by XPS. •The structure of C–S–H changed with the degree of calcium leaching. •The NMR result about silicate in C–S–H was in good agreement with the XPS result.

  7. Hindered water motions in hardened cement pastes investigated over broad time and length scales.

    PubMed

    Bordallo, Heloisa N; Aldridge, Laurence P; Fouquet, Peter; Pardo, Luis Carlos; Unruh, Tobias; Wuttke, Joachim; Yokaichiya, Fabiano

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the dynamics of confined water in different hydrated cement pastes with minimized contributions of capillary water. It was found that the water motions are extremely reduced compared to those of bulk water. The onset of water mobility, which was modified by the local environment, was investigated with elastic temperature scans using the high-resolution neutron backscattering instrument SPHERES. Using a Cauchy-Lorenz distribution, the quasi-elastic signal observed in the spectra obtained by the backscattering spectrometer was analyzed, leading to the identification of rotational motions with relaxation times of 0.3 ns. Additionally, neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy was used to measure the water diffusion over the local network of pores. The motions observed in the NSE time scale were characterized by diffusion constants ranging from 0.6 to 1.1 x 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) most likely related to water molecules removed from the interface. In summary, our results indicate that the local diffusion observed in the gel pores of hardened cement pastes is on the order of that found in deeply supercooled water. Finally, the importance of the magnetic properties of cement pastes were discussed in relation to the observation of a quasi-elastic signal on the dried sample spectra measured using the time-of-flight spectrometer.

  8. THE IMPACT OF DISSOLVED SALTS ON PASTES CONTAINING FLY ASH, CEMENT AND SLAG

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-09-21

    The degree of hydration of a mixture of cementitious materials (Class F fly ash, blast furnace slag and portland cement) in highly concentrated alkaline salt solutions is enhanced by the addition of aluminate to the salt solution. This increase in the degree of hydration, as monitored with isothermal calorimetry, leads to higher values of dynamic Young's modulus and compressive strength and lower values of total porosity. This enhancement in performance properties of these cementitious waste forms by increased hydration is beneficial to the retention of the radionuclides that are also present in the salt solution. The aluminate ions in the solution act first to retard the set time of the mix but then enhance the hydration reactions following the induction period. In fact, the aluminate ions increase the degree of hydration by {approx}35% over the degree of hydration for the same mix with a lower aluminate concentration. An increase in the blast furnace slag concentration and a decrease in the water to cementitious materials ratio produced mixes with higher values of Young's modulus and lower values of total porosity. Therefore, these operational factors can be fine tuned to enhance performance properties of cementitious waste form. Empirical models for Young modulus, heat of hydration and total porosity were developed to predict the values of these properties. These linear models used only statistically significant compositional and operational factors and provided insight into those factors that control these properties.

  9. Co speciation in hardened cement paste: a macro- and micro-spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Vespa, M; Dähn, R; Grolimund, D; Wieland, E; Scheidegger, A M

    2007-03-15

    Cement-based materials play an important role in multi-barrier concepts developed worldwide for the safe disposal of hazardous and radioactive wastes. Cement is used to condition and stabilize the waste materials and to construct the engineered barrier systems (container, backfill and liner materials) of repositories for radioactive waste. In this study, Co uptake by hardened cement paste (HCP) has been investigated with the aim of improving our understanding of the immobilization process of heavy metals in cement on the molecular level. X-ray-absorption spectroscopy (XAS) on powder material (bulk-XAS) was used to determine the local environment of Co in cement systems. Bulk-XAS investigations were complemented with micro-beam investigations to probe the inherent microscale heterogeneity of cement by using micro-X-ray-fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro-XAS. Micro-XRF was used to gain information on the spatial heterogeneity of the Co distribution, whereas micro-XAS was employed to determine the speciation of Co on the microscale. The Co-doped HCP samples hydrated for time-scales from 1 hour up to 1 year were prepared under normal atmosphere, to simulate similar conditions as for waste packages. To investigate the role of oxygen, further samples were prepared in the absence of oxygen. The study showed that, for the samples prepared in air, Co(II) is oxidized to Co(III) after 1 hour of hydration time. Moreover, the relative amount of Co(III) increases with increasing hydration time. The study further revealed that Co(II) is predominately present as a Co-hydroxide-like phase and/or Co-phyllosilicates, whereas Co(III) tends to be incorporated into a CoOOH-like phase and/or Co-phyllomanganates. In contrast to samples prepared in air, XAS experiments with samples prepared in the absence of oxygen revealed solely the presence of Co(II). This finding indicates that oxygen plays an important role for Co oxidation in cement. Furthermore, the study suggests that Co

  10. A Confocal Microscopic Evaluation of the Dehydration Effect on Conventional, Resin Reinforced Powder/Liquid and Paste to Paste Glass Ionomer Luting Cements.

    PubMed

    George, Liza; Kandaswamy, D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydration of resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system, resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cements in three different quantities and to compare them with a conventional glass ionomer luting cement using confocal laser scanning microscope. A conventional glass ionomer (Group I), a resin modified powder/liquid system (Group II), and a resin-modified paste/paste system (Group III) were selected for the study. In Group III, there were three subgroups based on the quantity of material dispensed. 50 premolar teeth were selected and randomly divided among the groups with 10 samples in each. The teeth were ground flat to expose a flat occlusal dentin. A device was made to standardize the thickness of cement placed on the teeth. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 h and then longitudinally sectioned to examine the tooth dentin interface under a confocal microscope. The specimens were allowed to dehydrate under the microscope for different time intervals. The width of the crack after dehydration near the dentinal interface was measured at definite intervals in all the groups and analyzed statistically using Student's t-test. Conventional glass ionomer cement showed the maximum width of the crack followed by resin modified paste/paste system during the dehydration period. Resin modified powder/liquid system did not show cohesive failure. Conventional glass ionomer luting cement is more susceptible to cohesive failure when subjected to dehydration compared to resin-modified glass ionomer paste/paste luting cement. Among the luting cements, resin-modified glass ionomer powder/liquid system showed the best results when subjected to dehydration.

  11. Effect of Fly Ash and Silica Fume on the Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste at Different Stages of Hydration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-10

    Different Stages of Hydration Report Title This thesis investigates the effect of fly ash and silica fume on cement paste hydration. Percentages of each...Additional figures were created to compare the different curing days against the change in fly ash percentages that can be found in Appendix D. Figure 4.4...cured samples. The controlled cement paste was used as a reference in comparing fly ash or silica fume percentages and the different methods of curing

  12. Effects of Blended-Cement Paste Chemical Composition Changes on Some Strength Gains of Blended-Mortars

    PubMed Central

    Kirgiz, Mehmet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical compositions changes of blended-cement pastes (BCPCCC) on some strength gains of blended cement mortars (BCMSG) were monitored in order to gain a better understanding for developments of hydration and strength of blended cements. Blended cements (BC) were prepared by blending of 5% gypsum and 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% marble powder (MP) or 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% brick powder (BP) for CEMI42.5N cement clinker and grinding these portions in ball mill at 30 (min). Pastes and mortars, containing the MP-BC and the BP-BC and the reference cement (RC) and tap water and standard mortar sand, were also mixed and they were cured within water until testing. Experiments included chemical compositions of pastes and compressive strengths (CS) and flexural strengths (FS) of mortars were determined at 7th-day, 28th-day, and 90th-day according to TS EN 196-2 and TS EN 196-1 present standards. Experimental results indicated that ups and downs of silica oxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O), and alkali at MP-BCPCC and continuously rising movement of silica oxide (SiO2) at BP-BCPCC positively influenced CS and FS of blended cement mortars (BCM) in comparison with reference mortars (RM) at whole cure days as MP up to 6% or BP up to 35% was blended for cement. PMID:24587737

  13. Effects of blended-cement paste chemical composition changes on some strength gains of blended-mortars.

    PubMed

    Kirgiz, Mehmet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical compositions changes of blended-cement pastes (BCPCCC) on some strength gains of blended cement mortars (BCMSG) were monitored in order to gain a better understanding for developments of hydration and strength of blended cements. Blended cements (BC) were prepared by blending of 5% gypsum and 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% marble powder (MP) or 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% brick powder (BP) for CEMI42.5N cement clinker and grinding these portions in ball mill at 30 (min). Pastes and mortars, containing the MP-BC and the BP-BC and the reference cement (RC) and tap water and standard mortar sand, were also mixed and they were cured within water until testing. Experiments included chemical compositions of pastes and compressive strengths (CS) and flexural strengths (FS) of mortars were determined at 7th-day, 28th-day, and 90th-day according to TS EN 196-2 and TS EN 196-1 present standards. Experimental results indicated that ups and downs of silica oxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O), and alkali at MP-BCPCC and continuously rising movement of silica oxide (SiO2) at BP-BCPCC positively influenced CS and FS of blended cement mortars (BCM) in comparison with reference mortars (RM) at whole cure days as MP up to 6% or BP up to 35% was blended for cement.

  14. Low temperature fabrication of spherical brushite granules by cement paste emulsion.

    PubMed

    Moseke, Claus; Bayer, Christoph; Vorndran, Elke; Barralet, Jake E; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    Secondary protonated calcium phosphates such as brushite (CaHPO(4)·2H(2)O) or monetite (CaHPO(4)) have a higher resorption potential in bone defects than sintered ceramics, e.g. tricalcium phosphate or hydroxyapatite. However, processing of these phosphates to monolithic blocks or granules is not possible by sintering due to thermal decomposition of protonated phosphates at higher temperatures. In this study a low temperature technique for the preparation of spherical brushite granules in a cement setting reaction is presented. These granules were synthesized by dispersing a calcium phosphate cement paste composed of β-tricalcium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate together with a surfactant to an oil/water emulsion. The reaction products were characterized regarding their size distribution, morphology, and phase composition. Clinically relevant granule sizes ranging from 200 μm to 1 mm were obtained, whereas generally smaller granules were received with higher oil viscosity, increasing temperature or higher powder to liquid ratios of the cement paste. The hardened granules were microporous with a specific surface area of 0.7 m(2)/g and consisted of plate-like brushite (>95 % according to XRD) crystals of 0.5-7 μm size. Furthermore it was shown that the granules may be also used for drug delivery applications. This was demonstrated by adsorption of vancomycin from an aqueous solution, where a load of 1.45-1.88 mg drug per g granules and an almost complete release within 2 h was obtained.

  15. Effect of the leaching of calcium hydroxide from cement paste on mechanical and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, C.; Francois, R.

    1997-04-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical and physical properties. In order to characterize this effect, the authors have performed experiments on cement paste samples. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Both compression tests and water porosity tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14 and 20 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was manifested by a peripheral zone of less resistance. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH){sub 2} and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. Both mechanical tests and water porosity tests show that there is a linear variation of the loss of strength and the increase in porosity in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A{sub d}/A{sub t}. It means that both compressive resistance and water porosity of the leaching zone are constant whatever the size of the degraded zone and then whatever the time of exposure to the chemical attack. So the authors could venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide is the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity.

  16. An ex-vivo comparative study of root-end marginal adaptation using grey mineral trioxide aggregate, white mineral trioxide aggregate, and Portland cement under scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Baranwal, Akash Kumar; Paul, Mohan L.; Mazumdar, Dibyendu; Adhikari, Haridas Das; Vyavahare, Nishant K.; Jhajharia, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    Context: Where nonsurgical endodontic intervention is not possible, or it will not solve the problem, surgical endodontic treatment must be considered. A major cause of surgical endodontic failures is an inadequate apical seal, so the use of the suitable substance as root-end filling material that prevents egress of potential contaminants into periapical tissue is very critical. Aims: The aim of the present ex-vivo study was to compare and evaluate the three root-end filling materials of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) family (white MTA [WMTA], grey MTA [GMTA] and Portland cement [PC]) for their marginal adaptation at the root-end dentinal wall using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Sixty human single-rooted teeth were decoronated, instrumented, and obturated with Gutta-percha. After the root-end resection and apical cavity preparation, the teeth were randomly divided into three-experimental groups (each containing 20 teeth) and each group was filled with their respective experimental materials. After longitudinal sectioning of root, SEM examination was done to determine the overall gap between retrograde materials and cavity walls in terms of length and width of the gap (maximum) at the interface. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to calculate the means with corresponding standard errors, median and ranges along with an analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Results: The least overall gap was observed in GMTA followed by PC and WMTA. While after statistically analyzing the various data obtained from different groups, there was no significant difference among these three groups in terms of marginal adaptation. Conclusion: GMTA showed the best overall adaptation to root dentinal wall compared to PC and WMTA. Being biocompatible and cheaper, the PC may be an alternative but not a substitute for MTA. PMID:26430305

  17. In vitro antibacterial activity of a novel resin-based pulp capping material containing the quaternary ammonium salt MAE-DB and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanwei; Huang, Li; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Hongchen; Zhou, Wei; Ban, Jinghao; Wei, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro. The experimental material was prepared from a 2 : 1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4 : 3 : 1) containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs) and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal. The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution. Therefore, this material shows

  18. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Resin-Based Pulp Capping Material Containing the Quaternary Ammonium Salt MAE-DB and Portland Cement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongchen; Zhou, Wei; Ban, Jinghao; Wei, Jingjing; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jing; Chen, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    Background Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to bacterial infection. The objectives of this study were to synthesize a novel, light-cured composite material containing bioactive calcium-silicate (Portland cement, PC) and the antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salt monomer 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB) and to evaluate its effects on Streptococcus mutans growth in vitro. Methods The experimental material was prepared from a 2∶1 ratio of PC mixed with a resin of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, bisphenol glycerolate dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (4∶3∶1) containing 5 wt% MAE-DB. Cured resin containing 5% MAE-DB without PC served as the positive control material, and resin without MAE-DB or PC served as the negative control material. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) served as commercial controls. S. mutans biofilm formation on material surfaces and growth in the culture medium were tested according to colony-forming units (CFUs) and metabolic activity after 24 h incubation over freshly prepared samples or samples aged in water for 6 months. Biofilm formation was also assessed by Live/Dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. Results S. mutans biofilm formation on the experimental material was significantly inhibited, with CFU counts, metabolic activity, viability staining, and morphology similar to those of biofilms on the positive control material. None of the materials affected bacterial growth in solution. Contact-inhibition of biofilm formation was retained by the aged experimental material. Significant biofilm formation was observed on MTA and Dycal. Conclusion The synthesized material containing HEMA-BisGMA-TEGDMA resin with MAE-DB as the antimicrobial agent and PC to support mineralized tissue formation inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation even after aging in water for 6 months, but had no inhibitory effect on bacteria in solution

  19. Physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of an experimental resin-based pulp capping material containing the quaternary ammonium salt and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y W; Yu, F; Zhang, H C; Dong, Y; Qiu, Y N; Jiao, Y; Xing, X D; Tian, M; Huang, L; Chen, J H

    2017-04-04

    To evaluate in vitro the physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and calcium phosphate nucleation of an experimental light-curable pulp capping material composed of a resin with antibacterial monomer (MAE-DB) and Portland cement (PC). The experimental material was prepared by mixing PC with a resin containing MAE-DB at a 2 : 1 ratio. Cured pure resin containing MAE-DB served as control resin. ProRoot MTA and Dycal served as commercial controls. The depth of cure, degree of monomer conversion, water absorption and solubility of dry samples, calcium release, alkalinizing activity, calcium phosphate nucleation and the cytotoxicity of materials were evaluated. Statistical analysis was carried out using anova followed by Tukey's HSD test (equal variance assumed) or Tamhane test (equal variance not assumed) and independent-samples t-tests. The experimental material had a cure depth of 1.19 mm, and the mean degree of monomer conversion was 70.93% immediately post-cure and 88.75% at 24 h post-cure. The water absorption of the experimental material was between those of MTA and Dycal, and its solubility was significantly less (P < 0.05) than that of Dycal and higher than that of MTA. The experimental material exhibited continuous calcium release and an alkalinizing power between those of MTA and Dycal throughout the test period. Freshly set experimental material, control resin and all 24-h set materials had acceptable cytotoxicity. The experimental material, MTA and Dycal all exhibited the formation of apatite precipitates after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline. The experimental material possessed adequate physicochemical properties, low cytotoxicity and good calcium phosphate nucleation. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Inkbottle Pore-Method: Prediction of hygroscopic water content in hardened cement paste at variable climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Rosa Maria . E-mail: espinosa@tuhh.de; Franke, Lutz

    2006-10-15

    The aim of this work is the development of a practicable method for the reliable prediction of the equilibrium hygroscopic water content in hardened cement paste and cement mortars at changing climatic conditions. Sorption thermodynamics and multi-scale pore structure of hardened cement paste build the basis of the new computation procedure. Drying and chemical aging lead to a formation of inkbottle pores. Their influence on sorption behaviour will be considered in particular by including them into the pore model. Experimental data of adsorption, desorption and scanning-isotherms verify the new computation method, which has been called 'IBP-Method' (inkbottle pores)

  1. Hysteresis from Multiscale Porosity: Modeling Water Sorption and Shrinkage in Cement Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Masoero, Enrico; Bonnaud, Patrick A.; Manzano, Hegoi; Ji, Qing; Yip, Sidney; Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Bazant, Martin Z.; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2015-06-01

    Cement paste has a complex distribution of pores and molecular-scale spaces. This distribution controls the hysteresis of water sorption isotherms and associated bulk dimensional changes (shrinkage). We focus on two locations of evaporable water within the fine structure of pastes, each having unique properties, and we present applied physics models that capture the hysteresis by dividing drying and rewetting into two related regimes based on relative humidity (RH). We show that a continuum model, incorporating a pore-blocking mechanism for desorption and equilibrium thermodynamics for adsorption, explains well the sorption hysteresis for a paste that remains above approximately 20% RH. In addition, we show with molecular models and experiments that water in spaces of ≲1 nm width evaporates below approximately 20% RH but reenters throughout the entire RH range. This water is responsible for a drying shrinkage hysteresis similar to that of clays but opposite in direction to typical mesoporous glass. Combining the models of these two regimes allows the entire drying and rewetting hysteresis to be reproduced accurately and provides parameters to predict the corresponding dimensional changes. The resulting model can improve the engineering predictions of long-term drying shrinkage accounting also for the history dependence of strain induced by hysteresis. Alternative strategies for quantitative analyses of the microstructure of cement paste based on this mesoscale physical model of water content within porous spaces are discussed.

  2. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: •A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. •The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. •Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. •The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  3. The effects of the mechanical–chemical stabilization process for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash on the chemical reactions in cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Chang-Jung; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wu, Ching-Wei; Chen, Yu-Lun

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Milling extracted MSWI fly ash. ► Increasing specific surface area, destruction of the crystalline texture, and increasing the amount of amorphous materials. ► Increasing heavy metal stability. ► Inducing pozzolanic reactions and increasing the early and later strength of the cement paste. - Abstract: A water extraction process can remove the soluble salts present in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash, which will help to increase the stability of the synthetic materials produced from the MSWI fly ash. A milling process can be used to stabilize the heavy metals found in the extracted MSWI fly ash (EA) leading to the formation of a non-hazardous material. This milled extracted MSWI fly ash (MEA) was added to an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) paste to induce pozzolanic reactions. The experimental parameters included the milling time (96 h), water to binder ratios (0.38, 0.45, and 0.55), and curing time (1, 3, 7 and 28 days). The analysis procedures included inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), BET, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. The results of the analyses indicate that the milling process helped to stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA, with an increase in the specific surface area of about 50 times over that of OPC. The addition of the MEA to the OPC paste decreased the amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} and led to the generation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) which in turned increased the amount of gel pores and middle sized pores in the cement. Furthermore, a comparison shows an increase in the early and later strength over that of OPC paste without the addition of the milled extracted ash. In other words, the milling process could stabilize the heavy metals in the MEA and had an activating effect on the MEA, allowing it to partly substitute OPC in OPC paste.

  4. Revealing the Dark Side of Portlandite Clusters in Cement Paste by Circular Polarization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Çopuroğlu, Oğuzhan

    2016-01-01

    Plane and crossed polarization are the two standard light modes in polarized light microscopy that are widely used to characterize crystalline and amorphous phases in cement-based materials. However, the use of the crossed polarized light mode has been found to be restrictive for studying birefringent phases quantitatively due to the extinction phenomenon that arises depending on the crystal orientation. This paper introduces circular polarization microscopy as an alternative technique to overcome the extinction problem during the examination of cementitious materials’ microstructure with optical microscopy. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this technique, selected optical and micromorphological features of portlandite clusters were investigated in cement paste. Image analysis results showed that compared to the conventional crossed polarization technique, circular polarization offers significant advantages when portlandite quantification is of interest, and it stands out as a promising low-cost alternative to backscattered electron microscopy. PMID:28773301

  5. Mathematical modeling of cement paste microstructure by mosaic pattern Part I. Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Y.; Tennis, P.D.; Jennings, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper develops a mathematical model using mosaic patterns to characterize structural features of complex, multiphase and multidimensional microstructures, such as those for cement paste. A multiphase microstructure can be characterized by {ital m} independent parameters: the first {ital m}{minus}1 parameters are equivalent to the volume fractions of the phases, while the final parameter describes the grain size, and thus, the spatial arrangement of the microstructure. An evaluation procedure for the parameters is given; they can be evaluated based on a 2D image, and then the 3D microstructure can be simulated by the present model. The relationship among the model parameters and material parameters, such as water-to-cement ratio and particle size distribution, are also established. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  6. The influence of silanized nano-SiO{sub 2} on the hydration of cement paste: NMR investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bede, A. Pop, A.; Ardelean, I.; Moldovan, M.

    2015-12-23

    It is known that by adding a small amount of nanoparticles to the cement-based materials a strong influence on the workability, strength and durability is obtained. These characteristics of the material are fundamentally determined by the hydration process taking place after mixing the cement grains with water. In the present study the influence introduced by the addition of nano-silica with silanized surfaces on the hydration process was investigated using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. The cement samples were prepared using gray cement at a water-to-cement ratio of 0.4 and a 5% addition of nanosilica. The surface of the nanoparticles was modified using a coating of Silane A174. The cement pastes were monitored during their standard curing time of 28 days. It was established that, by using unmodified nanosilica particles, an acceleration of the hydration process takes place as compared with the pure cement paste. On the other side, by adding silanized nanoparticles, the dormancy stage significantly extends and the hydration process is slower. This slowing down process could enhance the mechanical strength of cement based materials as a result of a better compaction of the hydrated samples.

  7. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tingting; Vandeperre, Luc J.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  8. Microwave detection of delaminations between fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite and hardened cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D.; Kazemi, M.; Marler, K.; Zoughi, R.; Myers, J.; Nanni, A.

    2002-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are increasingly being used for the rehabilitation of concrete structures. Detection and characterization of delaminations between an FRP composite and a concrete surface are of paramount importance. Consequently, the development of a one sided, non-contact, real time and rapid nondestructive testing (NDT) technique for this purpose is of great interest. Near-field microwave NDT techniques, using open-ended rectangular waveguide probes, have shown great potential for detecting delaminations in layered composite structures such as these. The results of some theoretical and experimental investigations on a specially prepared cement paste specimen are presented here.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Durability of CNT Cement Composites

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, María del Carmen; Galao, Oscar; Baeza, Francisco Javier; Zornoza, Emilio; Garcés, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, changes in mechanical properties of Portland cement-based mortars due to the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and corrosion of embedded steel rebars in CNT cement pastes are reported. Bending strength, compression strength, porosity and density of mortars were determined and related to the CNT dosages. CNT cement paste specimens were exposed to carbonation and chloride attacks, and results on steel corrosion rate tests were related to CNT dosages. The increase in CNT content implies no significant variations of mechanical properties but higher steel corrosion intensities were observed. PMID:28788536

  10. Effect of sodium monofluorophosphate treatment on microstructure and frost salt scaling durability of slag cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Copuroglu, O. . E-mail: o.copuroglu@citg.tudelft.nl; Fraaij, A.L.A.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.

    2006-08-15

    Sodium-monofluorophosphate (Na-MFP) is currently in use as a surface applied corrosion inhibitor in the concrete industry. Its basic mechanism is to protect the passive layer of the reinforcement steel against disruption due to carbonation. Carbonation is known as the most detrimental environmental effect on blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) concrete with respect to frost salt scaling. In this paper the effect of Na-MFP on the microstructure and frost salt scaling resistance of carbonated BFSC paste is presented. The results of electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are discussed. It is found that the treatment modifies the microstructure and improves the resistance of carbonated BFSC paste against frost salt attack.

  11. Influence of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM) Addition on (Micro) Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste.

    PubMed

    Šavija, Branko; Zhang, Hongzhi; Schlangen, Erik

    2017-07-27

    Excessive cracking can be a serious durability problem for reinforced concrete structures. In recent years, addition of microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) to concrete has been proposed as a possible solution to crack formation related to temperature gradients. However, the addition of PCM microcapsules to cementitious materials can have some drawbacks, mainly related to strength reduction. In this work, a range of experimental techniques has been used to characterize the microcapsules and their effect on properties of composite cement pastes. On the capsule level, it was shown that they are spherical, enabling good distribution in the material during the mixing process. Force needed to break the microcapsules was shown to depend on the capsule diameter and the temperature, i.e., whether it is below or above the phase change temperature. On the cement paste level, a marked drop of compressive strength with increasing PCM inclusion level was observed. The indentation modulus has also shown to decrease, probably due to the capsules themselves, and to a lesser extent due to changes in porosity caused by their inclusion. Finally, a novel micro-cube splitting technique was used to characterize the tensile strength of the material on the micro-meter length scale. It was shown that the strength decreases with increasing PCM inclusion percentage, but this is accompanied by a decrease in measurement variability. This study will contribute to future developments of cementitious composites incorporating phase change materials for a variety of applications.

  12. Influence of Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (PCM) Addition on (Micro) Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

    PubMed Central

    Schlangen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Excessive cracking can be a serious durability problem for reinforced concrete structures. In recent years, addition of microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) to concrete has been proposed as a possible solution to crack formation related to temperature gradients. However, the addition of PCM microcapsules to cementitious materials can have some drawbacks, mainly related to strength reduction. In this work, a range of experimental techniques has been used to characterize the microcapsules and their effect on properties of composite cement pastes. On the capsule level, it was shown that they are spherical, enabling good distribution in the material during the mixing process. Force needed to break the microcapsules was shown to depend on the capsule diameter and the temperature, i.e., whether it is below or above the phase change temperature. On the cement paste level, a marked drop of compressive strength with increasing PCM inclusion level was observed. The indentation modulus has also shown to decrease, probably due to the capsules themselves, and to a lesser extent due to changes in porosity caused by their inclusion. Finally, a novel micro-cube splitting technique was used to characterize the tensile strength of the material on the micro-meter length scale. It was shown that the strength decreases with increasing PCM inclusion percentage, but this is accompanied by a decrease in measurement variability. This study will contribute to future developments of cementitious composites incorporating phase change materials for a variety of applications. PMID:28773225

  13. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH < 4 that would release the contaminants back to the water column

  14. A multiscale microstructure model of cement paste sulfate attack by crystallization pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Pan; Bullard, Jeffrey W.; Garboczi, Edward J.; Miao, Changwen

    2017-09-01

    A recent microstructural model of near-surface external sulfate attack on cement paste is modified to incorporate diffusive ionic transport between the surface and interior of a macroscopic specimen that has been hydrated for 100 d prior to exposure to sulfates. The model estimates the driving force for local expansive growth of the {{Al}}2{{{O}}}3-{{Fe}}2{{{O}}}3-tri (AFt) phase in terms of crystallization pressure, and the strain and stress fields are tracked within the microstructure with micrometer-scale resolution using a linear elastic finite element model. Damage induced by expansion modifies both the local effective transport properties and linear elastic properties of the local microstructure at different depths, and thereby potentially alters the rates of sulfate ingress and expansion. Therefore, the progress of phase transformations and expansion from the surface to the interior of the porous material is dictated by the rate of ingress of concentration fronts of both sulfate ions and pH, which do not necessarily coincide. The model is used to relate microscopic changes in the structure of cement paste, induced by ingress of sodium sulfate solutions of different concentrations, to the macroscopic expansion, and the results are compared with previous models and published experimental data. The model demonstrates what has previously been assumed in sulfate-attack models, namely that volumetric expansion of macroscopic paste samples in the early stages of sulfate attack is a linear function of the mass of AFt phase precipitated. In addition, the model captures the main features of the evolution of local elastic and transport properties within a macroscopic paste sample, showing an apparently parabolic dependence on depth of the local Young’s modulus and local formation factor.

  15. Emissions of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from Portland cement manufacturing plants: inter-kiln variability and dependence on fuel-types.

    PubMed

    Zemba, Stephen; Ames, Michael; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2011-09-15

    Emissions from Portland cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations and are thus subject to stringent regulations. Direct testing of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gases provides the best basis for assessing the extent of these risks. However, these tests (i) are often conducted under stressed, rather than typical, operating conditions, (ii) may be limited in number and duration, and (iii) may be influenced by specific fuel-types and attributes of individual kilns. We report here on the results of more than 150 emissions-tests conducted of two kilns at a Portland cement manufacturing plant in Portugal. The tests measured various regulated metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Stack-gas concentrations of pollutants were found to be highly variable, with standard deviations on the order of mean values. Emission rates of many pollutants were higher when coal was used as the main kiln fuel (instead of petroleum coke). Use of various supplemental fuels, however, had little effect on stack emissions, and few statistically significant differences were observed when hazardous waste was included in the fuel mix. Significant differences in emissions for some pollutants were observed between the two kilns despite their similar designs and uses of similar fuels. All measured values were found to be within applicable regulatory limits. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. An electrical conductivity method for measuring the effects of additives on effective diffusivities in Portland cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kyi, A.A. ); Batchelor, B. . Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Effective diffusivities are important in describing corrosion and leaching of contaminants in cementitious systems. An electrical conductivity procedure has been used to measure the effective diffusivities of compounds in cementitious systems containing the additives fly ash, silica fume, sodium silicate and bentonite. Silica fume was the most effective additive in reducing the effective diffusivity, but fly ash was the most cost effective. Diffusivities that have been measured with techniques that rely on flux of a compound through the solid were generally lower than those measured with the electrical conductivity procedure. Porosity and bulk density are not well correlated with effective diffusivity in systems containing additives.

  17. PSD Determination, Portland Cement Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. Carbonation around near aggregate regions of old hardened concrete cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, Vivian W.Y. . E-mail: tam.vivian@student.cityu.edu.hk; Gao, X.F.; Tam, C.M. . E-mail: bctam@cityu.edu.hk

    2005-06-01

    Analogous with most modern cities, waste disposal is a pressing issue due to limited landfill and public filling (land reclamation) areas in Hong Kong in which construction and demolition (C and D) waste forms the major source. Concrete, apportioning the largest portion of C and D waste, has the greatest potential for recycling. However, the knowledge on micro-structural behavior of concrete waste is immature to give adequate details on the macro-behavior of concrete waste. This paper attempts to examine the problems of recycling old concrete by investigating the microstructure and phase transformation of the concrete samples collected from buildings with 46 and 37 years of services. From the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination, it is found that there are a lot of pores at the near layers of aggregate where carbonation of the hardened cement paste (HCP) is high. The pores may be generated as a result of poor workmanship such as insufficient concrete mixing time, trapping of air voids beneath coarse aggregate, inappropriate water to cement ratio, and the microclimate conditions such as humidity that affects the demand on water from the aggregate during mixing.

  19. Effects of calcium leaching on diffusion properties of hardened and altered cement pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurumisawa, Kiyofumi; Haga, Kazuko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Owada, Hitoshi

    2017-06-01

    It is very important to predict alterations in the concrete used for fabricating disposal containers for radioactive waste. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the alteration of cementitious materials caused by calcium leaching when they are in contact with ground water in the long term. To evaluate the long-term transport characteristics of cementitious materials, the microstructural behavior of these materials should be considered. However, many predictive models of transport characteristics focus on the pore structure, while only few such models consider both, the spatial distribution of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), portlandite, and the pore spaces. This study focused on the spatial distribution of these cement phases. The auto-correlation function of each phase of cementitious materials was calculated from two-dimensional backscattered electron imaging, and the three-dimensional spatial image of the cementitious material was produced using these auto-correlation functions. An attempt was made to estimate the diffusion coefficient of chloride from the three-dimensional spatial image. The estimated diffusion coefficient of the altered sample from the three-dimensional spatial image was found to be comparable to the measured value. This demonstrated that it is possible to predict the diffusion coefficient of the altered cement paste by using the proposed model.

  20. Effect of calcium formate as an accelerator on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of pozzolanic cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Heikal, Mohamed

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of calcium formate (CF) as an accelerator on the properties of pozzolanic cement pastes. Three types of cements were used in this investigation. These cements were OPC and pozzolanic cements containing 80 mass% OPC and 20 mass% silica fume (SF) or 20 mass% ground clay bricks (GCB). The dosages of CF were 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 mass% of cement. The compressive strength, total porosity, and hydration kinetics such as free lime and combined water contents were investigated. The results obtained in this study showed that the addition of CF shortens the initial and final setting times and increases the compressive strength and combined water content as well as gel/space ratio at all ages of hydration. On the other hand, it decreases the total porosity. CF activates the liberation of Ca(OH){sub 2} of OPC pastes. The free lime content of pozzolanic cement in the presence of CF increases up to 7 days, then decreases at the later ages of hydration.

  1. Microstructural and bulk property changes in hardened cement paste during the first drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Ippei; Nishioka, Yukiko; Igarashi, Go; Matsui, Kunio

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes and resultant bulk physical property changes in hardened cement paste (hcp) during the first desorption process. The microstructural changes and solid-phase changes were evaluated by water vapor sorption, nitrogen sorption, ultrasonic velocity, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance. Strength, Young's modulus, and drying shrinkage were also examined. The first drying process increased the volume of macropores and decreased the volume of mesopores and interlayer spaces. Furthermore, in the first drying process globule clusters were interconnected. During the first desorption, the strength increased for samples cured at 100% to 90% RH, decreased for 90% to 40% RH, and increased again for 40% to 11% RH. This behavior is explained by both microstructural changes in hcp and C–S–H globule densification. The drying shrinkage strains during rapid drying and slow drying were compared and the effects of the microstructural changes and evaporation were separated.

  2. Long-term leaching test of organo-contaminated cement-clay pastes.

    PubMed

    Zampori, L; Stampino, P Gallo; Dotelli, G

    2009-10-30

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of a prolonged leaching test (more than a year) on the microstructure of solidified cementitious wasteforms. A set of four different cement-based monoliths (Ap, Bp, Cp and Dp) was prepared, and for each series an uncontaminated sample was prepared as reference (A-D). An organoclay was added in all pastes as pre-sorbent material for the pollutant; a model liquid organic pollutant, 2-chloroaniline (2-CA), was added only in the contaminated ones and different types of admixtures, chosen among those typically employed in the concrete mix-design, were used. After the first 28 days of curing, all the monoliths, contaminated and uncontaminated, underwent a dynamic leach testing (DLT) for more than 1 year in deionized water.

  3. Response of entrained air-void systems in cement paste to pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Scope and Method of Study: Determine the response of entrained air-void systems in fresh cement paste to applied pressures by utilizing micro-computed tomography. Compare results to those suggested by the ASTM C231 Type B pressure meter calibration equations. Findings and Conclusions: The results of this research suggest that although the Type B pressure meter assumptions are valid for the compression of individual voids, the volume of air-voids which dissolve under pressure is significant enough to register noticeable errors when using a synthetic air-entraining admixture with the Type B pressure meter test. Results currently suggest that air-void systems with a significant percentage of small voids present will have higher deviation from the Boyle's Law model used by the Type B pressure meter due to the dissolution of these air-voids.

  4. Influence of chemical admixtures on the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in water and cement pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Cui, Suping; Wang, Jiachen; Wang, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    The influence of ultrasonic and three types of chemical surfactants (including cationic surfactants: CTAB, anionic surfactants: SDS, and nonionic surfactants: TX-405) on the dispersion of CNTs was investigated. The techniques include UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, laser particle size analyser and scanning electrical microscope (SEM). The results show that: 1) Ultrasonic leads to a dispersive effect on CNTs in water, and the optimal ultrasonic time is 120 s; 2) Three types of surfactants have positive effects on the dispersion of CNTs in water, among which cationic surfactant (CATB) leads to the best dispersibility; 3) CNTs with more carboxyl groups show better dispersion in water indicated from UV-vis-NIR spectra and particle size measurement; 4) The optimum concentration of surfactants is 5:1 (the mass ratio of dispersant to CNTs); 5) Three types of surfactants can improve the dispersion of CNTs in cement pastes indicated from SEM images at the optimum dosage.

  5. Climate change: The impact of the third conference of the parties at Kyoto on the U.S. Portland cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, D.; Nisbet, M.; O`Hare, A.

    1998-12-31

    The paper provides, as background, a brief review of the structure of the US cement industry. It outlines the growth trends of the industry over the last 20 years. It describes the sources and significance of cement imports in the US market, and the importance of exports to Canadian cement producers. The sources of CO{sub 2}, the primary greenhouse gas emitted in the cement manufacturing process, are explained and the impact of improved energy efficiency and fuel switching on CO{sub 2} emissions per ton of product are discussed. The aspects of the Kyoto Protocol relevant to the US cement industry are analyzed as are the types of impacts they can be expected to have on: cement trade, domestic cement production, long term growth of the US cement industry, and US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper projects the US cement industry CO{sub 2} emissions to 2010, taking into account anticipated improvements in energy efficiency. It discusses manufacturing process and changes that could be made to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The paper also covers the types of product modifications that might be made to reduce the embodied CO{sub 2} content. Where possible the potential reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from process and product changes are quantified.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  7. Effect of Activators on Strength of Hybrid Alkaline Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Pratiwi, Wiwik; Fansuri, Hamzah; Jaya Ekaputri, Januarti; Triwulan

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid alkaline cement is a class of alkaline cement resulted from alkali activation of the medium calcium content of aluminosilicate materials. This paper presents an experimental analysis of alkali activators effect on strength of hybrid alkaline cement produced from 80% fly ash and 20% ordinary Portland cement. Two alkali activators were observed i.e. 5% sodium sulfate and a combination of 5% of sodium sulfate-1.1 M SiO2 of sodium silicate solution. Compressive strength tests were performed on 20mmx 40mm cylinder paste specimens while setting time tests were conducted by Vicat needle. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and measurement of fly ash reaction degree were performed to explain the compressive strength of paste. It is concluded that addition of soluble silicate on the dry mix of hybrid cement-sodium sulfate activator reduce compressive strength and shorten the setting time. Both of activators give relative low fly ash reaction degree.

  8. Orbital floor reconstruction using calcium phosphate cement paste: an animal study.

    PubMed

    Tañag, Marvin A; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2004-12-01

    Orbital floor defects were created in 10 New Zealand white rabbits and were reconstructed using an injectable calcium phosphate paste. These animals were euthanized at 2, 4, 8, and 12 months after implantation and were examined for biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Grossly, implants were found to be adherent to the floor and covered with fibrous tissues. There was no sign of infection, extrusion, or migration of implant within the orbit and maxilla. The orbital floor was completely restored. Histological examination showed active new bone formation that encroached within the implant and gradually increased in density with time. Maxillary mucosa and glands were likewise reconstituted. Thin fibrovascular tissues were seen on top of and within the surface of the implant, and few to slight inflammatory cells were seen. Microradiography showed direct apposition between the new bone and the implant. These findings compare favorably with previously published reports on the biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of calcium phosphate cement. The authors believe that, together with ease of use and structural integrity, calcium phosphate paste can be useful in orbital floor reconstruction.

  9. Critical aspects of nano-indentation technique in application to hardened cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, D. Jirasek, M.; Kopecky, L.

    2011-01-15

    Several open questions related to the experimental protocol and processing of data acquired by the nano-indentation (NI) technique are investigated. The volume fractions of mechanically different phases obtained from statistical NI (SNI) analysis are shown to be different from those obtained by back-scattered electron (BSE) image analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method on the same paste. Judging from transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the representative volume element of low-density calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) can be considered to be around 500 nm, whereas for high-density C-S-H it is about 100 nm. This raises the question how the appropriate penetration depth for NI experiments should be selected. Changing the maximum load from 1 mN to 5 mN, the effect of penetration depth on the experimental results is studied. As an alternative to the SNI method, a 'manual' indentation method is proposed, which combines information from BSE and atomic-force microscopy (AFM), coupled to the NI machine. The AFM allows to precisely indent a high-density C-S-H rim around unhydrated clinkers in cement paste. Yet the results from that technique still show a big scatter.

  10. Sustainable development of the cement industry and blended cements to meet ecological challenges.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Konstantin

    2003-05-05

    The world production of cement has greatly increased in the past 10 years. This trend is the most significant factor affecting technological development and the updating of manufacturing facilities in the cement industry. Existing technology for the production of cement clinker is ecologically damaging; it consumes much energy and natural resources and also emits pollutants. A new approach to the production of blended or high-volume mineral additive (HVMA) cement helps to improve its ecological compatibility. HVMA cement technology is based on the intergrinding of portland cement clinker, gypsum, mineral additives, and a special complex admixture. This new method increases the compressive strength of ordinary cement, improves durability of the cement-based materials, and--at the same time--uses inexpensive natural mineral additives or industrial by-products. This improvement leads to a reduction of energy consumption per unit of the cement produced. Higher strength, better durability, reduction of pollution at the clinker production stage, and decrease of landfill area occupied by industrial by-products, all provide ecological advantages for HVMA cement.

  11. Temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of silica fume cement pastes with a very low water–binder ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, I.; Teramoto, A.

    2013-08-15

    Ultra-high-strength concrete with a large unit cement content undergoes considerable temperature increase inside members due to hydration heat, leading to a higher risk of internal cracking. Hence, the temperature dependence of autogenous shrinkage of cement pastes made with silica fume premixed cement with a water–binder ratio of 0.15 was studied extensively. Development of autogenous shrinkage showed different behaviors before and after the inflection point, and dependence on the temperature after mixing and subsequent temperature histories. The difference in autogenous shrinkage behavior poses problems for winter construction because autogenous shrinkage may increase with decrease in temperature after mixing before the inflection point and with increase in temperature inside concrete members with large cross sections.

  12. Permeability and elastic modulus of cement paste as a function of curing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Valenza, John J. Thomas, Jeffrey J.

    2012-02-15

    The permeability and elastic modulus of mature cement paste cured at temperatures between 8 Degree-Sign C and 60 Degree-Sign C were measured using a previously described beam bending method. The permeability increases by two orders of magnitude over this range, with most of the increase occurring when the curing temperature increases from 40 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C. The elastic modulus varies much less, decreasing by about 20% as the curing temperature increases from 20 Degree-Sign C to 60 Degree-Sign C. All specimens had very low permeability, k < 0.1 nm{sup 2}, despite having relatively high porosity, {phi} {approx} 40%. Concomitant investigations of the microstructure using small angle neutron scattering and thermoporometry indicate that the porosity is characterized by nanometric pores, and that the characteristic size of pores controlling transport increases with curing temperature. The variation of the microstructure with curing temperature is attributed to changes in the pore structure of the calcium-silicate-hydrate reaction product. Both the empirical Carmen-Kozeny, and modified Carmen-Kozeny permeability models suggest that the tortuosity is very high regardless of curing temperature, {xi} {approx} 1000.

  13. Analysis of Cement-Based Pastes Mixed with Waste Tire Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, O. C.; Ozyazgan, C.; Sayin, B.

    2017-03-01

    Using the methods of thermal gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, Furier transform infrared analysis, and capillary absorption, the properties of a cement composite produced by introducing waste tyre rubber into a cement mixture were investigated. It was found that the composite filled with the rubber had a much lower water absorption ability than the unfilled one.

  14. Characterization by solid-state NMR and selective dissolution techniques of anhydrous and hydrated CEM V cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Brunet, F.; Charpentier, T.; Chao, C.N.; Peycelon, H.; Nonat, A.

    2010-02-15

    The long term behaviour of cement based materials is strongly dependent on the paste microstructure and also on the internal chemistry. A CEM V blended cement containing pulverised fly ash (PFA) and blastfurnace slag (BFS) has been studied in order to understand hydration processes which influence the paste microstructure. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy with complementary X-ray diffraction analysis and selective dissolution techniques have been used for the characterization of the various phases (C{sub 3}S, C{sub 2}S, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 4}AF) of the clinker and additives and then for estimation of the degree of hydration of these same phases. Their quantification after simulation of experimental {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra has allowed us to follow the hydration of recent (28 days) and old (10 years) samples that constitutes a basis of experimental data for the prediction of hydration model.

  15. Leaching of both calcium hydroxide and C-S-H from cement paste: Modeling the mechanical behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, C.; Torrenti, J.M.; Francois, R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical properties. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH){sub 2} and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. In a previous work, the authors venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide was the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity in the case of a paste sample made with an OPC cement which leads to a 20% content of calcium. In order to quantify the effect of the decrease of C/S ratio in C-S-H, the authors have performed experiments on paste samples with the admixture of silica fume to reduce the content of calcium hydroxide and thus emphasize the effect of C/S ratio decrease of the C-S-H. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Compression tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14, 20 and 30 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was indicated by a peripheral zone of less resistance. The experimental results allow the modeling of the mechanical behavior of cement pastes in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A{sub d}/A{sub t}. The model thus defined allows separation of the effect of calcium hydroxide leaching and C-S-H leaching, and shows the importance of the first one. The current research program tries to characterize the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the concrete surrounding radioactive wastes, due to the water flow during storage.

  16. Aggregate-cement paste transition zone properties affecting the salt-frost damage of high-performance concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Cwirzen, Andrzej; Penttala, Vesa

    2005-04-01

    The influence of the cement paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone (ITZ) on the frost durability of high-performance silica fume concrete (HPSFC) has been studied. Investigation was carried out on eight non-air-entrained concretes having water-to-binder (W/B) ratios of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.42 and different additions of condensed silica fume. Studies on the microstructure and composition of the cement paste have been made by means of environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)-BSE, ESEM-EDX and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) analysis. The results showed that the transition zone initiates and accelerates damaging mechanisms by enhancing movement of the pore solution within the concrete during freezing and thawing cycles. Cracks filled with ettringite were primarily formed in the ITZ. The test concretes having good frost-deicing salt durability featured a narrow transition zone and a decreased Ca/Si atomic ratio in the transition zone compared to the bulk cement paste. Moderate additions of silica fume seemed to densify the microstructure of the ITZ.

  17. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  18. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

  19. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-16

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

  20. Effect of Additives and pH on the Formation of Carbonate Mineral by CO2 Sequestration of Cement Paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hwang, J.; Lee, H.; Son, B. S.; Oh, J.

    2015-12-01

    CO2 in the atmosphere causes a global warming that is a big issue nowadays. Many studies of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technologies have been studied all over the world. Waste cement is a good source for aqueous carbonation because it is rich in calcium. Therefore, this study was performed to develop the aqueous carbonation method for waste cement powder. Cement paste was made with water/cement ratio of 6:4 and cured for 28 days in water bath. The cement paste was pulverized into a fine powder sizing less than 0.15 mm. To study effect of additives and pH on the formation of carbonate minerals, aqueous carbonation experiments were conducted. The mineral compositions and morphology of carbonate mineral were identified by XRD and SEM/EDS analysis. 1.0 M NaCl and 0.25 M MgCl2 were applied as additives. Aqueous carbonation experiment was conducted with injecting pure CO2 gas (99.9%) to a reactor containing 200 ㎖ of reacting solution. The pH of reacting solution was controled to determine formational condition of carbonate minerals. In 0.25 M MgCl2 solution, calcite was dominant mineral at high pH. More aragonite, however, formed as decreasing pH of solution with injection of CO2. The presence of Mg2+ in solution makes aragonite more dominant than calcite. Aragonite was mainly formed at the high pH of solution with 1.0 M NaCl additive, whereas calcite was more preponderant mineral than aragonite as falling pH. It show that unstable aragonite transformed to calcite as decreasing pH. In no additive solution, vaterite was dominantly formed at the initial stage of experiement, but unstable vaterite transformed to well crystallized calcite with further carbonation.

  1. Predicting the uniaxial compressive strength of cemented paste backfill from ultrasonic pulse velocity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Tekin; Ercikdi, Bayram

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the predictability of the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of cemented paste backfill (CPB) prepared from three different tailings (Tailings T1, Tailings T2 and Tailings T3) using ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. For this purpose, 180 CPB samples with diameter × height of 5 × 10 cm (similar to NX size) prepared at different binder dosages and consistencies were subjected to the UPV and UCS tests at 7-56 days of curing periods. The effects of binder dosage and consistency on the UPV and UCS properties of CPB samples were investigated and UCS values were correlated with the corresponding UPV data. Microstructural analyses were also performed on CPB samples in order to understand the effect of microstructure (i.e. total porosity) on the UPV data. The UPV and UCSs of CPB samples increased with increasing binder dosage and reducing the consistency irrespective of the tailings type and curing periods. Changes in the mixture properties observed to have a lesser extent on the UPV properties of CPB, while, their effect on the UCS of CPB was significant. Empirical equations were produced for each mixture in order to predict the UCSs of CPB through UPV. The validity of the equations was also checked by t- and F-test. The results showed that a linear relation appeared to exist between the UPV and UCS with high correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.79) and all models were valid by statistical analysis. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses have revealed that the UPV properties of CPB samples were highly associated with their respective microstructural properties (i.e. total porosity). The major output of this study is that UPV test can be effectively used for a preliminary prediction of the strength of CPB.

  2. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  3. Effect of ground granulated blast furnace slag particle size distribution on paste rheology: A preliminary model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, Alireza; Provis, John L.; van Deventer, Jannie S. J.

    2013-06-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag is widely combined with Portland cement as a supplementary material, and is also used in alkali-activated binders (geopolymers) and in supersulfated cements, which are potential replacements for Portland cement with significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions. The rheology of a cementitious material is important in terms of its influence on workability, especially in self leveling concretes. The current research investigates the effects of different particle size distributions of slag particles on paste rheology. Rheological measurements results show a direct relationship between the modal particle size and the yield stress of the paste. An empirical model is introduced to calculate the yield stress value of each paste based on the particle size distribution, and applied to a range of systems at single water to solids ratio. The model gives a very good match with the experimental data.

  4. Ion release, fluoride charge of and adhesion of an orthodontic cement paste containing microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Brant D; Slater, Michael; Kava, Alyssa; Doyle, James; McHale, William A; Latta, Mark A; Gross, Stephen M

    2016-02-01

    Dental materials capable of releasing calcium, phosphate and fluoride are of great interest for remineralization. Microencapsulated aqueous solutions of these ions in orthodontic cement demonstrate slow, sustained release by passive diffusion through a permeable membrane without the need for dissolution or etching of fillers. The potential to charge a dental material formulated with microencapsulated water with fluoride by toothbrushing with over the counter toothpaste and the effect of microcapsules on cement adhesion to enamel was determined. Orthodontic cements that contained microcapsules with water and controls without microcapsules were brushed with over-the-counter toothpaste and fluoride release was measured. Adhesion measurements were performed loading orthodontic brackets to failure. Cements that contained microencapsulated solutions of 5.0M Ca(NO3)2, 0.8M NaF, 6.0MK2HPO4 or a mixture of all three were prepared. Ion release profiles were measured as a function of time. A greater fluoride charge and re-release from toothbrushing was demonstrated compared to a control with no microcapsules. Adhesion of an orthodontic cement that contained microencapsulated remineralizing agents was 8.5±2.5MPa compared to the control without microcapsules which was of 8.3±1.7MPa. Sustained release of fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions from cement formulated with microencapsulated remineralizing agents was demonstrated. Orthodontic cements with microcapsules show a release of bioavailable fluoride, calcium, and phosphate ions near the tooth surface while having the ability to charge with fluoride and not effect the adhesion of the material to enamel. Incorporation of microcapsules in dental materials is promising for promoting remineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the mechanism of polypropylene fibres in preventing fire spalling in self-compacting and high-performance cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. Ye, G.; De Schutter, G.; Yuan, Y.; Taerwe, L.

    2008-04-15

    With the increasing application of self-compacting concrete (SCC) in construction and infrastructure, the fire spalling behavior of SCC has been attracting due attention. In high performance concrete (HPC), addition of polypropylene fibers (PP fibers) is widely used as an effective method to prevent explosive spalling. Hence, it would be useful to investigate whether the PP fibers are also efficient in SCC to avoid explosive spalling. However, no universal agreement exists concerning the fundamental mechanism of reducing the spalling risk by adding PP fiber. For SCC, the reduction of flowability should be considered when adding a significant amount of fibres. In this investigation, both the micro-level and macro-level properties of pastes with different fiber contents were studied in order to investigate the role of PP fiber at elevated temperature in self-compacting cement paste samples. The micro properties were studied by backscattering electron microscopy (BSE) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) tests. The modification of the pore structure at elevated temperature was investigated as well as the morphology of the PP fibers. Some macro properties were measured, such as the gas permeability of self-compacting cement paste after heating at different temperatures. The factors influencing gas permeability were analyzed. It is shown that with the melting of PP fiber, no significant increase in total pore volume is obtained. However, the connectivity of isolated pores increases, leading to an increase of gas permeability. With the increase of temperature, the addition of PP fibers reduces the damage of cement pastes, as seen from the total pore volume and the threshold pore diameter changes. From this investigation, it is concluded that the connectivity of pores as well as the creation of micro cracks are the major factors which determine the gas permeability after exposure to high temperatures. Furthermore, the connectivity of the pores acts as a dominant factor

  6. Density and water content of nanoscale solid C-S-H formed in alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste and implications for chemical shrinkage

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Allen, Andrew J.; Jennings, Hamlin M.

    2012-02-15

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) paste was analyzed using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The scattering response indicates that the microstructure consists of a uniform matrix of hydration product with a high surface area studded with unhydrated cores of slag particles. In contrast with portland cement paste, no surface fractal scattering regime was detected, and elevated temperature curing (at 60 Degree-Sign C) had no detectable effect on the microstructure at any length scale studied. The specific surface area of the AAS pastes is about 25% higher than that of a portland cement paste cured under the same conditions. The composition and mass density of the nanoscale solid C-S-H phase formed in the AAS paste was determined using a previously developed neutron scattering method, in conjunction with a hydration model. The result ((CaO){sub 0.99}-SiO{sub 2}-(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.06}-(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.97}, d = (2.73 {+-} 0.02) g/cm{sup 3}) is significantly lower in calcium and in water as compared to portland cement or pure tricalcium silicate paste. These values were used to calculate the chemical shrinkage that would result from complete hydration of the AAS paste. The result, (12.2 {+-} 1.5) cm{sup 3} of volumetric shrinkage per 100 g of unhydrated cement, is about twice the amount of chemical shrinkage exhibited by normal cement pastes.

  7. Slurry Consistency and In-situ Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction during the Early Hydration of Portland Cements with Calcium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Jupe, A.C.; Wilkinson, A.P.; Luke, K.; Funkhouser, G.P.

    2008-07-08

    Class A and H oil well cements are compared at 25 and 50 C with 0%, 1%, 2%, and 4% CaCl{sub 2}. Up to 4% CaCl{sub 2} accelerated Class A thickening, but 4% led to slower thickening than 2% for Class H. C{sub 3}S hydration in the two cements responded differently to CaCl{sub 2}. CaCl{sub 2} always accelerated aluminate hydration. For Class A, CaCl{sub 2} accelerated early Ca(OH){sub 2} precipitation, but sometimes reduced the amount at longer times. This may be coupled to C-S-H gel composition changes. For Class H, Ca(OH){sub 2} precipitation changes nonlinearly with CaCl{sub 2} concentration. Ettringite to monosulfate conversion and Friedel's salt formation were sometimes seen.

  8. Influence of silica-based hybrid material on the gas permeability of hardened cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; Hou, P.; Xie, N.; Zhou, Z.; Cheng, X.

    2017-03-01

    Surface treatment is one of the most effective ways to elongate the service life of concrete. The surface treatment agents, including organic and inorganic types, have been intensively studied. In this paper, the silica-based hybrid nanocomposite, which take advantages of both organic and inorganic treatment agents, was synthesized and used for surface treatment of hardened cement-based material. The effectiveness of organic and inorganic hybrid nanocomposite was evaluated through investigations on the gas permeability of cement-based materials. The results showed that SiO2/PMHS hybrid nanocomposite can greatly decrease the gas transport properties of hardened cement-based materials and has a great potential for surface treatment of cementitious materials.

  9. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Hajime; Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire; Carro-Mateo, Beatriz; Collier, Nick; Milestone, Neil

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  10. Characterization of white Portland cement hydration and the C-S-H structure in the presence of sodium aluminate by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans J.; Skibsted, Joergen

    2004-05-01

    The effects of hydrating a white Portland cement (wPc) in 0.30 and 0.50 M solutions of sodium aluminate (NaAlO{sub 2}) at 5 and 20 deg. C are investigated by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that NaAlO{sub 2} accelerates the hydration of alite and belite and results in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases with longer average chain lengths of SiO{sub 4}/AlO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The C-S-H phases are investigated in detail and it is shown that the Al/Si ratio for the chains of tetrahedra is quite constant during the time studied for the hydration (6 h to 2 years) but increases for higher concentration of the NaAlO{sub 2} solution. The average chain lengths of 'pure' silicate and SiO{sub 4}/AlO{sub 4} tetrahedra demonstrate that Al acts as a linker for the silicate chains, thereby producing aluminosilicate chains with longer average chain lengths. Finally, it is shown that NaAlO{sub 2} reduces the quantity of ettringite and results in larger quantities of monosulfate and a calcium aluminate hydrate phase.

  11. Simultaneous study of mechanical property development and early hydration chemistry in Portland cement slurries using X-ray diffraction and ultrasound reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Funkhouser, Gary P.

    2012-10-25

    A sample cell for the simultaneous measurement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and ultrasound shear-wave reflection data from cement slurries is described. White cement slurries at 25 and 50 C with 0-3% bwoc CaCl{sub 2} were studied to illustrate the potential of the apparatus. The decrease in reflected S-wave amplitude, in dB, showed a linear correlation with C{sub 3}S hydration. CaCl{sub 2} retarded the development of G{prime} and G{double_prime} relative to the extent of C{sub 3}S hydration. At short times, there was a correlation between the time evolution of both G{prime} and G{double_prime}, and the amount of precipitated CH seen by diffraction, which was almost independent of CaCl{sub 2} concentration and temperature. CaCl{sub 2} addition resulted in a decrease in the amount of CH visible to X-rays, relative the degree of C{sub 3}S hydration. This may indicate a change in C-S-H gel C:S ratio or the presence of nanoscale CH that could not be seen by diffraction.

  12. A remark on nano-particle stability of cement C-S-H gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficker, Tomáš; Len, Adél; Martišek, Dalibor

    2011-04-01

    Hydrated pastes of ordinary Portland cement prepared with different water-to-cement ratios were investigated by using the small-angle neutron scattering technique in the region of Q ∈ (0.0045, 0.11) Å-1. Samples of cement pastes were subjected to non-standard hydration conditions using a mix with D2O, low RH, and water-to-cement ratios spread over a very wide interval (0.4; 1.4). The investigation was focused on testing the structural stability of nano-metric particles in the cement C-S-H gel. Owing to the high structural stability of these nano-particles, their average diameter might be used as a microscopic parameter characterizing the nano-metric structure of C-S-H gels. The average diameter of the nano-particles of the studied ordinary Portland cement CEMI 42.5 R-SC was found to be close to the value of 4.2 nm and independent of the water-to-cement ratios.

  13. The effect of CPP-ACP paste on the surface hardness of glass ionomer cement when immersed in orange juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadia, A. A.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Damiyanti, M.

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to identify the effect of CPP-ACP paste on the surface hardness of glass ionomer cement (GIC) when immersed in orange juice. Eighteen specimens of Fuji IX GIC were divided into three groups: no CPP-ACP added (group A); CPP-ACP applied for three minutes (group B); and CPP-ACP applied for 30 minutes (group C). Specimens were immersed in orange juice and tested for surface hardness using a Vickers hardness tester. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA (p = <0.05). Group A resulted in a 31.77 ± 0.77 Vickers Hardness Number (VHN), group B in a 42.97 ± 1.08 VHN, and group C in a 51.92 ± 0.27 VHN. It was concluded that application of CPP-ACP paste for 30 minutes is effective in preventing a decrease in the surface hardness of GIC due to orange juice consumption.

  14. Micro-observations of different types of nano-Al₂O₃on the hydration of cement paste with sludge ash replacement.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Deng-Fong; Shieh, Show-Ing; You, Yan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants have become important in developing countries. Consequently, the amount of sewage sludge produced by these countries has been gradually increasing, and determining how to properly recycle this sludge is becoming an important topic for researchers. In this study, to expand the recyclability of sewage sludge ash (SSA) in engineering applications, two types of nano-aluminium oxides (Al₂O₃), MC2A and MC2R, were added to SSA/cement paste and mortar specimens. The MC2R type (γ phase) had a smaller particle size and larger specific surface area than the MC2A type (α phase). The results indicate that the addition of nano-Al₂O₃to SSA/cement paste can effectively improve the hydration products of the paste. Moreover, the amount of hydration products increased as the amount of nano-Al₂O₃added to the SSA/cement paste increased. The test results indicate that MC2A nano-Al₂O₃can more uniformly distribute in the paste body and improve the hydration of cement than MC2R nano-Al₂O₃. Thus, more calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel and calcium aluminate hydrate (C-A-H) salts were produced, and the strength of the specimens was improved. This study suggests that MC2A nano-Al₂O₃is preferable to MC2R nano- Al₂O₃for SSA/cement specimen applications.

  15. Imaging Wellbore Cement Degradation by Carbon Dioxide under Geologic Sequestration Conditions Using X-ray Computed Microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hun Bok; Jansik, Danielle; Um, Wooyong

    2013-01-02

    ABSTRACT: X-ray microtomography (XMT), a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging technique, was applied to demonstrate its capability to visualize the mineralogical alteration and microstructure changes in hydrated Portland cement exposed to carbon dioxide under geologic sequestration conditions. Steel coupons and basalt fragments were added to the cement paste in order to simulate cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. XMT image analysis showed the changes of material density and porosity in the degradation front (density: 1.98 g/cm3, porosity: 40%) and the carbonated zone (density: 2.27 g/cm3, porosity: 23%) after reaction with CO2- saturated water for 5 months compared to unaltered cement (density: 2.15 g/cm3, porosity: 30%). Three-dimensional XMT imaging was capable of displaying spatially heterogeneous alteration in cement pores, calcium carbonate precipitation in cement cracks, and preferential cement alteration along the cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. This result also indicates that the interface between cement and host rock or steel casing is likely more vulnerable to a CO2 attack than the cement matrix in a wellbore environment. It is shown here that XMT imaging can potentially provide a new insight into the physical and chemical degradation of wellbore cement by CO2 leakage.

  16. Properties of cement based composites modified using diatomaceous earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Záleská, Martina; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Diatomite belongs among natural materials rich on amorphous silica (a-SiO2). When finely milled, it can potentially substitute part of cement binder and positively support formation of more dense composite structure. In this connection, two types of diatomaceous earth applied as a partial substitution of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mass% of Portland cement in the composition of cement paste were studied. In the tested mixtures with cement blends, the amount of batch water remained same, with water/binder ratio 0.5. For fresh paste mixtures, initial and final setting times were measured. First, hardened pastes cured 28 days in water were characterized by their physical properties such as bulk density, matrix density and open porosity. Then, their mechanical and thermophysical parameters were assessed. Obtained results gave clear evidence of setting time shortening for pastes with diatomite what brought negative effect with respect to the impaired workability of fresh mixtures. On the other hand, there was observed strength improvement for mixtures containing diatomite with higher amount of SiO2. Here, the increase in mechanical resistivity was distinct up to 15 mass% of cement replacement. Higher cement substitution by diatomite resulted in an increase in porosity and thus improvement of thermal insulation properties.

  17. Leaching Behavior of Heavy Metals from Cement Pastes Using a Modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

    PubMed

    Huang, Minrui; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Chen, Yingqiang; Shentu, Jiali

    2016-03-01

    As the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) can not exhaust the acid neutralizing capacity of the cement rotary kiln co-processing solid wastes products which is particularly important for the assessment of the leaching concentrations of heavy metals. A modified TCLP was proposed. The extent of leaching of heavy metals is low using the TCLP and the leaching performance of the different metals can not be differentiated. Using the modified TCLP, however, Zn leaching was negligible during the first 180 h and then sharply increased (2.86 ± 0.18 to 3.54 ± 0.26 mg/L) as the acidity increased (pH < 6.0). Thus, Zn leaching is enhanced using the modified TCLP. While Pb leached readily during the first 126 h and then leachate concentrations decreased to below the analytical detection limit. To conclude, this modified TCLP is a more suitable method for these cement rotary kiln co-processing products.

  18. Interactions between hydrated cement paste and organic acids: Thermodynamic data and speciation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    De Windt, Laurent; Bertron, Alexandra; Larreur-Cayol, Steeves; Escadeillas, Gilles

    2015-03-15

    Interactions of short-chain organic acids with hydrated cement phases affect structure durability in the agro-food and nuclear waste industries but can also be used to modify cement properties. Most previous studies have been experimental, performed at fixed concentrations and pH, without quantitatively discriminating among polyacidity effects, or complexation and salt precipitation processes. This paper addresses such issues by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for acetic, citric, oxalic, succinic acids and a simplified hydrated CEM-I. The thermodynamic constants collected from the literature allow the speciation to be modeled over a wide range of pH and concentrations. Citric and oxalic had a stronger chelating effect than acetic acid, while succinic acid was intermediate. Similarly, Ca-citrate and Ca-oxalate salts were more insoluble than Ca-acetate and Ca-succinate salts. Regarding aluminium complexation, hydroxyls, sulfates, and acid competition was highlighted. The exploration of acid mixtures showed the preponderant effect of oxalate and citrate over acetate and succinate.

  19. Uptake of Np(IV) by C-S-H phases and cement paste: an EXAFS study.

    PubMed

    Gaona, Xavier; Dähn, Rainer; Tits, Jan; Scheinost, Andreas C; Wieland, Erich

    2011-10-15

    Nuclear waste disposal concepts developed worldwide foresee the use of cementitious materials for the immobilization of long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW). This waste form may contain significant amounts of neptunium-237, which is expected to be present as Np(IV) under the reducing conditions encountered after the closure of the repository. Predicting the release of Np(IV) from the cementitious near field of an ILW repository requires a sufficiently detailed understanding of its interaction with the main sorbing components of hardened cement paste (HCP). In this study, the uptake of Np(IV) by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) and HCP has been investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The EXAFS studies on Np(IV)-doped C-S-H and HCP samples reveal that Np(IV) is predominantly incorporated in the structure of C-S-H phases having different Ca:Si ratios. The two main species identified correspond to Np(IV) in C-S-H with a Ca:Si mol ratio of 1.65 as in fresh cement and with a Ca:Si mol ratio of 0.75 as in highly degraded cement. The local structure of Np(IV) changes with the Ca:Si mol ratio and does not depend on pH. Furthermore, Np(IV) shows the same coordination environment in C-S-H and HCP samples. This study shows that C-S-H phases are responsible for the Np(IV) uptake by cementitious materials and further that incorporation in the interlayer of the C-S-H structure is the dominant uptake mechanism.

  20. Cement-based materials' characterization using ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punurai, Wonsiri

    The quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of cement-based materials is a critical area of research that is leading to advances in the health monitoring and condition assessment of the civil infrastructure. Ultrasonic NDE has been implemented with varying levels of success to characterize cement-based materials with complex microstructure and damage. A major issue with the application of ultrasonic techniques to characterize cement-based materials is their inherent inhomogeneity at multiple length scales. Ultrasonic waves propagating in these materials exhibit a high degree of attenuation losses, making quantitative interpretations difficult. Physically, these attenuation losses are a combination of internal friction in a viscoelastic material (ultrasonic absorption), and the scattering losses due to the material heterogeneity. The objective of this research is to use ultrasonic attenuation to characterize the microstructure of heterogeneous cement-based materials. The study considers a real, but simplified cement-based material, cement paste---a common bonding matrix of all cement-based composites. Cement paste consists of Portland cement and water but does not include aggregates. First, this research presents the findings of a theoretical study that uses a set of existing acoustics models to quantify the scattered ultrasonic wavefield from a known distribution of entrained air voids. These attenuation results are then coupled with experimental measurements to develop an inversion procedure that directly predicts the size and volume fraction of entrained air voids in a cement paste specimen. Optical studies verify the accuracy of the proposed inversion scheme. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of using attenuation to measure the average size, volume fraction of entrained air voids and the existence of additional larger entrapped air voids in hardened cement paste. Finally, coherent and diffuse ultrasonic waves are used to develop a direct

  1. Attenuation properties of cement composites: Experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez Meza, Raul Fernando

    Developing new cement based materials with excellent mechanical and attenuation properties is critically important for both medical and nuclear power industries. Concrete continues to be the primary choice material for the shielding of gamma and neutron radiation in facilities such as nuclear reactors, nuclear waste repositories, spent nuclear fuel pools, heavy particle radiotherapy rooms, particles accelerators, among others. The purpose of this research was to manufacture cement pastes modified with magnetite and samarium oxide and evaluate the feasibility of utilizing them for shielding of gamma and neutron radiation. Two different experiments were conducted to accomplish these goals. In the first one, Portland cement pastes modified with different loading of fine magnetite were fabricated and investigated for application in gamma radiation shielding. The experimental results were verified theoretically through XCOM and the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction tests were used to investigate the microstructure of the samples. Mechanical characterization was also perfornmed by compression testing. The results suggest that fine magnetite is a suitable aggregate for increasing the compressive and flexural strength of white Portland cement pastes; however, there is no improvement of the attenuation at intermediate energy (662 keV). For the second experiment, cement pastes with different concentrations of samarium oxide were fabricated and tested for shielding against thermal neutrons. MCNP simulations were used to validate the experimental work. The result shows that samarium oxide increases the effective thermal cross section of Portland cement and has the potential to replace boron bearing compounds currently used in neutron shielding.

  2. In situ compressive damage of cement paste characterized by lab source X-ray computer tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Keshu; Xue, Xiaobo

    2013-08-15

    This paper aims at illustrating the potential of lab source X-ray CT for studying the damage behavior of cement based materials through in situ load experiments. This approach permits quantifying the microstructure prior and during loading. The load damage is separated from the specimen deformation using an image interpolation method. A quantitative relationship between external load and internal specimen damage is analyzed using the statistical information of gray scale values of the CT data. Local damage degrees are defined on 3D subset, and the 3D spatial distribution of damage information is clarified in this research. - Highlights: • On line damage is characterized by lab source X-ray CT. • Loading damage is separated with the specimen deformation. • Local damage is analyzed using gray scale values of the CT data. • 3D spatial distribution of the local damage information is clarified.

  3. Usage of internal magnetic fields to study the early hydration process of cement paste by MGSE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepišnik, Janez; Ardelean, Ioan

    2016-11-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients, arising within the porous media due to susceptibility differences at the interfaces of solid and liquid as well as due to the contained magnetic impurities, can be employed by the method of modulated gradient spin echo to get insight into the velocity autocorrelation spectrum of liquid confined in the porous structure. New theoretical treatment of spin interaction with the radio-frequency field and the simultaneously applied static non-uniform magnetic field provides the formula that match well with the measurement of restricted diffusion of water in pores of cement paste. Its fitting to the experimental data gives the changes in the mean size of capillary pores, the spin relaxation and the magnitude of mean internal magnetic field gradients during the induction period and early acceleration stage of hydration processes at different temperatures.

  4. The mechanism of cesium immobilization in densified silica-fume blended cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bar-Nes, G. Katz, A.; Peled, Y.; Zeiri, Y.

    2008-05-15

    The role of silica-fume agglomerates, found in densified silica-fume (DSF) pastes, in the immobilization mechanism of Cs ions was studied. Samples of cementitious pastes containing two different forms of silica fume - DSF and raw silica fume (RSF) - were prepared. Leaching experiments showed that both additives reduced the leachability of the metal ion, but the effect of the DSF paste was much stronger. Scanning Electron Microscopy, together with Differential Thermal Analysis, proved that no agglomerated particles were present in the RSF pastes and that the extent of pozzolanic reactivity was higher. We therefore believe that unreacted silica within the DSF agglomerates adsorbs Cs ions and consequently increases their immobilization. Furthermore, this work suggests that during the pozzolanic reaction, a hydrated rim develops around the agglomerate that acts as an additional diffusion barrier for the Cs ions, resulting in an increased efficiency of Cs immobilization.

  5. Effect of desliming of sulphide-rich mill tailings on the long-term strength of cemented paste backfill.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Baki, Hakan; İzki, Muhammet

    2013-01-30

    This paper presents the effect of desliming on the short- and long-term strength, stability and rheological properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) produced from two different mill tailings. A 28-day unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of ≥1.0 MPa and the maintenance of stability over 224 days of curing were selected as the design criteria for the evaluation of paste backfill performance. Desliming induced some changes in the physical, chemical, mineralogical and rheological properties of the tailings. CPB mixture of the deslimed tailings achieved the required consistency at a lower water to cement ratio. The short-term UCSs of CPB samples of the deslimed tailings were found to be 30-100% higher than those samples of the reference tailings at all the binder dosages and curing times. CPB samples of the deslimed tailings achieved the long-term stability at relatively low binder dosages (e.g. 5 wt% c.f. ≥6.1% for the reference tailings). It was also estimated that desliming could allow a 13.4-23.1% reduction in the binder consumption depending apparently on the inherent characteristics of the tailings. Over the curing period, generation of sulphate and acid by the oxidation of pyrite present in the tailings was also monitored to correlate with the strength losses observed in the long term. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) analyses provided an insight into the microstructure of CPB and the formation of secondary mineral phases (i.e. gypsum) confirming the beneficial effect of desliming. These findings suggest that desliming can be suitably exploited for CPB of sulphide-rich mill tailings to improve the strength and stability particularly in the long term and to reduce binder consumption.

  6. Neutron Scattering Studies of Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Despite more than a century of research, basic questions remain regarding both the internal structure and the role of water in Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete, the world's most widely used manufactured material. Most such questions concern the primary hydration product and strength-building phase of OPC paste, the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. When cement and water are mixed, this phase precipitates as clusters of nanoscale (nearly amorphous) colloidal particles with an associated water-filled inter-particle pore system. Most attempts to characterize the C-S-H gel and the behavior of the associated water involve drying or other processes that, themselves, change the bound water content within and around the gel. Neutron scattering methods do not suffer from this disadvantage. Furthermore, the neutron isotope effect and the neutron's sensitivity to molecular motion have enabled considerable progress to be made in recent years by: (i) determining the C-S-H composition, density and gel structure in small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) H/D contrast variation studies; (ii) elucidating the changing state of water within cement as hydration progresses using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS); and (iii) measuring the production and consumption of nanoscale calcium hydroxide (CH), a by-product of cement hydration that co-exists with the C-S-H gel, using inelastic neutron scattering (INS). These experiments have provided new insights into the physics and chemistry of cement hydration, and have implications for the design of new concretes with pozzolanic cement additions that are intended to address environmental concerns and sustainability issues.

  7. Application of solvlent change techniques to blended cements used to immobilize low-level radioactive liquid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A.A.

    1996-07-01

    The microstructures of hardened portland and blended cement pastes, including those being considered for use in immobilizing hazardous wastes, have a complex pore structure that changes with time. In solvent exchange, the pore structure is examined by immersing a saturated sample in a large volume of solvent that is miscible with the pore fluid. This paper reports the results of solvent replacement measurements on several blended cements mixed at a solution:solids ratio of 1.0 with alkaline solutions from the simulation of the off- gas treatment system in a vitrification facility treating low-level radioactive liquid wastes. The results show that these samples have a lower permeability than ordinary portland cement samples mixed at a water:solids ratio of 0.70, despite having a higher volume of porosity. The microstructure is changed by these alkaline solutions, and these changes have important consequences with regard to durability.

  8. Utilization of municipal sewage sludge as additives for the production of eco-cement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiming; Zhou, Shaoqi; Li, Fuzhen; Lin, Yixiao

    2012-04-30

    The effects of using dried sewage sludge as additive on cement property in the process of clinker burning were investigated in this paper. The eco-cement samples were prepared by adding 0.50-15.0% of dried sewage sludge to unit raw meal, and then the mixtures were burned at 1450 °C for 2 h. The results indicated that the major components in the eco-cement clinkers were similar to those in ordinary Portland cement. Although the C(2)S phase formation increased with the increase of sewage sludge content, it was also found that the microstructure of the mixture containing 15.0% sewage sludge in raw meal was significantly different and that a larger amount of pores were distributed in the clinker. Moreover, all the eco-cement pastes had a longer initial setting time and final setting time than those of plain cement paste, which increased as the sewage sludge content in the raw meal increased. All the eco-cement pastes had lower early flexural strengths, which increased as the sewage sludge content increased, while the compressive strengths decreased slightly. However, this had no significant effect on all the strengths at later stages. Furthermore, the leaching concentrations of all the types of eco-cement clinkers met the standard of Chinese current regulatory thresholds.

  9. Microleakage of Three Types of Glass Ionomer Cement Restorations: Effect of CPP-ACP Paste Tooth Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Alavi, Mostafa

    2015-09-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) increases the mineral content of tooth structure. This may enhance the chemical bonding of glass ionomer cements (GIC) and marginal sealing of their restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP paste pretreatment on the microleakage of three types of GIC. In this study, 72 Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in root. The cavities were divided into 6 groups. Cavities in group 1 and 2 were restored with Fuji II, group 3 and 4 with Fuji II LC, and group 5 and 6 with Ketac N100 with respect to the manufacturers' instructions. In groups 2, 4 and 6, CPP-ACP containing paste (MI paste) was placed into the cavities for 3 minutes before being filled with GIC. The teeth were thermocycled, stained with dye, sectioned, and scored for microleakage under stereomicroscope. Kruskall-Wallis and Chi-Square tests were used to analyze the data. There were no statistically significant differences between the control and the CPP-ACP pretreatment groups in enamel and dentin margins. In pairwise comparisons, there were no significant differences between the control and the experimental groups in enamel margin, and in dentin margins of G1 and 2, G5 and 6; however, a significant differences was detected in dentin margins between G3 and 4 (p= 0.041). CPP-ACP paste pretreatment did not affect the microleakage of Fuji II and Ketac N100 in enamel or dentin, but decreased the microleakage in dentine margins of Fuji II LC when cavity conditioner was applied before surface treatment.

  10. Microleakage of Three Types of Glass Ionomer Cement Restorations: Effect of CPP-ACP Paste Tooth Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Doozandeh, Maryam; Shafiei, Fereshteh; Alavi, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) increases the mineral content of tooth structure. This may enhance the chemical bonding of glass ionomer cements (GIC) and marginal sealing of their restorations. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP paste pretreatment on the microleakage of three types of GIC. Materials and Method In this study, 72 Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of molars with occlusal margins in enamel and gingival margins in root. The cavities were divided into 6 groups. Cavities in group 1 and 2 were restored with Fuji II, group 3 and 4 with Fuji II LC, and group 5 and 6 with Ketac N100 with respect to the manufacturers’ instructions. In groups 2, 4 and 6, CPP-ACP containing paste (MI paste) was placed into the cavities for 3 minutes before being filled with GIC. The teeth were thermocycled, stained with dye, sectioned, and scored for microleakage under stereomicroscope. Kruskall-Wallis and Chi-Square tests were used to analyze the data. Result There were no statistically significant differences between the control and the CPP-ACP pretreatment groups in enamel and dentin margins. In pairwise comparisons, there were no significant differences between the control and the experimental groups in enamel margin, and in dentin margins of G1 and 2, G5 and 6; however, a significant differences was detected in dentin margins between G3 and 4 (p= 0.041). Conclusion CPP-ACP paste pretreatment did not affect the microleakage of Fuji II and Ketac N100 in enamel or dentin, but decreased the microleakage in dentine margins of Fuji II LC when cavity conditioner was applied before surface treatment. PMID:26331147

  11. Expansive Cements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-10-01

    sulfate (C), and free lime (C) as well as other known portland cement compounds. 9. Etiite (C6AS3H3 2 ) is the phase formed during the hydration of...hydroxide (CH), required for chemical combination originates by hydration of alite (C3 S), belite (C2 S), and hydration of free lime in both the... shrinkage was also observed when the specimens were moist cured to full exparn-on for a pericd of 33 days. The data regarding the effect of aggregate size